WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydra program determination

  1. Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Præsentation af forskningsprojekt relateret til den græske ø Hydra med fokus på konception og arkitekturtegning.......Præsentation af forskningsprojekt relateret til den græske ø Hydra med fokus på konception og arkitekturtegning....

  2. Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peder Pedersen, Claus; Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2009-01-01

    Beskrivelse af kontekst og baggrund for et forskningsprojekt gennemført på den græske ø Hydra i perioden 2004-2008......Beskrivelse af kontekst og baggrund for et forskningsprojekt gennemført på den græske ø Hydra i perioden 2004-2008...

  3. Determination of Mercury in Ayurvedic Dietary Supplements That Are Not Rasa Shastra Using the Hydra-C Direct Mercury Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury has been determined in Ayurvedic dietary supplements (Trifala, Trifala Guggulu, Turmeric, Mahasudarshan, Yograj, Shatawari, Hingwastika, Shatavari, and Shilajit by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and direct mercury analysis using the Hydra-C direct mercury analyzer (Teledyne Leeman Labs Hudson, NH, USA. Similar results were obtained from the two methods, but the direct mercury analysis method was much faster and safer and required no microwave digestion (unlike ICP-MS. Levels of mercury ranged from 0.002 to 56 μg/g in samples of dietary supplements. Standard reference materials Ephedra 3240 and tomato leaves that were from the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST and dogfish liver (DOLT3 that was from the Canadian Research Council were analyzed using Hydra-C method. Average mercury recoveries were 102% (RSD% 0.0018, 100% (RSD% 0.0009, and 101% (RSD% 0.0729, respectively. Hydra-C method Limit Of Quantitation was 0.5 ng.

  4. Sommerskole 2004 - Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Montagen af/som nye erfaringsrum: intensiteter gennem disjunktioner. Arbejdsprocessen var struktureret gennem en række fortløbende spørgsmål, der blev formuleret successivt i perioden. Hydra kan ses som en kompleks topologisk konfiguration: hvis man betragter dens morfologi som en plastisk membra...... - en latex hvorigennem de topologiske kræfter tegner konturer - vil særlige strukturer danne ar i væv. Hydra kan ses som 2 komplekse topologiske og morfologiske plastiske membraner, der overførte eller snarere relaterede sine "mulige ny ar, rifter, knuder og forvridninger" i en symbiose...

  5. The dynamic genome of Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jarrod A.; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Simakov, Oleg; Hampson, Steven E.; Mitros, Therese; Weinmaier, Therese; Rattei, Thomas; Balasubramanian, Prakash G.; Borman, Jon; Busam, Dana; Disbennett, Kathryn; Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Sumin, Nadezhda; Sutton, Granger G.; Viswanathan, Lakshmi Devi; Walenz, Brian; Goodstein, David M.; Hellsten, Uffe; Kawashima, Takeshi; Prochnik, Simon E.; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Shu, Shengquiang; Blumberg, Bruce; Dana, Catherine E.; Gee, Lydia; Kibler, Dennis F.; Law, Lee; Lindgens, Dirk; Martinez, Daniel E.; Peng, Jisong; Wigge, Philip A.; Bertulat, Bianca; Guder, Corina; Nakamura, Yukio; Ozbek, Suat; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Khalturin, Konstantin; Hemmrich, Georg; Franke, André; Augustin, René; Fraune, Sebastian; Hayakawa, Eisuke; Hayakawa, Shiho; Hirose, Mamiko; Hwang, Jung Shan; Ikeo, Kazuho; Nishimiya-Fujisawa, Chiemi; Ogura, Atshushi; Takahashi, Toshio; Steinmetz, Patrick R. H.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Aufschnaiter, Roland; Eder, Marie-Kristin; Gorny, Anne-Kathrin; Salvenmoser, Willi; Heimberg, Alysha M.; Wheeler, Benjamin M.; Peterson, Kevin J.; Böttger, Angelika; Tischler, Patrick; Wolf, Alexander; Gojobori, Takashi; Remington, Karin A.; Strausberg, Robert L.; Venter, J. Craig; Technau, Ulrich; Hobmayer, Bert; Bosch, Thomas C. G.; Holstein, Thomas W.; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Bode, Hans R.; David, Charles N.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Steele, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater cnidarian Hydra was first described in 17021 and has been the object of study for 300 years. Experimental studies of Hydra between 1736 and 1744 culminated in the discovery of asexual reproduction of an animal by budding, the first description of regeneration in an animal, and successful transplantation of tissue between animals2. Today, Hydra is an important model for studies of axial patterning3, stem cell biology4 and regeneration5. Here we report the genome of Hydra magnipapillata and compare it to the genomes of the anthozoan Nematostella vectensis6 and other animals. The Hydra genome has been shaped by bursts of transposable element expansion, horizontal gene transfer, trans-splicing, and simplification of gene structure and gene content that parallel simplification of the Hydra life cycle. We also report the sequence of the genome of a novel bacterium stably associated with H. magnipapillata. Comparisons of the Hydra genome to the genomes of other animals shed light on the evolution of epithelia, contractile tissues, developmentally regulated transcription factors, the Spemann–Mangold organizer, pluripotency genes and the neuromuscular junction. PMID:20228792

  6. Target irradiation experiments. [Hydra accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Target irradiation experiments have been carried out on the Hydra accelerator, operating at powers between 0.15 and 0.3 TW. As listed in Table I, four types of spherical shell targets have been studied: 3 mm diameter, 200 ..mu..m and 50 ..mu..m wall thickness Au targets; 3 mm diameter, 300 ..mu..m wall thickness plastic targets; and 0.85 mm diameter, 10 ..mu..m wall thickness Ni targets. When compared to a practical range for 700 keV electrons, the ratio of shell thickness to electron range varied between 0.03 for the Ni targets to 1.5 for the thick walled Au targets. Multiple exposure optical holography was utilized to determine ablator velocity, and a one-dimensional hydrodynamical materials code CHARTD was utilized to model target response and infer beam deposition. Energy deposition varied from 1 TW/gm for thick Au targets up to 8 TW/gm for thin Ni targets, and pusher velocities ranged between 0.5 and 3.5 cm/..mu..sec. Neutron production from D/sub 2/ and DT filled Ni exploding pusher targets was measured using Ag and Li activation counters and gated scintillator photomultiplier time of flight detectors.

  7. Program documentation. Program description and user information for the hydraulics/auxiliary power unit (HYDRA) computer program. [for the space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwine, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    A timeline containing altitude, control surface deflection rates and angles, hinge moment loads, thrust vector control gimbal rates, and main throttle settings is used to derive the model. The timeline is constructed from the output of one or more trajectory simulation programs.

  8. The Hydra drawings: digital imperfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2008-01-01

    Teksten diskuterer den digitale tegnings potenitaler med udgangspunkt i et kunstnerisk udviklingsarbejde gennemført på den græske ø Hydra. Den fokuserer på tegningens historiske betydning som medie for arkitektonisk formgivning og diskuterer muligheden for at gentænke forholdet mellem det åbent...

  9. Masses of Nix and Hydra

    CERN Document Server

    Tholen, David J; Grundy, William M; Elliott, Garrett T

    2007-01-01

    A four-body orbit solution for the Pluto system yields GM values of 870.3 +/- 3.7, 101.4 +/- 2.8, 0.039 +/- 0.034, and 0.021 +/- 0.042 km3 sec-2 for Pluto, Charon, Nix, and Hydra, respectively. Assuming a Charon-like density of 1.63 gm cm-3, the implied diameters for Nix and Hydra are 88 and 72 km, leading to visual geometric albedos of 0.08 and 0.18, respectively, though with considerable uncertainty. The eccentricity of Charon's orbit has a significant nonzero value; however, the 0.030 +/- 0.009 deg yr-1 rate at which the line of apsides precesses is insufficient to explain the difference in the longitude of periapsis seen in the orbits fitted to the 1992-1993 and 2002-2003 data sets. The mean orbital periods for Hydra, Nix, and Charon are in the ratios of 6.064 +/- 0.006 : 3.991 +/- 0.007 : 1, but we have not identified any resonant arguments that would indicate the existence of a mean motion resonance between any pairs of satellites.

  10. The innate immunity in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Altincicek

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydra vulgaris is currently receiving increased attention as a genetically tractable invertebrate model system for studying important processes of life such as the innate immune defense. Similar to complex animals, H. vulgaris polyps respond to injury by abrupt muscle contraction, by limited escape behavior, and by healing the damaged tissue. Simultaneously, cellular processes such as phagocytosis and programmed cell death as well as the massive production of antimicrobial peptides are induced. Recent studies identified several molecular pathways controlling these responses; however, the interdependence of innate immunity and, for example, regeneration and tissue remodeling is not well elucidated yet. H. vulgaris belongs to the Cnidaria representing the phylogenic sister group of bilaterian animals; hence, a better understanding of evolutionarily conserved as well as Hydra/Cnidaria-specific immune responses will provide deep insight into both origin and evolution of the animal innate immune system

  11. Coexistence of neuropeptides in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1983-01-01

    Using a technique for simultaneous visualisation of two antigens in one section, oxytocin-like immunoreactivity has been found to coexist with bombesin-like immunoreactivity in neurons of the basal disk, gastric region and tentacles of hydra. Neurons with oxytocin-like immunoreactivity in peduncle...... and hypostome, on the other hand, have little or no bombesin-like material. Oxytocin-like immunoreactivity never coexists with FMRFamide-immunoreactivity. The neurons with oxytocin- and FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity, however, are often found to be closely intermingled. The results show that coexistence...

  12. + 6 TEKSTER. KARTOGRAFI HYDRA 2013 #3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2013-01-01

    +6 TEKSTER #3 indeholder en række indlæg, der er relateret til 14 NYE LANDSKABER/HYDRA 9, 2012 #1. Arbejdet med topologien og kartografien omkring tre urbane udsnit i Berlin, Paris og Tokyo har ført til en række udgivelser i GRID og følges op her med en række betragtninger, der perspektiverer denne...... at frembringe de baner, vi må tænke videre i. Denne serie af publikationer rummer også 10 NYE LANDSKABER/HYDRA 10 #2, 2013 og planlægges at blive fulgt op med et HYDRA 11 #4 i 2014. HYDRA refererer til en ø i Grækenland, der siden 2004 har dannet rammen om en sommerskole, der er optaget af KARTOGRAFI, MORFOLOGI...

  13. Isolation of four novel neuropeptides, the hydra-RFamides I-IV, from Hydra magnipapillata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moosler, A; Rinehart, K L; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1996-01-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay for the sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide), we have isolated four novel peptides from extracts of Hydra magnipapillata:......Using a radioimmunoassay for the sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide), we have isolated four novel peptides from extracts of Hydra magnipapillata:...

  14. Hydra constitutively expresses transcripts involved in vertebrate neural differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandipan Chatterjee; Shweta Lahudkar; N N Godbole; Surendra Ghaskadbi

    2001-06-01

    The diploblastic Hydra is among the most primitive multicellular organisms. Using cross-hybridization with Xenopus probes, noggin-like transcripts were detected in the hypostome and basal disc of adult Hydra (Pelmatohydra oligactis), regions with properties similar to that of the amphibian organizer. This points to the possibility of a close molecular similarity between the Xenopus and Hydra organizers. The constitutive expression of a noggin-like gene in Hydra may be responsible for its regenerative capacity.

  15. Development and population growth of Hydra viridissima Pallas, 1766 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FC. Massaro

    Full Text Available Hydras, the most representative freshwater Cnidaria, are of common occurrence in bodies of water in every continent except Antarctica. This study was planned with the aim of maintaining a population of Hydra viridissima in laboratory culture to enable the determination of the individual and population growth-rates of this species, as well as its population doubling time and generation time, with a view to employing these common animals as test-organisms in ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were maintained in reconstituted water at 20 ± 2 °C, illuminated at 800 lux with a photoperiod of 12 hours light: 12 hours dark, and were fed on neonates of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii (3 or 4 neonates per hydra, 3 times a week. The individual growth-rate (k of the species was 0.43, the maximum length of the column 2.53 mm and the generation time 6.6 ± 1.5 days on average. The hydra population showed an intrinsic growth-rate (r of 0.0468, according to the fitted curve, and a doubling time of 14.8 ± 2.63 days. Hydra viridissima is easy to grow in the laboratory and performs well in the conditions used in this study. It is thus a promising candidate test-organism for ecotoxicological studies.

  16. Development and population growth of Hydra viridissima Pallas, 1766 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, F C; Rocha, O

    2008-05-01

    Hydras, the most representative freshwater Cnidaria, are of common occurrence in bodies of water in every continent except Antarctica. This study was planned with the aim of maintaining a population of Hydra viridissima in laboratory culture to enable the determination of the individual and population growth-rates of this species, as well as its population doubling time and generation time, with a view to employing these common animals as test-organisms in ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were maintained in reconstituted water at 20 +/- 2 degrees C, illuminated at 800 lux with a photoperiod of 12 hours light: 12 hours dark, and were fed on neonates of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii (3 or 4 neonates per hydra, 3 times a week). The individual growth-rate (k) of the species was 0.43, the maximum length of the column 2.53 mm and the generation time 6.6 +/- 1.5 days on average. The hydra population showed an intrinsic growth-rate (r) of 0.0468, according to the fitted curve, and a doubling time of 14.8 +/- 2.63 days. Hydra viridissima is easy to grow in the laboratory and performs well in the conditions used in this study. It is thus a promising candidate test-organism for ecotoxicological studies.

  17. Generation of Transgenic Hydra by Embryo Microinjection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Celina E.; Lin, Haifan; Steele, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    As a member of the phylum Cnidaria, the sister group to all bilaterians, Hydra can shed light on fundamental biological processes shared among multicellular animals. Hydra is used as a model for the study of regeneration, pattern formation, and stem cells. However, research efforts have been hampered by lack of a reliable method for gene perturbations to study molecular function. The development of transgenic methods has revitalized the study of Hydra biology1. Transgenic Hydra allow for the tracking of live cells, sorting to yield pure cell populations for biochemical analysis, manipulation of gene function by knockdown and over-expression, and analysis of promoter function. Plasmid DNA injected into early stage embryos randomly integrates into the genome early in development. This results in hatchlings that express transgenes in patches of tissue in one or more of the three lineages (ectodermal epithelial, endodermal epithelial, or interstitial). The success rate of obtaining a hatchling with transgenic tissue is between 10% and 20%. Asexual propagation of the transgenic hatchling is used to establish a uniformly transgenic line in a particular lineage. Generating transgenic Hydra is surprisingly simple and robust, and here we describe a protocol that can be easily implemented at low cost. PMID:25285460

  18. The toxicity of copper, cadmium and zinc to four different Hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karntanut, Wanchamai; Pascoe, David

    2002-06-01

    An acute toxicity study of three metals to Hydra species carried out using two different assessment methods, (i) determination of the LC50 and (ii) measurement of progressive morphological changes, demonstrated that relative toxicity decreased from copper to cadmium with zinc the least toxic for all species. The latter method revealed more details of the effect on Hydra in terms of physical damage to the polyp but both methods indicated that H. viridissima was more sensitive to copper and cadmium than H. vulgaris1 (Zurich strain, male clone), H. vulgaris2 (a dioecious strain reproducing sexually and asexually) and H. oligactis (dioecious, reproducing sexually and asexually). The responses to zinc were similar for all Hydra. The possible role of metabolic interactions between H. viridissima and its symbiotic green algae in contributing to the greater sensitivity of this polyp is discussed.

  19. Spectroscopic Confirmation of the Dwarf Galaxies Hydra II and Pisces II and the Globular Cluster Laevens 1

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Evan N; Cohen, Judith G

    2015-01-01

    We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of stars in the recently discovered Milky Way satellites Hydra II, Pisces II, and Laevens 1. We measured a velocity dispersion of 5.4 (+3.6 -2.4) km/s for Pisces II, but we did not resolve the velocity dispersions of Hydra II or Laevens 1. We marginally resolved the metallicity dispersions of Hydra II and Pisces II but not Laevens 1. Furthermore, Hydra II and Pisces II obey the luminosity-metallicity relation for Milky Way dwarf galaxies ( = -2.02 +/- 0.08 and -2.45 +/- 0.07, respectively), whereas Laevens 1 does not ( = -1.68 +/- 0.05). The kinematic and chemical properties suggest that Hydra II and Pisces II are dwarf galaxies, and Laevens 1 is a globular cluster. We determined that two of the previously observed blue stars near the center of Laevens 1 are not members of the cluster. A third blue star has ambiguous membership. If it is a member, we suggest that it could be a Type II Cepheid variable. Hydra II has a radial velocity = 303.1 +/- 1.4 km/s, similar to the lea...

  20. Hydramacin-1, structure and antibacterial activity of a protein from the basal metazoan hydra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, S.; Dingley, A.J.; Augustin, R.; Anton-Erxleben, F.; Stanisak, M.; Gelhaus, C.; Gutsmann, T.; Hammer, M.U.; Podschun, R.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.; Leippe, M.; Bosch, T.C.G.; Grötzinger, J.

    2009-01-01

    Hydramacin-1 is a novel antimicrobial protein recently discovered during investigations of the epithelial defense of the ancient metazoan Hydra. The amino acid sequence of hydramacin- 1 shows no sequence homology to any known antimicrobial proteins. Determination of the solution structure revealed t

  1. Evo-devo: Hydra raises its Noggin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kalpana Chandramore; Surendra Ghaskadbi

    2011-08-01

    Noggin, along with other secreted bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitors, plays a crucial role in neural induction and neural tube patterning as well as in somitogenesis, cardiac morphogenesis and formation of the skeleton in vertebrates. The BMP signalling pathway is one of the seven fundamental pathways that drive embryonic development and pattern formation in animals. Understanding its evolutionary origin and role in pattern formation is, therefore, important to evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo).We have studied the evolutionary origin of BMP–Noggin antagonism in hydra, which is a powerful diploblastic model to study evolution of pattern-forming mechanisms because of the unusual cellular dynamics during its pattern formation and its remarkable ability to regenerate. We cloned and characterized the noggin gene from hydra and found it to exhibit considerable similarity with its orthologues at the amino acid level. Microinjection of hydra Noggin mRNA led to duplication of the dorsoventral axis in Xenopus embryos, demonstrating its functional conservation across the taxa. Our data, along with those of others, indicate that the evolutionarily conserved antagonism between BMP and its inhibitors predates bilateral divergence. This article reviews the various roles of Noggin in different organisms and some of our recent work on hydra Noggin in the context of evolution of developmental signalling pathways.

  2. The Hydra-k Partial Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pendavingh; S.H.M. van Zwam (Stefan)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the paper "Confinement of matroid representations to subsets of partial fields" (arXiv:0806.4487) we introduced the Hydra-k partial fields to study quinary matroids with inequivalent representations. The proofs of some results on these partial fields require extensive computations.

  3. Two-color double-labeling in situ hybridization of whole-mount Hydra using RNA probes for five different Hydra neuropeptide preprohormones: evidence for colocalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, G N; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2000-01-01

    -terminal sequence Lys-Val-NH2 (Hydra-KVamide). The various Hydra-RFamides are synthesized by three different preprohormones: preprohormone-A, -B, and -C. The various Hydra-LWamides are synthesized by a single preprohormone (prepro-Hydra-LWamide), as is Hydra-KVamide (prepro-Hydra-KVamide). Using a wholemount double-labeling...... exists that expresses both preprohormones-A and preproHydra-KVamide mRNAs. The functional significance of this coexpression is unclear. This is the first report on the coexpression of two well-characterized preprohormones (yielding two well-characterized neurohormone families) in cnidarians. This report...

  4. Floating attenuator wave energy device: Wavegen HYDRA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research funded by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) into the feasibility of developing and constructing a floating attenuator wave energy device known as HYDRA following initial studies by Wavegen. HYDRA is a floating externally tensioned articulated raft wave energy generator based on work by Professor FJM Farley and colleagues during the 1980s. The project's first four work tasks confirmed the theoretical potential of the device but also highlighted significant practical problems in translating that potential into a viable design. It was therefore decided not to proceed further, i.e. not to construct and test a prototype device. The report provides a general description of the device and describes the results of the initial analysis and the first series of model tests. It then discusses device design and component testing and explains the methodology for determining device performance at a particular site and mathematical modelling of a one-third scale device. To help future research and development programmes, the report emphasises the generic problems associated with the development of wave devices.

  5. FoxO and stress responses in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the face of changing environmental conditions, the mechanisms underlying stress responses in diverse organisms are of increasing interest. In vertebrates, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, FoxO transcription factors mediate cellular responses to stress, including oxidative stress and dietary restriction. Although FoxO genes have been identified in early-arising animal lineages including sponges and cnidarians, little is known about their roles in these organisms. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have examined the regulation of FoxO activity in members of the well-studied cnidarian genus Hydra. We find that Hydra FoxO is expressed at high levels in cells of the interstitial lineage, a cell lineage that includes multipotent stem cells that give rise to neurons, stinging cells, secretory cells and gametes. Using transgenic Hydra that express a FoxO-GFP fusion protein in cells of the interstitial lineage, we have determined that heat shock causes localization of the fusion protein to the nucleus. Our results also provide evidence that, as in bilaterian animals, Hydra FoxO activity is regulated by both Akt and JNK kinases. CONCLUSIONS: These findings imply that basic mechanisms of FoxO regulation arose before the evolution of bilaterians and raise the possibility that FoxO is involved in stress responses of other cnidarian species, including corals.

  6. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    -forming potential of the tissue (2) It does not accelerate head regeneration, nor do the head factors of hydra discovered by Schaller (1973) and Berking (1977) accelerate foot regeneration. We propose that the foot-activating substance is a morphogen responsible for foot formation in hydra. The foot activator can...... be extracted from hydra tissue with methanol and separated from other known morphogens of hydra by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. A substance with similar biological and physicochemical properties can be isolated from sea anemones....

  7. The effects of dopamine synthesis inhibitors and dopamine antagonists on regeneration in the hydra Hydra attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumova, T V; Markova, L N

    2002-01-01

    The effects of catecholamine synthesis inhibitors (alpha-methyltyrosine, 3-iodotyrosine, and alpha-methyl-DOPA) and dopamine receptor blockers (haloperidol and spiperone) on the regeneration of apical, gastral, and basal fragments of the hydra Hydra attenuata were studied. These experiments showed that alpha-methyltyrosine and 3-iodotyrosine significantly inhibited regeneration but did not produce morphological anomalies. Alpha-Methyl-DOPA produce less inhibition of regeneration, but induced ectopic tentacles and outgrowths in gastral regenerates. Haloperidol and spiperone had no significant effect on the rate of regeneration but induced significant numbers of morphogenetic anomalies in gastral regenerates. Apical and basal regenerates, which retained their natural organizers (the head and base respectively) never yielded morphogenetic anomalies in the presence of either dopamine receptor blockers or dopamine synthesis inhibitors. The possible role of neurotransmitters. particularly dopamine, in morphogenesis in hydras is discussed.

  8. Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Yanaihara, N

    1981-01-01

    With immunocytochemical methods, nerve cells have been detected in Hydra attenuata containing bombesin-like immunoreactivity. These nerve cells are located in ectoderm of all body regions of the animal and are especially abundant in basal disk and tentacles. Radioimmunoassay of extracts of hydra ...

  9. Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Carraway, R E; Rökaeus, A

    1981-01-01

    Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity is found in nerve fibers present in all body regions of hydra. The nerve fibers are especially numerous in the ectoderm at the bases of the tentacles and in the ectoderm at a site just above the foot. Radioimmunoassays of acetic-acid extracts of hydra, using vari...

  10. HYDRA: a decision support model for irrigation water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacucci, G.; Kabat, P.; Verrier, P.J.; Teixeira, J.L.; Steduto, P.; Bertanzon, G.; Giannerini, G.; Huygen, J.; Fernando, R.M.; Hooijer, A.A.; Simons, W.; Toller, G.; Tziallas, G.; Uhrik, C.; Broek, van den B.J.; Vera Munoz, J.; Yovchev, P.

    1995-01-01

    HYDRA introduces information modelling and decision-support systems (DSS) to farmers and authorities in European Mediterranean agriculture in order to improve irrigation practices at different levels. Key components of HYDRA-DSS are a hierarchical setof water balance and crop growth simulation

  11. Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Yanaihara, N

    1981-01-01

    With immunocytochemical methods, nerve cells have been detected in Hydra attenuata containing bombesin-like immunoreactivity. These nerve cells are located in ectoderm of all body regions of the animal and are especially abundant in basal disk and tentacles. Radioimmunoassay of extracts of hydra...

  12. On the Origin of Pluto's Minor Moons, Nix and Hydra

    CERN Document Server

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2008-01-01

    How did Pluto's recently discovered minor moons form? Ward and Canup propose an elegant solution in which Nix and Hydra formed in the collision that produced Charon, then were caught into corotation resonances with Charon, and finally were transported to their current location as Charon migrated outwards. We show with numerical integrations that, if Charon's eccentricity is judiciously chosen, this scenario works beautifully for either Nix or Hydra. However, it cannot work for both Nix and Hydra simultaneously. To transport Nix, Charon's eccentricity must satisfy e_C 0.7 R_p/a_C > 0.04; otherwise migration would be faster than libration, and Hydra would slip out of resonance. These two restrictions conflict. Having ruled out this scenario, we suggest an alternative: that many small bodies were captured from the nebular disk, and they were responsible for forming, migrating and damping Nix and Hydra. If this is true, small moons could be common around large Kuiper belt objects.

  13. HYDRA: a Java library for Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Warnes

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydra is an open-source, platform-neutral library for performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo. It implements the logic of standard MCMC samplers within a framework designed to be easy to use, extend, and integrate with other software tools. In this paper, we describe the problem that motivated our work, outline our goals for the Hydra pro ject, and describe the current features of the Hydra library. We then provide a step-by-step example of using Hydra to simulate from a mixture model drawn from cancer genetics, first using a variable-at-a-time Metropolis sampler and then a Normal Kernel Coupler. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for Hydra.

  14. Three different prohormones yield a variety of Hydra-RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2) neuropeptides in Hydra magnipapillata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darmer, D; Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P;

    1998-01-01

    from H. magnipapillata, each of which gives rise to a variety of RFamide neuropeptides. Preprohormone A contains one copy of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide I (QWLGGRFG), II (QWFNGRFG), III/IV [(KP)HLRGRFG] and two putative neuropeptide sequences (QLMSGRFG and QLMRGRFG). Preprohormone B has the same general...... organization as preprohormone A, but instead of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide III/IV it contains a slightly different neuropeptide sequence [(KP)HYRGRFG]. Preprohormone C contains one copy of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide I and seven additional putative neuropeptide sequences (with the common N-terminal sequence QWF....../LSGRFGL). The two Hydra-RFamide II copies (in preprohormones A and B) are preceded by Thr residues, and the single Hydra-RFamide III/IV copy (in preprohormone A) is preceded by an Asn residue, confirming that cnidarians use unconventional processing signals to generate neuropeptides from their precursor proteins...

  15. A new species of green hydra (Hydrozoa: Hydrida) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Tai; Deng, Li; Lai, Jing-Qi; Li, Juan

    2009-09-01

    A new species of green freshwater hydra (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa: Hydrida), Hydra sinensis, is described from Guangdong Province, China. The chief distinction between H. sinensis sp. nov. and three other green hydras (H. hadleyi, H. viridissima, and H. plagiodesmica) is in the holotrichous isorhizae. Hydra sinensis sp. nov. differs from H. plagiodesmica in the shape of the holotrichous isorhlzae, and from H. viridissima and H. hadleyi in the tubule of the capsule of the holotrichous isorhlzae. The capsule tubule colls two times in 86% and three times in 14% of holotrlchous isorhlzae (n=50) In H. sinensis sp. nov.; we observed no tubules coiling four times. In contrast, the capsule tubule coils three or four times in H. viridissima and H. hadleyi, and no tubules coiling two times have been reported. In addition, holotrichous isorhlzae, which are mainly located around the hypostome, are sparse in the tentacles of H. sinensis sp. nov., whereas the majority of holotrichous isorhlzae is located on the tentacles in most other hydras. A molecular phylogenetic analysis using the nuclear small subunlt (18S) ribosomal RNA gene Indicated a close relationship between H. sinensis and H. viridissima. Hydra viridissima did not group within a clade of four Individuals of H. sinensis, Indicating a possible sister-species relationship between the two species. Morphological characters in combination with the molecular phylogenetic evidence support Hydra sinensis as a new species.

  16. The Super Gaussian Laser Intensity Profile in HYDRA's 3D Laser Ray Trace Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepke, Scott M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    In this note, the laser focal plane intensity pro le for a beam modeled using the 3D ray trace package in HYDRA is determined. First, the analytical model is developed followed by a practical numerical model for evaluating the resulting computationally intensive normalization factor for all possible input parameters.

  17. Extragalactic large-scale structures behind the southern Milky Way; 1, redshifts obtained at the SAAO in the Hydra/Antlia extension

    CERN Document Server

    Kraan-Korteweg, R C; Balkowski, C; Kraan-Korteweg, Renee C; Fairall, Tony P; Balkowksi, Chantal

    1994-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations have been carried out for galaxies in the Milky Way with the 1.9 m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). The galaxies were selected from a deep optical galaxy search covering 266Hydra and Antlia clusters and in the approximate direction of the dipole anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Back- ground radiation. The galaxies in the SAAO observing program -- one of the three complementary approaches in mapping the 3D galaxy distribution in the ZOA -- were selected for high central SB and for even distribution over the search area. The galaxies have magnitudes in the range 14.5determined for 115 galaxies. One spectrum confirmed a PN, and another object (v=57km\\s) most likely is galactic as well. The other 25 spectra have low S/N or were dominated by superimposed foreground stars. We do find evidence for a continuation of the Hydra/Antlia supercluster across the ZOA...

  18. The Pulsation Spectrum of VX Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, M. R.; Samolyk, G.; Dvorak, S.; Poklar, R.; Butterworth, N.; Gerner, H.

    2009-10-01

    We present the results of a two-year, multisite observing campaign investigating the high-amplitude δ Scuti star VX Hydrae during the 2006 and 2007 observing seasons. The final data set consists of nearly 8500 V-band observations spanning HJD 2453763.6 to 2454212.7 (2006 January 28 to 2007 April 22). Separate analyses of the two individual seasons of data yield 25 confidently detected frequencies common to both data sets, of which two are pulsation modes, and the remaining 23 are Fourier harmonics or beat frequencies of these two modes. The 2006 data set had five additional frequencies with amplitudes less than 1.5 mmag, and the 2007 data had one additional frequency. Analysis of the full 2006–2007 data set yields 22 of the 25 frequencies found in the individual seasons of data. There are no significant peaks in the spectrum other than these between 0 and 60 cycles day-1. The frequencies of the two main pulsation modes derived from the 2006 and 2007 observing seasons individually do not differ at the level of 3σ, and thus we find no conclusive evidence for period change over the span of these observations. However, the amplitude of changed significantly between the two seasons, while the amplitude of remained constant; amplitudes of the Fourier harmonics and beat frequencies of f1 also changed. Similar behavior was seen in the 1950s, and it is clear that VX Hydrae undergoes significant amplitude changes over time.

  19. No junctional communication between epithelial cells in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Laat, S W; Tertoolen, L G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    junctions between epithelial cells of hydra. However, until now, there has been no report published on whether these junctions enable the epithelial cells to exchange molecules of small molecular weight, as has been described in other organisms. Therefore we decided to investigate the communicative...... properties of the junctional membranes by electrophysiological methods and by intracellular-dye iontophoresis. We report here that no electrotonic coupling is detectable between epithelial cells of Hydra attenuata in: (1) intact animals, (2) head-regenerating animals, (3) cell re-aggregates, and (4) hydra...

