WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydra survey system

  1. Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Præsentation af forskningsprojekt relateret til den græske ø Hydra med fokus på konception og arkitekturtegning.......Præsentation af forskningsprojekt relateret til den græske ø Hydra med fokus på konception og arkitekturtegning....

  2. Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peder Pedersen, Claus; Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2009-01-01

    Beskrivelse af kontekst og baggrund for et forskningsprojekt gennemført på den græske ø Hydra i perioden 2004-2008......Beskrivelse af kontekst og baggrund for et forskningsprojekt gennemført på den græske ø Hydra i perioden 2004-2008...

  3. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Schot, L P

    1982-01-01

    FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity has been localized in different parts of the hydra nervous system. Immunoreactivity occurs in nerve perikarya and processes in the ectoderm of the lower peduncle region near the basal disk, in the ectoderm of the hypostome and in the ectoderm of the tentacles....... The immunoreactive nerve perikarya in the lower peduncle region form ganglion-like structures. Radioimmunoassays of extracts of hydra gave displacement curves parallel to standard FMRFamide and values of at least 8 pmol/gram wet weight of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity. The immunoreactive material eluted from...

  4. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Schot, L P

    1982-01-01

    FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity has been localized in different parts of the hydra nervous system. Immunoreactivity occurs in nerve perikarya and processes in the ectoderm of the lower peduncle region near the basal disk, in the ectoderm of the hypostome and in the ectoderm of the tentacles...

  5. Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Yanaihara, N

    1981-01-01

    With immunocytochemical methods, nerve cells have been detected in Hydra attenuata containing bombesin-like immunoreactivity. These nerve cells are located in ectoderm of all body regions of the animal and are especially abundant in basal disk and tentacles. Radioimmunoassay of extracts of hydra ...

  6. Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Carraway, R E; Rökaeus, A

    1981-01-01

    Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity is found in nerve fibers present in all body regions of hydra. The nerve fibers are especially numerous in the ectoderm at the bases of the tentacles and in the ectoderm at a site just above the foot. Radioimmunoassays of acetic-acid extracts of hydra, using vari...

  7. Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Yanaihara, N

    1981-01-01

    With immunocytochemical methods, nerve cells have been detected in Hydra attenuata containing bombesin-like immunoreactivity. These nerve cells are located in ectoderm of all body regions of the animal and are especially abundant in basal disk and tentacles. Radioimmunoassay of extracts of hydra...

  8. Progress and status of cryogenic refrigeration system for project Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J.; Catseman, F.; Tilleman, H.; Henderson, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the last two decades, HTS cables have been successfully demonstrated around the world, preparing HTS power cables for a full commercial introduction. Among the demonstration projects, circulating subcooled liquid nitrogen to maintain the HTS cable at operating temperature is a widely adopted approach. In this approach, the cooling systems are absolutely critical to the successful operation of the HTS cables. This paper describes the progress and status of the cryogenic refrigeration system designed and manufactured for project Hydra, which is a project jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. American Superconductor is leading the team supported by Con Edison, Ultera, Altran Solutions, and DH Industries. The cable is an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable, approximately 200 m long and designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The cable will be installed and energized near New York City. The refrigeration system was designed and manufactured by DH Industries. This paper provides details on the successful factory acceptance testing completed in November 2014.

  9. Hydra II: A Faint and Compact Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Nidever, David L.; Besla, Gurtina; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Gruendl, Robert A.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Blum, Robert D.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Bell, Eric F.; Chu, You-Hua; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; de Boer, Thomas J. L.; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Kunder, Andrea; Majewski, Steven R.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E. D.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m Telescope. The new satellite is compact ({{r}h}=68 ± 11 pc) and faint ({{M}V}=-4.8 ± 0.3),

  10. Peptide-gated ion channels and the simple nervous system of Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründer, Stefan; Assmann, Marc

    2015-02-15

    Neurons either use electrical or chemical synapses to communicate with each other. Transmitters at chemical synapses are either small molecules or neuropeptides. After binding to their receptors, transmitters elicit postsynaptic potentials, which can either be fast and transient or slow and longer lasting, depending on the type of receptor. Fast transient potentials are mediated by ionotropic receptors and slow long-lasting potentials by metabotropic receptors. Transmitters and receptors are well studied for animals with a complex nervous system such as vertebrates and insects, but much less is known for animals with a simple nervous system like Cnidaria. As cnidarians arose early in animal evolution, nervous systems might have first evolved within this group and the study of neurotransmission in cnidarians might reveal an ancient mechanism of neuronal communication. The simple nervous system of the cnidarian Hydra extensively uses neuropeptides and, recently, we cloned and functionally characterized an ion channel that is directly activated by neuropeptides of the Hydra nervous system. These results demonstrate the existence of peptide-gated ion channels in Hydra, suggesting they mediate fast transmission in its nervous system. As related channels are also present in the genomes of the cnidarian Nematostella, of placozoans and of ctenophores, it should be considered that the early nervous systems of cnidarians and ctenophores have co-opted neuropeptides for fast transmission at chemical synapses.

  11. Hydra II: a faint and compact Milky Way dwarf galaxy found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Nicolas F; Besla, Gurtina; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R; Vivas, A Katherina; Gruendl, Robert A; Muñoz, Ricardo R; Blum, Robert D; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C; Bell, Eric F; Chu, You-Hua; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L; de Boer, Thomas J L; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Kunder, Andrea; Majewski, Steven R; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E D; Olszewski, Edward W; Stringfellow, Guy S; van der Marel, Roeland P; Zaritsky, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History (SMASH) conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4m Telescope. The new satellite is compact (r_h = 68 +/- 11 pc) and faint (M_V = -4.8 +/- 0.3), but well within the realm of dwarf galaxies. The stellar distribution of HydraII in the color-magnitude diagram is well-described by a metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -2.2) and old (13 Gyr) isochrone and shows a distinct blue horizontal branch, some possible red clump stars, and faint stars that are suggestive of blue stragglers. At a heliocentric distance of 134 +/- 10 kpc, Hydra II is located in a region of the Galactic halo that models have suggested may host material from the leading arm of the Magellanic Stream. A comparison with N-body simulations hints that the new dwarf galaxy could be or could have been a satellite of the Magellanic Clouds.

  12. Hydra: A web-based system for cardiovascular analysis, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, J; Hermida, A; Ortega, M; Barreira, N; Penedo, M G; López, J E; Calvo, C

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification is a highly complex process involving an extensive set of clinical trials to support the clinical decision-making process. There are many clinical conditions (e.g. diabetes, obesity, stress, etc.) that can lead to the early diagnosis or establishment of cardiovascular disease. In order to determine all these clinical conditions, a complete set of clinical patient analyses is typically performed, including a physical examination, blood analysis, electrocardiogram, blood pressure (BP) analysis, etc. This article presents a web-based system, called Hydra, which integrates a full and detailed set of services and functionalities for clinical decision support in order to help and improve the work of clinicians in cardiovascular patient diagnosis, risk assessment, treatment and monitoring over time. Hydra integrates a number of different services: a service for inputting all the information gathered by specialists (physical examination, habits, BP, blood analysis, electrocardiogram, etc.); a tool to automatically determine the CV risk stratification, including well-known standard risk stratification tables; and, finally, various tools to incorporate, analyze and graphically present the records of the ambulatory BP monitoring that provides BP analysis over a given period of time (24 or 48 hours). In addition, the platform presents a set of reports derived from all the information gathered from the patient in order to support physicians in their clinical decisions. Hydra was tested and validated in a real domain. In particular, internal medicine specialists at the Hypertension Unit of the Santiago de Compostela University Hospital (CHUS) validated the platform and used it in different clinical studies to demonstrate its utility. It was observed that the platform increased productivity and accuracy in the assessment of patient data yielding a cost reduction in clinical practice. This paper proposes a complete platform that includes

  13. O-C Analysis of System EZ HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilan, Erkan; Bulut, İbrahim

    2016-07-01

    In this article, period variation investigated using published all times of minimum of the eclipsing binary system EZ Hya was an W UMa type. The O-C diagram of system can be represent with a sinusoidal character superimposed on a parabolic change. This change includes three maxima and two minima with in approximately 55,000 orbital period of the system.The parabolic change is thought to be due to in account as mass Exchange or loss between the components. The sinusoidal cycle in the diagram is given possibility caused by the light-time effect of the third body. The O-C variational physical and the period parameters of the third component were determined. New Parameter values of the light-time effect (after LTE) because of the third body computed with a period of 32.55 ± 0.00 years in the system. The cycle-changes analysis produces a value of 0.03285 ± 0.0045 day as the semi amplitude of the light-travel time effect and 0.7524 ± 0.5041 as the orbital eccentricity of the third body. The semi-major axis of EZ Hya orbit is 5.97 AU.

  14. Substance P-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Balfe, A; Emson, P C

    1981-01-01

    Using immunocytochemistry we find substance P-like material in nerve cells of hydra. These nerve cells are situated in the ectoderm of the basal disk and tentacles. Radioimmunoassay of hydra extracts gives dilution curves parallel to that of synthetic substance P, from which it can be calculated ...

  15. Oxytocin/vasopressin-like immunoreactivity is present in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dierickx, K; Boer, G J

    1982-01-01

    Nerve cells have been found in hydra, which react with antisera to oxytocin, vasopressin and mesotocin. These nerve cells have a high density in the ectoderm of basal disk and tentacles and lower density in the ectoderm of peduncle, gastric region and hypostome. A very small number of nerve cells...

  16. Masses of Nix and Hydra

    CERN Document Server

    Tholen, David J; Grundy, William M; Elliott, Garrett T

    2007-01-01

    A four-body orbit solution for the Pluto system yields GM values of 870.3 +/- 3.7, 101.4 +/- 2.8, 0.039 +/- 0.034, and 0.021 +/- 0.042 km3 sec-2 for Pluto, Charon, Nix, and Hydra, respectively. Assuming a Charon-like density of 1.63 gm cm-3, the implied diameters for Nix and Hydra are 88 and 72 km, leading to visual geometric albedos of 0.08 and 0.18, respectively, though with considerable uncertainty. The eccentricity of Charon's orbit has a significant nonzero value; however, the 0.030 +/- 0.009 deg yr-1 rate at which the line of apsides precesses is insufficient to explain the difference in the longitude of periapsis seen in the orbits fitted to the 1992-1993 and 2002-2003 data sets. The mean orbital periods for Hydra, Nix, and Charon are in the ratios of 6.064 +/- 0.006 : 3.991 +/- 0.007 : 1, but we have not identified any resonant arguments that would indicate the existence of a mean motion resonance between any pairs of satellites.

  17. HYDRA: a decision support model for irrigation water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacucci, G.; Kabat, P.; Verrier, P.J.; Teixeira, J.L.; Steduto, P.; Bertanzon, G.; Giannerini, G.; Huygen, J.; Fernando, R.M.; Hooijer, A.A.; Simons, W.; Toller, G.; Tziallas, G.; Uhrik, C.; Broek, van den B.J.; Vera Munoz, J.; Yovchev, P.

    1995-01-01

    HYDRA introduces information modelling and decision-support systems (DSS) to farmers and authorities in European Mediterranean agriculture in order to improve irrigation practices at different levels. Key components of HYDRA-DSS are a hierarchical setof water balance and crop growth simulation

  18. Sommerskole 2004 - Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Montagen af/som nye erfaringsrum: intensiteter gennem disjunktioner. Arbejdsprocessen var struktureret gennem en række fortløbende spørgsmål, der blev formuleret successivt i perioden. Hydra kan ses som en kompleks topologisk konfiguration: hvis man betragter dens morfologi som en plastisk membra...... - en latex hvorigennem de topologiske kræfter tegner konturer - vil særlige strukturer danne ar i væv. Hydra kan ses som 2 komplekse topologiske og morfologiske plastiske membraner, der overførte eller snarere relaterede sine "mulige ny ar, rifter, knuder og forvridninger" i en symbiose...

  19. The dynamic genome of Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jarrod A.; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Simakov, Oleg; Hampson, Steven E.; Mitros, Therese; Weinmaier, Therese; Rattei, Thomas; Balasubramanian, Prakash G.; Borman, Jon; Busam, Dana; Disbennett, Kathryn; Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Sumin, Nadezhda; Sutton, Granger G.; Viswanathan, Lakshmi Devi; Walenz, Brian; Goodstein, David M.; Hellsten, Uffe; Kawashima, Takeshi; Prochnik, Simon E.; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Shu, Shengquiang; Blumberg, Bruce; Dana, Catherine E.; Gee, Lydia; Kibler, Dennis F.; Law, Lee; Lindgens, Dirk; Martinez, Daniel E.; Peng, Jisong; Wigge, Philip A.; Bertulat, Bianca; Guder, Corina; Nakamura, Yukio; Ozbek, Suat; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Khalturin, Konstantin; Hemmrich, Georg; Franke, André; Augustin, René; Fraune, Sebastian; Hayakawa, Eisuke; Hayakawa, Shiho; Hirose, Mamiko; Hwang, Jung Shan; Ikeo, Kazuho; Nishimiya-Fujisawa, Chiemi; Ogura, Atshushi; Takahashi, Toshio; Steinmetz, Patrick R. H.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Aufschnaiter, Roland; Eder, Marie-Kristin; Gorny, Anne-Kathrin; Salvenmoser, Willi; Heimberg, Alysha M.; Wheeler, Benjamin M.; Peterson, Kevin J.; Böttger, Angelika; Tischler, Patrick; Wolf, Alexander; Gojobori, Takashi; Remington, Karin A.; Strausberg, Robert L.; Venter, J. Craig; Technau, Ulrich; Hobmayer, Bert; Bosch, Thomas C. G.; Holstein, Thomas W.; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Bode, Hans R.; David, Charles N.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Steele, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater cnidarian Hydra was first described in 17021 and has been the object of study for 300 years. Experimental studies of Hydra between 1736 and 1744 culminated in the discovery of asexual reproduction of an animal by budding, the first description of regeneration in an animal, and successful transplantation of tissue between animals2. Today, Hydra is an important model for studies of axial patterning3, stem cell biology4 and regeneration5. Here we report the genome of Hydra magnipapillata and compare it to the genomes of the anthozoan Nematostella vectensis6 and other animals. The Hydra genome has been shaped by bursts of transposable element expansion, horizontal gene transfer, trans-splicing, and simplification of gene structure and gene content that parallel simplification of the Hydra life cycle. We also report the sequence of the genome of a novel bacterium stably associated with H. magnipapillata. Comparisons of the Hydra genome to the genomes of other animals shed light on the evolution of epithelia, contractile tissues, developmentally regulated transcription factors, the Spemann–Mangold organizer, pluripotency genes and the neuromuscular junction. PMID:20228792

  20. Somatostatin signaling system as an ancestral mechanism: Myoregulatory activity of an Allatostatin-C peptide in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzugaray, María Eugenia; Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Ronderos, Jorge Rafael

    2016-08-01

    The coordination of physiological processes requires precise communication between cells. Cellular interactions allow cells to be functionally related, facilitating the maintaining of homeostasis. Neuropeptides functioning as intercellular signals are widely distributed in Metazoa. It is assumed that neuropeptides were the first intercellular transmitters, appearing early during the evolution. In Cnidarians, neuropeptides are mainly involved in neurotransmission, acting directly or indirectly on epithelial muscle cells, and thereby controlling coordinated movements. Allatostatins are a group of chemically unrelated neuropeptides that were originally characterized based on their ability to inhibit juvenil hormone synthesis in insects. Allatostatin-C has pleiotropic functions, acting as myoregulator in several insects. In these studies, we analyzed the myoregulatory effect of Aedes aegypti Allatostatin-C in Hydra sp., a member of the phylum Cnidaria. Allatostatin-C peptide conjugated with Qdots revealed specifically distributed cell populations that respond to the peptide in different regions of hydroids. In vivo physiological assays using Allatostatin-C showed that the peptide induced changes in shape and length in tentacles, peduncle and gastrovascular cavity. The observed changes were dose and time dependent suggesting the physiological nature of the response. Furthermore, at highest doses, Allatostatin-C induced peristaltic movements of the gastrovascular cavity resembling those that occur during feeding. In silico search of putative Allatostatin-C receptors in Cnidaria showed that genomes predict the existence of proteins of the somatostatin/Allatostatin-C receptors family. Altogether, these results suggest that Allatostatin-C has myoregulatory activity in Hydra sp, playing a role in the control of coordinated movements during feeding, indicating that Allatostatin-C/Somatostatin based signaling might be an ancestral mechanism.

  1. A peptide-gated ion channel from the freshwater polyp Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubovic, Andjelko; Kuhn, Anne; Williamson, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    regarded as a curiosity, and it was not known whether peptide-gated ionotropic receptors are also present in other animal groups. Nervous systems first evolved in cnidarians, which extensively use neuropeptides. Here we report cloning from the freshwater cnidarian Hydra of a novel ion channel (Hydra sodium...

  2. Conservation of the nucleotide excision repair pathway: characterization of hydra Xeroderma Pigmentosum group F homolog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Barve

    Full Text Available Hydra, one of the earliest metazoans with tissue grade organization and nervous system, is an animal with a remarkable regeneration capacity and shows no signs of organismal aging. We have for the first time identified genes of the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway from hydra. Here we report cloning and characterization of hydra homolog of xeroderma pigmentosum group F (XPF gene that encodes a structure-specific 5' endonuclease which is a crucial component of NER. In silico analysis shows that hydra XPF amino acid sequence is very similar to its counterparts from other animals, especially vertebrates, and shows all features essential for its function. By in situ hybridization, we show that hydra XPF is expressed prominently in the multipotent stem cell niche in the central region of the body column. Ectoderm of the diploblastic hydra was shown to express higher levels of XPF as compared to the endoderm by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis also demonstrated that interstitial cells, a multipotent and rapidly cycling stem cell lineage of hydra, express higher levels of XPF mRNA than other cell types. Our data show that XPF and by extension, the NER pathway is highly conserved during evolution. The prominent expression of an NER gene in interstitial cells may have implications for the lack of senescence in hydra.

  3. Revisiting the age, evolutionary history and species level diversity of the genus Hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwentner, Martin; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2015-10-01

    The genus Hydra has long served as a model system in comparative immunology, developmental and evolutionary biology. Despite its relevance for fundamental research, Hydra's evolutionary origins and species level diversity are not well understood. Detailed previous studies using molecular techniques identified several clades within Hydra, but how these are related to described species remained largely an open question. In the present study, we compiled all published sequence data for three mitochondrial and nuclear genes (COI, 16S and ITS), complemented these with some new sequence data and delimited main genetic lineages (=hypothetical species) objectively by employing two DNA barcoding approaches. Conclusions on the species status of these main lineages were based on inferences of reproductive isolation. Relevant divergence times within Hydra were estimated based on relaxed molecular clock analyses with four genes (COI, 16S, EF1α and 28S) and four cnidarians fossil calibration points All in all, 28 main lineages could be delimited, many more than anticipated from earlier studies. Because allopatric distributions were common, inferences of reproductive isolation often remained ambiguous but reproductive isolation was rarely refuted. Our results support three major conclusions which are central for Hydra research: (1) species level diversity was underestimated by molecular studies; (2) species affiliations of several crucial 'workhorses' of Hydra evolutionary research were wrong and (3) crown group Hydra originated ∼200mya. Our results demonstrate that the taxonomy of Hydra requires a thorough revision and that evolutionary studies need to take this into account when interspecific comparisons are made. Hydra originated on Pangea. Three of four extant groups evolved ∼70mya ago, possibly on the northern landmass of Laurasia. Consequently, Hydra's cosmopolitan distribution is the result of transcontinental and transoceanic dispersal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  4. The Hydra drawings: digital imperfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2008-01-01

    Teksten diskuterer den digitale tegnings potenitaler med udgangspunkt i et kunstnerisk udviklingsarbejde gennemført på den græske ø Hydra. Den fokuserer på tegningens historiske betydning som medie for arkitektonisk formgivning og diskuterer muligheden for at gentænke forholdet mellem det åbent...

  5. Hydratools manual version 1.0, documentation for a MATLAB®-based post-processing package for the Sontek Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Marinna; Sherwood, Chris; Horwitz, Rachel; Ramsey, Andree; Lightsom, Fran; Lacy, Jessie; Xu, Jingping

    2006-01-01

    The Sediment Transport Instrumentation Group (STG) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Woods Hole Science Center has a long-standing comitment to providing scientists with high quality oceanographic data. To meet this commitment, STG personnel are vigilant in checking data as well as hardware for signs of instrument malfunction. STG data sets are accompanied by processing histories to detail data processing procedures that may have modified the natural data signal while removing noise from the data. The history also allows the data to be reprocessed in the ligth of new insight into instrument function and moored conditions. This toolbox was compiled to meet these data quality commitments for data generated by Sontek Hydra systems using both ADV and PCADP probes. In the mid 1900's, the USGS Coastal and Marine Program began frequent deployments of Sontek Hydra systems in support of projects in estuaries, coastal, and continental shelf regions nationwide. Hydra data sets are large and complex in structure, and existing processing and editing tools consisted of fragments of MATLAB code written by USGS scientists to satisfy personal research needs. This code did not meet STG quality control criteria. This toolbox permits engineers and scientists to monitor data quality by: 1.\tprocessing data with interactive critical review;

  6. The Origin of Mucosal Immunity: Lessons from the Holobiont Hydra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Schroder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Historically, mucosal immunity—i.e., the portion of the immune system that protects an organism’s various mucous membranes from invasion by potentially pathogenic microbes—has been studied in single-cell epithelia in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts of vertebrates. Phylogenetically, mucosal surfaces appeared for the first time about 560 million years ago in members of the phylum Cnidaria. There are remarkable similarities and shared functions of mucosal immunity in vertebrates and innate immunity in cnidarians, such as Hydra species. Here, we propose a common origin for both systems and review observations that indicate that the ultimately simple holobiont Hydra provides both a new perspective on the relationship between bacteria and animal cells and a new prism for viewing the emergence and evolution of epithelial tissue-based innate immunity. In addition, recent breakthroughs in our understanding of immune responses in Hydra polyps reared under defined short-term gnotobiotic conditions open up the potential of Hydra as an animal research model for the study of common mucosal disorders.

  7. Survey of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In developing this survey of photovoltaic systems, the University of Alabama in Huntsville assembled a task team to perform an extensive telephone survey of all known photovoltaic manufacturers. Three US companies accounted for 77% of the total domestic sales in 1978. They are Solarex Corporation, Solar Power Croporation, and ARCO Solar, Inc. This survey of solar photovoltaic (P/V) manufacturers and suppliers consists of three parts: a catalog of suppliers arranged alphabetically, data sheets on specific products, and typical operating, installation, or maintenance instructions and procedures. This report does not recommend or endorse any company product or information presented within as the results of this survey.

  8. Astrometry and orbits of Nix, Kerberos, AND Hydra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buie, Marc W. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Grundy, William M. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tholen, David J., E-mail: buie@boulder.swri.edu, E-mail: grundy@lowell.edu, E-mail: tholen@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope observations of three of Pluto's outer moons, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. This work revises previously published astrometry of Nix and Hydra from 2002 to 2003. New data from a four-month span during 2007 include observations designed to better measure the positions of Nix and Hydra. A third data set from 2010 also includes data on Nix and Hydra as well as some pre-discovery observations of Kerberos. The data were fitted using numerical point-spread function (PSF) fitting techniques to get accurate positions but also to remove the extended wings of the Pluto and Charon PSFs when working on these faint satellites. The resulting astrometric data were fitted with two-body Keplerian orbits that are useful for short-term predictions of the future positions of these satellites for stellar occultation and for guiding encounter planning for the upcoming New Horizons flyby of the Pluto system. The mutual inclinations of the satellites are all within 0.°2 of the plane of Charon's orbit. The periods for all continue to show that their orbits are near but distinct from integer period ratios relative to Charon. Based on our results, the period ratios are Hydra:Charon = 5.98094 ± 0.00001, Kerberos:Charon = 5.0392 ± 0.0003, and Nix:Charon = 3.89135 ± 0.00001. Based on period ratios alone, there is a trend of increased distance from an integer period ratio with decreasing distance from Charon. Our analysis shows that orbital uncertainties for Nix and Hydra are now low enough to permit useful stellar occultation predictions and for New Horizons encounter planning. In 2015 July, our orbits predict a position error of 60 km for Nix and 38 km for Hydra, well below other limiting errors that affect targeting. The orbit for Kerberos, however, still needs a lot of work as its uncertainty in 2015 is quite large at 22,000 km based on these data.

  9. Ice-related landforms in Hydrae chasma, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baioni, Davide; Tramontana, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Hydrae Chasma is one of the smaller chasma of Valles Marineris. It is a circular depression approximately 50 kilometers across and 4 kilometers deep, located to the north of Coprates Chasma and south of Juventae Chasma A morphological survey of Hydrae Chasma through an analysis of the available Mars images was performed. The features of the landforms were investigated through an integrated analysis of Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) data. Landforms interpreted as due to ice-related processes, resembling similarly ice-related landforms found both in the cold-climate non glacial regions of the Earth, and putatively in other areas of Mars, was observed. These landforms are attributed to the presence of ground ice and/or ice-melting processes reflect significant climatic changes and different climatic conditions than those existing now. Moreover, they appear to display young erosional age, suggesting that are probably of Amazonian age.

  10. Coexistence of neuropeptides in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1983-01-01

    Using a technique for simultaneous visualisation of two antigens in one section, oxytocin-like immunoreactivity has been found to coexist with bombesin-like immunoreactivity in neurons of the basal disk, gastric region and tentacles of hydra. Neurons with oxytocin-like immunoreactivity in peduncle...... and hypostome, on the other hand, have little or no bombesin-like material. Oxytocin-like immunoreactivity never coexists with FMRFamide-immunoreactivity. The neurons with oxytocin- and FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity, however, are often found to be closely intermingled. The results show that coexistence...

  11. PEP Laser Surveying System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1979-03-01

    A Laser Surveying System has been developed to survey the beam elements of the PEP storage ring. This system provides automatic data acquisition and analysis in order to increase survey speed and to minimize operator error. Two special instruments, the Automatic Readout Micrometer and the Small Automatic Micrometer, have been built for measuring the locations of fiducial points on beam elements with respect to the light beam from a laser. These instruments automatically encode offset distances and read them into the memory of an on-line computer. Distances along the beam line are automatically encoded with a third instrument, the Automatic Readout Tape Unit. When measurements of several beam elements have been taken, the on-line computer analyzes the measured data, compared them with desired parameters, and calculates the required adjustments to beam element support stands.

  12. Immunochemical Localization of GABAA Receptor Subunits in the Freshwater Polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concas, A; Imperatore, R; Santoru, F; Locci, A; Porcu, P; Cristino, L; Pierobon, P

    2016-11-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, responding to GABA positive allosteric modulators, are present in the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), one of the most primitive metazoans to develop a nervous system. We examined the occurrence and distribution of GABAA receptor subunits in Hydra tissues by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Antibodies against different GABAA receptor subunits were used in Hydra membrane preparations. Unique protein bands, inhibited by the specific peptide, appeared at 35, 60, ∼50 and ∼52 kDa in membranes incubated with α3, β1, γ3 or δ antibodies, respectively. Immunohistochemical screening of whole mount Hydra preparations revealed diffuse immunoreactivity to α3, β1 or γ3 antibodies in tentacles, hypostome, and upper part of the gastric region; immunoreactive fibers were also present in the lower peduncle. By contrast, δ antibodies revealed a strong labeling in the lower gastric region and peduncle, as well as in tentacles. Double labeling showed colocalization of α3/β1, α3/γ3 and α3/δ immunoreactivity in granules or cells in tentacles and gastric region. In the peduncle, colocalization of both α3/β1 and α3/γ3 immunoreactivity was found in fibers running horizontally above the foot. These data indicate that specific GABAA receptor subunits are present and differentially distributed in Hydra body regions. Subunit colocalization suggests that Hydra GABA receptors are heterologous multimers, possibly sub-serving different physiological activities.

  13. The innate immunity in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Altincicek

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydra vulgaris is currently receiving increased attention as a genetically tractable invertebrate model system for studying important processes of life such as the innate immune defense. Similar to complex animals, H. vulgaris polyps respond to injury by abrupt muscle contraction, by limited escape behavior, and by healing the damaged tissue. Simultaneously, cellular processes such as phagocytosis and programmed cell death as well as the massive production of antimicrobial peptides are induced. Recent studies identified several molecular pathways controlling these responses; however, the interdependence of innate immunity and, for example, regeneration and tissue remodeling is not well elucidated yet. H. vulgaris belongs to the Cnidaria representing the phylogenic sister group of bilaterian animals; hence, a better understanding of evolutionarily conserved as well as Hydra/Cnidaria-specific immune responses will provide deep insight into both origin and evolution of the animal innate immune system

  14. Fundamentals, current state of the development of, and prospects for further improvement of the new-generation thermal-hydraulic computational HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code for simulation of fast reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipchenkov, V. M.; Anfimov, A. M.; Afremov, D. A.; Gorbunov, V. S.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.; Osipov, S. L.; Mosunova, N. A.; Strizhov, V. F.; Usov, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The conceptual fundamentals of the development of the new-generation system thermal-hydraulic computational HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code are presented. The code is intended to simulate the thermalhydraulic processes that take place in the loops and the heat-exchange equipment of liquid-metal cooled fast reactor systems under normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences and during accidents. The paper provides a brief overview of Russian and foreign system thermal-hydraulic codes for modeling liquid-metal coolants and gives grounds for the necessity of development of a new-generation HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code. Considering the specific engineering features of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) equipped with the BN-1200 and the BREST-OD-300 reactors, the processes and the phenomena are singled out that require a detailed analysis and development of the models to be correctly described by the system thermal-hydraulic code in question. Information on the functionality of the computational code is provided, viz., the thermalhydraulic two-phase model, the properties of the sodium and the lead coolants, the closing equations for simulation of the heat-mass exchange processes, the models to describe the processes that take place during the steam-generator tube rupture, etc. The article gives a brief overview of the usability of the computational code, including a description of the support documentation and the supply package, as well as possibilities of taking advantages of the modern computer technologies, such as parallel computations. The paper shows the current state of verification and validation of the computational code; it also presents information on the principles of constructing of and populating the verification matrices for the BREST-OD-300 and the BN-1200 reactor systems. The prospects are outlined for further development of the HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code, introduction of new models into it, and enhancement of its usability. It is shown that the program of development and

  15. + 6 TEKSTER. KARTOGRAFI HYDRA 2013 #3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2013-01-01

    +6 TEKSTER #3 indeholder en række indlæg, der er relateret til 14 NYE LANDSKABER/HYDRA 9, 2012 #1. Arbejdet med topologien og kartografien omkring tre urbane udsnit i Berlin, Paris og Tokyo har ført til en række udgivelser i GRID og følges op her med en række betragtninger, der perspektiverer denne...... at frembringe de baner, vi må tænke videre i. Denne serie af publikationer rummer også 10 NYE LANDSKABER/HYDRA 10 #2, 2013 og planlægges at blive fulgt op med et HYDRA 11 #4 i 2014. HYDRA refererer til en ø i Grækenland, der siden 2004 har dannet rammen om en sommerskole, der er optaget af KARTOGRAFI, MORFOLOGI...

  16. Hydra-TH Extensions for Multispecies and Thermosolutal Convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stagg, Alan K [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States; Yoon, Su-Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) work conducted for completion of the Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) Level 3 Milestone THM.CFD.P11.02: Hydra-TH Extensions for Multispecies and Thermosolutal Convection. A critical requirement for modeling reactor thermal hydraulics is to account for species transport within the fluid. In particular, this capability is needed for modeling transport and diffusion of boric acid within water for emergency, reactivity-control scenarios. To support this need, a species transport capability has been implemented in Hydra-TH for binary systems (for example, solute within a solvent). A species transport equation is solved for the species (solute) mass fraction, and both thermal and solutal buoyancy effects are handled with specification of a Boussinesq body force. Species boundary conditions can be specified with a Dirichlet condition on mass fraction or a Neumann condition on diffusion flux. To enable enhanced species/fluid mixing in turbulent flow, the molecular diffusivity for the binary system is augmented with a turbulent diffusivity in the species transport calculation. The new capabilities are demonstrated by comparison of Hydra-TH calculations to the analytic solution for a thermosolutal convection problem, and excellent agreement is obtained.

  17. Evolutionary Analysis of Minor Histocompatibility Genes In Hydra

    KAUST Repository

    Aalismail, Nojood

    2016-05-01

    Hydra is a simple freshwater solitary polyp used as a model system to study evolutionary aspects. The immune response of this organism has not been studied extensively and the immune response genes have not been identified and characterized. On the other hand, immune response has been investigated and genetic analysis has been initiated in other lower invertebrates. In the present study we took initiative to study the self/nonself recognition in hydra and its relation to the immune response. Moreover, performing phylogenetic analysis to look for annotated immune genes in hydra gave us a potential to analyze the expression of minor histocompatibility genes that have been shown to play a major role in grafting and transplantation in mammals. Here we obtained the cDNA library that shows expression of minor histocompatibility genes and confirmed that the annotated sequences in databases are actually present. In addition, grafting experiments suggested, although still preliminary, that homograft showed less rejection response than in heterograft. Involvement of possible minor histocompatibility gene orthologous in immune response was examined by qPCR.

  18. Isolation of four novel neuropeptides, the hydra-RFamides I-IV, from Hydra magnipapillata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moosler, A; Rinehart, K L; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1996-01-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay for the sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide), we have isolated four novel peptides from extracts of Hydra magnipapillata:......Using a radioimmunoassay for the sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide), we have isolated four novel peptides from extracts of Hydra magnipapillata:...

  19. A new case of neuropeptide coexpression (RGamide and LWamides) in Hydra, found by whole-mount, two-color double-labeling in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Georg N; Williamson, Michael; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2002-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra has a primitive nervous system that expresses at least six different neuropeptide genes: (1) three genes, coding for the preprohormones-A, -B, and -C that each gives rise to a variety of peptides with the C-terminal sequence Arg-Phe-NH(2) (the Hydra-RFamides); (2) one g...

  20. Hydra constitutively expresses transcripts involved in vertebrate neural differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandipan Chatterjee; Shweta Lahudkar; N N Godbole; Surendra Ghaskadbi

    2001-06-01

    The diploblastic Hydra is among the most primitive multicellular organisms. Using cross-hybridization with Xenopus probes, noggin-like transcripts were detected in the hypostome and basal disc of adult Hydra (Pelmatohydra oligactis), regions with properties similar to that of the amphibian organizer. This points to the possibility of a close molecular similarity between the Xenopus and Hydra organizers. The constitutive expression of a noggin-like gene in Hydra may be responsible for its regenerative capacity.

  1. Generation of Transgenic Hydra by Embryo Microinjection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Celina E.; Lin, Haifan; Steele, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    As a member of the phylum Cnidaria, the sister group to all bilaterians, Hydra can shed light on fundamental biological processes shared among multicellular animals. Hydra is used as a model for the study of regeneration, pattern formation, and stem cells. However, research efforts have been hampered by lack of a reliable method for gene perturbations to study molecular function. The development of transgenic methods has revitalized the study of Hydra biology1. Transgenic Hydra allow for the tracking of live cells, sorting to yield pure cell populations for biochemical analysis, manipulation of gene function by knockdown and over-expression, and analysis of promoter function. Plasmid DNA injected into early stage embryos randomly integrates into the genome early in development. This results in hatchlings that express transgenes in patches of tissue in one or more of the three lineages (ectodermal epithelial, endodermal epithelial, or interstitial). The success rate of obtaining a hatchling with transgenic tissue is between 10% and 20%. Asexual propagation of the transgenic hatchling is used to establish a uniformly transgenic line in a particular lineage. Generating transgenic Hydra is surprisingly simple and robust, and here we describe a protocol that can be easily implemented at low cost. PMID:25285460

  2. Target irradiation experiments. [Hydra accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Target irradiation experiments have been carried out on the Hydra accelerator, operating at powers between 0.15 and 0.3 TW. As listed in Table I, four types of spherical shell targets have been studied: 3 mm diameter, 200 ..mu..m and 50 ..mu..m wall thickness Au targets; 3 mm diameter, 300 ..mu..m wall thickness plastic targets; and 0.85 mm diameter, 10 ..mu..m wall thickness Ni targets. When compared to a practical range for 700 keV electrons, the ratio of shell thickness to electron range varied between 0.03 for the Ni targets to 1.5 for the thick walled Au targets. Multiple exposure optical holography was utilized to determine ablator velocity, and a one-dimensional hydrodynamical materials code CHARTD was utilized to model target response and infer beam deposition. Energy deposition varied from 1 TW/gm for thick Au targets up to 8 TW/gm for thin Ni targets, and pusher velocities ranged between 0.5 and 3.5 cm/..mu..sec. Neutron production from D/sub 2/ and DT filled Ni exploding pusher targets was measured using Ag and Li activation counters and gated scintillator photomultiplier time of flight detectors.

  3. Transitioning from microbiome composition to microbial community interactions: the potential of the metaorganism Hydra as an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Deines

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Animals are home to complex microbial communities, which are shaped through interactions within the community, interactions with the host, and through environmental factors. The advent of high-throughput sequencing methods has led to novel insights in changing patterns of community composition and structure. However, deciphering the different types of interactions among community members, with their hosts and their interplay with their environment is still a challenge of major proportion. The emerging fields of synthetic microbial ecology and community systems biology have the potential to decrypt these complex relationships. Studying host-associated microbiota across multiple spatial and temporal scales will bridge the gap between individual microorganism studies and large-scale whole community surveys. Here, we discuss the unique potential of Hydra as an emerging experimental model in microbiome research. Through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico approaches the interaction structure of host-associated microbial communities and the effects of the host on the microbiota and its interactions can be disentangled. Research in the model system Hydra can unify disciplines from molecular genetics to ecology, opening up the opportunity to discover fundamental rules that govern microbiome community stability.

  4. Structural and Sequence Similarities of Hydra Xeroderma Pigmentosum A Protein to Human Homolog Suggest Early Evolution and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Barve

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA is a protein that binds to damaged DNA, verifies presence of a lesion, and recruits other proteins of the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway to the site. Though its homologs from yeast, Drosophila, humans, and so forth are well studied, XPA has not so far been reported from protozoa and lower animal phyla. Hydra is a fresh-water cnidarian with a remarkable capacity for regeneration and apparent lack of organismal ageing. Cnidarians are among the first metazoa with a defined body axis, tissue grade organisation, and nervous system. We report here for the first time presence of XPA gene in hydra. Putative protein sequence of hydra XPA contains nuclear localization signal and bears the zinc-finger motif. It contains two conserved Pfam domains and various characterized features of XPA proteins like regions for binding to excision repair cross-complementing protein-1 (ERCC1 and replication protein A 70 kDa subunit (RPA70 proteins. Hydra XPA shows a high degree of similarity with vertebrate homologs and clusters with deuterostomes in phylogenetic analysis. Homology modelling corroborates the very close similarity between hydra and human XPA. The protein thus most likely functions in hydra in the same manner as in other animals, indicating that it arose early in evolution and has been conserved across animal phyla.

  5. Rate Gyroscopic Wellbore Survey System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Limin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The rate gyroscopic wellbore survey system as a new type of survey instruments adopts the inertial-grade rate gyro and quartz flexible accelerometers to compose a gyrocompassing system, transiting data to surface instrument by single core cable. The azimuth, inclination and tool-face angle can be computed from these data by surface computer.

  6. Evo-devo: Hydra raises its Noggin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kalpana Chandramore; Surendra Ghaskadbi

    2011-08-01

    Noggin, along with other secreted bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitors, plays a crucial role in neural induction and neural tube patterning as well as in somitogenesis, cardiac morphogenesis and formation of the skeleton in vertebrates. The BMP signalling pathway is one of the seven fundamental pathways that drive embryonic development and pattern formation in animals. Understanding its evolutionary origin and role in pattern formation is, therefore, important to evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo).We have studied the evolutionary origin of BMP–Noggin antagonism in hydra, which is a powerful diploblastic model to study evolution of pattern-forming mechanisms because of the unusual cellular dynamics during its pattern formation and its remarkable ability to regenerate. We cloned and characterized the noggin gene from hydra and found it to exhibit considerable similarity with its orthologues at the amino acid level. Microinjection of hydra Noggin mRNA led to duplication of the dorsoventral axis in Xenopus embryos, demonstrating its functional conservation across the taxa. Our data, along with those of others, indicate that the evolutionarily conserved antagonism between BMP and its inhibitors predates bilateral divergence. This article reviews the various roles of Noggin in different organisms and some of our recent work on hydra Noggin in the context of evolution of developmental signalling pathways.

  7. The Hydra-k Partial Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pendavingh; S.H.M. van Zwam (Stefan)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the paper "Confinement of matroid representations to subsets of partial fields" (arXiv:0806.4487) we introduced the Hydra-k partial fields to study quinary matroids with inequivalent representations. The proofs of some results on these partial fields require extensive computations.

  8. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D. [Geophex, Ltd., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  9. The synaptonemal complex of basal metazoan hydra: more similarities to vertebrate than invertebrate meiosis model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraune, Johanna; Wiesner, Miriam; Benavente, Ricardo

    2014-03-20

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is an evolutionarily well-conserved structure that mediates chromosome synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division. Although its structure is conserved, the characterized protein components in the current metazoan meiosis model systems (Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Mus musculus) show no sequence homology, challenging the question of a single evolutionary origin of the SC. However, our recent studies revealed the monophyletic origin of the mammalian SC protein components. Many of them being ancient in Metazoa and already present in the cnidarian Hydra. Remarkably, a comparison between different model systems disclosed a great similarity between the SC components of Hydra and mammals while the proteins of the ecdysozoan systems (D. melanogaster and C. elegans) differ significantly. In this review, we introduce the basal-branching metazoan species Hydra as a potential novel invertebrate model system for meiosis research and particularly for the investigation of SC evolution, function and assembly. Also, available methods for SC research in Hydra are summarized.

  10. Two-color double-labeling in situ hybridization of whole-mount Hydra using RNA probes for five different Hydra neuropeptide preprohormones: evidence for colocalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, G N; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2000-01-01

    -terminal sequence Lys-Val-NH2 (Hydra-KVamide). The various Hydra-RFamides are synthesized by three different preprohormones: preprohormone-A, -B, and -C. The various Hydra-LWamides are synthesized by a single preprohormone (prepro-Hydra-LWamide), as is Hydra-KVamide (prepro-Hydra-KVamide). Using a wholemount double-labeling...... exists that expresses both preprohormones-A and preproHydra-KVamide mRNAs. The functional significance of this coexpression is unclear. This is the first report on the coexpression of two well-characterized preprohormones (yielding two well-characterized neurohormone families) in cnidarians. This report...

  11. The Hydra FGFR, Kringelchen, partially replaces the Drosophila Heartless FGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Anja; Hübinger, Christine; Hüsken, Katrin; Vogt, Angelika; Rebscher, Nicole; Onel, Susanne-Filiz; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate; Hassel, Monika

    2013-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) are highly conserved receptor tyrosine kinases, and evolved early in metazoan evolution. In order to investigate their functional conservation, we asked whether the Kringelchen FGFR in the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris, is able to functionally replace FGFR in fly embryos. In Drosophila, two endogenous FGFR, Breathless (Btl) and Heartless (Htl), ensure formation of the tracheal system and mesodermal cell migration as well as formation of the heart. Using UAS-kringelchen-5xmyc transgenic flies and targeted expression, we show that Kringelchen is integrated correctly into the cell membrane of mesodermal and tracheal cells in Drosophila. Nevertheless, Kringelchen expression driven in tracheal cells failed to rescue the btl (LG19) mutant. The Hydra FGFR was able to substitute for Heartless in the htl (AB42) null mutant; however, this occurred only during early mesodermal cell migration. Our data provide evidence for functional conservation of this early-diverged FGFR across these distantly related phyla, but also selectivity for the Htl FGFR in the Drosophila system.

  12. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    -forming potential of the tissue (2) It does not accelerate head regeneration, nor do the head factors of hydra discovered by Schaller (1973) and Berking (1977) accelerate foot regeneration. We propose that the foot-activating substance is a morphogen responsible for foot formation in hydra. The foot activator can...... be extracted from hydra tissue with methanol and separated from other known morphogens of hydra by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. A substance with similar biological and physicochemical properties can be isolated from sea anemones....

  13. Rapid divergence of histones in Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) and evolution of a novel histone involved in DNA damage response in hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Ubhe, Suyog; Sirwani, Neha; Lohokare, Rasika; Galande, Sanjeev

    2017-08-01

    Histones are fundamental components of chromatin in all eukaryotes. Hydra, an emerging model system belonging to the basal metazoan phylum Cnidaria, provides an ideal platform to understand the evolution of core histone components at the base of eumetazoan phyla. Hydra exhibits peculiar properties such as tremendous regenerative capacity, lack of organismal senescence and rarity of malignancy. In light of the role of histone modifications and histone variants in these processes it is important to understand the nature of histones themselves and their variants in hydra. Here, we report identification of the complete repertoire of histone-coding genes in the Hydra magnipapillata genome. Hydra histones were classified based on their copy numbers, gene structure and other characteristic features. Genomic organization of canonical histone genes revealed the presence of H2A-H2B and H3-H4 paired clusters in high frequency and also a cluster with all core histones along with H1. Phylogenetic analysis of identified members of H2A and H2B histones suggested rapid expansion of these groups in Hydrozoa resulting in the appearance of unique subtypes. Amino acid sequence level comparisons of H2A and H2B forms with bilaterian counterparts suggest the possibility of a highly mobile nature of nucleosomes in hydra. Absolute quantitation of transcripts confirmed the high copy number of histones and supported the canonical nature of H2A. Furthermore, functional characterization of H2A.X.1 and a unique variant H2A.X.2 in the gastric region suggest their role in the maintenance of genome integrity and differentiation processes. These findings provide insights into the evolution of histones and their variants in hydra. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of dopamine synthesis inhibitors and dopamine antagonists on regeneration in the hydra Hydra attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumova, T V; Markova, L N

    2002-01-01

    The effects of catecholamine synthesis inhibitors (alpha-methyltyrosine, 3-iodotyrosine, and alpha-methyl-DOPA) and dopamine receptor blockers (haloperidol and spiperone) on the regeneration of apical, gastral, and basal fragments of the hydra Hydra attenuata were studied. These experiments showed that alpha-methyltyrosine and 3-iodotyrosine significantly inhibited regeneration but did not produce morphological anomalies. Alpha-Methyl-DOPA produce less inhibition of regeneration, but induced ectopic tentacles and outgrowths in gastral regenerates. Haloperidol and spiperone had no significant effect on the rate of regeneration but induced significant numbers of morphogenetic anomalies in gastral regenerates. Apical and basal regenerates, which retained their natural organizers (the head and base respectively) never yielded morphogenetic anomalies in the presence of either dopamine receptor blockers or dopamine synthesis inhibitors. The possible role of neurotransmitters. particularly dopamine, in morphogenesis in hydras is discussed.

  15. Glutamatergic transmission in hydra: NMDA/D-serine affects the electrical activity of the body and tentacles of Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J C; Kass-Simon, G

    2009-04-01

    Previous electrophysiological studies on the early-evolved metazoan Hydra vulgaris provided evidence that glutamate, acting through alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainate receptors, affects hydra's pacemaker systems; immunocytochemical studies showed that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were present in hydra tentacles; behavioral studies demonstrated that NMDA/d-serine affected mouth opening induced by reduced glutathione, and with AMPA/kainate, discharge of nematocysts. In this study, extracellular recordings were made from the tentacle and peduncle of hydra during bath application of NMDA and d-serine (both at 1 x 10(-5) mol l(-1) to 1 x 10(-9) mol l(-1)) in the presence of 1 x 10(-7) mol l(-1) AMPA or kainate. NMDA/d-serine produced a significant increase in tentacle activity, increasing the rate of tentacle pacemaker pulses (TPs) at 1 x 10(-7) mol l(-1), and small, behaviorally uncorrelated tentacle pulses (SUTPs) at 1 x 10(-5) mol l(-1). The NMDA antagonist, d-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), counteracted the effects. NMDA/d-serine (1 x 10(-7) mol l(-1)) also caused a potentially significant (trend) decrease in the rate of small, behaviorally uncorrelated electrical body pulses (SUBPs) and rhythmic potentials (RPs). The effect was counteracted by D-AP5. The ectodermal contraction burst (CB) pacemaker system was unaffected by NMDA/d-serine. Our results indicate that glutamate, acting on NMDA/AMPA-kainate receptors, may cause opposing effects on the coordinating systems of tentacle and body-exciting the tentacle effectors and potentially causing an inhibition in the body column.

  16. On the Origin of Pluto's Minor Moons, Nix and Hydra

    CERN Document Server

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2008-01-01

    How did Pluto's recently discovered minor moons form? Ward and Canup propose an elegant solution in which Nix and Hydra formed in the collision that produced Charon, then were caught into corotation resonances with Charon, and finally were transported to their current location as Charon migrated outwards. We show with numerical integrations that, if Charon's eccentricity is judiciously chosen, this scenario works beautifully for either Nix or Hydra. However, it cannot work for both Nix and Hydra simultaneously. To transport Nix, Charon's eccentricity must satisfy e_C 0.7 R_p/a_C > 0.04; otherwise migration would be faster than libration, and Hydra would slip out of resonance. These two restrictions conflict. Having ruled out this scenario, we suggest an alternative: that many small bodies were captured from the nebular disk, and they were responsible for forming, migrating and damping Nix and Hydra. If this is true, small moons could be common around large Kuiper belt objects.

  17. HYDRA: a Java library for Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Warnes

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydra is an open-source, platform-neutral library for performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo. It implements the logic of standard MCMC samplers within a framework designed to be easy to use, extend, and integrate with other software tools. In this paper, we describe the problem that motivated our work, outline our goals for the Hydra pro ject, and describe the current features of the Hydra library. We then provide a step-by-step example of using Hydra to simulate from a mixture model drawn from cancer genetics, first using a variable-at-a-time Metropolis sampler and then a Normal Kernel Coupler. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for Hydra.

  18. Three different prohormones yield a variety of Hydra-RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2) neuropeptides in Hydra magnipapillata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darmer, D; Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P;

    1998-01-01

    from H. magnipapillata, each of which gives rise to a variety of RFamide neuropeptides. Preprohormone A contains one copy of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide I (QWLGGRFG), II (QWFNGRFG), III/IV [(KP)HLRGRFG] and two putative neuropeptide sequences (QLMSGRFG and QLMRGRFG). Preprohormone B has the same general...... organization as preprohormone A, but instead of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide III/IV it contains a slightly different neuropeptide sequence [(KP)HYRGRFG]. Preprohormone C contains one copy of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide I and seven additional putative neuropeptide sequences (with the common N-terminal sequence QWF....../LSGRFGL). The two Hydra-RFamide II copies (in preprohormones A and B) are preceded by Thr residues, and the single Hydra-RFamide III/IV copy (in preprohormone A) is preceded by an Asn residue, confirming that cnidarians use unconventional processing signals to generate neuropeptides from their precursor proteins...

  19. Hydra: a service oriented architecture for scientific simulation integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Russell [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Djidjev, Tatiana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hayes, Birch P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holland, Joe V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khalsa, Hari S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Linger, Steve P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mathis, Mark M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mniszewski, Sue M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bush, Brian [NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LAB

    2008-01-01

    One of the current major challenges in scientific modeling and simulation, in particular in the infrastructure-analysis community, is the development of techniques for efficiently and automatically coupling disparate tools that exist in separate locations on different platforms, implemented in a variety of languages and designed to be standalone. Recent advances in web-based platforms for integrating systems such as SOA provide an opportunity to address these challenges in a systematic fashion. This paper describes Hydra, an integrating architecture for infrastructure modeling and simulation that defines geography-based schemas that, when used to wrap existing tools as web services, allow for seamless plug-and-play composability. Existing users of these tools can enhance the value of their analysis by assessing how the simulations of one tool impact the behavior of another tool and can automate existing ad hoc processes and work flows for integrating tools together.

  20. X-Ray Supercavities in the Hydra A Cluster and the Outburst History of the Central Galaxy's Active Nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wise, M.; McNamara, B.R.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Houck, J.C.; David, L.P.

    2007-01-01

    A 227 ks Chandra X-ray image of the hot plasma in the Hydra A cluster has revealed an extensive cavity system. The system was created by a continuous outflow or a series of bursts from the nucleus of the central galaxy over the past 200-500 Myr. The cavities have displaced 10% of the plasma within a

  1. A new species of green hydra (Hydrozoa: Hydrida) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Tai; Deng, Li; Lai, Jing-Qi; Li, Juan

    2009-09-01

    A new species of green freshwater hydra (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa: Hydrida), Hydra sinensis, is described from Guangdong Province, China. The chief distinction between H. sinensis sp. nov. and three other green hydras (H. hadleyi, H. viridissima, and H. plagiodesmica) is in the holotrichous isorhizae. Hydra sinensis sp. nov. differs from H. plagiodesmica in the shape of the holotrichous isorhlzae, and from H. viridissima and H. hadleyi in the tubule of the capsule of the holotrichous isorhlzae. The capsule tubule colls two times in 86% and three times in 14% of holotrlchous isorhlzae (n=50) In H. sinensis sp. nov.; we observed no tubules coiling four times. In contrast, the capsule tubule coils three or four times in H. viridissima and H. hadleyi, and no tubules coiling two times have been reported. In addition, holotrichous isorhlzae, which are mainly located around the hypostome, are sparse in the tentacles of H. sinensis sp. nov., whereas the majority of holotrichous isorhlzae is located on the tentacles in most other hydras. A molecular phylogenetic analysis using the nuclear small subunlt (18S) ribosomal RNA gene Indicated a close relationship between H. sinensis and H. viridissima. Hydra viridissima did not group within a clade of four Individuals of H. sinensis, Indicating a possible sister-species relationship between the two species. Morphological characters in combination with the molecular phylogenetic evidence support Hydra sinensis as a new species.

  2. The Pulsation Spectrum of VX Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, M. R.; Samolyk, G.; Dvorak, S.; Poklar, R.; Butterworth, N.; Gerner, H.

    2009-10-01

    We present the results of a two-year, multisite observing campaign investigating the high-amplitude δ Scuti star VX Hydrae during the 2006 and 2007 observing seasons. The final data set consists of nearly 8500 V-band observations spanning HJD 2453763.6 to 2454212.7 (2006 January 28 to 2007 April 22). Separate analyses of the two individual seasons of data yield 25 confidently detected frequencies common to both data sets, of which two are pulsation modes, and the remaining 23 are Fourier harmonics or beat frequencies of these two modes. The 2006 data set had five additional frequencies with amplitudes less than 1.5 mmag, and the 2007 data had one additional frequency. Analysis of the full 2006–2007 data set yields 22 of the 25 frequencies found in the individual seasons of data. There are no significant peaks in the spectrum other than these between 0 and 60 cycles day-1. The frequencies of the two main pulsation modes derived from the 2006 and 2007 observing seasons individually do not differ at the level of 3σ, and thus we find no conclusive evidence for period change over the span of these observations. However, the amplitude of changed significantly between the two seasons, while the amplitude of remained constant; amplitudes of the Fourier harmonics and beat frequencies of f1 also changed. Similar behavior was seen in the 1950s, and it is clear that VX Hydrae undergoes significant amplitude changes over time.