  20. Effects of water hardness and alkalinity on the toxicity of uranium to a tropical freshwater hydra (Hydra viridissima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmuller, N; Markich, S J; Van Dam, R A; Parry, D

    2001-01-01

    In tropical Australian freshwaters, uranium (U) is of potential ecotoxicological concern, largely as a consequence of mining activities. Although the toxicity of uranium to Australian freshwater biota is comprehensive, by world standards, few data are available on the effects of physicochemical variables, such as hardness, alkalinity, pH and organic matter, on uranium speciation and bioavailability. This study determined the individual effects of water hardness (6.6, 165 and 330 mg l(-1) as CaCO3) and alkalinity (4.0 and 102 mg l(-1) as CaCO3), at a constant pH (6.0), on the toxicity (96 h population growth) of uranium to Hydra viridissima (green hydra). A 50-fold increase in hardness (Ca and Mg concentration) resulted in a 92% (two-fold) decrease in the toxicity of uranium to H. viridissima [i.e. an increase in the EC50 value and 95% confidence interval from 114 (107-121) to 219 (192-246) µg l(-1)]. Conversely, at a constant hardness (165 mg l-1 as CaCO3), the toxicity of uranium to H. viridissima was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by a 25-fold increase in alkalinity (carbonate concentration) [i.e. EC50 values of 177 (166-188) and 171 (150-192) µg l(-1) at 4.0 and 102 mg l(-1) as CaCO3, respectively]. A knowledge of the relationship between water chemistry variables, including hardness and alkalinity, and uranium toxicity is useful for predicting the potential ecological detriment in aquatic systems, and can be used to relax national water quality guidelines on a site-specific basis.

  1. IR wireless cluster synapses of HYDRA very large neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    RF/IR wireless (virtual) synapses are critical components of HYDRA (Hyper-Distributed Robotic Autonomy) neural networks, already discussed in two earlier papers. The HYDRA network has the potential to be very large, up to 10 11-neurons and 10 18-synapses, based on already established technologies (cellular RF telephony and IR-wireless LANs). It is organized into almost fully connected IR-wireless clusters. The HYDRA neurons and synapses are very flexible, simple, and low-cost. They can be modified into a broad variety of biologically-inspired brain-like computing capabilities. In this third paper, we focus on neural hardware in general, and on IR-wireless synapses in particular. Such synapses, based on LED/LD-connections, dominate the HYDRA neural cluster.

  2. Evidence that polycystins are involved in Hydra cnidocyte discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Susan

    2017-03-01

    Like other cnidarians, the freshwater organism Hydra is characterized by the possession of cnidocytes (stinging cells). Most cnidocytes are located on hydra tentacles, where they are organized along with sensory cells and ganglion cells into battery complexes. The function of the battery complexes is to integrate multiple types of stimuli for the regulation of cnidocyte discharge. The molecular mechanisms controlling the discharge of cnidocytes are not yet fully understood, but it is known that discharge depends on extracellular Ca(2+) and that mechanically induced cnidocyte discharge can be enhanced by the presence of prey extracts and other chemicals. Experiments in this paper show that a PKD2 (polycystin 2) transient receptor potential (TRP) channel is expressed in hydra tentacles and bases. PKD2 (TRPP) channels belong to the TRP channel superfamily and are non-selective Ca(2+) channels involved in the transduction of both mechanical and chemical stimuli in other organisms. Non-specific PKD2 channel inhibitors Neo (neomycin) and Gd(3+) (gadolinium) inhibit both prey capture and cnidocyte discharge in hydra. The PKD2 activator Trip (triptolide) enhances cnidocyte discharge in both starved and satiated hydra and reduces the inhibition of cnidocyte discharge caused by Neo. PKD1 and 2 proteins are known to act together to transduce mechanical and chemical stimuli; in situ hybridization experiments show that a PKD1 gene is expressed in hydra tentacles and bases, suggesting that polycystins play a direct or indirect role in cnidocyte discharge.

  3. Constant mortality and fertility over age in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Ralf; Scheuerlein, Alexander; Dańko, Maciej J; Gampe, Jutta; Martínez, Daniel E; Vaupel, James W

    2015-12-22

    Senescence, the increase in mortality and decline in fertility with age after maturity, was thought to be inevitable for all multicellular species capable of repeated breeding. Recent theoretical advances and compilations of data suggest that mortality and fertility trajectories can go up or down, or remain constant with age, but the data are scanty and problematic. Here, we present compelling evidence for constant age-specific death and reproduction rates in Hydra, a basal metazoan, in a set of experiments comprising more than 3.9 million days of observations of individual Hydra. Our data show that 2,256 Hydra from two closely related species in two laboratories in 12 cohorts, with cohort age ranging from 0 to more than 41 y, have extremely low, constant rates of mortality. Fertility rates for Hydra did not systematically decline with advancing age. This falsifies the universality of the theories of the evolution of aging that posit that all species deteriorate with age after maturity. The nonsenescent life history of Hydra implies levels of maintenance and repair that are sufficient to prevent the accumulation of damage for at least decades after maturity, far longer than the short life expectancy of Hydra in the wild. A high proportion of stem cells, constant and rapid cell turnover, few cell types, a simple body plan, and the fact that the germ line is not segregated from the soma are characteristics of Hydra that may make nonsenescence feasible. Nonsenescence may be optimal because lifetime reproduction may be enhanced more by extending adult life spans than by increasing daily fertility.

  4. Effects of predation by Hydra (Cnidaria on cladocerans (Crustacea: Cladocera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Rivera-De la Parra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Planktonic cladocerans have evolved different strategies to avoid predation from vertebrates; these include changes in morphology, behavior, physiology, and/or life-history traits. However, littoral cladocerans are better adapted to avoid invertebrate predation particularly from insect larvae by evolving morphological and physiological adaptations. Nevertheless, this has not been proven for some littoral predators such as Hydra. In this study, we provide quantitative data on how Hydra affects its zooplankton prey. We studied the predation behavior on Alona glabra, Ceridodaphnia dubia, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia cf. mendotae, Diaphanosoma birgei, Macrothrix triserialis, Moina macrocopa, Pleuroxus aduncus, Scapholeberis kingi, Simocephalus vetulus, Elaphoidella grandidieri, Brachionus rubens and Euchlanis dilatata. We also tested the indirect effect of allelochemicals from Hydra on the demography of Daphnia cf. mendotae. Littoral cladocerans are specially adapted to resist nematocyst injection and discharge of toxic substances from Hydra. A significant decrease in the population growth rate from 0.21 to 0.125 d-1 was observed at densities of 2 ind. ml-1. The role of carapace thickness as an adaptive strategy of littoral cladocerans against Hydra predation is discussed.

  5. Multi-wavelength spectrophotometry of EX Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenbart, S; Reinsch, K; Gänsicke, B T

    2002-01-01

    We present phase-resolved infrared and optical spectrophotometry of the intermediate polar EX Hya supplemented by archival ultraviolet data. The spin-modulated emission from the accretion funnel and the emission from the accretion disk or ring contain substantial optically thin components. The white dwarf dominates the unmodulated flux in the ultraviolet and is identified by numerous absorption lines. Metal absorption in the accretion curtain may add to the observed spectral features. The secondary star is of spectral type M4+-1 and is detected by its ellipsoidal modulation. We derive a distance of 65+-11 pc which makes EX Hydrae one of the closest cataclysmic variables with a known distance. The luminosity derived from the integrated overall spectral energy distribution is 3x10^32 erg/s. The accretion rate of 3x10^15 g/s (for an 0.6 Msun white dwarf) is in reasonable agreement with the rates expected from angular momentum loss by gravitational radiation and from the observed spin-up of the white dwarf

  6. The pulsation spectrum of VX Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Templeton, M R; Dvorak, S; Poklar, R; Butterworth, N; Gerner, H

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a two-year, multisite observing campaign investigating the high-amplitude delta Scuti star VX Hydrae during the 2006 and 2007 observing seasons. The final data set consists of nearly 8500 V-band observations spanning HJD 2453763.6 to 2454212.7 (2006 January 28 to 2007 April 22). Separate analyses of the two individual seasons of data yield 25 confidently-detected frequencies common to both data sets, of which two are pulsation modes, and the remaining 23 are Fourier harmonics or beat frequencies of these two modes. The 2006 data set had five additional frequencies with amplitudes less than 1.5 mmag, and the 2007 data had one additional frequency. Analysis of the full 2006-2007 data set yields 22 of the 25 frequencies found in the individual seasons of data. There are no significant peaks in the spectrum other than these between 0 and 60 c/d. The frequencies of the two main pulsation modes derived from the 2006 and 2007 observing seasons individually do not differ at the level of 3-si...

  7. Hydra and Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840)--two peas in a pod? The molecular basis of extracellular matrix structure in the invertebrate, Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarras, M P; Deutzmann, R

    2001-08-01

    The body wall of Hydra is organized as an epithelial bilayer with an intervening extracellular matrix (ECM). Molecular and biochemical analyses of Hydra ECM have established that it contains components similar to those seen in more complicated vertebrates such as human. In terms of biophysical parameters, Hydra ECM is highly flexible; a property that facilitates continuous movements along the organism's longitudinal and radial axis. A more rigid ECM, as in vertebrates, would not be compatible with this degree of movement. The flexible nature of Hydra ECM can now be explained in part by the unique structure of the organism's collagens. Interestingly, some aspects of the structural features of Hydra collagens mimic what is seen in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, an inherited condition in humans that results in an abnormally flexible ECM that can be debilitating in extreme cases. This review will focus on structure-function relationships of the ECM of Hydra.

  8. Hymyc1 downregulation promotes stem cell proliferation in Hydra vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ambrosone

    Full Text Available Hydra is a unique model for studying the mechanisms underlying stem cell biology. The activity of the three stem cell lineages structuring its body constantly replenishes mature cells lost due to normal tissue turnover. By a poorly understood mechanism, stem cells are maintained through self-renewal while concomitantly producing differentiated progeny. In vertebrates, one of many genes that participate in regulating stem cell homeostasis is the protooncogene c-myc, which has been recently identified also in Hydra, and found expressed in the interstitial stem cell lineage. In the present paper, by developing a novel strategy of RNA interference-mediated gene silencing (RNAi based on an enhanced uptake of small interfering RNAi (siRNA, we provide molecular and biological evidence for an unexpected function of the Hydra myc gene (Hymyc1 in the homeostasis of the interstitial stem cell lineage. We found that Hymyc1 inhibition impairs the balance between stem cell self renewal/differentiation, as shown by the accumulation of stem cell intermediate and terminal differentiation products in genetically interfered animals. The identical phenotype induced by the 10058-F4 inhibitor, a disruptor of c-Myc/Max dimerization, demonstrates the specificity of the RNAi approach. We show the kinetic and the reversible feature of Hymyc1 RNAi, together with the effects displayed on regenerating animals. Our results show the involvement of Hymyc1 in the control of interstitial stem cell dynamics, provide new clues to decipher the molecular control of the cell and tissue plasticity in Hydra, and also provide further insights into the complex myc network in higher organisms. The ability of Hydra cells to uptake double stranded RNA and to trigger a RNAi response lays the foundations of a comprehensive analysis of the RNAi response in Hydra allowing us to track back in the evolution and the origin of this process.

  9. Algal endosymbiosis in brown hydra: host/symbiont specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahat, M; Reich, V

    1986-12-01

    Host/symbiont specificity has been investigated in non-symbiotic and aposymbiotic brown and green hydra infected with various free-living and symbiotic species and strains of Chlorella and Chlorococcum. Morphology and ultrastructure of the symbioses obtained have been compared. Aposymbiotic Swiss Hydra viridis and Japanese H. magnipapillata served as controls. In two strains of H. attenuata stable hereditary symbioses were obtained with Chlorococcum isolated from H. magnipapillata. In one strain of H. vulgaris, in H. oligactis and in aposymbiotic H. viridis chlorococci persisted for more than a week. Eight species of free-living Chlorococcum, 10 symbiotic and 10 free-living strains of Chlorella disappeared from the brown hydra within 1-2 days. In H. magnipapillata there was a graded distribution of chlorococci along the polyps. In hypostomal cells there were greater than 30 algae/cell while in endodermal cells of the mid-section or peduncle less than 10 algae/cell were found. In H. attenuata the algal distribution was irregular, there were up to five chlorocci/cell, and up to 20 cells/hydra hosted algae. In the dark most cells of Chlorococcum disappeared from H. magnipapillata and aposymbiotic hydra were obtained. Chlorococcum is thus an obligate phototroph, and host-dependent heterotrophy is not required for the preservation of a symbiosis. The few chlorococci that survived in the dark seem to belong to a less-demanding physiological strain. In variance with known Chlorella/H. viridis endosymbioses the chlorococci in H. magnipapillata and H. attenuata were tightly enveloped in the vacuolar membrane of the hosting cells with no visible perialgal space. Chlorococcum reproduced in these vacuoles and up to eight daughter cells were found within the same vacuole. We suggest that the graded or scant distribution of chlorococci in the various brown hydra, their inability to live in H. viridis and the inability of the various chlorellae to live in brown hydra are the

  10. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Schot, L P

    1982-01-01

    FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity has been localized in different parts of the hydra nervous system. Immunoreactivity occurs in nerve perikarya and processes in the ectoderm of the lower peduncle region near the basal disk, in the ectoderm of the hypostome and in the ectoderm of the tentacles....... The immunoreactive nerve perikarya in the lower peduncle region form ganglion-like structures. Radioimmunoassays of extracts of hydra gave displacement curves parallel to standard FMRFamide and values of at least 8 pmol/gram wet weight of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity. The immunoreactive material eluted from...

  11. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 3, Verification/validation assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.

    1987-10-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum are enhanced by the incorporation of directional porosities and permeabilities that aid in modeling solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated procedures are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume I - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. Volume II - User's Manual contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a model problem. This volume, Volume III - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. This volume also documents comparisons between the results of simulations of single- and multiassembly storage systems and actual experimental data. 11 refs., 55 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 2, User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.; Lessor, D.L.

    1987-09-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite-difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum incorporate directional porosities and permeabilities that are available to model solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated methods are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume 1 - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. This volume, Volume 2 - User's Manual, contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a sample problem. The final volume, Volume 3 - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. 6 refs.

  13. Central mass profiles of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters Hydra A and A478

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, N.; Umetsu, K.; Tamura, T.; Fujita, Y.; Takizawa, M.; Matsushita, K.; Fukazawa, Y.; Futamase, T.; Kawaharada, M.; Miyazaki, S.; Mochizuki, Y.; Nakazawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ota, N.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, K.; Tam, S. I.

    2016-03-01

    We perform a weak-lensing study of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, Hydra A (z = 0.0538) and A478 (z = 0.0881), of which the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) host the powerful activities of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For each cluster, the observed tangential shear profile is described well by either a single Navarro-Frenk-White model or a two-component model including the BCG as an unresolved point mass. For A478, we determine the BCG and its host-halo masses from a joint fit to weak-lensing and stellar photometry measurements. We find that the choice of initial mass functions (IMFs) can introduce a factor of 2 uncertainty in the BCG mass, whereas the BCG host-halo mass is constrained well by data. We perform a joint analysis of the weak-lensing and stellar kinematics data available for the Hydra A cluster, which allows us to constrain the central mass profile without assuming specific IMFs. We find that the central mass profile (r < 300 kpc) determined from the joint analysis is in excellent agreement with those from independent measurements, including dynamical masses estimated from the cold gas disc component, X-ray hydrostatic total mass estimates, and the central stellar mass estimated with the Salpeter IMF. The observed dark matter fraction around the BCG for Hydra A is found to be smaller than those predicted by adiabatic contraction models, suggesting the importance of other physical processes, such as AGN feedback and/or dissipationless mergers.

  14. Hydra: A web-based system for cardiovascular analysis, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, J; Hermida, A; Ortega, M; Barreira, N; Penedo, M G; López, J E; Calvo, C

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification is a highly complex process involving an extensive set of clinical trials to support the clinical decision-making process. There are many clinical conditions (e.g. diabetes, obesity, stress, etc.) that can lead to the early diagnosis or establishment of cardiovascular disease. In order to determine all these clinical conditions, a complete set of clinical patient analyses is typically performed, including a physical examination, blood analysis, electrocardiogram, blood pressure (BP) analysis, etc. This article presents a web-based system, called Hydra, which integrates a full and detailed set of services and functionalities for clinical decision support in order to help and improve the work of clinicians in cardiovascular patient diagnosis, risk assessment, treatment and monitoring over time. Hydra integrates a number of different services: a service for inputting all the information gathered by specialists (physical examination, habits, BP, blood analysis, electrocardiogram, etc.); a tool to automatically determine the CV risk stratification, including well-known standard risk stratification tables; and, finally, various tools to incorporate, analyze and graphically present the records of the ambulatory BP monitoring that provides BP analysis over a given period of time (24 or 48 hours). In addition, the platform presents a set of reports derived from all the information gathered from the patient in order to support physicians in their clinical decisions. Hydra was tested and validated in a real domain. In particular, internal medicine specialists at the Hypertension Unit of the Santiago de Compostela University Hospital (CHUS) validated the platform and used it in different clinical studies to demonstrate its utility. It was observed that the platform increased productivity and accuracy in the assessment of patient data yielding a cost reduction in clinical practice. This paper proposes a complete platform that includes

  15. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Schot, L P

    1982-01-01

    FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity has been localized in different parts of the hydra nervous system. Immunoreactivity occurs in nerve perikarya and processes in the ectoderm of the lower peduncle region near the basal disk, in the ectoderm of the hypostome and in the ectoderm of the tentacles...

  16. HydraPower out to make a big bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Revill, John

    2006-01-01

    "An engineering company has provided equipment for a £1.3 billion international project to recreate the conditions of the 'Big Bang". Garry Williams, technical director of hydraPower dynamics, has been asked to return to Switzerland by CERN."

  17. The Origin of Mucosal Immunity: Lessons from the Holobiont Hydra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Schroder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Historically, mucosal immunity—i.e., the portion of the immune system that protects an organism’s various mucous membranes from invasion by potentially pathogenic microbes—has been studied in single-cell epithelia in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts of vertebrates. Phylogenetically, mucosal surfaces appeared for the first time about 560 million years ago in members of the phylum Cnidaria. There are remarkable similarities and shared functions of mucosal immunity in vertebrates and innate immunity in cnidarians, such as Hydra species. Here, we propose a common origin for both systems and review observations that indicate that the ultimately simple holobiont Hydra provides both a new perspective on the relationship between bacteria and animal cells and a new prism for viewing the emergence and evolution of epithelial tissue-based innate immunity. In addition, recent breakthroughs in our understanding of immune responses in Hydra polyps reared under defined short-term gnotobiotic conditions open up the potential of Hydra as an animal research model for the study of common mucosal disorders.

  18. Astrometry and orbits of Nix, Kerberos, AND Hydra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buie, Marc W. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Grundy, William M. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tholen, David J., E-mail: buie@boulder.swri.edu, E-mail: grundy@lowell.edu, E-mail: tholen@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope observations of three of Pluto's outer moons, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. This work revises previously published astrometry of Nix and Hydra from 2002 to 2003. New data from a four-month span during 2007 include observations designed to better measure the positions of Nix and Hydra. A third data set from 2010 also includes data on Nix and Hydra as well as some pre-discovery observations of Kerberos. The data were fitted using numerical point-spread function (PSF) fitting techniques to get accurate positions but also to remove the extended wings of the Pluto and Charon PSFs when working on these faint satellites. The resulting astrometric data were fitted with two-body Keplerian orbits that are useful for short-term predictions of the future positions of these satellites for stellar occultation and for guiding encounter planning for the upcoming New Horizons flyby of the Pluto system. The mutual inclinations of the satellites are all within 0.°2 of the plane of Charon's orbit. The periods for all continue to show that their orbits are near but distinct from integer period ratios relative to Charon. Based on our results, the period ratios are Hydra:Charon = 5.98094 ± 0.00001, Kerberos:Charon = 5.0392 ± 0.0003, and Nix:Charon = 3.89135 ± 0.00001. Based on period ratios alone, there is a trend of increased distance from an integer period ratio with decreasing distance from Charon. Our analysis shows that orbital uncertainties for Nix and Hydra are now low enough to permit useful stellar occultation predictions and for New Horizons encounter planning. In 2015 July, our orbits predict a position error of 60 km for Nix and 38 km for Hydra, well below other limiting errors that affect targeting. The orbit for Kerberos, however, still needs a lot of work as its uncertainty in 2015 is quite large at 22,000 km based on these data.

  19. Hydratools manual version 1.0, documentation for a MATLAB®-based post-processing package for the Sontek Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Marinna; Sherwood, Chris; Horwitz, Rachel; Ramsey, Andree; Lightsom, Fran; Lacy, Jessie; Xu, Jingping

    2006-01-01

    The Sediment Transport Instrumentation Group (STG) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Woods Hole Science Center has a long-standing comitment to providing scientists with high quality oceanographic data. To meet this commitment, STG personnel are vigilant in checking data as well as hardware for signs of instrument malfunction. STG data sets are accompanied by processing histories to detail data processing procedures that may have modified the natural data signal while removing noise from the data. The history also allows the data to be reprocessed in the ligth of new insight into instrument function and moored conditions. This toolbox was compiled to meet these data quality commitments for data generated by Sontek Hydra systems using both ADV and PCADP probes. In the mid 1900's, the USGS Coastal and Marine Program began frequent deployments of Sontek Hydra systems in support of projects in estuaries, coastal, and continental shelf regions nationwide. Hydra data sets are large and complex in structure, and existing processing and editing tools consisted of fragments of MATLAB code written by USGS scientists to satisfy personal research needs. This code did not meet STG quality control criteria. This toolbox permits engineers and scientists to monitor data quality by: 1.\tprocessing data with interactive critical review;

  20. A fragmented metazoan organellar genome: the two mitochondrial chromosomes of Hydra magnipapillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wörheide Gert

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mitochondrial (mt genomes are characteristically circular molecules of ~16–20 kb. Medusozoa (Cnidaria excluding Anthozoa are exceptional in that their mt genomes are linear and sometimes subdivided into two to presumably four different molecules. In the genus Hydra, the mt genome comprises one or two mt chromosomes. Here, we present the whole mt genome sequence from the hydrozoan Hydra magnipapillata, comprising the first sequence of a fragmented metazoan mt genome encoded on two linear mt chromosomes (mt1 and mt2. Results The H. magnipapillata mt chromosomes contain the typical metazoan set of 13 genes for respiratory proteins, the two rRNA genes and two tRNA genes. All genes are unidirectionally oriented on mt1 and mt2, and several genes overlap. The gene arrangement suggests that the two mt chromosomes originated from one linear molecule that separated between nd5 and rns. Strong correlations between the AT content of rRNA genes (rns and rnl and the AT content of protein-coding genes among 24 cnidarian genomes imply that base composition is mainly determined by mt genome-wide constraints. We show that identical inverted terminal repeats (ITR occur on both chromosomes; these ITR contain a partial copy or part of the 3' end of cox1 (54 bp. Additionally, both mt chromosomes possess identical oriented sequences (IOS at the 5' and 3' ends (5' and 3' IOS adjacent to the ITR. The 5' IOS contains trnM and non-coding sequences (119 bp, whereas the 3' IOS comprises a larger part (mt2 with a larger partial copy of cox1 (243 bp. Conclusion ITR are also documented in the two other available medusozoan mt genomes (Aurelia aurita and Hydra oligactis. In H. magnipapillata, the arrangement of ITR and 5' IOS and 3' IOS suggest that these regions are crucial for mt DNA replication and/or transcription initiation. An analogous organization occurs in a highly fragmented ichthyosporean mt genome. With our data, we can reject a model of

  1. Central Mass Profiles of the Nearby Cool-core Galaxy Clusters Hydra A and A478

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, N; Tamura, T; Fujita, Y; Takizawa, M; Matsushita, K; Fukazawa, Y; Futamase, T; Kawaharada, M; Miyazaki, S; Mochizuki, Y; Nakazawa, K; Ohashi, T; Ota, N; Sasaki, T; Sato, K; Tam, S I

    2015-01-01

    We perform a weak-lensing study of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, Hydra A ($z=0.0538$) and A478 ($z=0.0881$), of which brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) host powerful activities of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For each cluster, the observed tangential shear profile is well described either by a single Navarro--Frenk--White model or a two-component model including the BCG as an unresolved point mass. For A478, we determine the BCG and its host-halo masses from a joint fit to weak-lensing and stellar photometry measurements. We find that the choice of initial mass functions (IMFs) can introduce a factor of two uncertainty in the BCG mass, whereas the BCG host halo mass is well constrained by data. We perform a joint analysis of weak-lensing and stellar kinematics data available for the Hydra A cluster, which allows us to constrain the central mass profile without assuming specific IMFs.We find that the central mass profile ($r<300$ kpc) determined from the joint analysis is in excellent agreement wi...

  2. Testing the cooling flow model in the intermediate polar EX Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, G J M; Brickhouse, N S; Mauche, C W; Suleimanov, V; .,

    2015-01-01

    We use the best available X-ray data from the intermediate polar EX Hydrae to study the cooling-flow model often applied to interpret the X-ray spectra of these accreting magnetic white dwarf binaries. First, we resolve a long-standing discrepancy between the X-ray and optical determinations of the mass of the white dwarf in EX Hya by applying new models of the inner disk truncation radius. Our fits to the X-ray spectrum now agree with the white dwarf mass of 0.79 M$_{\\odot}$sun determined using dynamical methods through spectroscopic observations of the secondary. We use a simple isobaric cooling flow model to derive the emission line fluxes, emission measure distribution, and H-like to He-like line ratios for comparison with the 496 ks Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating observation of EX Hydrae. We find that the H/He ratios are not well reproduced by this simple isobaric cooling flow model and show that while H-like line fluxes can be accurately predicted, fluxes of lower-Z He-like lines are significa...

  3. Validity of HydraTrend reagent strips for the assessment of hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Bryce M; Heelan, Kate A; Brown, Gregory A; Bartee, Rodrick T

    2014-09-01

    Hydration is used by athletic governing organizations for weight class eligibility. The measurement of urine specific gravity (USG) as a measure of hydration by reagent strips is a controversial issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of HydraTrend reagent strips that facilitate the correction of USG for alkaline urine samples against refractometry for the assessment of USG. Fifty-one participants (33 males, age = 22.3 ± 1.3 years; 18 females, age = 22.4 ± 1.2 years) provided 84 urine samples. The samples were tested for USG using refractometry and reagent strips and for pH using reagent strips and a digital pH meter. Strong correlation coefficients were found between refractometry and reagent strips for USG (rs(82) = 0.812, p refractometry with USG >1.020, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.020) occurred 39% (33/84) of the time and false negative results for National Federation of State High School Association (NFHS) requirements (fail refractometry with USG >1.025, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.025) occurred 14% (12/84) of the time. There were no false positives (pass refractometry and fail reagent strips) for NCAA or NFHS requirements. These data show that refractometry and reagent strips have strong positive correlations. However, the risk of a false negative result leading to incorrect certification of euhydration status outweighs the benefits of the HydraTrend reagent strips for the measurement of USG.

  4. Ice-related landforms in Hydrae chasma, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baioni, Davide; Tramontana, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Hydrae Chasma is one of the smaller chasma of Valles Marineris. It is a circular depression approximately 50 kilometers across and 4 kilometers deep, located to the north of Coprates Chasma and south of Juventae Chasma A morphological survey of Hydrae Chasma through an analysis of the available Mars images was performed. The features of the landforms were investigated through an integrated analysis of Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) data. Landforms interpreted as due to ice-related processes, resembling similarly ice-related landforms found both in the cold-climate non glacial regions of the Earth, and putatively in other areas of Mars, was observed. These landforms are attributed to the presence of ground ice and/or ice-melting processes reflect significant climatic changes and different climatic conditions than those existing now. Moreover, they appear to display young erosional age, suggesting that are probably of Amazonian age.

  5. An EUV Study of the Intermediate Polar EX Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Belle, K E; Sirk, M; Huber, M E; Belle, Kunegunda E.; Howell, Steve B.; Sirk, Martin; Huber, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    On 2000 May 5, we began a large multi-wavelength campaign to study the intermediate polar, EX Hydrae. The simultaneous observations from six satellites and four telescopes were centered around a one million second observation with EUVE. Although EX Hydrae has been studied previously with EUVE, our higher signal-to-noise observations present new results and challenge the current IP models. Previously unseen dips in the light curve are reminiscent of the stream dips seen in polar light curves. Also of interest is the temporal extent of the bulge dip; approximately 0.5 in phase, implying that the bulge extends over half of the accretion disk. We propose that the magnetic field in EX Hydrae is strong enough (a few MG) to begin pulling material directly from the outer edge of the disk, thereby forming a large accretion curtain which would produce a very broad bulge dip. This would also result in magnetically controlled accretion streams originating from the outer edge of the disk. We also present a period analysis...

  6. Hydra-TH Extensions for Multispecies and Thermosolutal Convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stagg, Alan K [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States; Yoon, Su-Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) work conducted for completion of the Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) Level 3 Milestone THM.CFD.P11.02: Hydra-TH Extensions for Multispecies and Thermosolutal Convection. A critical requirement for modeling reactor thermal hydraulics is to account for species transport within the fluid. In particular, this capability is needed for modeling transport and diffusion of boric acid within water for emergency, reactivity-control scenarios. To support this need, a species transport capability has been implemented in Hydra-TH for binary systems (for example, solute within a solvent). A species transport equation is solved for the species (solute) mass fraction, and both thermal and solutal buoyancy effects are handled with specification of a Boussinesq body force. Species boundary conditions can be specified with a Dirichlet condition on mass fraction or a Neumann condition on diffusion flux. To enable enhanced species/fluid mixing in turbulent flow, the molecular diffusivity for the binary system is augmented with a turbulent diffusivity in the species transport calculation. The new capabilities are demonstrated by comparison of Hydra-TH calculations to the analytic solution for a thermosolutal convection problem, and excellent agreement is obtained.

  7. Evolutionary Analysis of Minor Histocompatibility Genes In Hydra

    KAUST Repository

    Aalismail, Nojood

    2016-05-01

    Hydra is a simple freshwater solitary polyp used as a model system to study evolutionary aspects. The immune response of this organism has not been studied extensively and the immune response genes have not been identified and characterized. On the other hand, immune response has been investigated and genetic analysis has been initiated in other lower invertebrates. In the present study we took initiative to study the self/nonself recognition in hydra and its relation to the immune response. Moreover, performing phylogenetic analysis to look for annotated immune genes in hydra gave us a potential to analyze the expression of minor histocompatibility genes that have been shown to play a major role in grafting and transplantation in mammals. Here we obtained the cDNA library that shows expression of minor histocompatibility genes and confirmed that the annotated sequences in databases are actually present. In addition, grafting experiments suggested, although still preliminary, that homograft showed less rejection response than in heterograft. Involvement of possible minor histocompatibility gene orthologous in immune response was examined by qPCR.

  8. Atualizando a Hidra? O estágio supervisionado e a formação docente inicial em História Updating Hydra? Supervised internship and teaching qualification programs in History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Bereta da Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo pensar o currículo e a formação docente inicial em História, sobretudo a partir do lugar construído para a prática de ensino e estágio supervisionado. As novas diretrizes aumentaram a carga horária das práticas e do estágio, o que, em teoria, exigiu amplas reformas, a partir de 2001, nos programas curriculares dos cursos de licenciatura. Para além dessas mudanças e reformas, o que se observa na formação docente são algumas permanências que seguem atualizando velhos problemas. A presente discussão retoma esses problemas a partir de elementos da trajetória histórica da disciplina nos últimos 30 anos, utilizando também alguns dados empíricos - como narrativas de professores egressos dos cursos de História da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC e da Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC, formados entre o final da década de 1970 e a década de 1990, com a intenção de contribuir para o debate sobre a formação docente em História nos dias atuais.This article aims to be a reflection on the curriculum and the teaching programs in History, taking into consideration the place reserved to the teaching practice and the supervised internship. The new Brazilian laws increased the amount of time dedicated to practice and internship, which theoretically demanded wide reforms in the teaching curricular programs of undergraduate courses since 2001. In spite of those transformations and reforms, we see in qualification programs for teachers some permanencies that continually update old problems. This discussion reviews these problems considering the historical background of the internship in the last thirty years. Empirical data, like the narratives by teachers majored in History from Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC and Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina (UDESC obtained between the late 1970's and the 1990's are also used to contribute to the discussion about the current

  9. Conservation of the nucleotide excision repair pathway: characterization of hydra Xeroderma Pigmentosum group F homolog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Barve

    Full Text Available Hydra, one of the earliest metazoans with tissue grade organization and nervous system, is an animal with a remarkable regeneration capacity and shows no signs of organismal aging. We have for the first time identified genes of the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway from hydra. Here we report cloning and characterization of hydra homolog of xeroderma pigmentosum group F (XPF gene that encodes a structure-specific 5' endonuclease which is a crucial component of NER. In silico analysis shows that hydra XPF amino acid sequence is very similar to its counterparts from other animals, especially vertebrates, and shows all features essential for its function. By in situ hybridization, we show that hydra XPF is expressed prominently in the multipotent stem cell niche in the central region of the body column. Ectoderm of the diploblastic hydra was shown to express higher levels of XPF as compared to the endoderm by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis also demonstrated that interstitial cells, a multipotent and rapidly cycling stem cell lineage of hydra, express higher levels of XPF mRNA than other cell types. Our data show that XPF and by extension, the NER pathway is highly conserved during evolution. The prominent expression of an NER gene in interstitial cells may have implications for the lack of senescence in hydra.

  10. Substance P-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Balfe, A; Emson, P C

    1981-01-01

    Using immunocytochemistry we find substance P-like material in nerve cells of hydra. These nerve cells are situated in the ectoderm of the basal disk and tentacles. Radioimmunoassay of hydra extracts gives dilution curves parallel to that of synthetic substance P, from which it can be calculated ...

  11. A peptide-gated ion channel from the freshwater polyp Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubovic, Andjelko; Kuhn, Anne; Williamson, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    regarded as a curiosity, and it was not known whether peptide-gated ionotropic receptors are also present in other animal groups. Nervous systems first evolved in cnidarians, which extensively use neuropeptides. Here we report cloning from the freshwater cnidarian Hydra of a novel ion channel (Hydra sodium...

  12. Revisiting the age, evolutionary history and species level diversity of the genus Hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwentner, Martin; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2015-10-01

    The genus Hydra has long served as a model system in comparative immunology, developmental and evolutionary biology. Despite its relevance for fundamental research, Hydra's evolutionary origins and species level diversity are not well understood. Detailed previous studies using molecular techniques identified several clades within Hydra, but how these are related to described species remained largely an open question. In the present study, we compiled all published sequence data for three mitochondrial and nuclear genes (COI, 16S and ITS), complemented these with some new sequence data and delimited main genetic lineages (=hypothetical species) objectively by employing two DNA barcoding approaches. Conclusions on the species status of these main lineages were based on inferences of reproductive isolation. Relevant divergence times within Hydra were estimated based on relaxed molecular clock analyses with four genes (COI, 16S, EF1α and 28S) and four cnidarians fossil calibration points All in all, 28 main lineages could be delimited, many more than anticipated from earlier studies. Because allopatric distributions were common, inferences of reproductive isolation often remained ambiguous but reproductive isolation was rarely refuted. Our results support three major conclusions which are central for Hydra research: (1) species level diversity was underestimated by molecular studies; (2) species affiliations of several crucial 'workhorses' of Hydra evolutionary research were wrong and (3) crown group Hydra originated ∼200mya. Our results demonstrate that the taxonomy of Hydra requires a thorough revision and that evolutionary studies need to take this into account when interspecific comparisons are made. Hydra originated on Pangea. Three of four extant groups evolved ∼70mya ago, possibly on the northern landmass of Laurasia. Consequently, Hydra's cosmopolitan distribution is the result of transcontinental and transoceanic dispersal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  13. Toxicity of water and sediment from stormwater retarding basins to Hydra hexactinella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj; Pollino, Carmel A.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi;

    2008-01-01

    of 50 ml/L and 100 ml/L, while the 7 h pulse exposure caused a significant increase in the mean population growth rate compared to the control. Water samples from the two other retarding basins were found non-toxic to H. hexactinella. This is the first study to employ sediment tests with Hydra spp....... on stormwater sediments and a lower population growth rate was observed for organisms exposed to sediment from the Avoca St retarding basins. The behavioral study showed that H. hexactinella tended to avoid the sediment-water interface when exposed to sediment from all retarding basins, compared...... to the reference sediment. Further work is needed to determine the long-term effects of stormwater polluted sediments and acute effects due to organism exposure to short-term high concentrations during rain events. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. A Multi-Year Plan for Enhancing Turbulence Modeling in Hydra-TH Revised and Updated Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Thomas M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berndt, Markus [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Magolan, Ben [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to document a multi-year plan for enhancing turbulence modeling in Hydra-TH for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) program. Hydra-TH is being developed to the meet the high- fidelity, high-Reynolds number CFD based thermal hydraulic simulation needs of the program. This work is being conducted within the thermal hydraulics methods (THM) focus area. This report is an extension of THM CASL milestone L3:THM.CFD.P10.02 [33] (March, 2015) and picks up where it left off. It will also serve to meet the requirements of CASL THM level three milestone, L3:THM.CFD.P11.04, scheduled for completion September 30, 2015. The objectives of this plan will be met by: maturation of recently added turbulence models, strategic design/development of new models and systematic and rigorous testing of existing and new models and model extensions. While multi-phase turbulent flow simulations are important to the program, only single-phase modeling will be considered in this report. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is also an important modeling methodology. However, at least in the first year, the focus is on steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence modeling.

  15. 7 CFR 3052.520 - Major program determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... not require the auditor to audit more high-risk Type B programs than the number of low-risk Type A... meets the criteria in § 3052.530 for a low-risk auditee, the auditor need only audit as major programs... determining major programs in audits not yet completed. (i) Deviation from use of risk criteria. For...

  16. Toxaphene affects the levels of mRNA transcripts that encode antioxidant enzymes in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seonock; Lee, Aekyung; Won, Hyokyoung; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Yum, Seungshic

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated toxaphene-induced acute toxicity in Hydra magnipapillata. The median lethal concentrations of the animals (LC(50)) were determined to be 34.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L and 12.0 mg/L after exposure to toxaphene for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Morphological responses of hydra polyps to a range of toxaphene concentrations suggested that toxaphene negatively affects the nervous system of H. magnipapillata. We used real-time quantitative PCR of RNA extracted from polyps exposed to two concentrations of toxaphene (0.3 mg/L and 3 mg/L) for 24 h to evaluate the differential regulation of levels of transcripts that encode six antioxidant enzymes (CAT, G6PD, GPx, GR, GST and SOD), two proteins involved in detoxification and molecular stress responses (CYP1A and UB), and two proteins involved in neurotransmission and nerve cell differentiation (AChE and Hym-355). Of the genes involved in antioxidant responses, the most striking changes were observed for transcripts that encode GPx, G6PD, SOD, CAT and GST, with no evident change in levels of transcripts encoding GR. Levels of UB and CYP1A transcripts increased in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to toxaphene. Given that toxaphene-induced neurotoxicity was not reflected in the level of AChE transcripts and only slight accumulation of Hym-355 transcript was observed only at the higher of the two doses of toxaphene tested, there remains a need to identify transcriptional biomarkers for toxaphene-mediated neurotoxicity in H. magnipapillata. Transcripts that respond to toxaphene exposure could be valuable biomarkers for stress levels in H. magnipapillata and may be useful for monitoring the pollution of aquatic environments.

  17. 水螅的替代食物筛选%Selection of substitute food for hydra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方小龙; 董卫兵; 喻飞; 陈百香; 丁冉; 胡好远

    2011-01-01

    Food is always scarce when hydra was cultured. In this article , in order to obtain the substituting food for hydra, the feeding behaviors of hydra were compared. The results showed that hydra could catch meats of earthworm, shrimp, fish, chicken, beef and pork. There was no significant difference in the frequency when hydra caught those foods. But the eating frequencies of hydra to those foods were significantly different. Hydra prefers shrimp meat. When the food is scare during culture , the shrimp meat might be selected as a substituting food.%在水螅的培养中,常出现食物缺乏.为了获得替代食物,比较水螅对一些常见肉类的捕食行为.结果表明,水螅对蚯蚓肉、虾肉、鱼肉、鸡肉、牛肉和猪肉均能捕捉,对各食物的捕捉比例无显著差异;但水螅对食物的摄食比例在食物类型间存在显著差异,对虾肉较为偏好.可选择虾肉作为培养时的替代食物.

  18. Ultraviolet irradiation initiates ectopic foot formation in regenerating hydra and promotes budding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saroj S Ghaskadbi; Leena Shetye; Shashi Chiplonkar; Surendra Ghaskadbi

    2005-03-01

    We have studied the effects of ultraviolet-C (UVC) and Ultraviolet-B (UVB) on growth and pattern formation in Pelmatohydra oligactis. UVC brings about a significant increase in budding in intact hydra while UVB does not exhibit such an effect. Excessive budding could be a response for survival at wavelengths that damage biological tissues. If the head or base piece of a bisected hydra is irradiated and recombined with the unirradiated missing part, regeneration proceeds normally indicating that exposure of a body part with either an intact head or foot to UVC does not influence pattern formation. Most significantly, in the middle piece, but not in the head or the base piece of a trisected hydra, UVC leads to initiation of ectopic feet formation in almost one third of the cases. Thus, UV irradiation interferes with pattern formation in regenerating hydra, possibly by changing positional values, and promotes budding in intact hydra. This is the first report on induction of ectopic feet formation by UV in regenerating hydra and opens up the possibility of using UV irradiation as a tool to understand pattern formation in the enigmatic hydra.

  19. The apo riboswitch as a molecular hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Joseph E

    2010-07-14

    Riboswitches "sense" metabolites but knowledge is sparse for structures without bound ligand. Stoddard et al. (2010) determined an apo riboswitch structure "closed" to metabolite binding. Further SAXS, biochemical, and computational analyses support ensemble behavior with interconverting open and closed conformations.

  20. The Hydra FGFR, Kringelchen, partially replaces the Drosophila Heartless FGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Anja; Hübinger, Christine; Hüsken, Katrin; Vogt, Angelika; Rebscher, Nicole; Onel, Susanne-Filiz; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate; Hassel, Monika

    2013-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) are highly conserved receptor tyrosine kinases, and evolved early in metazoan evolution. In order to investigate their functional conservation, we asked whether the Kringelchen FGFR in the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris, is able to functionally replace FGFR in fly embryos. In Drosophila, two endogenous FGFR, Breathless (Btl) and Heartless (Htl), ensure formation of the tracheal system and mesodermal cell migration as well as formation of the heart. Using UAS-kringelchen-5xmyc transgenic flies and targeted expression, we show that Kringelchen is integrated correctly into the cell membrane of mesodermal and tracheal cells in Drosophila. Nevertheless, Kringelchen expression driven in tracheal cells failed to rescue the btl (LG19) mutant. The Hydra FGFR was able to substitute for Heartless in the htl (AB42) null mutant; however, this occurred only during early mesodermal cell migration. Our data provide evidence for functional conservation of this early-diverged FGFR across these distantly related phyla, but also selectivity for the Htl FGFR in the Drosophila system.

  1. The 2006-2007 Observing Campaign On VX Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Samolyk, G.; Dvorak, S.; Poklar, R.; Butterworth, N.; Gerner, H. S.

    2009-12-01

    We present the results of the 2006-2007 observing campaign on the double-mode delta Scuti star VX Hydrae. Nearly 8800 V-band CCD observations were obtained during the two observing seasons. Although the data were taken with small telescopes (0.3-m or less, using consumer-grade CCD cameras), the data quality is very high, enabling the detection of variability at the millimagnitude level at some frequencies. Analysis of the data yields only two primary pulsation frequencies: f(0) = 4.4765 c/d, and f(1) = 5.7899 c/d. The two modes have comparable amplitude, although the amplitude of f(1) appears to have increased slightly from 2006 to 2007 by 0.01 mag. Only two pulsation modes are detected, but at least 18 additional linear combination frequencies are also clearly detected, some having amplitudes as low as 1 mmag, resulting in an incredibly rich Fourier spectrum. We discuss the evidence for amplitude variation in VX Hydrae, along with prospects for future study of this and other similar delta Scuti stars by AAVSO observers.

  2. Biometric and statistical investigations on the cnidoma of the genus Hydra (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Deserti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals about the nematocysts like a source of biometric information for comparison between the species Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766, Hydra vulgaris pedunculata Deserti et al., 2011 and Hydra pseudoligactis (Hyman, 1931. This biometric tool lets us carry out statistical comparisons and adding these results to the identification of specimens from different classificatory groups. In this particular study, we obtained significant differences between species, individuals of each species and nematocysts type when compared the biometry of its nematocysts. Another result was the variation in of particular nematocysts, like atrichous isorhiza and holotrichous isorhiza for the species H. vulgaris in relation to the column size.

  3. The Apo Riboswitch as a Molecular Hydra

    OpenAIRE

    Wedekind, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Riboswitches ‘sense’ metabolites but knowledge is sparse for structures without bound ligand. Stoddard et al. (2010) determined an apo riboswitch structure ‘closed’ to metabolite binding. Further SAXS, biochemical and computational analyses support ensemble behavior with interconverting open and closed conformations.

  4. Hydra phantom applicability for carrying out tests of field uniformity in gamma cameras; Aplicabilidade do fantoma hydra para realizacao dos testes de uniformidade de campo em gama camaras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Filho, Geraldo L., E-mail: geraldo_lemos10@hotmail.com [Centro de Medicina Nuclear de Pernambuco (CEMUPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Oliveira, Alex C.H., E-mail: oliveira_ach@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand J.; Vieira, Jose W., E-mail: ferdinand.lopes@oi.com.br, E-mail: jose-wilson59@live.com [Instituto Federal de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical modality that makes use of radioactive material 'in vivo' in humans, making them a temporary radioactive source. The radiation emitted by the patient's body is detected by a specific equipment, called a gamma camera, creates an image showing the spatial and temporal biodistribution of radioactive material administered to the patient. Therefore, it's of fundamental importance a number of specific measures to make sure that procedure be satisfactory, called quality control. To Nuclear Medicine, quality control of gamma camera has the purpose of ensuring accurate scintillographic imaging, truthful and reliable for the diagnosis, guaranteeing visibility and clarity of details of structures, and also to determine the frequency and the need for preventive maintenance of equipment. To ensure the quality control of the gamma camera it's necessary to use some simulators, called phantom, used in Nuclear Medicine to evaluate system performance, system calibration and simulation of injuries. The goal of this study was to validate a new simulator for nuclear medicine, the Hydra phantom. The phantom was initially built for construction of calibration curves used in radiotherapy planning and quality control in CT. It has similar characteristics to specific phantoms in nuclear medicine, containing inserts and water area. Those inserts are regionally sourced materials, many of them are already used in the literature and based on information about density and interaction of radiation with matter. To verify its efficiency in quality control in Nuclear Medicine, was performed a test for uniformity field, one of the main tests performed daily, so we can verify the ability of the gamma camera to reproduce a uniform distribution of the administered activity in the phantom, been analysed qualitatively, through the image, and quantitatively, through values established for Central Field Of View (CFOV) and Useful Field Of View (UFOV

  5. The Nearest Isolated Member of the TW Hydrae Association is a Giant Planet Analog

    CERN Document Server

    Kellogg, Kendra; Gagne, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    In a recent search for unusually red L and T dwarfs, we identified 2MASS J11193254-1137466 as a likely young L7 dwarf and potential member of the TW Hydrae association. We present spectra that confirm the youth of this object. We also measure a radial velocity of 8.5 +/- 3.3 km/s that, together with the sky position, proper motion and photometric distance, results in a 92% probability of membership in the TW Hydrae association, with a calibrated field contamination probability of 0.0005% using the BANYAN II tool. Using the age of TW Hydrae and the luminosity of 2MASS J11193254-1137466, we estimate its mass to be 4.3--7.6 MJup. It is the lowest-mass and nearest isolated member of TW Hydrae at a kinematic distance of 28.9 +/- 3.6 pc, and the second-brightest isolated <10 MJup object discovered to date.

  6. Modifications to hydra-gym equipment provide for clinically useful strength measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, M S; Lovely, D F; McInnis, M D; Sexsmith, J R

    1994-04-01

    Modifications were made to the Series III-311 Omnikinetic Hydra-Gym apparatus (Hydra-Fitness Industries Inc., Belton, TX) in an effort to provide relatively inexpensive yet clinically useful isokinetic strength measurements. Signal transmission and processing functions were installed to calculate relevant strength characteristics for knee extension/flexion motions. Results from the modified Hydra-Gym were compared with matched procedures on the Kin-Com (model 500-10, Chattecx Corporation, Chattanooga, TN). Subjects (N = 10) performed three maximal concentric right knee extension/flexion cycles at different resistance settings (2, 4, and 6) on the Hydra-Gym and the corresponding angular velocities on the Kin-Com (190, 125, and 40 degrees/sec, respectively). Each subject completed eight testing sessions, four on each dynamometer. A five-way analysis of variance on the peak torque data revealed no significant difference between dynamometers; however, there was a significant interaction between dynamometer and extension/flexion measurements. The variance in angle of peak torque data was significantly different between dynamometers, with Hydra-Gym showing superior reproducibility (p Gym because the interaction noticed between dynamometer and extension/flexion may exaggerate muscle imbalances. In summary, modifications to the Hydra-Gym appear to provide clinicians with a reliable and clinically useful strength testing alternative.

  7. Immunochemical Localization of GABAA Receptor Subunits in the Freshwater Polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concas, A; Imperatore, R; Santoru, F; Locci, A; Porcu, P; Cristino, L; Pierobon, P

    2016-11-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, responding to GABA positive allosteric modulators, are present in the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), one of the most primitive metazoans to develop a nervous system. We examined the occurrence and distribution of GABAA receptor subunits in Hydra tissues by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Antibodies against different GABAA receptor subunits were used in Hydra membrane preparations. Unique protein bands, inhibited by the specific peptide, appeared at 35, 60, ∼50 and ∼52 kDa in membranes incubated with α3, β1, γ3 or δ antibodies, respectively. Immunohistochemical screening of whole mount Hydra preparations revealed diffuse immunoreactivity to α3, β1 or γ3 antibodies in tentacles, hypostome, and upper part of the gastric region; immunoreactive fibers were also present in the lower peduncle. By contrast, δ antibodies revealed a strong labeling in the lower gastric region and peduncle, as well as in tentacles. Double labeling showed colocalization of α3/β1, α3/γ3 and α3/δ immunoreactivity in granules or cells in tentacles and gastric region. In the peduncle, colocalization of both α3/β1 and α3/γ3 immunoreactivity was found in fibers running horizontally above the foot. These data indicate that specific GABAA receptor subunits are present and differentially distributed in Hydra body regions. Subunit colocalization suggests that Hydra GABA receptors are heterologous multimers, possibly sub-serving different physiological activities.

  8. Evidence That Hydra I is a Tidally Disrupting Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Hargis, Jonathan R; Willman, B; Caldwell, N; Walker, M G; Strader, J; Sand, D J; Grillmair, C J; Yoon, J H

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern Banded Structure (EBS) and Hydra~I halo overdensity are very nearby (d $\\sim$ 10 kpc) objects discovered in SDSS data. Previous studies of the region have shown that EBS and Hydra I are spatially coincident, cold structures at the same distance, suggesting that Hydra I may be the EBS's progenitor. We combine new wide-field DECam imaging and MMT/Hectochelle spectroscopic observations of Hydra I with SDSS archival spectroscopic observations to quantify Hydra I's present-day chemodynamical properties, and to infer whether it originated as a star cluster or dwarf galaxy. While previous work using shallow SDSS imaging assumed a standard old, metal-poor stellar population, our deeper DECam imaging reveals that Hydra~I has a thin, well-defined main sequence turnoff of intermediate age ($\\sim 5-6$ Gyr) and metallicity ([Fe/H] = $-0.9$ dex). We measure statistically significant spreads in both the iron and alpha-element abundances of $\\sigma_{[Fe/H]} = 0.13 \\pm 0.02$ dex and $\\sigma_{[\\alpha/{\\rm Fe}]} = 0...

  9. Environmental challenges improve resource utilization for asexual reproduction and maintenance in hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Ralf; Ringelhan, Felix; Kramer, Boris H; Miethe, Tanja

    2011-10-01

    Variation in life history can reflect genetic differences, and may be caused by environmental effects on phenotypes. Understanding how these two sources of life history variation interact to express an optimal allocation of resources in a changing environment is central to life history theory. This study addresses variation in the allocation of resources to asexual reproduction and to maintenance of Hydra magnipapillata in relation to differences in temperature and food availability. Hydra is a non-senescent, persistent species with primarily clonal reproduction. We recorded changes in budding rate and mean survival under starvation, which indicate changes in the allocation of resources to asexual reproduction and maintenance. In constant conditions we observed a clear trade-off between asexual reproduction and maintenance, where budding increased linearly with food intake while starvation survival stayed rather constant. In contrast, an environment with fluctuations in temperature or food availability promotes maintenance and increases the survival chances of hydra under starvation. Surprisingly, asexual reproduction also tends to be positively affected by fluctuating environmental conditions, which suggests that in this case there is no clear trade-off between asexual reproduction and maintenance in hydra. Environmental stresses have a beneficial impact on the fitness-related phenotypical traits of the basal metazoan hydra. The results indicate that, if the stress occurs in hormetic doses, variable stressful and fluctuating environments can be salutary for hydra. A closer examination of this dynamic can therefore enable us to develop a deeper understanding of the evolution of aging and longevity.

  10. Hydra: a service oriented architecture for scientific simulation integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Russell [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Djidjev, Tatiana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hayes, Birch P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holland, Joe V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khalsa, Hari S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Linger, Steve P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mathis, Mark M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mniszewski, Sue M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bush, Brian [NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LAB

    2008-01-01

    One of the current major challenges in scientific modeling and simulation, in particular in the infrastructure-analysis community, is the development of techniques for efficiently and automatically coupling disparate tools that exist in separate locations on different platforms, implemented in a variety of languages and designed to be standalone. Recent advances in web-based platforms for integrating systems such as SOA provide an opportunity to address these challenges in a systematic fashion. This paper describes Hydra, an integrating architecture for infrastructure modeling and simulation that defines geography-based schemas that, when used to wrap existing tools as web services, allow for seamless plug-and-play composability. Existing users of these tools can enhance the value of their analysis by assessing how the simulations of one tool impact the behavior of another tool and can automate existing ad hoc processes and work flows for integrating tools together.

  11. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  12. Three homologous subunits form a high affinity peptide-gated ion channel in Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dürrnagel, Stefan; Kuhn, Anne; Tsiairis, Charisios D

    2010-01-01

    properties, like a low Na(+) selectivity and a low amiloride affinity, that are different from other channels of the DEG/ENaC gene family, suggesting that a component of the native Hydra channel might still be lacking. Here, we report the cloning of a new ion channel subunit from Hydra, HyNaC5. The new......Recently, three ion channel subunits of the degenerin (DEG)/epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) gene family have been cloned from the freshwater polyp Hydra magnipapillata, the Hydra Na(+) channels (HyNaCs) 2-4. Two of them, HyNaC2 and HyNaC3, co-assemble to form an ion channel that is gated...... by the neuropeptides Hydra-RFamides I and II. The HyNaC2/3 channel is so far the only cloned ionotropic receptor from cnidarians and, together with the related ionotropic receptor FMRFamide-activated Na(+) channel (FaNaC) from snails, the only known peptide-gated ionotropic receptor. The HyNaC2/3 channel has pore...

  13. The phosphatidylserine receptor from Hydra is a nuclear protein with potential Fe(II dependent oxygenase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiening Beate

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptotic cell death plays an essential part in embryogenesis, development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis in metazoan animals. The culmination of apoptosis in vivo is the phagocytosis of cellular corpses. One morphological characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis is loss of plasma membrane phospholipid asymmetry and exposure of phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet. Surface exposure of phosphatidylserine is recognised by a specific receptor (phosphatidylserine receptor, PSR and is required for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages and fibroblasts. Results We have cloned the PSR receptor from Hydra in order to investigate its function in this early metazoan. Bioinformatic analysis of the Hydra PSR protein structure revealed the presence of three nuclear localisation signals, an AT-hook like DNA binding motif and a putative 2-oxoglutarate (2OG-and Fe(II-dependent oxygenase activity. All of these features are conserved from human PSR to Hydra PSR. Expression of GFP tagged Hydra PSR in hydra cells revealed clear nuclear localisation. Deletion of one of the three NLS sequences strongly diminished nuclear localisation of the protein. Membrane localisation was never detected. Conclusions Our results suggest that Hydra PSR is a nuclear 2-oxoglutarate (2OG-and Fe(II-dependent oxygenase. This is in contrast with the proposed function of Hydra PSR as a cell surface receptor involved in the recognition of apoptotic cells displaying phosphatidylserine on their surface. The conservation of the protein from Hydra to human infers that our results also apply to PSR from higher animals.

  14. Hydra-TH User's Manual, Version: LA-CC-11120, Dated: December 1, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christon, Mark A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bakosi, Jozsef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-19

    Hydra-TH is a hybrid finite-element/finite-volume code built using the Hydra toolkit specifically to attack a broad class of incompressible, viscous fluid dynamics problems prevalent in the thermalhydraulics community. The purpose for this manual is provide sufficient information for an experience analyst to use Hydra-TH in an effective way. The Hydra-TH User's Manual present a brief overview of capabilities and visualization interfaces. The execution and restart models are described before turning to the detailed description of keyword input. Finally, a series of example problems are presented with sufficient data to permit the user to verify the local installation of Hydra-TH, and to permit a convenient starting point for more detailed and complex analyses.

  15. The cluster-scale AGN outburst in Hydra A

    CERN Document Server

    Nulsen, P E J; Wise, M W; David, L P

    2004-01-01

    Deep Chandra observations of the Hydra A Cluster reveal a feature in the X-ray surface brightness that surrounds the 330 MHz radio lobes of the AGN at the cluster center. Surface brightness profiles of this feature and its close association with the radio lobes argue strongly that it is a shock front driven by the expanding radio lobes. The Chandra image also reveals other new structure on smaller scales that is associated with the radio source, including a large cavity and filament. The shock front extends 200 - 300 kpc from the AGN at the cluster center and its strength varies along the front, with Mach numbers in the range ~ 1.2 - 1.4. It is stronger where it is more distant from the cluster center, as expected for a shock driven by expanding radio lobes. Simple modeling gives an age for the shock front ~ 1.4\\times10^8 y and a total energy driving it of ~ 10^{61} erg. The mean mechanical power driving the shock is comparable to quasar luminosities, well in excess of that needed to regulate the cooling core...

  16. Distance and Kinematics of the TW Hydrae Association from Parallaxes

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberger, Alycia J; Boss, Alan P

    2012-01-01

    From common proper motion and signatures of youth, researchers have identified about 30 members of a putative TW Hydrae Association. Only four of these had parallactic distances from Hipparcos. We have measured parallaxes and proper motions for 14 primary members. We combine these with literature values of radial velocities to show that the Galactic space motions of the stars, with the exception of TWA 9 and 22, are parallel and do not indicate convergence at a common formation point sometime in the last few million years. The space motions of TWA 9 and 22 do not agree with the others and indicate that they are not TWA members. The median parallax is 18 mas or 56 pc. We further analyze the stars' absolute magnitudes on pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks and find a range of ages with a median of 10.1 Myr and no correlation between age and Galactic location. The TWA stars may have formed from an extended and filamentary molecular cloud but are not necessarily precisely coeval.

  17. Progress and status of cryogenic refrigeration system for project Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J.; Catseman, F.; Tilleman, H.; Henderson, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the last two decades, HTS cables have been successfully demonstrated around the world, preparing HTS power cables for a full commercial introduction. Among the demonstration projects, circulating subcooled liquid nitrogen to maintain the HTS cable at operating temperature is a widely adopted approach. In this approach, the cooling systems are absolutely critical to the successful operation of the HTS cables. This paper describes the progress and status of the cryogenic refrigeration system designed and manufactured for project Hydra, which is a project jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. American Superconductor is leading the team supported by Con Edison, Ultera, Altran Solutions, and DH Industries. The cable is an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable, approximately 200 m long and designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The cable will be installed and energized near New York City. The refrigeration system was designed and manufactured by DH Industries. This paper provides details on the successful factory acceptance testing completed in November 2014.

  18. Phylogenetic placement of Hydra and relationships within Aplanulata (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Annalise M; Collins, Allen G; Hirano, Yayoi M; Schuchert, Peter; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2013-04-01

    The model organism Hydra belongs to the hydrozoan clade Aplanulata. Despite being a popular model system for development, little is known about the phylogenetic placement of this taxon or the relationships of its closest relatives. Previous studies have been conflicting regarding sister group relationships and have been unable to resolve deep nodes within the clade. In addition, there are several putative Aplanulata taxa that have never been sampled for molecular data or analyzed using multiple markers. Here, we combine the fast-evolving cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) mitochondrial marker with mitochondrial 16S, nuclear small ribosomal subunit (18S, SSU) and large ribosomal subunit (28S, LSU) sequences to examine relationships within the clade Aplanulata. We further discuss the relative contribution of four different molecular markers to resolving phylogenetic relationships within Aplanulata. Lastly, we report morphological synapomorphies for some of the major Aplanulata genera and families, and suggest new taxonomic classifications for two species of Aplanulata, Fukaurahydra anthoformis and Corymorpha intermedia, based on a preponderance of molecular and morphological data that justify the designation of these species to different genera. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. TOPSIS Method for Determining The Priority of Strategic Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmatulloh Rohmatulloh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The voice of stakeholders is an important issue for government or public organizations. The issue becomes an input in designing strategic program. Decision maker should evaluate the priority to get the importance level. The decision making process is a complex problem because it is influenced by many critetria. The purpose of this study is to solve multi-criteria decision making problem using TOPSIS method. This method is proposed due to its easy and simple computation process. The case sample is determining the strategic training program in energy and mineral resources field. TOPSIS analysis may be able to assist decision maker in allocating resources for the preparation of strategic training program in accordance with the priorities

  20. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, Yasuharu; Hwang, Jung Shan; Wolf, Alexander; Böttger, Angelika; Shimizu, Hiroshi; David, Charles N.; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential for this behavior, although nerve cells in Hydra are organized in a diffuse network and do not form ganglia. Here we show that the gap junction protein innexin-2 is expressed in a small group of nerve cells in the lower body column of Hydra and that an anti-innexin-2 antibody binds to gap junctions in the same region. Treatment of live animals with innexin-2 antibody eliminates gap junction staining and reduces spontaneous body column contractions. We conclude that a small subset of nerve cells, connected by gap junctions and capable of synchronous firing, act as a pacemaker to coordinate the contraction of the body column in the absence of ganglia.

  1. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps

    KAUST Repository

    Takaku, Yasuharu

    2014-01-07

    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential for this behavior, although nerve cells in Hydra are organized in a diffuse network and do not form ganglia. Here we show that the gap junction protein innexin-2 is expressed in a small group of nerve cells in the lower body column of Hydra and that an anti-innexin-2 antibody binds to gap junctions in the same region. Treatment of live animals with innexin-2 antibody eliminates gap junction staining and reduces spontaneous body column contractions. We conclude that a small subset of nerve cells, connected by gap junctions and capable of synchronous firing, act as a pacemaker to coordinate the contraction of the body column in the absence of ganglia.

  2. Nerve ring of the hypostome in hydra. I. Its structure, development, and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koizumi, O; Itazawa, M; Mizumoto, H

    1992-01-01

    neuronal complex consisting of a thick nerve bundle running circumferentially at the border between the hypostome and tentacle zone. Immunostaining showed that the nerve ring was heterogeneous and contained at least four different subsets of neurons. During head regeneration and budding, the nerve ring......The anatomy and developmental dynamics of the nerve ring in the hypostome of Hydra oligactis were examined immunocytochemically with an antiserum against a neuropeptide and with neuron-specific monoclonal antibodies. The nerve ring is unique in the mesh-like nerve net of hydra. It is a distinct...... appeared only after the nerve net of ganglion and sensory cells had formed. Every epithelial cell is continuously displaced with neurons toward either head or foot in an adult hydra. However, the ectoderm in the immediate vicinity of, and including, the nerve ring constitutes a stationary zone...