  3. No junctional communication between epithelial cells in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Laat, S W; Tertoolen, L G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    junctions between epithelial cells of hydra. However, until now, there has been no report published on whether these junctions enable the epithelial cells to exchange molecules of small molecular weight, as has been described in other organisms. Therefore we decided to investigate the communicative...... properties of the junctional membranes by electrophysiological methods and by intracellular-dye iontophoresis. We report here that no electrotonic coupling is detectable between epithelial cells of Hydra attenuata in: (1) intact animals, (2) head-regenerating animals, (3) cell re-aggregates, and (4) hydra...

  4. Effects of water hardness and alkalinity on the toxicity of uranium to a tropical freshwater hydra (Hydra viridissima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmuller, N; Markich, S J; Van Dam, R A; Parry, D

    2001-01-01

    In tropical Australian freshwaters, uranium (U) is of potential ecotoxicological concern, largely as a consequence of mining activities. Although the toxicity of uranium to Australian freshwater biota is comprehensive, by world standards, few data are available on the effects of physicochemical variables, such as hardness, alkalinity, pH and organic matter, on uranium speciation and bioavailability. This study determined the individual effects of water hardness (6.6, 165 and 330 mg l(-1) as CaCO3) and alkalinity (4.0 and 102 mg l(-1) as CaCO3), at a constant pH (6.0), on the toxicity (96 h population growth) of uranium to Hydra viridissima (green hydra). A 50-fold increase in hardness (Ca and Mg concentration) resulted in a 92% (two-fold) decrease in the toxicity of uranium to H. viridissima [i.e. an increase in the EC50 value and 95% confidence interval from 114 (107-121) to 219 (192-246) µg l(-1)]. Conversely, at a constant hardness (165 mg l-1 as CaCO3), the toxicity of uranium to H. viridissima was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by a 25-fold increase in alkalinity (carbonate concentration) [i.e. EC50 values of 177 (166-188) and 171 (150-192) µg l(-1) at 4.0 and 102 mg l(-1) as CaCO3, respectively]. A knowledge of the relationship between water chemistry variables, including hardness and alkalinity, and uranium toxicity is useful for predicting the potential ecological detriment in aquatic systems, and can be used to relax national water quality guidelines on a site-specific basis.

  5. IR wireless cluster synapses of HYDRA very large neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    RF/IR wireless (virtual) synapses are critical components of HYDRA (Hyper-Distributed Robotic Autonomy) neural networks, already discussed in two earlier papers. The HYDRA network has the potential to be very large, up to 10 11-neurons and 10 18-synapses, based on already established technologies (cellular RF telephony and IR-wireless LANs). It is organized into almost fully connected IR-wireless clusters. The HYDRA neurons and synapses are very flexible, simple, and low-cost. They can be modified into a broad variety of biologically-inspired brain-like computing capabilities. In this third paper, we focus on neural hardware in general, and on IR-wireless synapses in particular. Such synapses, based on LED/LD-connections, dominate the HYDRA neural cluster.

  6. Contribution to the knowledge of the nervous system in the tentacles of some coelenterates (Anemonia sulcata, Metridium senile, Cerianthus membranaceus, Tealia felina and Hydra vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle, van J.

    1977-01-01

    The nervous system in the tentacles of the sea anemones Tealia felina, Anemonia sulcata, Metridium senile and Cerianthus membranaceus was studied using light microscopic and electron microscopic techniques. Because of the small dimensions of the nerve cells (6—7 µm) and of the neurites (diameter <

  7. Contribution to the knowledge of the nervous system in the tentacles of some coelenterates (Anemonia sulcata, Metridium senile, Cerianthus membranaceus, Tealia felina and Hydra vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle, van J.

    1977-01-01

    The nervous system in the tentacles of the sea anemones Tealia felina, Anemonia sulcata, Metridium senile and Cerianthus membranaceus was studied using light microscopic and electron microscopic techniques. Because of the small dimensions of the nerve cells (6—7 µm) and of the neurites (diameter

  8. Evidence that polycystins are involved in Hydra cnidocyte discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Susan

    2017-03-01

    Like other cnidarians, the freshwater organism Hydra is characterized by the possession of cnidocytes (stinging cells). Most cnidocytes are located on hydra tentacles, where they are organized along with sensory cells and ganglion cells into battery complexes. The function of the battery complexes is to integrate multiple types of stimuli for the regulation of cnidocyte discharge. The molecular mechanisms controlling the discharge of cnidocytes are not yet fully understood, but it is known that discharge depends on extracellular Ca(2+) and that mechanically induced cnidocyte discharge can be enhanced by the presence of prey extracts and other chemicals. Experiments in this paper show that a PKD2 (polycystin 2) transient receptor potential (TRP) channel is expressed in hydra tentacles and bases. PKD2 (TRPP) channels belong to the TRP channel superfamily and are non-selective Ca(2+) channels involved in the transduction of both mechanical and chemical stimuli in other organisms. Non-specific PKD2 channel inhibitors Neo (neomycin) and Gd(3+) (gadolinium) inhibit both prey capture and cnidocyte discharge in hydra. The PKD2 activator Trip (triptolide) enhances cnidocyte discharge in both starved and satiated hydra and reduces the inhibition of cnidocyte discharge caused by Neo. PKD1 and 2 proteins are known to act together to transduce mechanical and chemical stimuli; in situ hybridization experiments show that a PKD1 gene is expressed in hydra tentacles and bases, suggesting that polycystins play a direct or indirect role in cnidocyte discharge.

  9. Variable Stars in the Field of the Hydra II Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, A. Katherina; Olsen, Knut; Blum, Robert; Nidever, David L.; Walker, Alistair R.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Besla, Gurtina; Gallart, Carme; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Majewski, Steven R.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Jin, Shoko

    2016-05-01

    We report the discovery of one RR Lyrae star in the ultra-faint satellite galaxy Hydra II based on time series photometry in the g, r and i bands obtained with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. The association of the RR Lyrae star discovered here with Hydra II is clear because is located at 42\\prime\\prime from the center of the dwarf, well within its half-light radius of 102\\prime\\prime . The RR Lyrae star has a mean magnitude of i=21.30+/- 0.04 which is too faint to be a field halo star. This magnitude translates to a heliocentric distance of 151 ± 8 kpc for Hydra II; this value is ∼ 13% larger than the estimate from the discovery paper based on the average magnitude of several blue horizontal branch star candidates. The new distance implies a slightly larger half-light radius of {76}-10+12 pc and a brighter absolute magnitude of {M}V=-5.1+/- 0.3, which keeps this object within the realm of the dwarf galaxies. A comparison with other RR Lyrae stars in ultra-faint systems indicates similar pulsational properties among them, which are different to those found among halo field stars and those in the largest of the Milky Way satellites. We also report the discovery of 31 additional short period variables in the field of view (RR Lyrae, SX Phe, eclipsing binaries, and a likely anomalous cepheid) which are likely not related with Hydra II.

  10. Variable stars in the field of the Hydra II ultra-faint dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Vivas, A Katherina; Olsen, Knut; Blum, Robert; Walker, Alistair; Martin, Nicolas; Besla, Gurtina; Gallart, Carme; van der Marel, Roeland; Majewski, Steven; Kaleida, Catherine; Muñoz, Ricardo; Conn, Blair; Jin, Shoko

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of one RR Lyrae star in the ultra--faint satellite galaxy Hydra II based on time series photometry in the g, r and i bands obtained with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Chile. The RR Lyrae star has a mean magnitude of $i = 21.30\\pm 0.04$ which translates to a heliocentric distance of $151\\pm 8$ kpc for Hydra II; this value is $\\sim 13\\%$ larger than the estimate from the discovery paper based on the average magnitude of several blue horizontal branch star candidates. The new distance implies a slightly larger half-light radius of $76^{+12}_{-10}$ pc and a brighter absolute magnitude of $M_V = -5.1 \\pm 0.3$, which keeps this object within the realm of the dwarf galaxies. The pulsational properties of the RR Lyrae star ($P=0.645$ d, $\\Delta g = 0.68$ mag) suggest Hydra II may be a member of the intermediate Oosterhoff or Oosterhoff II group. A comparison with other RR Lyrae stars in ultra--faint systems indicates similar pulsational properties among them...

  11. Toxic effects of bisphenol A on sexual and asexual reproduction in Hydra oligactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhori, N; Kitano, M; Kimura, H

    2005-05-01

    Hydra oligactis, an evolutionarily primitive invertebrate, produced eggs or testes (sexual reproduction) when starved at 10 degrees C, and produced buds (asexual reproduction) when fed at 20 degrees C. Bisphenol A (BPA) at 2-4 mg/L given to male or female hydra had adverse effects on both sexual and asexual reproduction. Despite the estrogenic nature of BPA, testis formation and egg formation were similarly affected. The doses causing these acute toxicities were comparable to those reported earlier in aquatic invertebrates and were much higher than environmentally detected doses, at which the disruption of the endocrine system has been reported in fishes. All these facts indicate that the adverse effects are the results of general toxicity and may not be due to the estrogenic function of the compound. On the other hand, we found that BPA at 1 mg/L (a dose still much higher than environmental doses) stimulated asexual reproduction. No such stimulation of sexual reproduction was seen. When male hydras were fed at 10 degrees C, they produced both buds and testes simultaneously. BPA at 0.5 and 1 mg/L under this condition also stimulated asexual reproduction, whereas it suppressed sexual reproduction more severely than BPA at 2-3 mg/L. There may be some interaction between processes involved in sexual and asexual reproduction under this condition, and the stimulation of asexual reproduction by BPA may cause suppression of sexual reproduction.

  12. Constant mortality and fertility over age in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Ralf; Scheuerlein, Alexander; Dańko, Maciej J; Gampe, Jutta; Martínez, Daniel E; Vaupel, James W

    2015-12-22

    Senescence, the increase in mortality and decline in fertility with age after maturity, was thought to be inevitable for all multicellular species capable of repeated breeding. Recent theoretical advances and compilations of data suggest that mortality and fertility trajectories can go up or down, or remain constant with age, but the data are scanty and problematic. Here, we present compelling evidence for constant age-specific death and reproduction rates in Hydra, a basal metazoan, in a set of experiments comprising more than 3.9 million days of observations of individual Hydra. Our data show that 2,256 Hydra from two closely related species in two laboratories in 12 cohorts, with cohort age ranging from 0 to more than 41 y, have extremely low, constant rates of mortality. Fertility rates for Hydra did not systematically decline with advancing age. This falsifies the universality of the theories of the evolution of aging that posit that all species deteriorate with age after maturity. The nonsenescent life history of Hydra implies levels of maintenance and repair that are sufficient to prevent the accumulation of damage for at least decades after maturity, far longer than the short life expectancy of Hydra in the wild. A high proportion of stem cells, constant and rapid cell turnover, few cell types, a simple body plan, and the fact that the germ line is not segregated from the soma are characteristics of Hydra that may make nonsenescence feasible. Nonsenescence may be optimal because lifetime reproduction may be enhanced more by extending adult life spans than by increasing daily fertility.

  13. DORIS system and integrity survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayles, C.; Chauveau, J. P.; Didelot, F.; Auriol, A.; Tourain, C.

    2016-12-01

    DORIS, as other techniques for space geodesy (SLR, VLBI, GPS) has regularly progressed to meet the ever increasing needs of the scientific community in oceanography, geodesy or geophysics. Over the past 10 years, a particular emphasis has been placed on integrity monitoring of the system, which has contributed to the enhancement of the overall availability and quality of DORIS data products. A high level of monitoring is now provided by a centralized control of the whole system, including the global network of beacons and the onboard instruments, which perform a constant end-to-end survey. At first signs of any unusual behavior, a dedicated team is activated with well-established tools to investigate, to anticipate and to contain the impact of any potential failures. The procedure has increased the availability of DORIS beacons to 90%. The core topic of this article is to demonstrate that DORIS has implemented a high-level integrity control of its data. Embedded in the DORIS receiver, DIODE (DORIS Immediate Orbit Determination) is a Real-Time On-Board Orbit Determination software. Its accuracy has also been dramatically improved when compared to Precise Orbit Ephemeris (P.O.E.), down to 2.7 cm RMS on Jason-2, 3.0 cm on Saral and 3.3 cm on CryoSat-2. Specific quality indices were derived from the DIODE-based Kalman filters and are used to monitor network and system performance. This paper covers the definition of these indices and how the reliability and the reactiveness to incidents or anomalies of the system are improved. From these indices, we have provided detailed diagnostic information about the DORIS system, which is available in real-time, on-board each DORIS satellite. Using these capabilities, we have developed real-time functions that give an immediate diagnosis of the status of key components in the DORIS system. The Near-Real Time navigation system was improved and can distinguish and handle both satellite events and beacon anomalies. The next missions

  14. Effects of predation by Hydra (Cnidaria on cladocerans (Crustacea: Cladocera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Rivera-De la Parra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Planktonic cladocerans have evolved different strategies to avoid predation from vertebrates; these include changes in morphology, behavior, physiology, and/or life-history traits. However, littoral cladocerans are better adapted to avoid invertebrate predation particularly from insect larvae by evolving morphological and physiological adaptations. Nevertheless, this has not been proven for some littoral predators such as Hydra. In this study, we provide quantitative data on how Hydra affects its zooplankton prey. We studied the predation behavior on Alona glabra, Ceridodaphnia dubia, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia cf. mendotae, Diaphanosoma birgei, Macrothrix triserialis, Moina macrocopa, Pleuroxus aduncus, Scapholeberis kingi, Simocephalus vetulus, Elaphoidella grandidieri, Brachionus rubens and Euchlanis dilatata. We also tested the indirect effect of allelochemicals from Hydra on the demography of Daphnia cf. mendotae. Littoral cladocerans are specially adapted to resist nematocyst injection and discharge of toxic substances from Hydra. A significant decrease in the population growth rate from 0.21 to 0.125 d-1 was observed at densities of 2 ind. ml-1. The role of carapace thickness as an adaptive strategy of littoral cladocerans against Hydra predation is discussed.

  15. Multi-wavelength spectrophotometry of EX Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenbart, S; Reinsch, K; Gänsicke, B T

    2002-01-01

    We present phase-resolved infrared and optical spectrophotometry of the intermediate polar EX Hya supplemented by archival ultraviolet data. The spin-modulated emission from the accretion funnel and the emission from the accretion disk or ring contain substantial optically thin components. The white dwarf dominates the unmodulated flux in the ultraviolet and is identified by numerous absorption lines. Metal absorption in the accretion curtain may add to the observed spectral features. The secondary star is of spectral type M4+-1 and is detected by its ellipsoidal modulation. We derive a distance of 65+-11 pc which makes EX Hydrae one of the closest cataclysmic variables with a known distance. The luminosity derived from the integrated overall spectral energy distribution is 3x10^32 erg/s. The accretion rate of 3x10^15 g/s (for an 0.6 Msun white dwarf) is in reasonable agreement with the rates expected from angular momentum loss by gravitational radiation and from the observed spin-up of the white dwarf

  16. The pulsation spectrum of VX Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Templeton, M R; Dvorak, S; Poklar, R; Butterworth, N; Gerner, H

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a two-year, multisite observing campaign investigating the high-amplitude delta Scuti star VX Hydrae during the 2006 and 2007 observing seasons. The final data set consists of nearly 8500 V-band observations spanning HJD 2453763.6 to 2454212.7 (2006 January 28 to 2007 April 22). Separate analyses of the two individual seasons of data yield 25 confidently-detected frequencies common to both data sets, of which two are pulsation modes, and the remaining 23 are Fourier harmonics or beat frequencies of these two modes. The 2006 data set had five additional frequencies with amplitudes less than 1.5 mmag, and the 2007 data had one additional frequency. Analysis of the full 2006-2007 data set yields 22 of the 25 frequencies found in the individual seasons of data. There are no significant peaks in the spectrum other than these between 0 and 60 c/d. The frequencies of the two main pulsation modes derived from the 2006 and 2007 observing seasons individually do not differ at the level of 3-si...

  17. CIRCUMBINARY CHAOS: USING PLUTO'S NEWEST MOON TO CONSTRAIN THE MASSES OF NIX AND HYDRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youdin, Andrew N.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    The Pluto system provides a unique local laboratory for the study of binaries with multiple low-mass companions. In this paper, we study the orbital stability of P4, the most recently discovered moon in the Pluto system. This newfound companion orbits near the plane of the Pluto-Charon (PC) binary, roughly halfway between the two minor moons Nix and Hydra. We use a suite of few body integrations to constrain the masses of Nix and Hydra, and the orbital parameters of P4. For the system to remain stable over the age of the solar system, the masses of Nix and Hydra likely do not exceed 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} kg and 9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} kg, respectively. These upper limits assume a fixed mass ratio between Nix and Hydra at the value implied by their median optical brightness. Our study finds that stability is more sensitive to their total mass and that a downward revision of Charon's eccentricity (from our adopted value of 0.0035) is unlikely to significantly affect our conclusions. Our upper limits are an order of magnitude below existing astrometric limits on the masses of Nix and Hydra. For a density at least that of ice, the albedos of Nix and Hydra would exceed 0.3. This constraint implies they are icy, as predicted by giant impact models. Even with these low masses, P4 only remains stable if its eccentricity e {approx}< 0.02. The 5:1 commensurability with Charon is particularly unstable, combining stability constraints with the observed mean motion places the preferred orbit for P4 just exterior to the 5:1 resonance. These predictions will be tested when the New Horizons satellite visits Pluto. Based on the results for the PC system, we expect that circumbinary, multi-planet systems will be more widely spaced than their singleton counterparts. Further, circumbinary exoplanets close to the three-body stability boundary, such as those found by Kepler, are less likely to have other companions nearby.

  18. Phylogenetic placement of Hydra and relationships within Aplanulata (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Annalise M; Collins, Allen G; Hirano, Yayoi M; Schuchert, Peter; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2013-04-01

    The model organism Hydra belongs to the hydrozoan clade Aplanulata. Despite being a popular model system for development, little is known about the phylogenetic placement of this taxon or the relationships of its closest relatives. Previous studies have been conflicting regarding sister group relationships and have been unable to resolve deep nodes within the clade. In addition, there are several putative Aplanulata taxa that have never been sampled for molecular data or analyzed using multiple markers. Here, we combine the fast-evolving cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) mitochondrial marker with mitochondrial 16S, nuclear small ribosomal subunit (18S, SSU) and large ribosomal subunit (28S, LSU) sequences to examine relationships within the clade Aplanulata. We further discuss the relative contribution of four different molecular markers to resolving phylogenetic relationships within Aplanulata. Lastly, we report morphological synapomorphies for some of the major Aplanulata genera and families, and suggest new taxonomic classifications for two species of Aplanulata, Fukaurahydra anthoformis and Corymorpha intermedia, based on a preponderance of molecular and morphological data that justify the designation of these species to different genera. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydra and Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840)--two peas in a pod? The molecular basis of extracellular matrix structure in the invertebrate, Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarras, M P; Deutzmann, R

    2001-08-01

    The body wall of Hydra is organized as an epithelial bilayer with an intervening extracellular matrix (ECM). Molecular and biochemical analyses of Hydra ECM have established that it contains components similar to those seen in more complicated vertebrates such as human. In terms of biophysical parameters, Hydra ECM is highly flexible; a property that facilitates continuous movements along the organism's longitudinal and radial axis. A more rigid ECM, as in vertebrates, would not be compatible with this degree of movement. The flexible nature of Hydra ECM can now be explained in part by the unique structure of the organism's collagens. Interestingly, some aspects of the structural features of Hydra collagens mimic what is seen in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, an inherited condition in humans that results in an abnormally flexible ECM that can be debilitating in extreme cases. This review will focus on structure-function relationships of the ECM of Hydra.

  20. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 3, Verification/validation assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.

    1987-10-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum are enhanced by the incorporation of directional porosities and permeabilities that aid in modeling solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated procedures are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume I - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. Volume II - User's Manual contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a model problem. This volume, Volume III - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. This volume also documents comparisons between the results of simulations of single- and multiassembly storage systems and actual experimental data. 11 refs., 55 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Hymyc1 downregulation promotes stem cell proliferation in Hydra vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ambrosone

    Full Text Available Hydra is a unique model for studying the mechanisms underlying stem cell biology. The activity of the three stem cell lineages structuring its body constantly replenishes mature cells lost due to normal tissue turnover. By a poorly understood mechanism, stem cells are maintained through self-renewal while concomitantly producing differentiated progeny. In vertebrates, one of many genes that participate in regulating stem cell homeostasis is the protooncogene c-myc, which has been recently identified also in Hydra, and found expressed in the interstitial stem cell lineage. In the present paper, by developing a novel strategy of RNA interference-mediated gene silencing (RNAi based on an enhanced uptake of small interfering RNAi (siRNA, we provide molecular and biological evidence for an unexpected function of the Hydra myc gene (Hymyc1 in the homeostasis of the interstitial stem cell lineage. We found that Hymyc1 inhibition impairs the balance between stem cell self renewal/differentiation, as shown by the accumulation of stem cell intermediate and terminal differentiation products in genetically interfered animals. The identical phenotype induced by the 10058-F4 inhibitor, a disruptor of c-Myc/Max dimerization, demonstrates the specificity of the RNAi approach. We show the kinetic and the reversible feature of Hymyc1 RNAi, together with the effects displayed on regenerating animals. Our results show the involvement of Hymyc1 in the control of interstitial stem cell dynamics, provide new clues to decipher the molecular control of the cell and tissue plasticity in Hydra, and also provide further insights into the complex myc network in higher organisms. The ability of Hydra cells to uptake double stranded RNA and to trigger a RNAi response lays the foundations of a comprehensive analysis of the RNAi response in Hydra allowing us to track back in the evolution and the origin of this process.

  2. Algal endosymbiosis in brown hydra: host/symbiont specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahat, M; Reich, V

    1986-12-01

    Host/symbiont specificity has been investigated in non-symbiotic and aposymbiotic brown and green hydra infected with various free-living and symbiotic species and strains of Chlorella and Chlorococcum. Morphology and ultrastructure of the symbioses obtained have been compared. Aposymbiotic Swiss Hydra viridis and Japanese H. magnipapillata served as controls. In two strains of H. attenuata stable hereditary symbioses were obtained with Chlorococcum isolated from H. magnipapillata. In one strain of H. vulgaris, in H. oligactis and in aposymbiotic H. viridis chlorococci persisted for more than a week. Eight species of free-living Chlorococcum, 10 symbiotic and 10 free-living strains of Chlorella disappeared from the brown hydra within 1-2 days. In H. magnipapillata there was a graded distribution of chlorococci along the polyps. In hypostomal cells there were greater than 30 algae/cell while in endodermal cells of the mid-section or peduncle less than 10 algae/cell were found. In H. attenuata the algal distribution was irregular, there were up to five chlorocci/cell, and up to 20 cells/hydra hosted algae. In the dark most cells of Chlorococcum disappeared from H. magnipapillata and aposymbiotic hydra were obtained. Chlorococcum is thus an obligate phototroph, and host-dependent heterotrophy is not required for the preservation of a symbiosis. The few chlorococci that survived in the dark seem to belong to a less-demanding physiological strain. In variance with known Chlorella/H. viridis endosymbioses the chlorococci in H. magnipapillata and H. attenuata were tightly enveloped in the vacuolar membrane of the hosting cells with no visible perialgal space. Chlorococcum reproduced in these vacuoles and up to eight daughter cells were found within the same vacuole. We suggest that the graded or scant distribution of chlorococci in the various brown hydra, their inability to live in H. viridis and the inability of the various chlorellae to live in brown hydra are the

  3. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 2, User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.; Lessor, D.L.

    1987-09-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite-difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum incorporate directional porosities and permeabilities that are available to model solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated methods are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume 1 - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. This volume, Volume 2 - User's Manual, contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a sample problem. The final volume, Volume 3 - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. 6 refs.

  4. NMFS Fishery-Independent Survey System (FINSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishery Independent Survey System (FINSS) is a national system that characterizes NMFS ocean observation activities, stock and ecosystem data collections during...

  5. Bringing ATLAS production to HPC resources - A use case with the Hydra supercomputer of the Max Planck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J. A.; Kluth, S.; Mazzaferro, L.; Walker, Rodney

    2015-12-01

    The possible usage of HPC resources by ATLAS is now becoming viable due to the changing nature of these systems and it is also very attractive due to the need for increasing amounts of simulated data. In recent years the architecture of HPC systems has evolved, moving away from specialized monolithic systems, to a more generic linux type platform. This change means that the deployment of non HPC specific codes has become much easier. The timing of this evolution perfectly suits the needs of ATLAS and opens a new window of opportunity. The ATLAS experiment at CERN will begin a period of high luminosity data taking in 2015. This high luminosity phase will be accompanied by a need for increasing amounts of simulated data which is expected to exceed the capabilities of the current Grid infrastructure. ATLAS aims to address this need by opportunistically accessing resources such as cloud and HPC systems. This paper presents the results of a pilot project undertaken by ATLAS and the MPP/RZG to provide access to the HYDRA supercomputer facility. Hydra is the supercomputer of the Max Planck Society, it is a linux based supercomputer with over 80000 cores and 4000 physical nodes located at the RZG near Munich. This paper describes the work undertaken to integrate Hydra into the ATLAS production system by using the Nordugrid ARC-CE and other standard Grid components. The customization of these components and the strategies for HPC usage are discussed as well as possibilities for future directions.

  6. HydraPower out to make a big bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Revill, John

    2006-01-01

    "An engineering company has provided equipment for a £1.3 billion international project to recreate the conditions of the 'Big Bang". Garry Williams, technical director of hydraPower dynamics, has been asked to return to Switzerland by CERN."

  7. Hydra as a model organism to decipher the toxic effects of copper oxide nanorod: Eco-toxicogenomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugadas, Anbazhagan; Zeeshan, Mohammed; Thamaraiselvi, Kaliannan; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a powerful field of applied research. However, the potential toxicity of nano-materials is a cause of concern. A thorough toxicological investigation is required before a nanomaterial is evaluated for application of any kind. In this context, there is concerted effort to find appropriate test systems to assess the toxicity of nanomaterials. Toxicity of a nanomaterial greatly depends on its physicochemical properties and the biological system with which it interacts. The present research was carried out with a view to generate data on eco-toxicological impacts of copper oxide nanorod (CuO NR) in Hydra magnipapillata 105 at organismal, cellular and molecular levels. Exposure of hydra to CuO NR resulted in severe morphological alterations in a concentration- as well as duration-dependent manner. Impairment of feeding, population growth, and regeneration was also observed. In vivo and in vitro analyses revealed induction of oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and molecular machinery of apoptotic cell death, accompanied by disruption of cell cycle progression. Taken together, CuO nanorod is potentially toxic to the biological systems. Also, hydra offers potential to be used as a convenient model organism for aquatic ecotoxicological risk assessment of nanomaterials.

  8. Hydra as a model organism to decipher the toxic effects of copper oxide nanorod: Eco-toxicogenomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugadas, Anbazhagan; Zeeshan, Mohammed; Thamaraiselvi, Kaliannan; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a powerful field of applied research. However, the potential toxicity of nano-materials is a cause of concern. A thorough toxicological investigation is required before a nanomaterial is evaluated for application of any kind. In this context, there is concerted effort to find appropriate test systems to assess the toxicity of nanomaterials. Toxicity of a nanomaterial greatly depends on its physicochemical properties and the biological system with which it interacts. The present research was carried out with a view to generate data on eco-toxicological impacts of copper oxide nanorod (CuO NR) in Hydra magnipapillata 105 at organismal, cellular and molecular levels. Exposure of hydra to CuO NR resulted in severe morphological alterations in a concentration- as well as duration-dependent manner. Impairment of feeding, population growth, and regeneration was also observed. In vivo and in vitro analyses revealed induction of oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and molecular machinery of apoptotic cell death, accompanied by disruption of cell cycle progression. Taken together, CuO nanorod is potentially toxic to the biological systems. Also, hydra offers potential to be used as a convenient model organism for aquatic ecotoxicological risk assessment of nanomaterials. PMID:27417574

  9. National Wildlife Refuge System Survey Protocol Template

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This template was developed for drafting National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) Survey Protocols. The template is arranged in the same order as the eight basic...

  10. Discovery of very high velocity outflow in V Hydra - Wind from an accretion disk in a binary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Wannier, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution observations of lines from the CO v = 1-0 vibration-rotation band at 4.6 microns, taken with the FTS/KPNO 4-m telescope, are reported for the carbon-rich red giant V Hydra, which is surrounded by an extended expanding molecular envelope resulting from extensive mass loss. The spectrum shows, in addition to the expected absorption at the outflow velocity of the envelope, absorption extending up to 120 km/s bluewards of the stellar velocity. A comparison of the spectrum observed at two epochs shows that the high-velocity absorption features change with time. It is suggested that the observed high-velocity features in V Hydra arise in a high-velocity polar outflow from an accretion disk in a binary system, as proposed in the mass-loss model for bipolar envelopes by Morris (1988).

  11. Survey of Electronic Payment Methods and Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Helme, Arne

    1996-01-01

    In this paper an overview of electronic payment methods and systems is given. This survey is done as part of the Moby Dick project. Electronic payment systems can be grouped into three broad classes: traditional money transactions, digital currency and creditdebit payments. Such payment systems have

  12. Canadian Library Integrated Systems: Second Annual Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilees, Bobbie

    1988-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey of the Canadian integrated library systems market. The analysis includes comparisons of large versus microcomputer-based installations by type of library and across all libraries, foreign sales by Canadian vendors, and trends in the library systems market. (CLB)

  13. Hydra: software for tailored processing of H/D exchange data from MS or tandem MS analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Melissa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS experiments implemented to characterize protein interaction and protein folding generate large quantities of data. Organizing, processing and visualizing data requires an automated solution, particularly when accommodating new tandem mass spectrometry modes for H/DX measurement. We sought to develop software that offers flexibility in defining workflows so as to support exploratory treatments of H/DX-MS data, with a particular focus on the analysis of very large protein systems and the mining of tandem mass spectrometry data. Results We present a software package ("Hydra" that supports both traditional and exploratory treatments of H/DX-MS data. Hydra's software architecture tolerates flexible data analysis procedures by allowing the addition of new algorithms without significant change to the underlying code base. Convenient user interfaces ease the organization of raw data files and input of peptide data. After executing a user-defined workflow, extracted deuterium incorporation values can be visualized in tabular and graphical formats. Hydra also automates the extraction and visualization of deuterium distribution values. Manual validation and assessment of results is aided by an interface that aligns extracted ion chromatograms and mass spectra, while providing a means of rapidly reprocessing the data following manual adjustment. A unique feature of Hydra is the automated processing of tandem mass spectrometry data, demonstrated on a large test data set in which 40,000 deuterium incorporation values were extracted from replicate analysis of approximately 1000 fragment ions in one hour using a typical PC. Conclusion The customizable workflows and user-friendly interfaces of Hydra removes a significant bottleneck in processing and visualizing H/DX-MS data and helps the researcher spend more time executing new experiments and interpreting results. This increased

  14. An EUV Study of the Intermediate Polar EX Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Belle, K E; Sirk, M; Huber, M E; Belle, Kunegunda E.; Howell, Steve B.; Sirk, Martin; Huber, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    On 2000 May 5, we began a large multi-wavelength campaign to study the intermediate polar, EX Hydrae. The simultaneous observations from six satellites and four telescopes were centered around a one million second observation with EUVE. Although EX Hydrae has been studied previously with EUVE, our higher signal-to-noise observations present new results and challenge the current IP models. Previously unseen dips in the light curve are reminiscent of the stream dips seen in polar light curves. Also of interest is the temporal extent of the bulge dip; approximately 0.5 in phase, implying that the bulge extends over half of the accretion disk. We propose that the magnetic field in EX Hydrae is strong enough (a few MG) to begin pulling material directly from the outer edge of the disk, thereby forming a large accretion curtain which would produce a very broad bulge dip. This would also result in magnetically controlled accretion streams originating from the outer edge of the disk. We also present a period analysis...

  15. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Joseph J.; /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept. /Illinois U., Urbana; Barkhouse, Wayne; /North Dakota U.; Beldica, Cristina; /Illinois U., Urbana; Bertin, Emmanuel; /Paris, Inst. Astrophys.; Dora Cai, Y.; /NCSA, Urbana; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz A.; /Rio de Janeiro Observ.; Darnell, J.Anthony; /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.; Daues, Gregory E.; /NCSA, Urbana; Jarvis, Michael; /Pennsylvania U.; Gower, Michelle; /NCSA, Urbana; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab /Rio de Janeiro Observ.

    2008-07-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration will study cosmic acceleration with a 5000 deg2 griZY survey in the southern sky over 525 nights from 2011-2016. The DES data management (DESDM) system will be used to process and archive these data and the resulting science ready data products. The DESDM system consists of an integrated archive, a processing framework, an ensemble of astronomy codes and a data access framework. We are developing the DESDM system for operation in the high performance computing (HPC) environments at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and Fermilab. Operating the DESDM system in an HPC environment offers both speed and flexibility. We will employ it for our regular nightly processing needs, and for more compute-intensive tasks such as large scale image coaddition campaigns, extraction of weak lensing shear from the full survey dataset, and massive seasonal reprocessing of the DES data. Data products will be available to the Collaboration and later to the public through a virtual-observatory compatible web portal. Our approach leverages investments in publicly available HPC systems, greatly reducing hardware and maintenance costs to the project, which must deploy and maintain only the storage, database platforms and orchestration and web portal nodes that are specific to DESDM. In Fall 2007, we tested the current DESDM system on both simulated and real survey data. We used TeraGrid to process 10 simulated DES nights (3TB of raw data), ingesting and calibrating approximately 250 million objects into the DES Archive database. We also used DESDM to process and calibrate over 50 nights of survey data acquired with the Mosaic2 camera. Comparison to truth tables in the case of the simulated data and internal crosschecks in the case of the real data indicate that astrometric and photometric data quality is excellent.

  16. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  17. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Joseph J; Beldica, Cristina; Bertin, Emmanuel; Cai, Y Dora; da Costa, Luiz; Darnell, J Anthony; Daues, Gregory E; Jarvis, Michael; Gower, Michelle; Lin, Huan; Martelli, leandro; Neilsen, Eric; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Ogando, Ricardo; Parga, Alex; Sheldon, Erin; Tucker, Douglas; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Stoughton, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey collaboration will study cosmic acceleration with a 5000 deg2 griZY survey in the southern sky over 525 nights from 2011-2016. The DES data management (DESDM) system will be used to process and archive these data and the resulting science ready data products. The DESDM system consists of an integrated archive, a processing framework, an ensemble of astronomy codes and a data access framework. We are developing the DESDM system for operation in the high performance computing (HPC) environments at NCSA and Fermilab. Operating the DESDM system in an HPC environment offers both speed and flexibility. We will employ it for our regular nightly processing needs, and for more compute-intensive tasks such as large scale image coaddition campaigns, extraction of weak lensing shear from the full survey dataset, and massive seasonal reprocessing of the DES data. Data products will be available to the Collaboration and later to the public through a virtual-observatory compatible web portal. Our appr...

  18. A Survey of Phase Change Memory Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏飞; 蒋德钧; 熊劲; 孙凝晖

    2015-01-01

    As the scaling of applications increases, the demand of main memory capacity increases in order to serve large working set. It is difficult for DRAM (dynamic random access memory) based memory system to satisfy the memory capacity requirement due to its limited scalability and high energy consumption. Compared to DRAM, PCM (phase change memory) has better scalability, lower energy leakage, and non-volatility. PCM memory systems have become a hot topic of academic and industrial research. However, PCM technology has the following three drawbacks: long write latency, limited write endurance, and high write energy, which raises challenges to its adoption in practice. This paper surveys architectural research work to optimize PCM memory systems. First, this paper introduces the background of PCM. Then, it surveys research efforts on PCM memory systems in performance optimization, lifetime improving, and energy saving in detail, respectively. This paper also compares and summarizes these techniques from multiple dimensions. Finally, it concludes these optimization techniques and discusses possible research directions of PCM memory systems in future.

  19. Whole-building systems integration laboratory survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawley, D.B. (American Consulting Engineers Council, Washington, DC (USA). Research and Management Foundation)

    1989-09-01

    This report was prepared for the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as a subcontracted activity by the Research Management Foundation of the American Consulting Engineers Council. The objective of the survey reported herein was to independently assess the need for a Building System Integration Laboratory from the viewpoint of academicians in the field of building science. The subcontractor-developed questionnaire was sent to 200 professors of architecture and engineering at US universities. In view of this diverse population, the 10% rate of return on the questionnaire was considered acceptable. Although the responses probably do not reflect an unbiased summary of the collective perceptions of the original population surveyed, they do provide a valid insight into the interests and concerns of the academic community with respect to building sciences issues.

  20. Hospital information system survey in qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Rashid; Reti, Shane; Feldman, Henry; Safran, Charles; Niaz, Rashid; Erskine, Alistair; Elmagarmid, Ahmed; Al-Musleh, Abdulwahab

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare can be enhanced by the effective use of information technology to improve the quality and safety of care and many healthcare providers are adopting advanced health information technology to improve their healthcare delivery process. Qatar is a relatively young Middle Eastern country with an ambitious and progressive national strategy to develop its healthcare system, including an advanced e-health infrastructure delivering the right medical information at the right time to clinicians and patients. To assess the effectiveness of such programs, it is important to have a pre-intervention baseline from which comparisons, performance against target measures and forward thinking strategic planning can be grounded. This study presents the first published campus wide survey of Hospital Information Systems in large public and private hospitals in Qatar. To qualitatively assess and describe the current state of Hospital Information Systems in large hospitals in Qatar, and to establish a baseline or reference point for Qatar's readiness for, and adoption of Hospital Information Systems.

  1. 水螅的替代食物筛选%Selection of substitute food for hydra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方小龙; 董卫兵; 喻飞; 陈百香; 丁冉; 胡好远

    2011-01-01

    Food is always scarce when hydra was cultured. In this article , in order to obtain the substituting food for hydra, the feeding behaviors of hydra were compared. The results showed that hydra could catch meats of earthworm, shrimp, fish, chicken, beef and pork. There was no significant difference in the frequency when hydra caught those foods. But the eating frequencies of hydra to those foods were significantly different. Hydra prefers shrimp meat. When the food is scare during culture , the shrimp meat might be selected as a substituting food.%在水螅的培养中,常出现食物缺乏.为了获得替代食物,比较水螅对一些常见肉类的捕食行为.结果表明,水螅对蚯蚓肉、虾肉、鱼肉、鸡肉、牛肉和猪肉均能捕捉,对各食物的捕捉比例无显著差异;但水螅对食物的摄食比例在食物类型间存在显著差异,对虾肉较为偏好.可选择虾肉作为培养时的替代食物.

  2. Ultraviolet irradiation initiates ectopic foot formation in regenerating hydra and promotes budding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saroj S Ghaskadbi; Leena Shetye; Shashi Chiplonkar; Surendra Ghaskadbi

    2005-03-01

    We have studied the effects of ultraviolet-C (UVC) and Ultraviolet-B (UVB) on growth and pattern formation in Pelmatohydra oligactis. UVC brings about a significant increase in budding in intact hydra while UVB does not exhibit such an effect. Excessive budding could be a response for survival at wavelengths that damage biological tissues. If the head or base piece of a bisected hydra is irradiated and recombined with the unirradiated missing part, regeneration proceeds normally indicating that exposure of a body part with either an intact head or foot to UVC does not influence pattern formation. Most significantly, in the middle piece, but not in the head or the base piece of a trisected hydra, UVC leads to initiation of ectopic feet formation in almost one third of the cases. Thus, UV irradiation interferes with pattern formation in regenerating hydra, possibly by changing positional values, and promotes budding in intact hydra. This is the first report on induction of ectopic feet formation by UV in regenerating hydra and opens up the possibility of using UV irradiation as a tool to understand pattern formation in the enigmatic hydra.

  3. Suzaku Observations of the Hydra A Cluster out to the Virial Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Sasaki, Toru; Matsushita, Kyoko; Sakuma, Eri; Sato, Kosuke; Fujita, Yutaka; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ichikawa, Kazuya; Kawaharada, Madoka; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Ohashi, Takaya; Ota, Naomi; Takizawa, Motokazu; Tamura, Takayuki

    2012-10-01

    We report on Suzaku observations of the northern half of the Hydra A cluster out to ˜ 1.4 Mpc, reaching the virial radius. There are the first Suzaku observations of a medium-size (kT ˜ 3 keV) cluster out to the virial radius. Two observations were conducted, north-west and north-east offsets, which continue in a filament direction and a void direction of the large-scale structure of the Universe, respectively. The X-ray emission and distribution of galaxies elongate in the filament direction. The temperature profiles in the two directions are mostly consistent with each other within the error bars, and drop to 1.5 keV at 1.5 r500 . As observed by Suzaku in hot clusters, the entropy profile becomes flatter beyond r500 , in disagreement with the r1.1 relationship, which is expected from accretion shock heating models. When scaled with the average intracluster medium (ICM) temperature, the entropy profiles of clusters observed with Suzaku are universal, and do not depend on the system mass. The hydrostatic mass values in the void and filament directions are in good agreement, and the Navarro, Frenk, and White universal mass profile represents the hydrostatic mass distribution up to ˜ 2r500 . Beyond r500 , the ratio of the gas mass to the hydrostatic mass exceeds the result of the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe, and at r100 , these ratios in the filament and void directions reach 0.4 and 0.3, respectively. We discuss possible deviations from the hydrostatic equilibrium at cluster outskirts. We derived radial profiles of the gas-mass-to-light ratio and the iron-mass-to-light ratio out to the virial radius. Within r500 , the iron-mass-to-light ratio of the Hydra A cluster was compared with those in other clusters observed with Suzaku.

  4. Toxaphene affects the levels of mRNA transcripts that encode antioxidant enzymes in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seonock; Lee, Aekyung; Won, Hyokyoung; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Yum, Seungshic

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated toxaphene-induced acute toxicity in Hydra magnipapillata. The median lethal concentrations of the animals (LC(50)) were determined to be 34.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L and 12.0 mg/L after exposure to toxaphene for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Morphological responses of hydra polyps to a range of toxaphene concentrations suggested that toxaphene negatively affects the nervous system of H. magnipapillata. We used real-time quantitative PCR of RNA extracted from polyps exposed to two concentrations of toxaphene (0.3 mg/L and 3 mg/L) for 24 h to evaluate the differential regulation of levels of transcripts that encode six antioxidant enzymes (CAT, G6PD, GPx, GR, GST and SOD), two proteins involved in detoxification and molecular stress responses (CYP1A and UB), and two proteins involved in neurotransmission and nerve cell differentiation (AChE and Hym-355). Of the genes involved in antioxidant responses, the most striking changes were observed for transcripts that encode GPx, G6PD, SOD, CAT and GST, with no evident change in levels of transcripts encoding GR. Levels of UB and CYP1A transcripts increased in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to toxaphene. Given that toxaphene-induced neurotoxicity was not reflected in the level of AChE transcripts and only slight accumulation of Hym-355 transcript was observed only at the higher of the two doses of toxaphene tested, there remains a need to identify transcriptional biomarkers for toxaphene-mediated neurotoxicity in H. magnipapillata. Transcripts that respond to toxaphene exposure could be valuable biomarkers for stress levels in H. magnipapillata and may be useful for monitoring the pollution of aquatic environments.

  5. Floating attenuator wave energy device: Wavegen HYDRA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research funded by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) into the feasibility of developing and constructing a floating attenuator wave energy device known as HYDRA following initial studies by Wavegen. HYDRA is a floating externally tensioned articulated raft wave energy generator based on work by Professor FJM Farley and colleagues during the 1980s. The project's first four work tasks confirmed the theoretical potential of the device but also highlighted significant practical problems in translating that potential into a viable design. It was therefore decided not to proceed further, i.e. not to construct and test a prototype device. The report provides a general description of the device and describes the results of the initial analysis and the first series of model tests. It then discusses device design and component testing and explains the methodology for determining device performance at a particular site and mathematical modelling of a one-third scale device. To help future research and development programmes, the report emphasises the generic problems associated with the development of wave devices.

  6. The 2006-2007 Observing Campaign On VX Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Samolyk, G.; Dvorak, S.; Poklar, R.; Butterworth, N.; Gerner, H. S.

    2009-12-01

    We present the results of the 2006-2007 observing campaign on the double-mode delta Scuti star VX Hydrae. Nearly 8800 V-band CCD observations were obtained during the two observing seasons. Although the data were taken with small telescopes (0.3-m or less, using consumer-grade CCD cameras), the data quality is very high, enabling the detection of variability at the millimagnitude level at some frequencies. Analysis of the data yields only two primary pulsation frequencies: f(0) = 4.4765 c/d, and f(1) = 5.7899 c/d. The two modes have comparable amplitude, although the amplitude of f(1) appears to have increased slightly from 2006 to 2007 by 0.01 mag. Only two pulsation modes are detected, but at least 18 additional linear combination frequencies are also clearly detected, some having amplitudes as low as 1 mmag, resulting in an incredibly rich Fourier spectrum. We discuss the evidence for amplitude variation in VX Hydrae, along with prospects for future study of this and other similar delta Scuti stars by AAVSO observers.

  7. Biometric and statistical investigations on the cnidoma of the genus Hydra (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Deserti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals about the nematocysts like a source of biometric information for comparison between the species Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766, Hydra vulgaris pedunculata Deserti et al., 2011 and Hydra pseudoligactis (Hyman, 1931. This biometric tool lets us carry out statistical comparisons and adding these results to the identification of specimens from different classificatory groups. In this particular study, we obtained significant differences between species, individuals of each species and nematocysts type when compared the biometry of its nematocysts. Another result was the variation in of particular nematocysts, like atrichous isorhiza and holotrichous isorhiza for the species H. vulgaris in relation to the column size.

  8. Hydra phantom applicability for carrying out tests of field uniformity in gamma cameras; Aplicabilidade do fantoma hydra para realizacao dos testes de uniformidade de campo em gama camaras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Filho, Geraldo L., E-mail: geraldo_lemos10@hotmail.com [Centro de Medicina Nuclear de Pernambuco (CEMUPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Oliveira, Alex C.H., E-mail: oliveira_ach@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand J.; Vieira, Jose W., E-mail: ferdinand.lopes@oi.com.br, E-mail: jose-wilson59@live.com [Instituto Federal de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical modality that makes use of radioactive material 'in vivo' in humans, making them a temporary radioactive source. The radiation emitted by the patient's body is detected by a specific equipment, called a gamma camera, creates an image showing the spatial and temporal biodistribution of radioactive material administered to the patient. Therefore, it's of fundamental importance a number of specific measures to make sure that procedure be satisfactory, called quality control. To Nuclear Medicine, quality control of gamma camera has the purpose of ensuring accurate scintillographic imaging, truthful and reliable for the diagnosis, guaranteeing visibility and clarity of details of structures, and also to determine the frequency and the need for preventive maintenance of equipment. To ensure the quality control of the gamma camera it's necessary to use some simulators, called phantom, used in Nuclear Medicine to evaluate system performance, system calibration and simulation of injuries. The goal of this study was to validate a new simulator for nuclear medicine, the Hydra phantom. The phantom was initially built for construction of calibration curves used in radiotherapy planning and quality control in CT. It has similar characteristics to specific phantoms in nuclear medicine, containing inserts and water area. Those inserts are regionally sourced materials, many of them are already used in the literature and based on information about density and interaction of radiation with matter. To verify its efficiency in quality control in Nuclear Medicine, was performed a test for uniformity field, one of the main tests performed daily, so we can verify the ability of the gamma camera to reproduce a uniform distribution of the administered activity in the phantom, been analysed qualitatively, through the image, and quantitatively, through values established for Central Field Of View (CFOV) and Useful Field Of View (UFOV

  9. A Survey on Graphical Programming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudatt Kulkarni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been an increasing interest in the use of graphics to help programming and understanding of computer systems. The Graphical Programming and Program Simulations are exciting areas of active computer science research that show the signs for improving the programming process. An array of different design methodologie s have arisen from research efforts and many graphical programming systems have been developed to address both general programming tasks and specific application areas such as physical simulation and user interface design. This paper presents a survey of t he field of graphical programming languages starting with a historical overview of some of pioneering efforts in the field. In addition this paper also presents different classifications of graphical programming languages.

  10. The Nearest Isolated Member of the TW Hydrae Association is a Giant Planet Analog

    CERN Document Server

    Kellogg, Kendra; Gagne, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    In a recent search for unusually red L and T dwarfs, we identified 2MASS J11193254-1137466 as a likely young L7 dwarf and potential member of the TW Hydrae association. We present spectra that confirm the youth of this object. We also measure a radial velocity of 8.5 +/- 3.3 km/s that, together with the sky position, proper motion and photometric distance, results in a 92% probability of membership in the TW Hydrae association, with a calibrated field contamination probability of 0.0005% using the BANYAN II tool. Using the age of TW Hydrae and the luminosity of 2MASS J11193254-1137466, we estimate its mass to be 4.3--7.6 MJup. It is the lowest-mass and nearest isolated member of TW Hydrae at a kinematic distance of 28.9 +/- 3.6 pc, and the second-brightest isolated <10 MJup object discovered to date.

  11. Loss of neurogenesis in Hydra leads to compensatory regulation of neurogenic and neurotransmission genes in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Y; Buzgariu, W; Galliot, B

    2016-01-05

    Hydra continuously differentiates a sophisticated nervous system made of mechanosensory cells (nematocytes) and sensory-motor and ganglionic neurons from interstitial stem cells. However, this dynamic adult neurogenesis is dispensable for morphogenesis. Indeed animals depleted of their interstitial stem cells and interstitial progenitors lose their active behaviours but maintain their developmental fitness, and regenerate and bud when force-fed. To characterize the impact of the loss of neurogenesis in Hydra, we first performed transcriptomic profiling at five positions along the body axis. We found neurogenic genes predominantly expressed along the central body column, which contains stem cells and progenitors, and neurotransmission genes predominantly expressed at the extremities, where the nervous system is dense. Next, we performed transcriptomics on animals depleted of their interstitial cells by hydroxyurea, colchicine or heat-shock treatment. By crossing these results with cell-type-specific transcriptomics, we identified epithelial genes up-regulated upon loss of neurogenesis: transcription factors (Dlx, Dlx1, DMBX1/Manacle, Ets1, Gli3, KLF11, LMX1A, ZNF436, Shox1), epitheliopeptides (Arminins, PW peptide), neurosignalling components (CAMK1D, DDCl2, Inx1), ligand-ion channel receptors (CHRNA1, NaC7), G-Protein Coupled Receptors and FMRFRL. Hence epitheliomuscular cells seemingly enhance their sensing ability when neurogenesis is compromised. This unsuspected plasticity might reflect the extended multifunctionality of epithelial-like cells in early eumetazoan evolution.

  12. Public Land Survey System - Sections on USDA Forest Service Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This feature class depicts the boundaries of Land Survey features called sections, defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a...

  13. Solar technology applications: a survey of solar powered irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1978-04-17

    Published information on solar powered irrigation systems is presented. Thermal solar systems, thermoelectric solar systems, and photovoltaic solar systems are included. A bibliography and survey of on-going work is presented. (WHK)

  14. Modifications to hydra-gym equipment provide for clinically useful strength measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, M S; Lovely, D F; McInnis, M D; Sexsmith, J R

    1994-04-01

    Modifications were made to the Series III-311 Omnikinetic Hydra-Gym apparatus (Hydra-Fitness Industries Inc., Belton, TX) in an effort to provide relatively inexpensive yet clinically useful isokinetic strength measurements. Signal transmission and processing functions were installed to calculate relevant strength characteristics for knee extension/flexion motions. Results from the modified Hydra-Gym were compared with matched procedures on the Kin-Com (model 500-10, Chattecx Corporation, Chattanooga, TN). Subjects (N = 10) performed three maximal concentric right knee extension/flexion cycles at different resistance settings (2, 4, and 6) on the Hydra-Gym and the corresponding angular velocities on the Kin-Com (190, 125, and 40 degrees/sec, respectively). Each subject completed eight testing sessions, four on each dynamometer. A five-way analysis of variance on the peak torque data revealed no significant difference between dynamometers; however, there was a significant interaction between dynamometer and extension/flexion measurements. The variance in angle of peak torque data was significantly different between dynamometers, with Hydra-Gym showing superior reproducibility (p Gym because the interaction noticed between dynamometer and extension/flexion may exaggerate muscle imbalances. In summary, modifications to the Hydra-Gym appear to provide clinicians with a reliable and clinically useful strength testing alternative.

  15. Evidence That Hydra I is a Tidally Disrupting Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Hargis, Jonathan R; Willman, B; Caldwell, N; Walker, M G; Strader, J; Sand, D J; Grillmair, C J; Yoon, J H

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern Banded Structure (EBS) and Hydra~I halo overdensity are very nearby (d $\\sim$ 10 kpc) objects discovered in SDSS data. Previous studies of the region have shown that EBS and Hydra I are spatially coincident, cold structures at the same distance, suggesting that Hydra I may be the EBS's progenitor. We combine new wide-field DECam imaging and MMT/Hectochelle spectroscopic observations of Hydra I with SDSS archival spectroscopic observations to quantify Hydra I's present-day chemodynamical properties, and to infer whether it originated as a star cluster or dwarf galaxy. While previous work using shallow SDSS imaging assumed a standard old, metal-poor stellar population, our deeper DECam imaging reveals that Hydra~I has a thin, well-defined main sequence turnoff of intermediate age ($\\sim 5-6$ Gyr) and metallicity ([Fe/H] = $-0.9$ dex). We measure statistically significant spreads in both the iron and alpha-element abundances of $\\sigma_{[Fe/H]} = 0.13 \\pm 0.02$ dex and $\\sigma_{[\\alpha/{\\rm Fe}]} = 0...

  16. Environmental challenges improve resource utilization for asexual reproduction and maintenance in hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Ralf; Ringelhan, Felix; Kramer, Boris H; Miethe, Tanja

    2011-10-01

    Variation in life history can reflect genetic differences, and may be caused by environmental effects on phenotypes. Understanding how these two sources of life history variation interact to express an optimal allocation of resources in a changing environment is central to life history theory. This study addresses variation in the allocation of resources to asexual reproduction and to maintenance of Hydra magnipapillata in relation to differences in temperature and food availability. Hydra is a non-senescent, persistent species with primarily clonal reproduction. We recorded changes in budding rate and mean survival under starvation, which indicate changes in the allocation of resources to asexual reproduction and maintenance. In constant conditions we observed a clear trade-off between asexual reproduction and maintenance, where budding increased linearly with food intake while starvation survival stayed rather constant. In contrast, an environment with fluctuations in temperature or food availability promotes maintenance and increases the survival chances of hydra under starvation. Surprisingly, asexual reproduction also tends to be positively affected by fluctuating environmental conditions, which suggests that in this case there is no clear trade-off between asexual reproduction and maintenance in hydra. Environmental stresses have a beneficial impact on the fitness-related phenotypical traits of the basal metazoan hydra. The results indicate that, if the stress occurs in hormetic doses, variable stressful and fluctuating environments can be salutary for hydra. A closer examination of this dynamic can therefore enable us to develop a deeper understanding of the evolution of aging and longevity.