  3. Slow-cycling stem cells in hydra contribute to head regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraimathi Govindasamy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells face the challenge of maintaining tissue homeostasis by self-renewal while maintaining their proliferation potential over the lifetime of an organism. Continuous proliferation can cause genotoxic/metabolic stress that can compromise the genomic integrity of stem cells. To prevent stem cell exhaustion, highly proliferative adult tissues maintain a pool of quiescent stem cells that divide only in response to injury and thus remain protected from genotoxic stress. Hydra is a remarkable organism with highly proliferative stem cells and ability to regenerate at whole animal level. Intriguingly, hydra does not display consequences of high proliferation, such as senescence or tumour formation. In this study, we investigate if hydra harbours a pool of slow-cycling stem cells that could help prevent undesirable consequences of continuous proliferation. Hydra were pulsed with the thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU and then chased in the absence of EdU to monitor the presence of EdU-retaining cells. A significant number of undifferentiated cells of all three lineages in hydra retained EdU for about 8–10 cell cycles, indicating that these cells did not enter cell cycle. These label-retaining cells were resistant to hydroxyurea treatment and were predominantly in the G2 phase of cell cycle. Most significantly, similar to mammalian quiescent stem cells, these cells rapidly entered cell division during head regeneration. This study shows for the first time that, contrary to current beliefs, cells in hydra display heterogeneity in their cell cycle potential and the slow-cycling cells in this population enter cell cycle during head regeneration. These results suggest an early evolution of slow-cycling stem cells in multicellular animals.

  4. Inotropic response elicited by nematocyst contents of Hydra oligactis (Coelenterata: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh-Laurie, G E; DiBlasi, S L; Suchy, P E; Senturia, J B

    1989-01-01

    1. Intact, isolated nematocysts from the non-toxic, freshwater coelenterate Hydra oligactis contain soluble material(s) capable of producing a sustained increase in the rate of developed force in the vertebrate myocardium. 2. The positive inotropic effects of this material(s) appear grossly comparable to those described for Anthopleurin-A (AP-A) and Toxin II (ATX-II) from sea anemones. 3. The effects of the nematocyst material are distinct from those of known vasoactive peptides reported to occur in Hydra.

  5. Evolution of hydra, a recently evolved testis-expressed gene with nine alternative first exons in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Tao Chen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the Drosophila gene hydra that appears to have originated de novo in the melanogaster subgroup and subsequently evolved in both structure and expression level in Drosophila melanogaster and its sibling species. D. melanogaster hydra encodes a predicted protein of approximately 300 amino acids with no apparent similarity to any previously known proteins. The syntenic region flanking hydra on both sides is found in both D. ananassae and D. pseudoobscura, but hydra is found only in melanogaster subgroup species, suggesting that it originated less than approximately 13 million y ago. Exon 1 of hydra has undergone recurrent duplications, leading to the formation of nine tandem alternative exon 1s in D. melanogaster. Seven of these alternative exons are flanked on their 3' side by the transposon DINE-1 (Drosophila interspersed element-1. We demonstrate that at least four of the nine duplicated exon 1s can function as alternative transcription start sites. The entire hydra locus has also duplicated in D. simulans and D. sechellia. D. melanogaster hydra is expressed most intensely in the proximal testis, suggesting a role in late-stage spermatogenesis. The coding region of hydra has a relatively high Ka/Ks ratio between species, but the ratio is less than 1 in all comparisons, suggesting that hydra is subject to functional constraint. Analysis of sequence polymorphism and divergence of hydra shows that it has evolved under positive selection in the lineage leading to D. melanogaster. The dramatic structural changes surrounding the first exons do not affect the tissue specificity of gene expression: hydra is expressed predominantly in the testes in D. melanogaster, D. simulans, and D. yakuba. However, we have found that expression level changed dramatically (approximately >20-fold between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. While hydra initially evolved in the absence of nearby transposable element insertions, we suggest that the subsequent

  6. Revisiting TW Hydrae in light of new astrometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, R.; Ducourant, C.; Galli, P. A. B.; Le Campion, J. F.; Zuckerman, B.; Krone-Martins, A. G. O.; Chauvin, G.; Song, I.

    2014-10-01

    Our efforts in the present work focused mainly on refining and improving the previous description and understanding of the stellar association TW Hydrae (TWA) including a very detailed membership analysis and its dynamical and evolutionary age.To achieve our objectives in a fully reliable way we take advantage of our own astrometric measurements (Ducourant et al. 2013) performed with NTT/EFOSC2 - ESO (La Silla - Chile) spread over three years (2007 - 2010) and of those published in the literature.A very detailed membership analysis based on the convergent point strategy as developed by our team (Galli et al. 2012, 2013) allowed us to define a consistent kinematic group containing 31 stars among the 44 proposed as TWA member in the literature. Assuming that our sample of stars may be contaminated by non-members and to get rid of the particular influence of each star we applied a Jacknife resampling technique generating 2000 random lists of 13 stars taken from our 16 stars and calculated for each the epoch of convergence when the radius is minimum. The mean of the epochs obtained and the dispersion about the mean give a dynamical age of 7.5± 0.7 Myr for the association that is in good agreement with the previous traceback age (De La Reza et al. 2006). We also estimated age for TWA moving group members from pre-main sequence evolutionary models (Siess et al. 2000) and find a mean age of 7.4± 1.2 Myr. These results show that the dynamical age of the association obtained via the traceback technique and the average age derived from theoretical evolutionary models are in good agreement.

  7. Two-Step Evolution of Endosymbiosis between Hydra and Algae

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-07-09

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians.

  8. Glutamatergic transmission in hydra: NMDA/D-serine affects the electrical activity of the body and tentacles of Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J C; Kass-Simon, G

    2009-04-01

    Previous electrophysiological studies on the early-evolved metazoan Hydra vulgaris provided evidence that glutamate, acting through alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainate receptors, affects hydra's pacemaker systems; immunocytochemical studies showed that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were present in hydra tentacles; behavioral studies demonstrated that NMDA/d-serine affected mouth opening induced by reduced glutathione, and with AMPA/kainate, discharge of nematocysts. In this study, extracellular recordings were made from the tentacle and peduncle of hydra during bath application of NMDA and d-serine (both at 1 x 10(-5) mol l(-1) to 1 x 10(-9) mol l(-1)) in the presence of 1 x 10(-7) mol l(-1) AMPA or kainate. NMDA/d-serine produced a significant increase in tentacle activity, increasing the rate of tentacle pacemaker pulses (TPs) at 1 x 10(-7) mol l(-1), and small, behaviorally uncorrelated tentacle pulses (SUTPs) at 1 x 10(-5) mol l(-1). The NMDA antagonist, d-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), counteracted the effects. NMDA/d-serine (1 x 10(-7) mol l(-1)) also caused a potentially significant (trend) decrease in the rate of small, behaviorally uncorrelated electrical body pulses (SUBPs) and rhythmic potentials (RPs). The effect was counteracted by D-AP5. The ectodermal contraction burst (CB) pacemaker system was unaffected by NMDA/d-serine. Our results indicate that glutamate, acting on NMDA/AMPA-kainate receptors, may cause opposing effects on the coordinating systems of tentacle and body-exciting the tentacle effectors and potentially causing an inhibition in the body column.

  9. Oxytocin/vasopressin-like immunoreactivity is present in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dierickx, K; Boer, G J

    1982-01-01

    Nerve cells have been found in hydra, which react with antisera to oxytocin, vasopressin and mesotocin. These nerve cells have a high density in the ectoderm of basal disk and tentacles and lower density in the ectoderm of peduncle, gastric region and hypostome. A very small number of nerve cells...

  10. Structure, expression, and developmental function of early divergent forms of metalloproteinases in Hydra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Metalloproteinases have a critical role in a broad spectrum of cellular processes ranging from the break-down of extracellulax matrix to the processing of signal transduction-related proteins. These hydrolyticfunctions underlie a variety of mechanisms related to developmental processes as well as disease states.Structural analysis of metalloproteinases from both invertebrate and vertebrate species indicates that theseenzymes are highly conserved and arose early during metazoan evolution. In this regard, studies from vari-ous laboratories have reported that a number of classes of metalloproteinases are found in hydra, a memberof Cnidaria, the second oldest of existing animal phyla. These studies demonstrate that the hydra genomecontains at least three classes of metalloproteinases to include members of the 1) astacin class, 2) matrix met-alloproteinase class, and 3) neprilysin class. Functional studies indicate that these metalloproteinases playdiverse and important roles in hydra morphogenesis and cell differentiation as well as specialized functionsin adult polyps. This article will review the structure, expression, and function of these metalloproteinasesin hydra.

  11. The synaptonemal complex of basal metazoan hydra: more similarities to vertebrate than invertebrate meiosis model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraune, Johanna; Wiesner, Miriam; Benavente, Ricardo

    2014-03-20

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is an evolutionarily well-conserved structure that mediates chromosome synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division. Although its structure is conserved, the characterized protein components in the current metazoan meiosis model systems (Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Mus musculus) show no sequence homology, challenging the question of a single evolutionary origin of the SC. However, our recent studies revealed the monophyletic origin of the mammalian SC protein components. Many of them being ancient in Metazoa and already present in the cnidarian Hydra. Remarkably, a comparison between different model systems disclosed a great similarity between the SC components of Hydra and mammals while the proteins of the ecdysozoan systems (D. melanogaster and C. elegans) differ significantly. In this review, we introduce the basal-branching metazoan species Hydra as a potential novel invertebrate model system for meiosis research and particularly for the investigation of SC evolution, function and assembly. Also, available methods for SC research in Hydra are summarized.

  12. A comparison of metal accumulation by the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris directly from water or

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchamai Karntanut

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The cnidarian Hydra has been widely used to assess the acute toxicity of freshwater pollutants, but very little is known about pollutant accumulation by this animal. The purpose of this study was to measurethe accumulation of the three metals, i.e., copper, cadmium and zinc directly from water and also via its prey and to relate the recorded tissue concentrations to any change in biological activities. It was found thatcopper, cadmium and zinc all were accumulated in the tissues of Hydra exposed directly to the metals in water and also those exposed indirectly through feeding on contaminated prey. The bioconcentration factor(BCF recorded at 48 hours following direct uptake from water was greatest for copper (773, followed by cadmium (409 and zinc (125, although the greatest increase in body burden occurred with cadmium, Metal body burdens of Hydra fed on contaminated prey (Artemia increased in the same metal sequence as fordirect uptake from water and the increase was highest (250 times that of control Hydra for cadmium; however, biomagnification factors (BMFs were all < 1.0 indicating that there was little potential for increasingaccumulation via the food chain. There was significant inhibition of regeneration and bud production in polyps which had fed on cadmium-containing Artemia but not on copper or zinc- containing Artemia.

  13. Direct evidence for outflow of metal-enriched gas along the radio jets of Hydra A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkpatrick, C.C.; Gitti, M.; Cavagnolo, K.W.; McNamara, B.R.; David, L.P.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Wise, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Using deep Chandra observations of the Hydra A galaxy cluster, we examine the metallicity structure near the central galaxy and along its powerful radio source. We show that the metallicity of the intracluster medium is enhanced by up to 0.2 dex along the radio jets and lobes compared to the

  14. Profiling of adhesive-related genes in the freshwater cnidarian Hydra magnipapillata by transcriptomics and proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Marcelo; Ostermann, Thomas; Kremeser, Leopold; Lindner, Herbert; Beisel, Christian; Berezikov, Eugene; Hobmayer, Bert; Ladurner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The differentiated ectodermal basal disc cells of the freshwater cnidarian Hydra secrete proteinaceous glue to temporarily attach themselves to underwater surfaces. Using transcriptome sequencing and a basal disc-specific RNA-seq combined with in situ hybridisation a highly specific set of candidate

  15. Isolation and cultivation of endosymbiotic algae from green hydra and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacević, Goran; Franjević, Damjan; Jelencić, Biserka; Kalafatić, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Symbiotic associations are of wide significance in evolution and biodiversity. The green hydra is a typical example of endosymbiosis. In its gastrodermal myoepithelial cells it harbors the individuals of a unicellular green algae. Endosymbiotic algae from green hydra have been successfully isolated and permanently maintained in a stable clean lab culture for the first time. We reconstructed the phylogeny of isolated endosymbiotic algae using the 18S rRNA gene to clarify its current status and to validate the traditional inclusion of these endosymbiotic algae within the Chlorella genus. Molecular analyses established that different genera and species of unicellular green algae could be present as symbionts in green hydra, depending on the natural habitat of a particular strain of green hydra.

  16. Motivation and career-development training programs: Use of regulatory focus to determine program effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, Peter John; Weide, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Higgins (2005) developed a motivational theory that distinguishes between two foci: preventative and promotion. Individuals with a preventative focus are motivated to complete activities due to a necessity or expectation. However, those with a promotion focus find motivation from advancement, self-improvement, or social impact. Writers typically use Higgins’ theory on workplace teams and psychology, yet the theory has usefulness for determining training program effectiveness (Carter, 2011; Fr...

  17. Structural and Sequence Similarities of Hydra Xeroderma Pigmentosum A Protein to Human Homolog Suggest Early Evolution and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Barve

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA is a protein that binds to damaged DNA, verifies presence of a lesion, and recruits other proteins of the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway to the site. Though its homologs from yeast, Drosophila, humans, and so forth are well studied, XPA has not so far been reported from protozoa and lower animal phyla. Hydra is a fresh-water cnidarian with a remarkable capacity for regeneration and apparent lack of organismal ageing. Cnidarians are among the first metazoa with a defined body axis, tissue grade organisation, and nervous system. We report here for the first time presence of XPA gene in hydra. Putative protein sequence of hydra XPA contains nuclear localization signal and bears the zinc-finger motif. It contains two conserved Pfam domains and various characterized features of XPA proteins like regions for binding to excision repair cross-complementing protein-1 (ERCC1 and replication protein A 70 kDa subunit (RPA70 proteins. Hydra XPA shows a high degree of similarity with vertebrate homologs and clusters with deuterostomes in phylogenetic analysis. Homology modelling corroborates the very close similarity between hydra and human XPA. The protein thus most likely functions in hydra in the same manner as in other animals, indicating that it arose early in evolution and has been conserved across animal phyla.

  18. Determinants of Participating in Australian University Student Exchange Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Outbound mobility programs such as exchange programs are one of the many strategies implemented at universities to develop graduates' intercultural skills and international knowledge. Few Australian students participate in exchange programs. This article presents a literature review and proposes a model of the contextual and individual factors…

  19. THM-GTRF: New Spider meshes, New Hydra-TH runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakosi, Jozsef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, Mark A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nourgaliev, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-20

    Progress is reported on computational capabilities for the grid-to-rod-fretting (GTRF) problem of pressurized water reactors. Numeca's Hexpress/Hybrid mesh generator is demonstrated as an excellent alternative to generating computational meshes for complex flow geometries, such as in GTRF. Mesh assessment is carried out using standard industrial computational fluid dynamics practices. Hydra-TH, a simulation code developed at LANL for reactor thermal-hydraulics, is demonstrated on hybrid meshes, containing different element types. A series of new Hydra-TH calculations has been carried out collecting turbulence statistics. Preliminary results on the newly generated meshes are discussed; full analysis will be documented in the L3 milestone, THM.CFD.P5.05, Sept. 2012.

  20. Searching for star-forming galaxies in the Fornax and Hydra clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Kehrig, C.; Vilchez, J. M.; Unda-Sanzana, E.

    2011-09-01

    Context. The formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies is relatively difficult to understand because of their faint emission in all regimes that require large aperture telescopes. Aims: We intend to study the evolution of star-forming dwarf galaxies in clusters. We selected Fornax and Hydra clusters to complement our previous study of Virgo. On the basis of available literature data, we selected ten star-forming candidates in Fornax and another ten objects in Hydra. Methods: We used Gemini South with GMOS to acquire Hα images necessary to detect star-forming regions in the two galaxy samples. We then performed long-slit spectroscopy for the brightest six candidates, to derive their chemical properties. Finally, we employed the VLT with HAWK-I to observe all galaxies in the K' band to derive their main physical properties. Results: We studied the morphology of our two samples, finding five objects in Fornax and six in Hydra with structures consistent with those of star-forming dwarfs, i.e., dwarf irregulars (dIs) or blue compact dwarfs (BCDs). About four other objects are probably dwarf spirals, while three objects remained undetected in both visible and near infrared. On the basis of visible bright emission lines, we derived oxygen abundances for ten star-forming candidates with values between 8.00 ≤ 12+log(O/H) ≤8.78. Conclusions: Most fundamental properties of star-forming galaxies in Fornax and Hydra appear similar to corresponding properties of dIs and BCDs from Virgo and the local volume (LV). The luminosity-metallicity and metallicity-gas fraction relations in the LV and Virgo appear to be followed by Fornax and Hydra samples, suggesting that the chemical evolution of the two clusters seems consistent with the predictions from the closed box model, although larger samples are needed to investigate the role of possible environmental effects. Star-forming dwarfs (dIs and BCDs) in different environments appear to follow different mass-metallicity relations

  1. Variable Stars in the Field of the Hydra II Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, A. Katherina; Olsen, Knut; Blum, Robert; Nidever, David L.; Walker, Alistair R.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Besla, Gurtina; Gallart, Carme; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Majewski, Steven R.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Jin, Shoko

    2016-05-01

    We report the discovery of one RR Lyrae star in the ultra-faint satellite galaxy Hydra II based on time series photometry in the g, r and i bands obtained with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. The association of the RR Lyrae star discovered here with Hydra II is clear because is located at 42\\prime\\prime from the center of the dwarf, well within its half-light radius of 102\\prime\\prime . The RR Lyrae star has a mean magnitude of i=21.30+/- 0.04 which is too faint to be a field halo star. This magnitude translates to a heliocentric distance of 151 ± 8 kpc for Hydra II; this value is ∼ 13% larger than the estimate from the discovery paper based on the average magnitude of several blue horizontal branch star candidates. The new distance implies a slightly larger half-light radius of {76}-10+12 pc and a brighter absolute magnitude of {M}V=-5.1+/- 0.3, which keeps this object within the realm of the dwarf galaxies. A comparison with other RR Lyrae stars in ultra-faint systems indicates similar pulsational properties among them, which are different to those found among halo field stars and those in the largest of the Milky Way satellites. We also report the discovery of 31 additional short period variables in the field of view (RR Lyrae, SX Phe, eclipsing binaries, and a likely anomalous cepheid) which are likely not related with Hydra II.

  2. Toxicity of Polychlorinated Diphenyl Ethers in Hydra Attenuata and in Rat Whole Embryo Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    were fed freshly hatched Artemia naupii ( brine shrimp ) once a day. The shrimp eggs (approximately 15 ml) were hydrated in 1% NaCl for approximately 2...all other chemicals were from Sigma (St. Louis, MO.). Brine shrimp eggs were purchased from Carolina Biological Supply, Burlington, NC. The original...days at room temperature. Eggs were aerated throughout the hatching period. Prior to feeding to the hydra, brine shrimp were siphoned into a fish net

  3. Notch-signalling is required for head regeneration and tentacle patterning in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münder, Sandra; Tischer, Susanne; Grundhuber, Maresa; Büchels, Nathalie; Bruckmeier, Nadine; Eckert, Stefanie; Seefeldt, Carolin A; Prexl, Andrea; Käsbauer, Tina; Böttger, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Local self-activation and long ranging inhibition provide a mechanism for setting up organising regions as signalling centres for the development of structures in the surrounding tissue. The adult hydra hypostome functions as head organiser. After hydra head removal it is newly formed and complete heads can be regenerated. The molecular components of this organising region involve Wnt-signalling and β-catenin. However, it is not known how correct patterning of hypostome and tentacles are achieved in the hydra head and whether other signals in addition to HyWnt3 are needed for re-establishing the new organiser after head removal. Here we show that Notch-signalling is required for re-establishing the organiser during regeneration and that this is due to its role in restricting tentacle activation. Blocking Notch-signalling leads to the formation of irregular head structures characterised by excess tentacle tissue and aberrant expression of genes that mark the tentacle boundaries. This indicates a role for Notch-signalling in defining the tentacle pattern in the hydra head. Moreover, lateral inhibition by HvNotch and its target HyHes are required for head regeneration and without this the formation of the β-catenin/Wnt dependent head organiser is impaired. Work on prebilaterian model organisms has shown that the Wnt-pathway is important for setting up signalling centres for axial patterning in early multicellular animals. Our data suggest that the integration of Wnt-signalling with Notch-Delta activity was also involved in the evolution of defined body plans in animals.

  4. Advances in HYDRA and its application to simulations of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Kerbel, G. D.; Koning, J. M.; Patel, M. V.; Sepke, S. M.; Brown, P. N.; Chang, B.; Procassini, R.; Veitzer, S. A.

    2008-11-01

    We will outline new capabilities added to the HYDRA 2D/3D multiphysics ICF simulation code. These include a new SN multigroup radiation transport package (1D), constitutive models for elastic-plastic (strength) effects, and a mix model. A Monte Carlo burn package is being incorporated to model diagnostic signatures of neutrons, gamma rays and charged particles. A 3D MHD package that treats resistive MHD is available. Improvements to HYDRA's implicit Monte Carlo photonics package, including the addition of angular biasing, now enable integrated hohlraum simulations to complete in substantially shorter time. The heavy ion beam deposition package now includes a new model for ion stopping power developed by the Tech-X Corporation, with improved accuracy below the Bragg peak. Examples will illustrate HYDRA's enhanced capabilities to simulate various aspects of inertial confinement fusion targets.This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. The work of Tech-X personnel was funded by the Department of Energy under Small Business Innovation Research Contract No. DE-FG02-03ER83797.

  5. Peptide-gated ion channels and the simple nervous system of Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründer, Stefan; Assmann, Marc

    2015-02-15

    Neurons either use electrical or chemical synapses to communicate with each other. Transmitters at chemical synapses are either small molecules or neuropeptides. After binding to their receptors, transmitters elicit postsynaptic potentials, which can either be fast and transient or slow and longer lasting, depending on the type of receptor. Fast transient potentials are mediated by ionotropic receptors and slow long-lasting potentials by metabotropic receptors. Transmitters and receptors are well studied for animals with a complex nervous system such as vertebrates and insects, but much less is known for animals with a simple nervous system like Cnidaria. As cnidarians arose early in animal evolution, nervous systems might have first evolved within this group and the study of neurotransmission in cnidarians might reveal an ancient mechanism of neuronal communication. The simple nervous system of the cnidarian Hydra extensively uses neuropeptides and, recently, we cloned and functionally characterized an ion channel that is directly activated by neuropeptides of the Hydra nervous system. These results demonstrate the existence of peptide-gated ion channels in Hydra, suggesting they mediate fast transmission in its nervous system. As related channels are also present in the genomes of the cnidarian Nematostella, of placozoans and of ctenophores, it should be considered that the early nervous systems of cnidarians and ctenophores have co-opted neuropeptides for fast transmission at chemical synapses.

  6. Variable stars in the field of the Hydra II ultra-faint dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Vivas, A Katherina; Olsen, Knut; Blum, Robert; Walker, Alistair; Martin, Nicolas; Besla, Gurtina; Gallart, Carme; van der Marel, Roeland; Majewski, Steven; Kaleida, Catherine; Muñoz, Ricardo; Conn, Blair; Jin, Shoko

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of one RR Lyrae star in the ultra--faint satellite galaxy Hydra II based on time series photometry in the g, r and i bands obtained with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Chile. The RR Lyrae star has a mean magnitude of $i = 21.30\\pm 0.04$ which translates to a heliocentric distance of $151\\pm 8$ kpc for Hydra II; this value is $\\sim 13\\%$ larger than the estimate from the discovery paper based on the average magnitude of several blue horizontal branch star candidates. The new distance implies a slightly larger half-light radius of $76^{+12}_{-10}$ pc and a brighter absolute magnitude of $M_V = -5.1 \\pm 0.3$, which keeps this object within the realm of the dwarf galaxies. The pulsational properties of the RR Lyrae star ($P=0.645$ d, $\\Delta g = 0.68$ mag) suggest Hydra II may be a member of the intermediate Oosterhoff or Oosterhoff II group. A comparison with other RR Lyrae stars in ultra--faint systems indicates similar pulsational properties among them...

  7. Impact of Carbon Nano-Onions on Hydra vulgaris as a Model Organism for Nanoecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marchesano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The toxicological effects of pristine and chemically modified carbon nano-onions (CNOs on the development of the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris were investigated in order to elucidate the ecotoxicological effects of CNOs. Chemical modifications of the CNOs were accomplished by surface functionalization with benzoic acid, pyridine and pyridinium moieties. thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the covalent surface functionalization of CNOs. Hydra specimens were exposed to the carbon nanomaterials by prolonged incubation within their medium. Uptake was monitored by optical microscopy, and the toxicological effects of the CNOs on Hydra behavior, morphology, as well as the long-term effects on the development and reproductive capability were examined. The obtained data revealed the absence of adverse effects of CNOs (in the range 0.05–0.1 mg/L in vivo at the whole animal level. Together with previously performed in vitro toxicological analyses, our findings indicate the biosafety of CNOs and the feasibility of employing them as materials for biomedical applications.

  8. Toxic effects of bisphenol A on sexual and asexual reproduction in Hydra oligactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhori, N; Kitano, M; Kimura, H

    2005-05-01

    Hydra oligactis, an evolutionarily primitive invertebrate, produced eggs or testes (sexual reproduction) when starved at 10 degrees C, and produced buds (asexual reproduction) when fed at 20 degrees C. Bisphenol A (BPA) at 2-4 mg/L given to male or female hydra had adverse effects on both sexual and asexual reproduction. Despite the estrogenic nature of BPA, testis formation and egg formation were similarly affected. The doses causing these acute toxicities were comparable to those reported earlier in aquatic invertebrates and were much higher than environmentally detected doses, at which the disruption of the endocrine system has been reported in fishes. All these facts indicate that the adverse effects are the results of general toxicity and may not be due to the estrogenic function of the compound. On the other hand, we found that BPA at 1 mg/L (a dose still much higher than environmental doses) stimulated asexual reproduction. No such stimulation of sexual reproduction was seen. When male hydras were fed at 10 degrees C, they produced both buds and testes simultaneously. BPA at 0.5 and 1 mg/L under this condition also stimulated asexual reproduction, whereas it suppressed sexual reproduction more severely than BPA at 2-3 mg/L. There may be some interaction between processes involved in sexual and asexual reproduction under this condition, and the stimulation of asexual reproduction by BPA may cause suppression of sexual reproduction.

  9. Patterning processes in aggregates of Hydra cells visualized with the monoclonal antibody, TS19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Bode, H R; Sawada, Y

    1990-10-01

    The monoclonal antibody, TS19, (Heimfeld et al., 1985), labels the apical surface of ectodermal epithelial cells of tentacles and lower peduncles in Hydra. To investigate the patterning process in a tissue whose original pattern was completely destroyed, the TS19 staining pattern was examined in developing aggregates of Hydra cells. Two types of aggregates were prepared. G-aggregates were made from tissue of the gastric portion of animals and RG-aggregates from gastric tissue allowed to regenerate for 24 hr before making aggregates. G-aggregates were initially TS19-negative, and later dim and uniformly TS19-positive. Thereafter, TS19 staining broke up into brightly stained and unstained regions. The brightly staining regions developed into head or foot structures. The TS19 pattern in RG-aggregates developed differently. Since the initial aggregates contained cells of regenerating tips, they started with TS19-positive cells as well as TS19-negative cells. The numbers of brightly staining TS19-positive cells increased with time. Some patches of these cells developed into head or foot structures, while others did not. These results and a simulation using a reaction-diffusion model suggest that the changes in activation levels affected the temporal changes in the pattern of TS19 staining, and that the de novo pattern formation in hydra can be explained in terms of a process involving activation and inhibition properties.

  10. Rapid divergence of histones in Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) and evolution of a novel histone involved in DNA damage response in hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Ubhe, Suyog; Sirwani, Neha; Lohokare, Rasika; Galande, Sanjeev

    2017-08-01

    Histones are fundamental components of chromatin in all eukaryotes. Hydra, an emerging model system belonging to the basal metazoan phylum Cnidaria, provides an ideal platform to understand the evolution of core histone components at the base of eumetazoan phyla. Hydra exhibits peculiar properties such as tremendous regenerative capacity, lack of organismal senescence and rarity of malignancy. In light of the role of histone modifications and histone variants in these processes it is important to understand the nature of histones themselves and their variants in hydra. Here, we report identification of the complete repertoire of histone-coding genes in the Hydra magnipapillata genome. Hydra histones were classified based on their copy numbers, gene structure and other characteristic features. Genomic organization of canonical histone genes revealed the presence of H2A-H2B and H3-H4 paired clusters in high frequency and also a cluster with all core histones along with H1. Phylogenetic analysis of identified members of H2A and H2B histones suggested rapid expansion of these groups in Hydrozoa resulting in the appearance of unique subtypes. Amino acid sequence level comparisons of H2A and H2B forms with bilaterian counterparts suggest the possibility of a highly mobile nature of nucleosomes in hydra. Absolute quantitation of transcripts confirmed the high copy number of histones and supported the canonical nature of H2A. Furthermore, functional characterization of H2A.X.1 and a unique variant H2A.X.2 in the gastric region suggest their role in the maintenance of genome integrity and differentiation processes. These findings provide insights into the evolution of histones and their variants in hydra. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. 38 CFR 41.520 - Major program determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... major programs. This risk-based approach shall include consideration of: Current and prior audit... of prior audit findings under § 41.510(a)(7) do not preclude the Type A program from being low-risk... this section), except this paragraph (e)(2)(i)(A) does not require the auditor to audit more...

  12. Using Self-Determination Theory in Correctional Education Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Dani; Cotronea, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    As funding has become available through the Second Chance Act of 2007, many correctional facilities have developed new educational programs in an effort to ease the transition from prison to community. Many new programs are developed based on the belief that incarcerated individuals are a special and unique population of student. The present…

  13. An orbital period investigation of the Algol-type eclipsing binary VW Hydrae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Zhang; Sheng-Bang Qian; Boonrucksar Soonthornthum

    2009-01-01

    Orbital period variations of the Algol-type eclipsing binary, VW Hydrae, are analyzed based on one newly determined eclipse time and the other times of light minima collected from the literature. It is discovered that the orbital period shows a continuous increase at a rate of dP/dt = +6.34×10-7 d yr-1 while it undergoes a cyclic change with an amplitude of 0.0639 d and a period of 51.5 yr. After the long-term period increase and the large-amphtude period oscillation were subtracted from the O-C curve, the residuals of the photoelectric and CCD data indicate a small-amplitude cyclic variation with a period of 8.75 yr and a small amplitude of 0.0048d. The continuous period increase indicates a conservative mass transfer at a rate of dM2/dt = 7.89×10-8 M⊙ yr-1 from the secondary to the primary. The period increase may be caused by a combination of the mass transfer from the secondary to the primary and the angular momentum transfer from the binary system to the circumbinary disk. The two cyclic period oscillations can be explained by light-travel time effects via the presence of additional bodies. The small-amplitude periodic change indicates the existence of a less massive component with mass M3 > 0.53 M⊙, while the large-amplitude one is caused by the presence of a more massive component with mass M4 > 2.84 M⊙. The ultraviolet source in the system reported by Kviz & Rufener (1987) may be one of the additional components, and it is possible that the more massive one may be an unseen neutron star or black hole. The rapid period increase and the possibility of the presence of two additional components in the binary make it a very interesting system to study. New photometric and high-resolution spectroscopic observations and a detailed investigation of those data are required in the future.

  14. 29 CFR 99.520 - Major program determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of prior audit findings under § 99.510(a)(7) do not preclude the Type A program from being low-risk... section), except this paragraph (e)(2)(i)(A) does not require the auditor to audit more high-risk Type B... identifying which high-risk Type B programs to audit as major under either Option 1 or 2 in paragraph...