  17. Hydratools, a MATLAB® based data processing package for Sontek Hydra data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M.; Lightsom, F.L.; Sherwood, C.R.; Xu, Jie; Lacy, J.R.; Ramsey, A.; Horwitz, R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a set of MATLAB tools to process and convert data collected by Sontek Hydra instruments to netCDF, which is a format used by the USGS to process and archive oceanographic time-series data. The USGS makes high-resolution current measurements within 1.5 meters of the bottom. These data are used in combination with other instrument data from sediment transport studies to develop sediment transport models. Instrument manufacturers provide software which outputs unique binary data formats. Multiple data formats are cumbersome. The USGS solution is to translate data streams into a common data format: netCDF. The Hydratools toolbox is written to create netCDF format files following EPIC conventions, complete with embedded metadata. Data are accepted from both the ADV and the PCADP. The toolbox will detect and remove bad data, substitute other sources of heading and tilt measurements if necessary, apply ambiguity corrections, calculate statistics, return information about data quality, and organize metadata. Standardized processing and archiving makes these data more easily and routinely accessible locally and over the Internet. In addition, documentation of the techniques used in the toolbox provides a baseline reference for others utilizing the data.

  18. Survey of remote data monitoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logee, T.L.; Kendall, P.W.; Pollock, E.O.; Raymond, M.G.; Knapp, R.C. Jr.

    1984-09-01

    A self-contained data-logger device called an SDAS (Site Data Acquisition Subsystem) was built for the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) which could collect analog data from 96 channels, store the data for up to three days, and then transmit the stored data on request to a central facility by voice-grade telephone lines. This system has worked fairly well for the eight years that it has been in service. However, the design and components are getting old and newer dataloggers may be more reliable and accurate and less expensive. This report discusses the results of an extensive search for an SDAS replacement. The survey covered 62 models from 36 manufacturers. These numbers are not indicative of all the dataloggers or manufacturers available, but only those which appeared to have some qualifications for the NSDN datalogger replacement. This report views the datalogger as a system which is made up of sensors, a data acquisition and storage unit, a telecommunications subsystem, and a data processing subsystem. Therefore, there is a section on sensors used in the NSDN, telecommunications technology, and data processing requirements. These four components or subsystems are all necessary in order to have an integrated, successful remote data monitoring network.

  19. Bringing ATLAS production to HPC resources. A case study with SuperMuc and Hydra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckeck, Guenter; Walker, Rodney [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Kennedy, John; Mazzaferro, Luca [RZG Garching (Germany); Kluth, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The possible usage of Supercomputer systems or HPC resources by ATLAS is now becoming viable due to the changing nature of these systems and it is also very attractive due to the need for increasing amounts of simulated data. The ATLAS experiment at CERN will begin a period of high luminosity data taking in 2015. The corresponding need for simulated data might potentially exceed the capabilities of the current Grid infrastructure. ATLAS aims to address this need by opportunistically accessing resources such as cloud and HPC systems. This contribution presents the results of two projects undertaken by LMU/LRZ and MPP/RZG to use the supercomputer facilities SuperMuc (LRZ) and Hydra (RZG). Both are Linux based supercomputers in the 100 k CPU-core category. The integration of such HPC resources into the ATLAS production system poses many challenges. Firstly, established techniques and features of standard WLCG operation are prohibited or much restricted on HPC systems, e.g. Grid middleware, software installation, outside connectivity, etc. Secondly, efficient use of available resources requires massive multi-core jobs, back-fill submission and check-pointing. We discuss the customization of these components and the strategies for HPC usage as well as possibilities for future directions.

  20. Assessing the ESSENCE Biosurveillance System: Results of a User Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ESSENCE BIOSURVEILLANCE SYSTEM: RESULTS OF A USER SURVEY by Randi M. Korman March 2011 Thesis Advisor: Ron Fricker Second Reader: James...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Assessing the ESSENCE Biosurveillance System: Results of a User Survey 6. AUTHOR(S) Randi M. Korman 5... Biosurveillance , ESSENCE, NMPHC, Surveillance System, Survey 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY

  1. Supernova survey system in Beijing Astronomical Observatory (Ⅰ)——Facilities of survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘予雷; 李卫东; 赵昭旺; 乔琪源; 饶勇; 胡景耀; 李启斌

    1999-01-01

    The robotic supernova survey system of Beijing Astronomical Observatory (BAO) is based on the 60-cm telescope of BAO, which includes a CCD camera attached to the prime focus and a software system for facility control and image reduction.

  2. Three homologous subunits form a high affinity peptide-gated ion channel in Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dürrnagel, Stefan; Kuhn, Anne; Tsiairis, Charisios D

    2010-01-01

    properties, like a low Na(+) selectivity and a low amiloride affinity, that are different from other channels of the DEG/ENaC gene family, suggesting that a component of the native Hydra channel might still be lacking. Here, we report the cloning of a new ion channel subunit from Hydra, HyNaC5. The new......Recently, three ion channel subunits of the degenerin (DEG)/epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) gene family have been cloned from the freshwater polyp Hydra magnipapillata, the Hydra Na(+) channels (HyNaCs) 2-4. Two of them, HyNaC2 and HyNaC3, co-assemble to form an ion channel that is gated...... by the neuropeptides Hydra-RFamides I and II. The HyNaC2/3 channel is so far the only cloned ionotropic receptor from cnidarians and, together with the related ionotropic receptor FMRFamide-activated Na(+) channel (FaNaC) from snails, the only known peptide-gated ionotropic receptor. The HyNaC2/3 channel has pore...

  3. Development and population growth of Hydra viridissima Pallas, 1766 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FC. Massaro

    Full Text Available Hydras, the most representative freshwater Cnidaria, are of common occurrence in bodies of water in every continent except Antarctica. This study was planned with the aim of maintaining a population of Hydra viridissima in laboratory culture to enable the determination of the individual and population growth-rates of this species, as well as its population doubling time and generation time, with a view to employing these common animals as test-organisms in ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were maintained in reconstituted water at 20 ± 2 °C, illuminated at 800 lux with a photoperiod of 12 hours light: 12 hours dark, and were fed on neonates of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii (3 or 4 neonates per hydra, 3 times a week. The individual growth-rate (k of the species was 0.43, the maximum length of the column 2.53 mm and the generation time 6.6 ± 1.5 days on average. The hydra population showed an intrinsic growth-rate (r of 0.0468, according to the fitted curve, and a doubling time of 14.8 ± 2.63 days. Hydra viridissima is easy to grow in the laboratory and performs well in the conditions used in this study. It is thus a promising candidate test-organism for ecotoxicological studies.

  4. Development and population growth of Hydra viridissima Pallas, 1766 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, F C; Rocha, O

    2008-05-01

    Hydras, the most representative freshwater Cnidaria, are of common occurrence in bodies of water in every continent except Antarctica. This study was planned with the aim of maintaining a population of Hydra viridissima in laboratory culture to enable the determination of the individual and population growth-rates of this species, as well as its population doubling time and generation time, with a view to employing these common animals as test-organisms in ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were maintained in reconstituted water at 20 +/- 2 degrees C, illuminated at 800 lux with a photoperiod of 12 hours light: 12 hours dark, and were fed on neonates of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii (3 or 4 neonates per hydra, 3 times a week). The individual growth-rate (k) of the species was 0.43, the maximum length of the column 2.53 mm and the generation time 6.6 +/- 1.5 days on average. The hydra population showed an intrinsic growth-rate (r) of 0.0468, according to the fitted curve, and a doubling time of 14.8 +/- 2.63 days. Hydra viridissima is easy to grow in the laboratory and performs well in the conditions used in this study. It is thus a promising candidate test-organism for ecotoxicological studies.

  5. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  6. The phosphatidylserine receptor from Hydra is a nuclear protein with potential Fe(II dependent oxygenase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiening Beate

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptotic cell death plays an essential part in embryogenesis, development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis in metazoan animals. The culmination of apoptosis in vivo is the phagocytosis of cellular corpses. One morphological characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis is loss of plasma membrane phospholipid asymmetry and exposure of phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet. Surface exposure of phosphatidylserine is recognised by a specific receptor (phosphatidylserine receptor, PSR and is required for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages and fibroblasts. Results We have cloned the PSR receptor from Hydra in order to investigate its function in this early metazoan. Bioinformatic analysis of the Hydra PSR protein structure revealed the presence of three nuclear localisation signals, an AT-hook like DNA binding motif and a putative 2-oxoglutarate (2OG-and Fe(II-dependent oxygenase activity. All of these features are conserved from human PSR to Hydra PSR. Expression of GFP tagged Hydra PSR in hydra cells revealed clear nuclear localisation. Deletion of one of the three NLS sequences strongly diminished nuclear localisation of the protein. Membrane localisation was never detected. Conclusions Our results suggest that Hydra PSR is a nuclear 2-oxoglutarate (2OG-and Fe(II-dependent oxygenase. This is in contrast with the proposed function of Hydra PSR as a cell surface receptor involved in the recognition of apoptotic cells displaying phosphatidylserine on their surface. The conservation of the protein from Hydra to human infers that our results also apply to PSR from higher animals.

  7. BVRI Photometric and Polarimetric studies of W UMa type Eclipsing Binary FO Hydra

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Vinod; Patel, Manoj K; Srivastava, D C

    2012-01-01

    We present analysis of optical photometric and polarimetric observations of contact binary system FO Hydra (FO Hya). The computed period of the system is 0.469556+/-0.000003 days. An O-C curve analysis indicates an increase in its period by 5.77x10^{-8} day yr^{-1}. The photometric light curves are analyzed using Wilson-Devinney code (WD). The present analysis shows that FO Hya is a B-subtype of W UMa type contact binary. The radii and mass of primary and secondary components are found, respectively, to be R_1 = 1.62+/-0.03 R_sun and R_2 = 0.91+/-0.02 R_sun, and M_1 = 1.31+/-0.07 M_sun and M_2 = 0.31+/-0.11 M_sun. The light curve shape shows small asymmetries around the primary and secondary maxima. This may be due to the presence of dark spots on the components. The polarimetric observations yield average values of its polarization to be 0.18+/-0.03, 0.15+/-0.03, 0.17+/-0.02 and 0.15+/-0.02 per cent in B, V, R and I bands, respectively. These values are appreciably lower than the typical polarization of W UM...

  8. Constraints on the gamma-ray emission from the cluster-scale AGN outburst in the Hydra A galaxy cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    HESS Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Gérard, L.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Hampf, D.; Harris, J.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Krayzel, F.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Ali, M. O.

    2012-09-01

    Context. In some galaxy clusters, powerful active galactic nuclei (AGN) have blown bubbles with cluster scale extent into the ambient medium. The main pressure support of these bubbles is not known to date, but cosmic rays are a viable possibility. For such a scenario copious gamma-ray emission is expected as a tracer of cosmic rays from these systems. Aims: Hydra A, the closest galaxy cluster hosting a cluster scale AGN outburst, located at a redshift of 0.0538, is investigated for being a gamma-ray emitter with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) array and the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). Methods: Data obtained in 20.2 h of dedicated H.E.S.S. observations and 38 months of Fermi-LAT data, gathered by its usual all-sky scanning mode, have been analyzed to search for a gamma-ray signal. Results: No signal has been found in either data set. Upper limits on the gamma-ray flux are derived and are compared to models. These are the first limits on gamma-ray emission ever presented for galaxy clusters hosting cluster scale AGN outbursts. Conclusions: The non-detection of Hydra A in gamma-rays has important implications on the particle populations and physical conditions inside the bubbles in this system. For the case of bubbles mainly supported by hadronic cosmic rays, the most favorable scenario, which involves full mixing between cosmic rays and embedding medium, can be excluded. However, hadronic cosmic rays still remain a viable pressure support agent to sustain the bubbles against the thermal pressure of the ambient medium. The largest population of highly-energetic electrons, which are relevant for inverse-Compton gamma-ray production is found in the youngest inner lobes of Hydra A. The limit on the inverse-Compton gamma-ray flux excludes a magnetic field below half of the equipartition value of 16 μG in the inner lobes.

  9. Hydra-TH User's Manual, Version: LA-CC-11120, Dated: December 1, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christon, Mark A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bakosi, Jozsef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-19

    Hydra-TH is a hybrid finite-element/finite-volume code built using the Hydra toolkit specifically to attack a broad class of incompressible, viscous fluid dynamics problems prevalent in the thermalhydraulics community. The purpose for this manual is provide sufficient information for an experience analyst to use Hydra-TH in an effective way. The Hydra-TH User's Manual present a brief overview of capabilities and visualization interfaces. The execution and restart models are described before turning to the detailed description of keyword input. Finally, a series of example problems are presented with sufficient data to permit the user to verify the local installation of Hydra-TH, and to permit a convenient starting point for more detailed and complex analyses.

  10. The cluster-scale AGN outburst in Hydra A

    CERN Document Server

    Nulsen, P E J; Wise, M W; David, L P

    2004-01-01

    Deep Chandra observations of the Hydra A Cluster reveal a feature in the X-ray surface brightness that surrounds the 330 MHz radio lobes of the AGN at the cluster center. Surface brightness profiles of this feature and its close association with the radio lobes argue strongly that it is a shock front driven by the expanding radio lobes. The Chandra image also reveals other new structure on smaller scales that is associated with the radio source, including a large cavity and filament. The shock front extends 200 - 300 kpc from the AGN at the cluster center and its strength varies along the front, with Mach numbers in the range ~ 1.2 - 1.4. It is stronger where it is more distant from the cluster center, as expected for a shock driven by expanding radio lobes. Simple modeling gives an age for the shock front ~ 1.4\\times10^8 y and a total energy driving it of ~ 10^{61} erg. The mean mechanical power driving the shock is comparable to quasar luminosities, well in excess of that needed to regulate the cooling core...

  11. Distance and Kinematics of the TW Hydrae Association from Parallaxes

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberger, Alycia J; Boss, Alan P

    2012-01-01

    From common proper motion and signatures of youth, researchers have identified about 30 members of a putative TW Hydrae Association. Only four of these had parallactic distances from Hipparcos. We have measured parallaxes and proper motions for 14 primary members. We combine these with literature values of radial velocities to show that the Galactic space motions of the stars, with the exception of TWA 9 and 22, are parallel and do not indicate convergence at a common formation point sometime in the last few million years. The space motions of TWA 9 and 22 do not agree with the others and indicate that they are not TWA members. The median parallax is 18 mas or 56 pc. We further analyze the stars' absolute magnitudes on pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks and find a range of ages with a median of 10.1 Myr and no correlation between age and Galactic location. The TWA stars may have formed from an extended and filamentary molecular cloud but are not necessarily precisely coeval.

  12. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, Yasuharu; Hwang, Jung Shan; Wolf, Alexander; Böttger, Angelika; Shimizu, Hiroshi; David, Charles N.; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential for this behavior, although nerve cells in Hydra are organized in a diffuse network and do not form ganglia. Here we show that the gap junction protein innexin-2 is expressed in a small group of nerve cells in the lower body column of Hydra and that an anti-innexin-2 antibody binds to gap junctions in the same region. Treatment of live animals with innexin-2 antibody eliminates gap junction staining and reduces spontaneous body column contractions. We conclude that a small subset of nerve cells, connected by gap junctions and capable of synchronous firing, act as a pacemaker to coordinate the contraction of the body column in the absence of ganglia.

  13. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps

    KAUST Repository

    Takaku, Yasuharu

    2014-01-07

    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential for this behavior, although nerve cells in Hydra are organized in a diffuse network and do not form ganglia. Here we show that the gap junction protein innexin-2 is expressed in a small group of nerve cells in the lower body column of Hydra and that an anti-innexin-2 antibody binds to gap junctions in the same region. Treatment of live animals with innexin-2 antibody eliminates gap junction staining and reduces spontaneous body column contractions. We conclude that a small subset of nerve cells, connected by gap junctions and capable of synchronous firing, act as a pacemaker to coordinate the contraction of the body column in the absence of ganglia.

  14. The toxicity of copper, cadmium and zinc to four different Hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karntanut, Wanchamai; Pascoe, David

    2002-06-01

    An acute toxicity study of three metals to Hydra species carried out using two different assessment methods, (i) determination of the LC50 and (ii) measurement of progressive morphological changes, demonstrated that relative toxicity decreased from copper to cadmium with zinc the least toxic for all species. The latter method revealed more details of the effect on Hydra in terms of physical damage to the polyp but both methods indicated that H. viridissima was more sensitive to copper and cadmium than H. vulgaris1 (Zurich strain, male clone), H. vulgaris2 (a dioecious strain reproducing sexually and asexually) and H. oligactis (dioecious, reproducing sexually and asexually). The responses to zinc were similar for all Hydra. The possible role of metabolic interactions between H. viridissima and its symbiotic green algae in contributing to the greater sensitivity of this polyp is discussed.

  15. Nerve ring of the hypostome in hydra. I. Its structure, development, and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koizumi, O; Itazawa, M; Mizumoto, H

    1992-01-01

    neuronal complex consisting of a thick nerve bundle running circumferentially at the border between the hypostome and tentacle zone. Immunostaining showed that the nerve ring was heterogeneous and contained at least four different subsets of neurons. During head regeneration and budding, the nerve ring......The anatomy and developmental dynamics of the nerve ring in the hypostome of Hydra oligactis were examined immunocytochemically with an antiserum against a neuropeptide and with neuron-specific monoclonal antibodies. The nerve ring is unique in the mesh-like nerve net of hydra. It is a distinct...... appeared only after the nerve net of ganglion and sensory cells had formed. Every epithelial cell is continuously displaced with neurons toward either head or foot in an adult hydra. However, the ectoderm in the immediate vicinity of, and including, the nerve ring constitutes a stationary zone...

  16. Suzaku observations of the Hydra A cluster out to the virial radius

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Takuya; Matsushita, Kyoko; Sakuma, Eri; Sato, Kosuke; Fujita, Yutaka; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ichikawa, Kazuya; Kawaharada, Madoka; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Ohashi, Takaya; Ota, Naomi; Takizawa, Motokazu; Tamura, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    We report Suzaku observations of the northern half of the Hydra A cluster out to ~1.4 Mpc, reaching the virial radius. This is the first Suzaku observations of a medium size (kT ~3 keV) cluster out to the virial radius. Two observations were conducted, north-west and north-east offsets, which continue into a filament and a void of the large-scale structure of the Universe, respectively. The X-ray emission and distribution of galaxies elongate towards the filament. The temperature profiles toward the two directions are mostly consistent within error bars and drop to 1.5 keV at 1.5r_500. As observed by Suzaku in hot clusters, the entropy profile becomes flatter beyond r_500 and disagrees with the r^1.1 relation that is expected from accretion shock-heating models. When scaled with average intracluster medium (ICM) temperature, the entropy profiles of clusters observed with Suzaku are universal without dependence on system mass. The hydrostatic mass values toward the void and the filament agree well, and the Nav...

  17. The Hydra I cluster core. I. Stellar populations in the cD galaxy NGC 3311

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, Carlos Eduardo; Coccato, Lodovico; Hilker, Michael; de Oliveira, Cláudia Mendes; Richtler, Tom

    2016-01-01

    (Abridged for arXiv) The history of the mass assembly of brightest cluster galaxies may be studied by the mapping the stellar populations at large radial distances from the galaxy centre. We provide extended and robust measurements of the stellar population parameters in NGC 3311, the cD galaxy at the centre of the Hydra I cluster and out to three effective radii. Using seven absorption-features defined in the Lick/IDS system and single stellar populations models, we obtained luminosity-weighted ages, metallicities and alpha element abundances. The trends in the Lick indices and the distribution of the stellar population parameters indicate that the stars of NGC 3311 may be divided into two radial regimes, one within and the another beyond one effective radius, $R_e = 8.4$ kpc, similar to the distinction between inner galaxy and external halo derived from the NGC 3311 velocity dispersion profile. The inner galaxy ($R\\leq R_e$) is old (age $\\sim 14$ Gyr), have negative metallicity gradients and positive alpha ...

  18. Slow-cycling stem cells in hydra contribute to head regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraimathi Govindasamy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells face the challenge of maintaining tissue homeostasis by self-renewal while maintaining their proliferation potential over the lifetime of an organism. Continuous proliferation can cause genotoxic/metabolic stress that can compromise the genomic integrity of stem cells. To prevent stem cell exhaustion, highly proliferative adult tissues maintain a pool of quiescent stem cells that divide only in response to injury and thus remain protected from genotoxic stress. Hydra is a remarkable organism with highly proliferative stem cells and ability to regenerate at whole animal level. Intriguingly, hydra does not display consequences of high proliferation, such as senescence or tumour formation. In this study, we investigate if hydra harbours a pool of slow-cycling stem cells that could help prevent undesirable consequences of continuous proliferation. Hydra were pulsed with the thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU and then chased in the absence of EdU to monitor the presence of EdU-retaining cells. A significant number of undifferentiated cells of all three lineages in hydra retained EdU for about 8–10 cell cycles, indicating that these cells did not enter cell cycle. These label-retaining cells were resistant to hydroxyurea treatment and were predominantly in the G2 phase of cell cycle. Most significantly, similar to mammalian quiescent stem cells, these cells rapidly entered cell division during head regeneration. This study shows for the first time that, contrary to current beliefs, cells in hydra display heterogeneity in their cell cycle potential and the slow-cycling cells in this population enter cell cycle during head regeneration. These results suggest an early evolution of slow-cycling stem cells in multicellular animals.

  19. Inotropic response elicited by nematocyst contents of Hydra oligactis (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh-Laurie, G E; DiBlasi, S L; Suchy, P E; Senturia, J B

    1989-01-01

    1. Intact, isolated nematocysts from the non-toxic, freshwater coelenterate Hydra oligactis contain soluble material(s) capable of producing a sustained increase in the rate of developed force in the vertebrate myocardium. 2. The positive inotropic effects of this material(s) appear grossly comparable to those described for Anthopleurin-A (AP-A) and Toxin II (ATX-II) from sea anemones. 3. The effects of the nematocyst material are distinct from those of known vasoactive peptides reported to occur in Hydra.

  20. Evolution of hydra, a recently evolved testis-expressed gene with nine alternative first exons in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Tao Chen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the Drosophila gene hydra that appears to have originated de novo in the melanogaster subgroup and subsequently evolved in both structure and expression level in Drosophila melanogaster and its sibling species. D. melanogaster hydra encodes a predicted protein of approximately 300 amino acids with no apparent similarity to any previously known proteins. The syntenic region flanking hydra on both sides is found in both D. ananassae and D. pseudoobscura, but hydra is found only in melanogaster subgroup species, suggesting that it originated less than approximately 13 million y ago. Exon 1 of hydra has undergone recurrent duplications, leading to the formation of nine tandem alternative exon 1s in D. melanogaster. Seven of these alternative exons are flanked on their 3' side by the transposon DINE-1 (Drosophila interspersed element-1. We demonstrate that at least four of the nine duplicated exon 1s can function as alternative transcription start sites. The entire hydra locus has also duplicated in D. simulans and D. sechellia. D. melanogaster hydra is expressed most intensely in the proximal testis, suggesting a role in late-stage spermatogenesis. The coding region of hydra has a relatively high Ka/Ks ratio between species, but the ratio is less than 1 in all comparisons, suggesting that hydra is subject to functional constraint. Analysis of sequence polymorphism and divergence of hydra shows that it has evolved under positive selection in the lineage leading to D. melanogaster. The dramatic structural changes surrounding the first exons do not affect the tissue specificity of gene expression: hydra is expressed predominantly in the testes in D. melanogaster, D. simulans, and D. yakuba. However, we have found that expression level changed dramatically (approximately >20-fold between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. While hydra initially evolved in the absence of nearby transposable element insertions, we suggest that the subsequent

  1. Revisiting TW Hydrae in light of new astrometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, R.; Ducourant, C.; Galli, P. A. B.; Le Campion, J. F.; Zuckerman, B.; Krone-Martins, A. G. O.; Chauvin, G.; Song, I.

    2014-10-01

    Our efforts in the present work focused mainly on refining and improving the previous description and understanding of the stellar association TW Hydrae (TWA) including a very detailed membership analysis and its dynamical and evolutionary age.To achieve our objectives in a fully reliable way we take advantage of our own astrometric measurements (Ducourant et al. 2013) performed with NTT/EFOSC2 - ESO (La Silla - Chile) spread over three years (2007 - 2010) and of those published in the literature.A very detailed membership analysis based on the convergent point strategy as developed by our team (Galli et al. 2012, 2013) allowed us to define a consistent kinematic group containing 31 stars among the 44 proposed as TWA member in the literature. Assuming that our sample of stars may be contaminated by non-members and to get rid of the particular influence of each star we applied a Jacknife resampling technique generating 2000 random lists of 13 stars taken from our 16 stars and calculated for each the epoch of convergence when the radius is minimum. The mean of the epochs obtained and the dispersion about the mean give a dynamical age of 7.5± 0.7 Myr for the association that is in good agreement with the previous traceback age (De La Reza et al. 2006). We also estimated age for TWA moving group members from pre-main sequence evolutionary models (Siess et al. 2000) and find a mean age of 7.4± 1.2 Myr. These results show that the dynamical age of the association obtained via the traceback technique and the average age derived from theoretical evolutionary models are in good agreement.

  2. Two-Step Evolution of Endosymbiosis between Hydra and Algae

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-07-09

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians.

  3. US Forest Service Public Land Survey System Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas defined by the Public Lands Survey System Grid. Normally, 36 sections make up a township. Sections cover US Forest Service...

  4. US Forest Service Public Land Survey System Townships

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas defined by the Public Lands Survey System grid that are referenced by their tier and range numbers, and are normally...

  5. Port-Hamiltonian systems: an introductory survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, van der Arjan; Sanz-Sole, M.; Soria, J.; Varona, J.L.; Verdera, J.

    2006-01-01

    The theory of port-Hamiltonian systems provides a framework for the geometric description of network models of physical systems. It turns out that port-based network models of physical systems immediately lend themselves to a Hamiltonian description. While the usual geometric approach to Hamiltonian

  6. The Hydra regeneration assay reveals ecological risks in running waters: a new proposal to detect environmental teratogenic threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversetti, Lorenzo; Del Grosso, Floriano; Malafoglia, Valentina; Colasanti, Marco; Ceschin, Simona; Larsen, Stefano; Scalici, Massimiliano

    2017-03-01

    The regenerative ability of Hydra vulgaris was tested as potential biomarker for the development of a new eco-toxicological index. The test is based on the regeneration rate and the aberration frequency of the columna (body and adhesive foot) after separation from head and tentacles by a bistoury. Particularly, 45 columnae were submerged in the rearing solution (that is Hydra medium) to have control, and 285 in potential contaminated waters to have treatments, collected from 19 sites along 10 rivers in central Italy. ANCOVA and chi-square tests were used to compare values from each site to a laboratory control. Subsequently the values on regeneration rate and aberration frequency were inserted in a double entry matrix, where the match of the two entries in the matrix provides the score of the proposed Teratogenic Risk Index (TRI). Each score corresponded to one of the 5 teratogenic risk classes, to which a risk level was associated: from 1 (no risk) to 5 (very high risk). On the whole, 32% of the studied sites were classified as no teratogenic risk while the remaining showed a variable risk level from low to very high. This study proposed for the first time an early warning system to detect the presence of teratogens in running waters, providing a rapid and cost-effective evaluation method. Therefore, TRI may contribute to initiate adequate measures to manage riverine habitats, and to monitor the running water teratogenic status. Specifically, this index may provide the opportunity to identify the disturbance sources and then to drive the decisions, together with competent authorities, on the catchment and landscape management and on the possible use of waters for urban, agricultural, and industrial activities, since they may show significant effects on the human health.

  7. Literature Survey on Door Lock Security Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pradnya R Nehete; J P Chaudhari; S R Pachpande; K P Rane

    2016-01-01

    .... Due to the advancement in recent techniques, some door lock security systems are based on microcontroller, GSM, GPS, many sensors, software like MATLAB, PROTEUS, biometrics like face recognition...

  8. Networked Control System – A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brindha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Networked Control System (NCS is a synthetic application which combines control science, computer science and network technology. It is a kind of feedback control systems wherein the control loops are closed through real time control network. NCS technology is applied in industry control system because of its simple structure, easy maintenance and high reliability. Networked control systems (NCSs have been gaining popularity with their high potential in widespread applications and becoming realizable with the rapid developments in computer, communication and control technologies. This paper reviews the development history of the NCS, and point out the field of further researches.

  9. Structure, expression, and developmental function of early divergent forms of metalloproteinases in Hydra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Metalloproteinases have a critical role in a broad spectrum of cellular processes ranging from the break-down of extracellulax matrix to the processing of signal transduction-related proteins. These hydrolyticfunctions underlie a variety of mechanisms related to developmental processes as well as disease states.Structural analysis of metalloproteinases from both invertebrate and vertebrate species indicates that theseenzymes are highly conserved and arose early during metazoan evolution. In this regard, studies from vari-ous laboratories have reported that a number of classes of metalloproteinases are found in hydra, a memberof Cnidaria, the second oldest of existing animal phyla. These studies demonstrate that the hydra genomecontains at least three classes of metalloproteinases to include members of the 1) astacin class, 2) matrix met-alloproteinase class, and 3) neprilysin class. Functional studies indicate that these metalloproteinases playdiverse and important roles in hydra morphogenesis and cell differentiation as well as specialized functionsin adult polyps. This article will review the structure, expression, and function of these metalloproteinasesin hydra.

  10. A comparison of metal accumulation by the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris directly from water or

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchamai Karntanut

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The cnidarian Hydra has been widely used to assess the acute toxicity of freshwater pollutants, but very little is known about pollutant accumulation by this animal. The purpose of this study was to measurethe accumulation of the three metals, i.e., copper, cadmium and zinc directly from water and also via its prey and to relate the recorded tissue concentrations to any change in biological activities. It was found thatcopper, cadmium and zinc all were accumulated in the tissues of Hydra exposed directly to the metals in water and also those exposed indirectly through feeding on contaminated prey. The bioconcentration factor(BCF recorded at 48 hours following direct uptake from water was greatest for copper (773, followed by cadmium (409 and zinc (125, although the greatest increase in body burden occurred with cadmium, Metal body burdens of Hydra fed on contaminated prey (Artemia increased in the same metal sequence as fordirect uptake from water and the increase was highest (250 times that of control Hydra for cadmium; however, biomagnification factors (BMFs were all < 1.0 indicating that there was little potential for increasingaccumulation via the food chain. There was significant inhibition of regeneration and bud production in polyps which had fed on cadmium-containing Artemia but not on copper or zinc- containing Artemia.

  11. Hydramacin-1, structure and antibacterial activity of a protein from the basal metazoan hydra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, S.; Dingley, A.J.; Augustin, R.; Anton-Erxleben, F.; Stanisak, M.; Gelhaus, C.; Gutsmann, T.; Hammer, M.U.; Podschun, R.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.; Leippe, M.; Bosch, T.C.G.; Grötzinger, J.

    2009-01-01

    Hydramacin-1 is a novel antimicrobial protein recently discovered during investigations of the epithelial defense of the ancient metazoan Hydra. The amino acid sequence of hydramacin- 1 shows no sequence homology to any known antimicrobial proteins. Determination of the solution structure revealed t

  12. FoxO and stress responses in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the face of changing environmental conditions, the mechanisms underlying stress responses in diverse organisms are of increasing interest. In vertebrates, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, FoxO transcription factors mediate cellular responses to stress, including oxidative stress and dietary restriction. Although FoxO genes have been identified in early-arising animal lineages including sponges and cnidarians, little is known about their roles in these organisms. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have examined the regulation of FoxO activity in members of the well-studied cnidarian genus Hydra. We find that Hydra FoxO is expressed at high levels in cells of the interstitial lineage, a cell lineage that includes multipotent stem cells that give rise to neurons, stinging cells, secretory cells and gametes. Using transgenic Hydra that express a FoxO-GFP fusion protein in cells of the interstitial lineage, we have determined that heat shock causes localization of the fusion protein to the nucleus. Our results also provide evidence that, as in bilaterian animals, Hydra FoxO activity is regulated by both Akt and JNK kinases. CONCLUSIONS: These findings imply that basic mechanisms of FoxO regulation arose before the evolution of bilaterians and raise the possibility that FoxO is involved in stress responses of other cnidarian species, including corals.

  13. Direct evidence for outflow of metal-enriched gas along the radio jets of Hydra A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkpatrick, C.C.; Gitti, M.; Cavagnolo, K.W.; McNamara, B.R.; David, L.P.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Wise, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Using deep Chandra observations of the Hydra A galaxy cluster, we examine the metallicity structure near the central galaxy and along its powerful radio source. We show that the metallicity of the intracluster medium is enhanced by up to 0.2 dex along the radio jets and lobes compared to the

  14. Profiling of adhesive-related genes in the freshwater cnidarian Hydra magnipapillata by transcriptomics and proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Marcelo; Ostermann, Thomas; Kremeser, Leopold; Lindner, Herbert; Beisel, Christian; Berezikov, Eugene; Hobmayer, Bert; Ladurner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The differentiated ectodermal basal disc cells of the freshwater cnidarian Hydra secrete proteinaceous glue to temporarily attach themselves to underwater surfaces. Using transcriptome sequencing and a basal disc-specific RNA-seq combined with in situ hybridisation a highly specific set of candidate

  15. Information survey for microcomputer systems integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, K.A.

    1991-12-01

    One goal of the PM-AIM is to provide US Army Project Managers (PMs) and Project Executive Officers (PEOs) with a fundamental microcomputing resource to help perform acquisition information management and its concomitant reporting requirements. Providing key application software represents one means of accomplishing this goal. This workstation would furnish a broad range of capabilities needed in the PM and PEO office settings as well as software tools for specific project management and acquisition information. Although still in the conceptual phase, the practical result of this exercise in systems integration will likely be a system called the Project Manager`s Information System (PMIS) or the AIM workstation. It would include such software as, Project Manager`s System Software (PMSS), Defense Acquisition Executive Summary (DAES), and Consolidated Acquisition Reporting System (CARS) and would conform to open systems architecture as accepted by the Department of Defense. ORNL has assisted PM-AIM in the development of technology ideas for the PMIS workstation concept. This paper represents the compilation of information gained during this process. This information is presented as a body of knowledge (or knowledge domain) defining the complex technology of microcomputing. The concept of systems integration or tying together all hardware and software components reflects the nature of PM-AIM`s task in attempting to field a PMIS or AIM workstation.

  16. Information survey for microcomputer systems integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, K.A.

    1991-12-01

    One goal of the PM-AIM is to provide US Army Project Managers (PMs) and Project Executive Officers (PEOs) with a fundamental microcomputing resource to help perform acquisition information management and its concomitant reporting requirements. Providing key application software represents one means of accomplishing this goal. This workstation would furnish a broad range of capabilities needed in the PM and PEO office settings as well as software tools for specific project management and acquisition information. Although still in the conceptual phase, the practical result of this exercise in systems integration will likely be a system called the Project Manager's Information System (PMIS) or the AIM workstation. It would include such software as, Project Manager's System Software (PMSS), Defense Acquisition Executive Summary (DAES), and Consolidated Acquisition Reporting System (CARS) and would conform to open systems architecture as accepted by the Department of Defense. ORNL has assisted PM-AIM in the development of technology ideas for the PMIS workstation concept. This paper represents the compilation of information gained during this process. This information is presented as a body of knowledge (or knowledge domain) defining the complex technology of microcomputing. The concept of systems integration or tying together all hardware and software components reflects the nature of PM-AIM's task in attempting to field a PMIS or AIM workstation.

  17. Hydra myc2, a unique pre-bilaterian member of the myc gene family, is activated in cell proliferation and gametogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hartl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The myc protooncogene encodes the Myc transcription factor which is the essential part of the Myc–Max network controlling fundamental cellular processes. Deregulation of myc leads to tumorigenesis and is a hallmark of many human cancers. We have recently identified homologs of myc (myc1, myc2 and max in the early diploblastic cnidarian Hydra and have characterized myc1 in detail. Here we show that myc2 is transcriptionally activated in the interstitial stem cell system. Furthermore, in contrast to myc1, myc2 expression is also detectable in proliferating epithelial stem cells throughout the gastric region. myc2 but not myc1 is activated in cycling precursor cells during early oogenesis and spermatogenesis, suggesting that the Hydra Myc2 protein has a possible non-redundant function in cell cycle progression. The Myc2 protein displays the principal design and properties of vertebrate Myc proteins. In complex with Max, Myc2 binds to DNA with similar affinity as Myc1–Max heterodimers. Immunoprecipitation of Hydra chromatin revealed that both Myc1 and Myc2 bind to the enhancer region of CAD, a classical Myc target gene in mammals. Luciferase reporter gene assays showed that Myc1 but not Myc2 transcriptionally activates the CAD promoter. Myc2 has oncogenic potential when tested in primary avian fibroblasts but to a lower degree as compared to Myc1. The identification of an additional myc gene in Cnidaria, a phylum that diverged prior to bilaterians, with characteristic expression patterns in tissue homeostasis and developmental processes suggests that principle functions of myc genes have arisen very early in metazoan evolution.

  18. A Survey Paper on Recommender Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Almazro, Dhoha; Albdulkarim, Lamia; Kherees, Mona; Martinez, Romy; Nzoukou, William

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems apply data mining techniques and prediction algorithms to predict users' interest on information, products and services among the tremendous amount of available items. The vast growth of information on the Internet as well as number of visitors to websites add some key challenges to recommender systems. These are: producing accurate recommendation, handling many recommendations efficiently and coping with the vast growth of number of participants in the system. Therefore, new recommender system technologies are needed that can quickly produce high quality recommendations even for huge data sets. To address these issues we have explored several collaborative filtering techniques such as the item based approach, which identify relationship between items and indirectly compute recommendations for users based on these relationships. The user based approach was also studied, it identifies relationships between users of similar tastes and computes recommendations based on these relationships. In...

  19. A Survey on Mobile Payment Systems Security

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Esmaeili; Zeinab Borhani-Fard; Mohammad Ali Arasteh

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, increasing use of mobile devices and the emergence of new technologies have changed mobile commerce and mobile payment in all over the world. Although many attempts have been made to implement secure mobile payment systems and services, growing forgery, fraud and other related electronic crimes as well as security attacks and threats prove the necessity of paying special attention to security issues for development and extension of such systems. In this paper, we investigate ...

  20. A Survey on Graphical Programming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gurudatt Kulkarni; Sathyaraj. R

    2014-01-01

    Recently there has been an increasing interest in the use of graphics to help programming and understanding of computer systems. The Graphical Programming and Program Simulations are exciting areas of active computer science research that show the signs for improving the programming process. An array of different design methodologie s have arisen from research efforts and many graphical programming systems have been developed to address both general programming tasks and speci...

  1. Coordinated modulation of cellular signaling through ligand-gated ion channels in Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierobon, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Cnidarians lack well developed organs, but they have evolved the molecular and cellular components needed to assemble a nervous system. The apparent 'simplicity' of the cnidarian nervous net does not occur at the cellular level, but rather in the organisation of conducting systems. Cnidarian neurons are in fact electrically excitable, show the typical extended morphology and are connected by chemical synapses or gap junctions. They have been regarded as peptidergic, given the wealth of neuropeptides generally distributed along neurites and in cell bodies, supporting the hypothesis of a modulatory role in neurotransmission. However, the presence of clear-cored, as well as dense-cored synaptic vesicles in cnidarian neurons suggests both fast and slow synaptic transmission mechanisms. In fact, biochemical and functional evidence indicates that classical neurotransmitters and their metabolic partners are present in cnidarian tissues, where they are involved in coordinating motility and behavior. We have identified and characterized in Hydra tissues receptors to the inhibitory and excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, GABA, glycine and NMDA, that are similar to mammalian ionotropic receptors in terms of their biochemical and pharmacological properties. These receptors appear to regulate pacemaker activities and their physiological correlates; in the live animal, they also affect feeding behavior, namely the duration and termination of the response elicited by reduced glutathione, with opposite actions of GABA and glycine or NMDA, respectively. These results suggest that modulation of cellular signaling through ligand-gated-ion channels is an ancient characteristic in the animal kingdom, and that the pharmacological properties of these receptors have been highly conserved during evolution.

  2. A Survey on Mobile Payment Systems Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Esmaeili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing use of mobile devices and the emergence of new technologies have changed mobile commerce and mobile payment in all over the world. Although many attempts have been made to implement secure mobile payment systems and services, growing forgery, fraud and other related electronic crimes as well as security attacks and threats prove the necessity of paying special attention to security issues for development and extension of such systems. In this paper, we investigate classification of security threats and attacks in mobile payment and discuss security issues in three related areas of mobile payment; including network security, transmission security and mobile device security. Network security includes WLAN and WWAN security; transmission security includes WAP, SMS, wave channel and USSD security; and mobile device security includes hardware and software platforms and operating system security.

  3. Surveying the Inner Solar System with an Infrared Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Buie, Marc W; Linfield, Roger P

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of surveying the inner Solar System for objects that may pose some threat to the Earth. Most of the analysis is based on understanding the capability provided by Sentinel, a concept for an infrared space-based telescope placed in a heliocentric orbit near the distance of Venus. From this analysis, we show 1) the size range being targeted can affect the survey design, 2) the orbit distribution of the target sample can affect the survey design, 3) minimum observational arc length during the survey is an important metric of survey performance, and 4) surveys must consider objects as small as D=15-30 m to meet the goal of identifying objects that have the potential to cause damage on Earth in the next 100 years. Sentinel will be able to find 50% of all impactors larger than 40 meters in a 6.5 year survey. The Sentinel mission concept is shown to be as effective as any survey in finding objects bigger than D=140 m but is more effective when applied to finding smaller objects on Earth-impacti...

  4. A Survey of Export System Development Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    f b x GESBT 4.0 62 r o m f b x x GETREE 26 r m f b GLIB 26 r GPSI 26 o GUESS/I 28 r o n m f b GURU 28 r m f b x x Hearsay-3 28 r HPRL 30 r o f b IN...93. GESBT 4.0 (Generic Expert System Building Tool) A- 3 - - - . -..m’ .,.A APPENDIX B Expert System Development Tools . B-1 ’ APPENDIX B p Expert... GESBT Knowledge acquisition:_________________________________ conflict detection ____________________________________ explicit rule entry X fact/control

  5. Ontologies and Information Systems: A Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Falcon-AO (LMO + GMO ) [146], and RiMOM [317]. Meta-matching systems include APFEL [76] and eTuner [286]. There also exist frameworks that provide a set...Jian, N., Qu, Y. and Wang, Q. 2005. GMO : A graph matching for ontologies. In Proceedings of the K-CAPWorkshop on Integrating Ontologies, Banff

  6. San Juan implements one-man survey system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrae, S. (San Juan Coal Co., Waterflow, NM (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Describes the one-man survey system which has been implemented at the San Juan surface mine in northwestern New Mexico. The Geodimeter System 4000, produced by Geotronics of Sweden, consists of a tripod-mounted electronic total station and a range rod-mounted remote positioning unit (RPU). A radio link between the tripod-mounted total station and the RPU enables one person to control the instrument and collect data. At San Juan the system has been used to survey overburden removal and mining. Only in cases where the pits become very long, and control cannot be set in the pit, is a two-person crew used. The system is useful for surveys of compliance projects and lends itself well to regrading work. 3 photos.

  7. Bundle adjustment for data processing of theodolite industrial surveying system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹峥嵘; 丁晓利; 曾卓乔; 何凭宗

    2001-01-01

    The photogrammetric bundle adjustment was used in data processing of electronic theodolite industrial surveying system by converting angular observations into virtual photo coordinates. The developed algorithm has ability of precision estimation and data-snooping, do not need initial values of exterior orientation elements and object point coordinates. The form of control condition for the system is quite flexible. Neither centering nor leveling is the theodolite needed and the lay-out of theodolite position is flexible when the system is used for precise survey. Experiments carried out in test field verify the validity of the data processing method.

  8. Isolation and cultivation of endosymbiotic algae from green hydra and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacević, Goran; Franjević, Damjan; Jelencić, Biserka; Kalafatić, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Symbiotic associations are of wide significance in evolution and biodiversity. The green hydra is a typical example of endosymbiosis. In its gastrodermal myoepithelial cells it harbors the individuals of a unicellular green algae. Endosymbiotic algae from green hydra have been successfully isolated and permanently maintained in a stable clean lab culture for the first time. We reconstructed the phylogeny of isolated endosymbiotic algae using the 18S rRNA gene to clarify its current status and to validate the traditional inclusion of these endosymbiotic algae within the Chlorella genus. Molecular analyses established that different genera and species of unicellular green algae could be present as symbionts in green hydra, depending on the natural habitat of a particular strain of green hydra.

  9. Reliability Survey of Military Acquisition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    software-intensive sensor and weapons systems, ensuring that there are no open Category 1 or 2 deficiency reports prior to OT. There is also evidence...reliability growth curve used to develop intermediate reliability goal(s)? 5c3 Are the reliability growth goal(s) linked to OTs (e.g., IOT &E, FOT&E...the reliability growth potential? 8 Did your program have an operational test in FY12? 8a What type of operational test was it? (DT/OT, OA/LUT, IOT &E

  10. A Survey on VANET Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed ERRITALI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the security issues on Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have become one of the primary concerns. The VANET is inherently very vulnerable to attacks than wired network because it is characterized by high mobility, shared wireless medium and the absence of centralized security services offered by dedicated equipment such as firewalls and authentication servers. Attackcountermeasures such as digital signature and encryption, can be used as the first line of defense for reducing the possibilities of attacks. However, these techniques have limited prevention in general, and they are designed for a set of known attacks. They are unlikely to avoid most recent attacks that are designed to circumvent existing security measures. For this reason, there is a need of second technique to “detect and notify” these newer attacks, i.e. “intrusion detection”. This article aims to present and classifycurrent techniques of Intrusion Detection System (IDS aware VANETs.

  11. The Dark Energy Survey Data Processing and Calibration System

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Joseph J; Bertin, Emmanuel; Daues, Gregory E; Desai, Shantanu; Gower, Michelle; Gruendl, Robert; Hanlon, William; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Lin, Huan; Marriner, John; Petravick, Don; Sevilla, Ignacio; Swanson, Molly; Tomashek, Todd; Tucker, Douglas; Yanny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a 5000 deg2 grizY survey reaching characteristic photometric depths of 24th magnitude (10 sigma) and enabling accurate photometry and morphology of objects ten times fainter than in SDSS. Preparations for DES have included building a dedicated 3 deg2 CCD camera (DECam), upgrading the existing CTIO Blanco 4m telescope and developing a new high performance computing (HPC) enabled data management system (DESDM). The DESDM system will be used for processing, calibrating and serving the DES data. The total data volumes are high (~2PB), and so considerable effort has gone into designing an automated processing and quality control system. Special purpose image detrending and photometric calibration codes have been developed to meet the data quality requirements, while survey astrometric calibration, coaddition and cataloging rely on new extensions of the AstrOmatic codes which now include tools for PSF modeling, PSF homogenization, PSF corrected model fitting cataloging and joint mode...

  12. Spectroscopic Confirmation of the Dwarf Galaxies Hydra II and Pisces II and the Globular Cluster Laevens 1

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Evan N; Cohen, Judith G

    2015-01-01

    We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of stars in the recently discovered Milky Way satellites Hydra II, Pisces II, and Laevens 1. We measured a velocity dispersion of 5.4 (+3.6 -2.4) km/s for Pisces II, but we did not resolve the velocity dispersions of Hydra II or Laevens 1. We marginally resolved the metallicity dispersions of Hydra II and Pisces II but not Laevens 1. Furthermore, Hydra II and Pisces II obey the luminosity-metallicity relation for Milky Way dwarf galaxies ( = -2.02 +/- 0.08 and -2.45 +/- 0.07, respectively), whereas Laevens 1 does not ( = -1.68 +/- 0.05). The kinematic and chemical properties suggest that Hydra II and Pisces II are dwarf galaxies, and Laevens 1 is a globular cluster. We determined that two of the previously observed blue stars near the center of Laevens 1 are not members of the cluster. A third blue star has ambiguous membership. If it is a member, we suggest that it could be a Type II Cepheid variable. Hydra II has a radial velocity = 303.1 +/- 1.4 km/s, similar to the lea...

  13. Surveying the Inner Solar System with an Infrared Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Marc W.; Reitsema, Harold J.; Linfield, Roger P.

    2016-11-01

    We present an analysis of surveying the inner solar system for objects that may pose some threat to Earth. Most of the analysis is based on understanding the capability provided by Sentinel, a concept for an infrared space-based telescope placed in a heliocentric orbit near the distance of Venus. From this analysis, we show that (1) the size range being targeted can affect the survey design, (2) the orbit distribution of the target sample can affect the survey design, (3) minimum observational arc length during the survey is an important metric of survey performance, and (4) surveys must consider objects as small as D=15{--}30 m to meet the goal of identifying objects that have the potential to cause damage on Earth in the next 100 yr. Sentinel will be able to find 50% of all impactors larger than 40 m in a 6.5 yr survey. The Sentinel mission concept is shown to be as effective as any survey in finding objects bigger than D = 140 m but is more effective when applied to finding smaller objects on Earth-impacting orbits. Sentinel is also more effective at finding objects of interest for human exploration that benefit from lower propulsion requirements. To explore the interaction between space and ground search programs, we also study a case where Sentinel is combined with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and show the benefit of placing a space-based observatory in an orbit that reduces the overlap in search regions with a ground-based telescope. In this case, Sentinel+LSST can find more than 70% of the impactors larger than 40 m assuming a 6.5 yr lifetime for Sentinel and 10 yr for LSST.

  14. The Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS): Survey Status and Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavelaars, J. J.; Bannister, Michele T.; Alexandersen, Mike; Chen, Ying-Tung; Gladman, Brett; Gwyn, Stephen; Petit, Jean-Marc; Volk, Kathryn; OSSOS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery, tracking and detection circumstances for 562 trans- Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the first 128 deg2 of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS). This ongoing r-band Solar System survey uses the ~1 deg2 field-of-view MegaPrime camera on the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The orbital elements for these TNOs are precise to a fractional semi-major axis uncertainty of between 0.1 - 0.01%. We achieve this precision in just two oppositions, as compared to the normal 3--5 oppositions, via a dense observing cadence and innovative astrometric technique. These discoveries are free of ephemeris bias, a first for large trans-Neptunian surveys. Using the current OSSOS sample we confirm the existence of a cold "kernel" of objects within the main cold classical Kuiper belt, and infer the existence of an extension of the "stirred" cold classical Kuiper belt to at least several AU beyond the 2 :1 mean motion resonance with Neptune. We find that the population model of Petit et al. (2011) provides a plausible 1st order representation of the Kuiper belt, but more detailed structure has begun to emerged. The full survey, to be completed in 2017, will provide an exquisitely characterized sample of important resonant TNO populations, ideal for testing models of giant planet migration during the early history of the Solar System.

  15. Intrusion Detection System using Self Organizing Map: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruti Choksi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to usage of computer every field, Network Security is the major concerned in today’s scenario. Every year the number of users and speed of network is increasing, along with it online fraud or security threats are also increasing. Every day a new attack is generated to harm the system or network. It is necessary to protect the system or networks from various threats by using Intrusion Detection System which can detect “known” as well as “unknown” attack and generate alerts if any unusual behavior in the traffic. There are various approaches for IDS, but in this paper, survey is focused on IDS using Self Organizing Map. SOM is unsupervised, fast conversion and automatic clustering algorithm which is able to handle novelty detection. The main objective of the survey is to find and address the current challenges of SOM. Our survey shows that the existing IDS based on SOM have poor detection rate for U2R and R2L attacks. To improve it, proper normalization technique should be used. During the survey we also found that HSOM and GHSOM are advance model of SOM which have their own unique feature for better performance of IDS. GHSOM is efficient due to its low computation time. This survey is beneficial to design and develop efficient SOM based IDS having less computation time and better detection rate.

  16. Comparison of Strong Gravitational Lens Model Software II. HydraLens: Computer-Assisted Strong Gravitational Lens Model Generation and Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Lefor, Alsn T

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of strong gravitational lens model software in the analysis of lens models is not necessarily consistent among the various software available, suggesting that the use of several models may enhance the understanding of the system being studied. Among the publicly available codes, the model input files are heterogeneous, making the creation of multiple models tedious. An enhanced method of creating model files and a method to easily create multiple models, may increase the number of comparison studies. HydraLens simplifies the creation of model files for four strong gravitational lens model software packages, including Lenstool, Gravlens/Lensmodel, glafic and PixeLens, using a custom designed GUI for each of the four codes that simplifies the entry of the model for each of these codes, obviating the need for user manuals to set the values of the many flags and in each data field. HydraLens is designed in a modular fashion, which simplifies the addition of other strong gravitational lens codes in th...

  17. A Survey of TCM Studies on Systemic Scleroderma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dongliu; Chen Dacan; Xuan Guowei

    2006-01-01

    @@ Systemic scleroderma (SSc) is a progressive dermatosis with symmetric skin sclerosis and ischemia of the fingers or toes, accompanied with lesions of the joints, muscles and many internal organs, and it may clinically result in functional disablement due to sclerosis, rigidity and atrophy of the skin1. The following is a survey of the basic and clinical studies of TCM on SSc.

  18. UAS for mapping: A product survey on systems and features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, M.J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have attracted tremendous attention from surveyors and other geodata collectors all around the world. Nowadays, UAS equipped with GNSS, IMU and RGB, NIR or TIR cameras and possibly Lidar have evolved into high-potential surveying devices which have now

  19. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  20. THM-GTRF: New Spider meshes, New Hydra-TH runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakosi, Jozsef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, Mark A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nourgaliev, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-20

    Progress is reported on computational capabilities for the grid-to-rod-fretting (GTRF) problem of pressurized water reactors. Numeca's Hexpress/Hybrid mesh generator is demonstrated as an excellent alternative to generating computational meshes for complex flow geometries, such as in GTRF. Mesh assessment is carried out using standard industrial computational fluid dynamics practices. Hydra-TH, a simulation code developed at LANL for reactor thermal-hydraulics, is demonstrated on hybrid meshes, containing different element types. A series of new Hydra-TH calculations has been carried out collecting turbulence statistics. Preliminary results on the newly generated meshes are discussed; full analysis will be documented in the L3 milestone, THM.CFD.P5.05, Sept. 2012.

  1. Searching for star-forming galaxies in the Fornax and Hydra clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Kehrig, C.; Vilchez, J. M.; Unda-Sanzana, E.

    2011-09-01

    Context. The formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies is relatively difficult to understand because of their faint emission in all regimes that require large aperture telescopes. Aims: We intend to study the evolution of star-forming dwarf galaxies in clusters. We selected Fornax and Hydra clusters to complement our previous study of Virgo. On the basis of available literature data, we selected ten star-forming candidates in Fornax and another ten objects in Hydra. Methods: We used Gemini South with GMOS to acquire Hα images necessary to detect star-forming regions in the two galaxy samples. We then performed long-slit spectroscopy for the brightest six candidates, to derive their chemical properties. Finally, we employed the VLT with HAWK-I to observe all galaxies in the K' band to derive their main physical properties. Results: We studied the morphology of our two samples, finding five objects in Fornax and six in Hydra with structures consistent with those of star-forming dwarfs, i.e., dwarf irregulars (dIs) or blue compact dwarfs (BCDs). About four other objects are probably dwarf spirals, while three objects remained undetected in both visible and near infrared. On the basis of visible bright emission lines, we derived oxygen abundances for ten star-forming candidates with values between 8.00 ≤ 12+log(O/H) ≤8.78. Conclusions: Most fundamental properties of star-forming galaxies in Fornax and Hydra appear similar to corresponding properties of dIs and BCDs from Virgo and the local volume (LV). The luminosity-metallicity and metallicity-gas fraction relations in the LV and Virgo appear to be followed by Fornax and Hydra samples, suggesting that the chemical evolution of the two clusters seems consistent with the predictions from the closed box model, although larger samples are needed to investigate the role of possible environmental effects. Star-forming dwarfs (dIs and BCDs) in different environments appear to follow different mass-metallicity relations

  2. Toxicity of Polychlorinated Diphenyl Ethers in Hydra Attenuata and in Rat Whole Embryo Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    were fed freshly hatched Artemia naupii ( brine shrimp ) once a day. The shrimp eggs (approximately 15 ml) were hydrated in 1% NaCl for approximately 2...all other chemicals were from Sigma (St. Louis, MO.). Brine shrimp eggs were purchased from Carolina Biological Supply, Burlington, NC. The original...days at room temperature. Eggs were aerated throughout the hatching period. Prior to feeding to the hydra, brine shrimp were siphoned into a fish net

  3. Notch-signalling is required for head regeneration and tentacle patterning in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münder, Sandra; Tischer, Susanne; Grundhuber, Maresa; Büchels, Nathalie; Bruckmeier, Nadine; Eckert, Stefanie; Seefeldt, Carolin A; Prexl, Andrea; Käsbauer, Tina; Böttger, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Local self-activation and long ranging inhibition provide a mechanism for setting up organising regions as signalling centres for the development of structures in the surrounding tissue. The adult hydra hypostome functions as head organiser. After hydra head removal it is newly formed and complete heads can be regenerated. The molecular components of this organising region involve Wnt-signalling and β-catenin. However, it is not known how correct patterning of hypostome and tentacles are achieved in the hydra head and whether other signals in addition to HyWnt3 are needed for re-establishing the new organiser after head removal. Here we show that Notch-signalling is required for re-establishing the organiser during regeneration and that this is due to its role in restricting tentacle activation. Blocking Notch-signalling leads to the formation of irregular head structures characterised by excess tentacle tissue and aberrant expression of genes that mark the tentacle boundaries. This indicates a role for Notch-signalling in defining the tentacle pattern in the hydra head. Moreover, lateral inhibition by HvNotch and its target HyHes are required for head regeneration and without this the formation of the β-catenin/Wnt dependent head organiser is impaired. Work on prebilaterian model organisms has shown that the Wnt-pathway is important for setting up signalling centres for axial patterning in early multicellular animals. Our data suggest that the integration of Wnt-signalling with Notch-Delta activity was also involved in the evolution of defined body plans in animals.

  4. VERDI: A Web Database System for Redshift Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, G. D.; Patton, D. R.

    The Victoria Explorer for Redshift Databases on the Internet (VERDI) is a Web-based data retrieval system which allows users to access tabular data, images, and spectra of astronomical objects and to perform queries on the underlying database. We developed VERDI for use with the CNOC2 Field Galaxy Redshift Survey, but designed it to be generally applicable to deep galaxy redshift surveys. The software is freely available at http://astrowww.phys.uvic.ca/~cnoc, can easily be reconfigured and customized by the user, and performs well enough to support databases of many thousands of objects.

  5. Advances in HYDRA and its application to simulations of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Kerbel, G. D.; Koning, J. M.; Patel, M. V.; Sepke, S. M.; Brown, P. N.; Chang, B.; Procassini, R.; Veitzer, S. A.

    2008-11-01

    We will outline new capabilities added to the HYDRA 2D/3D multiphysics ICF simulation code. These include a new SN multigroup radiation transport package (1D), constitutive models for elastic-plastic (strength) effects, and a mix model. A Monte Carlo burn package is being incorporated to model diagnostic signatures of neutrons, gamma rays and charged particles. A 3D MHD package that treats resistive MHD is available. Improvements to HYDRA's implicit Monte Carlo photonics package, including the addition of angular biasing, now enable integrated hohlraum simulations to complete in substantially shorter time. The heavy ion beam deposition package now includes a new model for ion stopping power developed by the Tech-X Corporation, with improved accuracy below the Bragg peak. Examples will illustrate HYDRA's enhanced capabilities to simulate various aspects of inertial confinement fusion targets.This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. The work of Tech-X personnel was funded by the Department of Energy under Small Business Innovation Research Contract No. DE-FG02-03ER83797.

  6. Impact of Carbon Nano-Onions on Hydra vulgaris as a Model Organism for Nanoecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marchesano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The toxicological effects of pristine and chemically modified carbon nano-onions (CNOs on the development of the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris were investigated in order to elucidate the ecotoxicological effects of CNOs. Chemical modifications of the CNOs were accomplished by surface functionalization with benzoic acid, pyridine and pyridinium moieties. thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the covalent surface functionalization of CNOs. Hydra specimens were exposed to the carbon nanomaterials by prolonged incubation within their medium. Uptake was monitored by optical microscopy, and the toxicological effects of the CNOs on Hydra behavior, morphology, as well as the long-term effects on the development and reproductive capability were examined. The obtained data revealed the absence of adverse effects of CNOs (in the range 0.05–0.1 mg/L in vivo at the whole animal level. Together with previously performed in vitro toxicological analyses, our findings indicate the biosafety of CNOs and the feasibility of employing them as materials for biomedical applications.

  7. Patterning processes in aggregates of Hydra cells visualized with the monoclonal antibody, TS19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Bode, H R; Sawada, Y

    1990-10-01

    The monoclonal antibody, TS19, (Heimfeld et al., 1985), labels the apical surface of ectodermal epithelial cells of tentacles and lower peduncles in Hydra. To investigate the patterning process in a tissue whose original pattern was completely destroyed, the TS19 staining pattern was examined in developing aggregates of Hydra cells. Two types of aggregates were prepared. G-aggregates were made from tissue of the gastric portion of animals and RG-aggregates from gastric tissue allowed to regenerate for 24 hr before making aggregates. G-aggregates were initially TS19-negative, and later dim and uniformly TS19-positive. Thereafter, TS19 staining broke up into brightly stained and unstained regions. The brightly staining regions developed into head or foot structures. The TS19 pattern in RG-aggregates developed differently. Since the initial aggregates contained cells of regenerating tips, they started with TS19-positive cells as well as TS19-negative cells. The numbers of brightly staining TS19-positive cells increased with time. Some patches of these cells developed into head or foot structures, while others did not. These results and a simulation using a reaction-diffusion model suggest that the changes in activation levels affected the temporal changes in the pattern of TS19 staining, and that the de novo pattern formation in hydra can be explained in terms of a process involving activation and inhibition properties.

  8. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.`s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East`s (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies.

  9. An orbital period investigation of the Algol-type eclipsing binary VW Hydrae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Zhang; Sheng-Bang Qian; Boonrucksar Soonthornthum

    2009-01-01

    Orbital period variations of the Algol-type eclipsing binary, VW Hydrae, are analyzed based on one newly determined eclipse time and the other times of light minima collected from the literature. It is discovered that the orbital period shows a continuous increase at a rate of dP/dt = +6.34×10-7 d yr-1 while it undergoes a cyclic change with an amplitude of 0.0639 d and a period of 51.5 yr. After the long-term period increase and the large-amphtude period oscillation were subtracted from the O-C curve, the residuals of the photoelectric and CCD data indicate a small-amplitude cyclic variation with a period of 8.75 yr and a small amplitude of 0.0048d. The continuous period increase indicates a conservative mass transfer at a rate of dM2/dt = 7.89×10-8 M⊙ yr-1 from the secondary to the primary. The period increase may be caused by a combination of the mass transfer from the secondary to the primary and the angular momentum transfer from the binary system to the circumbinary disk. The two cyclic period oscillations can be explained by light-travel time effects via the presence of additional bodies. The small-amplitude periodic change indicates the existence of a less massive component with mass M3 > 0.53 M⊙, while the large-amplitude one is caused by the presence of a more massive component with mass M4 > 2.84 M⊙. The ultraviolet source in the system reported by Kviz & Rufener (1987) may be one of the additional components, and it is possible that the more massive one may be an unseen neutron star or black hole. The rapid period increase and the possibility of the presence of two additional components in the binary make it a very interesting system to study. New photometric and high-resolution spectroscopic observations and a detailed investigation of those data are required in the future.

  10. The Primary Observation of Monster Hydras from Heterograft%异种嫁接的水螅畸形体初步观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小婷; 吴佩玲; 汪安泰; 吴程琛; 邓利

    2011-01-01

    Hydra robusta and H. Vulgaris were cut transversely in the sub-hypostome region and the basal portion of two hydranth were grafted together. Three kinds of monster hydras, totally 78 individuals were found after 280 days continuous observation, it was shown that: ① monster and its asexual reproduction offspring contained 2 kinds of falcate nematocyst ( H. Robusta' s and H. Vulgaris' falcate nematocyst) ; ② its length could reach 52 mm when it stretched its body; ③ the average period of asexual gemmation was more than 10 days; ④ individuals died after reproducing 3-8 generations; ⑤ those who had 4, 5 and 6 tentacles consisted of 80% , 10% and 10% the individuals respectively; ⑥ it had no sexual reproduction; ⑦ it needed a relatively long time to regenerate after being cut off. When completing regeneration, both its form and development were as the normal one; ⑧ hyperplastic tissue appeared on the surface of its ectoderm, and went to apoptosis on the scapus, or disintegrated 1-2 days after disengaging form matrix; endodenn's cellular conglomeration frequently disengaged from the body, entering digestive chambers. The phenomena of hyperplasia and apoptosis appeared on the monster hydra from heterograft showed that hydra might have primitive immune system that can identify and exclude heterogenetic tissues.%摘要:把强壮水螅(Hydra robusta)和普通水螅(H.vulgaris)除头后进行异种切口嫁接实验,共获得3例畸形体,对其进行280 d的培养,获得78只畸形子代。追踪观察发现:①畸形体及其无性生殖子代均具有2种钩刺丝囊(强壮水媳钩刺丝囊和普通水螅钩刺丝囊);②其身体伸展时最长达52 mm;③无性出芽生殖的平均生殖周期10 d以上;④个体无性生殖3~8代后凋亡;⑤触手数为4、5和6条的个体分别占80%、10%和10%;⑥不发生有性生殖;⑦切割再生时间长,再生后形态与发育特性同术前个体;⑧

  11. Healthhazard evaluation report HETA 84-075-1634, Hydra-Matic Division of General Motors, Ypsilanti, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, W.J.; Orris, P.

    1985-11-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for total particulates, trace metals, glycol ethers, and other organic materials at Hydra/Matic, a division of General Motors, in Ypsilanti, Michigan in March, 1984 and March, 1985. The evaluation was requested confidentially to investigate employee exposures to machine coolants and additives used in the centerless grinding operation. The central coolant system had been contaminated by sewage and high concentrations of chemicals had reportedly been added to the system to prevent bacterial growth. Questionnaire interviews were conducted with 75 employees. Eye irritation, sinus congestion, rhinitis, daily cough, upper respiratory infections, and skin complaints such as frequent dryness, itching, rash, and pimples were reported. All concentrations of chemical agents were below their relevant standards or not detectable. The authors note that no airborne contaminant that would pose a health hazard has been identified. Recommendations include properly maintaining the coolant system and individual machines, training employees in proper work practices for use with cutting fluids, and making barrier creams and protective clothing available.

  12. Spatial Database Management System of China Geological Survey Extent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jianguo; Chen Zhijun; Wang Quanming; Fang Yiping

    2003-01-01

    The spatial database management system of China geological survey extent is a social service system. Its aim is to help the government and the whole social public to expediently use the spatial database, such as querying, indexing, mapping and product outputting. The management system has been developed based on MAPGIS6. x SDK and Visual C++, considering the spatial database contents and structure and the requirements of users. This paper introduces the software structure, the data flow chart and some key techniques of software development.

  13. Constraints on the gamma-ray emission from the cluster-scale AGN outburst in the Hydra A galaxy cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Becker, J; Bernloehr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Buesching, I; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Atai, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Foerster, A; Fuessling, M; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Gast, H; Gerard, L; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glueck, B; Goering, D; Grondin, M -H; Haeffner, S; Hague, J D; Hahn, J; Hampf, D; Harris, J; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzynski, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khelifi, B; Klochkov, D; Kluzniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Krayzel, F; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J -P; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Mehault, J; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nguyen, N; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Wilhelmi, E de Ona; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Puehlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raue, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sheidaei, F; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Voelk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S; Ali, M O

    2012-01-01

    In some galaxy clusters powerful AGN have blown bubbles with cluster scale extent into the ambient medium. The main pressure support of these bubbles is not known to date, but cosmic rays are a viable possibility. For such a scenario copious gamma-ray emission is expected as a tracer of cosmic rays from these systems. Hydra A, the closest galaxy cluster hosting a cluster scale AGN outburst, located at a redshift of 0.0538, is investigated for being a gamma-ray emitter with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) array and the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). Data obtained in 20.2 hours of dedicated H.E.S.S. observations and 38 months of Fermi-LAT data, gathered by its usual all-sky scanning mode, have been analyzed to search for a gamma-ray signal. No signal has been found in either data set. Upper limits on the gamma-ray flux are derived and are compared to models. These are the first limits on gamma-ray emission ever presented for galaxy clusters hosting cluster scale AGN outbursts. The non-de...

  14. Discovery of seven T Tauri stars and a brown dwarf candidate in the nearby TW Hydrae Association

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, R A; Platais, I; Patience, J; White, R J; Schwartz, M J; McCarthy, C

    1999-01-01

    We report the discovery of five T Tauri star systems, two of which are resolved binaries, in the vicinity of the nearest known region of recent star formation, the TW Hydrae Association. The newly discovered systems display the same signatures of youth (namely high X-ray flux, large Li abundance and strong chromospheric activity) and the same proper motion as the original five members. These similarities firmly establish the group as a bona fide T Tauri association, unique in its proximity to Earth and its complete isolation from any known molecular clouds. At an age of ~10 Myr and a distance of ~50 pc, the association members are excellent candidates for future studies of circumstellar disk dissipation and the formation of brown dwarfs and planets. Indeed, as an example, our speckle imaging revealed a faint, very likely companion 2" north of CoD-33 7795 (TWA 5). Its color and brightness suggest a spectral type ~M8.5 which, at an age of ~10^7 years, implies a mass ~20 M(Jupiter).

  15. Exploring the Outer Solar System with the ESSENCE Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, A.C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Arraki, K.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Kaib, N.A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Aguilera, C.; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Blackman, J.W.; /Australian Natl. U., Canberra; Blondin, S.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Challis, P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Clocchiatti, A.; /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol.; Covarrubias, R.; /Kyushu Sangyo U.; Damke, G.; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Davis, T.M.; /Bohr Inst. /Queensland U.; Filippenko, A.V.; /UC, Berkeley; Foley, R.J.; /UC, Berkeley; Garg, A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Garnavich, P.M.; /Notre Dame U.; Hicken, M.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Jha, S.; /Harvard U. /SLAC; Kirshner, R.P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Krisciunas, K.; /Notre Dame U. /Texas A-M; Leibundgut, B.; /Munich, Tech. U. /UC, Berkeley /NOAO, Tucson /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Fermilab /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Chile U., Santiago /Ohio State U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Harvard U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Munich, Tech. U. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Texas A-M /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.

    2011-11-10

    We report the discovery and orbital determination of 14 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the ESSENCE Supernova Survey difference imaging data set. Two additional objects discovered in a similar search of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey database were recovered in this effort. ESSENCE repeatedly observed fields far from the solar system ecliptic (-21{sup o} < {beta} < -5{sup o}), reaching limiting magnitudes per observation of I {approx} 23.1 and R {approx} 23.7. We examine several of the newly detected objects in detail, including 2003 UC{sub 414}, which orbits entirely between Uranus and Neptune and lies very close to a dynamical region that would make it stable for the lifetime of the solar system. 2003 SS{sub 422} and 2007 TA{sub 418} have high eccentricities and large perihelia, making them candidate members of an outer class of TNOs. We also report a new member of the 'extended' or 'detached' scattered disk, 2004 VN{sub 112}, and verify the stability of its orbit using numerical simulations. This object would have been visible to ESSENCE for only {approx}2% of its orbit, suggesting a vast number of similar objects across the sky. We emphasize that off-ecliptic surveys are optimal for uncovering the diversity of such objects, which in turn will constrain the history of gravitational influences that shaped our early solar system.

  16. Operating systems for wireless sensor networks: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad Omer; Kunz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a survey on the current state-of-the-art in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Operating Systems (OSs). In recent years, WSNs have received tremendous attention in the research community, with applications in battlefields, industrial process monitoring, home automation, and environmental monitoring, to name but a few. A WSN is a highly dynamic network because nodes die due to severe environmental conditions and battery power depletion. Furthermore, a WSN is composed of miniaturized motes equipped with scarce resources e.g., limited memory and computational abilities. WSNs invariably operate in an unattended mode and in many scenarios it is impossible to replace sensor motes after deployment, therefore a fundamental objective is to optimize the sensor motes' life time. These characteristics of WSNs impose additional challenges on OS design for WSN, and consequently, OS design for WSN deviates from traditional OS design. The purpose of this survey is to highlight major concerns pertaining to OS design in WSNs and to point out strengths and weaknesses of contemporary OSs for WSNs, keeping in mind the requirements of emerging WSN applications. The state-of-the-art in operating systems for WSNs has been examined in terms of the OS Architecture, Programming Model, Scheduling, Memory Management and Protection, Communication Protocols, Resource Sharing, Support for Real-Time Applications, and additional features. These features are surveyed for both real-time and non-real-time WSN operating systems.

  17. Operating Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Omer Farooq

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey on the current state-of-the-art in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN Operating Systems (OSs. In recent years, WSNs have received tremendous attention in the research community, with applications in battlefields, industrial process monitoring, home automation, and environmental monitoring, to name but a few. A WSN is a highly dynamic network because nodes die due to severe environmental conditions and battery power depletion. Furthermore, a WSN is composed of miniaturized motes equipped with scarce resources e.g., limited memory and computational abilities. WSNs invariably operate in an unattended mode and in many scenarios it is impossible to replace sensor motes after deployment, therefore a fundamental objective is to optimize the sensor motes’ life time. These characteristics of WSNs impose additional challenges on OS design for WSN, and consequently, OS design for WSN deviates from traditional OS design. The purpose of this survey is to highlight major concerns pertaining to OS design in WSNs and to point out strengths and weaknesses of contemporary OSs for WSNs, keeping in mind the requirements of emerging WSN applications. The state-of-the-art in operating systems for WSNs has been examined in terms of the OS Architecture, Programming Model, Scheduling, Memory Management and Protection, Communication Protocols, Resource Sharing, Support for Real-Time Applications, and additional features. These features are surveyed for both real-time and non-real-time WSN operating systems.

  18. The Hydra I cluster core. I. Stellar populations in the cD galaxy NGC 3311

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C. E.; Arnaboldi, M.; Coccato, L.; Hilker, M.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Richtler, T.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The history of the mass assembly of brightest cluster galaxies may be studied by mapping the stellar populations at large radial distances from the galaxy centre, where the dynamical times are long and preserve the chemodynamical signatures of the accretion events. Aims: We provide extended and robust measurements of the stellar population parameters in NGC 3311, the cD galaxy at the centre of the Hydra I cluster, and out to three effective radii. We wish to characterize the processes that drove the build-up of the stellar light at all these radii. Methods: We obtained the spectra from several regions in NGC 3311 covering an area of ~3 arcmin2 in the wavelength range 4800 ≲ λ(Å) ≲ 5800, using the FORS2 spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope in the MXU mode. We measured the equivalent widths of seven absorption-features defined in the Lick/IDS system, which were modelled by single stellar populations, to provide luminosity-weighted ages, metallicities, and alpha element abundances. Results: The trends in the Lick indices and the distribution of the stellar population parameters indicate that the stars of NGC 3311 may be divided in two radial regimes, one within and the another beyond one effective radius, Re = 8.4 kpc, similar to the distinction between the inner galaxy and the external halo derived from the NGC 3311 velocity dispersion profile. The inner galaxy (R ≤ Re) is old (age ~14 Gyr), has negative metallicity gradients and positive alpha element gradients. The external halo is also very old, but has a negative age gradient. The metal and element abundances of the external halo both have a large scatter, indicating that stars from a variety of satellites with different masses have been accreted. The region in the extended halo associated with the off-centred envelope at 0°parent galaxies, either disks with truncated star formation, or the outer regions of early-type galaxies. Late mass accretion at large radii is now coming from the tidal

  19. NATIONAL WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM OF THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melvin D.

    1985-01-01

    National Water Information System (NWIS) has been designed as an interactive, distributed data system. It will integrate the existing, diverse data-processing systems into a common system. It will also provide easier, more flexible use as well as more convenient access and expanded computing, dissemination, and data-analysis capabilities. The NWIS is being implemented as part of a Distributed Information System (DIS) being developed by the Survey's Water Resources Division. The NWIS will be implemented on each node of the distributed network for the local processing, storage, and dissemination of hydrologic data collected within the node's area of responsibility. The processor at each node will also be used to perform hydrologic modeling, statistical data analysis, text editing, and some administrative work.

  20. Medical Application Using Multi Agent System - A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougata Chakraborty

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have projected on the involvement of multi-agent system in medical or health care domain. The objective of this study is to provide future researchers more resourceful and focused review of various research papers in this domain. Multi-agent system is most suitable for healthcare paradigm, as the properties of agent based systems deals with heterogeneous multiple agents. Data distribution and data management in a dynamic and distributed environment with multi-user cooperation, made multi-agent system more significant in this field. The disposition of this paper is classified on the basis of theoretical and application approach. We have tried to cover few relevant papers published on last decade. The main aim of this literature survey is to provide a complete road map on multi agent system based research on medical health care platform.

  1. Formal methods for industrial critical systems a survey of applications

    CERN Document Server

    Margaria-Steffen, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    "Today, formal methods are widely recognized as an essential step in the design process of industrial safety-critical systems. In its more general definition, the term formal methods encompasses all notations having a precise mathematical semantics, together with their associated analysis methods, that allow description and reasoning about the behavior of a system in a formal manner.Growing out of more than a decade of award-winning collaborative work within the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics, Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: A Survey of Applications presents a number of mainstream formal methods currently used for designing industrial critical systems, with a focus on model checking. The purpose of the book is threefold: to reduce the effort required to learn formal methods, which has been a major drawback for their industrial dissemination; to help designers to adopt the formal methods which are most appropriate for their systems; and to offer a panel of state-of...

  2. A Survey of Web Information System and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yanbo; LI Juanzi; YANG Nan; LIU Qing; XU Baowen; MENG Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    The fourth international conference on Web information systems and applications (WISA 2007) has received 409 submissions and has accepted 37 papers for publication in this issue.The papers cover broad research areas, including Web mining and data warehouse, Deep Web and Web integration, P2P networks,text processing and information retrieval, as well as Web Services and Web infrastructure. After briefly introducing the WISA conference, the survey outlines the current activities and future trends concerning Web information systems and applications based on the papers accepted for publication.

  3. The MEDIDO Survey: Dark Matter in Low Dispersion Stellar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola, Eva; Bustamante, Maria Jose

    2017-06-01

    We will present preliminary results of the Medido Survey. The Survey focuses on dwarf galaxies of various types, as well as Milky Way globular clusters. We have been gathering data at the McDonald Observatory using the VIRUS-W spectrograph, which is capable of resolving velocity dispersions slightly above 10 km/s. For the galaxies, our focus is to improve kinematics in the central regions in order to tackle the cusp/core discrepancy between observations and models. In the case of the globular clusters, we map kinematics out to about 2 half-light radii with the goal of testing if any dark matter content can be detected or if dark matter can be confidently ruled out for these systems.

  4. A survey on question answering systems with classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mishra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Question answering systems (QASs generate answers of questions asked in natural languages. Early QASs were developed for restricted domains and have limited capabilities. Current QASs focus on types of questions generally asked by users, characteristics of data sources consulted, and forms of correct answers generated. Research in the area of QASs began in 1960s and since then, a large number of QASs have been developed. To identify the future scope of research in this area, the need of a comprehensive survey on QASs arises naturally. This paper surveys QASs and classifies them based on different criteria. We identify the current status of the research in the each category of QASs, and suggest future scope of the research.

  5. Detection of a Degenerate Companion of the SX Phoenicis Star KZ Hydrae by Studying its Long-Term Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. N.; Khokhuntod, P.; Rodríguez, E.; Boonyarak, C.; Marak, K.; López-González, M. J.; Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.; Jiang, S. Y.

    2008-05-01

    We present 109 new times of maximum light of the SX Phoenicis (SX Phe) star KZ Hydrae (KZ Hya) based mainly on our extensive photometric observations for two decades, leading to determination of a general ephemeris combined with the data in the literature. The O - C diagram reveals a continuously increasing period change combined with the light traveling time effect of the orbital motion of KZ Hya in a binary system with an orbital period of 26.8 ± 0.2 years. The deduced mass of the companion cannot be smaller than 0.83 M sun. Since no sign of the companion has ever been observed spectroscopically and the observed color index b - y excludes the possibility of the companion being a late-type main-sequence or dwarf star, KZ Hya becomes the first SX Phe star for which a degenerate companion is detected. The pulsation properties are studied by analyzing the Fourier spectra of the observed light curves while the fundamental parameters are deduced with the simultaneous multicolor uvbyβ data, showing this star to be a strong low-metallicity high-amplitude SX Phe-type variable pulsating in the fundamental radial mode. No signs of multiperiodicity or significant long-term changes in amplitude are detected in the pulsation of this variable.

  6. Solar System science with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lynne; Brown, Mike; Ivezić, Zeljko; Jurić, Mario; Malhotra, Renu; Trilling, David

    2015-11-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST; http://lsst.org) will be a large-aperture, wide-field, ground-based telescope that will survey half the sky every few nights in six optical bands from 320 to 1050 nm. It will explore a wide range of astrophysical questions, ranging from performing a census of the Solar System, to examining the nature of dark energy. It is currently in construction, slated for first light in 2019 and full operations by 2022.The LSST will survey over 20,000 square degrees with a rapid observational cadence, to typical limiting magnitudes of r~24.5 in each visit (9.6 square degree field of view). Automated software will link the individual detections into orbits; these orbits, as well as precisely calibrated astrometry (~50mas) and photometry (~0.01-0.02 mag) in multiple bandpasses will be available as LSST data products. The resulting data set will have tremendous potential for planetary astronomy; multi-color catalogs of hundreds of thousands of NEOs and Jupiter Trojans, millions of asteroids, tens of thousands of TNOs, as well as thousands of other objects such as comets and irregular satellites of the major planets.LSST catalogs will increase the sample size of objects with well-known orbits 10-100 times for small body populations throughout the Solar System, enabling a major increase in the completeness level of the inventory of most dynamical classes of small bodies and generating new insights into planetary formation and evolution. Precision multi-color photometry will allow determination of lightcurves and colors, as well as spin state and shape modeling through sparse lightcurve inversion. LSST is currently investigating survey strategies to optimize science return across a broad range of goals. To aid in this investigation, we are making a series of realistic simulated survey pointing histories available together with a Python software package to model and evaluate survey detections for a user-defined input population. Preliminary

  7. A New Blondin System for Surveying and Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Cuesta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the system presented in this paper is to provide surveyors and engineers with a new photogrammetry device that can be easily integrated with surveying total stations and a global navigation satellite system (GNSS infrastructure at a construction site, taking advantage of their accuracy and overcoming limitations of aerial vehicles with respect to weight, autonomy and skilled operator requirements in aerial photogrammetry. The system moves between two mounting points, in a blondin ropeway configuration, at the construction site, taking pictures and recording the data of the position and the orientation along the cable path. A cascaded extended Kalman filter is used to integrate measurements from the on-board inertial measurement unit (IMU, a GPS and a GNSS. Experimental results taken in a construction site show the system performance, including the validation of the position estimation, with a robotic surveying total station, or the creation of a digital surface model (DSM, using the emergent structure from motion (SfM techniques and open software. The georeferencing of the DSM is performed based on estimated camera position or using ground control points (GCPs.

  8. RNAseq versus genome-predicted transcriptomes: a large population of novel transcripts identified in an Illumina-454 Hydra transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Yvan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2013-03-25

    Evolutionary studies benefit from deep sequencing technologies that generate genomic and transcriptomic sequences from a variety of organisms. Genome sequencing and RNAseq have complementary strengths. In this study, we present the assembly of the most complete Hydra transcriptome to date along with a comparative analysis of the specific features of RNAseq and genome-predicted transcriptomes currently available in the freshwater hydrozoan Hydra vulgaris. To produce an accurate and extensive Hydra transcriptome, we combined Illumina and 454 Titanium reads, giving the primacy to Illumina over 454 reads to correct homopolymer errors. This strategy yielded an RNAseq transcriptome that contains 48'909 unique sequences including splice variants, representing approximately 24'450 distinct genes. Comparative analysis to the available genome-predicted transcriptomes identified 10'597 novel Hydra transcripts that encode 529 evolutionarily-conserved proteins. The annotation of 170 human orthologs points to critical functions in protein biosynthesis, FGF and TOR signaling, vesicle transport, immunity, cell cycle regulation, cell death, mitochondrial metabolism, transcription and chromatin regulation. However, a majority of these novel transcripts encodes short ORFs, at least 767 of them corresponding to pseudogenes. This RNAseq transcriptome also lacks 11'270 predicted transcripts that correspond either to silent genes or to genes expressed below the detection level of this study. We established a simple and powerful strategy to combine Illumina and 454 reads and we produced, with genome assistance, an extensive and accurate Hydra transcriptome. The comparative analysis of the RNAseq transcriptome with genome-predicted transcriptomes lead to the identification of large populations of novel as well as missing transcripts that might reflect Hydra-specific evolutionary events.

  9. “Is the Hydra the Enemy?” A Review of English Language as Hydra: Its Impacts on Non-English Language Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corazon D. Villareal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book, part of the series on Linguistic Diversity and Language Rights of Multilingual Matters, seeks "to promote multilingualism as a resource, the maintenance of the linguistic diversity and development of and respect for linguistic human rights worldwide through the dissemination of theoretical and empirical research"(ii. The context for this advocacy is English whose domain is perceived to have reduced linguistic and cultural diversity; this encounter is the core concern of the book, as the title suggests. The contributors unabashedly articulate their disgust and rage against this hydra through a seemingly inexhaustible arsenal of metaphors - thief, bully, juggernaut,an intractable governess, "a partner in crime," "an overstaying auntie," etc. The tone is combative, sometimes veering dangerously close to simplistic name-calling and clichéd emotionalism. So it seems.

  10. Glycosaminoglycans in Hydra magnipapillata (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): demonstration of chondroitin in the developing nematocyst, the sting organelle, and structural characterization of glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shuhei; Morimoto, Hideto; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2007-08-01

    The hydrozoan is the simplest organism whose movements are governed by the neuromuscular system, and its de novo morphogenesis can be easily induced by the removal of body parts. These features make the hydrozoan an excellent model for studying the regeneration of tissues in vivo, especially in the nervous system. Although glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) have been implicated in the signaling functions of various growth factors and play critical roles in the development of the central nervous system, the isolation and characterization of GAGs from hydrozoans have never been reported. Here, we characterized GAGs of Hydra magnipapillata. Immunostaining using anti-GAG antibodies showed chondroitin or chondroitin sulfate (CS) in the developing nematocyst, which is a sting organelle specific to cnidarians. The CS-PGs might furnish an environment for assembling nematocyst components, and might themselves be components of nematocysts. Therefore, GAGs were isolated from Hydra and their structural features were examined. A considerable amount of CS, three orders of magnitude less heparan sulfate (HS), but no hyaluronan were found, as in Caenorhabditis elegans. Analysis of the disaccharide composition of HS revealed glucosamine 2-N-sulfation, glucosamine 6-O-sulfation, and uronate 2-O-sulfation. CS contains not only nonsulfated and 4-O-sulfated N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) but also 6-O-sulfated GalNAc. The average molecular size of CS and HS was 110 and 10 kDa, respectively. It has also been established here that CS chains are synthesized on the core protein through the ubiquitous linkage region tetrasaccharide, suggesting that indispensable functions of the linkage region in the synthesis of GAGs have been conserved during evolution.

  11. Public Land Survey System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  12. Central mass profiles of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters Hydra A and A478

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, N.; Umetsu, K.; Tamura, T.; Fujita, Y.; Takizawa, M.; Matsushita, K.; Fukazawa, Y.; Futamase, T.; Kawaharada, M.; Miyazaki, S.; Mochizuki, Y.; Nakazawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ota, N.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, K.; Tam, S. I.

    2016-03-01

    We perform a weak-lensing study of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, Hydra A (z = 0.0538) and A478 (z = 0.0881), of which the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) host the powerful activities of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For each cluster, the observed tangential shear profile is described well by either a single Navarro-Frenk-White model or a two-component model including the BCG as an unresolved point mass. For A478, we determine the BCG and its host-halo masses from a joint fit to weak-lensing and stellar photometry measurements. We find that the choice of initial mass functions (IMFs) can introduce a factor of 2 uncertainty in the BCG mass, whereas the BCG host-halo mass is constrained well by data. We perform a joint analysis of the weak-lensing and stellar kinematics data available for the Hydra A cluster, which allows us to constrain the central mass profile without assuming specific IMFs. We find that the central mass profile (r < 300 kpc) determined from the joint analysis is in excellent agreement with those from independent measurements, including dynamical masses estimated from the cold gas disc component, X-ray hydrostatic total mass estimates, and the central stellar mass estimated with the Salpeter IMF. The observed dark matter fraction around the BCG for Hydra A is found to be smaller than those predicted by adiabatic contraction models, suggesting the importance of other physical processes, such as AGN feedback and/or dissipationless mergers.

  13. A survey on the security of cyber-physical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyu WU; Jian SUN; Jie CHEN

    2016-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are integrations of computation, communication, control and physical processes. Typical examples where CPSs are deployed include smart grids, civil infrastructure, medical devices and manufacturing. Security is one of the most important issues that should be investigated in CPSs and hence has received much attention in recent years. This paper surveys recent results in this area and mainly focusses on three important categories:attack detection, attack design and secure estimation and control. We also discuss several future research directions including risk assessment, modeling of attacks and attacks design, counter-attack strategy and testbed and validation.

  14. Advances in HYDRA and its applications to simulations of inertial confinement fusion targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinak M.M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new set of capabilities has been implemented in the HYDRA 2D/3D multiphysics inertial confinement fusion simulation code. These include a Monte Carlo particle transport library. It models transport of neutrons, gamma rays and light ions, as well as products they generate from nuclear and coulomb collisions. It allows accurate simulations of nuclear diagnostic signatures from capsule implosions. We apply it to here in a 3D simulation of a National Ignition Facility (NIF ignition capsule which models the full capsule solid angle. This simulation contains a severely rough ablator perturbation and provides diagnostics signatures of capsule failure due to excessive instability growth.

  15. A Polar Discrete Ordinate Radiation Transport Method for 2D ALE Meshes in HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Britton; Marinak, Marty; Weber, Chris; Peterson, Luc

    2016-10-01

    The Polar Discrete Ordinate Radiation Transport Method in HYDRA has been extended to handle general 2D r-z meshes. Previously the method was only for orthogonal 2D meshes. The new method can be employed with the ALE methodology for managing mesh motion that is used to simulate Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities on NIF capsule implosions. The results of an examination of this kind will be compared to those obtained by the corresponding diffusion method. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. A novel gene family controls species-specific morphological traits in Hydra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Khalturin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular events that underlie the evolution of morphological diversity is a major challenge in biology. Here, to identify genes whose expression correlates with species-specific morphologies, we compared transcriptomes of two closely related Hydra species. We find that species-specific differences in tentacle formation correlate with expression of a taxonomically restricted gene encoding a small secreted protein. We show that gain of function induces changes in morphology that mirror the phenotypic differences observed between species. These results suggest that "novel" genes may be involved in the generation of species-specific morphological traits.

  17. A fragmented metazoan organellar genome: the two mitochondrial chromosomes of Hydra magnipapillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wörheide Gert

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mitochondrial (mt genomes are characteristically circular molecules of ~16–20 kb. Medusozoa (Cnidaria excluding Anthozoa are exceptional in that their mt genomes are linear and sometimes subdivided into two to presumably four different molecules. In the genus Hydra, the mt genome comprises one or two mt chromosomes. Here, we present the whole mt genome sequence from the hydrozoan Hydra magnipapillata, comprising the first sequence of a fragmented metazoan mt genome encoded on two linear mt chromosomes (mt1 and mt2. Results The H. magnipapillata mt chromosomes contain the typical metazoan set of 13 genes for respiratory proteins, the two rRNA genes and two tRNA genes. All genes are unidirectionally oriented on mt1 and mt2, and several genes overlap. The gene arrangement suggests that the two mt chromosomes originated from one linear molecule that separated between nd5 and rns. Strong correlations between the AT content of rRNA genes (rns and rnl and the AT content of protein-coding genes among 24 cnidarian genomes imply that base composition is mainly determined by mt genome-wide constraints. We show that identical inverted terminal repeats (ITR occur on both chromosomes; these ITR contain a partial copy or part of the 3' end of cox1 (54 bp. Additionally, both mt chromosomes possess identical oriented sequences (IOS at the 5' and 3' ends (5' and 3' IOS adjacent to the ITR. The 5' IOS contains trnM and non-coding sequences (119 bp, whereas the 3' IOS comprises a larger part (mt2 with a larger partial copy of cox1 (243 bp. Conclusion ITR are also documented in the two other available medusozoan mt genomes (Aurelia aurita and Hydra oligactis. In H. magnipapillata, the arrangement of ITR and 5' IOS and 3' IOS suggest that these regions are crucial for mt DNA replication and/or transcription initiation. An analogous organization occurs in a highly fragmented ichthyosporean mt genome. With our data, we can reject a model of

  18. A Survey of Wireless Communications for the Electric Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyol, Bora A.; Kirkham, Harold; Clements, Samuel L.; Hadley, Mark D.

    2010-01-27

    A key mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to enhance the security and reliability of the nation’s energy infrastructure. Improving the security of control systems, which enable the automated control of our energy production and distribution, is critical for protecting the energy infrastructure and the integral function that it serves in our lives. The DOE-OE Control Systems Security Program provides research and development to help the energy industry actively pursue advanced security solutions for control systems. The focus of this report is analyzing how, where, and what type of wireless communications are suitable for deployment in the electric power system and to inform implementers of their options in wireless technologies. The discussions in this report are applicable to enhancing both the communications infrastructure of the current electric power system and new smart system deployments. The work described in this report includes a survey of the following wireless technologies: • IEEE 802.16 d and e (WiMAX) • IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) family of a, b, g, n, and s • Wireless sensor protocols that use parts of the IEEE 802.15.4 specification: WirelessHART, International Society of Automation (ISA) 100.11a, and Zigbee • The 2, 3, and 4 generation (G )cellular technologies of GPRS/EDGE/1xRTT, HSPA/EVDO, and Long-Term Evolution (LTE)/HSPA+UMTS.

  19. The putative Notch ligand HyJagged is a transmembrane protein present in all cell types of adult Hydra and upregulated at the boundary between bud and parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tischer Susanne

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Notch signalling pathway is conserved in pre-bilaterian animals. In the Cnidarian Hydra it is involved in interstitial stem cell differentiation and in boundary formation during budding. Experimental evidence suggests that in Hydra Notch is activated by presenilin through proteolytic cleavage at the S3 site as in all animals. However, the endogenous ligand for HvNotch has not been described yet. Results We have cloned a cDNA from Hydra, which encodes a bona-fide Notch ligand with a conserved domain structure similar to that of Jagged-like Notch ligands from other animals. Hyjagged mRNA is undetectable in adult Hydra by in situ hybridisation but is strongly upregulated and easily visible at the border between bud and parent shortly before bud detachment. In contrast, HyJagged protein is found in all cell types of an adult hydra, where it localises to membranes and endosomes. Co-localisation experiments showed that it is present in the same cells as HvNotch, however not always in the same membrane structures. Conclusions The putative Notch ligand HyJagged is conserved in Cnidarians. Together with HvNotch it may be involved in the formation of the parent-bud boundary in Hydra. Moreover, protein distribution of both, HvNotch receptor and HyJagged indicate a more widespread function for these two transmembrane proteins in the adult hydra, which may be regulated by additional factors, possibly involving endocytic pathways.

  20. System Architecture of the Dark Energy Survey Camera Readout Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Theresa; /FERMILAB; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; /Barcelona, IFAE; Chappa, Steve; /Fermilab; de Vicente, Juan; /Madrid, CIEMAT; Holm, Scott; Huffman, Dave; Kozlovsky, Mark; /Fermilab; Martinez, Gustavo; /Madrid, CIEMAT; Moore, Todd; /Madrid, CIEMAT /Fermilab /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab

    2010-05-27

    The Dark Energy Survey makes use of a new camera, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). DECam will be installed in the Blanco 4M telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DECam is presently under construction and is expected to be ready for observations in the fall of 2011. The focal plane will make use of 62 2Kx4K and 12 2kx2k fully depleted Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) for guiding, alignment and focus. This paper will describe design considerations of the system; including, the entire signal path used to read out the CCDs, the development of a custom crate and backplane, the overall grounding scheme and early results of system tests.

  1. A survey on RBF Neural Network for Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henali Sheth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Network security is a hot burning issue nowadays. With the help of technology advancement intruders or hackers are adopting new methods to create different attacks in order to harm network security. Intrusion detection system (IDS is a kind of security software which inspects all incoming and outgoing network traffic and it will generate alerts if any attack or unusual behavior is found in a network. Various approaches are used for IDS such as data mining, neural network, genetic and statistical approach. Among this Neural Network is more suitable approach for IDS. This paper describes RBF neural network approach for Intrusion detection system. RBF is a feed forward and supervise technique of neural network.RBF approach has good classification ability but its performance depends on its parameters. Based on survey we find that RBF approach has some short comings. In order to overcome this we need to do proper optimization of RBF parameters.

  2. A Survey of Artificial Immune System Based Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS. The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs. This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted.

  3. Molecular cloning of a preprohormone from Hydra magnipapillata containing multiple copies of Hydra-L Wamide (Leu-Trp-NH2) neuropeptides: evidence for processing at Ser and Asn residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leviev, I; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    The simple, freshwater polyp Hydra is often used as a model to study development in cnidarians. Recently, a neuropeptide, < Glu-Gln-Pro-Gly-Leu-Trp-NH2, has been isolated from sea anemones that induces metamorphosis in a hydroid planula larva to become a polyp. Here, we have cloned a preprohormon...

  4. Lens Systems for Sky Surveys and Space Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.

    2013-09-01

    Since the early days of astrophotography, lens systems have played a key role in capturing images of the night sky. The first images were attempted with visual-refractors. These were soon followed with color-corrected refractors and finally specially designed photo-refractors. Being telescopes, these instruments were of long-focus and imaged narrow fields of view. Simple photographic lenses were soon put into service to capture wide-field images. These lenses also had the advantage of requiring shorter exposure times than possible using large refractors. Eventually, lenses were specifically designed for astrophotography. With the introduction of the Schmidt-camera and related catadioptric systems, the popularity of astrograph lenses declined, but surprisingly, a few remained in use. Over the last 30 years, as small CCDs have displaced large photographic plates, lens systems have again found favor for their ability to image great swaths of sky in a relatively small and simple package. In this paper, we follow the development of lens-based astrograph systems from their beginnings through the current use of both commercial and custom lens systems for sky surveys and space surveillance. Some of the optical milestones discussed include the early Petzval-type portrait lenses, the Ross astrographic lens and the current generation of optics such as the commercial 200mm camera lens by Canon, and the Russian VT-53e in service with ISON.

  5. High-resolution 3D simulations of NIF ignition targets performed on Sequoia with HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Clark, D. S.; Jones, O. S.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.; Koning, J. M.; Schroeder, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Developments in the multiphysics ICF code HYDRA enable it to perform large-scale simulations on the Sequoia machine at LLNL. With an aggregate computing power of 20 Petaflops, Sequoia offers an unprecedented capability to resolve the physical processes in NIF ignition targets for a more complete, consistent treatment of the sources of asymmetry. We describe modifications to HYDRA that enable it to scale to over one million processes on Sequoia. These include new options for replicating parts of the mesh over a subset of the processes, to avoid strong scaling limits. We consider results from a 3D full ignition capsule-only simulation performed using over one billion zones run on 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations through modes l = 200. We also report progress towards a high-resolution 3D integrated hohlraum simulation performed using 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations on the ignition capsule through modes l = 70. These aim for the most complete calculations yet of the interactions and overall impact of the various sources of asymmetry for NIF ignition targets. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Validity of HydraTrend reagent strips for the assessment of hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Bryce M; Heelan, Kate A; Brown, Gregory A; Bartee, Rodrick T

    2014-09-01

    Hydration is used by athletic governing organizations for weight class eligibility. The measurement of urine specific gravity (USG) as a measure of hydration by reagent strips is a controversial issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of HydraTrend reagent strips that facilitate the correction of USG for alkaline urine samples against refractometry for the assessment of USG. Fifty-one participants (33 males, age = 22.3 ± 1.3 years; 18 females, age = 22.4 ± 1.2 years) provided 84 urine samples. The samples were tested for USG using refractometry and reagent strips and for pH using reagent strips and a digital pH meter. Strong correlation coefficients were found between refractometry and reagent strips for USG (rs(82) = 0.812, p refractometry with USG >1.020, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.020) occurred 39% (33/84) of the time and false negative results for National Federation of State High School Association (NFHS) requirements (fail refractometry with USG >1.025, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.025) occurred 14% (12/84) of the time. There were no false positives (pass refractometry and fail reagent strips) for NCAA or NFHS requirements. These data show that refractometry and reagent strips have strong positive correlations. However, the risk of a false negative result leading to incorrect certification of euhydration status outweighs the benefits of the HydraTrend reagent strips for the measurement of USG.

  7. A Chandra Observation of the TW Hydrae Association Brown Dwarf 2MASSW J1139511-315921

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Philip J; Gagné, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We report on a sequence of Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the TW Hydrae brown dwarf (BD) 2MASSW J1139511-315921 (2M1139). In the combined 31 ks ACIS-S exposure, 2M1139 is detected at the 3-sigma confidence level. We find an X-ray luminosity of L_X = 1.4^(+2.7)_(-1.0) x 10^26 ergs s^-1 or log(L_X/L_bol) = -4.8 +/- 0.3. This object is similar to another TW Hydrae BD member, CD-33 7795B (TWA 5B): both have H-alpha emission, both show no signatures of accretion, and both have comparable ages and spectral types. TWA 5B was previously detected in X-rays with a luminosity of L_X = 4 x 10^27 ergs s^-1 or log(L_X/L_bol) = -3.4, an order of magnitude more luminous in X-rays than 2M1139. We find that the discrepancy between the X-ray luminosity of 2M1139 and TWA 5B is consistent with the spread in X-ray luminosity in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) for BDs of similar spectral types. Though rotation may play a role in the X-ray activity of ultracool dwarfs like 2M1139 and TWA 5B, the discrepancy cannot be expla...

  8. Mutagenesis and functional analysis of the pore-forming toxin HALT-1 from Hydra magnipapillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Yvonne Jing Mei; Soh, Wai Tuck; Jiemy, William Febry; Hwang, Jung Shan

    2015-02-03

    Actinoporins are small 18.5 kDa pore-forming toxins. A family of six actinoporin genes has been identified in the genome of Hydra magnipapillata, and HALT-1 (Hydra actinoporin-like toxin-1) has been shown to have haemolytic activity. In this study, we have used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the role of amino acids in the pore-forming N-terminal region and the conserved aromatic cluster required for cell membrane binding. A total of 10 mutants of HALT-1 were constructed and tested for their haemolytic and cytolytic activity on human erythrocytes and HeLa cells, respectively. Insertion of 1-4 negatively charged residues in the N-terminal region of HALT-1 strongly reduced haemolytic and cytolytic activity, suggesting that the length or charge of the N-terminal region is critical for pore-forming activity. Moreover, substitution of amino acids in the conserved aromatic cluster reduced haemolytic and cytolytic activity by more than 80%, suggesting that these aromatic amino acids are important for attachment to the lipid membrane as shown for other actinoporins. The results suggest that HALT-1 and other actinoporins share similar mechanisms of pore formation and that it is critical for HALT-1 to maintain an amphipathic helix at the N-terminus and an aromatic amino acid-rich segment at the site of membrane binding.

  9. Mutagenesis and Functional Analysis of the Pore-Forming Toxin HALT-1 from Hydra magnipapillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Jing Mei Liew

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinoporins are small 18.5 kDa pore-forming toxins. A family of six actinoporin genes has been identified in the genome of Hydra magnipapillata, and HALT-1 (Hydra actinoporin-like toxin-1 has been shown to have haemolytic activity. In this study, we have used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the role of amino acids in the pore-forming N-terminal region and the conserved aromatic cluster required for cell membrane binding. A total of 10 mutants of HALT-1 were constructed and tested for their haemolytic and cytolytic activity on human erythrocytes and HeLa cells, respectively. Insertion of 1–4 negatively charged residues in the N-terminal region of HALT-1 strongly reduced haemolytic and cytolytic activity, suggesting that the length or charge of the N-terminal region is critical for pore-forming activity. Moreover, substitution of amino acids in the conserved aromatic cluster reduced haemolytic and cytolytic activity by more than 80%, suggesting that these aromatic amino acids are important for attachment to the lipid membrane as shown for other actinoporins. The results suggest that HALT-1 and other actinoporins share similar mechanisms of pore formation and that it is critical for HALT-1 to maintain an amphipathic helix at the N-terminus and an aromatic amino acid-rich segment at the site of membrane binding.

  10. Dickkopf related genes are components of the positional value gradient in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, René; Franke, André; Khalturin, Konstantin; Kiko, Rainer; Siebert, Stefan; Hemmrich, Georg; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2006-08-01

    Hydra is a classical model organism to understand fundamental developmental biological processes such as regeneration and axis formation. Here, we show that two genes which share some similarity with members of the Dickkopf family of proteins, HyDkk1/2/4-A and HyDkk1/2/4-C, are co-expressed in gland cells and regulated by the positional value gradient. While HyDkk1/2/4-A is expressed throughout the gastric region, HyDkk1/2/4-C has a graded expression pattern with a high level of transcripts just below the tentacle zone and absence of expression in the budding zone. Blocking the activity of GSK-3beta caused a drastic downregulation of HyDkk1/2/4-C expression in the gastric tissue. Experimental reduction of the number of HyDkk1/2/4-C-expressing cells resulted in expansion of the HyWnt expression domain in the hypostome. Thus, similar to Dickkopf proteins in vertebrates, one of the functions of HyDkk1/2/4-C in hydra may be to antagonize Wnt signalling.

  11. Central Mass Profiles of the Nearby Cool-core Galaxy Clusters Hydra A and A478

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, N; Tamura, T; Fujita, Y; Takizawa, M; Matsushita, K; Fukazawa, Y; Futamase, T; Kawaharada, M; Miyazaki, S; Mochizuki, Y; Nakazawa, K; Ohashi, T; Ota, N; Sasaki, T; Sato, K; Tam, S I

    2015-01-01

    We perform a weak-lensing study of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, Hydra A ($z=0.0538$) and A478 ($z=0.0881$), of which brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) host powerful activities of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For each cluster, the observed tangential shear profile is well described either by a single Navarro--Frenk--White model or a two-component model including the BCG as an unresolved point mass. For A478, we determine the BCG and its host-halo masses from a joint fit to weak-lensing and stellar photometry measurements. We find that the choice of initial mass functions (IMFs) can introduce a factor of two uncertainty in the BCG mass, whereas the BCG host halo mass is well constrained by data. We perform a joint analysis of weak-lensing and stellar kinematics data available for the Hydra A cluster, which allows us to constrain the central mass profile without assuming specific IMFs.We find that the central mass profile ($r<300$ kpc) determined from the joint analysis is in excellent agreement wi...

  12. Analysis of vascular development in the hydra sterol biosynthetic mutants of Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Pullen

    Full Text Available The control of vascular tissue development in plants is influenced by diverse hormonal signals, but their interactions during this process are not well understood. Wild-type sterol profiles are essential for growth, tissue patterning and signalling processes in plant development, and are required for regulated vascular patterning.Here we investigate the roles of sterols in vascular tissue development, through an analysis of the Arabidopsis mutants hydra1 and fackel/hydra2, which are defective in the enzymes sterol isomerase and sterol C-14 reductase respectively. We show that defective vascular patterning in the shoot is associated with ectopic cell divisions. Expression of the auxin-regulated AtHB8 homeobox gene is disrupted in mutant embryos and seedlings, associated with variably incomplete vascular strand formation and duplication of the longitudinal axis. Misexpression of the auxin reporter proIAA2ratioGUS and mislocalization of PIN proteins occurs in the mutants. Introduction of the ethylene-insensitive ein2 mutation partially rescues defective cell division, localization of PIN proteins, and vascular strand development.The results support a model in which sterols are required for correct auxin and ethylene crosstalk to regulate PIN localization, auxin distribution and AtHB8 expression, necessary for correct vascular development.

  13. Different Endosymbiotic Interactions in Two Hydra Species Reflect the Evolutionary History of Endosymbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-06-19

    Endosymbiosis is an important evolutionary event for organisms, and there is widespread interest in understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis establishment. Hydra is one of the most suitable organisms for studying the evolution of endosymbiosis. Within the genus Hydra, H. viridissima and H. vulgaris show endosymbiosis with green algae. Previous studies suggested that the endosymbiosis in H. vulgaris took place much more recently than that in H. viridissima, noting that the establishment of the interaction between H. vulgaris and its algae is not as stable as in H. viridissima. To investigate the on-going process of endosymbiosis, we first compared growth and tolerance to starvation in symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of both species. The results revealed that symbiotic H. viridissima had a higher growth rate and greater tolerance to starvation than aposymbiotic polyps. By contrast, growth of symbiotic H. vulgaris was identical to that of aposymbiotic polyps, and symbiotic H. vulgaris was less tolerant to starvation. Moreover, our gene expression analysis showed a pattern of differential gene expression in H. viridissima similar to that in other endosymbiotically established organisms, and contrary to that observed in H. vulgaris. We also showed that H. viridissima could cope with oxidative stress that caused damage, such as cell death, in H. vulgaris. These observations support the idea that oxidative stress related genes play an important role in the on-going process of endosymbiosis evolution. The different evolutionary stages of endosymbiosis studied here provide a deeper insight into the evolutionary processes occurring toward a stable endosymbiosis.