  15. A new case of neuropeptide coexpression (RGamide and LWamides) in Hydra, found by whole-mount, two-color double-labeling in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Georg N; Williamson, Michael; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2002-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra has a primitive nervous system that expresses at least six different neuropeptide genes: (1) three genes, coding for the preprohormones-A, -B, and -C that each gives rise to a variety of peptides with the C-terminal sequence Arg-Phe-NH(2) (the Hydra-RFamides); (2) one g...

  16. 77 FR 69585 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality... rule titled ``Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations... is (202) 566- 1742. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carole Cook, Climate Change Division, Office...

  17. Detection of a Degenerate Companion of the SX Phoenicis Star KZ Hydrae by Studying its Long-Term Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. N.; Khokhuntod, P.; Rodríguez, E.; Boonyarak, C.; Marak, K.; López-González, M. J.; Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.; Jiang, S. Y.

    2008-05-01

    We present 109 new times of maximum light of the SX Phoenicis (SX Phe) star KZ Hydrae (KZ Hya) based mainly on our extensive photometric observations for two decades, leading to determination of a general ephemeris combined with the data in the literature. The O - C diagram reveals a continuously increasing period change combined with the light traveling time effect of the orbital motion of KZ Hya in a binary system with an orbital period of 26.8 ± 0.2 years. The deduced mass of the companion cannot be smaller than 0.83 M sun. Since no sign of the companion has ever been observed spectroscopically and the observed color index b - y excludes the possibility of the companion being a late-type main-sequence or dwarf star, KZ Hya becomes the first SX Phe star for which a degenerate companion is detected. The pulsation properties are studied by analyzing the Fourier spectra of the observed light curves while the fundamental parameters are deduced with the simultaneous multicolor uvbyβ data, showing this star to be a strong low-metallicity high-amplitude SX Phe-type variable pulsating in the fundamental radial mode. No signs of multiperiodicity or significant long-term changes in amplitude are detected in the pulsation of this variable.

  18. The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mtDNA evolution and cnidarian phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, Ehsan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2008-02-29

    The 16,314-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)--the first from the class Hydrozoa--has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, as is typical for cnidarians. All genes have the same transcriptional orientation and their arrangement in the genome is similar to that of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita. In addition, a partial copy of cox1 is present at one end of the molecule in a transcriptional orientation opposite to the rest of the genes, forming a part of inverted terminal repeat characteristic of linear mtDNA and linear mitochondrial plasmids. The sequence close to at least one end of the molecule contains several homonucleotide runs as well as small inverted repeats that are able to form strong secondary structures and may be involved in mtDNA maintenance and expression. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genes of H. oligactis and other cnidarians supports the Medusozoa hypothesis but also suggests that Anthozoa may be paraphyletic, with octocorallians more closely related to the Medusozoa than to the Hexacorallia. The latter inference implies that Anthozoa is paraphyletic and that the polyp (rather than a medusa) is the ancestral body type in Cnidaria.

  19. Tracking mechanical and morphological dynamics of regenerating Hydra tissue fragments using a two fingered micro-robotic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veschgini, M.; Gebert, F.; Khangai, N.; Ito, H.; Suzuki, R.; Holstein, T. W.; Mae, Y.; Arai, T.; Tanaka, M.

    2016-03-01

    Regeneration of a tissue fragment of freshwater polyp Hydra is accompanied by significant morphological fluctuations, suggesting the generation of active forces. In this study, we utilized a two fingered micro-robotic hand to gain insights into the mechanics of regenerating tissues. Taking advantage of a high force sensitivity (˜1 nN) of our micro-hand, we non-invasively acquired the bulk elastic modulus of tissues by keeping the strain levels low (ɛ tissue and determined both viscous modulus and elastic modulus simultaneously, following a simple Maxwell model. We further investigated the correlation between the frequency of force fluctuation and that of morphological fluctuation by monitoring one "tweezed" tissue and the other "intact" tissue at the same time. The obtained results clearly indicated that the magnitude and periodicity of the changes in force and shape are directly correlated, confirming that our two fingered micro-hand can precisely quantify the mechanics of soft, dynamic tissue during the regeneration and development in a non-invasive manner.

  20. Determination of neutron spectra using the programs GNSR and SPECTRIX

    CERN Document Server

    Weyrauch, M; Matzke, M

    2002-01-01

    We describe the capabilities and the application of two computer programs, which have been developed in order to facilitate common tasks in neutron spectrometry: GNSR (calculation of response matrices) and SPECTRIX (unfolding). Gas-filled Neutron Spectrometer Response calculates response functions and response matrices of various gas-filled neutron detectors. It can be configured to accommodate the appropriate gas-fillings and supports a number of different neutron beam configurations with a possibility to input calculated or measured neutron beam spectra. The program includes graphical capabilities as well as a context-sensitive help system. SPECTRIX implements several unfolding algorithms as well as support algorithms for unfolding and includes graphics capabilities and context-sensitive help. We apply both programs to a specific example: calculation of the response matrix of a sup 3 He detector and unfolding of the neutron spectrum of a thick accelerator target using the calculated response matrix.

  1. Building Self-Determination through Inclusive Extracurricular Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoski, Erin; Graybill, Emily; Roach, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Extracurricular activities provide students a range of rich experiences that influence their academic achievement, leadership and communication skills, and career paths. Students with disabilities (SWDs) historically have had limited access to extracurricular programs and thus fewer opportunities for academic, social, and vocational development.…

  2. RNAseq versus genome-predicted transcriptomes: a large population of novel transcripts identified in an Illumina-454 Hydra transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Yvan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2013-03-25

    Evolutionary studies benefit from deep sequencing technologies that generate genomic and transcriptomic sequences from a variety of organisms. Genome sequencing and RNAseq have complementary strengths. In this study, we present the assembly of the most complete Hydra transcriptome to date along with a comparative analysis of the specific features of RNAseq and genome-predicted transcriptomes currently available in the freshwater hydrozoan Hydra vulgaris. To produce an accurate and extensive Hydra transcriptome, we combined Illumina and 454 Titanium reads, giving the primacy to Illumina over 454 reads to correct homopolymer errors. This strategy yielded an RNAseq transcriptome that contains 48'909 unique sequences including splice variants, representing approximately 24'450 distinct genes. Comparative analysis to the available genome-predicted transcriptomes identified 10'597 novel Hydra transcripts that encode 529 evolutionarily-conserved proteins. The annotation of 170 human orthologs points to critical functions in protein biosynthesis, FGF and TOR signaling, vesicle transport, immunity, cell cycle regulation, cell death, mitochondrial metabolism, transcription and chromatin regulation. However, a majority of these novel transcripts encodes short ORFs, at least 767 of them corresponding to pseudogenes. This RNAseq transcriptome also lacks 11'270 predicted transcripts that correspond either to silent genes or to genes expressed below the detection level of this study. We established a simple and powerful strategy to combine Illumina and 454 reads and we produced, with genome assistance, an extensive and accurate Hydra transcriptome. The comparative analysis of the RNAseq transcriptome with genome-predicted transcriptomes lead to the identification of large populations of novel as well as missing transcripts that might reflect Hydra-specific evolutionary events.

  3. “Is the Hydra the Enemy?” A Review of English Language as Hydra: Its Impacts on Non-English Language Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corazon D. Villareal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book, part of the series on Linguistic Diversity and Language Rights of Multilingual Matters, seeks "to promote multilingualism as a resource, the maintenance of the linguistic diversity and development of and respect for linguistic human rights worldwide through the dissemination of theoretical and empirical research"(ii. The context for this advocacy is English whose domain is perceived to have reduced linguistic and cultural diversity; this encounter is the core concern of the book, as the title suggests. The contributors unabashedly articulate their disgust and rage against this hydra through a seemingly inexhaustible arsenal of metaphors - thief, bully, juggernaut,an intractable governess, "a partner in crime," "an overstaying auntie," etc. The tone is combative, sometimes veering dangerously close to simplistic name-calling and clichéd emotionalism. So it seems.

  4. Advances in HYDRA and its applications to simulations of inertial confinement fusion targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinak M.M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new set of capabilities has been implemented in the HYDRA 2D/3D multiphysics inertial confinement fusion simulation code. These include a Monte Carlo particle transport library. It models transport of neutrons, gamma rays and light ions, as well as products they generate from nuclear and coulomb collisions. It allows accurate simulations of nuclear diagnostic signatures from capsule implosions. We apply it to here in a 3D simulation of a National Ignition Facility (NIF ignition capsule which models the full capsule solid angle. This simulation contains a severely rough ablator perturbation and provides diagnostics signatures of capsule failure due to excessive instability growth.

  5. A Polar Discrete Ordinate Radiation Transport Method for 2D ALE Meshes in HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Britton; Marinak, Marty; Weber, Chris; Peterson, Luc

    2016-10-01

    The Polar Discrete Ordinate Radiation Transport Method in HYDRA has been extended to handle general 2D r-z meshes. Previously the method was only for orthogonal 2D meshes. The new method can be employed with the ALE methodology for managing mesh motion that is used to simulate Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities on NIF capsule implosions. The results of an examination of this kind will be compared to those obtained by the corresponding diffusion method. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. A novel gene family controls species-specific morphological traits in Hydra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Khalturin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular events that underlie the evolution of morphological diversity is a major challenge in biology. Here, to identify genes whose expression correlates with species-specific morphologies, we compared transcriptomes of two closely related Hydra species. We find that species-specific differences in tentacle formation correlate with expression of a taxonomically restricted gene encoding a small secreted protein. We show that gain of function induces changes in morphology that mirror the phenotypic differences observed between species. These results suggest that "novel" genes may be involved in the generation of species-specific morphological traits.

  7. Development of computer programs to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of complete light aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program for determining the flight characteristics of light aircraft was developed. The parameters which were used in the computer program are defined. The accuracy of the system for various types of airfoils is analyzed and the airfoils for which the system does not provide adequate data are identified. The application of a computer program for predicting the fuselage characteristics is discussed. The assumptions and parameters of the fuselage characteristics program are explained. It is stated that the computer programs make it possible to determine the response of a light aircraft to a small disturbance given the geometric and inertial characteristics of the aircraft.

  8. Participation in preventive care programs: individual determinants, social interactions and program design.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouckaert, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral research focuses on existing medical preventive care programs. Because of externalities (e.g. in the prevention of communicable diseases) or the program cost-benefit ratio, preventive care programs require high participation rates. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have set clear participation objectives – next to quality targets – which are measured and evaluated over time (National Center for Health Statistics, 2012). For example, the 2010 pa...

  9. Determination of pedestrian displacement velocity for ground exploration programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernán Ochoa Gutierrez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Engineering and Geophysics field exploration, uncertainty for determination of the velocity of ground data acquisition due to extreme topographic conditions has been underestimated in the calculation of the displacement time between stations or sampling points. This lack of reliable models, negatively affects the determination of costs and planning of fieldwork activities. Known models of times and routes of displacement determination such as the “Smaller Cost Routes” are based on the effect of the type of land and the slope. However, these models consider the effect of the slope by means of subjective impedance values which has no a clear physical meaning. Furthermore, the upslope or downslope displacement is not considered to affect the reliability of velocity estimation. In this paper, a model of displacement velocity is proposed taking into account the upslope/downslope factor. The model was determined using real data from a topographical survey along a pipeline of 880 Km extended along terrains with changing climatic and topographic conditions. As a result, the proposed model improves the selection of optimal routes for a reliable time and cost estimation.

  10. The putative Notch ligand HyJagged is a transmembrane protein present in all cell types of adult Hydra and upregulated at the boundary between bud and parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tischer Susanne

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Notch signalling pathway is conserved in pre-bilaterian animals. In the Cnidarian Hydra it is involved in interstitial stem cell differentiation and in boundary formation during budding. Experimental evidence suggests that in Hydra Notch is activated by presenilin through proteolytic cleavage at the S3 site as in all animals. However, the endogenous ligand for HvNotch has not been described yet. Results We have cloned a cDNA from Hydra, which encodes a bona-fide Notch ligand with a conserved domain structure similar to that of Jagged-like Notch ligands from other animals. Hyjagged mRNA is undetectable in adult Hydra by in situ hybridisation but is strongly upregulated and easily visible at the border between bud and parent shortly before bud detachment. In contrast, HyJagged protein is found in all cell types of an adult hydra, where it localises to membranes and endosomes. Co-localisation experiments showed that it is present in the same cells as HvNotch, however not always in the same membrane structures. Conclusions The putative Notch ligand HyJagged is conserved in Cnidarians. Together with HvNotch it may be involved in the formation of the parent-bud boundary in Hydra. Moreover, protein distribution of both, HvNotch receptor and HyJagged indicate a more widespread function for these two transmembrane proteins in the adult hydra, which may be regulated by additional factors, possibly involving endocytic pathways.

  11. Molecular cloning of a preprohormone from Hydra magnipapillata containing multiple copies of Hydra-L Wamide (Leu-Trp-NH2) neuropeptides: evidence for processing at Ser and Asn residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leviev, I; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    The simple, freshwater polyp Hydra is often used as a model to study development in cnidarians. Recently, a neuropeptide, < Glu-Gln-Pro-Gly-Leu-Trp-NH2, has been isolated from sea anemones that induces metamorphosis in a hydroid planula larva to become a polyp. Here, we have cloned a preprohormon...

  12. High-resolution 3D simulations of NIF ignition targets performed on Sequoia with HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Clark, D. S.; Jones, O. S.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.; Koning, J. M.; Schroeder, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Developments in the multiphysics ICF code HYDRA enable it to perform large-scale simulations on the Sequoia machine at LLNL. With an aggregate computing power of 20 Petaflops, Sequoia offers an unprecedented capability to resolve the physical processes in NIF ignition targets for a more complete, consistent treatment of the sources of asymmetry. We describe modifications to HYDRA that enable it to scale to over one million processes on Sequoia. These include new options for replicating parts of the mesh over a subset of the processes, to avoid strong scaling limits. We consider results from a 3D full ignition capsule-only simulation performed using over one billion zones run on 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations through modes l = 200. We also report progress towards a high-resolution 3D integrated hohlraum simulation performed using 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations on the ignition capsule through modes l = 70. These aim for the most complete calculations yet of the interactions and overall impact of the various sources of asymmetry for NIF ignition targets. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. A Chandra Observation of the TW Hydrae Association Brown Dwarf 2MASSW J1139511-315921

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Philip J; Gagné, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We report on a sequence of Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the TW Hydrae brown dwarf (BD) 2MASSW J1139511-315921 (2M1139). In the combined 31 ks ACIS-S exposure, 2M1139 is detected at the 3-sigma confidence level. We find an X-ray luminosity of L_X = 1.4^(+2.7)_(-1.0) x 10^26 ergs s^-1 or log(L_X/L_bol) = -4.8 +/- 0.3. This object is similar to another TW Hydrae BD member, CD-33 7795B (TWA 5B): both have H-alpha emission, both show no signatures of accretion, and both have comparable ages and spectral types. TWA 5B was previously detected in X-rays with a luminosity of L_X = 4 x 10^27 ergs s^-1 or log(L_X/L_bol) = -3.4, an order of magnitude more luminous in X-rays than 2M1139. We find that the discrepancy between the X-ray luminosity of 2M1139 and TWA 5B is consistent with the spread in X-ray luminosity in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) for BDs of similar spectral types. Though rotation may play a role in the X-ray activity of ultracool dwarfs like 2M1139 and TWA 5B, the discrepancy cannot be expla...

  14. Mutagenesis and functional analysis of the pore-forming toxin HALT-1 from Hydra magnipapillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Yvonne Jing Mei; Soh, Wai Tuck; Jiemy, William Febry; Hwang, Jung Shan

    2015-02-03

    Actinoporins are small 18.5 kDa pore-forming toxins. A family of six actinoporin genes has been identified in the genome of Hydra magnipapillata, and HALT-1 (Hydra actinoporin-like toxin-1) has been shown to have haemolytic activity. In this study, we have used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the role of amino acids in the pore-forming N-terminal region and the conserved aromatic cluster required for cell membrane binding. A total of 10 mutants of HALT-1 were constructed and tested for their haemolytic and cytolytic activity on human erythrocytes and HeLa cells, respectively. Insertion of 1-4 negatively charged residues in the N-terminal region of HALT-1 strongly reduced haemolytic and cytolytic activity, suggesting that the length or charge of the N-terminal region is critical for pore-forming activity. Moreover, substitution of amino acids in the conserved aromatic cluster reduced haemolytic and cytolytic activity by more than 80%, suggesting that these aromatic amino acids are important for attachment to the lipid membrane as shown for other actinoporins. The results suggest that HALT-1 and other actinoporins share similar mechanisms of pore formation and that it is critical for HALT-1 to maintain an amphipathic helix at the N-terminus and an aromatic amino acid-rich segment at the site of membrane binding.

  15. Mutagenesis and Functional Analysis of the Pore-Forming Toxin HALT-1 from Hydra magnipapillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Jing Mei Liew

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinoporins are small 18.5 kDa pore-forming toxins. A family of six actinoporin genes has been identified in the genome of Hydra magnipapillata, and HALT-1 (Hydra actinoporin-like toxin-1 has been shown to have haemolytic activity. In this study, we have used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the role of amino acids in the pore-forming N-terminal region and the conserved aromatic cluster required for cell membrane binding. A total of 10 mutants of HALT-1 were constructed and tested for their haemolytic and cytolytic activity on human erythrocytes and HeLa cells, respectively. Insertion of 1–4 negatively charged residues in the N-terminal region of HALT-1 strongly reduced haemolytic and cytolytic activity, suggesting that the length or charge of the N-terminal region is critical for pore-forming activity. Moreover, substitution of amino acids in the conserved aromatic cluster reduced haemolytic and cytolytic activity by more than 80%, suggesting that these aromatic amino acids are important for attachment to the lipid membrane as shown for other actinoporins. The results suggest that HALT-1 and other actinoporins share similar mechanisms of pore formation and that it is critical for HALT-1 to maintain an amphipathic helix at the N-terminus and an aromatic amino acid-rich segment at the site of membrane binding.

  16. Dickkopf related genes are components of the positional value gradient in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, René; Franke, André; Khalturin, Konstantin; Kiko, Rainer; Siebert, Stefan; Hemmrich, Georg; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2006-08-01

    Hydra is a classical model organism to understand fundamental developmental biological processes such as regeneration and axis formation. Here, we show that two genes which share some similarity with members of the Dickkopf family of proteins, HyDkk1/2/4-A and HyDkk1/2/4-C, are co-expressed in gland cells and regulated by the positional value gradient. While HyDkk1/2/4-A is expressed throughout the gastric region, HyDkk1/2/4-C has a graded expression pattern with a high level of transcripts just below the tentacle zone and absence of expression in the budding zone. Blocking the activity of GSK-3beta caused a drastic downregulation of HyDkk1/2/4-C expression in the gastric tissue. Experimental reduction of the number of HyDkk1/2/4-C-expressing cells resulted in expansion of the HyWnt expression domain in the hypostome. Thus, similar to Dickkopf proteins in vertebrates, one of the functions of HyDkk1/2/4-C in hydra may be to antagonize Wnt signalling.

  17. Analysis of vascular development in the hydra sterol biosynthetic mutants of Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Pullen

    Full Text Available The control of vascular tissue development in plants is influenced by diverse hormonal signals, but their interactions during this process are not well understood. Wild-type sterol profiles are essential for growth, tissue patterning and signalling processes in plant development, and are required for regulated vascular patterning.Here we investigate the roles of sterols in vascular tissue development, through an analysis of the Arabidopsis mutants hydra1 and fackel/hydra2, which are defective in the enzymes sterol isomerase and sterol C-14 reductase respectively. We show that defective vascular patterning in the shoot is associated with ectopic cell divisions. Expression of the auxin-regulated AtHB8 homeobox gene is disrupted in mutant embryos and seedlings, associated with variably incomplete vascular strand formation and duplication of the longitudinal axis. Misexpression of the auxin reporter proIAA2ratioGUS and mislocalization of PIN proteins occurs in the mutants. Introduction of the ethylene-insensitive ein2 mutation partially rescues defective cell division, localization of PIN proteins, and vascular strand development.The results support a model in which sterols are required for correct auxin and ethylene crosstalk to regulate PIN localization, auxin distribution and AtHB8 expression, necessary for correct vascular development.

  18. Different Endosymbiotic Interactions in Two Hydra Species Reflect the Evolutionary History of Endosymbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-06-19

    Endosymbiosis is an important evolutionary event for organisms, and there is widespread interest in understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis establishment. Hydra is one of the most suitable organisms for studying the evolution of endosymbiosis. Within the genus Hydra, H. viridissima and H. vulgaris show endosymbiosis with green algae. Previous studies suggested that the endosymbiosis in H. vulgaris took place much more recently than that in H. viridissima, noting that the establishment of the interaction between H. vulgaris and its algae is not as stable as in H. viridissima. To investigate the on-going process of endosymbiosis, we first compared growth and tolerance to starvation in symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of both species. The results revealed that symbiotic H. viridissima had a higher growth rate and greater tolerance to starvation than aposymbiotic polyps. By contrast, growth of symbiotic H. vulgaris was identical to that of aposymbiotic polyps, and symbiotic H. vulgaris was less tolerant to starvation. Moreover, our gene expression analysis showed a pattern of differential gene expression in H. viridissima similar to that in other endosymbiotically established organisms, and contrary to that observed in H. vulgaris. We also showed that H. viridissima could cope with oxidative stress that caused damage, such as cell death, in H. vulgaris. These observations support the idea that oxidative stress related genes play an important role in the on-going process of endosymbiosis evolution. The different evolutionary stages of endosymbiosis studied here provide a deeper insight into the evolutionary processes occurring toward a stable endosymbiosis.

  19. Direct Evidence for Outflow of Metal-enriched Gas Along the Radio Jets of Hydra A

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, C C; Cavagnolo, K W; McNamara, B R; David, L P; Nulsen, P E J; Wise, M W

    2009-01-01

    Using deep Chandra observations of the Hydra A galaxy cluster, we examine the metallicity structure near the central galaxy and along its powerful radio source. We show that the metallicity of the intracluster medium is enhanced by up to 0.2 dex along the radio jets and lobes compared to the metallicity of the undisturbed gas. The enhancements extend from a radius of 20 kpc from the central galaxy to a distance of ~ 120 kpc. We estimate the total iron mass that has been transported out of the central galaxy to be between 2 x 10^7 M_sun and 7 x 10^7 M_sun which represents 10% - 20% of the iron mass within the central galaxy. The energy required to lift this gas is roughly 1% to 5% of the total energetic output of the AGN. Evidently, Hydra A's powerful radio source is able to redistribute metal-enriched, low entropy gas throughout the core of the galaxy cluster. The short re-enrichment time scale < 10^9 yr implies that the metals lost from the central galaxy will be quickly replenished.

  20. Jet-Intracluster Medium interaction in Hydra A. I Estimates of jet velocity from inner knots

    CERN Document Server

    Nawaz, M A; Bicknell, G V; Sutherland, R S; McNamara, B R

    2014-01-01

    We present the first stage of an investigation of the interactions of the jets in the radio galaxy Hydra A with the intracluster medium. We consider the jet kinetic power, the galaxy and cluster atmosphere, and the inner structure of the radio source. Analysing radio observations of the inner lobes of Hydra A by Taylor et al. (1990) we confirm the jet power estimates of about 1e45 ergs/s derived by Wise et al. (2007) from dynamical analysis of the X-ray cavities. With this result and a model for the galaxy halo, we explore the jet-intracluster medium interactions occurring on a scale of 10 kpc using two-dimensional, axisymmetric, relativistic pure hydrodynamic simulations. A key feature is that we identify the three bright knots in the northern jet as biconical reconfinement shocks, which result when an over pressured jet starts to come into equilibrium with the galactic atmosphere. Through an extensive parameter space study we deduce that the jet velocity is approximately 0.8 c at a distance 0.5 kpc from the...

  1. Ultrastructural localization of RFamide-like peptides in neuronal dense-cored vesicles in the peduncle of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koizumi, O; Wilson, Douglas Clyde; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1989-01-01

    The presence of Arg-Phe-amide (RFamide)-like peptides in dense-cored vesicles in neurons of the peduncle of Hydra was demonstrated by immunogold electron microscopy. Thin sections of Lowicryl-embedded tissue labeled with antisera to RFamide and 5-nm gold-conjugated, secondary antibody and of Epon...

  2. A new species of hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Hydridae) and molecular phylogenetic analysis of six congeners from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Tai; Deng, Li; Liu, Hong-Tao

    2012-12-01

    A new species of genus Hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Hydridae), Hydra shenzhensis sp. nov. from Guangdong Province, China, is described and illustrated. Most polyps have five tentacles. Column length reaches 11 mm when relaxed. Buds do not acquire tentacles synchronously. Stenotele is broad and pyriform in shape, 1.2 times as long as its width. Holotrichous isorhiza is asymmetrical and slender (more than 2.7 times as long as its width), with transverse and slanting coils. Atrichous isorhiza is long, resembling a melon-seed in shape. Desmoneme is asymmetrically pyriform in shape. The new species, belonging to the vulgaris group, is dioecious; sexual reproduction was found to occur mostly during November and December under conditions of dense culture or food shortage. Two to thirteen testes, cone-like shape with papilla, formed beneath the tentacles. One to three ovaries, with an egg cup, milky white in color, formed on body column. Ninety percent of individuals developed only one ovum. On a mother polyp, a fertilized ovum developed an embryonic theca covering its surface. The embryotheca is brown, with a spine-like structure, covering a layer of transparent, membrane-like material. For phylogenetic analysis, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) of six hydra species collected from China was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Morphological characters in combination with molecular evidence support the hydra described here as a new species.

  3. Hydra II: A Faint and Compact Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Nidever, David L.; Besla, Gurtina; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Gruendl, Robert A.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Blum, Robert D.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Bell, Eric F.; Chu, You-Hua; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; de Boer, Thomas J. L.; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Kunder, Andrea; Majewski, Steven R.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E. D.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m Telescope. The new satellite is compact ({{r}h}=68 ± 11 pc) and faint ({{M}V}=-4.8 ± 0.3),

  4. X-Ray Supercavities in the Hydra A Cluster and the Outburst History of the Central Galaxy's Active Nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wise, M.; McNamara, B.R.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Houck, J.C.; David, L.P.

    2007-01-01

    A 227 ks Chandra X-ray image of the hot plasma in the Hydra A cluster has revealed an extensive cavity system. The system was created by a continuous outflow or a series of bursts from the nucleus of the central galaxy over the past 200-500 Myr. The cavities have displaced 10% of the plasma within a

  5. The identity and occurrence of Kerona pediculus (Ciliophora: Hypotrichida), a well-known epizoite of Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, A.; Robson, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Epizoic Kerona pediculus have been found on Hydra vulgaris and on Cristatella mucedo (Bryozoa) in the same habitat. On the basis of morphological characters (using Nomarski and Scanning Electron Microscopy) specimens from the two hosts are indistinguishable. Details revealed by SEM agree with

  6. 78 FR 66885 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process AGENCIES: Forest... determination process. These comments will be used by the Board, coordinating with the Secretaries of the... to improve the rural determination process. DATES: Comments: The comment period for the...

  7. Determining the quality of competences assessment programs: A self-evaluation procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, Liesbeth; Prins, Frans; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2009-01-01

    Baartman, L. K. J., Prins, F. J., Kirschner, P. A., & Van der Vleuten, C. P. M. (2007). Determining the quality of Competence Assessment Programs: A self-evaluation procedure. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 33, 258-281.

  8. Determining the quality of competences assessment programs: A self-evaluation procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, Liesbeth; Prins, Frans; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2009-01-01

    Baartman, L. K. J., Prins, F. J., Kirschner, P. A., & Van der Vleuten, C. P. M. (2007). Determining the quality of Competence Assessment Programs: A self-evaluation procedure. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 33, 258-281.

  9. Using Cost-Benefit Analysis to Determine Profitability of Secondary Vocational Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaratnam, K. K.; And Others

    A major challenge confronting vocational educators is to justify programs in economic terms. The purpose of this study was to propose and implement a cost-benefit analysis model to determine the economic outcomes of secondary vocational education programs at the local level. For the study, a cost-benefit model for secondary vocational education…

  10. 77 FR 77005 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Forest Service DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Rural Determination Process AGENCIES: Forest Service, Agriculture; Fish and... Secretary of the Interior initiated a review of the Federal Subsistence Management Program. An...

  11. Determinants of impact of a practice accreditation program in primary care: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwens, E.; Lieshout, J. van; Wensing, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Practice accreditation is a widely used method to assess and improve the quality of healthcare services. In the Netherlands, a practice accreditation program was implemented in primary medical care. We aimed to identify determinants of impact of a practice accreditation program, building

  12. Computer program determines vibration in three-dimensional space of hydraulic lines excited by forced displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, W. G.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program determines the forced vibration in three dimensional space of a multiple degree of freedom beam type structural system. Provision is made for the longitudinal axis of the analytical model to change orientation at any point along its length. This program is used by industries in which structural design dynamic analyses are performed.

  13. A computer program to determine geometric parameters for the AFM solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program has been written to aid in the design of the A. E. M.-1 solar array and to determine the power that will finally be available from the array. The program will plot the array output as a function of the satellite's position in a given orbit and will calculate the average output over the orbit.

  14. Determinants of impact of a practice accreditation program in primary care: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwens, E.; Lieshout, J. van; Wensing, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Practice accreditation is a widely used method to assess and improve the quality of healthcare services. In the Netherlands, a practice accreditation program was implemented in primary medical care. We aimed to identify determinants of impact of a practice accreditation program, building

  15. Computer program determines exact two-sided tolerance limits for normal distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H. A.; Webb, S. R.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program determines by numerical integration the exact statistical two-sided tolerance limits, when the proportion between the limits is at least a specified number. The program is limited to situations in which the underlying probability distribution for the population sampled is the normal distribution with unknown mean and variance.

  16. Charon's, Hydra's, and Nix's near IR spectra as seen by New Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Cook, Jason C.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Protopapa, Silvia; Grundy, William M.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold A.; Young, Leslie; New Horizons Surface Composition Theme Team

    2016-10-01

    Charon, Pluto's largest satellite, is a predominantly grey-color icy world covered mostly in H2O ice, with spectral evidence for NH3 and/or its hydrates, as previously reported (Cook et al. 2007, ApJ. 663, 1406; Verbiscer et al. 2007, LPSC 38, 2318; Merlin et al. 2010, Icarus, 210, 930; Cook et al. 2014, AAS/DPS Abstracts, 46, #401.04; Holler et al. 2016, submitted, arXiv:1606.05695). In their 2010 work, Merlin et al. reported the presence of ammonia species along with H2O ice both in crystalline and amorphous phase. They introduced a blue component to model the slope present in their near-IR observations, which could not be otherwise reproduced without the adoption of an ad hoc component. The presence of ammonia and H2O in its crystalline form prompted Cook et al. (2007) to suggest cryovolcanism as a favored mechanism of resurfacing although the geological evidence for volcanism reported from New Horizons imaging observations does not appear to be recent (Moore et al. Science, 351, 1284).We analyze one of New Horizons' observations of Charon taken with the LEISA imaging spectrometer from a distance of ~82,000 km at high spatial resolution (4.9 km/pixel). Images from the New Horizons spacecraft reveal a surface with terrains of seemingly different ages and a moderate degree of localized coloration.Hydra was observed by New Horizons at a distance 240,000 and 370,000 hardly resolving its disk. Nix on the other hand was observed from a much more favorable distance of 60,000 and 162,000 km revealing a nearly uniform surface coloration and structure.Although Hydra could hardly be resolved at the flyby distance we have obtained its spectral signature and we compare it with those of Charon and Nix. A feature at ~2.2 µm, corresponding to the NH3 and/or NH3 hydrates, is visible subtly on Charon and clearly on Hydra and Nix hinting at the possibility that NH3 might be less volatile than previously thought and making the need for recent cryovolcanism less crucial

  17. O-C Analysis of System EZ HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilan, Erkan; Bulut, İbrahim

    2016-07-01

    In this article, period variation investigated using published all times of minimum of the eclipsing binary system EZ Hya was an W UMa type. The O-C diagram of system can be represent with a sinusoidal character superimposed on a parabolic change. This change includes three maxima and two minima with in approximately 55,000 orbital period of the system.The parabolic change is thought to be due to in account as mass Exchange or loss between the components. The sinusoidal cycle in the diagram is given possibility caused by the light-time effect of the third body. The O-C variational physical and the period parameters of the third component were determined. New Parameter values of the light-time effect (after LTE) because of the third body computed with a period of 32.55 ± 0.00 years in the system. The cycle-changes analysis produces a value of 0.03285 ± 0.0045 day as the semi amplitude of the light-travel time effect and 0.7524 ± 0.5041 as the orbital eccentricity of the third body. The semi-major axis of EZ Hya orbit is 5.97 AU.

  18. Keck Adaptive Optics Observations of TW Hydrae Association Members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, B; Max, C; Zuckerman, B; Becklin, E E; Kaisler, D; Lowrance, P; Weinberger, A; Chirstou, J; Schneider, G; Acton, S

    2001-05-30

    Adaptive optics (AO) on 8-10 m telescopes is an enormously powerful tool for studying young nearby stars. It is especially useful for searching for companions. Using AO on the 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope we have measured the position of the brown dwarf companion to TWA5 and resolved the primary into an 0.055{double_prime} double. Over the next several years follow-up astrometry should permit an accurate determination of the masses of these young stars. We have also re-observed the candidate extrasolar planet TWAGB, but measurements of its motion relative to TWA6A are inconclusive. We are carrying out a search for new planetary or brown dwarf companions to TWA stars and, if current giant planet models are correct, are currently capable of detecting a 1 Jupiter-mass companion at {approx} 1.0{double_prime} and a 5 Jupiter-mass companion at {approx} 0.5{double_prime} around a typical TWA member.

  19. Poverty, violence, and family disorganization: Three "Hydras" and their role in children's street movement in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Md Hasan

    2016-05-01

    The increasing number of children running away from home in Bangladesh is a major concern, and in need of critical attention. This yearlong study explores why children leave home with a sample of street children in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Purposive sampling from three locations in Dhaka yielded a sample of 75 homeless children aged 10-17. For each participant, a 60-90min in-depth qualitative interview was conducted multiple times. While the dominant explanations rely on poverty or abuse, the findings of this study reveal that the cause is actually three heads of a Hydra monster: poverty, abuse, and family disorganization and their interactions. It shows that the primary reasons for children breaking from their family are all interrelated. The findings from this study are likely to add knowledge regarding the issues and may lead to preventative interventions for street children and their families.

  20. GTRF Calculations Using Hydra-TH (THM.CFD.P5.05)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakosi, Jozsef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, Mark A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nourgaliev, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-05

    This report describes the work carried out for completion of the Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) Level 3 Milestone THM.CFD.P5.05 for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). A series body-fitted computational meshes have been generated by Numeca's Hexpress/Hybrid, a.k.a. 'Spider', meshing technology for the V5H 3x3 and 5x5 rod bundle geometry used to compute the fluid dynamics of grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF). Spider is easy to use, fast, and automatically generates high-quality meshes for extremely complex geometries, required for the GTRF problem. Hydra-TH has been used to carry out large-eddy simulations on both 3x3 and 5x5 geometries, using different mesh resolutions. The results analyzed show good agreement with Star-CCM+ simulations and experimental data.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hydra I Cluster Catalogue (HCC) (Misgeld+, 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misgeld, I.; Mieske, S.; Hilker, M.

    2008-07-01

    The obtained photometric parameters along with the available radial velocities for all early-type galaxies in our sample (111 objects) are presented in the Hydra I Cluster Catalogue (HCC). For each galaxy right ascension, declination, extinction corrected magnitude V and colour V-I, central surface brightness and scale length of an exponential fit to the surface brightness profile, effective surface brightness, effective radius and profile shape index n, as obtained from a Sersic fit, are given. The physical scale is 0.2kpc/arcsec at the assumed distance modulus of (m-M)=33.07mag. The radial velocities are taken from our study and from Christlein & Zabludoff (2003ApJ...591..764C). (1 data file).

  2. GTRF Calculations Using Hydra-TH (L3 Milestone THM.CFD.P5.05)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakosi, Jozsef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, Mark A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nourgaliev, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-05

    This report describes the work carried out for completion of the Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) Level 3 Milestone THM.CFD.P5.05 for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). A series of body-fitted computational meshes have been generated by Numeca's Hexpress/Hybrid, a.k.a. 'Spider', meshing technology for the V5H 3 x 3 and 5 x 5 rod bundle geometries and subsequently used to compute the fluid dynamics of grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF). Spider is easy to use, fast, and automatically generates high-quality meshes for extremely complex geometries, required for the GTRF problem. Hydra-TH has been used to carry out large-eddy simulations on both 3 x 3 and 5 x 5 geometries, using different mesh resolutions. The results analyzed show good agreement with Star-CCM+ simulations and experimental data.

  3. 2D HYDRA Calculations of Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Growth and Feedthrough in Cylindrical Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Matthew; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Peterson, Kyle; Hess, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Cylindrical liner implosions are susceptible to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT), along with the azimuthal current-carrying modes (sausage, kink, etc). ``Feedthrough'' of these instabilities has a strong influence on the integrity of the liner/fuel interface in the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept (MagLIF). The linearized ideal MHD equations can be solved to quantify these effects, including the presence of an effective gravity and an axial magnetic field. We investigate the potential of this field to mitigate feedthrough, due to MRT growth from various initial surface finishes (seeded, rough), throughout the implosion using our analytic results and the LLNL code, HYDRA. We will present both low and high convergence cases. Lastly, we illustrate the effect shock compression can have on feedthrough in seeded liners for various fill gases (cold and pre-heated) and magnetic field configurations. M. R. Weis was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories.

  4. Development of the two-part pattern during regeneration of the head in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bode, Matthias; Awad, T A; Koizumi, O;

    1988-01-01

    The head of a hydra is composed of two parts, a domed hypostome with a mouth at the top and a ring of tentacles below. When animals are decapitated a new head regenerates. During the process of regeneration the apical tip passes through a transient stage in which it exhibits tentacle...... began evaginating in a ring, both the TS-19 antigen and RLI+ ganglion cells gradually disappeared from the presumptive hypostome area and RLI+ sensory cells appeared at the apex. By tracking tissue movements during morphogenesis it became clear that the apical cap, in which these changes took place, did...... not undergo tissue turnover. The implications of this tentacle-like stage for patterning the two-part head are discussed....

  5. Jet-Intracluster Medium interaction in Hydra A. II The Effect of Jet Precession

    CERN Document Server

    Nawaz, M A; Wagner, A Y; Sutherland, R S; McNamara, B R

    2016-01-01

    We present three dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of a precessing jet interacting with the intracluster medium and compare the simulated jet structure with the observed structure of the Hydra A northern jet. For the simulations, we use jet parameters obtained in the parameter space study of the first paper in this series and probe different values for the precession period and precession angle. We find that for a precession period P = 1 Myr and a precession angle = 20 degree the model reproduces i) the curvature of the jet, ii) the correct number of bright knots within 20 kpc at approximately correct locations, and iii) the turbulent transition of the jet to a plume. The Mach number of the advancing bow shock = 1.85 is indicative of gentle cluster atmosphere heating during the early stages of the AGN's activity.

  6. CIRCUMBINARY CHAOS: USING PLUTO'S NEWEST MOON TO CONSTRAIN THE MASSES OF NIX AND HYDRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youdin, Andrew N.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    The Pluto system provides a unique local laboratory for the study of binaries with multiple low-mass companions. In this paper, we study the orbital stability of P4, the most recently discovered moon in the Pluto system. This newfound companion orbits near the plane of the Pluto-Charon (PC) binary, roughly halfway between the two minor moons Nix and Hydra. We use a suite of few body integrations to constrain the masses of Nix and Hydra, and the orbital parameters of P4. For the system to remain stable over the age of the solar system, the masses of Nix and Hydra likely do not exceed 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} kg and 9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} kg, respectively. These upper limits assume a fixed mass ratio between Nix and Hydra at the value implied by their median optical brightness. Our study finds that stability is more sensitive to their total mass and that a downward revision of Charon's eccentricity (from our adopted value of 0.0035) is unlikely to significantly affect our conclusions. Our upper limits are an order of magnitude below existing astrometric limits on the masses of Nix and Hydra. For a density at least that of ice, the albedos of Nix and Hydra would exceed 0.3. This constraint implies they are icy, as predicted by giant impact models. Even with these low masses, P4 only remains stable if its eccentricity e {approx}< 0.02. The 5:1 commensurability with Charon is particularly unstable, combining stability constraints with the observed mean motion places the preferred orbit for P4 just exterior to the 5:1 resonance. These predictions will be tested when the New Horizons satellite visits Pluto. Based on the results for the PC system, we expect that circumbinary, multi-planet systems will be more widely spaced than their singleton counterparts. Further, circumbinary exoplanets close to the three-body stability boundary, such as those found by Kepler, are less likely to have other companions nearby.

  7. Cell type complexity in the basal metazoan Hydra is maintained by both stem cell based mechanisms and transdifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Stefan; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the stability of the differentiated cell state is a fundamental problem in biology. To characterize the critical regulatory events that control stem cell behavior and cell plasticity in vivo in an organism at the base of animal evolution, we have generated transgenic Hydra lines [Wittlieb, J., Khalturin, K., Lohmann, J., Anton-Erxleben, F., Bosch, T.C.G., 2006. Transgenic Hydra allow in vivo tracking of individual stem cells during morphogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103, 6208-6211] which express eGFP in one of the differentiated cell types. Here we present a novel line which expresses eGFP specifically in zymogen gland cells. These cells are derivatives of the interstitial stem cell lineage and have previously been found to express two Dickkopf related genes [Augustin, R., Franke, A., Khalturin, K., Kiko, R., Siebert, S. Hemmrich, G., Bosch, T.C.G., 2006. Dickkopf related genes are components of the positional value gradient in Hydra. Dev. Biol. 296 (1), 62-70]. In the present study we have generated transgenic Hydra in which eGFP expression is under control of the promoter of one of them, HyDkk1/2/4 C. Transgenic Hydra recapitulate faithfully the previously described graded activation of HyDkk1/2/4 C expression along the body column, indicating that the promoter contains all elements essential for spatial and temporal control mechanisms. By in vivo monitoring of eGFP+ gland cells, we provide direct evidence for continuous transdifferentiation of zymogen cells into granular mucous cells in the head region. We also show that in this tissue a subpopulation of mucous gland cells directly derives from interstitial stem cells. These findings indicate that both stem cell-based mechanisms and transdifferentiation are involved in normal development and maintenance of cell type complexity in Hydra. The results demonstrate a remarkable plasticity in the differentiation capacity of cells in an organism which diverged before

  8. Monitoring energy use of copiers to determine program design and potential savings for the Energy Star Copier program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandridge, C.B. [ReEnergize Consortium, Berkeley, CA (United States); Norford, L.K. [Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Nordman, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In the past five years, considerable attention has been focused on the electricity use of office equipment in commercial office buildings. Several groups have monitored energy use of PCs, monitors, printers and fax machines. However, little attention has been paid to monitoring energy use of copiers. Procedures for testing energy usage and usage profiles of copiers are needed to make valid comparisons between machines and to determine overall energy use and potential energy savings. In this paper, the authors present a method to analyze the energy use and usage profiles of copiers. This method is determined through long-term measurements from a Watt-hour meter connected to the copier and by measuring light flashes from the copier. Energy use from the copier can also be estimated by using a test procedure developed by Dandridge. Results from using the long term monitoring methods will be presented for several different sized copiers, and compared to the estimated energy use derived from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) method. After summarizing these results, the authors determine criteria for a program to recognize energy-efficient copiers. These criteria were submitted as an Energy Star Copier program to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The new Energy Star Copier Program was announced in July 1995, with criteria based on these suggestions. Using the final Energy Star Copier program criteria and this data, the authors determine potential future savings for the program. The ability to automatically turn the copier off at night is the greatest energy-saving feature most copiers can have. The best way to reduce overall office costs is to have the copier set automatically to make double-sided copies.

  9. Suzaku Observations of the Hydra A Cluster out to the Virial Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Sasaki, Toru; Matsushita, Kyoko; Sakuma, Eri; Sato, Kosuke; Fujita, Yutaka; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ichikawa, Kazuya; Kawaharada, Madoka; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Ohashi, Takaya; Ota, Naomi; Takizawa, Motokazu; Tamura, Takayuki

    2012-10-01

    We report on Suzaku observations of the northern half of the Hydra A cluster out to ˜ 1.4 Mpc, reaching the virial radius. There are the first Suzaku observations of a medium-size (kT ˜ 3 keV) cluster out to the virial radius. Two observations were conducted, north-west and north-east offsets, which continue in a filament direction and a void direction of the large-scale structure of the Universe, respectively. The X-ray emission and distribution of galaxies elongate in the filament direction. The temperature profiles in the two directions are mostly consistent with each other within the error bars, and drop to 1.5 keV at 1.5 r500 . As observed by Suzaku in hot clusters, the entropy profile becomes flatter beyond r500 , in disagreement with the r1.1 relationship, which is expected from accretion shock heating models. When scaled with the average intracluster medium (ICM) temperature, the entropy profiles of clusters observed with Suzaku are universal, and do not depend on the system mass. The hydrostatic mass values in the void and filament directions are in good agreement, and the Navarro, Frenk, and White universal mass profile represents the hydrostatic mass distribution up to ˜ 2r500 . Beyond r500 , the ratio of the gas mass to the hydrostatic mass exceeds the result of the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe, and at r100 , these ratios in the filament and void directions reach 0.4 and 0.3, respectively. We discuss possible deviations from the hydrostatic equilibrium at cluster outskirts. We derived radial profiles of the gas-mass-to-light ratio and the iron-mass-to-light ratio out to the virial radius. Within r500 , the iron-mass-to-light ratio of the Hydra A cluster was compared with those in other clusters observed with Suzaku.

  10. 76 FR 10038 - Determination That a Demonstration Needle Exchange Program Would be Effective in Reducing Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination That a Demonstration Needle Exchange Program Would be Effective in Reducing... agent for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. This determination reflects the scientific evidence supporting the important public health benefit of SSPs, and is necessary to meet the statutory...

  11. Automatic Structure Determination of Organic Molecules: Principle and Implementation of the LSD Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NUZILLARD,Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    The LSD (Logic for Structure Determination) program generates organic molecular structures from 1D and 2D NMR data without resorting to chemical shift databases. Its use in the resolution of natural product structure determination problems has been already reported in the literature. This paper describes how data and structures are internally represented and processed by LSD to build solution structures.

  12. Low-income DSM Programs: Methodological approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of coordinated partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Hill, L.J.

    1994-05-01

    As governments at all levels become increasingly budget-conscious, expenditures on low-income, demand-side management (DSM) programs are being evaluated more on the basis of efficiency at the expense of equity considerations. Budgetary pressures have also caused government agencies to emphasize resource leveraging and coordination with electric and gas utilities as a means of sharing the expenses of low-income programs. The increased involvement of electric and gas utilities in coordinated low-income DSM programs, in turn, has resulted in greater emphasis on estimating program cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to develop a methodological approach to estimate the cost- effectiveness of coordinated low-income DSM programs, given the special features that distinguish these programs from other utility-operated DSM programs. The general approach used in this study was to (1) select six coordinated low-income DSM programs from among those currently operating across the United States, (2) examine the main features of these programs, and (3) determine the conceptual and pragmatic problems associated with estimating their cost-effectiveness. Three types of coordination between government and utility cosponsors were identified. At one extreme, local agencies operate {open_quotes}parallel{close_quotes} programs, each of which is fully funded by a single sponsor (e.g., one funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by a utility). At the other extreme are highly {open_quotes}coupled{close_quotes} programs that capitalize on the unique capabilities and resources offered by each cosponsor. In these programs, agencies employ a combination of utility and government funds to deliver weatherization services as part of an integrated effort. In between are {open_quotes}supplemental{close_quotes} programs that utilize resources to supplement the agency`s government-funded weatherization, with no changes to the operation of that program.

  13. Discovery of very high velocity outflow in V Hydra - Wind from an accretion disk in a binary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Wannier, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution observations of lines from the CO v = 1-0 vibration-rotation band at 4.6 microns, taken with the FTS/KPNO 4-m telescope, are reported for the carbon-rich red giant V Hydra, which is surrounded by an extended expanding molecular envelope resulting from extensive mass loss. The spectrum shows, in addition to the expected absorption at the outflow velocity of the envelope, absorption extending up to 120 km/s bluewards of the stellar velocity. A comparison of the spectrum observed at two epochs shows that the high-velocity absorption features change with time. It is suggested that the observed high-velocity features in V Hydra arise in a high-velocity polar outflow from an accretion disk in a binary system, as proposed in the mass-loss model for bipolar envelopes by Morris (1988).

  14. Karyotyping and single-gene detection using fluorescence in situ hybridization on chromosomes of Hydra magnipapillata (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Anokhin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fresh water polyp Hydra L., 1758 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa plays a key role as a model organism in modern evolutionary and developmental biology. A complete genome sequence has been published recently for Hydra magnipapillata Ito, 1947 and molecular data are rapidly accumulating in the literature, but little information is available on its chromosomes. In this study, an efficient fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH method is described for H. magnipapillata which not only allows identification of the chromosomes but also visualization of the location of individual genetic loci. Together with cDNA and genomic sequencing this may provide the foundation for increasingly precise genetic and physical mapping in this basal metazoan model organism.

  15. A computer program to determine the specific power of prismatic-core reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, D.

    1987-05-01

    A computer program has been developed to determine the maximum specific power for prismatic-core reactors as a function of maximum allowable fuel temperature, core pressure drop, and coolant velocity. The prismatic-core reactors consist of hexagonally shaped fuel elements grouped together to form a cylindrically shaped core. A gas coolant flows axially through circular channels within the elements, and the fuel is dispersed within the solid element material either as a composite or in the form of coated pellets. Different coolant, fuel, coating, and element materials can be selected to represent different prismatic-core concepts. The computer program allows the user to divide the core into any arbitrary number of axial levels to account for different axial power shapes. An option in the program allows the automatic determination of the core height that results in the maximum specific power. The results of parametric specific power calculations using this program are presented for various reactor concepts.

  16. GLOMOMIDIELLA N. GEN. (FORAMINIFERA, MILIOLATA, NEODISCIDAE: A NEW GENUS FROM THE LATE GUADALUPIAN-LOPINGIAN OF HYDRA ISLAND (GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL VACHARD

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of Foraminifera (Miliolata, Cornuspiroidea, Neodiscidae is erected from the late Guadalupian (Capitanian = Midian to Lopingian sedimentary succession of the island of Hydra (Greece. It represents an important phylogenetic form, probably at the origin of several genera (or subfamilies of the authors that became relatively widespread during the Lopingian (Late Permian. Glomomidiella n. gen. is characterized by an entirely glomospiral coiling and rudimentary pseudoseptation. 

  17. Using organization theory to understand the determinants of effective implementation of worksite health promotion programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Bryan J; Lewis, Megan A; Linnan, Laura A

    2009-04-01

    The field of worksite health promotion has moved toward the development and testing of comprehensive programs that target health behaviors with interventions operating at multiple levels of influence. Yet, observational and process evaluation studies indicate that such programs are challenging for worksites to implement effectively. Research has identified several organizational factors that promote or inhibit effective implementation of comprehensive worksite health promotion programs. However, no integrated theory of implementation has emerged from this research. This article describes a theory of the organizational determinants of effective implementation of comprehensive worksite health promotion programs. The model is adapted from theory and research on the implementation of complex innovations in manufacturing, education and health care settings. The article uses the Working Well Trial to illustrate the model's theoretical constructs. Although the article focuses on comprehensive worksite health promotion programs, the conceptual model may also apply to other types of complex health promotion programs. An organization-level theory of the determinants of effective implementation of worksite health promotion programs.

  18. Hydra II: a faint and compact Milky Way dwarf galaxy found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Nicolas F; Besla, Gurtina; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R; Vivas, A Katherina; Gruendl, Robert A; Muñoz, Ricardo R; Blum, Robert D; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C; Bell, Eric F; Chu, You-Hua; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L; de Boer, Thomas J L; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Kunder, Andrea; Majewski, Steven R; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E D; Olszewski, Edward W; Stringfellow, Guy S; van der Marel, Roeland P; Zaritsky, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History (SMASH) conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4m Telescope. The new satellite is compact (r_h = 68 +/- 11 pc) and faint (M_V = -4.8 +/- 0.3), but well within the realm of dwarf galaxies. The stellar distribution of HydraII in the color-magnitude diagram is well-described by a metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -2.2) and old (13 Gyr) isochrone and shows a distinct blue horizontal branch, some possible red clump stars, and faint stars that are suggestive of blue stragglers. At a heliocentric distance of 134 +/- 10 kpc, Hydra II is located in a region of the Galactic halo that models have suggested may host material from the leading arm of the Magellanic Stream. A comparison with N-body simulations hints that the new dwarf galaxy could be or could have been a satellite of the Magellanic Clouds.

  19. Bringing ATLAS production to HPC resources - A use case with the Hydra supercomputer of the Max Planck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J. A.; Kluth, S.; Mazzaferro, L.; Walker, Rodney

    2015-12-01

    The possible usage of HPC resources by ATLAS is now becoming viable due to the changing nature of these systems and it is also very attractive due to the need for increasing amounts of simulated data. In recent years the architecture of HPC systems has evolved, moving away from specialized monolithic systems, to a more generic linux type platform. This change means that the deployment of non HPC specific codes has become much easier. The timing of this evolution perfectly suits the needs of ATLAS and opens a new window of opportunity. The ATLAS experiment at CERN will begin a period of high luminosity data taking in 2015. This high luminosity phase will be accompanied by a need for increasing amounts of simulated data which is expected to exceed the capabilities of the current Grid infrastructure. ATLAS aims to address this need by opportunistically accessing resources such as cloud and HPC systems. This paper presents the results of a pilot project undertaken by ATLAS and the MPP/RZG to provide access to the HYDRA supercomputer facility. Hydra is the supercomputer of the Max Planck Society, it is a linux based supercomputer with over 80000 cores and 4000 physical nodes located at the RZG near Munich. This paper describes the work undertaken to integrate Hydra into the ATLAS production system by using the Nordugrid ARC-CE and other standard Grid components. The customization of these components and the strategies for HPC usage are discussed as well as possibilities for future directions.

  20. Hydra as a model organism to decipher the toxic effects of copper oxide nanorod: Eco-toxicogenomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugadas, Anbazhagan; Zeeshan, Mohammed; Thamaraiselvi, Kaliannan; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a powerful field of applied research. However, the potential toxicity of nano-materials is a cause of concern. A thorough toxicological investigation is required before a nanomaterial is evaluated for application of any kind. In this context, there is concerted effort to find appropriate test systems to assess the toxicity of nanomaterials. Toxicity of a nanomaterial greatly depends on its physicochemical properties and the biological system with which it interacts. The present research was carried out with a view to generate data on eco-toxicological impacts of copper oxide nanorod (CuO NR) in Hydra magnipapillata 105 at organismal, cellular and molecular levels. Exposure of hydra to CuO NR resulted in severe morphological alterations in a concentration- as well as duration-dependent manner. Impairment of feeding, population growth, and regeneration was also observed. In vivo and in vitro analyses revealed induction of oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and molecular machinery of apoptotic cell death, accompanied by disruption of cell cycle progression. Taken together, CuO nanorod is potentially toxic to the biological systems. Also, hydra offers potential to be used as a convenient model organism for aquatic ecotoxicological risk assessment of nanomaterials.

  1. Hydra as a model organism to decipher the toxic effects of copper oxide nanorod: Eco-toxicogenomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugadas, Anbazhagan; Zeeshan, Mohammed; Thamaraiselvi, Kaliannan; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a powerful field of applied research. However, the potential toxicity of nano-materials is a cause of concern. A thorough toxicological investigation is required before a nanomaterial is evaluated for application of any kind. In this context, there is concerted effort to find appropriate test systems to assess the toxicity of nanomaterials. Toxicity of a nanomaterial greatly depends on its physicochemical properties and the biological system with which it interacts. The present research was carried out with a view to generate data on eco-toxicological impacts of copper oxide nanorod (CuO NR) in Hydra magnipapillata 105 at organismal, cellular and molecular levels. Exposure of hydra to CuO NR resulted in severe morphological alterations in a concentration- as well as duration-dependent manner. Impairment of feeding, population growth, and regeneration was also observed. In vivo and in vitro analyses revealed induction of oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and molecular machinery of apoptotic cell death, accompanied by disruption of cell cycle progression. Taken together, CuO nanorod is potentially toxic to the biological systems. Also, hydra offers potential to be used as a convenient model organism for aquatic ecotoxicological risk assessment of nanomaterials. PMID:27417574

  2. Physical parameters of late M-type members of Chamaleon I and TW Hydrae Association: Dust settling, age dispersion and activity

    CERN Document Server

    Bayo, A; Allard, F; Henning, T; Comeron, F; Morales-Calderon, M; Rajpurohit, A S; Ramırez, K Pena; Beamın, J C

    2016-01-01

    Although mid-to-late type M dwarfs are the most common stars in our stellar neighborhood, our knowledge of these objects is still limited. Open questions include the evolution of their angular momentum, internal structures, dust settling in their atmospheres, age dispersion within populations. In addition, at young ages, late-type Ms have masses below the hydrogen burning limit and therefore are key objects in the debate on the brown dwarf mechanism of formation. In this work we determine and study in detail the physical parameters of two samples of young, late M-type sources belonging to either the Chamaeleon I Dark Cloud or the TW Hydrae Association and compare them with the results obtained in the literature for other young clusters and also for older, field, dwarfs. We used multi-wavelength photometry to construct and analyze SEDs to determine general properties of the photosphere and disk presence. We also used low resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to study activity, accretion, gravity an...

  3. HyDRA: gene prioritization via hybrid distance-score rank aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Farnoud, Farzad; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2015-04-01

    Gene prioritization refers to a family of computational techniques for inferring disease genes through a set of training genes and carefully chosen similarity criteria. Test genes are scored based on their average similarity to the training set, and the rankings of genes under various similarity criteria are aggregated via statistical methods. The contributions of our work are threefold: (i) first, based on the realization that there is no unique way to define an optimal aggregate for rankings, we investigate the predictive quality of a number of new aggregation methods and known fusion techniques from machine learning and social choice theory. Within this context, we quantify the influence of the number of training genes and similarity criteria on the diagnostic quality of the aggregate and perform in-depth cross-validation studies; (ii) second, we propose a new approach to genomic data aggregation, termed HyDRA (Hybrid Distance-score Rank Aggregation), which combines the advantages of score-based and combinatorial aggregation techniques. We also propose incorporating a new top-versus-bottom (TvB) weighting feature into the hybrid schemes. The TvB feature ensures that aggregates are more reliable at the top of the list, rather than at the bottom, since only top candidates are tested experimentally; (iii) third, we propose an iterative procedure for gene discovery that operates via successful augmentation of the set of training genes by genes discovered in previous rounds, checked for consistency. Fundamental results from social choice theory, political and computer sciences, and statistics have shown that there exists no consistent, fair and unique way to aggregate rankings. Instead, one has to decide on an aggregation approach using predefined set of desirable properties for the aggregate. The aggregation methods fall into two categories, score- and distance-based approaches, each of which has its own drawbacks and advantages. This work is motivated by the

  4. Hydra: software for tailored processing of H/D exchange data from MS or tandem MS analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Melissa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS experiments implemented to characterize protein interaction and protein folding generate large quantities of data. Organizing, processing and visualizing data requires an automated solution, particularly when accommodating new tandem mass spectrometry modes for H/DX measurement. We sought to develop software that offers flexibility in defining workflows so as to support exploratory treatments of H/DX-MS data, with a particular focus on the analysis of very large protein systems and the mining of tandem mass spectrometry data. Results We present a software package ("Hydra" that supports both traditional and exploratory treatments of H/DX-MS data. Hydra's software architecture tolerates flexible data analysis procedures by allowing the addition of new algorithms without significant change to the underlying code base. Convenient user interfaces ease the organization of raw data files and input of peptide data. After executing a user-defined workflow, extracted deuterium incorporation values can be visualized in tabular and graphical formats. Hydra also automates the extraction and visualization of deuterium distribution values. Manual validation and assessment of results is aided by an interface that aligns extracted ion chromatograms and mass spectra, while providing a means of rapidly reprocessing the data following manual adjustment. A unique feature of Hydra is the automated processing of tandem mass spectrometry data, demonstrated on a large test data set in which 40,000 deuterium incorporation values were extracted from replicate analysis of approximately 1000 fragment ions in one hour using a typical PC. Conclusion The customizable workflows and user-friendly interfaces of Hydra removes a significant bottleneck in processing and visualizing H/DX-MS data and helps the researcher spend more time executing new experiments and interpreting results. This increased

  5. 78 FR 32228 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Determination of Whether To Conduct a Referendum Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Determination of Whether To Conduct a Referendum Regarding 1990 Amendments to the Cotton Research and Promotion Act AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... review by the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), that it is not necessary to conduct a...

  6. 13 CFR 121.401 - What procurement programs are subject to size determinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... program, the Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Federal Contract Assistance Procedures, SBA's Service... subject to size determinations? 121.401 Section 121.401 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and Standards Size...

  7. 13 CFR 121.701 - What SBIR programs are subject to size determinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... design, development, and improvement of prototypes and new processes to meet specific requirements. ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What SBIR programs are subject to size determinations? 121.701 Section 121.701 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

  8. Determination of the Arrhenius Activation Energy Using a Temperature-Programmed Flow Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kit-ha C.; Tse, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a novel method for the determination of the Arrhenius activation energy, without prejudging the validity of the Arrhenius equation or the concept of activation energy. The method involves use of a temperature-programed flow reactor connected to a concentration detector. (JN)

  9. 78 FR 72077 - Energy Efficiency Program for Industrial Equipment: Final Determination Classifying UL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... program for electric motors. See 77 FR 26608, 26629 (codifying provisions parallel to electric motors for... public comments. 78 FR 28812. In response to that notice, the National Electrical Manufacturers... determination regarding UL's petition. 78 FR 57137. In that notice, DOE provided a description of the...

  10. Computer program determines thermal environment and temperature history of lunar orbiting space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, D. E.; Mitchell, K. L.

    1967-01-01

    Program computes the thermal environment of a spacecraft in a lunar orbit. The quantities determined include the incident flux /solar and lunar emitted radiation/, total radiation absorbed by a surface, and the resulting surface temperature as a function of time and orbital position.

  11. A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Rowley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous

  12. A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Leah; Doyle, Joyce; Morgan, Bec; Atkinson-Briggs, Sharon; Firebrace, Bradley; Marika, Mayatili; Reilly, Rachel; Cargo, Margaret; Riley, Therese; Rowley, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous knowledge. PMID

  13. Proteomic screen in the simple metazoan Hydra identifies 14-3-3 binding proteins implicated in cellular metabolism, cytoskeletal organisation and Ca2+ signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imhof Axel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 14-3-3 proteins have been implicated in many signalling mechanisms due to their interaction with Ser/Thr phosphorylated target proteins. They are evolutionarily well conserved in eukaryotic organisms from single celled protozoans and unicellular algae to plants and humans. A diverse array of target proteins has been found in higher plants and in human cell lines including proteins involved in cellular metabolism, apoptosis, cytoskeletal organisation, secretion and Ca2+ signalling. Results We found that the simple metazoan Hydra has four 14-3-3 isoforms. In order to investigate whether the diversity of 14-3-3 target proteins is also conserved over the whole animal kingdom we isolated 14-3-3 binding proteins from Hydra vulgaris using a 14-3-3-affinity column. We identified 23 proteins that covered most of the above-mentioned groups. We also isolated several novel 14-3-3 binding proteins and the Hydra specific secreted fascin-domain-containing protein PPOD. In addition, we demonstrated that one of the 14-3-3 isoforms, 14-3-3 HyA, interacts with one Hydra-Bcl-2 like protein in vitro. Conclusion Our results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins have been ubiquitous signalling components since the start of metazoan evolution. We also discuss the possibility that they are involved in the regulation of cell numbers in response to food supply in Hydra.