  14. Direct Evidence for Outflow of Metal-enriched Gas Along the Radio Jets of Hydra A

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, C C; Cavagnolo, K W; McNamara, B R; David, L P; Nulsen, P E J; Wise, M W

    2009-01-01

    Using deep Chandra observations of the Hydra A galaxy cluster, we examine the metallicity structure near the central galaxy and along its powerful radio source. We show that the metallicity of the intracluster medium is enhanced by up to 0.2 dex along the radio jets and lobes compared to the metallicity of the undisturbed gas. The enhancements extend from a radius of 20 kpc from the central galaxy to a distance of ~ 120 kpc. We estimate the total iron mass that has been transported out of the central galaxy to be between 2 x 10^7 M_sun and 7 x 10^7 M_sun which represents 10% - 20% of the iron mass within the central galaxy. The energy required to lift this gas is roughly 1% to 5% of the total energetic output of the AGN. Evidently, Hydra A's powerful radio source is able to redistribute metal-enriched, low entropy gas throughout the core of the galaxy cluster. The short re-enrichment time scale < 10^9 yr implies that the metals lost from the central galaxy will be quickly replenished.

  15. Jet-Intracluster Medium interaction in Hydra A. I Estimates of jet velocity from inner knots

    CERN Document Server

    Nawaz, M A; Bicknell, G V; Sutherland, R S; McNamara, B R

    2014-01-01

    We present the first stage of an investigation of the interactions of the jets in the radio galaxy Hydra A with the intracluster medium. We consider the jet kinetic power, the galaxy and cluster atmosphere, and the inner structure of the radio source. Analysing radio observations of the inner lobes of Hydra A by Taylor et al. (1990) we confirm the jet power estimates of about 1e45 ergs/s derived by Wise et al. (2007) from dynamical analysis of the X-ray cavities. With this result and a model for the galaxy halo, we explore the jet-intracluster medium interactions occurring on a scale of 10 kpc using two-dimensional, axisymmetric, relativistic pure hydrodynamic simulations. A key feature is that we identify the three bright knots in the northern jet as biconical reconfinement shocks, which result when an over pressured jet starts to come into equilibrium with the galactic atmosphere. Through an extensive parameter space study we deduce that the jet velocity is approximately 0.8 c at a distance 0.5 kpc from the...

  16. Testing the cooling flow model in the intermediate polar EX Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, G J M; Brickhouse, N S; Mauche, C W; Suleimanov, V; .,

    2015-01-01

    We use the best available X-ray data from the intermediate polar EX Hydrae to study the cooling-flow model often applied to interpret the X-ray spectra of these accreting magnetic white dwarf binaries. First, we resolve a long-standing discrepancy between the X-ray and optical determinations of the mass of the white dwarf in EX Hya by applying new models of the inner disk truncation radius. Our fits to the X-ray spectrum now agree with the white dwarf mass of 0.79 M$_{\\odot}$sun determined using dynamical methods through spectroscopic observations of the secondary. We use a simple isobaric cooling flow model to derive the emission line fluxes, emission measure distribution, and H-like to He-like line ratios for comparison with the 496 ks Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating observation of EX Hydrae. We find that the H/He ratios are not well reproduced by this simple isobaric cooling flow model and show that while H-like line fluxes can be accurately predicted, fluxes of lower-Z He-like lines are significa...

  17. The Super Gaussian Laser Intensity Profile in HYDRA's 3D Laser Ray Trace Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepke, Scott M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    In this note, the laser focal plane intensity pro le for a beam modeled using the 3D ray trace package in HYDRA is determined. First, the analytical model is developed followed by a practical numerical model for evaluating the resulting computationally intensive normalization factor for all possible input parameters.

  18. Ultrastructural localization of RFamide-like peptides in neuronal dense-cored vesicles in the peduncle of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koizumi, O; Wilson, Douglas Clyde; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1989-01-01

    The presence of Arg-Phe-amide (RFamide)-like peptides in dense-cored vesicles in neurons of the peduncle of Hydra was demonstrated by immunogold electron microscopy. Thin sections of Lowicryl-embedded tissue labeled with antisera to RFamide and 5-nm gold-conjugated, secondary antibody and of Epon...

  19. A new species of hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Hydridae) and molecular phylogenetic analysis of six congeners from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Tai; Deng, Li; Liu, Hong-Tao

    2012-12-01

    A new species of genus Hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Hydridae), Hydra shenzhensis sp. nov. from Guangdong Province, China, is described and illustrated. Most polyps have five tentacles. Column length reaches 11 mm when relaxed. Buds do not acquire tentacles synchronously. Stenotele is broad and pyriform in shape, 1.2 times as long as its width. Holotrichous isorhiza is asymmetrical and slender (more than 2.7 times as long as its width), with transverse and slanting coils. Atrichous isorhiza is long, resembling a melon-seed in shape. Desmoneme is asymmetrically pyriform in shape. The new species, belonging to the vulgaris group, is dioecious; sexual reproduction was found to occur mostly during November and December under conditions of dense culture or food shortage. Two to thirteen testes, cone-like shape with papilla, formed beneath the tentacles. One to three ovaries, with an egg cup, milky white in color, formed on body column. Ninety percent of individuals developed only one ovum. On a mother polyp, a fertilized ovum developed an embryonic theca covering its surface. The embryotheca is brown, with a spine-like structure, covering a layer of transparent, membrane-like material. For phylogenetic analysis, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) of six hydra species collected from China was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Morphological characters in combination with molecular evidence support the hydra described here as a new species.

  20. The identity and occurrence of Kerona pediculus (Ciliophora: Hypotrichida), a well-known epizoite of Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, A.; Robson, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Epizoic Kerona pediculus have been found on Hydra vulgaris and on Cristatella mucedo (Bryozoa) in the same habitat. On the basis of morphological characters (using Nomarski and Scanning Electron Microscopy) specimens from the two hosts are indistinguishable. Details revealed by SEM agree with

  1. An international survey and recommendations for modern hydrokinetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Basnet, Bipin; Dunsmore, Ian

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the results of a survey on some of the advantages of the novel and uniquehydrokinetic energy generation systems over other technologies available today. Recently, a comprehensive assessment study for the application of internationally leading hydrokinetic technologies in water engineering has been conducted. The study was carried with the collaboration of the School of Engineering, University of Glasgow and Scottish Water Horizons Ltd. The assessment involved the information collection, critical analysis of various features and financial viability analysis of various hydrokinetic systems available at this time. The outcomes of the study are summarized below: - The preliminary assessment of the hydrokinetic system and their application were carried out. The technologies were divided into different categories as per their core theory, scope of application as well as positive and negatives effects of their application. - A variety of criteria were used to assess the technical, economical and ecological potential from the application of hydrokinetic systems. - A number of companies representing a wide range of technologies available worldwide were ranked considering the performance of these against the above criteria. - Only a couple of the companies could satisfy the selection condition to be adopted into select sites of low flow and low pressure head. - A more detailed assessment for specific sites and further testing of these technologies is recommended to further assess the advantages and optimal performance of the selected technologies. A preliminary evaluation of the best performing systems demonstrates its effectiveness, particularly over other existing hydrokinetic technologies, when ecology of the open water surface system is considered. Specifically it will be of interest to use the selected technology in combination with a fish passage, as compared with other technologies this system has a minimal amount of fast moving components.

  2. Microgrid Controller and Advanced Distribution Management System Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Starke, Michael R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herron, Andrew N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    A microgrid controller, which serves as the heart of a microgrid, is responsible for optimally managing the distributed energy resources, energy storage systems, and responsive demand and for ensuring the microgrid is being operated in an efficient, reliable, and resilient way. As the market for microgrids has blossomed in recently years, many vendors have released their own microgrid controllers to meet the various needs of different microgrid clients. However, due to the absence of a recognized standard for such controllers, vendor-supported microgrid controllers have a range of functionalities that are significantly different from each other in many respects. As a result the current state of the industry has been difficult to assess. To remedy this situation the authors conducted a survey of the functions of microgrid controllers developed by vendors and national laboratories. This report presents a clear indication of the state of the microgrid-controller industry based on analysis of the survey results. The results demonstrate that US Department of Energy funded research in microgrid controllers is unique and not competing with that of industry.

  3. Identification of known objects in solar system surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Milani, Andrea; Farnocchia, Davide; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Jedicke, Robert; Denneau, Larry; Wainscoat, Richard J; Burgett, William; Grav, Tommy; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugene; Price, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new objects in modern wide-field asteroid and comet surveys can be enhanced by first identifying observations belonging to known solar system objects. The assignation of new observations to a known object is an attribution problem that occurs when a least squares orbit already exists for the object but a separate fit is not possible to just the set of new observations. In this work we explore the strongly asymmetric attribution problem in which the existing least squares orbit is very well constrained and the new data are sparse. We describe an attribution algorithm that introduces new quality control metrics in the presence of strong biases in the astrometric residuals. The main biases arise from the stellar catalogs used in the reduction of asteroid observations and we show that a simple debiasing with measured regional catalog biases significantly improves the results. We tested the attribution algorithm using data from the PS1 survey that used the 2MASS star catalog for the astrometric re...

  4. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  5. Versatility of immunohistochemical reactions: comprehensive survey of detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrý, J

    1996-01-01

    The field of immunohistochemistry comprises histological methods enabling detection of tissue antigens via specific antibodies. Although all these techniques take an advantage of a large specificity of antibody to a particular tissue antigen there are many different approaches for enhancement and visualization of the signal. The aim of the present review article was to briefly outline the historical milestones that made the rapid progress of this discipline possible and give a comprehensive survey of immunohistochemical methods applicable to biomedical research. The survey starts with a description of the direct immunohistochemical method and then pays attention to a huge number of indirect methods. For better explanation of principles of individual techniques, the text is accompanied with graphical schemes. The highest attention is given to immunohistochemical methods that are most generally used, i.e. enzyme anti-enzyme complex methods (e.g. Peroxidase Anti-Peroxidase/PAP/ or Alkaline Phosphatase Anti-Alkaline Phosphatase /APAAP/) and methods based on avidin-biotin interactions (Bridged Avidin-Biotin/BRAB/, Avidin-Biotin Complex /ABC/, Labelled Avidin-Biotin/LAB/). Nevertheless, the principles of other immunohistochemical methods like two- or three-step indirect immunohistochemical methods, methods based on protein A-antibody interaction and Hapten Antibody Anti-Hapten method (HAAH), are also thoroughly characterized. Usefulness of each method for a specific utilization, its advantages and disadvantages are mentioned and compared with the latest immunohistochemical techniques, like Multi-Layered Peroxidase-Labelled Antibody (MLP) and water soluble polymer conjugates, e.g. Enhanced Polymer One-Step staining (EPOS) or EnVision. The last paragraphs are devoted to immunohistochemical amplification systems (Catalyzed Signal Amplification/CSA/ and label anti-label) that dramatically increase sensitivity of detection systems and enable to compare sensitivity of

  6. Hydra: an Energy-efficient and Reconfigurable Network Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Burgwal, M.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Rauwerda, G.K.; Heysters, P.M.

    In heterogeneous tiled System-on-Chip architectures a Network-on-Chip is used to transport messages between processing elements. A reconfigurable network interface is used to connect the processing elements to the Network-on-Chip, converting the messages between both domains. This paper introduces

  7. A Survey on Fault Tolerant Multi Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Arfat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A multi-agent system (MAS is formed by a number of agents connected together to achieve the desired goals specified by the design. Usually in a multi agent system, agents work on behalf of a user to accomplish given goals. In MAS co-ordination, co-operation, negotiation and communication are important aspects to achieve fault tolerance in MAS. The multi-agent system is likely to fail in a distributed environment and as an outcome of such, the resources for MAS may not be available due to the failure of an agent, machine crashes, process failure, software failure, communication failure and/or hardware failure. Therefore, many researchers have proposed fault tolerance approaches to overcome the failure in MAS. So we have surveyed these approaches in this paper, whereby our contribution is threefold. Firstly, we have provided taxonomy of faults and techniques in MAS. Secondly, we have provided a qualitative comparison of existing fault tolerance approaches. Thirdly, we have provided an evaluation of existing fault tolerance techniques. Results show that most of the existing schemes are not very efficient, due to various reasons like high computation costs, costly replication and large communication overheads.

  8. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope project management control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Jeffrey P.

    2012-09-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) program is jointly funded by the NSF, the DOE, and private institutions and donors. From an NSF funding standpoint, the LSST is a Major Research Equipment and Facilities (MREFC) project. The NSF funding process requires proposals and D&D reviews to include activity-based budgets and schedules; documented basis of estimates; risk-based contingency analysis; cost escalation and categorization. "Out-of-the box," the commercial tool Primavera P6 contains approximately 90% of the planning and estimating capability needed to satisfy R&D phase requirements, and it is customizable/configurable for remainder with relatively little effort. We describe the customization/configuration and use of Primavera for the LSST Project Management Control System (PMCS), assess our experience to date, and describe future directions. Examples in this paper are drawn from the LSST Data Management System (DMS), which is one of three main subsystems of the LSST and is funded by the NSF. By astronomy standards the LSST DMS is a large data management project, processing and archiving over 70 petabyes of image data, producing over 20 petabytes of catalogs annually, and generating 2 million transient alerts per night. Over the 6-year construction and commissioning phase, the DM project is estimated to require 600,000 hours of engineering effort. In total, the DMS cost is approximately 60% hardware/system software and 40% labor.

  9. Charon's, Hydra's, and Nix's near IR spectra as seen by New Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Cook, Jason C.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Protopapa, Silvia; Grundy, William M.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold A.; Young, Leslie; New Horizons Surface Composition Theme Team

    2016-10-01

    Charon, Pluto's largest satellite, is a predominantly grey-color icy world covered mostly in H2O ice, with spectral evidence for NH3 and/or its hydrates, as previously reported (Cook et al. 2007, ApJ. 663, 1406; Verbiscer et al. 2007, LPSC 38, 2318; Merlin et al. 2010, Icarus, 210, 930; Cook et al. 2014, AAS/DPS Abstracts, 46, #401.04; Holler et al. 2016, submitted, arXiv:1606.05695). In their 2010 work, Merlin et al. reported the presence of ammonia species along with H2O ice both in crystalline and amorphous phase. They introduced a blue component to model the slope present in their near-IR observations, which could not be otherwise reproduced without the adoption of an ad hoc component. The presence of ammonia and H2O in its crystalline form prompted Cook et al. (2007) to suggest cryovolcanism as a favored mechanism of resurfacing although the geological evidence for volcanism reported from New Horizons imaging observations does not appear to be recent (Moore et al. Science, 351, 1284).We analyze one of New Horizons' observations of Charon taken with the LEISA imaging spectrometer from a distance of ~82,000 km at high spatial resolution (4.9 km/pixel). Images from the New Horizons spacecraft reveal a surface with terrains of seemingly different ages and a moderate degree of localized coloration.Hydra was observed by New Horizons at a distance 240,000 and 370,000 hardly resolving its disk. Nix on the other hand was observed from a much more favorable distance of 60,000 and 162,000 km revealing a nearly uniform surface coloration and structure.Although Hydra could hardly be resolved at the flyby distance we have obtained its spectral signature and we compare it with those of Charon and Nix. A feature at ~2.2 µm, corresponding to the NH3 and/or NH3 hydrates, is visible subtly on Charon and clearly on Hydra and Nix hinting at the possibility that NH3 might be less volatile than previously thought and making the need for recent cryovolcanism less crucial

  10. DeepSurveyCam—A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kwasnitschka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor, and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS. The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor.

  11. DeepSurveyCam--A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, Tom; Köser, Kevin; Sticklus, Jan; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Weiß, Tim; Wenzlaff, Emanuel; Schoening, Timm; Triebe, Lars; Steinführer, Anja; Devey, Colin; Greinert, Jens

    2016-01-28

    Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor), and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS). The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers) in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor.

  12. DeepSurveyCam—A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, Tom; Köser, Kevin; Sticklus, Jan; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Weiß, Tim; Wenzlaff, Emanuel; Schoening, Timm; Triebe, Lars; Steinführer, Anja; Devey, Colin; Greinert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor), and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS). The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep diving flash-equipped drones. Refraction effects influence geometric image formation considerations with respect to field of view and focus, while attenuation and scattering degrade the radiometric image quality and limit the effective visibility. As an improvement on the stated issues, we present an AUV-based optical system intended for autonomous visual mapping of large areas of the seafloor (square kilometers) in up to 6000 m water depth. We compare it to existing systems and discuss tradeoffs such as resolution vs. mapped area and show results from a recent deployment with 90,000 mapped square meters of deep ocean floor. PMID:26828495

  13. Survey on Power Optimization for Disk Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ravikumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy optimization has become a growing concern in the present world. Energy optimization can influence the overall system design and reliability. Power can greatly influence the performance of the disk, as power dissipation generates heat that affects stability and reliability of the component, particularly for large server systems. Hence, developers concentrate on the configuration of disk arrays which can deliver extremely high performance. Though, there are several significant techniques for tackling disk power for laptops and workstations, using them in a server environment are a considerable challenge, especially under stringent performance needs. Excessive power consumption is a major barrier to the market acceptance of hard disks in mobile electronic devices. Studying and reducing power consumption, however, often comprises running time intensive disk traces on real hardware with specialized power-monitoring equipment. Most of the conventional energy optimization techniques are based on architectural level techniques and is found to be effective only in certain scenarios. This paper proposes a survey on the disk energy optimization techniques. This paper analyses the functionalities, advantages and the disadvantages of the various techniques for the disk power consumption.

  14. The Ways of Using CRM Systems; the Survey of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Sudarević

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although young science, marketing has passed through the row of changes since the start of its development. The 1990th of the last century brought big changes, firstly by the powerful penetration of information and communication technology. This trend has exerted influences on the development and application of marketing in both theory and practice. Thanks to the development and implementation of CRM systems, companies have had insight into the complete behavior of their customers, even in the situations where companies have a great number of different customers. However, many companies have not used these data in the right way. The work points to some of possible approaches in using data collected by means of CRM systems. Measuring the customer lifetime value, classification of the present customers, increasing customer retention rate, winning new "right" customers and the increase of product sale to the present customers are just some of activities exerting direct influence on companies' business performance. Based on the survey of available literature, the work presents how to use the mentioned activities in the right way.

  15. A Radial Velocity Study of the Intermediate Polar EX Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Echevarría, J; Michel, R; Santisteban, J V Hernández

    2016-01-01

    A study on the intermediate polar EX Hya is presented, based on simultaneous photometry and high dispersion spectroscopic observations, during four consecutive nights. The strong photometric modulation related to with the 67-min spin period of the primary star is clearly present, as well as the narrow eclipses associated to the orbital modulation. Since our eclipse timings have been obtained almost 91,000 cycles since the last reported observations, we present new linear ephemeris, although we cannot rule out a sinusoidal variation suggested by previous authors. The system mainly shows double-peaked H$\\alpha$, H$\\beta$ and HeI $\\lambda$5876 \\AA emission lines. From the profile of the H$\\alpha$ line, we find two components; one with a steep rise and velocities not larger than $\\sim$1000 km s$^{-1}$ and another broader component extending up to $\\sim$2000 km s$^{-1}$, which we interpret as coming mainly from the inner disc. A strong and variable hotspot is found and a stream-like structure is seen at times. We ...

  16. A radial velocity study of the intermediate polar EX Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, J.; Ramírez-Torres, A.; Michel, R.; Hernández Santisteban, J. V.

    2016-09-01

    A study on the intermediate polar EX Hya is presented, based on simultaneous photometry and high-dispersion spectroscopic observations, during four consecutive nights. The strong photometric modulation related to the 67-min spin period of the primary star is clearly present, as well as the narrow eclipses associated with the orbital modulation. Since our eclipse timings have been obtained almost 91 000 cycles since the last reported observations, we present new linear ephemeris, although we cannot rule out a sinusoidal variation suggested by previous authors. The system shows double-peaked H α, H β and He I λ5876 Å emission lines, with almost no other lines present. As H α is the only line with enough S/N ratio in our observations, we have concentrated our efforts in its study, in order to obtain a reliable radial velocity semi-amplitude. From the profile of this line, we find two important components; one with a steep rise and velocities not larger than ˜1000 km s-1 and another broader component extending up to ˜2000 km s-1, which we interpret as coming mainly from the inner disc. A strong and variable hotspot is found and a stream-like structure is seen at times. We show that the best solution correspond to K1 = 58 ± 5 km s-1 from H α, from the two emission components, which are both in phase with the orbital modulation. We remark on a peculiar effect in the radial velocity curve around phase zero, which could be interpreted as a Rositter-MacLaughlin-like effect, which has been taken into account before deriving K1. This value is compatible with the values found in high resolution both in the ultraviolet and X-ray. Using the published inclination angle of i =78° ± 1° and semi-amplitude K2 = 432 ± 5 km s-1, we find: M1 = 0.78 ± 0.03 M⊙, M2 = 0.10 ± 0.02 M⊙ and a = 0.67 ± 0.01 R⊙. Doppler Tomography has been applied, to construct six Doppler tomograms for single orbital cycles spanning the four days of observations to support our conclusions

  17. US Decadal Survey Outer Solar System Missions: Trajectory Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, T. R.; Atkinson, D. H.; Strange, N. J.; Landau, D.

    2012-04-01

    The report of the US Planetary Science Decadal Survey (PSDS), released in draft form March 7, 2011, identifies several mission concepts involving travel to high-priority outer solar system (OSS) destinations. These include missions to Europa and Jupiter, Saturn and two of its satellites, and Uranus. Because travel to the OSS involves much larger distances and larger excursions out of the sun's gravitational potential well than inner solar system (ISS) missions, transfer trajectories for OSS missions are stronger drivers of mission schedule and resource requirements than for ISS missions. Various characteristics of each planet system, such as obliquity, radiation belts, rings, deep gravity wells, etc., carry ramifications for approach trajectories or trajectories within the systems. The maturity of trajectory studies for each of these destinations varies significantly. Europa has been the focus of studies for well over a decade. Transfer trajectory options from Earth to Jupiter are well understood. Current studies focus on trajectories within the Jovian system that could reduce the total mission cost of a Europa orbiter mission. Three missions to the Saturn system received high priority ratings in the PSDS report: two flagship orbital missions, one to Titan and one to Enceladus, and a Saturn atmospheric entry probe mission for NASA's New Frontiers Program. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) studies of 2007-2009 advanced our understanding of trajectory options for transfers to Saturn, including solar electric propulsion (SEP) trajectories. But SEP trajectories depend more on details of spacecraft and propulsion system characteristics than chemical trajectories, and the maturity of SEP trajectory search tools has not yet caught up with chemical trajectory tools, so there is still more useful research to be done on Saturn transfers. The TSSM studies revealed much about Saturn-orbiting trajectories that yield efficient and timely delivery to Titan or Enceladus

  18. Poverty, violence, and family disorganization: Three "Hydras" and their role in children's street movement in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Md Hasan

    2016-05-01

    The increasing number of children running away from home in Bangladesh is a major concern, and in need of critical attention. This yearlong study explores why children leave home with a sample of street children in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Purposive sampling from three locations in Dhaka yielded a sample of 75 homeless children aged 10-17. For each participant, a 60-90min in-depth qualitative interview was conducted multiple times. While the dominant explanations rely on poverty or abuse, the findings of this study reveal that the cause is actually three heads of a Hydra monster: poverty, abuse, and family disorganization and their interactions. It shows that the primary reasons for children breaking from their family are all interrelated. The findings from this study are likely to add knowledge regarding the issues and may lead to preventative interventions for street children and their families.

  19. GTRF Calculations Using Hydra-TH (THM.CFD.P5.05)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakosi, Jozsef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, Mark A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nourgaliev, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-05

    This report describes the work carried out for completion of the Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) Level 3 Milestone THM.CFD.P5.05 for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). A series body-fitted computational meshes have been generated by Numeca's Hexpress/Hybrid, a.k.a. 'Spider', meshing technology for the V5H 3x3 and 5x5 rod bundle geometry used to compute the fluid dynamics of grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF). Spider is easy to use, fast, and automatically generates high-quality meshes for extremely complex geometries, required for the GTRF problem. Hydra-TH has been used to carry out large-eddy simulations on both 3x3 and 5x5 geometries, using different mesh resolutions. The results analyzed show good agreement with Star-CCM+ simulations and experimental data.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hydra I Cluster Catalogue (HCC) (Misgeld+, 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misgeld, I.; Mieske, S.; Hilker, M.

    2008-07-01

    The obtained photometric parameters along with the available radial velocities for all early-type galaxies in our sample (111 objects) are presented in the Hydra I Cluster Catalogue (HCC). For each galaxy right ascension, declination, extinction corrected magnitude V and colour V-I, central surface brightness and scale length of an exponential fit to the surface brightness profile, effective surface brightness, effective radius and profile shape index n, as obtained from a Sersic fit, are given. The physical scale is 0.2kpc/arcsec at the assumed distance modulus of (m-M)=33.07mag. The radial velocities are taken from our study and from Christlein & Zabludoff (2003ApJ...591..764C). (1 data file).

  1. Toxicity of water and sediment from stormwater retarding basins to Hydra hexactinella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj; Pollino, Carmel A.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi;

    2008-01-01

    of 50 ml/L and 100 ml/L, while the 7 h pulse exposure caused a significant increase in the mean population growth rate compared to the control. Water samples from the two other retarding basins were found non-toxic to H. hexactinella. This is the first study to employ sediment tests with Hydra spp....... on stormwater sediments and a lower population growth rate was observed for organisms exposed to sediment from the Avoca St retarding basins. The behavioral study showed that H. hexactinella tended to avoid the sediment-water interface when exposed to sediment from all retarding basins, compared...... to the reference sediment. Further work is needed to determine the long-term effects of stormwater polluted sediments and acute effects due to organism exposure to short-term high concentrations during rain events. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. GTRF Calculations Using Hydra-TH (L3 Milestone THM.CFD.P5.05)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakosi, Jozsef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, Mark A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nourgaliev, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-05

    This report describes the work carried out for completion of the Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) Level 3 Milestone THM.CFD.P5.05 for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). A series of body-fitted computational meshes have been generated by Numeca's Hexpress/Hybrid, a.k.a. 'Spider', meshing technology for the V5H 3 x 3 and 5 x 5 rod bundle geometries and subsequently used to compute the fluid dynamics of grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF). Spider is easy to use, fast, and automatically generates high-quality meshes for extremely complex geometries, required for the GTRF problem. Hydra-TH has been used to carry out large-eddy simulations on both 3 x 3 and 5 x 5 geometries, using different mesh resolutions. The results analyzed show good agreement with Star-CCM+ simulations and experimental data.

  3. 2D HYDRA Calculations of Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Growth and Feedthrough in Cylindrical Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Matthew; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Peterson, Kyle; Hess, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Cylindrical liner implosions are susceptible to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT), along with the azimuthal current-carrying modes (sausage, kink, etc). ``Feedthrough'' of these instabilities has a strong influence on the integrity of the liner/fuel interface in the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept (MagLIF). The linearized ideal MHD equations can be solved to quantify these effects, including the presence of an effective gravity and an axial magnetic field. We investigate the potential of this field to mitigate feedthrough, due to MRT growth from various initial surface finishes (seeded, rough), throughout the implosion using our analytic results and the LLNL code, HYDRA. We will present both low and high convergence cases. Lastly, we illustrate the effect shock compression can have on feedthrough in seeded liners for various fill gases (cold and pre-heated) and magnetic field configurations. M. R. Weis was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories.

  4. Development of the two-part pattern during regeneration of the head in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bode, Matthias; Awad, T A; Koizumi, O;

    1988-01-01

    The head of a hydra is composed of two parts, a domed hypostome with a mouth at the top and a ring of tentacles below. When animals are decapitated a new head regenerates. During the process of regeneration the apical tip passes through a transient stage in which it exhibits tentacle...... began evaginating in a ring, both the TS-19 antigen and RLI+ ganglion cells gradually disappeared from the presumptive hypostome area and RLI+ sensory cells appeared at the apex. By tracking tissue movements during morphogenesis it became clear that the apical cap, in which these changes took place, did...... not undergo tissue turnover. The implications of this tentacle-like stage for patterning the two-part head are discussed....

  5. Jet-Intracluster Medium interaction in Hydra A. II The Effect of Jet Precession

    CERN Document Server

    Nawaz, M A; Wagner, A Y; Sutherland, R S; McNamara, B R

    2016-01-01

    We present three dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of a precessing jet interacting with the intracluster medium and compare the simulated jet structure with the observed structure of the Hydra A northern jet. For the simulations, we use jet parameters obtained in the parameter space study of the first paper in this series and probe different values for the precession period and precession angle. We find that for a precession period P = 1 Myr and a precession angle = 20 degree the model reproduces i) the curvature of the jet, ii) the correct number of bright knots within 20 kpc at approximately correct locations, and iii) the turbulent transition of the jet to a plume. The Mach number of the advancing bow shock = 1.85 is indicative of gentle cluster atmosphere heating during the early stages of the AGN's activity.

  6. 48 CFR 53.301-1408 - Preaward Survey of Prospective Contractor-Accounting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preaward Survey of Prospective Contractor-Accounting System. 53.301-1408 Section 53.301-1408 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-1408 Preaward Survey of Prospective Contractor—Accounting System. EC01MY91.093 EC01MY91.094...

  7. Cell type complexity in the basal metazoan Hydra is maintained by both stem cell based mechanisms and transdifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Stefan; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the stability of the differentiated cell state is a fundamental problem in biology. To characterize the critical regulatory events that control stem cell behavior and cell plasticity in vivo in an organism at the base of animal evolution, we have generated transgenic Hydra lines [Wittlieb, J., Khalturin, K., Lohmann, J., Anton-Erxleben, F., Bosch, T.C.G., 2006. Transgenic Hydra allow in vivo tracking of individual stem cells during morphogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103, 6208-6211] which express eGFP in one of the differentiated cell types. Here we present a novel line which expresses eGFP specifically in zymogen gland cells. These cells are derivatives of the interstitial stem cell lineage and have previously been found to express two Dickkopf related genes [Augustin, R., Franke, A., Khalturin, K., Kiko, R., Siebert, S. Hemmrich, G., Bosch, T.C.G., 2006. Dickkopf related genes are components of the positional value gradient in Hydra. Dev. Biol. 296 (1), 62-70]. In the present study we have generated transgenic Hydra in which eGFP expression is under control of the promoter of one of them, HyDkk1/2/4 C. Transgenic Hydra recapitulate faithfully the previously described graded activation of HyDkk1/2/4 C expression along the body column, indicating that the promoter contains all elements essential for spatial and temporal control mechanisms. By in vivo monitoring of eGFP+ gland cells, we provide direct evidence for continuous transdifferentiation of zymogen cells into granular mucous cells in the head region. We also show that in this tissue a subpopulation of mucous gland cells directly derives from interstitial stem cells. These findings indicate that both stem cell-based mechanisms and transdifferentiation are involved in normal development and maintenance of cell type complexity in Hydra. The results demonstrate a remarkable plasticity in the differentiation capacity of cells in an organism which diverged before

  8. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  9. Foundational Report Series: Advanced Distribution Management Systems for Grid Modernization, DMS Industry Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ravindra [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Uluski, Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Reilly, James T. [Reilly Associates, Pittston, PA (United States); Martino, Sal [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Lu, Xiaonan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this survey is to benchmark current practices for DMS implementation to serve as a guide for future system implementations. The survey sought information on current plans to implement DMS, DMS functions of interest, implementation challenges, functional benefits achieved, and other relevant information. These survey results were combined (where possible) with results of similar surveys conducted in the previous four years to observe trends over time.

  10. Solar System Objects in the ISOPHOT 170 micron Serendipity Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, T G; Stickel, M

    2002-01-01

    The ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (ISOSS) covered approximately 15 % of the sky at a wavelength of 170 micron while the ISO satellite was slewing from one target to the next. By chance ISOSS slews went over many solar system objects (SSOs). We identified the comets, asteroids and planets in the slews through a fast and effective search procedure based on N-body ephemeris and flux estimates. The detections were analysed from a calibration and scientific point of view. Through the measurements of the well-known asteroids Ceres, Pallas, Juno and Vesta and the planets Uranus and Neptune it was possible to improve the photometric calibration of ISOSS and to extend it to higher flux regimes. We were also able to establish calibration schemes for the important slew end data. For the other asteroids we derived radiometric diameters and albedos through a recent thermophysical model. The scientific results are discussed in the context of our current knowledge of size, shape and albedos, derived from IRAS observations, occ...

  11. A TARGETED SEARCH FOR PECULIARLY RED L AND T DWARFS IN SDSS, 2MASS, AND WISE: DISCOVERY OF A POSSIBLE L7 MEMBER OF THE TW HYDRAE ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, Kendra; Metchev, Stanimir [Western University, Centre for Planetary and Space Exploration, 1151 Richmond St, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Geißler, Kerstin; Hicks, Shannon [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11790 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kurtev, Radostin, E-mail: kkellogg@uwo.ca, E-mail: smetchev@uwo.ca [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Ave. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Casilla 53, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-12-15

    We present the first results from a targeted search for brown dwarfs with unusual red colors indicative of peculiar atmospheric characteristics. These include objects with low surface gravities or with unusual dust content or cloud properties. From a positional cross-match of SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE, we have identified 40 candidate peculiar early-L to early-T dwarfs that are either new objects or have not been identified as peculiar through prior spectroscopy. Using low-resolution spectra, we confirm that 10 of the candidates are either peculiar or potential L/T binaries. With a J − K{sub s} color of 2.62 ± 0.15 mag, one of the new objects—the L7 dwarf 2MASS J11193254–1137466—is among the reddest field dwarfs currently known. Its proper motion and photometric parallax indicate that it is a possible member of the TW Hydrae moving group. If confirmed, it would be the lowest-mass (5–6 M{sub Jup}) free-floating member. We also report a new T dwarf, 2MASS J22153705+2110554, that was previously overlooked in the SDSS footprint. These new discoveries demonstrate that despite the considerable scrutiny already devoted to the SDSS and 2MASS surveys, our exploration of these data sets is not yet complete.

  12. Karyotyping and single-gene detection using fluorescence in situ hybridization on chromosomes of Hydra magnipapillata (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Anokhin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fresh water polyp Hydra L., 1758 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa plays a key role as a model organism in modern evolutionary and developmental biology. A complete genome sequence has been published recently for Hydra magnipapillata Ito, 1947 and molecular data are rapidly accumulating in the literature, but little information is available on its chromosomes. In this study, an efficient fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH method is described for H. magnipapillata which not only allows identification of the chromosomes but also visualization of the location of individual genetic loci. Together with cDNA and genomic sequencing this may provide the foundation for increasingly precise genetic and physical mapping in this basal metazoan model organism.

  13. GLOMOMIDIELLA N. GEN. (FORAMINIFERA, MILIOLATA, NEODISCIDAE: A NEW GENUS FROM THE LATE GUADALUPIAN-LOPINGIAN OF HYDRA ISLAND (GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL VACHARD

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of Foraminifera (Miliolata, Cornuspiroidea, Neodiscidae is erected from the late Guadalupian (Capitanian = Midian to Lopingian sedimentary succession of the island of Hydra (Greece. It represents an important phylogenetic form, probably at the origin of several genera (or subfamilies of the authors that became relatively widespread during the Lopingian (Late Permian. Glomomidiella n. gen. is characterized by an entirely glomospiral coiling and rudimentary pseudoseptation. 

  14. Keck Adaptive Optics Imaging of Nearby Young Stars: Detection of Close Multiple Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brandeker, A; Najita, J R; Brandeker, Alexis; Jayawardhana, Ray; Najita, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Using adaptive optics on the Keck II 10-meter telescope on Mauna Kea, we have surveyed 24 of the nearest young stars known in search of close companions. Our sample includes members of the MBM 12 and TW Hydrae young associations and the classical T Tauri binary UY Aurigae in the Taurus star-forming region. We present relative photometry and accurate astrometry for 10 close multiple systems. The multiplicity frequency in the TW Hydrae and MBM 12 groups are high in comparison to other young regions, though the significance of this result is low because of the small number statistics. We resolve S 18 into a triple system including a tight 63 mas (projected separation of 17 AU at a distance of 275 pc) binary for the first time, with a hierarchical configuration reminiscent of VW Chamaeleontis and T Tauri. Another tight binary in our sample -- TWA 5Aab (54 mas or 3 AU at 55 pc) -- offers the prospect of dynamical mass measurement using astrometric observations within a few years, and thus could be important for te...

  15. Determination of Mercury in Ayurvedic Dietary Supplements That Are Not Rasa Shastra Using the Hydra-C Direct Mercury Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury has been determined in Ayurvedic dietary supplements (Trifala, Trifala Guggulu, Turmeric, Mahasudarshan, Yograj, Shatawari, Hingwastika, Shatavari, and Shilajit by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and direct mercury analysis using the Hydra-C direct mercury analyzer (Teledyne Leeman Labs Hudson, NH, USA. Similar results were obtained from the two methods, but the direct mercury analysis method was much faster and safer and required no microwave digestion (unlike ICP-MS. Levels of mercury ranged from 0.002 to 56 μg/g in samples of dietary supplements. Standard reference materials Ephedra 3240 and tomato leaves that were from the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST and dogfish liver (DOLT3 that was from the Canadian Research Council were analyzed using Hydra-C method. Average mercury recoveries were 102% (RSD% 0.0018, 100% (RSD% 0.0009, and 101% (RSD% 0.0729, respectively. Hydra-C method Limit Of Quantitation was 0.5 ng.

  16. Survey and selection of Energy Storage System for Low Power Embedded System

    OpenAIRE

    Meenu Nair; Chandan Maity

    2012-01-01

    Energy storage for portable low power Embedded System is one of the biggest challenges for a long time operation in present research and application. These systems are designed to operate the lowest possible energy at micro-watt or Milli-Watt range and the power is supplied from a small primary or secondary cell. In this paper an extensive study and latest survey has been shown to estimate and select the right suitable energy storage device in theoretical aspects and also commercially availab...

  17. European Health Examination Survey--towards a sustainable monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Mindell, Jennifer; Männistö, Satu; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2014-04-01

     Health examination surveys (HESs), including both questionnaire and physical measurements, and in most cases also collection of biological samples, can provide objective health indicators. This information complements data from health interview surveys and administrative registers, and is important for evidence-based planning of health policies and prevention activities. HESs are valuable data sources for research. The first national HESs in Europe were conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s. They have recently been carried out in an increasing number of countries, but there has been no joint standardization between the countries. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project was conducted in 2009-2012. The European Health Examination Survey Pilot Reference Centre was established and pilot surveys were conducted in 12 countries.  European standardized protocols for key measurements on main chronic disease risk factors (height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids and fasting glucose or HbA1c) were prepared. European-level training and external quality assessment were organized. Although the level of earlier experience, infrastructures, economic status and cultural settings varied between the pilot countries, it was possible to standardize measurements of HESs across the populations. Obtaining high participation rates was challenging.  HESs provide high-quality and representative population data to support policy decisions and research. For future national HESs, centralized coordination, training and external quality assessment are needed to ensure comparability of the results. Further studies on effects of different survey methods on comparability of the results and on recruitment and motivation of survey participants are needed.

  18. Snow measurement system for airborne snow surveys (GPR system from helicopter) in high mountian areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorteberg, Hilleborg K.

    2010-05-01

    In the hydropower industry, it is important to have precise information about snow deposits at all times, to allow for effective planning and optimal use of the water. In Norway, it is common to measure snow density using a manual method, i.e. the depth and weight of the snow is measured. In recent years, radar measurements have been taken from snowmobiles; however, few energy supply companies use this method operatively - it has mostly been used in connection with research projects. Agder Energi is the first Norwegian power producer in using radar tecnology from helicopter in monitoring mountain snow levels. Measurement accuracy is crucial when obtaining input data for snow reservoir estimates. Radar screening by helicopter makes remote areas more easily accessible and provides larger quantities of data than traditional ground level measurement methods. In order to draw up a snow survey system, it is assumed as a basis that the snow distribution is influenced by vegetation, climate and topography. In order to take these factors into consideration, a snow survey system for fields in high mountain areas has been designed in which the data collection is carried out by following the lines of a grid system. The lines of this grid system is placed in order to effectively capture the distribution of elevation, x-coordinates, y-coordinates, aspect, slope and curvature in the field. Variation in climatic conditions are also captured better when using a grid, and dominant weather patterns will largely be captured in this measurement system.

  19. Distributed Cooperative Regulation for Multiagent Systems and Its Applications to Power Systems: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative regulation of multiagent systems has become an active research area in the past decade. This paper reviews some recent progress in distributed coordination control for leader-following multiagent systems and its applications in power system and mainly focuses on the cooperative tracking control in terms of consensus tracking control and containment tracking control. Next, methods on how to rank the network nodes are summarized for undirected/directed network, based on which one can determine which follower should be connected to leaders such that partial followers can perceive leaders’ information. Furthermore, we present a survey of the most relevant scientific studies investigating the regulation and optimization problems in power systems based on distributed strategies. Finally, some potential applications in the frequency tracking regulation of smart grids are discussed at the end of the paper.

  20. Distributed cooperative regulation for multiagent systems and its applications to power systems: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Li, Yaping; Yong, Taiyou; Cao, Jinde; Yu, Jie; Mao, Wenbo

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative regulation of multiagent systems has become an active research area in the past decade. This paper reviews some recent progress in distributed coordination control for leader-following multiagent systems and its applications in power system and mainly focuses on the cooperative tracking control in terms of consensus tracking control and containment tracking control. Next, methods on how to rank the network nodes are summarized for undirected/directed network, based on which one can determine which follower should be connected to leaders such that partial followers can perceive leaders' information. Furthermore, we present a survey of the most relevant scientific studies investigating the regulation and optimization problems in power systems based on distributed strategies. Finally, some potential applications in the frequency tracking regulation of smart grids are discussed at the end of the paper.

  1. HyDRA: gene prioritization via hybrid distance-score rank aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Farnoud, Farzad; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2015-04-01

    Gene prioritization refers to a family of computational techniques for inferring disease genes through a set of training genes and carefully chosen similarity criteria. Test genes are scored based on their average similarity to the training set, and the rankings of genes under various similarity criteria are aggregated via statistical methods. The contributions of our work are threefold: (i) first, based on the realization that there is no unique way to define an optimal aggregate for rankings, we investigate the predictive quality of a number of new aggregation methods and known fusion techniques from machine learning and social choice theory. Within this context, we quantify the influence of the number of training genes and similarity criteria on the diagnostic quality of the aggregate and perform in-depth cross-validation studies; (ii) second, we propose a new approach to genomic data aggregation, termed HyDRA (Hybrid Distance-score Rank Aggregation), which combines the advantages of score-based and combinatorial aggregation techniques. We also propose incorporating a new top-versus-bottom (TvB) weighting feature into the hybrid schemes. The TvB feature ensures that aggregates are more reliable at the top of the list, rather than at the bottom, since only top candidates are tested experimentally; (iii) third, we propose an iterative procedure for gene discovery that operates via successful augmentation of the set of training genes by genes discovered in previous rounds, checked for consistency. Fundamental results from social choice theory, political and computer sciences, and statistics have shown that there exists no consistent, fair and unique way to aggregate rankings. Instead, one has to decide on an aggregation approach using predefined set of desirable properties for the aggregate. The aggregation methods fall into two categories, score- and distance-based approaches, each of which has its own drawbacks and advantages. This work is motivated by the

  2. Integrated Library Systems in Canadian Public, Academic and Special Libraries: Fourth Annual Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilees, Bobbie

    1990-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey of integrated library system vendors that examined installations in Canadian academic, public and special libraries during 1989. Findings discussed include large library system versus PC-based system market shares, an analysis of system selection by type of library, and other factors that affect system selection. A…

  3. Modeling the Galactic CV Distribution for the ChaMPlane Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rogel, A B; Lugger, P M

    2007-01-01

    For purposes of designing targeted cataclysmic variable (CV) detection surveys and interpreting results of other projects with many CV detections such as the ChaMPlane Survey, we have created a model of the CV distribution in the Galaxy. It is modeled as a warped, flared exponential disk with a gaussian vertical distribution. Extinction is based on a detailed Galactic dust and gas model. A luminosity function for CVs is also incorporated, based on a smoothed version of published data. We calculate predicted field detection rates as a function of the limiting magnitude expected for the detecting system (i.e. WIYN/Hydra or NOAO 4m/Mosaic). Monte-Carlo techniques are used to assess statistical fluctuations in these rates. We have created maps of the expected CV distribution for the full non-bulge Galactic plane (20Survey and future CV surveys. Assuming a CV distribution with a scale height of 160 pc, the ChaMPlane observational result of 5 CVs in 13 northern...

  4. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2011. The GYTS is a school-based survey that collects data on students aged 13–15 years using a standardized methodology for constructing the sample frame,...

  5. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2011. The GYTS is a school-based survey that collects data on students aged 13–15 years using a standardized methodology for constructing the sample frame,...

  6. Advancements in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrographic Survey Capabilities: The SHOALS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    Advancements in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrographic Survey Capabilities: The SHOALS System JEFF LILLYCROP U.S. Army Corps...the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has undertaken a joint development program with Canada to construct and field test an operational prototype...hydrographic survey, airborne lidar. Introduction The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for surveying over 40,000 kilometers of federally

  7. Proteomic screen in the simple metazoan Hydra identifies 14-3-3 binding proteins implicated in cellular metabolism, cytoskeletal organisation and Ca2+ signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imhof Axel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 14-3-3 proteins have been implicated in many signalling mechanisms due to their interaction with Ser/Thr phosphorylated target proteins. They are evolutionarily well conserved in eukaryotic organisms from single celled protozoans and unicellular algae to plants and humans. A diverse array of target proteins has been found in higher plants and in human cell lines including proteins involved in cellular metabolism, apoptosis, cytoskeletal organisation, secretion and Ca2+ signalling. Results We found that the simple metazoan Hydra has four 14-3-3 isoforms. In order to investigate whether the diversity of 14-3-3 target proteins is also conserved over the whole animal kingdom we isolated 14-3-3 binding proteins from Hydra vulgaris using a 14-3-3-affinity column. We identified 23 proteins that covered most of the above-mentioned groups. We also isolated several novel 14-3-3 binding proteins and the Hydra specific secreted fascin-domain-containing protein PPOD. In addition, we demonstrated that one of the 14-3-3 isoforms, 14-3-3 HyA, interacts with one Hydra-Bcl-2 like protein in vitro. Conclusion Our results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins have been ubiquitous signalling components since the start of metazoan evolution. We also discuss the possibility that they are involved in the regulation of cell numbers in response to food supply in Hydra.

  8. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Coatings Systems Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Whitten, Mary; Perisich, Steven; Trejo, David

    2009-01-01

    When space vehicles are launched, extreme heat, exhaust, and chemicals are produced and these form a very aggressive exposure environment at the launch complex. The facilities in the launch complex are exposed to this aggressive environment. The vehicle exhaust directly impacts the flame deflectors, making these systems very susceptible to high wear and potential failure. A project was formulated to develop or identify new materials or systems such that the wear and/or damage to the flame deflector system, as a result of the severe environmental exposure conditions during launches, can be mitigated. This report provides a survey of potential protective coatings for the refractory concrete lining on the steel base structure on the flame deflectors at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  9. New land-based method for surveying sandy shores and extracting DEMs: the INSHORE system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Paulo; Cunha, Telmo R; Matias, Ana; Gama, Cristina; Bernardes, Cristina; Ferreira, Oscar

    2011-11-01

    The INSHORE system (INtegrated System for High Operational REsolution in shore monitoring) is a land-base survey system designed and developed for the specific task of monitoring the evolution in time of sandy shores. This system was developed with two main objectives: (1) to produce highly accurate 3D coordinates of surface points (in the order of 0.02 to 0.03 m); and (2) to be extremely efficient in surveying a beach stretch of several kilometres. Previous tests have demonstrated that INSHORE systems fulfil such objectives. Now, the usefulness of the INSHORE system as a survey tool for the production of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of sandy shores is demonstrated. For this purpose, the comparison of DEMs obtained with the INSHORE system and with other relevant survey techniques is presented. This comparison focuses on the final DEM accuracy and also on the survey efficiency and its impact on the costs associated with regular monitoring programmes. The field survey method of the INSHORE system, based on profile networks, has a productivity of about 30 to 40 ha/h, depending on the beach surface characteristics. The final DEM precision, after interpolation of the global positioning system profile network, is approximately 0.08 to 0.12 m (RMS), depending on the profile network's density. Thus, this is a useful method for 3D representation of sandy shore surfaces and can permit, after interpolation, reliable calculations of volume and other physical parameters.

  10. The ALFALFA HI Absorption Pilot Survey: A Wide-Area Blind Damped Lyman Alpha System Survey of the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a pilot survey for neutral hydrogen (HI) 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is a wide-area "blind" search for HI absorption in the local universe, spanning -650 km/s = 2x10^20 cm^-2) is Delta z = 7.0 (129 objects, assuming T_s = 100 K and covering fraction unity); for super-DLAs (N_HI >= 2x10^21 cm^-2) it is Delta z= 128.2 (2353 objects). We re-detect the intrinsic HI absorption line in UGC 6081 but detect no intervening absorption line systems. We compute a 95% confidence upper limit on the column density frequency distribution function f(N_HI,X) spanning four orders of magnitude in column density, 10^19 (T_s/100 K)(1/f) cm^-2 < N_HI < 10^23 (T_s/100 K)(1/f) cm^-2, that is consistent with previous redshifted optical damped Ly alpha surveys and the aggregate HI 21 cm emission in the local universe. The detection rate is in agreement with extant observations. This pilot survey suggests that an absorption line sear...

  11. DeepSurveyCam—A Deep Ocean Optical Mapping System

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Kwasnitschka; Kevin Köser; Jan Sticklus; Marcel Rothenbeck; Tim Weiß; Emanuel Wenzlaff; Timm Schoening; Lars Triebe; Anja Steinführer; Colin Devey; Jens Greinert

    2016-01-01

    Underwater photogrammetry and in particular systematic visual surveys of the deep sea are by far less developed than similar techniques on land or in space. The main challenges are the rough conditions with extremely high pressure, the accessibility of target areas (container and ship deployment of robust sensors, then diving for hours to the ocean floor), and the limitations of localization technologies (no GPS). The absence of natural light complicates energy budget considerations for deep ...

  12. Survey of Human Systems Integration (HSI) Tools for USCG Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    libertymmhtables.libertymutual.com/CM_LMTablesWeb/ pdf /LibertyMutualTables.pdf Liberty Mutual (2004). Manual Materials Handling Guidelines. Survey of HSI Tools for USCG...cogn-feb20. pdf https://dspace.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/1880/46646/1/2008-904-17. pdf http://human-factors.arc.nasa.gov/ihi/research_groups/air-ground...Complete analysis utilities and user interface are included with the tool. Availability, Cost, and Contact Information: Siemens PLM Software

  13. 76 FR 19975 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Building and Zoning Permit Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Building and Zoning Permit..., Survey of Building and Zoning Permit Systems. The Census Bureau produces statistics used to monitor... depends on data supplied by building and zoning officials throughout the country. The Census Bureau...

  14. The evolution of neutral gas in damped Lyman α systems from the XQ-100 survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Ellison, S. L.; Prochaska, J. X.

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample of 38 intervening Damped Lyman $\\alpha$ (DLA) systems identified towards 100 $z>3.5$ quasars, observed during the XQ-100 survey. The XQ-100 DLA sample is combined with major DLA surveys in the literature. The final combined sample consists of 742 DLAs over a redshift range app...

  15. A Survey of Security of Multimodal Biometric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarnsing G. Bhable

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system being used in adversarial environment. Since, biometric system like any conventional security system is exposed to malicious adversaries, who can manipulate data to make the system ineffective by compromising its integrity. Current theory and design methods of biometric systems do not take into account the vulnerability to such adversary attacks. Therefore, evaluation of classical design methods is an open problem to investigate whether they lead to design secure systems. In order to make biometric systems secure it is necessary to understand and evaluate the threats and to thus develop effective countermeasures and robust system designs, both technical and procedural, if necessary. Accordingly, the extension of theory and design methods of biometric systems is mandatory to safeguard the security and reliability of biometric systems in adversarial environments.

  16. Hydrographic surveys of four narrows within the Namakan reservoir system, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Strauch, Kellan R.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey performed multibeam echosounder hydrographic surveys of four narrows in the Namakan reservoir system in August 2011, in cooperation with the International Joint Commission and Environment Canada. The data-collection effort was completed to provide updated and detailed hydrographic data to Environment Canada for inclusion in a Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System hydraulic model. The Namakan reservoir system is composed of Namakan, Kabetogama, Sand Point, Crane, and Little Vermilion Lakes. Water elevations in the Namakan reservoir system are regulated according to rule curves, or guidelines for water-level management based on the time of year, established by the International Joint Commission. Water levels are monitored by established gages on Crane Lake and the outlet of Namakan Lake at Kettle Falls, but water elevations throughout the system may deviate from these measured values by as much as 0.3 meters, according to lake managers and residents. Deviations from expected water elevations may be caused by between-lake constrictions (narrows). According to the 2000 Rule Curve Assessment Workgroup, hydrologic models of the reservoir system are needed to better understand the system and to evaluate the recent changes made to rule curves in 2000. Hydrographic surveys were performed using a RESON SeaBat™7125 multibeam echosounder system. Surveys were completed at Namakan Narrows, Harrison Narrows, King Williams Narrows, and Little Vermilion Narrows. Hydrographic survey data were processed using Caris HIPSTM and SIPSTM software that interpolated a combined uncertainty and bathymetric estimator (CUBE) surface. Quality of the survey results was evaluated in relation to standards set by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) for describing the uncertainty of hydrographic surveys. More than 90 percent of the surveyed areas at the four narrows have resulting bed elevations that meet the IHO “Special Order” quality

  17. DISCOVERY OF A DISK GAP CANDIDATE AT 20 AU IN TW HYDRAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, E.; Kusakabe, N.; Kandori, R. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Muto, T. [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); Kataoka, A.; Kuzuhara, M. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Oklahoma, Ookayama, Meguro-ko, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Hashimoto, J.; Wisniewski, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Tsukagoshi, T. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1, Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Kwon, J. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kudo, T.; Currie, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650, North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Grady, C. A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Takami, M. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Janson, M. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm, SE-106 91 (Sweden); Henning, T.; Carson, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sitko, M. L. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Mayama, S. [The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advance Studies, Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0115 (Japan); Thalmann, C., E-mail: eiji.akiyama@nao.ac.jp [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2015-04-01

    We present a new Subaru/HiCIAO high-contrast H-band polarized intensity (PI) image of a nearby transitional disk associated with TW Hydrae. The scattered light from the disk was detected from 0.″ 2 to 1.″ 5 (11–81 AU) and the PI image shows a clear axisymmetric depression in PI at ∼0.″ 4 (∼20 AU) from the central star, similar to the ∼80 AU gap previously reported from Hubble Space Telescope images. The azimuthal PI profile also shows that the disk beyond 0.″ 2 is almost axisymmetric. We discuss two possible scenarios explaining the origin of the PI depression: (1) a gap structure may exist at ∼20 AU from the central star because of a shallow slope seen in the PI profile, and (2) grain growth may be occurring in the inner region of the disk. Multi-band observations at near-infrared and millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths play a complementary role in investigating dust opacity and may help reveal the origin of the gap more precisely.