  14. Fundamentals, current state of the development of, and prospects for further improvement of the new-generation thermal-hydraulic computational HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code for simulation of fast reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipchenkov, V. M.; Anfimov, A. M.; Afremov, D. A.; Gorbunov, V. S.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.; Osipov, S. L.; Mosunova, N. A.; Strizhov, V. F.; Usov, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The conceptual fundamentals of the development of the new-generation system thermal-hydraulic computational HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code are presented. The code is intended to simulate the thermalhydraulic processes that take place in the loops and the heat-exchange equipment of liquid-metal cooled fast reactor systems under normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences and during accidents. The paper provides a brief overview of Russian and foreign system thermal-hydraulic codes for modeling liquid-metal coolants and gives grounds for the necessity of development of a new-generation HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code. Considering the specific engineering features of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) equipped with the BN-1200 and the BREST-OD-300 reactors, the processes and the phenomena are singled out that require a detailed analysis and development of the models to be correctly described by the system thermal-hydraulic code in question. Information on the functionality of the computational code is provided, viz., the thermalhydraulic two-phase model, the properties of the sodium and the lead coolants, the closing equations for simulation of the heat-mass exchange processes, the models to describe the processes that take place during the steam-generator tube rupture, etc. The article gives a brief overview of the usability of the computational code, including a description of the support documentation and the supply package, as well as possibilities of taking advantages of the modern computer technologies, such as parallel computations. The paper shows the current state of verification and validation of the computational code; it also presents information on the principles of constructing of and populating the verification matrices for the BREST-OD-300 and the BN-1200 reactor systems. The prospects are outlined for further development of the HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code, introduction of new models into it, and enhancement of its usability. It is shown that the program of development and

  15. Testing Object-Oriented Programs using Dynamic Aspects and Non-Determinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, Michael; Ostermann, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    without parameterization or generation of tests. It also eases modelling naturally non-deterministic program features like IO or multi-threading in integration tests. Dynamic AOP facilitates powerful design adaptations without exposing test features, keeping the scope of these adaptations local to each...... test. We also combine non-determinism and dynamic aspects in a new approach to testing multi-threaded programs using co-routines.......The implementation of unit tests with mock objects and stubs often involves substantial manual work. Stubbed methods return simple default values, therefore variations of these values require separate test cases. The integration of mock objects often requires more infrastructure code and design...

  16. Hydratools, a MATLAB® based data processing package for Sontek Hydra data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M.; Lightsom, F.L.; Sherwood, C.R.; Xu, Jie; Lacy, J.R.; Ramsey, A.; Horwitz, R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a set of MATLAB tools to process and convert data collected by Sontek Hydra instruments to netCDF, which is a format used by the USGS to process and archive oceanographic time-series data. The USGS makes high-resolution current measurements within 1.5 meters of the bottom. These data are used in combination with other instrument data from sediment transport studies to develop sediment transport models. Instrument manufacturers provide software which outputs unique binary data formats. Multiple data formats are cumbersome. The USGS solution is to translate data streams into a common data format: netCDF. The Hydratools toolbox is written to create netCDF format files following EPIC conventions, complete with embedded metadata. Data are accepted from both the ADV and the PCADP. The toolbox will detect and remove bad data, substitute other sources of heading and tilt measurements if necessary, apply ambiguity corrections, calculate statistics, return information about data quality, and organize metadata. Standardized processing and archiving makes these data more easily and routinely accessible locally and over the Internet. In addition, documentation of the techniques used in the toolbox provides a baseline reference for others utilizing the data.

  17. Suzaku observations of the Hydra A cluster out to the virial radius

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Takuya; Matsushita, Kyoko; Sakuma, Eri; Sato, Kosuke; Fujita, Yutaka; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ichikawa, Kazuya; Kawaharada, Madoka; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Ohashi, Takaya; Ota, Naomi; Takizawa, Motokazu; Tamura, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    We report Suzaku observations of the northern half of the Hydra A cluster out to ~1.4 Mpc, reaching the virial radius. This is the first Suzaku observations of a medium size (kT ~3 keV) cluster out to the virial radius. Two observations were conducted, north-west and north-east offsets, which continue into a filament and a void of the large-scale structure of the Universe, respectively. The X-ray emission and distribution of galaxies elongate towards the filament. The temperature profiles toward the two directions are mostly consistent within error bars and drop to 1.5 keV at 1.5r_500. As observed by Suzaku in hot clusters, the entropy profile becomes flatter beyond r_500 and disagrees with the r^1.1 relation that is expected from accretion shock-heating models. When scaled with average intracluster medium (ICM) temperature, the entropy profiles of clusters observed with Suzaku are universal without dependence on system mass. The hydrostatic mass values toward the void and the filament agree well, and the Nav...

  18. DISCOVERY OF A DISK GAP CANDIDATE AT 20 AU IN TW HYDRAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, E.; Kusakabe, N.; Kandori, R. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Muto, T. [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); Kataoka, A.; Kuzuhara, M. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Oklahoma, Ookayama, Meguro-ko, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Hashimoto, J.; Wisniewski, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Tsukagoshi, T. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1, Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Kwon, J. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kudo, T.; Currie, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650, North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Grady, C. A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Takami, M. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Janson, M. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm, SE-106 91 (Sweden); Henning, T.; Carson, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sitko, M. L. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Mayama, S. [The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advance Studies, Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0115 (Japan); Thalmann, C., E-mail: eiji.akiyama@nao.ac.jp [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2015-04-01

    We present a new Subaru/HiCIAO high-contrast H-band polarized intensity (PI) image of a nearby transitional disk associated with TW Hydrae. The scattered light from the disk was detected from 0.″ 2 to 1.″ 5 (11–81 AU) and the PI image shows a clear axisymmetric depression in PI at ∼0.″ 4 (∼20 AU) from the central star, similar to the ∼80 AU gap previously reported from Hubble Space Telescope images. The azimuthal PI profile also shows that the disk beyond 0.″ 2 is almost axisymmetric. We discuss two possible scenarios explaining the origin of the PI depression: (1) a gap structure may exist at ∼20 AU from the central star because of a shallow slope seen in the PI profile, and (2) grain growth may be occurring in the inner region of the disk. Multi-band observations at near-infrared and millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths play a complementary role in investigating dust opacity and may help reveal the origin of the gap more precisely.

  19. Bringing ATLAS production to HPC resources. A case study with SuperMuc and Hydra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckeck, Guenter; Walker, Rodney [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Kennedy, John; Mazzaferro, Luca [RZG Garching (Germany); Kluth, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The possible usage of Supercomputer systems or HPC resources by ATLAS is now becoming viable due to the changing nature of these systems and it is also very attractive due to the need for increasing amounts of simulated data. The ATLAS experiment at CERN will begin a period of high luminosity data taking in 2015. The corresponding need for simulated data might potentially exceed the capabilities of the current Grid infrastructure. ATLAS aims to address this need by opportunistically accessing resources such as cloud and HPC systems. This contribution presents the results of two projects undertaken by LMU/LRZ and MPP/RZG to use the supercomputer facilities SuperMuc (LRZ) and Hydra (RZG). Both are Linux based supercomputers in the 100 k CPU-core category. The integration of such HPC resources into the ATLAS production system poses many challenges. Firstly, established techniques and features of standard WLCG operation are prohibited or much restricted on HPC systems, e.g. Grid middleware, software installation, outside connectivity, etc. Secondly, efficient use of available resources requires massive multi-core jobs, back-fill submission and check-pointing. We discuss the customization of these components and the strategies for HPC usage as well as possibilities for future directions.

  20. [Morpho-functional characteristics of the lingual epithelium after administration of hydra peptide morphogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaeva, V V; Bykov, V L

    2007-01-01

    Using histological, morphometric and quantitative histoenzymological methods, the changes of lingual epithelium were studied in 40 outbred albino mice after 5 intraperitoneal injections of 100 micrograms of hydra peptide morphogen (HPM) per 1 kg of body weight. Administration of HPM was found to increase the total thickness of epithelial layer on the dorsal tongue surface in the interpapillary regions, while in the area of filiform papillae these changes were not significant. On the ventral tongue surface HPM induced a marked increase of total thickness of the epithelial layer as compared to that in control animals. Mitotic activity was increased in the epithelium covering the ventral surface and in the interpapillary regions on the dorsal tongue surface. Histoenzymologic study which involved the demonstration of NADH-diaphorase, succinate- and lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, followed by a cytophotometric evaluation of enzyme activity, has shown a stimulatory effect of HPM on the activity of all the enzymes studied, which was most pronounced in respect to LDH and was maximally expressed on the dorsal tongue surface. These findings collectively suggest that HPM exerts a stimulatory effect on proliferation activity and metabolism of lingual epithelium, which is differentially expressed in its variuoe topographical zones.

  1. Discovery of a Disk Gap Candidate at 20 AU in TW Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, E; Kusakabe, N; Kataoka, A; Hashimoto, J; Tuskagoshi, T; Kwon, J; Kudo, T; Kandori, R; Grady, C A; Takami, M; Janson, M; Kuzuhara, M; Henning, T; Sitko, M L; Mayama, J C Carson S; Currie, T; Thalmann, C; Wisniewski, J; Momose, M; Ohashi, N; Abe, L; Brandner, W; Brandt, T D; Egner, S; Feldt, M; Goto, M; Guyon, O; Hayano, Y; Hayashi, M; Hayashi, S; Hodapp, K W; Ishi, M; Iye, M; Knapp, G R; Matsuo, T; McElwain, M W; Miyama, S; Morino, J -I; Moro-Martin, A; Nishimura, T; Pyo, T -S; Serabyn, G; Suenaga, T; Suto, H; Suzuki, R; Takahashi, Y H; Takato, N; Terada, H; Tomono, D; Turner, E L; Watanabe, M; Yamada, T; Takami, H; Usuda, T; Tamura, M

    2015-01-01

    We present a new Subaru/HiCIAO high-contrast H-band polarized intensity (PI) image of a nearby transitional disk associated with TW Hydrae. The scattered light from the disk was detected from 0.2" to 1.5" (11 - 81 AU) and the PI image shows a clear axisymmetric depression in polarized intensity at ~ 0.4" (~ 20 AU) from the central star, similar to the ~ 80 AU gap previously reported from HST images. Azimuthal polarized intensity profile also shows the disk beyond 0.2" is almost axisymmetric. We discuss two possible scenarios explaining the origin of the polarized intensity depression: 1) a gap structure may exist at ~ 20 AU from the central star because of shallow slope seen in the polarized intensity profile, and 2) grain growth may be occurring in the inner region of the disk. Multi-band observations at NIR and millimeter/sub-millimeter wavelengths play a complementary role in investigating dust opacity and may help reveal the origin of the gap more precisely.

  2. BVRI Photometric and Polarimetric studies of W UMa type Eclipsing Binary FO Hydra

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Vinod; Patel, Manoj K; Srivastava, D C

    2012-01-01

    We present analysis of optical photometric and polarimetric observations of contact binary system FO Hydra (FO Hya). The computed period of the system is 0.469556+/-0.000003 days. An O-C curve analysis indicates an increase in its period by 5.77x10^{-8} day yr^{-1}. The photometric light curves are analyzed using Wilson-Devinney code (WD). The present analysis shows that FO Hya is a B-subtype of W UMa type contact binary. The radii and mass of primary and secondary components are found, respectively, to be R_1 = 1.62+/-0.03 R_sun and R_2 = 0.91+/-0.02 R_sun, and M_1 = 1.31+/-0.07 M_sun and M_2 = 0.31+/-0.11 M_sun. The light curve shape shows small asymmetries around the primary and secondary maxima. This may be due to the presence of dark spots on the components. The polarimetric observations yield average values of its polarization to be 0.18+/-0.03, 0.15+/-0.03, 0.17+/-0.02 and 0.15+/-0.02 per cent in B, V, R and I bands, respectively. These values are appreciably lower than the typical polarization of W UM...

  3. A textbook example of ram-pressure stripping in the Hydra A/A780 cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grandi, S.; Eckert, D.; Molendi, S.; Girardi, M.; Roediger, E.; Gaspari, M.; Gastaldello, F.; Ghizzardi, S.; Nonino, M.; Rossetti, M.

    2016-08-01

    In the current epoch, one of the main mechanisms driving the growth of galaxy clusters is the continuous accretion of group-scale halos. In this process, the ram pressure applied by the hot intracluster medium on the gas content of the infalling group is responsible for stripping the gas from its dark-matter halo, which gradually leads to the virialisation of the infalling gas in the potential well of the main cluster. Using deep wide-field observations of the poor cluster Hydra A/A780 with XMM-Newton and Suzaku, we report on the discovery of an infalling galaxy group 1.1 Mpc south of the cluster core. The presence of a substructure is confirmed by a dynamical study of the galaxies in this region. A wake of stripped gas is trailing behind the group over a projected scale of 760 kpc. The temperature of the gas along the wake is constant at kT ~ 1.3 keV, which is about a factor of two less than the temperature of the surrounding plasma. We observe a cold front pointing westwards compared to the peak of the group, which indicates that the group is currently not moving in the direction of the main cluster, but is moving along an almost circular orbit. The overall morphology of the group bears remarkable similarities with high-resolution numerical simulations of such structures, which greatly strengthens our understanding of the ram-pressure stripping process.

  4. The Hydra I cluster core. I. Stellar populations in the cD galaxy NGC 3311

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, Carlos Eduardo; Coccato, Lodovico; Hilker, Michael; de Oliveira, Cláudia Mendes; Richtler, Tom

    2016-01-01

    (Abridged for arXiv) The history of the mass assembly of brightest cluster galaxies may be studied by the mapping the stellar populations at large radial distances from the galaxy centre. We provide extended and robust measurements of the stellar population parameters in NGC 3311, the cD galaxy at the centre of the Hydra I cluster and out to three effective radii. Using seven absorption-features defined in the Lick/IDS system and single stellar populations models, we obtained luminosity-weighted ages, metallicities and alpha element abundances. The trends in the Lick indices and the distribution of the stellar population parameters indicate that the stars of NGC 3311 may be divided into two radial regimes, one within and the another beyond one effective radius, $R_e = 8.4$ kpc, similar to the distinction between inner galaxy and external halo derived from the NGC 3311 velocity dispersion profile. The inner galaxy ($R\\leq R_e$) is old (age $\\sim 14$ Gyr), have negative metallicity gradients and positive alpha ...

  5. Fluorescent nanocrystals reveal regulated portals of entry into and between the cells of Hydra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Tortiglione

    Full Text Available Initially viewed as innovative carriers for biomedical applications, with unique photophysical properties and great versatility to be decorated at their surface with suitable molecules, nanoparticles can also play active roles in mediating biological effects, suggesting the need to deeply investigate the mechanisms underlying cell-nanoparticle interaction and to identify the molecular players. Here we show that the cell uptake of fluorescent CdSe/CdS quantum rods (QRs by Hydra vulgaris, a simple model organism at the base of metazoan evolution, can be tuned by modifying nanoparticle surface charge. At acidic pH, amino-PEG coated QRs, showing positive surface charge, are actively internalized by tentacle and body ectodermal cells, while negatively charged nanoparticles are not uptaken. In order to identify the molecular factors underlying QR uptake at acidic pH, we provide functional evidence of annexins involvement and explain the QR uptake as the combined result of QR positive charge and annexin membrane insertion. Moreover, tracking QR labelled cells during development and regeneration allowed us to uncover novel intercellular trafficking and cell dynamics underlying the remarkable plasticity of this ancient organism.

  6. Fluctuations and symmetry breaking during regeneration of Hydra vulgaris tissue toroids

    CERN Document Server

    Krahe, Michael; Lin, Kao-Nung; Fischer, Julia; Fütterer, Claus

    2012-01-01

    While much is known in single cell mechanics, the mechanics of regeneration of naturally grown tissues and cell assemblies is largely unexplored. We found a symmetry breaking scenario accompanied by shape fluctuations in dissected regenerating Hydra vulgaris tissue tori. A subsequent folding and merging process leads finally to a regenerating spheroid. These phenomena are related to the dynamics of fluorescent beta- and trans-cellular alpha-actin structures. By embedding the tissues in a hydro-gel the fluctuations could be studied over a longer period of time. The power spectrum of the torus-fluctuations shows a non-trivial energy distribution dynamics depending on the gel stiffness. During the transition, many higher modes where found but in the end the 2nd mode wins in most cases. The toroid builds up an uniform alpha-actin ring along the inner edge of the torus. We found this ring in the inner cellular layer to be responsible for the force generation destabilizing the toroid shape. This actin structure is ...

  7. A textbook example of ram-pressure stripping in the Hydra A/A780 cluster

    CERN Document Server

    De Grandi, S; Molendi, S; Girardi, M; Roediger, E; Gaspari, M; Gastaldello, F; Ghizzardi, S; Nonino, M; Rossetti, M

    2016-01-01

    In the current epoch, one of the main mechanisms driving the growth of galaxy clusters is the continuous accretion of group-scale halos. In this process, the ram pressure applied by the hot intracluster medium on the gas content of the infalling group is responsible for stripping the gas from its dark-matter halo, which gradually leads to the virialization of the infalling gas in the potential well of the main cluster. Using deep wide-field observations of the poor cluster Hydra A/A780 with XMM-Newton and Suzaku, we report the discovery of an infalling galaxy group 1.1 Mpc south of the cluster core. The presence of a substructure is confirmed by a dynamical study of the galaxies in this region. A wake of stripped gas is trailing behind the group over a projected scale of 760 kpc. The temperature of the gas along the wake is constant at kT ~ 1.3 keV, which is about a factor of two less than the temperature of the surrounding plasma. We observe a cold front pointing westwards compared to the peak of the group, ...

  8. Cold gas dynamics in Hydra-A: evidence for a rotating disk

    CERN Document Server

    Hamer, S L; Swinbank, A M; Oonk, J B R; Mittal, R; McNamara, B R; Russell, H R; Bremer, M N; Combes, F; Fabian, A C; Nesvadba, N P H; O'Dea, C P; Baum, S A; Salomé, P; Tremblay, G; Donahue, M; Ferland, G J; Sarazin, C L

    2013-01-01

    We present multi-frequency observations of the radio galaxy Hydra-A (3C218) located in the core of a massive, X-ray luminous galaxy cluster. IFU spectroscopy is used to trace the kinematics of the ionised and warm molecular hydrogen which are consistent with a ~ 5 kpc rotating disc. Broad, double-peaked lines of CO(2-1), [CII]157 $\\mu$m and [OI]63 $\\mu$m are detected. We estimate the mass of the cold gas within the disc to be M$_{gas}$ = 2.3 $\\pm$ 0.3 x 10$^9$ M$_{\\odot}$. These observations demonstrate that the complex line profiles found in the cold atomic and molecular gas are related to the rotating disc or ring of gas. Finally, an HST image of the galaxy shows that this gas disc contains a substantial mass of dust. The large gas mass, SFR and kinematics are consistent with the levels of gas cooling from the ICM. We conclude that the cold gas originates from the continual quiescent accumulation of cooled ICM gas. The rotation is in a plane perpendicular to the projected orientation of the radio jets and I...

  9. GRADUATION DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVE SAFETY NET PROGRAM BENEFICIARY HOUSEHOLDS: A LOGISTIC ANALYSIS, TIGRAI-ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Household food security issues have become the concern of international communities as well as national government of Ethiopia. Social safety nets (like Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia are programs that offer protection to poor rural people by providing income through transfer programs and employment opportunities. The main objective of this study was to identify the major graduation determinants of Productive safety Net Program beneficiary rural households using a logistic regression technique from a total of 400 sample respondents using Eastern zone of Tigrai regional national state, northern Ethiopia, as case study site. The researcher was initially identified about sixteen predicting factors of which just ten of them were found to be statistically significant, and all exhibited the expected signs. Regression results revealed thatan introduction to integrated agricultural package make use of, male-headed household, age squared of the household head, educational status of the household head, saving culture, male adults, non-government organizations follow-up, access to credit, access to petty trading and irrigation have led productive safety net program beneficiary households to have more probability of graduation. Finally, it is recommended that assisting farming rural households to diversify and expand their sources of income in order to be able to meet their minimum food requirement and graduate soon through the provision of integrated agricultural packages. Besides, program participants should be followed up by non-government organizations and highly engaged in petty trading to graduate sooner, boost their income and food secure.

  10. Determining Safety Inspection Thresholds for Employee Incentives Programs on Construction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparer, Emily; Dennerlein, Jack

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project was to evaluate approaches of determining the numerical value of a safety inspection score that would activate a reward in an employee safety incentive program. Safety inspections are a reflection of the physical working conditions at a construction site and provide a safety score that can be used in incentive programs to reward workers. Yet it is unclear what level of safety should be used when implementing this kind of program. This study explored five ways of grouping safety inspection data collected during 19 months at Harvard University-owned construction projects. Each approach grouped the data by one of the following: owner, general contractor, project, trade, or subcontractor. The median value for each grouping provided the threshold score. These five approaches were then applied to data from a completed project in order to calculate the frequency and distribution of rewards in a monthly safety incentive program. The application of each approach was evaluated qualitatively for consistency, competitiveness, attainability, and fairness. The owner-specific approach resulted in a threshold score of 96.3% and met all of the qualitative evaluation goals. It had the most competitive reward distribution (only 1/3 of the project duration) yet it was also attainable. By treating all workers equally and maintaining the same value throughout the project duration, this approach was fair and consistent. The owner-based approach for threshold determination can be used by owners or general contractors when creating leading indicator incentives programs and by researchers in future studies on incentive program effectiveness.

  11. Determination of arsenic(III), sulphite and sulphur dioxide using the triangle programmed coulometric titration principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, F.; Buschmann, N. (Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-11-01

    In 1975, Pungor et al. established a new method called Triangle Programmed Coulometric Titration, which allows to titrate flowing sample solutions. The following paper presents a new analytical procedure for the determination of sulphur dioxide based on this technique. To obtain this, sulphur dioxide was transferred across a semipermeable membrane from a gaseous phase into an aqueous acceptor phase. Then the SO{sub 2}-concentration of the streaming aqueous phase was analysed bromometrically using the Triangle Programmed Coulometric Titration principle. The titration curves were followed continuously by an AC-bivoltammetric flow-through detector. Using this procedure a determination of SO{sub 2} concentrations between 400 and 2500 mg/m{sup 3} was possible.(orig.).

  12. Comparative analysis of septic injury-inducible genes in phylogenetically distant model organisms of regeneration and stem cell research, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilcinskas Andreas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris have emerged as valuable model organisms in regeneration and stem cell research because of their prominent ability to regenerate a complete organism from any small body fragment. Under natural conditions wounding may result from predator attacks. These injuries open their innermost to a wide array of microbes present in the environment. Therefore, we established the hypothesis that regeneration processes may be linked to or at least accompanied by innate immune responses. In order to screen for septic wounding inducible genes we dissected individuals using a scalpel in the presence of a crude bacterial lipopolysaccharide preparation that is commonly used to elicit innate immune responses in animals and applied the suppression subtractive hybridization technique that selectively amplifies cDNAs of differentially expressed genes. Results This analysis revealed the induced expression of 27 genes in immune challenged Schmidtea and 35 genes in immune challenged Hydra. Identified genes from both animals encode proteins that share sequence similarities with potential homologues from other organisms known to be involved in signaling (e.g. calreticulin in Schmidtea and major vault protein in Hydra, stress responses (e.g. Hsp20 in Schmidtea and a PRP19/PSO4 DNA repair protein in Hydra, or to represent potential antimicrobial effectors (e.g. perforin-like protein in Schmidtea and PR-1-like protein and neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 in Hydra. As expected, septic wounding also induces expression of genes in Schmidtea and Hydra potentially involved in tissue remodeling associated with regeneration processes (e.g. matrix metalloproteinase in Schmidtea and a potential von Willebrand factor in Hydra. Conclusion We identified numerous immune-inducible genes in Hydra and Schmidtea that show a similar distribution corresponding to their physiological roles, although lineages of

  13. Coordinated modulation of cellular signaling through ligand-gated ion channels in Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierobon, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Cnidarians lack well developed organs, but they have evolved the molecular and cellular components needed to assemble a nervous system. The apparent 'simplicity' of the cnidarian nervous net does not occur at the cellular level, but rather in the organisation of conducting systems. Cnidarian neurons are in fact electrically excitable, show the typical extended morphology and are connected by chemical synapses or gap junctions. They have been regarded as peptidergic, given the wealth of neuropeptides generally distributed along neurites and in cell bodies, supporting the hypothesis of a modulatory role in neurotransmission. However, the presence of clear-cored, as well as dense-cored synaptic vesicles in cnidarian neurons suggests both fast and slow synaptic transmission mechanisms. In fact, biochemical and functional evidence indicates that classical neurotransmitters and their metabolic partners are present in cnidarian tissues, where they are involved in coordinating motility and behavior. We have identified and characterized in Hydra tissues receptors to the inhibitory and excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, GABA, glycine and NMDA, that are similar to mammalian ionotropic receptors in terms of their biochemical and pharmacological properties. These receptors appear to regulate pacemaker activities and their physiological correlates; in the live animal, they also affect feeding behavior, namely the duration and termination of the response elicited by reduced glutathione, with opposite actions of GABA and glycine or NMDA, respectively. These results suggest that modulation of cellular signaling through ligand-gated-ion channels is an ancient characteristic in the animal kingdom, and that the pharmacological properties of these receptors have been highly conserved during evolution.

  14. Fittino, a program for determining MSSM parameters from collider observables using an iterative method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtle, P.; Desch, K.; Wienemann, P.

    2006-01-01

    Provided that Supersymmetry (SUSY) is realized, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the future International Linear Collider (ILC) may provide a wealth of precise data from SUSY processes. An important task will be to extract the Lagrangian parameters. On this basis the goal is to uncover the underlying symmetry breaking mechanism from the measured observables. In order to determine the SUSY parameters, the program Fittino has been developed. It uses an iterative fitting technique and a Simulated Annealing algorithm to determine the SUSY parameters directly from the observables without any a priori knowledge of the parameters, using all available loop-corrections to masses and couplings. Simulated Annealing is implemented as a stable and efficient method for finding the optimal parameter values. The theoretical predictions can be provided from any program with SUSY Les Houches Accord interface. As fit result, a set of parameters including the full error matrix and two-dimensional uncertainty contours are obtained. Pull distributions can automatically be created and allow an independent cross-check of the fit results and possible systematic shifts in the parameter determination. A determination of the importance of the individual observables for the measurement of each parameter can be performed after the fit. A flexible user interface is implemented, allowing a wide range of different types of observables and a wide range of parameters to be used. Program summaryProgram title: Fittino Catalogue identifier: ADWN Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWN Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License Programming language:C++ Computer: any computer Operating system: Linux and other Unix flavors RAM: ca. 22 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 111 962 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 006 727 Distribution format: tar.gz Number of processors used: 1 External routines: The ROOT data analysis

  15. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, prokaryotic expression, and function prediction of foot-specific peroxidase in Hydra magnipapillata Chinese strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H C; Yang, H Q; Zhao, F X; Qian, X C

    2014-08-28

    The cDNA sequence of foot-specific peroxidase PPOD1 from the Chinese strain of Hydra magnipapillata was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cDNA sequence contained a coding region with an 873-bp open reading frame, a 31-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 36-bp 3'-untranslated region. The structure prediction results showed that PPOD1 contains 10.34% of α-helix, 38.62% of extended strand, 12.41% of β-turn, and 38.62% of random coil. The structural core was α-helix at the N terminus. The GenBank protein blast server showed that PPOD1 contains 2 fascin-like domains. In addition, high-level PPOD1 activity was only present in the ectodermal epithelial cells located on the edge of the adhesive face of the basal disc, and that these cells extended lamellipodia and filopodia when the basal disc was tightly attached to a glass slide. The fascin-like domains of Hydra PPOD1 might contribute to the bundling of the actin filament of these cells, and hence, the formation of filopodia. In conclusion, these cells might play an important role in strengthening the adsorbability of the basal disc to substrates.

  16. Loss of neurogenesis in Hydra leads to compensatory regulation of neurogenic and neurotransmission genes in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Y; Buzgariu, W; Galliot, B

    2016-01-05

    Hydra continuously differentiates a sophisticated nervous system made of mechanosensory cells (nematocytes) and sensory-motor and ganglionic neurons from interstitial stem cells. However, this dynamic adult neurogenesis is dispensable for morphogenesis. Indeed animals depleted of their interstitial stem cells and interstitial progenitors lose their active behaviours but maintain their developmental fitness, and regenerate and bud when force-fed. To characterize the impact of the loss of neurogenesis in Hydra, we first performed transcriptomic profiling at five positions along the body axis. We found neurogenic genes predominantly expressed along the central body column, which contains stem cells and progenitors, and neurotransmission genes predominantly expressed at the extremities, where the nervous system is dense. Next, we performed transcriptomics on animals depleted of their interstitial cells by hydroxyurea, colchicine or heat-shock treatment. By crossing these results with cell-type-specific transcriptomics, we identified epithelial genes up-regulated upon loss of neurogenesis: transcription factors (Dlx, Dlx1, DMBX1/Manacle, Ets1, Gli3, KLF11, LMX1A, ZNF436, Shox1), epitheliopeptides (Arminins, PW peptide), neurosignalling components (CAMK1D, DDCl2, Inx1), ligand-ion channel receptors (CHRNA1, NaC7), G-Protein Coupled Receptors and FMRFRL. Hence epitheliomuscular cells seemingly enhance their sensing ability when neurogenesis is compromised. This unsuspected plasticity might reflect the extended multifunctionality of epithelial-like cells in early eumetazoan evolution.

  17. Genome-wide screening reveals the emergence and divergence of RTK homologues in basal Metazoan Hydra magnipapillata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P C Reddy; Salil S Bidaye; Surendra Ghaskadbi

    2011-06-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are key components of cell–cell signalling required for growth and development of multicellular organisms. It is therefore likely that the divergence of RTKs and associated components played a significant role in the evolution of multicellular organisms. We have carried out the present study in hydra, a diploblast, to investigate the divergence of RTKs after parazoa and before emergence of triploblast phyla. The domain-based screening using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) for RTKs in Genomescan predicted gene models of the Hydra magnipapillata genome resulted in identification of 15 RTKs. These RTKs have been classified into eight families based on domain architecture and homology. Only 5 of these RTKs have been previously reported and a few of these have been partially characterized. A phylogeny-based analysis of these predicted RTKs revealed that seven subtype duplications occurred between `parazoan–eumetazoan split’ and `diploblast–triploblast split’ in animal phyla. These results suggest that most of the RTKs evolved before the radiata–bilateria divergence during animal evolution.

  18. New members of the TW Hydrae Association and two accreting M-dwarfs in Scorpius-Centaurus

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Simon J; Bento, Joao

    2015-01-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of several young mid-M stars found during a search for new members of the 30-40 Myr-old Octans Association. Only one of the stars may be considered a possible Octans(-Near) member. However, two stars have proper motions, kinematic distances, radial velocities, photometry and Li I 6708AA measurements consistent with membership in the 8-10 Myr-old TW Hydrae Association. Another may be an outlying member of TW Hydrae but has a velocity similar to that predicted by membership in Octans. We also identify two new lithium-rich members of the neighbouring Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association (Sco-Cen). Both exhibit large 12 and 22 micron excesses and strong, variable H-alpha emission which we attribute to accretion from circumstellar discs. Such stars are thought to be incredibly rare at the ~16 Myr median age of Sco-Cen and they join only one other confirmed M-type and three higher-mass accretors outside of Upper Scorpius. The serendipitous discovery of two accreting stars hosting ...