  18. [Morpho-functional characteristics of the lingual epithelium after administration of hydra peptide morphogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaeva, V V; Bykov, V L

    2007-01-01

    Using histological, morphometric and quantitative histoenzymological methods, the changes of lingual epithelium were studied in 40 outbred albino mice after 5 intraperitoneal injections of 100 micrograms of hydra peptide morphogen (HPM) per 1 kg of body weight. Administration of HPM was found to increase the total thickness of epithelial layer on the dorsal tongue surface in the interpapillary regions, while in the area of filiform papillae these changes were not significant. On the ventral tongue surface HPM induced a marked increase of total thickness of the epithelial layer as compared to that in control animals. Mitotic activity was increased in the epithelium covering the ventral surface and in the interpapillary regions on the dorsal tongue surface. Histoenzymologic study which involved the demonstration of NADH-diaphorase, succinate- and lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, followed by a cytophotometric evaluation of enzyme activity, has shown a stimulatory effect of HPM on the activity of all the enzymes studied, which was most pronounced in respect to LDH and was maximally expressed on the dorsal tongue surface. These findings collectively suggest that HPM exerts a stimulatory effect on proliferation activity and metabolism of lingual epithelium, which is differentially expressed in its variuoe topographical zones.

  19. Discovery of a Disk Gap Candidate at 20 AU in TW Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, E; Kusakabe, N; Kataoka, A; Hashimoto, J; Tuskagoshi, T; Kwon, J; Kudo, T; Kandori, R; Grady, C A; Takami, M; Janson, M; Kuzuhara, M; Henning, T; Sitko, M L; Mayama, J C Carson S; Currie, T; Thalmann, C; Wisniewski, J; Momose, M; Ohashi, N; Abe, L; Brandner, W; Brandt, T D; Egner, S; Feldt, M; Goto, M; Guyon, O; Hayano, Y; Hayashi, M; Hayashi, S; Hodapp, K W; Ishi, M; Iye, M; Knapp, G R; Matsuo, T; McElwain, M W; Miyama, S; Morino, J -I; Moro-Martin, A; Nishimura, T; Pyo, T -S; Serabyn, G; Suenaga, T; Suto, H; Suzuki, R; Takahashi, Y H; Takato, N; Terada, H; Tomono, D; Turner, E L; Watanabe, M; Yamada, T; Takami, H; Usuda, T; Tamura, M

    2015-01-01

    We present a new Subaru/HiCIAO high-contrast H-band polarized intensity (PI) image of a nearby transitional disk associated with TW Hydrae. The scattered light from the disk was detected from 0.2" to 1.5" (11 - 81 AU) and the PI image shows a clear axisymmetric depression in polarized intensity at ~ 0.4" (~ 20 AU) from the central star, similar to the ~ 80 AU gap previously reported from HST images. Azimuthal polarized intensity profile also shows the disk beyond 0.2" is almost axisymmetric. We discuss two possible scenarios explaining the origin of the polarized intensity depression: 1) a gap structure may exist at ~ 20 AU from the central star because of shallow slope seen in the polarized intensity profile, and 2) grain growth may be occurring in the inner region of the disk. Multi-band observations at NIR and millimeter/sub-millimeter wavelengths play a complementary role in investigating dust opacity and may help reveal the origin of the gap more precisely.

  20. A textbook example of ram-pressure stripping in the Hydra A/A780 cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grandi, S.; Eckert, D.; Molendi, S.; Girardi, M.; Roediger, E.; Gaspari, M.; Gastaldello, F.; Ghizzardi, S.; Nonino, M.; Rossetti, M.

    2016-08-01

    In the current epoch, one of the main mechanisms driving the growth of galaxy clusters is the continuous accretion of group-scale halos. In this process, the ram pressure applied by the hot intracluster medium on the gas content of the infalling group is responsible for stripping the gas from its dark-matter halo, which gradually leads to the virialisation of the infalling gas in the potential well of the main cluster. Using deep wide-field observations of the poor cluster Hydra A/A780 with XMM-Newton and Suzaku, we report on the discovery of an infalling galaxy group 1.1 Mpc south of the cluster core. The presence of a substructure is confirmed by a dynamical study of the galaxies in this region. A wake of stripped gas is trailing behind the group over a projected scale of 760 kpc. The temperature of the gas along the wake is constant at kT ~ 1.3 keV, which is about a factor of two less than the temperature of the surrounding plasma. We observe a cold front pointing westwards compared to the peak of the group, which indicates that the group is currently not moving in the direction of the main cluster, but is moving along an almost circular orbit. The overall morphology of the group bears remarkable similarities with high-resolution numerical simulations of such structures, which greatly strengthens our understanding of the ram-pressure stripping process.

  1. Fluorescent nanocrystals reveal regulated portals of entry into and between the cells of Hydra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Tortiglione

    Full Text Available Initially viewed as innovative carriers for biomedical applications, with unique photophysical properties and great versatility to be decorated at their surface with suitable molecules, nanoparticles can also play active roles in mediating biological effects, suggesting the need to deeply investigate the mechanisms underlying cell-nanoparticle interaction and to identify the molecular players. Here we show that the cell uptake of fluorescent CdSe/CdS quantum rods (QRs by Hydra vulgaris, a simple model organism at the base of metazoan evolution, can be tuned by modifying nanoparticle surface charge. At acidic pH, amino-PEG coated QRs, showing positive surface charge, are actively internalized by tentacle and body ectodermal cells, while negatively charged nanoparticles are not uptaken. In order to identify the molecular factors underlying QR uptake at acidic pH, we provide functional evidence of annexins involvement and explain the QR uptake as the combined result of QR positive charge and annexin membrane insertion. Moreover, tracking QR labelled cells during development and regeneration allowed us to uncover novel intercellular trafficking and cell dynamics underlying the remarkable plasticity of this ancient organism.

  2. Fluctuations and symmetry breaking during regeneration of Hydra vulgaris tissue toroids

    CERN Document Server

    Krahe, Michael; Lin, Kao-Nung; Fischer, Julia; Fütterer, Claus

    2012-01-01

    While much is known in single cell mechanics, the mechanics of regeneration of naturally grown tissues and cell assemblies is largely unexplored. We found a symmetry breaking scenario accompanied by shape fluctuations in dissected regenerating Hydra vulgaris tissue tori. A subsequent folding and merging process leads finally to a regenerating spheroid. These phenomena are related to the dynamics of fluorescent beta- and trans-cellular alpha-actin structures. By embedding the tissues in a hydro-gel the fluctuations could be studied over a longer period of time. The power spectrum of the torus-fluctuations shows a non-trivial energy distribution dynamics depending on the gel stiffness. During the transition, many higher modes where found but in the end the 2nd mode wins in most cases. The toroid builds up an uniform alpha-actin ring along the inner edge of the torus. We found this ring in the inner cellular layer to be responsible for the force generation destabilizing the toroid shape. This actin structure is ...

  3. A textbook example of ram-pressure stripping in the Hydra A/A780 cluster

    CERN Document Server

    De Grandi, S; Molendi, S; Girardi, M; Roediger, E; Gaspari, M; Gastaldello, F; Ghizzardi, S; Nonino, M; Rossetti, M

    2016-01-01

    In the current epoch, one of the main mechanisms driving the growth of galaxy clusters is the continuous accretion of group-scale halos. In this process, the ram pressure applied by the hot intracluster medium on the gas content of the infalling group is responsible for stripping the gas from its dark-matter halo, which gradually leads to the virialization of the infalling gas in the potential well of the main cluster. Using deep wide-field observations of the poor cluster Hydra A/A780 with XMM-Newton and Suzaku, we report the discovery of an infalling galaxy group 1.1 Mpc south of the cluster core. The presence of a substructure is confirmed by a dynamical study of the galaxies in this region. A wake of stripped gas is trailing behind the group over a projected scale of 760 kpc. The temperature of the gas along the wake is constant at kT ~ 1.3 keV, which is about a factor of two less than the temperature of the surrounding plasma. We observe a cold front pointing westwards compared to the peak of the group, ...

  4. Cold gas dynamics in Hydra-A: evidence for a rotating disk

    CERN Document Server

    Hamer, S L; Swinbank, A M; Oonk, J B R; Mittal, R; McNamara, B R; Russell, H R; Bremer, M N; Combes, F; Fabian, A C; Nesvadba, N P H; O'Dea, C P; Baum, S A; Salomé, P; Tremblay, G; Donahue, M; Ferland, G J; Sarazin, C L

    2013-01-01

    We present multi-frequency observations of the radio galaxy Hydra-A (3C218) located in the core of a massive, X-ray luminous galaxy cluster. IFU spectroscopy is used to trace the kinematics of the ionised and warm molecular hydrogen which are consistent with a ~ 5 kpc rotating disc. Broad, double-peaked lines of CO(2-1), [CII]157 $\\mu$m and [OI]63 $\\mu$m are detected. We estimate the mass of the cold gas within the disc to be M$_{gas}$ = 2.3 $\\pm$ 0.3 x 10$^9$ M$_{\\odot}$. These observations demonstrate that the complex line profiles found in the cold atomic and molecular gas are related to the rotating disc or ring of gas. Finally, an HST image of the galaxy shows that this gas disc contains a substantial mass of dust. The large gas mass, SFR and kinematics are consistent with the levels of gas cooling from the ICM. We conclude that the cold gas originates from the continual quiescent accumulation of cooled ICM gas. The rotation is in a plane perpendicular to the projected orientation of the radio jets and I...

  5. Preliminary survey of integrated monitoring system for transmission liens. Sodensen sogo kanshi system no yobi kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasano, Takao; Nishiyama, Fumihiko

    1988-04-01

    The integrated monitoring system of transmission lines utilizing ground wire with built-in optical fibres(OPGW) which was put to practical use was surveyed. The overhead transmission lines have potential to be impeded supply owing to the line exposure to severe natural envioronment or by the change of surrounding environment such as trees, buildings under lines and ground or by deterioration of equipments. This report describes the system to monitor integrally the transmission lines by using OPGW or sensor technology to maintain and operate with higher reliability and lower cost and to reflect in the design, except the conventional maintenance and checking. The effect to foresee and prevent accidents is expected from this system, but the regional difference must be considered. This system can provide continously reliable monitoring, collection of maintenance informations and operation support and further can provide accident informations to be used in the design through the evaluation. It is necessary to use highly reliable repeaters for optical informations, protect instruments under intense field, prevent malfunction and develop the auto-movable robot for taking picture and local weather prediction system in order to realize this system. (5 figs, 6 tabs, 8 refs)

  6. A Survey of Web Information Systems and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guoren; XU Lizhen; XU Baowen; YU Ge; MENG Xiaofeng; HE Yanxiang; LI Ruixuan

    2006-01-01

    WISA 2006 has received 581 submissions and has accepted 65 papers for publication of this issue. These papers are involved in 8 research areas, including Web Information Mining and Retrieval, Semantic Web and Intelligent Web, Web Data Management and Information Integration, Web Application Framework and Architecture, Web Information Security, Web Services and Workflow Models, Text Processing and Decision Support, and Grid and Networking Technology. This paper gives an introduction to previous WISA conferences and a survey on the papers to be published in this issue.

  7. Acquisition Information Management system telecommunication site survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, K.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Key, B.G. [COR, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The Army acquisition community currently uses a dedicated, point-to-point secure computer network for the Army Material Plan Modernization (AMPMOD). It must transition to the DOD supplied Defense Secure Network 1 (DSNET1). This is one of the first networks of this size to begin the transition. The type and amount of computing resources available at individual sites may or may not meet the new network requirements. This task surveys these existing telecommunications resources available in the Army acquisition community. It documents existing communication equipment, computer hardware, associated software, and recommends appropriate changes.

  8. Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Baseline Surveys for Emergency Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, C

    2012-06-04

    Originally established in the 1960s to support the Nuclear Test Program, the AMS mission is to provide a rapid and comprehensive worldwide aerial measurement, analysis, and interpretation capability in response to a nuclear/radiological emergency. AMS provides a responsive team of individuals whose processes allow for a mission to be conducted and completed with results available within hours. This presentation slide-show reviews some of the history of the AMS, summarizes present capabilities and methods, and addresses the value of the surveys.

  9. Robotic systems for architectural survey and conservation of Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Cigola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HeritageBot is a project on technological andmarket development of robotic patents for culturalheritage (mainly archaeological and architecturaland the development of services foroperational applications (industrial, cultural,educational, etc. of the identified technologicalsolutions.The article focuses on hexapods robot designedto be applied to the analysis of architecture. Therobot must perform many of the operations neededin Architectural survey through automatedmanoeuvres. These manoeuvres could improveprocedures and results, both in terms of speedand accuracy of execution.An interdisciplinary research group of the Universityof Cassino has been working designing tworobots. The group built two prototypes. Currentlywe are developing validation test and solutionstests for general background and specific cases.

  10. 75 FR 9279 - Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Satisfaction With the Disability Evaluation System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Satisfaction With the Disability Evaluation System (DES... announcing an opportunity for public comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the agency... Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed...

  11. Methods for Setting up a Three-Dimensional Industrial Surveying System of "Building Blocks Type"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Wenhao

    2004-01-01

    This paper is to advance some relevant techniques to set up a three-dimensional industrial surveying system of "building blocks type", making use of the electronic theodolite, standard ruler and portable computer.

  12. Surveying the critical success factors of BPM-systems implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravesteyn, P.; Batenburg, R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore if there is a common ground for the definition of business process management (BPM) and BPM-systems, as well as the critical success factors (CSFs) for BPM-system implementation. A BPM-system implementation framework is validated that classifies the

  13. Surveying the critical success factors of BPM-systems implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravesteyn, P.; Batenburg, R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore if there is a common ground for the definition of business process management (BPM) and BPM-systems, as well as the critical success factors (CSFs) for BPM-system implementation. A BPM-system implementation framework is validated that classifies the

  14. Reverse Conversion Schemes for Signed-Digit Number Systems: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Madhu Sudan

    2016-12-01

    Although signed-digit number systems have received a considerable attention, the transformation of signed-digit numbers back into the conventional forms, known as reverse conversion, is still a performance bottleneck of signed-digit arithmetic. In this paper, a literature survey of reverse conversion schemes for signed-digit number systems is performed on the basis of the articles published from recognized platforms for the past few decades. The survey reveals some specific problems of this field, which need further investigations.

  15. Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.

  16. Comparative analysis of septic injury-inducible genes in phylogenetically distant model organisms of regeneration and stem cell research, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilcinskas Andreas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris have emerged as valuable model organisms in regeneration and stem cell research because of their prominent ability to regenerate a complete organism from any small body fragment. Under natural conditions wounding may result from predator attacks. These injuries open their innermost to a wide array of microbes present in the environment. Therefore, we established the hypothesis that regeneration processes may be linked to or at least accompanied by innate immune responses. In order to screen for septic wounding inducible genes we dissected individuals using a scalpel in the presence of a crude bacterial lipopolysaccharide preparation that is commonly used to elicit innate immune responses in animals and applied the suppression subtractive hybridization technique that selectively amplifies cDNAs of differentially expressed genes. Results This analysis revealed the induced expression of 27 genes in immune challenged Schmidtea and 35 genes in immune challenged Hydra. Identified genes from both animals encode proteins that share sequence similarities with potential homologues from other organisms known to be involved in signaling (e.g. calreticulin in Schmidtea and major vault protein in Hydra, stress responses (e.g. Hsp20 in Schmidtea and a PRP19/PSO4 DNA repair protein in Hydra, or to represent potential antimicrobial effectors (e.g. perforin-like protein in Schmidtea and PR-1-like protein and neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 in Hydra. As expected, septic wounding also induces expression of genes in Schmidtea and Hydra potentially involved in tissue remodeling associated with regeneration processes (e.g. matrix metalloproteinase in Schmidtea and a potential von Willebrand factor in Hydra. Conclusion We identified numerous immune-inducible genes in Hydra and Schmidtea that show a similar distribution corresponding to their physiological roles, although lineages of

  17. Integrated Library Systems in Canadian Public, Academic and Special Libraries: Fifth Annual Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilees, Bobbie

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the results of the fifth annual survey of integrated library systems in Canadian public, academic, and special libraries. Highlights include systems based on personal computers; bilingual systems; the use of consultants; differences between Canadian and U.S. markets; Canadian international sales; and vendor information. (LRW)

  18. Survey on Chatbot Design Techniques in Speech Conversation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera A. Abdul-Kader

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human-Computer Speech is gaining momentum as a technique of computer interaction. There has been a recent upsurge in speech based search engines and assistants such as Siri, Google Chrome and Cortana. Natural Language Processing (NLP techniques such as NLTK for Python can be applied to analyse speech, and intelligent responses can be found by designing an engine to provide appropriate human like responses. This type of programme is called a Chatbot, which is the focus of this study. This paper presents a survey on the techniques used to design Chatbots and a comparison is made between different design techniques from nine carefully selected papers according to the main methods adopted. These papers are representative of the significant improvements in Chatbots in the last decade. The paper discusses the similarities and differences in the techniques and examines in particular the Loebner prize-winning Chatbots.

  19. Integrated Large-Scale Environmental Information Systems: A Short Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kolios, Stavros; Maurodimou, Olga; Stylios, Chrysostomos

    2013-01-01

    Part 6: Performance Management; International audience; The installation and operation of instrument/sensor networks has great importance in monitoring the physical environment from local to global scale. Nowadays, such networks comprise vital parts of integrated information systems that are called Environmental Information Systems (EIS). Such systems provide real time monitoring, forecasts and interesting conclusions extracted from the collected data sets that are stored in huge databases. T...

  20. A Definitive Survey for Lyman Limit Systems at z~3.5 with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Prochaska, J Xavier; Worseck, Gabor

    2009-01-01

    We perform a semi-automated survey for tau>=2 Lyman Limit systems (LLSs) in quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 7. From a starting sample of 2473 quasars with zem=3.6-4.4, we analyze 469 spectra meeting strict seletion criteria for a total redshift path Dz=93.8 and identify 192 intervening systems at z>3.3. The incidence of tau>=2 LLSs per unit redshift, l(z), is well described by a single-power law at these redshifts: l(z) = C_LLS [(1+z)/(1+z_*)]^gamma, with z_*=3.7, C_LLS = 1.9+/-0.2, and gamma = 5.2+/-1.5 (68% c.l.). These values are systematically lower than previous estimates (especially at z<4) but are consistent with recent measurements of the mean free path to ionizing radiation. Extrapolations of this power-law to z=0 are inconsistent with previous estimations of l(z) at z<1 and suggest a break at z~2, similar to that observed for the Lya forest. Our results also indicate that the systems giving rise to LLS absorption decrease by ~50% in comoving number density and/or...

  1. The survey operation software system development for Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) on Subaru Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Takato, Naruhisa; Lupton, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a wide-field, multi-object spectrograph accommodating 2394 fibers to observe the sky at the prime focus of the Subaru telescope. The software system to operate a spectroscopic survey is structured by the four packages: Instrument control software, exposure targeting software, data reduction pipeline, and survey planning and tracking software. In addition, we operate a database system where various information such as properties of target objects, instrument configurations, and observation conditions is stored and is organized via a standardized data model for future references to update survey plans and to scientific researches. In this article, we present an overview of the software system and describe the workflows that need to be performed in the PFS operation, with some highlights on the database that organizes various information from sub-processes in the survey operation, and on the process of fiber configuration from the software perspectives.

  2. The survey operation software system development for Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) on Subaru Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Atsushi; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Yasuda, Naoki; Suzuki, Nao; Loomis, Craig P.; Lupton, Robert H.; Moritani, Yuki; Yabe, Kiyoto

    2016-07-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a wide-field, multi-object spectrograph accommodating 2394 fibers to observe the sky at the prime focus of the Subaru telescope. The software system to operate a spectroscopic survey is structured by the four packages: Instrument control software, exposure targeting software, data reduction pipeline, and survey planning and tracking software. In addition, we operate a database system where various information such as properties of target objects, instrument configurations, and observation conditions is stored and is organized via a standardized data model for future references to update survey plans and to scientific researches. In this article, we present an overview of the software system and describe the workflows that need to be performed in the PFS operation, with some highlights on the database that organizes various information from sub-processes in the survey operation, and on the process of fiber configuration from the software perspectives.

  3. Multimode lasers as analogs of complex biological systems (a survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, O. B.; Rosanov, N. N.; Solov'ev, N. A.; Soms, L. N.

    2016-04-01

    Simulating the activity of complex biological systems, in particular, the human brain, is a topical problem the solution of which is necessary both for understanding their functioning and for developing new classes of computational system based on operating principles of the brain. Some features and analogies that can be found in the operation of laser systems and brain and used for developing new generation computational systems are discussed. The appropriateness of such analogies is justified by the fact that both laser systems and the brain are open (interacting with the environment) dissipative spatially distributed nonlinear systems. Therefore, laser optical systems and, in particular, systems with dissipative optical solitons offer an opportunity to experimentally and theoretically model some important cognitive brain functions. One of particularities of the brain operation is the ability to manipulate images. Proceeding from this, in this work, problems related to generation and amplification with laser of spatial structures (images), as well as to amplification of signals coming to it from outside are discussed.

  4. On-line Payment System Survey – eCash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Popa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main aspects regarding an on-line payment system. Some characteristics of such system are presented and an existing system is analyzed. On its fundamental sense, the electronic commerce is a concept that represents the purchase and sale process or exchange of products, services, information, using o computer network, inclusively the Internet. In the most part of the cases, the electronic commerce imply on-line payments that lead to creation of some kinds of electronic money and some specific payment systems. There are described the some electronic payment mechanisms and the architecture and the functions of the on-line payment system E-Cash are depicted.

  5. PS2: Managing the next step in the Pan-STARRS wide field survey system

    CERN Document Server

    Burgett, William S

    2012-01-01

    The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) is unique among the existing or planned major ground-based optical survey systems as the only "distributed aperture" system. The concept of increasing system \\'etendue by replicating small telescopes and digital cameras presents both management opportunities and challenges. The focus in this paper is on management lessons learned from PS1, and how those have been used to form the management plan for PS2. The management plan components emphasized here include technical development, financial and schedule planning, and critical path and risk management. Finally, the status and schedule for PS2 are presented.

  6. PS2: managing the next step in the Pan-STARRS wide field survey system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgett, William S.

    2012-09-01

    The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) is unique among the existing or planned major ground-based optical survey systems as the only "distributed aperture" system. The concept of increasing system étendue by replicating small telescopes and digital cameras presents both management opportunities and challenges. The focus in this paper is on management lessons learned from PS1, and how those have been used to form the management plan for PS2. The management plan components emphasized here include technical development, financial and schedule planning, and critical path and risk management. Finally, the status and schedule for PS2 are presented.

  7. Controllability Problem of Fractional Neutral Systems: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Babiarz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents recent results of controllability problem of dynamical systems in infinite-dimensional space. Generally speaking, we describe selected controllability problems of fractional order systems, including approximate controllability of fractional impulsive partial neutral integrodifferential inclusions with infinite delay in Hilbert spaces, controllability of nonlinear neutral fractional impulsive differential inclusions in Banach space, controllability for a class of fractional neutral integrodifferential equations with unbounded delay, controllability of neutral fractional functional equations with impulses and infinite delay, and controllability for a class of fractional order neutral evolution control systems.

  8. STATURE SYSTEM PROTOCOLS FOR PEER TO PEER NETWORKS: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Thadani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are various websites presently used by us so the situation arises where people transact with unknown agents and take decision for these agents for by considering the stature score. Central idea of this paper is to compare online stature reporting systems that are particularly suitable for the peer to peer network but uses different approaches for calculating the stature of an entity. This paper describes the working of these stature systems, their properties and various parameters advantages and disadvantages. Finally, it concludes by comparison of all these stature system protocols.

  9. Stature System Protocols for Peer to Peer Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Thadani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are various websites presently used by us so the situation arises where people transact with unknown agents and take decision for these agents for by considering the stature score. Central idea of this paper is to compare online stature reporting systems that are particularly suitable for the peer to peer network but uses different approaches for calculating the stature of an entity. This paper describes the working of these stature systems, their properties and various parameters advantages and disadvantages. Finally, it concludes by comparison of all these stature system protocols.

  10. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  11. Library Systems: FY 2012 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2012 data...

  12. Library Systems: FY 2014 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2014 data...

  13. Office of Coast Survey's Automated Wreck and Obstruction Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Automated Wreck and Obstruction Information System (AWOIS) is an automated file that contains information on wrecks and obstructions, and other significant...

  14. Library Systems: FY 2013 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2013 data...

  15. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  16. A survey of Performance Analysis in MIMO - OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J itendra K umar D aksh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Thispaperis devoted tospace-time coding formultiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO systems.The concept of space-time coding is explainedin asystematic way. The performance of space-timecodes for wireless multiple-antenna systems withand without channel state information (CSI at thetransmitter has been also studied.We also studyabout the number of antennas, the higher spacetime coding diversityand the related study with theadvantages and disadvantages

  17. A Survey Of Top 10 Open Source Learning Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R. Elabnody

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Open Source LMSs are fully flexible and customizable so they can be designed in line with your schoolorganizations brand image. Open Source LMSs can also be converted to social learning platforms. You can create an online community through your LMS. This paper describes the most important features in learning management systems LMS that are critical to compare and contrast depend on your system requirements. Also represents a multiple LMS providers that are designed to use in university environment.

  18. A survey of Performance Analysis in MIMO-OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar Daksh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to space-time coding for multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO systems. The concept of space-time coding is explained in a systematic way. The performance of space-time codes for wireless multiple-antenna systems with and without channel state information (CSI at the transmitter has been also studied. We also study about the number of antennas, the higher space time coding diversity and the related study with the advantages and disadvantages.

  19. Stature System Protocols for Peer to Peer Networks: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Thadani; Vinit Gupta; IndraJeet Rajput

    2014-01-01

    There are various websites presently used by us so the situation arises where people transact with unknown agents and take decision for these agents for by considering the stature score. Central idea of this paper is to compare online stature reporting systems that are particularly suitable for the peer to peer network but uses different approaches for calculating the stature of an entity. This paper describes the working of these stature systems, their properties and various parameters advan...

  20. A Framework to Survey the Energy Efficiency of Installed Motor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; Hasanbeigi, Ali; McKane, Aimee

    2013-08-01

    While motors are ubiquitous throughout the globe, there is insufficient data to properly assess their level of energy efficiency across regional boundaries. Furthermore, many of the existing data sets focus on motor efficiency and neglect the connected drive and system. Without a comprehensive survey of the installed motor system base, a baseline energy efficiency of a country or region’s motor systems cannot be developed. The lack of data impedes government agencies, utilities, manufacturers, distributers, and energy managers when identifying where to invest resources to capture potential energy savings, creating programs aimed at reducing electrical energy consumption, or quantifying the impacts of such programs. This paper will outline a data collection framework for use when conducting a survey under a variety of execution models to characterize motor system energy efficiency within a country or region. The framework is intended to standardize the data collected ensuring consistency across independently conducted surveys. Consistency allows for the surveys to be leveraged against each other enabling comparisons to motor system energy efficiencies from other regions. In creating the framework, an analysis of various motor driven systems, including compressed air, pumping, and fan systems, was conducted and relevant parameters characterizing the efficiency of these systems were identified. A database using the framework will enable policymakers and industry to better assess the improvement potential of their installed motor system base particularly with respect to other regions, assisting in efforts to promote improvements to the energy efficiency of motor driven systems.

  1. Survey on the virtual commissioning of manufacturing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi G. Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and identifies issues in the application of virtual commissioning technology for automated manufacturing systems. While the real commissioning of a manufacturing system involves a real plant system and a real controller, the virtual commissioning deals with a virtual plant model and a real controller. The expected benefits of virtual commissioning are the reduction of debugging and correction efforts during the subsequent real commissioning stage. However, it requires a virtual plant model and hence still requires significant amount time and efforts. Two main issues are identified, the physical model construction of a virtual device, and the logical model construction of a virtual device. This paper reviews the current literature related to the two issues and proposes future research directions to achieve the full utilization of virtual commissioning technology.

  2. Survey of Controllable Suspension System for Off-road Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhi-cheng; ZHU Quan-min; CHEN Si-zhong; Alan Winfield; YANG Lin; ZHANG Bin

    2007-01-01

    The controllable suspension system can improve the performances of off-road vehicles both on road and cross-country. So far, four controllable suspensions, that is, body height control, active, semi-active and slow-active suspensions, have been developed. For off-road vehicles, the slow-active suspension and the semi-active suspension which have controllable stiffness, damping and body height are more appropriate to use. For many years, some control methodologies for controllable suspension systems have been developed along with the development of modern control theory, and two or more original control methods are integrated as a new control method. Today, for military or civilian off-road vehicles, the R&D of controllable suspension systems is ongoing.

  3. Experience with the ULISS-30 inertial survey system for local geodetic and cadastral network control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Rene

    1991-09-01

    The capability of the recently developed SAGEM ULISS-30 inertial survey system for performing local surveys at high accuracies have been tested in a field campaign carried out November 1989 on the island of Fyn, Denmark, in cooperation with the Swedish National Land Survey. In the test a number of lines between existing national geodetic control points were surveyed, along with points in the less reliably determined cadastral network, forming an irregular network pattern of 10 15 km extent. The survey involved frequent offset measurements (up to 50 100 m) with an ISS-integrated total station. The profile geometries were not particularly suited for inertial surveys, with narrow and rather winding roads, necessitating frequent vehicle turns. In addition to the pure inertial surveys a kinematic GPS/inertial test was also carried out, using a pair of Ashtech L-XII receivers. The inertial survey results, analyzed with a smoothing algoritm utilizing common points on forward/backward runs, indicate that 5-cm accuracies are possible on reasonably straight profiles of 5 km length, corresponding to a 10 ppm “best-case” accuracy for double-run traverses. On longer, more winding traverses error levels of 10 20 cm are typical. To handle the inertial data optimally, proper network adjustments are required. A discussion of suitable adjustment models of both conventional and collocation type is included in the paper.

  4. MINING SURVEY SYSTEM (MSS – INNOVATIVE SOLUTION IN POLISH MINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamek Artur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile laser scanning technology is developing rapidly also in mining. For several years research and tests are conducted on the use of that type of measurement in the inventory of the mine shafts. The company SKALA 3D in the project 1.4 POIG by PARP undertook to create Mobile automatic steering system of spatial geometry measurements mine shafts using laser scanning technology. Its main advantage is a faithful reflection of the object being measured in just a few hours. It is based on the data flowing from laser scannersand precision inertial unit. The main problem of the research was to determine the trajectory of the passing Mobile Platforms Mining (MPG in the shaft as accurately as possible. Unable toreceive signals from satellites in the pipe shaft prevented the use of solutions known for measuring terrestrial mobile systems. The company SKALA 3D has developed a methodology for determine the trajectory of the system, based on geometrical data coming from laser scanners and readings of accelerometers and gyroscopes of inertial unit. To improve the quality and accuracy of measurements MPG is also equipped with a set of anti-vibration parts prevent the transmission of vibrations ascending while cage is moving in the shaft on the measuring system. The whole forms a calibrated system, which in a short time is able to provide spatial measurement data from the measuring shaft. The accuracy of 2-3 mm in a single measurement horizon and a few centimeters determine the position of a point on the thousandth meter below ground make the system very accurate. During the project there have been numerous research problems, including the need to define the physical references, drift of IMU whether harsh weather conditions in the shaft. However, the company SKALA 3D solved these problems and making MPG unique in the world.

  5. Statistical Physics of Economic Systems: a Survey for Open Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong; Chen, Xun

    2012-05-01

    We extend the theoretical framework of an independent economy developed by Tao [Phys. Rev. E 82 (2010) 036118] so as to include multiple economies. Since the starting point of our framework is on the basis of the theory of the competitive markets of traditional economics, this framework shall be suitable for any free market. Our study shows that integration of world economies can decrease trade friction among economic systems, but may also cause a global economic crisis whenever economy disequilibrium occurs in any one of these economic systems.

  6. A Survey of Recent APL Spacecraft Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    During the last 25 years APL has designed and built more than 50 small spacecraft, many being unique designs. The Power Systems of these spacecraft take many forms but almost all use a solar cell array and a Nickel-Cadmium battery. An overview of seven spacecraft power systems is presented. Four of the spacecraft are gravity gradient stabilized in a near-polar Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The remaining three spacecraft are spin stabilized, two with near-equatorial orbits. Both dissipative and nondi...

  7. A Survey for Planetary Nebulae in M31 Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jacoby, George H; De Marco, Orsola; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Herrmann, Kimberly A; Hwang, Ho Seong; Kaplan, Evan; Davies, James E

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of an [O III] 5007 spectroscopic survey for planetary nebulae (PNe) located within the star clusters of M31. By examining R ~ 5000 spectra taken with the WIYN+Hydra spectrograph, we identify 3 PN candidates in a sample of 274 likely globular clusters, 2 candidates in objects which may be globular clusters, and 5 candidates in a set of 85 younger systems. The possible PNe are all faint, between ~2.5 and ~6.8 mag down the PN luminosity function, and, partly as a consequence of our selection criteria, have high excitation, with [O III] 5007 to H-beta ratios ranging from 2 to ~12. We discuss the individual candidates, their likelihood of cluster membership, and the possibility that they were formed via binary interactions within the clusters. Our data are consistent with the suggestion that PN formation within globular clusters correlates with binary encounter frequency, though, due to the small numbers and large uncertainties in the candidate list, this study does not provide sufficient evi...

  8. Utility FGD survey: January--December 1989. Volume 1, Categorical summaries of FGD systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M.

    1992-03-01

    This is Volume 1 of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  9. A Survey of Indoor Positioning Systems for Wireless Personal Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Y.; Lo, A.; Niemegeers, I.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, indoor positioning systems (IPSs) have been designed to provide location information of persons and devices. The position information enables location-based protocols for user applications. Personal networks (PNs) are designed to meet the users' needs and interconnect users' devices equipp

  10. Traffic control and intelligent vehicle highway systems: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskar, L.D.; Schutter, B. de; Hellendoorn, J.; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion in highway networks is one of the main issues to be addressed by today's traffic management schemes. Automation combined with the increasing market penetration of on-line communication, navigation and advanced driver assistance systems will ultimately result in intelligent vehicle

  11. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  12. The Design of a Novel Survey for Small Objects in the Solar System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C.; Chen, W.P.; de Pater, I.; Lee, T.; Lissauer, J.; Rice, J.; Liang, C.; Cook, K.; Marshall, S.; Akerlof, C.

    2000-08-21

    We evaluated several concepts for a new survey for small objects in the Solar System. We designed a highly novel survey for comets in the outer region of the Solar System, which exploits the occultations of relatively bright stars to infer the presence of otherwise extremely faint objects. The populations and distributions of these objects are not known; the uncertainties span orders of magnitude! These objects are important scientifically as probes of the primordial solar system, and programmatically now that major investments may be made in the possible mitigation of the hazard of asteroid or comet collisions with the Earth.

  13. Ergonomics of electronic mail address systems: related literature review and survey of users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, P L; Salvendy, G

    2001-03-15

    The paper reviews the cognitive ergonomics literature related to electronic mail (e-mail) address design. Based on this information, a survey of 160 users of current e-mail address system was conducted. The aim was to obtain information on likes, dislikes and difficulties associated with e-mail address and to obtain users' suggestions and input for improving the current e-mail address system. The survey results indicated that users want an improved e-mail address system with regard to shorter length, useful information and appropriate presentation of information.

  14. On the incidence of eclipsing Am binary systems in the SuperWASP survey

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, B; Pintado, O I; Gillon, M; Holdsworth, D L; Anderson, D R; Barros, S C C; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Faedi, F; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Horne, K; Jehin, E; Maxted, P F L; Norton, A J; Pollacco, D; Skillen, I; Smith, A M S; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2014-01-01

    The results of a search for eclipsing Am star binaries using photometry from the SuperWASP survey are presented. The light curves of 1742 Am stars fainter than V = 8.0 were analysed for the presences of eclipses. A total of 70 stars were found to exhibit eclipses, with 66 having sufficient observations to enable orbital periods to be determined and 28 of which are newly identified eclipsing systems. Also presented are spectroscopic orbits for 5 of the systems. The number of systems and the period distribution is found to be consistent with that identified in previous radial velocity surveys of `classical' Am stars.

  15. Autonomous Marine Seismic Survey Systems for Seafloor Massive Sulfide (SMS) Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Lee, S.; Saito, S.; Tara, K.; Sumi, T.; Kadoshima, K.; Kose, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Cabinet Office, Government Japan started the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP) in 2014. "Next-generation Ocean Resource Exploration Techniques" is scheduled under SIP from 2014 to 2018. J-MARES participates this program and aims "Multi-stage and integrated approach for Seafloor Massive Sulfide(SMS) exploration" through the development of highly efficient and cost-effective geophysical exploration methods mainly on seismic and EM methods. J-MARES proposed Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) technique as seismic survey. It is one of reflection seismic methods that uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor. It is useful to delineate detailed structures in a spatially-limited area efficiently. JGI, a member of J-MARES, has developed autonomous VCS systems and carried out several VCS surveys in hydrothermal fields and the detailed subsurface structure is revealed up to 100m. VCS surveys have provides high resolution results but it covers a small survey area with a limited number of vertical cables. To expand the survey area, we operate ROV for re-deployments of the VCS. Another approach is to develop a deep-towed seismic system based on the VCS technology. We re-deployed the vertical cables using ROV. The ROV moved to the location of vertical cable using SSBL navigation and the video information. After arriving the location of vertical cable, the ROV grabbed the anchor and moved it to next target point. We carried out 3 time re-deployment VCS survey with four vertical cables in Iheya North Knoll, Okinawa Trough. The combined seismic sections of the 3 patches are consistent without any gap of each section. Following this, we modified the VCS system to use as a more efficient deep-tow seismic survey system. Although there are other deep-tow seismic systems, signal cables present challenges in deep waters. We use VCS technology in order to avoid these problems. The basic idea is autonomous recording system and we call it ACS

  16. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.401..., maintenance, and monitoring compliance of a public water system to evaluate the adequacy of the system, its sources and operations and the distribution of safe drinking water. (c) The sanitary survey must include...

  17. Integrated Library Systems in Canadian Public, Academic and Special Libraries: The Sixth Annual Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilees, Bobbie

    1992-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of vendors of large and microcomputer-based integrated library systems. Data presented on Canadian installations include total systems installed, comparisons with earlier years, market segments, and installations by type of library (excluding school). International sales and automation requirements for music are…

  18. A Survey of Successful Evaluations of Program Visualization and Algorithm Animation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Fuentes, Jaime; Velazquez-Iturbide, J. Angel

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews successful educational experiences in using program and algorithm visualizations (PAVs). First, we survey a total of 18 PAV systems that were subject to 33 evaluations. We found that half of the systems have only been tested for usability, and those were shallow inspections. The rest were evaluated with respect to their…

  19. Linking a Medical User Survey to Management for Library Effectiveness: II, A Checkland Soft Systems Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brember, V. L.

    1985-01-01

    Presents Checkland's soft systems methodology, discusses it in terms of the systems approach, and illustrates how it was used to relate evidence of user survey to practical problems of library management. Difficulties in using methodology are described and implications for library management and information science research are presented. (8…

  20. A Survey of Successful Evaluations of Program Visualization and Algorithm Animation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Fuentes, Jaime; Velazquez-Iturbide, J. Angel

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews successful educational experiences in using program and algorithm visualizations (PAVs). First, we survey a total of 18 PAV systems that were subject to 33 evaluations. We found that half of the systems have only been tested for usability, and those were shallow inspections. The rest were evaluated with respect to their…

  1. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, prokaryotic expression, and function prediction of foot-specific peroxidase in Hydra magnipapillata Chinese strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H C; Yang, H Q; Zhao, F X; Qian, X C

    2014-08-28

    The cDNA sequence of foot-specific peroxidase PPOD1 from the Chinese strain of Hydra magnipapillata was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cDNA sequence contained a coding region with an 873-bp open reading frame, a 31-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 36-bp 3'-untranslated region. The structure prediction results showed that PPOD1 contains 10.34% of α-helix, 38.62% of extended strand, 12.41% of β-turn, and 38.62% of random coil. The structural core was α-helix at the N terminus. The GenBank protein blast server showed that PPOD1 contains 2 fascin-like domains. In addition, high-level PPOD1 activity was only present in the ectodermal epithelial cells located on the edge of the adhesive face of the basal disc, and that these cells extended lamellipodia and filopodia when the basal disc was tightly attached to a glass slide. The fascin-like domains of Hydra PPOD1 might contribute to the bundling of the actin filament of these cells, and hence, the formation of filopodia. In conclusion, these cells might play an important role in strengthening the adsorbability of the basal disc to substrates.

  2. Genome-wide screening reveals the emergence and divergence of RTK homologues in basal Metazoan Hydra magnipapillata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P C Reddy; Salil S Bidaye; Surendra Ghaskadbi

    2011-06-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are key components of cell–cell signalling required for growth and development of multicellular organisms. It is therefore likely that the divergence of RTKs and associated components played a significant role in the evolution of multicellular organisms. We have carried out the present study in hydra, a diploblast, to investigate the divergence of RTKs after parazoa and before emergence of triploblast phyla. The domain-based screening using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) for RTKs in Genomescan predicted gene models of the Hydra magnipapillata genome resulted in identification of 15 RTKs. These RTKs have been classified into eight families based on domain architecture and homology. Only 5 of these RTKs have been previously reported and a few of these have been partially characterized. A phylogeny-based analysis of these predicted RTKs revealed that seven subtype duplications occurred between `parazoan–eumetazoan split’ and `diploblast–triploblast split’ in animal phyla. These results suggest that most of the RTKs evolved before the radiata–bilateria divergence during animal evolution.

  3. A Multi-Year Plan for Enhancing Turbulence Modeling in Hydra-TH Revised and Updated Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Thomas M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berndt, Markus [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Magolan, Ben [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to document a multi-year plan for enhancing turbulence modeling in Hydra-TH for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) program. Hydra-TH is being developed to the meet the high- fidelity, high-Reynolds number CFD based thermal hydraulic simulation needs of the program. This work is being conducted within the thermal hydraulics methods (THM) focus area. This report is an extension of THM CASL milestone L3:THM.CFD.P10.02 [33] (March, 2015) and picks up where it left off. It will also serve to meet the requirements of CASL THM level three milestone, L3:THM.CFD.P11.04, scheduled for completion September 30, 2015. The objectives of this plan will be met by: maturation of recently added turbulence models, strategic design/development of new models and systematic and rigorous testing of existing and new models and model extensions. While multi-phase turbulent flow simulations are important to the program, only single-phase modeling will be considered in this report. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is also an important modeling methodology. However, at least in the first year, the focus is on steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence modeling.

  4. New members of the TW Hydrae Association and two accreting M-dwarfs in Scorpius-Centaurus

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Simon J; Bento, Joao

    2015-01-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of several young mid-M stars found during a search for new members of the 30-40 Myr-old Octans Association. Only one of the stars may be considered a possible Octans(-Near) member. However, two stars have proper motions, kinematic distances, radial velocities, photometry and Li I 6708AA measurements consistent with membership in the 8-10 Myr-old TW Hydrae Association. Another may be an outlying member of TW Hydrae but has a velocity similar to that predicted by membership in Octans. We also identify two new lithium-rich members of the neighbouring Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association (Sco-Cen). Both exhibit large 12 and 22 micron excesses and strong, variable H-alpha emission which we attribute to accretion from circumstellar discs. Such stars are thought to be incredibly rare at the ~16 Myr median age of Sco-Cen and they join only one other confirmed M-type and three higher-mass accretors outside of Upper Scorpius. The serendipitous discovery of two accreting stars hosting ...

  5. Web-Based Information Systems and Applications:A Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bao-wen; XU Lei; MENG Xiao-feng; YU Ge; LU Zheng-ding; HE Yan-xiang; SHEN Jun-yi

    2004-01-01

    @@ 0 Introduction World Wide Web (WWW) has given rise to phenomenal growth in Web information systems and applications. And the Internet transcends national and geographical boundaries and has brought about unprecedented opportunities for software deployment to satisfy the application needs of all walks of life. Since the Web provides cross-platform universal access to resources for the massive user population, even greater demand is proposed to manage data and information effectively.

  6. Epidemiological surveys of dysfunction of the masticatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helkimo, M

    1976-01-01

    Findings in epidemiologic studies referred to in this review appear to warrant the following conclusions: 1. Symptoms of dysfunction of the masticatory system are very common in unselected materials - much more common than hitherto assumed. This implies that dentists in the future must interest themselves more than hitherto for diagnosis and treatment of functional disturbances of the masticatory system in general practice. 2. There are no differences in frequency of dysfunction between men and women in the general population. Why women dominate in patient materials has not been convincingly explained in the literature. 3. Symptoms of mandibular dysfunction have been found in perons in all age groups. The slight differences as to age distribution reported, indicate more frequent symptoms in old individuals than in young ones. 4. No predominant etiologic factor of dysfunction of the masticatory system has been found in the population studies. Various factors are obviously involved in the etiology of functional disorders. A certain correlation between the degree of dysfunction and the general state of health and the number of residual teeth has, however, been demonstrated. Besides occlusal disturbances and psyhic factors the general health therefore should be observed as an important variable in mandilular dysfunction. 5. In order to faciliate future comparisons between different materials and interpretation of results it is necessary to use the same dignostic criteria and to collect data by reference to suitalbe induces permitting assessment of the prevalence of different symptoms with their severity. 6. With the aid of a generally accepted dysfunction index it should be possible further to elucidate the still many obscure aspects of the etiology and further course of dysfunctional diseases of the masticatory system in clinical materials and population studies. 7. More epidemiologic research of different populations is necessary to increase our knowledge in this

  7. Survey on the Event Orderings Semantics Used for Distributed System

    CERN Document Server

    Gazali, Yaser Miaji Osman; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2311

    2010-01-01

    Event ordering in distributed system (DS) is disputable and proactive subject in DS particularly with the emergence of multimedia synchronization. According to the literature, different type of event ordering is used for different DS mode such as asynchronous or synchronous. Recently, there are several novel implementation of these types introduced to fulfill the demand for establishing a certain order according to a specific criterion in DS with lighter complexity.

  8. Automated Headcount Systems. A State of the Art Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    center. It was the feeling of the users at New Hampshire that the equipment was sensitive enough so that if located in any other place, reliability...Brooks Air Force Base San Antonio, TX 78235 1 HQ AFMSC/ SGB (Col Jackson) Brooks AFB, TX 78235 1 HQDA DCSLOG ATTN: DALO-TST-F Washington, DC...stripe. Your system can be programmed to control access to sensitive production, engineering, research and development, office and EDP areas. You

  9. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: survey of inverter and related protection equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T

    2002-12-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme reports on a survey made on inverter and related protection equipment. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and distributed PV power systems. This report summarises the data obtained from survey of recent inverter technology and inverter protection equipment for grid interconnected PV systems. The results are based on the surveys using a questionnaire to identify the current status of grid-interconnection inverters. This report is to serve as a reference for those interested in installing grid-connected PV systems, electric utility company personnel, manufacturers and researchers. The results of the survey are presented and discussed. Technical and financial data is reviewed and two appendices provide details on the results obtained and those institutions involved in the survey.

  10. Shutter heating system of Antarctic bright star survey telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Dong, Shucheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A heat preservation system for mechanical shutter in Antarctic is introduced in the paper. The system consists of the heat preservation chamber, the host controller STM32F103C8T6 with peripheral circuit and the control algorithm. The whole design is carried out on the basis of the low temperature requirement, including the cavity structure and thermal insulation. The heat preservation chamber is used to keep the shutter warm and support the weight of the camera. Using PT100 as the temperature sensor, the signal processing circuit converts the temperature to the voltage which is then digitized by the 12 bit ADC in the STM32. The host controller transforms the voltage data into temperature, and through the tuning of the Fussy PID algorithm which controls the duty cycle of the MOSFET, the temperature control of chamber is realized. The System has been tested in the cryogenic environment for a long time, with characteristic of low temperature resistance, small volume, high accuracy of temperature control as well as remote control and detection.

  11. A survey of packages for large linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Milne, Brent

    2000-02-11

    This paper evaluates portable software packages for the iterative solution of very large sparse linear systems on parallel architectures. While we cannot hope to tell individual users which package will best suit their needs, we do hope that our systematic evaluation provides essential unbiased information about the packages and the evaluation process may serve as an example on how to evaluate these packages. The information contained here include feature comparisons, usability evaluations and performance characterizations. This review is primarily focused on self-contained packages that can be easily integrated into an existing program and are capable of computing solutions to very large sparse linear systems of equations. More specifically, it concentrates on portable parallel linear system solution packages that provide iterative solution schemes and related preconditioning schemes because iterative methods are more frequently used than competing schemes such as direct methods. The eight packages evaluated are: Aztec, BlockSolve,ISIS++, LINSOL, P-SPARSLIB, PARASOL, PETSc, and PINEAPL. Among the eight portable parallel iterative linear system solvers reviewed, we recommend PETSc and Aztec for most application programmers because they have well designed user interface, extensive documentation and very responsive user support. Both PETSc and Aztec are written in the C language and are callable from Fortran. For those users interested in using Fortran 90, PARASOL is a good alternative. ISIS++is a good alternative for those who prefer the C++ language. Both PARASOL and ISIS++ are relatively new and are continuously evolving. Thus their user interface may change. In general, those packages written in Fortran 77 are more cumbersome to use because the user may need to directly deal with a number of arrays of varying sizes. Languages like C++ and Fortran 90 offer more convenient data encapsulation mechanisms which make it easier to implement a clean and intuitive user

  12. Immagine della crisi / Crisi dell'immagine. Critica all'egemonia culturale del realismo e diritto all'opacità in Hydra Decapita (2011, un film saggio di The Otolith Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Ferrara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the ways in which the relation between crisis and imaginary is articulated in Hydra Decapita, a 2011 essay-film by the British art collective The Otolith Group. Hydra Decapita is an imaged-based reflection arguing for the biopolitical character of the global economic crisis erupted in 2008 and of its representations in the media. By deploying a Cultural Studies-oriented interdisciplinary approach to the artwork – drawing its methodology from visual studies, critical theory and post-colonial studies – the article interrogates the limits and potentialities of Hydra Decapita’s conceptual kernel and aesthetic language.

  13. Morphological methods for design of modular systems (a survey)

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Mark Sh

    2012-01-01

    The article addresses morphological approaches to design of modular systems. The following methods are briefly described: (i) basic version of morphological analysis (MA), (ii) modification of MA as method of closeness to ideal point(s), (iii reducing of MA to linear programming, (iv) multiple choice problem, (v) quadratic assignment problem, (vi) Pareto-based MA (i.e., revelation of Pareto-efficient solutions), (vii) Hierarchical Morphological Multicriteria Design (HMMD) approach, and (viii) Hierarchical Morphological Multicriteria Design (HMMD) approach based on fuzzy estimates. The above-mentioned methods are illustrated by schemes, models, and illustrative examples. An additional realistic example (design of GSM network) is presented to illustrate main considered methods.

  14. A survey of core research in information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sidorova, Anna; Torres, Russell; Johnson, Vess

    2013-01-01

    The Information Systems (IS) discipline was founded on the intersection of computer science and organizational sciences, and produced a rich body of research on topics ranging from database design and the strategic role of IT to website design and online consumer behavior. In this book, the authors provide an introduction to the discipline, its development, and the structure of IS research, at a level that is appropriate for emerging and current IS scholars. Guided by a bibliometric study of all research articles published in eight premier IS research journals over a 20-year period, the author

  15. Survey on Anonymity in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-Yi Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Although anonymizing Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks often means extra cost in terms of transfer efficiency, many systems try to mask the identities of their users for privacy consideration. By comparison and analysis of existing approaches,we investigate the properties of unstructured P2P anonymity, and summarize current attack models on these designs. Most of these approaches are path-based, which require peers to pre-construct anonymous paths before transmission, thus suffering significant overhead and poor reliability. We also discuss the open problems in this field and propose several future research directions.

  16. Awareness and implementation of tobacco dependence treatment guidelines in Arizona: Healthcare Systems Survey 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menke J Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents findings from the Tobacco Control in Arizona Healthcare Systems Survey, conducted in 2000. The purpose of the survey was to assess the status of Arizona healthcare systems' awareness and implementation of tobacco cessation and prevention measures. Methods The 20-item survey was developed by The University of Arizona HealthCare Partnership in collaboration with the Arizona Department of Health Services Bureau of Tobacco Education and Prevention. It was mailed to representatives of Arizona's 40 healthcare systems, including commercial and Medicare managed care organizations, "managed Medicaid" organizations, Veterans Affairs Health Care Systems, and Indian Health Service Medical Centers. Thirty-three healthcare systems (83% completed the survey. Results The majority of healthcare systems reported awareness of at least one tobacco cessation and prevention clinical practice guideline, but only one third reported full guideline implementation. While a majority covered some form of behavioral therapy, less than half reported covering tobacco treatment medications. "Managed Medicaid" organizations administered through the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System were significantly less likely to offer coverage for behavioral therapy and less likely to cover pharmacotherapy than were their non-Medicaid counterparts in managed care, Veterans Affairs Health Care Systems and Indian Health Service Medical Centers. Conclusion Arizona healthcare system coverage for tobacco cessation in the year 2000 was comparable to national survey findings of the same year. The findings that only 10% of "Managed Medicaid" organizations covered tobacco treatment medication and were significantly less likely to cover behavioral therapy were important given the nearly double smoking prevalence among Medicaid patients. Throughout the years of the program, the strategic plan of the Arizona Department of Health Services Bureau of Tobacco

  17. A Survey of Authentication Schemes in Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Umair; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Saleem, Kashif; Abbas, Haider; Orgun, Mehmet; Iqbal, Waseem; Aslam, Baber

    2017-01-01

    E-Healthcare is an emerging field that provides mobility to its users. The protected health information of the users are stored at a remote server (Telecare Medical Information System) and can be accessed by the users at anytime. Many authentication protocols have been proposed to ensure the secure authenticated access to the Telecare Medical Information System. These protocols are designed to provide certain properties such as: anonymity, untraceability, unlinkability, privacy, confidentiality, availability and integrity. They also aim to build a key exchange mechanism, which provides security against some attacks such as: identity theft, password guessing, denial of service, impersonation and insider attacks. This paper reviews these proposed authentication protocols and discusses their strengths and weaknesses in terms of ensured security and privacy properties, and computation cost. The schemes are divided in three broad categories of one-factor, two-factor and three-factor authentication schemes. Inter-category and intra-category comparison has been performed for these schemes and based on the derived results we propose future directions and recommendations that can be very helpful to the researchers who work on the design and implementation of authentication protocols.

  18. A survey on reliability and safety analysis techniques of robot systems in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, H.S.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, J.C.; Choi, Y.R.; Moon, S.S

    2000-12-01

    The reliability and safety analysis techniques was surveyed for the purpose of overall quality improvement of reactor inspection system which is under development in our current project. The contents of this report are : 1. Reliability and safety analysis techniques suvey - Reviewed reliability and safety analysis techniques are generally accepted techniques in many industries including nuclear industry. And we selected a few techniques which are suitable for our robot system. They are falut tree analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, reliability block diagram, markov model, combinational method, and simulation method. 2. Survey on the characteristics of robot systems which are distinguished from other systems and which are important to the analysis. 3. Survey on the nuclear environmental factors which affect the reliability and safety analysis of robot system 4. Collection of the case studies of robot reliability and safety analysis which are performed in foreign countries. The analysis results of this survey will be applied to the improvement of reliability and safety of our robot system and also will be used for the formal qualification and certification of our reactor inspection system.

  19. A Usability Survey of a Contents-Based Video Retrieval System by Combining Digital Video and an Electronic Bulletin Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Hirohide; Kaneda, Shigeo

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the survey of the usability of a novel content-based video retrieval system. This system combines video streaming and an electronic bulletin board system (BBS). Comments submitted to the BBS are used to index video data. Following the development of the prototype system an experimental survey with ten subjects was performed.…

  20. A Solar System Survey of Forced Librations in Longitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornstock, Robert L.; Bills, Bruce G.

    2003-01-01

    Forced librations are periodic rotational rate variations due to gravitational interactions with an orbital partner. We have developed an analytic theory capable of calculating expected amplitudes of forced librations for nonresonant rotators as well as for bodies existing in a spin-orbit resonance. The theory has been applied to 34 solar system bodies, including terrestrial planets, planetary satellites, and the asteroid Eros. Parameters governing libration amplitude are the body s orbital eccentricity, moment difference, and the ratio of its spin rate to its orbital rate. In each case the largest libration amplitude is associated with the forcing frequency 2 (p - 1) n, where n is the orbital mean motion and p is the spin/orbit rate ratio. This dominant frequency is simply semidiurnal as seen from the position of the torquing body. The maximum libration angular amplitude is 1.3 x 10(exp -2) radians for Thebe, and the maximum mean equatorial displacement is 1.4 km for Mimas.

  1. Deliberation on Design Strategies of Automatic Harvesting Systems: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Bachche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Asia, decreasing farmer and labor populations due to various factors is a serious problem that leads to increases in labor costs, higher harvesting input energy consumption and less resource utilization. To solve these problems, researchers are engaged in providing long term and low-tech alternatives in terms of mechanization and automation of agriculture by way of efficient, low cost and easy to use solutions. This paper reviews various design strategies in recognition and picking systems, as well as developments in fruit harvesting robots during the past 30 years in several countries. The main objectives of this paper are to gather all information on fruit harvesting robots; focus on the technical developments so far achieved in picking devices; highlight the problems still to be solved; and discuss the future prospects of fruit harvesting robots.

  2. Quality Management System at Construction Project: A Questionnaire Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P.Mane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The best quality, time and cost are the important aspects of successful construction project which fulfills the main goal of construction industry. The quality management has to provide the environment within which related tools, techniques and procedures can be deployed effectively leading to operational success for a construction project. The role of quality management for a construction company is not an isolated activity, but intertwined with all the operational and managerial processes of the construction project. The quality management system (QMS in construction industry refers to quality planning, quality assurance and quality control. The paper includes the outcome of the research methodology decided by authors based on interview of project participants and analysis of scrutinized interview data.

  3. Survey of real-time processing systems for big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lftikhar, Nadeem; Xie, Xike

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, real-time processing and analytics systems for big data–in the context of Business Intelligence (BI)–have received a growing attention. The traditional BI platforms that perform regular updates on daily, weekly or monthly basis are no longer adequate to satisfy the fast......-changing business environments. However, due to the nature of big data, it has become a challenge to achieve the real-time capability using the traditional technologies. The recent distributed computing technology, MapReduce, provides off-the-shelf high scalability that can significantly shorten the processing time...... for big data; Its open-source implementation such as Hadoop has become the de-facto standard for processing big data, however, Hadoop has the limitation of supporting real-time updates. The improvements in Hadoop for the real-time capability, and the other alternative real-time frameworks have been...

  4. Survey of real-time processing systems for big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, real-time processing and analytics systems for big data–in the context of Business Intelligence (BI)–have received a growing attention. The traditional BI platforms that perform regular updates on daily, weekly or monthly basis are no longer adequate to satisfy the fast......-changing business environments. However, due to the nature of big data, it has become a challenge to achieve the real-time capability using the traditional technologies. The recent distributed computing technology, MapReduce, provides off-the-shelf high scalability that can significantly shorten the processing time...... for big data; Its open-source implementation such as Hadoop has become the de-facto standard for processing big data, however, Hadoop has the limitation of supporting real-time updates. The improvements in Hadoop for the real-time capability, and the other alternative real-time frameworks have been...

  5. Clinical Computer Systems Survey (CLICS): learning about health information technology (HIT) in its context of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtner, Valentina; Cornford, Tony; Klecun, Ela

    2013-01-01

    Successful health information technology (HIT) implementations need to be informed on the context of use and on users' attitudes. To this end, we developed the CLinical Computer Systems Survey (CLICS) instrument. CLICS reflects a socio-technical view of HIT adoption, and is designed to encompass all members of the clinical team. We used the survey in a large English hospital as part of its internal evaluation of the implementation of an electronic patient record system (EPR). The survey revealed extent and type of use of the EPR; how it related to and integrated with other existing systems; and people's views on its use, usability and emergent safety issues. Significantly, participants really appreciated 'being asked'. They also reminded us of the wider range of administrative roles engaged with EPR. This observation reveals pertinent questions as to our understanding of the boundaries between administrative tasks and clinical medicine - what we propose as the field of 'administrative medicine'.

  6. A survey of commercial object-oriented database management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, John

    1992-01-01

    The object-oriented data model is the culmination of over thirty years of database research. Initially, database research focused on the need to provide information in a consistent and efficient manner to the business community. Early data models such as the hierarchical model and the network model met the goal of consistent and efficient access to data and were substantial improvements over simple file mechanisms for storing and accessing data. However, these models required highly skilled programmers to provide access to the data. Consequently, in the early 70's E.F. Codd, an IBM research computer scientists, proposed a new data model based on the simple mathematical notion of the relation. This model is known as the Relational Model. In the relational model, data is represented in flat tables (or relations) which have no physical or internal links between them. The simplicity of this model fostered the development of powerful but relatively simple query languages that now made data directly accessible to the general database user. Except for large, multi-user database systems, a database professional was in general no longer necessary. Database professionals found that traditional data in the form of character data, dates, and numeric data were easily represented and managed via the relational model. Commercial relational database management systems proliferated and performance of relational databases improved dramatically. However, there was a growing community of potential database users whose needs were not met by the relational model. These users needed to store data with data types not available in the relational model and who required a far richer modelling environment than that provided by the relational model. Indeed, the complexity of the objects to be represented in the model mandated a new approach to database technology. The Object-Oriented Model was the result.

  7. The DES Bright Arcs Survey: Hundreds of Candidate Strongly Lensed Galaxy Systems from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification and Year 1 Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T. [Fermilab

    2017-06-09

    We report the results of our searches for strong gravitational lens systems in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verication and Year 1 observations. The Science Verication data spans approximately 250 sq. deg. with median i

  8. Mobile Operating Systems and Application Development Platforms: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okediran O. O

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Earlier mobile communication technologies were dominated by vertically integrated service provision which are highly bounded mainly to voice and short message services that are organized in a monopolistic competition between few mobile virtual network operators, service providers and enhanced service providers. In the recent years, however, radical change driven by advancements in technology, witnessed the introduction and further development of smartphones where the user can get access to new applications and services by connecting to the device manufactures’ application stores and the like. These smartphones have added many features of a fullfledged computer: high speed processors, large storage space, multitasking, high-resolution screens and cameras, multipurpose communication hardware, and so on. However, these devices market is dominated by a number of different technological platforms, including different operating systems (OS and application development platforms, resulting in a variety of different competing solutions on the market driven by different actors. This paper detailed a review and comparative analysis of the features of these technological platforms.

  9. Survey, modeling, interpretation as multidisciplinary components of a Knowledge System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bianchini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultural Heritage represents a very difficult subject to be handled. Despite its cross-cutting and multi-level characters (scientific, social, economic, political, etc., nevertheless the topic can hardly be framed in a proper and comprehensive way. Any project addressing Cultural Heritage  (documentation, preservation, retrofitting, valorisation and so on actually tends to exalt a specific point of view and, therefore, to neglect potentially crucial contributions coming from different fields of expertise. Comprehensive solutions to this problem seem by now available thanks to ICT and the 3D Digitalization and Multimedia Technologies: nevertheless the more the platforms improve their multidisciplinary capabilities and interoperability, the more they need an intelligent design and an accurate control during the implementation phase. Built Cultural Heritage (as historic buildings, districts, sites, etc. perfectly represents the wide range of situations, which have to be tackled. Any intervention, in fact, from the design phase to its realization and validation, actually deals with several different interlaced layers that together depict a “complex system”. The construction of a Knowledge System represents a crucial step in correctly addressing the problem.

  10. A novel electronic data collection system for large-scale surveys of neglected tropical diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large cross-sectional household surveys are common for measuring indicators of neglected tropical disease control programs. As an alternative to standard paper-based data collection, we utilized novel paperless technology to collect data electronically from over 12,000 households in Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a needs assessment to design an Android-based electronic data collection and management system. We then evaluated the system by reporting results of a pilot trial and from comparisons of two, large-scale surveys; one with traditional paper questionnaires and the other with tablet computers, including accuracy, person-time days, and costs incurred. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: The electronic data collection system met core functions in household surveys and overcame constraints identified in the needs assessment. Pilot data recorders took 264 (standard deviation (SD 152 sec and 260 sec (SD 122 sec per person registered to complete household surveys using paper and tablets, respectively (P = 0.77. Data recorders felt a lack of connection with the interviewee during the first days using electronic devices, but preferred to collect data electronically in future surveys. Electronic data collection saved time by giving results immediately, obviating the need for double data entry and cross-correcting. The proportion of identified data entry errors in disease classification did not differ between the two data collection methods. Geographic coordinates collected using the tablets were more accurate than coordinates transcribed on a paper form. Costs of the equipment required for electronic data collection was approximately the same cost incurred for data entry of questionnaires, whereas repeated use of the electronic equipment may increase cost savings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Conducting a needs assessment and pilot testing allowed the design to specifically match the functionality required for surveys. Electronic data collection

  11. Implementation of an FPGA based system survey and diagnostic reader with the aim to increase system dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Alsdorf, M; Kwiatkowski, M; Vigano, W; Zamantzas, C

    2012-01-01

    The operation and machine protection of accelerators practically rely on their underlying instrumentation systems and a failure of any of those systems could pose a significant impact on the overall reliability and availability. In order to improve the detection and in some cases the prevention of failures, a survey mechanism could be integrated to the system that collects crucial information about the current system status through a number of acquisition modules. The implementation and integration of such a method is presented with the aim to standardize the implementation, where the acquisition modules share a common build and are connected through a standardized interface to a survey reader. The reader collects regularly data and controls the readout intervals. The information collected from these modules is used locally in the FPGA device to identify critical system failures and results in an immediate failsafe reaction with the data also transmitted and stored in external databases for offline analysis.

  12. Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, August 3-8, 2000: data processing, geodetic coordinates and comparison with prior geodetic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauk, Benjamin A.; Power, John A.; Lisowski, Mike; Dzurisin, Daniel; Iwatsubo, Eugene Y.; Melbourne, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Between August 3 and 8,2000,the Alaska Volcano Observatory completed a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey at Augustine Volcano, Alaska. Augustine is a frequently active calcalkaline volcano located in the lower portion of Cook Inlet (fig. 1), with reported eruptions in 1812, 1882, 1909?, 1935, 1964, 1976, and 1986 (Miller et al., 1998). Geodetic measurements using electronic and optical surveying techniques (EDM and theodolite) were begun at Augustine Volcano in 1986. In 1988 and 1989, an island-wide trilateration network comprising 19 benchmarks was completed and measured in its entirety (Power and Iwatsubo, 1998). Partial GPS surveys of the Augustine Island geodetic network were completed in 1992 and 1995; however, neither of these surveys included all marks on the island.Additional GPS measurements of benchmarks A5 and A15 (fig. 2) were made during the summers of 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1996. The goals of the 2000 GPS survey were to:1) re-measure all existing benchmarks on Augustine Island using a homogeneous set of GPS equipment operated in a consistent manner, 2) add measurements at benchmarks on the western shore of Cook Inlet at distances of 15 to 25 km, 3) add measurements at an existing benchmark (BURR) on Augustine Island that was not previously surveyed, and 4) add additional marks in areas of the island thought to be actively deforming. The entire survey resulted in collection of GPS data at a total of 24 sites (fig. 1 and 2). In this report we describe the methods of GPS data collection and processing used at Augustine during the 2000 survey. We use this data to calculate coordinates and elevations for all 24 sites surveyed. Data from the 2000 survey is then compared toelectronic and optical measurements made in 1988 and 1989. This report also contains a general description of all marks surveyed in 2000 and photographs of all new marks established during the 2000 survey (Appendix A).

  13. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS). Topical report, October 1993--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This document is a Final Technical Report that describes the results of the Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) research project. The objectives were to construct a geophysical data acquisition system that uses a remotely operated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and to evaluate its effectiveness for characterization of hazardous environmental sites. The GAUSS is a data acquisition system that mitigates the potential risk to personnel during geophysical characterization of hazardous or radioactive sites. The fundamental basis of the GAUSS is as follows: (1) an unmanned survey vehicle carries geophysical sensors into a hazardous location, (2) the pilot remains outside the hazardous site and operates the vehicle using radio control, (3) geophysical measurements and their spatial locations are processed by an automated data-acquisition system which displays data on an off-site monitor in real-time, and (4) the pilot uses the display to direct the survey vehicle for complete site coverage. The objective of our Phase I research was to develop a data acquisition and processing (DAP) subsystem and geophysical sensors suitable for UAV deployment. We integrated these two subsystems to produce an automated, hand-held geophysical surveying system. The objective of the Phase II effort was to modify the subsystems and integrate them into an airborne prototype. The completed GAUSS DAP system consists of a UAV platform, a laser tracking and ranging subsystem, a telemetry subsystem, light-weight geophysical sensors, a base-station computer (BC), and custom-written survey control software (SCS). We have utilized off-the-shelf commercial products, where possible, to reduce cost and design time.

  14. 75 FR 25319 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Satisfaction With the Disability Evaluation System (DES...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Survey of Satisfaction With the Disability Evaluation System (DES... submit the collection of information abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission describes the nature of the information collection and...

  15. 2006 Automation Survey: The Systems Are Changing. But School Libraries Aren't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the findings of the 2006 School Library Journal-San Jose State University Automation Survey. The study takes a close look at the systems that media specialists are using, how they are using them, and what librarians want from their future automation programs. The findings reveal that while respondents were satisfied with…

  16. Rainwater harvesting in the United States: a survey of common system practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems in the United States vary in terms of design and operation. To better understand common practices in the RWH community and motivation for collecting harvested rainwater, an electronic survey was used to poll members of the American Rainwater Cat...

  17. A Survey of Security Tools for the Industrial Control System Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Carl M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McCarty, Michael V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-12

    This report details the results of a survey conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to identify existing tools which could be used to prevent, detect, mitigate, or investigate a cyber-attack in an industrial control system (ICS) environment. This report compiles a list of potentially applicable tools and shows the coverage of the tools in an ICS architecture.

  18. On the Integration of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) by Canadian Mathematicians: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Chantal; Jarvis, Daniel H.; Lavicza, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we outline the findings of a Canadian survey study (N = 302) that focused on the extent of computer algebra systems (CAS)-based technology use in postsecondary mathematics instruction. Results suggest that a considerable number of Canadian mathematicians use CAS in research and teaching. CAS use in research was found to be the…

  19. A serendipitous all sky survey for bright objects in the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, M E; Schmidt, B P; Drake, A J; Djorgovski, S G; Graham, M J; Mahabal, A; Donalek, C; Larson, S; Christensen, E; Beshore, E; McNaught, R

    2015-01-01

    We use seven year's worth of observations from the Catalina Sky Survey and the Siding Spring Survey covering most of the northern and southern hemisphere at galactic latitudes higher than 20 degrees to search for serendipitously imaged moving objects in the outer solar system. These slowly moving objects would appear as stationary transients in these fast cadence asteroids surveys, so we develop methods to discover objects in the outer solar system using individual observations spaced by months, rather than spaced by hours, as is typically done. While we independently discover 8 known bright objects in the outer solar system, the faintest having $V=19.8\\pm0.1$, no new objects are discovered. We find that the survey is nearly 100% efficient at detecting objects beyond 25 AU for $V\\lesssim 19.1$ ($V\\lesssim18.6$ in the southern hemisphere) and that the probability that there is one or more remaining outer solar system object of this brightness left to be discovered in the unsurveyed regions of the galactic plan...

  20. CMV matrices in random matrix theory and integrable systems: a survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenciu, Irina [Courant Institute, 251 Mercer St, New York, NY 10012 (United States)

    2006-07-14

    We present a survey of recent results concerning a remarkable class of unitary matrices, the CMV matrices. We are particularly interested in the role they play in the theory of random matrices and integrable systems. Throughout the paper we also emphasize the analogies and connections to Jacobi matrices.

  1. Operating System Support for High-performance Networking:a Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-qing; WANG Peng

    2004-01-01

    Crucial applications require direct and efficient access to emerging high-performance networks. This paper surveys the networking subsystem overhead for high-performance networking and the current operating system techniques to address the overhead. This paper aims to identify a few directions for future research work.

  2. A robotic system to conduct radiation and contamination surveys on nuclear waste transport casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.; Sanders, T.L.

    1990-06-01

    The feasibility of performing, numerous spent fuel cask operations using fully integrated robotic systems is under evaluation. Using existing technology, operational and descriptive software and hardware in the form of robotic end effectors are being designed in conjunction with interfacing cask components. A robotic radiation and contamination survey system has been developed and used on mock-up cask hardware to evaluate the impact of such fully automated operations on cask design features and productivity. Based on experience gained from the survey system, numerous health physics operations can be reliably performed with little human intervention using a fully automated system. Such operations can also significantly reduce time requirements for cask-receiving operations. 7 refs., 51 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Sustainability of continuous improvement systems in industry: Survey of BAC and Navarre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Jaca García

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article will examine the level of sustainability for companies in Continuous Improvement Management and the factors which are supporting sustainability during time, through a survey to 350 companies of Basque Autonomous Community and Navarra in June of 2009. The study presents some data about the development of the improvement systems. Then, factors that companies have related to the abandonment of improvement systems are analysed. Since improvement systems are based on workers’ participation, this study characterizes this participation. Finally, the elements which have been used in the improvement systems by the companies are analyzed, and how objectives and indicators are used in their management system. To conclude, the following key issues are emphasized: a higher involvement of workforce in improvement systems, the integration of improvement system in the management system and the establishment of associated indicators to the system.

  4. Shallow and Deep Networks Intrusion Detection System: A Taxonomy and Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hodo, Elike; Bellekens, Xavier; Hamilton, Andrew; Tachtatzis, Christos; Atkinson, Robert,

    2017-01-01

    Intrusion detection has attracted a considerable interest from researchers and industries. The community, after many years of research, still faces the problem of building reliable and efficient IDS that are capable of handling large quantities of data, with changing patterns in real time situations. The work presented in this manuscript classifies intrusion detection systems (IDS). Moreover, a taxonomy and survey of shallow and deep networks intrusion detection systems is presented based on ...

  5. Recent advancements in information extraction methodology and hardware for earth resources survey systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Thomson, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    The present work discusses some recent developments in preprocessing and extractive processing techniques and hardware and in user applications model development for earth resources survey systems. The Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System (MIDAS) is currently being developed, and is an attempt to solve the problem of real time multispectral data processing in an operational system. The main features and design philosophy of this system are described. Examples of wetlands mapping and land resource inventory are presented. A user model developed for predicting the yearly production of mallard ducks from remote sensing and ancillary data is described.

  6. Exploratory survey of image quality on CR digital mammography imaging systems in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona, E; Rivera, T; Arreola, M; Franco, J; Molina, N; Alvarez, B; Azorín, C G; Casian, G

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of image quality and dose in computed radiographic digital mammography (CRDM) systems. Studies included CRDM systems of various models and manufacturers which dose and image quality comparisons were performed. Due to the recent rise in the use of digital radiographic systems in Mexico, CRDM systems are rapidly replacing conventional film-screen systems without any regard to quality control or image quality standards. Study was conducted in 65 mammography facilities which use CRDM systems in the Mexico City and surrounding States. The systems were tested as used clinically. This means that the dose and beam qualities were selected using the automatic beam selection and photo-timed features. All systems surveyed generate laser film hardcopies for the radiologist to read on a scope or mammographic high luminance light box. It was found that 51 of CRDM systems presented a variety of image artefacts and non-uniformities arising from inadequate acquisition and processing, as well as from the laser printer itself. Undisciplined alteration of image processing settings by the technologist was found to be a serious prevalent problem in 42 facilities. Only four of them showed an image QC program which is periodically monitored by a medical physicist. The Average Glandular Dose (AGD) in the surveyed systems was estimated to have a mean value of 2.4 mGy. To improve image quality in mammography and make more efficient screening mammographic in early detection of breast cancer is required new legislation.

  7. The UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey ZYJHK Photometric System: Passbands and Synthetic Colours

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, P C; Leggett, S K; Warren, S J; Hewett, Paul C.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Leggett, Sandy K.; Warren, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    The UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey is a set of five surveys of complementary combinations of area, depth, and Galactic latitude, which began in 2005 May. The surveys use the UKIRT Wide Field Camera (WFCAM), which has a solid angle of 0.21deg^2. Here we introduce and characterise the ZYJHK photometric system of the camera, which covers the wavelength range 0.83-2.37 microns. We synthesise response functions for the five passbands, and compute colours in the WFCAM, SDSS and 2MASS bands, for brown dwarfs, stars, galaxies and quasars of different types. We provide a recipe for others to compute colours from their own spectra. Calculations are presented in the Vega system, and the computed offsets to the AB system are provided, as well as colour equations between WFCAM filters and the SDSS and 2MASS passbands. We highlight the opportunities presented by the new Y filter at 0.97-1.07 microns for surveys for hypothetical Y dwarfs (brown dwarfs cooler than T), and for quasars of very--high redshift, z>6.4.

  8. The Outer Solar System Origins Survey. I. ; Design and First-Quarter Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Michele T.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Petit, Jean-Marc; Gladman, Brett J.; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Chen, Ying-Tung; Volk, Kathryn; Alexandersen, Mike; Benecchi, Susan D.; Delsanti, Audrey; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery, tracking, and detection circumstances for 85 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the first 42 square degrees of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey. This ongoing r-band solar system survey uses the 0.9 square degree field of view MegaPrime camera on the 3.6 meter Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Our orbital elements for these TNOs are precise to a fractional semimajor axis uncertainty of less than 0.1 percent. We achieve this precision in just two oppositions, as compared to the normal three to five oppositions, via a dense observing cadence and innovative astrometric technique. These discoveries are free of ephemeris bias, a first for large trans-Neptunian surveys. We also provide the necessary information to enable models of TNO orbital distributions to be tested against our TNO sample. We confirm the existence of a cold "kernel" of objects within the main cold classical Kuiper Belt and infer the existence of an extension of the "stirred" cold classical Kuiper Belt to at least several au beyond the 2:1 mean motion resonance with Neptune. We find that the population model of Petit et al. remains a plausible representation of the Kuiper Belt. The full survey, to be completed in 2017, will provide an exquisitely characterized sample of important resonant TNO populations, ideal for testing models of giant planet migration during the early history of the solar system.

  9. HYDRA VULGARIS PALLAS, 1766 (HYDROZOA: HYDRIDAE AS BIOINDICATOR OF THE WATER QUALITY OF THE RIVER CHILI, AREQUIPA, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Huarachi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766 (Hydrozoa: Hydridae as a bioindicator of water quality of the Chili River, Arequipa, Peru. The freshwater hydra were collected in the spring "Ojo del Milagro", Characato District, Arequipa, Peru. H. vulgaris was cultivated under standardized conditions and were fed Artemia sp. K2Cr2O7 was used as a positive control and as a reference toxin. Acute toxicity and morphological changes of H. vulgaris were evaluated on Tiabaya and Tingo, sampling points of the Chili River. The LC50 (median lethal concentration showed: Tingo (LC50-96h = 135.95% classifying it as non-toxic and Tiabaya (LC50 -24h = 61.83%, classifying it as moderately toxic; LC50-48h = 44.19% and LC50 -72h = 38.28% classifying them as toxic; LC50 -96h = 21.44% rating it as very toxic. Significant differences in the morphological changes of H. vulgaris were observed with regard to different concentrations and exposure time in waters sampled from Tingo from 48 h to 96 h and in Tiabaya, significant differences in morphological changes from 24 h to 96 h exposure. The results of the physicochemical parameters of the Chili River were compared with the Peruvian National Standards for Environmental Quality (ECA for water (categories 3 and 4 and recorded high values of biochemical oxygen demand BOD5, NH4 and PO4, and low dissolved oxigen OD values for Tiabaya. In Tingo, NH4 and phosphate were high. In Tiabaya, water was considered more toxic than at Tingo.

  10. Preplanetary Nebulae: An HST Imaging Survey and a New Morphological Classification System

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Contreras, Carmen Sánchez; Claussen, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have carried out a survey of candidate preplanetary nebulae (PPNs). We report here our discoveries of objects having well-resolved geometrical structures, and use the large sample of PPNs now imaged with HST (including previously studied objects in this class) to devise a comprehensive morphological classification system for this category of objects. The wide variety of aspherical morphologies which we have found for PPNs are qualitatively similar to those found for young planetary nebulae in previous surveys. We also find prominent halos surrounding the central aspherical shapes in many of our objects -- these are direct signatures of the undisturbed circumstellar envelopes of the progenitor AGB stars. Although the majority of these have surface-brightness distributions consistent with a constant mass-loss rate with a constant expansion velocity, there are also examples of objects with varying mass-loss rates. As in our surveys of young planetary nebulae (PNs), we f...

  11. Education about hallucinations using an internet virtual reality system: a qualitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellowlees, Peter M; Cook, James N

    2006-01-01

    The authors evaluate an Internet virtual reality technology as an education tool about the hallucinations of psychosis. This is a pilot project using Second Life, an Internet-based virtual reality system, in which a virtual reality environment was constructed to simulate the auditory and visual hallucinations of two patients with schizophrenia. Eight hundred sixty-three self-referred users took a self-guided tour. Five hundred seventy-nine (69%) of the users who toured the environment completed a survey. Of the survey responders, 440 (76%) thought the environment improved their understanding of auditory hallucinations, 69% thought it improved their understanding of visual hallucinations, and 82% said they would recommend the environment to a friend. Computer simulations of the perceptual phenomena of psychiatric illness are feasible with existing personal computer technology. Integration of the evaluation survey into the environment itself was possible. The use of Internet-connected graphics environments holds promise for public education about mental illness.

  12. Combining Users' Activity Survey and Simulators to Evaluate Human Activity Recognition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkune, Gorka; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Chen, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating human activity recognition systems usually implies following expensive and time-consuming methodologies, where experiments with humans are run with the consequent ethical and legal issues. We propose a novel evaluation methodology to overcome the enumerated problems, which is based on surveys for users and a synthetic dataset generator tool. Surveys allow capturing how different users perform activities of daily living, while the synthetic dataset generator is used to create properly labelled activity datasets modelled with the information extracted from surveys. Important aspects, such as sensor noise, varying time lapses and user erratic behaviour, can also be simulated using the tool. The proposed methodology is shown to have very important advantages that allow researchers to carry out their work more efficiently. To evaluate the approach, a synthetic dataset generated following the proposed methodology is compared to a real dataset computing the similarity between sensor occurrence frequencies. It is concluded that the similarity between both datasets is more than significant. PMID:25856329

  13. Innovative Gamma Ray Spectrometer Detection Systems for Conducting Scanning Surveys on Challenging Terrain - 13583

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palladino, Carl; Mason, Bryan; Engle, Matt; LeVangie, James [The Palladino Company, Inc., 720 Fillmore St., San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Dempsey, Gregg [United States Environmental Protection Agency, P.O. Box 98517, Las Vegas, NV 89193-8517 (United States); Klemovich, Ron [HydroGeoLogic, Inc., 6340 Glenwood, Suite 200, Building No. 7, Overland Park, KS 66202 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Santa Susana Field Laboratory located near Simi Valley, California was investigated to determine the nature and extent of gamma radiation anomalies. The primary objective was to conduct gamma scanning surveys over 100 percent of the approximately 1,906,000 square meters (471 acre) project site with the most sensitive detection system possible. The site had challenging topography that was not conducive to traditional gamma scanning detection systems. Terrain slope varied from horizontal to 48 degrees and the ground surface ranged from flat, grassy meadows to steep, rocky hillsides. In addition, the site was home to many protected endangered plant and animal species, and archaeologically significant sites that required minimal to no disturbance of the ground surface. Therefore, four innovative and unique gamma ray spectrometer detection systems were designed and constructed to successfully conduct gamma scanning surveys of approximately 1,076,000 square meters (266 acres) of the site. (authors)

  14. A Survey of Attitudes towards the Clinical Application of Systemic Inflammation Based Prognostic Scores in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Watt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The systemic inflammatory response (SIR plays a key role in determining nutritional status and survival of patients with cancer. A number of objective scoring systems have been shown to have prognostic value; however, their application in routine clinical practice is not clear. The aim of the present survey was to examine the range of opinions internationally on the routine use of these scoring systems. Methods. An online survey was distributed to a target group consisting of individuals worldwide who have reported an interest in systemic inflammation in patients with cancer. Results. Of those invited by the survey (n=238, 65% routinely measured the SIR, mainly for research and prognostication purposes and clinically for allocation of adjuvant therapy or palliative chemotherapy. 40% reported that they currently used the Glasgow Prognostic Score/modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS/mGPS and 81% reported that a measure of systemic inflammation should be incorporated into clinical guidelines, such as the definition of cachexia. Conclusions. The majority of respondents routinely measured the SIR in patients with cancer, mainly using the GPS/mGPS for research and prognostication purposes. The majority reported that a measure of the SIR should be adopted into clinical guidelines.

  15. Tests of HPGe- and scintillation-based backpack γ-radiation survey systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jonas M C; Östlund, Karl; Söderberg, Joakim; Mattsson, Sören; Rääf, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    The performance of three different backpack-mounted γ-radiation survey systems has been investigated. The systems are based on a LaBr3:Ce detector and a NaI(Tl) detector both with active volume dimensions of 76.2 mm in diameter and 76.2 mm length and a 123% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The detection limits of the systems were tested in a controlled outdoor environment in Sweden, followed by field tests of the HPGe- and LaBr3:Ce-based systems at the site of a radioactive waste repository in Georgia (in the Caucasus region of Eurasia). The results showed that the high efficiency HPGe detector performed significantly better than similar sized LaBr3:Ce and NaI(Tl) detectors, however, the HPGe detector was significantly heavier than the other systems. The use of different analysis methods revealed that creating maps of the survey area was the best method for offline analysis of survey data collected from a large area. Using off-site personnel for analysis of the data proved to be beneficial.

  16. Field Surveys of Non-Residential Solar Water Heating Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Ming Chung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To develop indigenous alternative and renewable energy resources, long-term subsidy programs (1986–1991 and 2000–present for solar water heaters have been enforced in Taiwan. By the end of 2010, the total installed area of solar collectors had exceeded 2 million square meters. However, over 98% of solar water heaters were used in residential systems for hot water production, with the areas of installed solar collector being less than 10 square meters. There were only 98 systems with area of solar collectors installed exceeding 100 square meters put into operation from 2001 to 2010. These systems were mainly installed for water heating in dormitories, swimming pools, restaurants, and manufacturing plants. In the present study, a comprehensive survey of these large-scale solar water heaters was conducted. The objectives of the survey were to assess the system performance and to collect feedback from individual users. It is found that lack of experience in system design and maintenance are the key factors affecting reliable operation of a system. Hourly, daily and long-term field measurements of a dormitory system were also examined to evaluate its thermal efficiencies. Results indicated that thermal efficiency of the system is associated with the daily solar radiation. Hot water use pattern and operation of auxiliary heater should be taken into account in system design.

  17. The Outer Solar System Origins Survey: I. Design and First-Quarter Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Bannister, Michele T; Petit, Jean-Marc; Gladman, Brett J; Gwyn, Stephen D J; Chen, Ying-Tung; Volk, Kathryn; Alexandersen, Mike; Benecchi, Susan; Delsanti, Audrey; Fraser, Wesley; Granvik, Mikael; Grundy, Will M; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie; Hestroffer, Daniel; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jakubik, Marian; Jones, Lynne; Kaib, Nathan; Lacerda, Pedro; Lawler, Samantha; Lehner, Matthew J; Lin, Hsing Wen; Lister, Tim; Lykawka, Patryk Sofia; Monty, Stephanie; Marsset, Michael; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Noll, Keith; Parker, Alex; Pike, Rosemary E; Rousselot, Philippe; Rusk, David; Schwamb, Megan E; Shankman, Cory; Sicardy, Bruno; Vernazza, Pierre; Wang, Shiang-Yu

    2015-01-01

    We report 85 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the first 42 deg$^{2}$ of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS), an ongoing $r$-band survey with the 0.9 deg$^{2}$ field-of-view MegaPrime camera on the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. A dense observing cadence and our innovative astrometric technique produced survey-measured orbital elements for these TNOs precise to a fractional semi-major axis uncertainty $<0.1\\%$ in two sequential years, instead of the 3-5 years needed with sparser observing strategies. These discoveries are free of ephemeris bias, a first for large Kuiper belt surveys. The survey's simulator provides full characterization, including calibrated detection efficiency functions, for debiasing the discovery sample. We confirm the existence of a cold "kernel" of objects within the main cold classical Kuiper belt, and imply the existence of an extension of the "stirred" cold classical Kuiper belt to at least several AU beyond the 2:1 mean motion resonance with Neptune. The popula...

  18. MILLIONS OF MULTIPLES: DETECTING AND CHARACTERIZING CLOSE-SEPARATION BINARY SYSTEMS IN SYNOPTIC SKY SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziev, Emil; Law, Nicholas M. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Arcavi, Iair [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Baranec, Christoph; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Riddle, Reed; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bloom, Joshua S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Burse, Mahesh P.; Chorida, Pravin; Das, H. K.; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Nugent, Peter [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Sullivan, Mark, E-mail: emil.terziev@utoronto.ca [Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-01

    The direct detection of binary systems in wide-field surveys is limited by the size of the stars' point-spread functions (PSFs). A search for elongated objects can find closer companions, but is limited by the precision to which the PSF shape can be calibrated for individual stars. Based on a technique from weak-lensing analysis, we have developed the BinaryFinder algorithm to search for close binaries by using precision measurements of PSF ellipticity across wide-field survey images. We show that the algorithm is capable of reliably detecting binary systems down to Almost-Equal-To 1/5 of the seeing limit, and can directly measure the systems' position angles, separations, and contrast ratios. To verify the algorithm's performance we evaluated 100,000 objects in Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) wide-field-survey data for signs of binarity, and then used the Robo-AO robotic laser adaptive optics system to verify the parameters of 44 high-confidence targets. We show that BinaryFinder correctly predicts the presence of close companions with a <11% false-positive rate, measures the detected binaries' position angles within 1 Degree-Sign to 4 Degree-Sign (depending on signal-to-noise ratio and separation), and separations within 25%, and weakly constrains their contrast ratios. When applied to the full PTF data set, we estimate that BinaryFinder will discover and characterize {approx}450,000 physically associated binary systems with separations <2 arcsec and magnitudes brighter than m{sub R} = 18. New wide-field synoptic surveys with high sensitivity and sub-arcsecond angular resolution, such as LSST, will allow BinaryFinder to reliably detect millions of very faint binary systems with separations as small as 0.1 arcsec.

  19. Information system evolution at the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, F.; Grunberg, M.

    2013-12-01

    The aging information system of the French National Network of Seismic Survey (BCSF-RENASS), located in Strasbourg (EOST), needed to be updated to satisfy new practices from Computer science world. The latter means to evolve our system at different levels : development method, datamining solutions, system administration. The new system had to provide more agility for incoming projects. The main difficulty was to maintain old system and the new one in parallel the time to validate new solutions with a restricted team. Solutions adopted here are coming from standards used by the seismological community and inspired by the state of the art of devops community. The new system is easier to maintain and take advantage of large community to find support. This poster introduces the new system and choosen solutions like Puppet, Fabric, MongoDB and FDSN Webservices.

  20. Survey of Large-Scale Data Management Systems for Big Data Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冷冬; 袁立言; 犹嘉槐

    2015-01-01

    Today, data is flowing into various organizations at an unprecedented scale. The ability to scale out for processing an enhanced workload has become an important factor for the proliferation and popularization of database systems. Big data applications demand and consequently lead to the developments of diverse large-scale data management systems in different organizations, ranging from traditional database vendors to new emerging Internet-based enterprises. In this survey, we investigate, characterize, and analyze the large-scale data management systems in depth and develop comprehensive taxonomies for various critical aspects covering the data model, the system architecture, and the consistency model. We map the prevailing highly scalable data management systems to the proposed taxonomies, not only to classify the common techniques but also to provide a basis for analyzing current system scalability limitations. To overcome these limitations, we predicate and highlight the possible principles that future efforts need to be undertaken for the next generation large-scale data management systems.

  1. Post-Mission Quality Assurance Procedure for Survey-Grade Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstinga, A. P.; Friess, P.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) consist of terrestrial-based moving platforms that integrate a set of imaging sensors (typically digital cameras and laser scanners) and a Position and Orientation System (POS), designed to collect data of the surrounding environment. MMS can be classified as "mapping-grade" or "survey-grade" depending on the system's attainable accuracy. Mapping-grade MMS produce geospatial data suitable for GIS applications (e.g., asset management) while survey-grade systems should satisfy high-accuracy applications such as engineering/design projects. The delivered accuracy of an MMS is dependent on several factors such as the accuracy of the system measurements and calibration parameters. It is critical, especially for survey-grade systems, to implement a robust Quality Assurance (QA) procedure to ensure the achievement of the expected accuracy. In this paper, a new post-mission QA procedure is presented. The presented method consists of a fully-automated self-calibration process that allows for the estimation of corrections to the system calibration parameters (e.g., boresight angles and lever-arm offsets relating the lidar sensor(s) to the IMU body frame) as well as corrections to the system measurements (e.g., post-processed trajectory position and orientation, scan angles and ranges). As for the system measurements, the major challenge for MMS is related to the trajectory determination in the presence of multipath signals and GNSS outages caused by buildings, underpasses and high vegetation. In the proposed self-calibration method, trajectory position errors are properly modelled while utilizing an efficient/meaningful trajectory segmentation technique. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated using a dataset collected under unfavorable GNSS conditions.

  2. A survey of enclosure suspension and rotation systems for 3-15m telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Bruce C.; Loewen, Nathan P.; van Vuuren, Emile; Burgett, William S.

    2016-07-01

    The suspension and rotation systems (typically called bogies) for Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) enclosures will carry structures that are 2-3 times greater in diameter and much heavier than enclosures for the previous generation of 6-10m telescopes. Via on-site visits and/or engineering documentation, we have surveyed eleven optical, infrared, and submillimeter 3-15m telescope enclosures, and report on key design features of the suspension and rotation systems, including wheel and track geometry, the wheel/track interface, average load per wheel, rotation drive method, etc. We discuss key considerations for the development of future suspension and rotation systems for ELT enclosures.

  3. Millions of Multiples: Detecting and Characterizing Close-Separation Binary Systems in Synoptic Sky Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Terziev, Emil; Arcavi, Iair; Baranec, Christoph; Bloom, Joshua S; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P; Chorida, Pravin; Das, H K; Dekany, Richard G; Kraus, Adam L; Kulkarni, S R; Nugent, Peter; Ofek, Eran O; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A N; Riddle, Reed; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P

    2012-01-01

    The direct detection of binary systems in wide-field surveys is limited by the size of the stars' point-spread-functions (PSFs). A search for elongated objects can find closer companions, but is limited by the precision to which the PSF shape can be calibrated for individual stars. We have developed the BinaryFinder algorithm to search for close binaries by using precision measurements of PSF ellipticity across wide-field survey images. We show that the algorithm is capable of reliably detecting binary systems down to approximately 1/5 of the seeing limit, and can directly measure the systems' position angles, separations and contrast ratios. To verify the algorithm's performance we evaluated 100,000 objects in Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) wide-field-survey data for signs of binarity, and then used the Robo-AO robotic laser adaptive optics system to verify the parameters of 44 high-confidence targets. We show that BinaryFinder correctly predicts the presence of close companions with a <5% false-positive...

  4. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Survey Boundaries, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_survey_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector polygons representing survey boundaries for the various data collection efforts used as sources in the larger Louisiana G-WIS database....

  5. Using a hybrid neural/expert system for data base mining in market survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesielski, V.; Palstra, G. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Technology (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the application of a hybrid neural/expert system network to the task of finding significant events in a market research data base. Neural networks trained by backward error propagation are used to classify trends in the time series data. A rule system then uses these classifications, knowledge of market research analysis techniques and external events which influence the time series, to infer the significance of the data. The system achieved 86% recall and 100% precision on a test set of 6 months of survey data. This was significantly better than could be achieved by a system using linear regression together with a rule system. Both systems were able to perform analysis of the test data in under 5 minutes. The manual analysis of the same data took a human expert over four working days.

  6. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar R Chadaga

    Full Text Available To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups.A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications.Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months.Almost half of the respondents (48% reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively. Attendings (29% and nurses (27% were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each, followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37% and attempts to humiliate (32%. Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than < 5'8 and BMI ≥ 25 individuals.Many trainees report experiencing bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders may be of great value to eliminate these pervasive behaviors in the field of

  7. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadaga, Amar R; Villines, Dana; Krikorian, Armand

    2016-01-01

    To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups. A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications. Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months. Almost half of the respondents (48%) reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively). Attendings (29%) and nurses (27%) were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each), followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37%) and attempts to humiliate (32%). Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders may be of great value to eliminate these pervasive behaviors in the field of healthcare.

  8. Reliability optimization of binary state non-repairable systems: A state of the art survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Soltani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available IThe purpose of this paper is to discuss the state of the art on models and methods for reliability optimization problems (ROPs including reliability allocation, redundancy allocation and reliability-redundancy allocation. There are literally few surveys for reviewing the literature of the ROPs. Tillman et al. (1980 classified the related papers by system structure, problem type, and solution methods, separately. In another work, Tzafestas (1980 reviewed system reliability optimization models and the optimization techniques. Yearout (1986 reviewed the literature related to standby redundancy. Kuo (2000 studied the system reliability optimization based on system structure and solution methods. Kuo and Prasad (2004 overviewed system reliability optimization methods. Later, Kuo (2007 reviewed recent advances in optimal reliability allocation problems. The present study adds to the previous literature surveys and focuses mainly on papers after year 2000 but with a quick review on the previous works so that the readers become familiar with the existing approaches. This research investigates the literature from system structure, system performance, uncertainty state and solution approach standpoints, simultaneously.

  9. Application of Machine Learning Approaches in Intrusion Detection System: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan Farah Haq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Network security is one of the major concerns of the modern era. With the rapid development and massive usage of internet over the past decade, the vulnerabilities of network security have become an important issue. Intrusion detection system is used to identify unauthorized access and unusual attacks over the secured networks. Over the past years, many studies have been conducted on the intrusion detection system. However, in order to understand the current status of implementation of machine learning techniques for solving the intrusion detection problems this survey paper enlisted the 49 related studies in the time frame between 2009 and 2014 focusing on the architecture of the single, hybrid and ensemble classifier design. This survey paper also includes a statistical comparison of classifier algorithms, datasets being used and some other experimental setups as well as consideration of feature selection step.

  10. Survey of electronics capability for SP-100 space reactor power system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvi, Ram; Fujita, Tosh

    1991-01-01

    Because of reports indicating improvements in the radiation tolerance of some electronic parts, a survey was recently performed by SP-100 project personnel to determine the advisability of revising SP-100 SRPS (space reactor power systems) allowable neutron and gamma dose rates in order to reduce the size and mass of the radiation shield and thereby achieve system mass reductions. The survey results indicate that recent developments to increase the radiation tolerance of a limited set of electronics parts do not justify increasing the allowable SP-100 dose rates for electronic components. Specifically, the recent improvements on a limited set of parts do not justify increasing the current SP-100 allowable specifications of 5 x 10 exp 5 rads gamma dose and 1 x 10 exp 13 neutrons/sq cm fluence. However, if the improvements of 108 rads for gammas and 10 exp 15 neutrons/sq cm can be extended to a wide range of parts, significant mass savings would result.

  11. The Effect of Haptic Support Systems on Driver Performance: A Literature Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermeijer, Sebastiaan M; Abbink, David A; Mulder, Mark; de Winter, Joost C F

    2015-01-01

    A large number of haptic driver support systems have been described in the scientific literature. However, there is little consensus regarding the design, evaluation methods, and effectiveness of these systems. This literature survey aimed to investigate: (1) what haptic systems (in terms of function, haptic signal, channel, and supported task) have been experimentally tested, (2) how these haptic systems have been evaluated, and (3) their reported effects on driver performance and behaviour. We reviewed empirical research in which participants had to drive a vehicle in a real or simulated environment, were able to control the heading and/or speed of the vehicle, and a haptic signal was provided to them. The results indicated that a clear distinction can be made between warning systems (using vibrations) and guidance systems (using continuous forces). Studies typically used reaction time measures for evaluating warning systems and vehicle-centred performance measures for evaluating guidance systems. In general, haptic warning systems reduced the reaction time of a driver compared to no warnings, although these systems may cause annoyance. Guidance systems generally improved the performance of drivers compared to non-aided driving, but these systems may suffer from after-effects. Longitudinal research is needed to investigate the transfer and retention of effects caused by haptic support systems.

  12. Survey of Greener Ignition and Combustion Systems for Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Wuqiao; Li, Yun; Tian, Zhong; Gao, Bo; Tong, Ling; Wang, Houjun; Zeng, Baoqing

    2015-01-01

    The spark and compression ignition principles of, petrol and diesel internal combustion engines (ICEs) have, not advanced for a century. These do not lead to complete, combustion and hence result in high exhaust emission and, low energy efficiency. This paper presents a comprehensive survey on the attempts and developments of greener ignition, and combustion systems for ICEs and points out that, homogeneous charge microwave ignition (HCMI) holds the, key to a perfect solution. Increasing the ...

  13. A survey of mobile and wireless technologies for augmented reality systems

    OpenAIRE

    Papagiannakis, George; Singh, Gurminder; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in hardware and software for mobile computing have enabled a new breed of mobile AR systems and applications. A new breed of computing called “augmented ubiquitous computing ” has resulted from the convergence of wearable computing, wireless networking and mobile AR interfaces. In this paper we provide a survey of different mobile and wireless technologies and how they have impact AR. Our goal is to place them into different categories so that it becomes easier to...

  14. Integrated Cognition - A Proposed Definition of Ingredients, A Survey of Systems, and Example Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    that does not mean that such a system needs to begin as a “ tabula rasa ,” free of learning processes and knowledge. Rather, initial learning...emergent behavior and have performed well in many roles . It has been developed by H. Van Parunak and Sven Brueck- ner of Altarum. Survey Conclusions... role in planning and prediction, where the causal consequences of actions and events are in- ferred. It is also central to diagnostic reasoning, where

  15. Using model based systems engineering for the development of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope's operational plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvy, Brian M.; Claver, Charles; Willman, Beth; Petravick, Don; Johnson, Margaret; Reil, Kevin; Marshall, Stuart; Thomas, Sandrine; Lotz, Paul; Schumacher, German; Lim, Kian-Tat; Jenness, Tim; Jacoby, Suzanne; Emmons, Ben; Axelrod, Tim

    2016-08-01

    We† provide an overview of the Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) language, tool, and methodology being used in our development of the Operational Plan for Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) operations. LSST's Systems Engineering (SE) team is using a model-based approach to operational plan development to: 1) capture the topdown stakeholders' needs and functional allocations defining the scope, required tasks, and personnel needed for operations, and 2) capture the bottom-up operations and maintenance activities required to conduct the LSST survey across its distributed operations sites for the full ten year survey duration. To accomplish these complimentary goals and ensure that they result in self-consistent results, we have developed a holistic approach using the Sparx Enterprise Architect modeling tool and Systems Modeling Language (SysML). This approach utilizes SysML Use Cases, Actors, associated relationships, and Activity Diagrams to document and refine all of the major operations and maintenance activities that will be required to successfully operate the observatory and meet stakeholder expectations. We have developed several customized extensions of the SysML language including the creation of a custom stereotyped Use Case element with unique tagged values, as well as unique association connectors and Actor stereotypes. We demonstrate this customized MBSE methodology enables us to define: 1) the rolls each human Actor must take on to successfully carry out the activities associated with the Use Cases; 2) the skills each Actor must possess; 3) the functional allocation of all required stakeholder activities and Use Cases to organizational entities tasked with carrying them out; and 4) the organization structure required to successfully execute the operational survey. Our approach allows for continual refinement utilizing the systems engineering spiral method to expose finer levels of detail as necessary. For example, the bottom-up, Use Case

  16. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  17. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  18. Geographic Information System mapping as a tool to assess nonresponse bias in survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Henley, Amanda Clarke; Brouwer, Emily S; Oraefo, Adaora N; Roth, Mary T

    2007-09-01

    Surveys are a useful tool for assessing professional practice patterns, although declining response rates have caused concern over external validity. This is particularly relevant to Web-based surveys, where response rates traditionally have been lower than with paper mail surveys. In a 2005 survey of North Carolina community pharmacy managers using a Web-based data collection instrument, we achieved an overall response rate of 23%. To explore nonresponse bias using accepted methods and to test whether Geographic Information System mapping is a useful tool for assessing response bias. Cross-sectional survey of 1593 community pharmacy managers in North Carolina using a Web-based tool. Nonresponse bias was assessed quantitatively by comparing early responders with late responders (ie, wave analysis) and by comparing respondents with nonrespondents with regard to known pharmacy, pharmacist, and population characteristics. Significant variables from these analyses were then mapped using ArcGIS 9.1. Pharmacy type was identified as a predictor of response, with independent pharmacies less likely to respond than chain pharmacies (odds ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.95). This conclusion was consistent in the wave analysis and the analysis of known population characteristics. Other county-level variables such as the number of physicians per capita, income, and the percentage of residents eligible for Medicaid showed trends but were not statistically significant (Ppharmacy type but trends were more difficult to detect for statistically insignificant trends. The best way to avoid nonresponse bias is to improve response rates. When this is not possible, Geographic Information System mapping has some utility for assessing nonresponse bias, and for aggregating known population characteristics based on location. It is most useful in conjunction with other accepted techniques such as wave analysis and analysis of known population characteristics.

  19. HYDRA-I: a three-dimensional finite difference code for calculating the thermohydraulic performance of a fuel assembly contained within a canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    A finite difference computer code, named HYDRA-I, has been developed to simulate the three-dimensional performance of a spent fuel assembly contained within a cylindrical canister. The code accounts for the coupled heat transfer modes of conduction, convection, and radiation and permits spatially varying boundary conditions, thermophysical properties, and power generation rates. This document is intended as a manual for potential users of HYDRA-I. A brief discussion of the governing equations, the solution technique, and a detailed description of how to set up and execute a problem are presented. HYDRA-I is designed for operation on a CDC 7600 computer. An appendix is included that summarizes approximately two dozen different cases that have been examined. The cases encompass variations in fuel assembly and canister configurations, power generation rates, filler materials, and gases. The results presented show maximum and various local temperatures and heat fluxes illustrating the changing importance of the three heat transfer modes. Finally, the need for comparison with experimental data is emphasized as an aid in code verification although the limited data available indicate excellent agreement.

  20. Multi-scale biomarker evaluation of the toxicity of a commercial azo dye (Disperse Red 1) in an animal model, the freshwater cnidarian Hydra attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Laetitia; Pech, Nicolas; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Moreau, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    Acute (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) and chronic (7 days) tests have been performed to evaluate the effects of the commercial azo dye Disperse Red 1 (DR1) using various biomarkers in the freshwater invertebrate Hydra attenuata. Morphological changes have been selected to calculate ecotoxicological thresholds for sublethal and lethal DR1 concentrations. A multinomial logistic model showed that the probability of each morphological stage occurrence was function of concentration, time and interaction between both. Results of oxidative balance parameter measurements (72 h and 7 days) suggest that polyps set up defense mechanisms to limit lipid peroxidation caused by DR1. DR1 exposure at hormetic concentrations induces increase of asexual reproductive rates. This result suggests (1) an impact on the fitness-related phenotypical traits and (2) trade-offs between reproduction and maintenance to allow the population to survive harsher conditions. Changes in serotonin immuno-labeling in polyps showing alterations in feeding behavior suggest that chronic DR1 exposure impaired neuronal processes related to ingesting behavior in H. attenuata. This ecotoxicity study sheds light on the possible serotonin function in Hydra model and reports for the first time that serotonin could play a significant role in feeding behavior. This study used a multi-scale biomarker approach investigating biochemical, morphological, reproductive and behavioral endpoints in Hydra attenuata. This organism is proposed for a pertinent animal model to assess ecotoxicological impact of pollutant mixtures in freshwater environment.

  1. Ecotoxicological assessment of cobalt using Hydra model: ROS, oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis as mechanisms of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Mohammed; Murugadas, Anbazhagan; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2017-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying cobalt toxicity in aquatic species in general and cnidarians in particular remain poorly understood. Herein we investigated cobalt toxicity in a Hydra model from morphological, histological, developmental, and molecular biological perspectives. Hydra, exposed to cobalt (0-60 mg/L), were altered in morphology, histology, and regeneration. Exposure to standardized sublethal doses of cobalt impaired feeding by affecting nematocytes, which in turn affected reproduction. At the cellular level, excessive ROS generation, as the principal mechanism of action, primarily occurred in the lysosomes, which was accompanied by the upregulation of expression of the antioxidant genes SOD, GST, GPx, and G6PD. The number of Hsp70 and FoxO transcripts also increased. Interestingly, the upregulations were higher in the 24-h than in the 48-h time-point group, indicating that ROS overwhelmed the cellular defense mechanisms at the latter time-point. Comet assay revealed DNA damage. Cell cycle analysis indicated the induction of apoptosis accompanied or not by cell cycle arrest. Immunoblot analyses revealed that cobalt treatment triggered mitochondria-mediated apoptosis as inferred from the modulation of the key proteins Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3. From this data, we suggest the use of Hydra as a model organism for the risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A survey on resource allocation in high performance distributed computing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Hameed; Malik, Saif Ur Rehman; Hameed, Abdul; Khan, Samee Ullah; Bickler, Gage; Min-Allah, Nasro; Qureshi, Muhammad Bilal; Zhang, Limin; Yongji, Wang; Ghani, Nasir; Kolodziej, Joanna; Zomaya, Albert Y.; Xu, Cheng-Zhong; Balaji, Pavan; Vishnu, Abhinav; Pinel, Fredric; Pecero, Johnatan E.; Kliazovich, Dzmitry; Bouvry, Pascal; Li, Hongxiang; Wang, Lizhe; Chen, Dan; Rayes, Ammar

    2013-11-01

    An efficient resource allocation is a fundamental requirement in high performance computing (HPC) systems. Many projects are dedicated to large-scale distributed computing systems that have designed and developed resource allocation mechanisms with a variety of architectures and services. In our study, through analysis, a comprehensive survey for describing resource allocation in various HPCs is reported. The aim of the work is to aggregate under a joint framework, the existing solutions for HPC to provide a thorough analysis and characteristics of the resource management and allocation strategies. Resource allocation mechanisms and strategies play a vital role towards the performance improvement of all the HPCs classifications. Therefore, a comprehensive discussion of widely used resource allocation strategies deployed in HPC environment is required, which is one of the motivations of this survey. Moreover, we have classified the HPC systems into three broad categories, namely: (a) cluster, (b) grid, and (c) cloud systems and define the characteristics of each class by extracting sets of common attributes. All of the aforementioned systems are cataloged into pure software and hybrid/hardware solutions. The system classification is used to identify approaches followed by the implementation of existing resource allocation strategies that are widely presented in the literature.

  3. The evolution of neutral gas in damped Lyman $\\alpha$ systems from the XQ-100 survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Prochaska, J X; Berg, T A M; López, S; D'Odorico, V; Becker, G D; Christensen, L; Cupani, G; Denney, K D; Pâris, I; Worseck, G; Gorosabel, J

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample of 38 intervening Damped Lyman $\\alpha$ (DLA) systems identified towards 100 $z>3.5$ quasars, observed during the XQ-100 survey. The XQ-100 DLA sample is combined with major DLA surveys in the literature. The final combined sample consists of 742 DLAs over a redshift range approximately $1.6 < z_{\\rm abs} < 5.0$. We develop a novel technique for computing $\\Omega_{\\rm HI}^{\\rm DLA}$ as a continuous function of redshift, and we thoroughly assess and quantify the sources of error therein, including fitting errors and incomplete sampling of the high column density end of the column density distribution function. There is a statistically significant redshift evolution in $\\Omega_{\\rm HI}^{\\rm DLA}$ ($\\geq 3 \\sigma$) from $z \\sim 2$ to $z \\sim$ 5. In order to make a complete assessment of the redshift evolution of $\\Omega_{\\rm HI}$, we combine our high redshift DLA sample with absorption surveys at intermediate redshift and 21cm emission line surveys of the local universe. Although $\\Omeg...

  4. ASRDI oxygen technology survey, Volume 7: Characteristics of metals that influence system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis of the material and process factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems is presented. In addition, the practices of those who specify, build, or use oxygen systems relative to the previous is summarized. Alloys based on iron, copper, nickel, and aluminum were investigated representing the bulk of metals found in oxygen systems. Safety-related characteristics of other miscellaneous metals are summarized. It was found that factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems exit in all phases of the evolutionary process, from smelting and mill techniques through end-production fabrication. The safety of a given metal in an oxygen system was determined to be influenced by the particular service requirement. The metal characteristics should favorably influence fulfillment of these requirements. Thus, no singular metal or alloy could be classified as safest for all types of oxygen service.

  5. A Taxonomy and Survey of Energy-Efficient Data Centers and Cloud Computing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beloglazov, Anton; Lee, Young Choon; Zomaya, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, the development of computing systems has been focused on performance improvements driven by the demand of applications from consumer, scientific and business domains. However, the ever increasing energy consumption of computing systems has started to limit further performance growth due to overwhelming electricity bills and carbon dioxide footprints. Therefore, the goal of the computer system design has been shifted to power and energy efficiency. To identify open challenges in the area and facilitate future advancements it is essential to synthesize and classify the research on power and energy-efficient design conducted to date. In this work we discuss causes and problems of high power / energy consumption, and present a taxonomy of energy-efficient design of computing systems covering the hardware, operating system, virtualization and data center levels. We survey various key works in the area and map them to our taxonomy to guide future design and development efforts. This chapter is conclu...

  6. Motivators, Barriers and Concerns in Adoption of Electronic Filing System: Survey Evidence from Malaysian Professional Accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ling Lai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Worldwide, electronic filing (e-filing system and its' adoption has attracted much attention, however, scholarly study on accounting professionals' acceptance of e-filing system is scant. Approach: This study aimed (i to examine factors that motivated professional accountants to use e-filing (ii to solicit their usage experience and (iii to assess the barriers to adoption and other compliance considerations. The questionnaire survey was administered on 700 professionals from tax practice and commercial sectors who attended "Budget 2008" Tax Seminars, organized by the Malaysian Institute of Accountants in Peninsular Malaysia. In total, 456 usable responses from accounting and tax professionals were collected and analyzed. Results: The survey found out of 456 respondents, just 23.7% had used e-filing in 2007 to file personal tax return forms. Majority of the e-filers opted to use e-filing for the sake of convenience (55.8%, in faith to get faster tax refund (16.8% and speed of filing (15.9%. For those who did not use e-filing, the key impediments were concerned over the security and did not trust of e-filing system. Some (4.8% were unable to access to the e-filing website. Overall, just 26.1% of the professionals surveyed had confidence in the IRBM in managing the e-filing system successfully. Majority (41.2% thought that 'speedy tax refund' to be the most desirable incentive to motivate individuals to use e-filing. Conclusion: As the IRBM is counting on professional accountants to promote the usage of e-filing system, this study provided important insights to the IRBM to developing marketing and business strategies to motivate professional accountant in business to use e-filing in order to accelerate the diffusion of e-filing system in a developing country like Malaysia.

  7. Global Positioning System surveys of storm-surge sensors deployed during Hurricane Ike, Seadrift, Texas, to Lake Charles, Louisiana, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jason; Woodward, Brenda K.; Storm, John B.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey installed a network of pressure sensors at 65 sites along the Gulf Coast from Seadrift, Texas, northeast to Lake Charles, Louisiana, to record the timing, areal extent, and magnitude of inland storm surge and coastal flooding caused by Hurricane Ike in September 2008. A Global Positioning System was used to obtain elevations of reference marks near each sensor. A combination of real-time kinematic (RTK) and static Global Positioning System surveys were done to obtain elevations of reference marks. Leveling relative to reference marks was done to obtain elevations of sensor orifices above the reference marks. This report summarizes the Global Positioning System data collected and processed to obtain reference mark and storm-sensor-orifice elevations for 59 storm-surge sensors recovered from the original 65 installed as a necessary prelude to computation of storm-surge elevations. National Geodetic Survey benchmarks were used for RTK surveying. Where National Geodetic Survey benchmarks were not within 12 kilometers of a sensor site, static surveying was done. Additional control points for static surveying were in the form of newly established benchmarks or reestablished existing benchmarks. RTK surveying was used to obtain positions and elevations of reference marks for 29 sensor sites. Static surveying was used to obtain positions and elevations of reference marks for 34 sensor sites; four sites were surveyed using both methods. Multiple quality checks on the RTK-survey and static-survey data were applied. The results of all quality checks indicate that the desired elevation accuracy for the surveys of this report, less than 0.1-meter error, was achieved.

  8. The Milan System for Reporting Salivary Gland Cytopathology: Analysis and suggestions of initial survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Esther Diana; Faquin, William C; Baloch, Zubair; Barkan, Güliz A; Foschini, Maria Pia; Pusztaszeri, Marc; Vielh, Philippe; Kurtycz, Daniel F I

    2017-07-14

    An international panel of experts in the field of salivary gland cytology (SGC), supported by the American Society of Cytopathology (ASC) and the International Academy of Cytology, conducted a survey to seek evidence and practice patterns regarding SGC. Results were used to provide focus for the proposed Milan System for Reporting Salivary Gland Cytopathology. The study group, formed during the 2015 European Congress of Cytology held in Milan, Italy, generated a survey that included 49 specific questions related to the taxonomies, practices, and diagnostic entities of salivary cytology. Qualtrics software was used as the study platform. Software and server support were provided by the division of information technology at the University of Wisconsin. The survey was available online from November 2015 until February 2016. Participants were invited through the Web sites of the ASC, the International Academy of Cytology, and the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology as well as by the ASC e-mail "ListServe"; responses were evaluated by the Milan System editors. Responses from a total of 515 participants were collected and reviewed. A total of 347 participants provided demographic data information. Responses revealed variations in diagnostic practice and subsequent management. Participants believed that the acceptable rate for nondiagnostic samples should not be higher than 10%. There were varied opinions regarding the approach to neoplastic lesions of uncertain malignant potential, those that may or may have not local invasion and distant spread. Results of the survey demonstrated strong support for the development of a unified system for reporting SGC. Cancer Cytopathol 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  9. Magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size and resistivity of the mineralized area beneath overburden, a regional east-west magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. This is a data release report of the magnetotelluric sounding data collected along the east-west profile; no interpretation of the data is included.

  10. Audio-magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and skin depth of the polarizable mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional east-west audio-magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. The purpose of this report is to release the audio-magnetotelluric sounding data collected along that east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  11. The Passenger Satisfaction Survey in the Regional Integrated Public Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Valaskova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Quality criteria Method of the Servicesin the Integrated Public Transport System in Slovak Republic.The proposed method is based on the detailed list of theQuality criteria of the Services in Public Transport from theview of passengers. The criteria are determined based on theSlovak Technical Norm STN EN 138 16 which is related toquality of transport. The method has been applied in RegionalIntegrated Public Transport System of Zilina (ZRIDS in theform of Passenger Quality Satisfaction Survey.

  12. The Application of Surveying Biochemistry Light Instrument in the Reaction System of Starch with Mn3+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Zhengbiao; Wu Jiagen

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of the application of Surveying Biochemistry Light Instrument (SBLI) in the reaction system of starch with Mn3+was studied. The results showed: neither starch nor initiator(Mn3+) could produce light because no factor that could produce light existed in them. But starch could produce light when it was acted by Mn3 + and the intensity of light depended on the kind and concentration of starch, the amount of Mn3 +, the temperature and pH of the reaction system. In addition, the intensity of light decreased with the reaction time because of the gradual disappearance of starch free radicals.

  13. Medway Tunnel Road Pavement Survey Using Different Frequency GPR Antenna Systems - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Morteza Amir; Banks, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    This presentation reports on an extensive survey carried out on a section (just outside the westbound end of the tunnel portal) of the Medway Tunnel in North Kent, UK. The Medway Tunnel provides a dual carriageway road crossing under the River Medway between Chatham and Strood. It is 725 metres long from portal to portal and consists of three sections. The appearance of repeated cracking of the road surface in this particular section of the tunnel suggested either a steady movement of the ground or possible undermining due to an underground watercourse. Ironically, the design and construction of the road had been realised to prevent any form of structural movement. It was deemed necessary to perform a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey in order to confirm underground construction details of the road in this section of the tunnel. This presentation reports on the detailed survey and the challenges encountered during the operation, which utilised four different frequency GPR systems including 2GHz, 900MHz, 600MHz and 200MHz antennas. The presentation will also describe how decisions were made to carry out supplementary surveys based on results obtained on-site (via primary data processing) and observations made during the survey. A summary of results will be presented individually for each antenna system used, as well as comparisons between each antenna system. Results will then be mapped against the design drawings available for confirmation of construction configurations. In conclusion, the presentation will demonstrate that the tunnel road pavement is not constructed as per the information provided (design drawings). Results will clearly indicate that there is no second reinforced concrete layer present in this particular section of the road pavement (contrary to what was originally believed) and will present the actual road construction in comparison with the design drawings. The results will confirm that there is no underground watercourse present in this

  14. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This is Volume 2 part 2, of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. This volume particularly contains basic design and performance data.

  15. Simulation of a ground-layer adaptive optics system for the Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Jia; Sijiong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) is a recently developed technique extensively applied to ground-based telescopes,which mainly compensates for the wavefront errors induced by ground-layer turbulence to get an appropriate point spread function in a wide field of view.The compensation results mainly depend on the turbulence distribution.The atmospheric turbulence at Dome A in the Antarctic is mainly distributed below 15 meters,which is an ideal site for applications of GLAO.The GLAO system has been simulated for the Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope,which will be set up at Dome A,and uses a rotating mirror to generate several laser guide stars and a wavefront sensor with a wide field of view to sequentially measure the wavefronts from different laser guide stars.The system is simulated on a computer and parameters of the system are given,which provide detailed information about the design of a practical GLAO system.

  16. The Schisto Track: A System for Gathering and Monitoring Epidemiological Surveys by Connecting Geographical Information Systems in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Using the Android platform as a notification instrument for diseases and disorders forms a new alternative for computerization of epidemiological studies. Objective The objective of our study was to construct a tool for gathering epidemiological data on schistosomiasis using the Android platform. Methods The developed application (app), named the Schisto Track, is a tool for data capture and analysis that was designed to meet the needs of a traditional epidemiological survey. An initial version of the app was finished and tested in both real situations and simulations for epidemiological surveys. Results The app proved to be a tool capable of automation of activities, with data organization and standardization, easy data recovery (to enable interfacing with other systems), and totally modular architecture. Conclusions The proposed Schisto Track is in line with worldwide trends toward use of smartphones with the Android platform for modeling epidemiological scenarios. PMID:25099881

  17. First lensed quasar system(s) from the VST-ATLAS survey: one quad and three nearly identical pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Schechter, Paul L; Chehade, B; Metcalfe, N; Shanks, T; McDonald, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed images from the VST ATLAS survey to identify candidate gravitationally lensed quasar systems in a sample of WISE sources with W1 - W2 > 0.7. Results from followup spectroscopy with the Baade 6.5 m telescope are presented for seven systems. One of these is a quadruply lensed quasar. Two are projected superpositions of two quasars at different redshifts. In one system two quasars, though at the same redshift, have very different emission line profiles, and constitute a physical binary. In three systems the component spectra are consistent with the lensing hypothesis, after allowing for micro-lensing. But as no lensing galaxy is detected in these three, we classify them as nearly identical quasar pairs. More extensive observations are needed to establish whether they are lensed quasars or physical binaries.

  18. Methods of practice and guidelines for using survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to establish vertical datum in the United States Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlund, Paul H.; Densmore, Brenda K.

    2012-01-01

    Geodetic surveys have evolved through the years to the use of survey-grade (centimeter level) global positioning to perpetuate and post-process vertical datum. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) technology to monitor natural hazards, ensure geospatial control for climate and land use change, and gather data necessary for investigative studies related to water, the environment, energy, and ecosystems. Vertical datum is fundamental to a variety of these integrated earth sciences. Essentially GNSS surveys provide a three-dimensional position x, y, and z as a function of the North American Datum of 1983 ellipsoid and the most current hybrid geoid model. A GNSS survey may be approached with post-processed positioning for static observations related to a single point or network, or involve real-time corrections to provide positioning "on-the-fly." Field equipment required to facilitate GNSS surveys range from a single receiver, with a power source for static positioning, to an additional receiver or network communicated by radio or cellular for real-time positioning. A real-time approach in its most common form may be described as a roving receiver augmented by a single-base station receiver, known as a single-base real-time (RT) survey. More efficient real-time methods involving a Real-Time Network (RTN) permit the use of only one roving receiver that is augmented to a network of fixed receivers commonly known as Continually Operating Reference Stations (CORS). A post-processed approach in its most common form involves static data collection at a single point. Data are most commonly post-processed through a universally accepted utility maintained by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), known as the Online Position User Service (OPUS). More complex post-processed methods involve static observations among a network of additional receivers collecting static data at known benchmarks. Both classifications provide users

  19. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Lietz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA. Objective: The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design: All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS and integrated (CDA surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results: While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions: The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality

  20. Office systems for promoting screening mammography. A survey of primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, S K; Luckmann, R; Coghlin, J; Gann, P

    1993-12-01

    Office tracking, scheduling, and reminder systems have been shown to improve utilization of screening mammography, but little is known about the use of these systems by primary care physicians. We surveyed 132 primary care and obstetrics and gynecology practices affiliated with an independent practice association model health maintenance organization in central Massachusetts to determine their use of reminder, scheduling, and follow-up systems, and education and counseling services aimed at increasing screening mammography rates. The use of chart flags to remind physicians of a patient's need for mammography screening was reported by 30% of practices. Thirty-one percent reported the use of flow sheets, and 27% reported the use of mail or telephone patient reminders. At least one of these three systems was used by 57% of the practices, whereas 43% reported having none of these three systems. Variations in the use of these office systems were related to specialty type, physician number, and clinical staffing. The majority of practices (77%) reported using written educational materials, and 42% offered prevention counseling with nonphysician staff. Very few offices (8%) reported using mail or telephone reminders for previously scheduled appointments. Despite the proven effectiveness of reminder systems for screening mammography, many practices do not have a system in place. Promotion of reminder systems in primary care practices could have a substantial impact on mammography utilization.

  1. The filmless radiology reading room: a survey of established picture archiving and communication system sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, E; Reiner, B; Abiri, M; Chacko, A; Morin, R; Ro, D W; Spicer, K; Strickland, N; Young, J

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey radiologists experienced in soft-copy diagnosis using computer workstations about their current reading room environment, their impressions of the efficacy of their reading room design, and their recommendations based on their experience for improvement of the soft-copy reading environment. Surveys were obtained from radiologists at seven sites representing three major picture archiving and communication system (PACS) vendors throughout the world that have had extensive experience with soft-copy interpretation of radiology studies. The radiologists filled out a detailed survey, which was designed to assess their current reading room environment and to provide them with the opportunity to make suggestions about improvement of the PACS reading rooms. The survey data were entered into a database and results were correlated with multiple parameters, including experience with PACS, types of modalities interpreted on the system, and number of years of experience in radiology. The factors judged to be most important in promoting radiologist productivity were room lighting, monitor number, and monitor brightness. Almost all of the radiologists indicated that their lighting source was from overhead rather than indirect or portable light sources. Approximately half indicated they had the capability of dimming the brightness of the overhead lighting. Most radiologists indicated that they were able to adjust room temperature but that they did not have individual temperature controls at their workstations. The radiologists indicated that the most troublesome sources of noise included background noise, other radiologists, and clinicians much more than noise from computer monitors, technologists, or patients. Most radiologists did not have chairs that could recline or arm rests. Most did have wheels and the capability to swivel, both of which were judged important. The majority of chairs also had lumbar support, which was also seen to be

  2. History of Soil Survey and Evolution of the Brazilian Soil Classification System - SiBCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha dos Anjos, Lúcia Helena; Csekö Nolasco de Carvalho, Claudia; Homem Antunes, Mauro Antonio; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    In Brazil soil surveys started around 1940 and the first map with soil information of São Paulo State was published in 1943. The Committee of Soils of the National Service for Agronomic Research was created in 1947 by the Agriculture Ministry and became an historical landmark for soil survey in Brazil. In 1953, the National Program of soil survey was approved and the first soil map and report of Rio de Janeiro State was released in 1958, followed by São Paulo State in 1960. This is also the origin of Embrapa Soil Research institution. Other milestones were the soil surveys published by the Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC) and the natural resources studies published within the RADAMBRASIL Project, initially planned for the Amazon region and later covering the whole country. Many soil studies followed and a comprehensive knowledge of tropical soils was achieved resulting in successful technologies for agriculture production, in lands considered by many as of "low fertility and acid soils with limited or no agricultural potential". However, detailed soil surveys are still lacking; only 5% of the country soils are mapped in 1:25.000 scales, and 15-20% in 1:100.000. In the first soil survey reports of Rio de Janeiro (1958) and São Paulo (1960), soil classes were defined according to Baldwin, Kellog & Thorp (Yearbook of Agriculture for 1938), and Thorp & Smith (Soil Science, 67, 1949) publications. It was already clear that the existing classification systems were not adequate to represent the highly weathered tropical soils of the large old landscapes in the cerrado (savanna like) region, or the soils formed on recent hydromorphic conditions at the Amazon Basin and Pantanal region. A national classification system to embody the country's large territory and environmental variation from tropical to subtropical and semiarid conditions, as well as the diversity of soil forming processes in old and new landscapes had to be developed. In 1964, the first attempt of a

  3. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Public Land Survey System of the United States 201011 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  4. Zigbee Technology and its Application in Wireless Home Automation Systems: A Survey [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoraya Obaid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless home automation systems have drawn conside rable attentions of the researchers for more than a decade. The major technologies used to implement th ese systems include Z-Wave, Insteon, Wavenis, Bluetooth, WiFi, and ZigBee. Among these technologi es the ZigBee based systems have become very popula r because of its low cost and low power consumption. In this paper ZigBee based wireless home automation systems have been addressed. There are two main par ts of this paper. In the first part a brief introdu ction of the ZigBee technology has been presented and in the second part a survey work on the ZigBee based wire less home automation system has been presented. The perf ormances of the ZigBee based systems have also been compared with those of other competing technologies based systems. In addition some future opportuniti es and challenges of the ZigBee based systems have bee n listed in this paper.

  5. A portable UAV LIDAR system for coastal topographic surveys and sea surface measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Philip L.-F.; Tseng, Kuo-Hsin; Yeh, Sunny

    2017-04-01

    A light-weight UAV system for coastal topography and coastal sea surface measurements is developed. This system is based on techniques of a multirotor UAV, a light detection and ranging (LIDAR), an inertial measurement unit, and a real-time kinematic global navigation satellite system (RTK-GNSS). The synchronization and data recording are achieved using Labview. This system can be operated in a very low attitude flight within a range of 10m that can provide very high resolution of point cloud data. The performance of this system has been tested and calibrated with known targets. The vertical root-mean-square error is less than about 10 cm, depending on the flight height. Applications of the system, including coastal topographic surveys, tidal elevation measurement, wave measurements, and bottom roughness measurements are presented and discussed. The tide and wave measurements are compared with in-situ measurements using pressure sensors. The results of comparison suggest that this system is a useful tool to measure the sea surface elevation and topography. The challenges of applying this system are also discussed.

  6. Radioactive scrap metal (RSM) inventory & tracking system and prototype RSM field survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, T.R.

    1994-09-01

    Based on very preliminary information, it has been estimated that the radioactive scrap metal (RSM) inventories at DOE facilities amount to about 1.5 million tons and a much larger amount will be generated from decontamination and decommissioning of surplus DOE facilities. To implement a national DOE program for beneficial reuse of RSM, it will be necessary to known the location and characteristics of RSM inventories that are available and will be generated to match them with product demands. It is the intent of this task to provide a standardized methodology via a RSM database for recording, tracking, and reporting data on RSM inventories. A multiple relational database in dBASE IV was designed and a PC-based code was written in Clipper 5.0 syntax to expedite entry, editing, querying, and reporting of RSM survey data. The PC based-code, the multiple relational database files, and other external files used by the code to generate reports and queries constitute a customized software application called the RSM Inventory & Tracking System (RSM I&TS). A prototype RSM field survey was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to demonstrate the field use of the RSM I&TS and logistics of conducting the survey. During the demonstration, about 50 tons of RSM were sized, characterized, sorted, and packaged in transport containers.

  7. The SEEDS Direct Imaging Survey for Planets and Scattered Dust Emission in Debris Disk Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Janson, Markus; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Usuda, Tomonori; Thalmann, Christian; Carson, Joseph C; Goto, Miwa; Currie, Thayne; McElwain, M W; Itoh, Yoichi; Fukagawa, Misato; Crepp, Justin; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Grady, Carol A; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiro; Hayashi, Saeko; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Nishimura, Tetsuro; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Tomono, Daego; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Tamura, Motohide

    2013-01-01

    Debris disks around young main-sequence stars often have gaps and cavities which for a long time have been interpreted as possibly being caused by planets. In recent years, several giant planet discoveries have been made in systems hosting disks of precisely this nature, further implying that interactions with planets could be a common cause of such disk structures. As part of the SEEDS high-contrast imaging survey, we are surveying a population of debris disk-hosting stars with gaps and cavities implied by their spectral energy distributions, in order to attempt to spatially resolve the disk as well as to detect any planets that may be responsible for the disk structure. Here we report on intermediate results from this survey. Five debris disks have been spatially resolved, and a number of faint point sources have been discovered, most of which have been tested for common proper motion, which in each case has excluded physical companionship with the target stars. From the detection limits of the 50 targets t...

  8. Online survey system for image-based clinical guideline studies using the Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Todd M; Teng, Chia-Chi

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of health information technology (HIT) is due to a rising interest in improving the quality of health care. HIT has the potential to reduce cost and transform services. Proper clinical support systems will contribute to the meaningful use of HIT systems by providing a wide array of data to clinicians for the diagnosis and treatments. Clinical guidelines, created by a consensus of experts, can be put in place to assist physicians in making clinical decisions. Delphi methods are commonly used to create consensus from surveys completed by a team of experts. Image based studies could create guidelines that standardize severity, deformity or other clinical classifications. As these studies were traditionally conducted using paper based media, the cost and time requirement often make the process impractical. Ware proposing a web based system to aid medical researchers in conducting image based Delphi studies for improved clinical guidelines and decision support.

  9. A Survey on Urban Traffic Management System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapileswar Nellore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the number of vehicles has increased exponentially, but the bedrock capacities of roads and transportation systems have not developed in an equivalent way to efficiently cope with the number of vehicles traveling on them. Due to this, road jamming and traffic correlated pollution have increased with the associated adverse societal and financial effect on different markets worldwide. A static control system may block emergency vehicles due to traffic jams. Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs have gained increasing attention in traffic detection and avoiding road congestion. WSNs are very trendy due to their faster transfer of information, easy installation, less maintenance, compactness and for being less expensive compared to other network options. There has been significant research on Traffic Management Systems using WSNs to avoid congestion, ensure priority for emergency vehicles and cut the Average Waiting Time (AWT of vehicles at intersections. In recent decades, researchers have started to monitor real-time traffic using WSNs, RFIDs, ZigBee, VANETs, Bluetooth devices, cameras and infrared signals. This paper presents a survey of current urban traffic management schemes for priority-based signalling, and reducing congestion and the AWT of vehicles. The main objective of this survey is to provide a taxonomy of different traffic management schemes used for avoiding congestion. Existing urban traffic management schemes for the avoidance of congestion and providing priority to emergency vehicles are considered and set the foundation for further research.

  10. A Survey on Urban Traffic Management System Using Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellore, Kapileswar; Hancke, Gerhard P

    2016-01-27

    Nowadays, the number of vehicles has increased exponentially, but the bedrock capacities of roads and transportation systems have not developed in an equivalent way to efficiently cope with the number of vehicles traveling on them. Due to this, road jamming and traffic correlated pollution have increased with the associated adverse societal and financial effect on different markets worldwide. A static control system may block emergency vehicles due to traffic jams. Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs) have gained increasing attention in traffic detection and avoiding road congestion. WSNs are very trendy due to their faster transfer of information, easy installation, less maintenance, compactness and for being less expensive compared to other network options. There has been significant research on Traffic Management Systems using WSNs to avoid congestion, ensure priority for emergency vehicles and cut the Average Waiting Time (AWT) of vehicles at intersections. In recent decades, researchers have started to monitor real-time traffic using WSNs, RFIDs, ZigBee, VANETs, Bluetooth devices, cameras and infrared signals. This paper presents a survey of current urban traffic management schemes for priority-based signalling, and reducing congestion and the AWT of vehicles. The main objective of this survey is to provide a taxonomy of different traffic management schemes used for avoiding congestion. Existing urban traffic management schemes for the avoidance of congestion and providing priority to emergency vehicles are considered and set the foundation for further research.

  11. Network level pavement evaluation with 1 mm 3D survey system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin C.P. Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest iteration of PaveVision3D Ultra can obtain true 1 mm resolution 3D data at full-lane coverage in all 3 directions at highway speed up to 60 mph. This paper introduces the PaveVision3D Ultra technology for rapid network level pavement survey on approximately 1280 center miles of Oklahoma interstate highways. With sophisticated automated distress analyzer (ADA software interface, the collected 1 mm 3D data provide Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT with comprehensive solutions for automated evaluation of pavement surface including longitudinal profile for roughness, transverse profile for rutting, predicted hydroplaning speed for safety analysis, and cracking and various surface defects for distresses. The pruned exact linear time (PELT method, an optimal partitioning algorithm, is implemented to identify change points and dynamically determine homogeneous segments so as to assist ODOT effectively using the available 1 mm 3D pavement surface condition data for decision-making. The application of 1 mm 3D laser imaging technology for network survey is unprecedented. This innovative technology allows highway agencies to access its options in using the 1 mm 3D system for its design and management purposes, particularly to meet the data needs for pavement management system (PMS, pavement ME design and highway performance monitoring system (HPMS.

  12. Technology transfer with system analysis, design, decision making, and impact (Survey-2000) in acute care hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, M

    2001-10-01

    This paper provides the results of the Survey-2000 measuring technology transfer for management information systems in health care. The relationships with systems approaches, user involvement, usersatisfaction, and decision-making were measured and are presented. The survey also measured the levels Internet and Intranet presents in acute care hospitals, which will be discussed in future articles. The depth of the survey includes e-commerce for both business to business and customers. These results are compared, where appropriate, with results from survey 1997 and changes are discussed. This information will provide benchmarks for hospitals to plan their network technology position and to set goals. This is the first of three articles based upon the results of the Srvey-2000. Readers are referred to a prior article by the author that discusses the survey design and provides a tutorial on technology transfer in acute care hospitals.

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Uav Based Mapping System for Remote Sensing and Surveying Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eling, C.; Wieland, M.; Hess, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Kuhlmann, H.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have increasingly been used in various application areas, such as in the remote sensing or surveying. For these applications the UAV has to be equipped with a mapping sensor, which is mostly a camera. Furthermore, a georeferencing of the UAV platform and/or the acquired mapping data is required. The most efficient way to realize this georeferencing is the direct georeferencing, which is based on an onboard multi-sensor system. In recent decades, direct georeferencing systems have been researched and used extensively in airborne, ship and land vehicle applications. However, these systems cannot easily be adapted to UAV platforms, which is mainly due to weight and size limitations. In this paper a direct georeferencing system for micro- and mini-sized UAVs is presented, which consists of a dual-frequency geodetic grade OEM GPS board, a low-cost single-frequency GPS chip, a tactical grade IMU and a magnetometer. To allow for cm-level position and sub-degree attitude accuracies, RTK GPS (real-time kinematic) and GPS attitude (GPS compass) determination algorithms are running on this system, as well as a GPS/IMU integration. Beside the direct georeferencing, also the precise time synchronization of the camera, which acts as the main sensor for mobile mapping applications, and the calibration of the lever arm between the camera reference point and the direct georeferencing reference point are explained in this paper. Especially the high accurate time synchronization of the camera is very important, to still allow for high surveying accuracies, when the images are taken during the motion of the UAV. Results of flight tests demonstrate that the developed system, the camera synchronization and the lever arm calibration make directly georeferenced UAV based single point measurements possible, which have cm-level accuracies on the ground.

  14. A control system of a mini survey facility for photometric monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Hironori; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Hanaue, Takumi; Ita, Yoshifusa; Ichikawa, Takashi; Komiyama, Takahiro

    2016-08-01

    We have built a control system for a mini survey facility dedicated to photometric monitoring of nearby bright (Kdome and a small (30-mm aperture) wide-field (5 × 5 sq. deg. field of view) infrared (1.0-2.5 microns) camera on an equatorial fork mount, as well as power sources and other associated equipment. All the components other than the camera are controlled by microcomputerbased I/O boards that were developed in-house and are in many of the open-use instruments in our observatory. We present the specifications and configuration of the facility hardware, as well as the structure of its control software.

  15. Multiple populations in Galactic globular clusters: a survey in the Strömgren system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso-García, J.; Catelan, M.; Amigo, P.

    2013-01-01

    We are coming to believe that stellar populations in globular clusters are not as simple as they were once thought to be. A growing amount of photometric and spectroscopic evidence shows that globular clusters host at least two different stellar populations. In our contribution to these proceedings...... we present the first results of a survey we are conducting to look for the presence of multiple populations in a significant number of Galactic globular clusters, using the Strömgren system. We intend to photometrically separate these populations and characterize their radial distributions...

  16. Application of RgMap system on digital regional geological survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Digital geological mapping fundamentally broke through the traditional working pattern, successfully carried out the geological mapping digitalization. By using the RGMAP system to field digital geological mapping, the authors summarized the method of work and the work flow of the RGMAPGIS during the field geological survey. First, we prepared material, set up the PRB gallery, then put the geographic base map under the background maplayer and organizing the field hand map, forming the field factual datum map. At last, the geological space database is formed.

  17. A Radiation-Hydrodynamics Code Comparison for Laser-Produced Plasmas: FLASH versus HYDRA and the Results of Validation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Orban, Chris; Chawla, Sugreev; Wilks, Scott C; Lamb, Donald Q

    2013-01-01

    The potential for laser-produced plasmas to yield fundamental insights into high energy density physics (HEDP) and deliver other useful applications can sometimes be frustrated by uncertainties in modeling the properties and expansion of these plasmas using radiation-hydrodynamics codes. In an effort to overcome this and to corroborate the accuracy of the HEDP capabilities recently added to the publicly available FLASH radiation-hydrodynamics code, we present detailed comparisons of FLASH results to new and previously published results from the HYDRA code used extensively at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We focus on two very different problems of interest: (1) an Aluminum slab irradiated by 15.3 and 76.7 mJ of "pre-pulse" laser energy and (2) a mm-long triangular groove cut in an Aluminum target irradiated by a rectangular laser beam. Because this latter problem bears a resemblance to astrophysical jets, Grava et al., Phys. Rev. E, 78, (2008) performed this experiment and compared detailed x-ray int...

  18. Evidence for Accretion High-Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of the Classical T Tauri Star TW Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Kästner, J H; Schulz, N S; Canizares, C R; Weintraub, D A; Kastner, Joel H.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Canizares, Claude R.; Weintraub, David A.

    2002-01-01

    We present high resolution X-ray spectra of the X-ray bright classical T Tauri star, TW Hydrae, covering the wavelength range of 1.5-25 AA. The differential emission measure derived from fluxes of temperature-sensitive emission lines shows a plasma with a sharply peaked temperature distribution, peaking at log T = 6.5. Abundance anomalies are apparent, with iron very deficient relative to oxygen, while neon is enhanced relative to oxygen. Density-sensitive line ratios of Ne IX and O VII indicate densities near log n_e = 13. A flare with rapid (~1 ks) rise time was detected during our 48 ksec observation; however, based on analysis of the emission-line spectrum during quiescent and flaring states, the derived plasma parameters do not appear strongly time-dependent. The inferred plasma temperature distribution and densities are consistent with a model in which the bulk of the X-ray emission from TW Hya is generated via mass accretion from its circumstellar disk. Assuming accretion powers the X-ray emission, our...

  19. The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mtDNA evolution and cnidarian phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, Ehsan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2008-02-29

    The 16,314-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)--the first from the class Hydrozoa--has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, as is typical for cnidarians. All genes have the same transcriptional orientation and their arrangement in the genome is similar to that of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita. In addition, a partial copy of cox1 is present at one end of the molecule in a transcriptional orientation opposite to the rest of the genes, forming a part of inverted terminal repeat characteristic of linear mtDNA and linear mitochondrial plasmids. The sequence close to at least one end of the molecule contains several homonucleotide runs as well as small inverted repeats that are able to form strong secondary structures and may be involved in mtDNA maintenance and expression. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genes of H. oligactis and other cnidarians supports the Medusozoa hypothesis but also suggests that Anthozoa may be paraphyletic, with octocorallians more closely related to the Medusozoa than to the Hexacorallia. The latter inference implies that Anthozoa is paraphyletic and that the polyp (rather than a medusa) is the ancestral body type in Cnidaria.

  20. WIYN Open Cluster Study. XXXIX. Abundances in NGC 6253 from HYDRA Spectroscopy of the Li 6708 A Region

    CERN Document Server

    Anthony-Twarog, B J; Twarog, B A; Cummings, J D; Maderak, R M

    2010-01-01

    High-dispersion spectra of 89 potential members of the old, super-metal-rich open cluster, NGC 6253, have been obtained with the HYDRA multi-object spectrograph. Based upon radial-velocity measurements alone, 47 stars at the turnoff of the cluster color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and 18 giants are identified as potential members. Five turnoff stars exhibit evidence of binarity while proper-motion data eliminates two of the dwarfs as members. The mean cluster radial velocity from probable single-star members is -29.4 +/- 1.3 km/sec (sd). A discussion of the current estimates for the cluster reddening, derived independently of potential issues with the BV cluster photometry, lead to an adopted reddening of E(B-V) = 0.22 +/- 0.04. From equivalent width analyses of 38 probable single-star members near the CMD turnoff, the weighted average abundances are found to be [Fe/H] = +0.43 +/- 0.01, [Ni/H] = +0.53 +/- 0.02 and [Si/H] = +0.43 (+0.03,-0.04), where the errors refer to the standard errors of the weighted mean. We...

  1. Peering into the Giant Planet Forming Region of the TW Hydrae Disk with the Gemini Planet Imager

    CERN Document Server

    Rapson, Valerie A; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A; Dong, Ruobing

    2015-01-01

    We present Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) adaptive optics near-infrared images of the giant planet-forming regions of the protoplanetary disk orbiting the nearby (D = 54 pc), pre-main sequence (classical T Tauri) star TW Hydrae. The GPI images, which were obtained in coronagraphic/polarimetric mode, exploit starlight scattered off small dust grains to elucidate the surface density structure of the TW Hya disk from 80 AU to within 10 AU of the star at 1.5 AU resolution. The GPI polarized intensity images unambiguously con?rm the presence of a gap in the radial surface brightness distribution of the inner disk. The gap is centered near 23 AU, with a width of 5 AU and a depth of 50%. In the context of recent simulations of giant planet formation in gaseous, dusty disks orbiting pre-main sequence stars, these results indicate that at least one young planet with a mass 0.2 M_J could be present in the TW Hya disk at an orbital semi-major axis similar to that of Uranus. If this (proto)planet is actively accreting gas fr...

  2. Expulsion of symbiotic algae during feeding by the green hydra--a mechanism for regulating symbiont density?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Fishman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Algal-cnidarian symbiosis is one of the main factors contributing to the success of cnidarians, and is crucial for the maintenance of coral reefs. While loss of the symbionts (such as in coral bleaching may cause the death of the cnidarian host, over-proliferation of the algae may also harm the host. Thus, there is a need for the host to regulate the population density of its symbionts. In the green hydra, Chlorohydra viridissima, the density of symbiotic algae may be controlled through host modulation of the algal cell cycle. Alternatively, Chlorohydra may actively expel their endosymbionts, although this phenomenon has only been observed under experimentally contrived stress conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show, using light and electron microscopy, that Chlorohydra actively expel endosymbiotic algal cells during predatory feeding on Artemia. This expulsion occurs as part of the apocrine mode of secretion from the endodermal digestive cells, but may also occur via an independent exocytotic mechanism. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate, for the first time, active expulsion of endosymbiotic algae from cnidarians under natural conditions. We suggest this phenomenon may represent a mechanism whereby cnidarians can expel excess symbiotic algae when an alternative form of nutrition is available in the form of prey.

  3. Tracking mechanical and morphological dynamics of regenerating Hydra tissue fragments using a two fingered micro-robotic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veschgini, M.; Gebert, F.; Khangai, N.; Ito, H.; Suzuki, R.; Holstein, T. W.; Mae, Y.; Arai, T.; Tanaka, M.

    2016-03-01

    Regeneration of a tissue fragment of freshwater polyp Hydra is accompanied by significant morphological fluctuations, suggesting the generation of active forces. In this study, we utilized a two fingered micro-robotic hand to gain insights into the mechanics of regenerating tissues. Taking advantage of a high force sensitivity (˜1 nN) of our micro-hand, we non-invasively acquired the bulk elastic modulus of tissues by keeping the strain levels low (ɛ tissue and determined both viscous modulus and elastic modulus simultaneously, following a simple Maxwell model. We further investigated the correlation between the frequency of force fluctuation and that of morphological fluctuation by monitoring one "tweezed" tissue and the other "intact" tissue at the same time. The obtained results clearly indicated that the magnitude and periodicity of the changes in force and shape are directly correlated, confirming that our two fingered micro-hand can precisely quantify the mechanics of soft, dynamic tissue during the regeneration and development in a non-invasive manner.

  4. An EAACI “European Survey on Adverse Systemic Reactions in Allergen Immunotherapy (EASSI)”: the methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moises A; Rodríguez Del Río, Pablo; Vidal, Carmen;

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: At present, there is no European report on clinically relevant systemic reactions due to the regular use of allergen immunotherapy (AIT), administered either subcutaneously or sublingually (SCIT and SLIT, respectively) outside clinical trials. Using an electronic survey and a "harmoni......UNLABELLED: At present, there is no European report on clinically relevant systemic reactions due to the regular use of allergen immunotherapy (AIT), administered either subcutaneously or sublingually (SCIT and SLIT, respectively) outside clinical trials. Using an electronic survey...

  5. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  6. Preliminary physician and pharmacist survey of the National Health Insurance PharmaCloud system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Ting; Chang, Elizabeth H; Kuo, Li-Na; Shen, Wan-Chen; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Wang, Chih-Chi; Chen, Hsiang-Yin

    2017-10-01

    The PharmaCloud system, a cloud-based medication system, was launched by the Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration (NHIA) in 2013 to integrate patients' medication lists among different medical institutions. The aim of the preliminary study was to evaluate satisfaction with this system among physicians and pharmacists at the early stage of system implementation. A questionnaire was developed through a review of the literature and discussion in 6 focus groups to understand the level of satisfaction, attitudes, and intentions of physicians and pharmacists using the PharmaCloud system. It was then administered nationally in Taiwan in July to September 2015. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were performed to identify variables influencing satisfaction and intention to use the system. In total, 895 pharmacist and 105 physician questionnaires were valid for analysis. The results showed that satisfaction with system quality warranted improvement. Positive attitudes toward medication reconciliation among physicians and pharmacists, which were significant predictors of the intention to use the system (β= 0.223, p < 0.001). Most physicians and pharmacists agreed that obtaining signed patient consent was needed but preferred that it be conducted by the NHIA rather than by individual medical institutions (4.02 ± 1.19 vs. 3.49 ± 1.40, p < 0.01). The preliminary study results indicated a moderate satisfaction toward the PharmaCloud system. Hospital pharmacists had a high satisfaction rate, but neither are physicians and community pharmacists. Continuously improvement on system quality has been performing based on the results of this preliminary survey. Policies and standardization processes, including privacy protection, are still warranted further actions to make the Taiwan PharmaCloud system a convenient platform for medication reconciliation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Realization of client/server management information system of coal mine based on ODBC in geology and survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Q.; Mao, S.; Yang, F.; Han, Z. [Shandong University of Science and Technology (China). Geoscience Department

    2000-08-01

    The paper describes in detail the framework and the application theory of Open Database Connectivity (ODBC), the formation of a client/server system of geological and surveying management information system, and the connection of the various databases. Then systematically, the constitution and functional realization of the geological management information system are introduced. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Variance-Constrained Multiobjective Control and Filtering for Nonlinear Stochastic Systems: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiobjective control and filtering problems for nonlinear stochastic systems with variance constraints are surveyed. First, the concepts of nonlinear stochastic systems are recalled along with the introduction of some recent advances. Then, the covariance control theory, which serves as a practical method for multi-objective control design as well as a foundation for linear system theory, is reviewed comprehensively. The multiple design requirements frequently applied in engineering practice for the use of evaluating system performances are introduced, including robustness, reliability, and dissipativity. Several design techniques suitable for the multi-objective variance-constrained control and filtering problems for nonlinear stochastic systems are discussed. In particular, as a special case for the multi-objective design problems, the mixed H2/H∞ control and filtering problems are reviewed in great detail. Subsequently, some latest results on the variance-constrained multi-objective control and filtering problems for the nonlinear stochastic systems are summarized. Finally, conclusions are drawn, and several possible future research directions are pointed out.

  9. Survey and documentation of emerging technologies for the satellite power system (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, P.; Chapman, P.

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to survey emerging technologies and new concepts which may offer advantages over those selected for the SPS Reference System. A brief historical overview of the genesis of the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept is presented leading to a discussion of the assumptions and guidelines which were originally established and which led to development of the SPS Reference System design concept. Some of these guidelines are applicable to almost any SPS design, but others could be changed, leading to new and perhaps preferable systems. Moreover, while some of the guidelines are based on solid data, some are little more than arbitrary assumptions which were adopted only to proceed with a concrete point design which then could be assessed in the DOE/NASA Concept Development and Evaluation Program. In order to stimulate new SPS concepts and to facilitate comparative assessment of emerging SPS technologies, one useful approach is to break the overall system into functional parts. The system functions which must be performed by any SPS concept and the interrelations between them are discussed and a systematic framework is presented for assessment of the wide variety of system concepts and subsystem technologies which have been proposed. About 80 alternative SPS technologies are reviewed.

  10. Multi-pipeline geographical information system based on high accuracy inertial surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyz, J.A.; Pettigrew, C. [BJ Pipeline Inspection Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Pino, H.; Gomez, R. [Pemex Refinacion, Mexico City, (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The GIS system developed for the Pemex pipeline network in the Valley of Mexico was described. The system makes it possible to retrieve information on the precise location of pipelines and their features. It also displays their relative position to each other and other landmarks. It is useful in accurately identifying linear features. The system facilitates the management of various pipeline data. The UTM coordinates which are the basis of the geographical information system (GIS) were obtained from Geopig{sup R} inertial and caliper surveys which provided information on pipeline features and anomalies. The information was incorporated into the GIS along with metal loss data from past in-line inspections. The system is based on the ArcView{sup R} GIS Software with the ArcView 3D Analyst{sup TM} extension that makes it possible to view the cartography and pipeline data in 3D. One of the biggest advantages of the GIS system is that it stores a multitude of information from various pipelines into one database which is easy to manage and update. For example, it stores information on pipeline plan, profile, girth weld locations, dents, wall thickness, bending strains, metal loss and other features such as roads, buildings, political boundaries and hydrology. This makes it possible to detect defects and anomalies and helps to eliminate unnecessary excavations. It also helps to plan and schedule pipeline repairs. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Measuring the mental health care system responsiveness: results of an outpatient survey in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh eForouzan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAs explained by the World Health Organisation (WHO in 2000, the concept of health system responsiveness is one of the core goals of health systems. Since 2000, further efforts have been made to measure health system responsiveness and the factors affecting responsiveness, yet few studies have applied responsiveness concepts to the evaluation of mental health systems. The present study aims to measure responsiveness and its related domains in the mental health care system of Tehran. Utilising the same method used by the WHO for its responsiveness survey, responsiveness for outpatient mental health care was evaluated using a validated Farsi questionnaire. A sample of 500 public mental health service users in Tehran participated and subsequently completed the questionnaire. On average, 47% of participants reported experiencing poor responsiveness. Among responsiveness domains, confidentiality and dignity were the best performing factors while autonomy, access to care and quality of basic amenities were the worst performing. Respondents who reported their social status as low were more likely to experience poor responsiveness overall. Autonomy, quality of basic amenities and clear communication were responsiveness dimensions that performed poorly but were considered to be important by study participants. In summary, the study suggests that measuring responsiveness could provide guidance for further development of mental health care systems to become more patient orientated and provide patients with more respect.

  12. Exploiting Hardware Vulnerabilities to Attack Embedded System Devices: a Survey of Potent Microarchitectural Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos P. Fournaris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-Physical system devices nowadays constitute a mixture of Information Technology (IT and Operational Technology (OT systems that are meant to operate harmonically under a security critical framework. As security IT countermeasures are gradually been installed in many embedded system nodes, thus securing them from many well-know cyber attacks there is a lurking danger that is still overlooked. Apart from the software vulnerabilities that typical malicious programs use, there are some very interesting hardware vulnerabilities that can be exploited in order to mount devastating software or hardware attacks (typically undetected by software countermeasures capable of fully compromising any embedded system device. Real-time microarchitecture attacks such as the cache side-channel attacks are such case but also the newly discovered Rowhammer fault injection attack that can be mounted even remotely to gain full access to a device DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory. Under the light of the above dangers that are focused on the device hardware structure, in this paper, an overview of this attack field is provided including attacks, threat directives and countermeasures. The goal of this paper is not to exhaustively overview attacks and countermeasures but rather to survey the various, possible, existing attack directions and highlight the security risks that they can pose to security critical embedded systems as well as indicate their strength on compromising the Quality of Service (QoS such systems are designed to provide.

  13. Survey on the FRP waste recycling system; FRP haikibutsu recycle system ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Using the area around the Ariake Sea in Kyushu as a model case, the FRP (fiber reinforced plastics) waste recycling system which can be established in Japan has been investigated in cooperation with local government bodies and fishery organizations. As a result, some proposals are provided. The recovery of waste boats utilizing existing sales outlets for fishing boats will facilitate efficient transport, efficient removal of vessel fixtures, and information management and user guidance via existing sales routes. This should make it possible to systematically secure and dispose a certain volume of scrapped FRP boats, and thus generate savings in the disposal costs. In the Phase 1, the main focus will be on establishing the recovery system for scrapped FRP boats to promote reuse and prevent improper disposal. In the Phase 2, the economics will be improved by expanding the recovery system to include other FRP waste products. In the Phase 3, the number of recyclable items will be increased, and thus the recycling system will be completed. 3 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. State Geological Survey Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System- Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M. Lee [Executive Office of the State of Arizona, Tuczon (AZGS), AZ (United States).; Richard, Stephen M. [Executive Office of the State of Arizona, Tuczon (AZGS), AZ (United States).

    2015-03-13

    The State Geological Survey Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System project is built on the work of the project managed by Boise State University to design and build the National Geothermal Data System, by deploying it nationwide and populating it with data principally from State Geological Surveys through collaboration with the Association of American State Geologists (AASG). This project subsequently incorporated the results of the design-build and other DOE-funded projects in support of the NGDS. The NGDS (www.geothermaldata.org) provides free open access to millions of data records, images, maps, and reports, sharing relevant geoscience, production, and land use data in 30+ categories to propel geothermal development and production in the U.S. NGDS currently serves information gathered from hundreds of the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored development and research projects and geologic data feeds from 60+ data providers throughout all 50 states. These data are relevant to geothermal energy exploration and development, but also have broad applicability in other areas including natural resources (e.g., energy, minerals, water), natural hazards, and land use and management.

  15. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). III. 142 Additional O-type Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sota, A.; Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Leão, J. R. S.; Herrero, A.; Gamen, R. C.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2016-05-01

    This is the third installment of the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ˜ 2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog. In this paper, we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects, there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 6 of which are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al. The GOSSS spectroscopic data in this article were gathered with five facilities: the 1.5 m Telescope at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO), the 3.5 m Telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA), and the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM).

  16. Ensemble: a web-based system for psychology survey and experiment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, Stefan T; Janata, Petr

    2007-08-01

    We provide a description of Ensemble, a suite of Web-integrated modules for managing and analyzing data associated with psychology experiments in a small research lab. The system delivers interfaces via a Web browser for creating and presenting simple surveys without the need to author Web pages and with little or no programming effort. The surveys may be extended by selecting and presenting auditory and/or visual stimuli with MATLAB and Flash to enable a wide range of psychophysical and cognitive experiments which do not require the recording of precise reaction times. Additionally, one is provided with the ability to administer and present experiments remotely. The software technologies employed by the various modules of Ensemble are MySQL, PHP, MATLAB, and Flash. The code for Ensemble is open source and available to the public, so that its functions can be readily extended by users. We describe the architecture of the system, the functionality of each module, and provide basic examples of the interfaces.

  17. The HST/ACS+WFC3 Survey for Lyman Limit Systems. II. Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, John M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Worseck, Gabor; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Madau, Piero

    2013-03-01

    We present the first science results from our Hubble Space Telescope survey for Lyman limit absorption systems (LLS) using the low dispersion spectroscopic modes of the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3. Through an analysis of 71 quasars, we determine the incidence frequency of LLS per unit redshift and per unit path length, l(z) and l(X), respectively, over the redshift range 1 Prochaska et al. and place constraints on the evolution of λ912 mfp with redshift, including an estimate of the "breakthrough" redshift of z = 1.6. Consistent with results at higher z, we find that a significant fraction of the opacity for absorption of ionizing photons comes from systems with N H I <=1017.5 cm-2 with a value for the total Lyman opacity of τLyman eff = 0.40 ± 0.15. Finally, we determine that at minimum, a 5-parameter (4 power law) model is needed to describe the column density distribution function f(N H I , X) at z ~ 2.4, find that f(N H I , X) undergoes no significant change in shape between z ~ 2.4 and z ~ 3.7, and provide our best fit model for f(N H I , X).

  18. A Survey of Channel Measurements and Models for Current and Future Railway Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Unterhuber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern society demands cheap, more efficient, and safer public transport. These enhancements, especially an increase in efficiency and safety, are accompanied by huge amounts of data traffic that need to be handled by wireless communication systems. Hence, wireless communications inside and outside trains are key technologies to achieve these efficiency and safety goals for railway operators in a cost-efficient manner. This paper briefly describes nowadays used wireless technologies in the railway domain and points out possible directions for future wireless systems. Channel measurements and models for wireless propagation are surveyed and their suitability in railway environments is investigated. Identified gaps are pointed out and solutions to fill those gaps for wireless communication links in railway environments are proposed.

  19. Distant Solar System Objects identified in the Pan-STARRS1 survey

    CERN Document Server

    Weryk, R J; Chastel, S; Denneau, L; Jedicke, R; Magnier, E; Wainscoat, R J; Chambers, K; Flewelling, H; Huber, M E; Waters, C; Builders, the PS1

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to identify distant solar system objects in long-term wide-field asteroid survey data, and conduct a search for them in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) image data acquired from 2010 to mid-2015. We demonstrate that our method is able to find multi-opposition orbital links, and we present the resulting orbital distributions which consist of 154 Centaurs, 255 classical Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs), 121 resonant TNOs, 89 Scattered Disc Objects (SDOs) and 10 comets. Our results show more than half of these are new discoveries, including a newly discovered 19th magnitude TNO. Our identified objects do not show clustering in their argument of perihelia, which if present, might support the existence of a large unknown planetary-sized object in the outer solar system.

  20. Building Standards based Science Information Systems: A Survey of ISO and other standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Todd; Walker, Raymond

    Science Information systems began with individual researchers maintaining personal collec-tions of data and managing them by using ad hoc, specialized approaches. Today information systems are an enterprise consisting of federated systems that manage and distribute both historical and contemporary data from distributed sources. Information systems have many components. Among these are metadata models, metadata registries, controlled vocabularies and ontologies which are used to describe entities and resources. Other components include services to exchange information and data; tools to populate the system and tools to utilize available resources. When constructing information systems today a variety of standards can be useful. The benefit of adopting standards is clear; it can shorten the design cycle, enhance software reuse and enable interoperability. We look at standards from the International Stan-dards Organization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), American National Standards Institute (ANSI) which have influenced the develop-ment of information systems in the Heliophysics and Planetary sciences. No standard can solve the needs of every community. Individual disciplines often must fill the gap between general purpose standards and the unique needs of the discipline. To this end individual science dis-ciplines are developing standards, Examples include the International Virtual Observatory Al-liance (IVOA), Planetary Data System (PDS)/ International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), Dublin-Core Science, and the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) consortium. This broad survey of ISO and other standards provides some guidance for the development information systems. The development of the SPASE data model is reviewed and provides some insights into the value of applying appropriate standards and is used to illustrate