  19. Transitioning from microbiome composition to microbial community interactions: the potential of the metaorganism Hydra as an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Deines

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Animals are home to complex microbial communities, which are shaped through interactions within the community, interactions with the host, and through environmental factors. The advent of high-throughput sequencing methods has led to novel insights in changing patterns of community composition and structure. However, deciphering the different types of interactions among community members, with their hosts and their interplay with their environment is still a challenge of major proportion. The emerging fields of synthetic microbial ecology and community systems biology have the potential to decrypt these complex relationships. Studying host-associated microbiota across multiple spatial and temporal scales will bridge the gap between individual microorganism studies and large-scale whole community surveys. Here, we discuss the unique potential of Hydra as an emerging experimental model in microbiome research. Through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico approaches the interaction structure of host-associated microbial communities and the effects of the host on the microbiota and its interactions can be disentangled. Research in the model system Hydra can unify disciplines from molecular genetics to ecology, opening up the opportunity to discover fundamental rules that govern microbiome community stability.

  20. Physical parameters of late M-type members of Chamaeleon I and TW Hydrae Association: dust settling, age dispersion and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayo, A.; Barrado, D.; Allard, F.; Henning, T.; Comerón, F.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Rajpurohit, A. S.; Peña Ramírez, K.; Beamín, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    Although mid-to-late type M dwarfs are the most common stars in our stellar neighbourhood, our knowledge of these objects is still limited. Open questions include the evolution of their angular momentum, internal structures, dust settling in their atmospheres and age dispersion within populations. In addition, at young ages, late-type Ms have masses below the hydrogen burning limit and therefore are key objects in the debate on the brown dwarf mechanism of formation. In this work, we determine and study in detail the physical parameters of two samples of young, late M-type sources belonging to either the Chamaeleon I dark cloud or the TW Hydrae Association and compare them with the results obtained in the literature for other young clusters and also for older, field, dwarfs. We used multiwavelength photometry to construct and analyse SEDs to determine general properties of the photosphere and disc presence. We also used low-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to study activity, accretion, gravity and effective temperature sensitive indicators. We propose a Virtual Observatory-based spectral index that is both temperature and age sensitive. We derived physical parameters using independent techniques confirming the already common feature/problem of the age/luminosity spread. In particular, we highlight two brown dwarfs showing very similar temperatures but clearly different surface gravity (explained invoking extreme early accretion). We also show how, despite large improvement in the dust treatment in theoretical models, there is still room for further progress in the simultaneous reproduction of the optical and near-infrared features of these cold young objects.

  1. Immagine della crisi / Crisi dell'immagine. Critica all'egemonia culturale del realismo e diritto all'opacità in Hydra Decapita (2011, un film saggio di The Otolith Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Ferrara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the ways in which the relation between crisis and imaginary is articulated in Hydra Decapita, a 2011 essay-film by the British art collective The Otolith Group. Hydra Decapita is an imaged-based reflection arguing for the biopolitical character of the global economic crisis erupted in 2008 and of its representations in the media. By deploying a Cultural Studies-oriented interdisciplinary approach to the artwork – drawing its methodology from visual studies, critical theory and post-colonial studies – the article interrogates the limits and potentialities of Hydra Decapita’s conceptual kernel and aesthetic language.

  2. Pedometer use and self-determined motivation for walking in a cardiac telerehabilitation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun; Grønkjær, Mette; Spindler, Helle

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation reduces morbidity and mortality. Walking is a convenient activity suitable for people with cardiac disease. Pedometers count steps, measure walking activity and motivate people to increase physical activity. In this study, patients participating...... in cardiac telerehabilitation were provided with a pedometer to support motivation for physical activity with the purpose of exploring pedometer use and self-determined motivation for walking experienced by patients and health professionals during a cardiac telerehabilitation program. METHODS: A qualitative...... research design consisting of observations, individual interviews and patient documents made the basis for a content analysis. Data was analysed deductively using Self Determination Theory as a frame for analysis and discussion, focusing on the psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness...

  3. TEV—A Program for the Determination of the Thermal Expansion Tensor from Diffraction Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Langreiter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available TEV (Thermal Expansion Visualizing is a user-friendly program for the calculation of the thermal expansion tensor αij from diffraction data. Unit cell parameters determined from temperature dependent data collections can be provided as input. An intuitive graphical user interface enables fitting of the evolution of individual lattice parameters to polynomials up to fifth order. Alternatively, polynomial representations obtained from other fitting programs or from the literature can be entered. The polynomials and their derivatives are employed for the calculation of the tensor components of αij in the infinitesimal limit. The tensor components, eigenvalues, eigenvectors and their angles with the crystallographic axes can be evaluated for individual temperatures or for temperature ranges. Values of the tensor in directions parallel to either [uvw]’s of the crystal lattice or vectors (hkl of reciprocal space can be calculated. Finally, the 3-D representation surface for the second rank tensor and pre- or user-defined 2-D sections can be plotted and saved in a bitmap format. TEV is written in JAVA. The distribution contains an EXE-file for Windows users and a system independent JAR-file for running the software under Linux and Mac OS X. The program can be downloaded from the following link: http://www.uibk.ac.at/mineralogie/downloads/TEV.html (Institute of Mineralogy and Petrography, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

  4. Determining the degree of powder homogeneity using PC-based program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuragić Olivera M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixing of powders and the quality control of the obtained mixtures are critical operations involved in the processing of granular materials in chemical, metallurgical, food and pharmaceutical industries. Studies on mixing efficiency and the time needed for achieving homogeneity in the powder mashes production have significant importance. Depending on the characteristic of the materials, a number of methods have been used for the homogeneity tests. Very often, the degree of mixing has been determined by analyzing images of particle arrays in the sample using microscopy, photography and/or video tools. In this paper, a new PC-based method for determining the number of particles in the powder homogeneity tests has been developed. Microtracers®, red iron particles, were used as external tracer added before mixing. Iron particles in the samples of the mixtures were separated by rotary magnet and spread onto a filter paper. The filter paper was sprayed with 50% solution of ethanol for color development and the particles counted where the number of spots presented the concentration of added tracer. The number of spots was counted manually, as well as by the developed PC program. The program which analyzes scanned filter papers with spots is based on digital image analyses, where red spots were converted through few filters into a black and white, and counted. Results obtained by manual and PC counting were compared. A high correlation was established between the two counting methods.

  5. Determination of calibration function in thermal field flow fractionation under thermal field programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastil, Luisa; Ventosa, Edgar A; Mingozzi, Ines; Dondi, Francesco

    2006-05-01

    A new procedure for determining the calibration function able to relate retention and operative parameters to molecular weight of the species in thermal field flow (ThFFF) under thermal field programming (TFP) conditions is presented. The procedure involves determining the average values of retention parameters under TFP and determining a numerical function related to the temperature variations that occur during TFP. The calibration parameters are obtained by a procedure fitting the retention and operative parameters that hold true at the beginning of the TFP. The procedure is closely related to the one previously developed to calibrate the retention time axis under TFP ThFFF and, together, they constitute a full calibration procedure. Experimental validation was performed with reference to polystyrene (PS)-decalin and PS-THF systems. The calibration functions here obtained were compared to those derived by the classical procedure at constant thermal field ThFFF to obtain the calibration function at variable cold wall temperatures. Excellent agreement was found in all cases proving "universality" of the ThFFF calibration concept, i.e. it is independent of the particular system on which it was determined and can thus be extended to ThFFF operating under TFP. The new procedure is simpler than the classical one since it requires less precision in setting the instrumentation and can be obtained with fewer experiments. The potential applications for the method are discussed.

  6. A Conjoint Analysis to Determine the Preferences for Some Selected MBA Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur Özmen

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the Conjoint Analysis Method (CAM, which is a multivariate marketing research technique used to determine consumer behaviours and preferences for products or services. One aim of this study is to demonstrate that the CAM can be used in “Service Sector” as well as in “Product Sector” and the other aim is to utilize CBC Sawtooth Software Program, which is a special program for CAM. A usage of CBC Sawtooth Software Program is demonstrated in the analysis of Management Business Administration (MBA program preferences of Başkent University students. This study includes those MBA programs that require substantial tuition and fee payments. According to the results of the study, “University Name” plays the most important role in MBA preferences. The Conjoint Analysis found that, most preferred university is the Boğaziçi University and the most preferred type of MBA program is the “Executive MBA Program”. Another important finding is that “Higher Tuition and Fees” makes the MBA less attractive.. Este trabajo examina el método de análisis conjunto (CAM, que es una técnica multivariante de investigación de mercados utilizada para determinar los comportamientos y preferencias del consumidor por productos o servicios. Un objetivo de este estudio es demostrar que el CAM puede ser aplicado en el "sector servicios" al igual que en el "sector de producción". El otro objetivo principal es utilizar programa informático CBC de Sawtooth, que es un programa especial para CAM. El CBC de Sawtooth se aplica a las preferencias de estudiantes por los programas de Administración y Dirección de Empresas de (MBA de la universidad de Baskent. Este estudio incluye sólo los programas de MBA que requieren una cuota de matrícula cuantiosa y pago de honorarios. Los resultados del estudio muestran que la variable "nombre de la universidad" es la más importante en las preferencias que los alumnos tienen por los MBA. El An

  7. Thermal models of buildings. Determination of temperatures, heating and cooling loads. Theories, models and computer programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellblad, K.

    1998-05-01

    The need to estimate indoor temperatures, heating or cooling load and energy requirements for buildings arises in many stages of a buildings life cycle, e.g. at the early layout stage, during the design of a building and for energy retrofitting planning. Other purposes are to meet the authorities requirements given in building codes. All these situations require good calculation methods. The main purpose of this report is to present the authors work with problems related to thermal models and calculation methods for determination of temperatures and heating or cooling loads in buildings. Thus the major part of the report deals with treatment of solar radiation in glazing systems, shading of solar and sky radiation and the computer program JULOTTA used to simulate the thermal behavior of rooms and buildings. Other parts of thermal models of buildings are more briefly discussed and included in order to give an overview of existing problems and available solutions. A brief presentation of how thermal models can be built up is also given and it is a hope that the report can be useful as an introduction to this part of building physics as well as during development of calculation methods and computer programs. The report may also serve as a help for the users of energy related programs. Independent of which method or program a user choose to work with it is his or her own responsibility to understand the limits of the tool, else wrong conclusions may be drawn from the results 52 refs, 22 figs, 4 tabs

  8. The Hydra I cluster core. I. Stellar populations in the cD galaxy NGC 3311

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C. E.; Arnaboldi, M.; Coccato, L.; Hilker, M.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Richtler, T.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The history of the mass assembly of brightest cluster galaxies may be studied by mapping the stellar populations at large radial distances from the galaxy centre, where the dynamical times are long and preserve the chemodynamical signatures of the accretion events. Aims: We provide extended and robust measurements of the stellar population parameters in NGC 3311, the cD galaxy at the centre of the Hydra I cluster, and out to three effective radii. We wish to characterize the processes that drove the build-up of the stellar light at all these radii. Methods: We obtained the spectra from several regions in NGC 3311 covering an area of ~3 arcmin2 in the wavelength range 4800 ≲ λ(Å) ≲ 5800, using the FORS2 spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope in the MXU mode. We measured the equivalent widths of seven absorption-features defined in the Lick/IDS system, which were modelled by single stellar populations, to provide luminosity-weighted ages, metallicities, and alpha element abundances. Results: The trends in the Lick indices and the distribution of the stellar population parameters indicate that the stars of NGC 3311 may be divided in two radial regimes, one within and the another beyond one effective radius, Re = 8.4 kpc, similar to the distinction between the inner galaxy and the external halo derived from the NGC 3311 velocity dispersion profile. The inner galaxy (R ≤ Re) is old (age ~14 Gyr), has negative metallicity gradients and positive alpha element gradients. The external halo is also very old, but has a negative age gradient. The metal and element abundances of the external halo both have a large scatter, indicating that stars from a variety of satellites with different masses have been accreted. The region in the extended halo associated with the off-centred envelope at 0°parent galaxies, either disks with truncated star formation, or the outer regions of early-type galaxies. Late mass accretion at large radii is now coming from the tidal

  9. Determining the Appropriate Crop Rotation Plan in a Farm Scale Using Fuzzy Goal Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alizadeh Zoeram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the important subject in the field of agricultural programming is reaching to a pattern or appropriate crop rotation to plant. Existing constraints, including the amount of available resources, and different goals, makes the decision to optimize the use of resources and production factors a complicated task. Therefore, applying mathematical models can be a grate help in this field. The goal of this study is to determine the appropriate patterns of crop cultivation in a farm in the North Khorasan province. Materials and Methods Implem enting fuzzy goal programming (FGP model based on different scenarios was employed to achieve our goals. According to results ,represented process , constraints and problem goals, four plant patterns are offered based on eight proposed scenarios for crop products in this farm or this study. These proposed cultivation pattern can help to make better decision for determination the appropriate rotation of crops in different conditions and different goals by decision makers. Results Discussion Finally, proposed cultivation patterns were prioritized according to maximum amount of reaching the desired level of total goals. Based on maximum level of reaching goals, different scenarios consisted of income, cost, production resources, income-cost, income-production resources, cost-production resources, income-cost-production resources with equal weights, and income-cost-production resources with different weights have been prioritized and four cropping pattern have been detected. In first pattern, three scenario consisted of scenario 1 (income, scenario 4 (income-cost and scenario 5 (income-production resources have combined. The second pattern have made scenario 2 (cost. In third pattern, scenario 3 (production resources, scenario 6 (cost-production resources and scenario 7 (income-cost-production resources with equal weights have combined. The scenario 8 (income-cost-production resources with different

  10. 7 CFR 205.621 - Submission and determination of proposed State organic programs and amendments to approved State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission and determination of proposed State organic programs and amendments to approved State organic programs. 205.621 Section 205.621 Agriculture...

  11. Constraints on the gamma-ray emission from the cluster-scale AGN outburst in the Hydra A galaxy cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    HESS Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Gérard, L.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Hampf, D.; Harris, J.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Krayzel, F.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Ali, M. O.

    2012-09-01

    Context. In some galaxy clusters, powerful active galactic nuclei (AGN) have blown bubbles with cluster scale extent into the ambient medium. The main pressure support of these bubbles is not known to date, but cosmic rays are a viable possibility. For such a scenario copious gamma-ray emission is expected as a tracer of cosmic rays from these systems. Aims: Hydra A, the closest galaxy cluster hosting a cluster scale AGN outburst, located at a redshift of 0.0538, is investigated for being a gamma-ray emitter with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) array and the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). Methods: Data obtained in 20.2 h of dedicated H.E.S.S. observations and 38 months of Fermi-LAT data, gathered by its usual all-sky scanning mode, have been analyzed to search for a gamma-ray signal. Results: No signal has been found in either data set. Upper limits on the gamma-ray flux are derived and are compared to models. These are the first limits on gamma-ray emission ever presented for galaxy clusters hosting cluster scale AGN outbursts. Conclusions: The non-detection of Hydra A in gamma-rays has important implications on the particle populations and physical conditions inside the bubbles in this system. For the case of bubbles mainly supported by hadronic cosmic rays, the most favorable scenario, which involves full mixing between cosmic rays and embedding medium, can be excluded. However, hadronic cosmic rays still remain a viable pressure support agent to sustain the bubbles against the thermal pressure of the ambient medium. The largest population of highly-energetic electrons, which are relevant for inverse-Compton gamma-ray production is found in the youngest inner lobes of Hydra A. The limit on the inverse-Compton gamma-ray flux excludes a magnetic field below half of the equipartition value of 16 μG in the inner lobes.

  12. Apples and oranges in disguised advertising: differentiation and terminological determination of brand usage in program content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Muškinja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Disguised advertising is a modern marketing instrument that is seeing an increase in Croatian business practice but whose application is prohibited by Croatian law. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to understand whether Croatian businesses really do use disguised advertising, how they do it either in accordance or in contradiction with Croatian law, and whether there is a need to distinguish among several similar but different manifestations and to terminologically determine each one of these. For the purpose of this study, we explored the theoretical, legal and ethnographic conceptualizations of the term disguised advertising in the scientific literature, Croatian legislation and applied communication in business practice. The results of our research show that: a marketing literature uses various terms for describing brand usage in program content, among which disguised advertising (prikriveno oglašavanje dominates, whereas product placement (plasman proizvoda is not mentioned once; b the law distinguishes between disguised advertising that is prohibited and product placement, as a practise allowed under certain conditions and the one that is by definition identical with disguised advertising in the manner defined by marketing literature; c business entities in their communication make a distinction between disguised advertising and product placement, and they are trying to move product placement away from disguised advertising by being mentioned as sponsors/partners of the program. The analysis also indicates three different situations in which brands are used in the program content: contracted and correctly indicated brand usage; contracted but not indicated; and not-contracted brand usage. Only the first situation is considered to be a recommended marketing tool; therefore, it is necessary to differentiate it from the other two by its definition and name. It is suggested that this marketing tool be named: brand placement in both

  13. Determining the optimal product-mix using integer programming: An application in audio speaker production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Bin Mohamed Nadhar; Ahmarofi, Ahmad Afif Bin

    2014-12-01

    In manufacturing sector, production planning or scheduling is the most important managerial task in order to achieve profit maximization and cost minimization. With limited resources, the management has to satisfy customer demand and at the same time fulfill company's objective, which is to maximize profit or minimize cost. Hence, planning becomes a significant task for production site in order to determine optimal number of units for each product to be produced. In this study, integer programming technique is used to develop an appropriate product-mix planning to obtain the optimal number of audio speaker products that should be produced in order to maximize profit. Branch-and-bound method is applied to obtain exact integer solutions when non-integer solutions occurred. Three major resource constraints are considered in this problem: raw materials constraint, demand constraint and standard production time constraint. It is found that, the developed integer programming model gives significant increase in profit compared to the existing method used by the company. At the end of the study, sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of changes in objective function coefficient and available resources on the developed model. This will enable the management to foresee the effects on the results when some changes happen to the profit of its products or available resources.

  14. Determining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Andarzian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production in the south of Khuzestan, Iran is constrained by heat stress for late sowing dates. For optimization of yield, sowing at the appropriate time to fit the cultivar maturity length and growing season is critical. Crop models could be used to determine optimum sowing window for a locality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Cropping System Model (CSM-CERES-Wheat for its ability to simulate growth, development, grain yield of wheat in the tropical regions of Iran, and to study the impact of different sowing dates on wheat performance. The genetic coefficients of cultivar Chamran were calibrated for the CSM-CERES-Wheat model and crop model performance was evaluated with experimental data. Wheat cultivar Chamran was sown on different dates, ranging from 5 November to 9 January during 5 years of field experiments that were conducted in the Khuzestan province, Iran, under full and deficit irrigation conditions. The model was run for 8 sowing dates starting on 25 October and repeated every 10 days until 5 January using long-term historical weather data from the Ahvaz, Behbehan, Dezful and Izeh locations. The seasonal analysis program of DSSAT was used to determine the optimum sowing window for different locations as well. Evaluation with the experimental data showed that performance of the model was reasonable as indicated by fairly accurate simulation of crop phenology, biomass accumulation and grain yield against measured data. The normalized RMSE were 3%, 2%, 11.8%, and 3.4% for anthesis date, maturity date, grain yield and biomass, respectively. Optimum sowing window was different among locations. It was opened and closed on 5 November and 5 December for Ahvaz; 5 November and 15 December for Behbehan and Dezful;and 1 November and 15 December for Izeh, respectively. CERES-Wheat model could be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on wheat performance in Khuzestan conditions. Further model evaluations

  15. Linear programming based determination of optimal bilateral real power contracts in open access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaisakh, K.; Siva Krishan Rao, G.V. [Andhra University, AU College of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, Visakhapatnam 530 003, AP (India)

    2010-12-15

    Under a deregulated environment, electricity consumers and suppliers generally establish various bilateral power transactions/contracts. The transmission company normally honors and executes these bilateral contracts within the limits permitted by the system design and operating conditions. This article describes determination of optimal bilateral contracts by using line flow factors (LFFs). An innovative approach for obtaining the set of line flow factors is presented. The line flow factors are evaluated from existing load flow information. A generalized linear programming formulation is proposed to determine the optimal bilateral real power contracts under a deregulated environment subjected to the steady-state security constraints (e.g. generation and line flow limits). It is demonstrated that the proposed methodology would be an effective tool to study the intricate relationships between the bilateral contracts and system security. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of this formulation to minimize the cost of any bilateral contract to comply with the security requirements. The results obtained show great prospects for practical application of the proposed algorithm for optimal bilateral contracts on a real-time basis. (author)

  16. A heuristic ranking approach on capacity benefit margin determination using Pareto-based evolutionary programming technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad Murtadha; Abd Rahman, Nurulazmi; Musirin, Ismail; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud; Rajabi-Ghahnavieh, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel multiobjective approach for capacity benefit margin (CBM) assessment taking into account tie-line reliability of interconnected systems. CBM is the imperative information utilized as a reference by the load-serving entities (LSE) to estimate a certain margin of transfer capability so that a reliable access to generation through interconnected system could be attained. A new Pareto-based evolutionary programming (EP) technique is used to perform a simultaneous determination of CBM for all areas of the interconnected system. The selection of CBM at the Pareto optimal front is proposed to be performed by referring to a heuristic ranking index that takes into account system loss of load expectation (LOLE) in various conditions. Eventually, the power transfer based available transfer capability (ATC) is determined by considering the firm and nonfirm transfers of CBM. A comprehensive set of numerical studies are conducted on the modified IEEE-RTS79 and the performance of the proposed method is numerically investigated in detail. The main advantage of the proposed technique is in terms of flexibility offered to an independent system operator in selecting an appropriate solution of CBM simultaneously for all areas.

  17. HYDRA VULGARIS PALLAS, 1766 (HYDROZOA: HYDRIDAE AS BIOINDICATOR OF THE WATER QUALITY OF THE RIVER CHILI, AREQUIPA, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Huarachi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766 (Hydrozoa: Hydridae as a bioindicator of water quality of the Chili River, Arequipa, Peru. The freshwater hydra were collected in the spring "Ojo del Milagro", Characato District, Arequipa, Peru. H. vulgaris was cultivated under standardized conditions and were fed Artemia sp. K2Cr2O7 was used as a positive control and as a reference toxin. Acute toxicity and morphological changes of H. vulgaris were evaluated on Tiabaya and Tingo, sampling points of the Chili River. The LC50 (median lethal concentration showed: Tingo (LC50-96h = 135.95% classifying it as non-toxic and Tiabaya (LC50 -24h = 61.83%, classifying it as moderately toxic; LC50-48h = 44.19% and LC50 -72h = 38.28% classifying them as toxic; LC50 -96h = 21.44% rating it as very toxic. Significant differences in the morphological changes of H. vulgaris were observed with regard to different concentrations and exposure time in waters sampled from Tingo from 48 h to 96 h and in Tiabaya, significant differences in morphological changes from 24 h to 96 h exposure. The results of the physicochemical parameters of the Chili River were compared with the Peruvian National Standards for Environmental Quality (ECA for water (categories 3 and 4 and recorded high values of biochemical oxygen demand BOD5, NH4 and PO4, and low dissolved oxigen OD values for Tiabaya. In Tingo, NH4 and phosphate were high. In Tiabaya, water was considered more toxic than at Tingo.

  18. Somatostatin signaling system as an ancestral mechanism: Myoregulatory activity of an Allatostatin-C peptide in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzugaray, María Eugenia; Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Ronderos, Jorge Rafael

    2016-08-01

    The coordination of physiological processes requires precise communication between cells. Cellular interactions allow cells to be functionally related, facilitating the maintaining of homeostasis. Neuropeptides functioning as intercellular signals are widely distributed in Metazoa. It is assumed that neuropeptides were the first intercellular transmitters, appearing early during the evolution. In Cnidarians, neuropeptides are mainly involved in neurotransmission, acting directly or indirectly on epithelial muscle cells, and thereby controlling coordinated movements. Allatostatins are a group of chemically unrelated neuropeptides that were originally characterized based on their ability to inhibit juvenil hormone synthesis in insects. Allatostatin-C has pleiotropic functions, acting as myoregulator in several insects. In these studies, we analyzed the myoregulatory effect of Aedes aegypti Allatostatin-C in Hydra sp., a member of the phylum Cnidaria. Allatostatin-C peptide conjugated with Qdots revealed specifically distributed cell populations that respond to the peptide in different regions of hydroids. In vivo physiological assays using Allatostatin-C showed that the peptide induced changes in shape and length in tentacles, peduncle and gastrovascular cavity. The observed changes were dose and time dependent suggesting the physiological nature of the response. Furthermore, at highest doses, Allatostatin-C induced peristaltic movements of the gastrovascular cavity resembling those that occur during feeding. In silico search of putative Allatostatin-C receptors in Cnidaria showed that genomes predict the existence of proteins of the somatostatin/Allatostatin-C receptors family. Altogether, these results suggest that Allatostatin-C has myoregulatory activity in Hydra sp, playing a role in the control of coordinated movements during feeding, indicating that Allatostatin-C/Somatostatin based signaling might be an ancestral mechanism.

  19. The Hydra regeneration assay reveals ecological risks in running waters: a new proposal to detect environmental teratogenic threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversetti, Lorenzo; Del Grosso, Floriano; Malafoglia, Valentina; Colasanti, Marco; Ceschin, Simona; Larsen, Stefano; Scalici, Massimiliano

    2017-03-01

    The regenerative ability of Hydra vulgaris was tested as potential biomarker for the development of a new eco-toxicological index. The test is based on the regeneration rate and the aberration frequency of the columna (body and adhesive foot) after separation from head and tentacles by a bistoury. Particularly, 45 columnae were submerged in the rearing solution (that is Hydra medium) to have control, and 285 in potential contaminated waters to have treatments, collected from 19 sites along 10 rivers in central Italy. ANCOVA and chi-square tests were used to compare values from each site to a laboratory control. Subsequently the values on regeneration rate and aberration frequency were inserted in a double entry matrix, where the match of the two entries in the matrix provides the score of the proposed Teratogenic Risk Index (TRI). Each score corresponded to one of the 5 teratogenic risk classes, to which a risk level was associated: from 1 (no risk) to 5 (very high risk). On the whole, 32% of the studied sites were classified as no teratogenic risk while the remaining showed a variable risk level from low to very high. This study proposed for the first time an early warning system to detect the presence of teratogens in running waters, providing a rapid and cost-effective evaluation method. Therefore, TRI may contribute to initiate adequate measures to manage riverine habitats, and to monitor the running water teratogenic status. Specifically, this index may provide the opportunity to identify the disturbance sources and then to drive the decisions, together with competent authorities, on the catchment and landscape management and on the possible use of waters for urban, agricultural, and industrial activities, since they may show significant effects on the human health.

  20. 9 CFR 147.14 - Procedures to determine status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. 147.14 Section 147.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. The following monitoring procedures 10 may be... sanitation program. (1) Culture the surface of cased eggs periodically for fecal contaminating organisms...

  1. The PSI Score Card: Determining when to Close a CTE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaal, John; Trafton, Shane

    2009-01-01

    How does one know when it is time to either give a program extra attention or perhaps close it? That problem faces many career and technical education (CTE) programs and there is not necessarily a one-size-fits-all solution. Traditional assessments are inefficient in helping programs learn how to leverage their strengths and compensate for their…

  2. [Determination of antibiotype by a computer program. Epidemiological significance and antibiogram-identification correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, T; Macone, F; Laffont, C

    1988-06-01

    By means of a computer program disk diffusion diameter were analysed and an antibiotic susceptibility code (antibiotype) was determined for enterobacteriaceae. This code was a 6 figure-number. Each figure summarised susceptibility (susceptible or resistant) to 3 antibiotics. Thus a 18 serial antibiotics was necessary to calculate the 6 figure-code. At least following antibiotics were chosen for their characteristic behavior: amoxycillin, ticarcillin, amoxycillin + clavulanic acid, cephalothin, ticarcillin + clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, gentamycin, tobramycin, amikacin, nalidixic acid, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, fosfomycin and colistin. This code allowed three kind of utilisation: epidemiology by comparing biochemical and susceptibility patterns of same isolated species; laboratory control: a data base with main antibiotic susceptibility patterns for each species allowed a rapid compatibility control of biochemical identification with antibiogram. An inconsistent result lead to a checking of biochemical and susceptibility tests or to record a new code in a file to a further enrichment of the data base. Impression of a message depending of the code for a therapeutic purpose.

  3. How to use composite indicator and linear programming model for determine sustainable tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaabadi, Maryam; Malakootian, Mohammad; Zare Mehrjerdi, Mohammad Reza; Jalaee, Seied Abdolmajid; Mehrabi Boshrabadi, Hosein

    2017-01-01

    The tourism industry which is one of the most dynamic economic activities in today's world plays a significant role in the sustainable development. Therefore, in addition to paying attention to tourism, sustainable tourism must be taken into huge account; otherwise, the environment and its health will be damaged irreparably. To determine the level of sustainability in this study, indicators of sustainable tourism were first presented in three environmental health, economic and social aspects. Then, the levels of sustainable tourism and environmental sustainability were practically measured in different cities of Kerman Province using a composite indicator, a linear programming model, Delphi method and the questionnaire technique. Finally, the study cities (tourist attractions) were ranked. Result of this study showed that unfortunately the tourism opportunities were not used appropriately in these cities and tourist destinations, and that environmental aspect (health and environmental sustainability) had very bad situations compared to social and economic aspects. In other words, environmental health had the lowest levels of sustainability. The environment is a place for all human activities like tourism, social and economic issues; therefore, its stability and health is of great importance. Thus, it is necessary to pay more attention to sustainability of activities, management and environmental health in planning sustainable development in regional and national policy.

  4. Determination of ecologically vital groundwaters at selected sites in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinikour, W.S.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1989-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is classifying groundwaters at sites in its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Of particular concern is the potential presence of groundwaters that are highly vulnerable to contamination and that are either (1) irreplaceable sources of drinking water or (2) ecologically vital. Conditions at nine FUSRAP sites were evaluated to determine if ecologically vital groundwaters are present. The sites evaluated were Wayne Interim Storage Site, Maywood Interim Storage Site, and Middlesex Sampling Plant in New Jersey; Ashland 2 Site, Seaway Industrial Park, Colonie Interim storage Site, and Niagara Falls Storage Site in New York; and the St. Louis Airport Site and Hazelwood Interim Storage Site in Missouri. The analyses indicated that groundwaters are vulnerable to contamination at all but two of the sites -- the Ashland 2 and Seaway Industrial Park sites in New York. Groundwater discharge points were identified within a 2-mile radius (i.e., the classification review area) of all of the sites. No ecologically vital groundwater areas exist in the vicinities of any of the nine FUSRAP sites evaluated. 35 refs., 17 figs.

  5. HYDRA-I: a three-dimensional finite difference code for calculating the thermohydraulic performance of a fuel assembly contained within a canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    A finite difference computer code, named HYDRA-I, has been developed to simulate the three-dimensional performance of a spent fuel assembly contained within a cylindrical canister. The code accounts for the coupled heat transfer modes of conduction, convection, and radiation and permits spatially varying boundary conditions, thermophysical properties, and power generation rates. This document is intended as a manual for potential users of HYDRA-I. A brief discussion of the governing equations, the solution technique, and a detailed description of how to set up and execute a problem are presented. HYDRA-I is designed for operation on a CDC 7600 computer. An appendix is included that summarizes approximately two dozen different cases that have been examined. The cases encompass variations in fuel assembly and canister configurations, power generation rates, filler materials, and gases. The results presented show maximum and various local temperatures and heat fluxes illustrating the changing importance of the three heat transfer modes. Finally, the need for comparison with experimental data is emphasized as an aid in code verification although the limited data available indicate excellent agreement.

  6. Multi-scale biomarker evaluation of the toxicity of a commercial azo dye (Disperse Red 1) in an animal model, the freshwater cnidarian Hydra attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Laetitia; Pech, Nicolas; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Moreau, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    Acute (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) and chronic (7 days) tests have been performed to evaluate the effects of the commercial azo dye Disperse Red 1 (DR1) using various biomarkers in the freshwater invertebrate Hydra attenuata. Morphological changes have been selected to calculate ecotoxicological thresholds for sublethal and lethal DR1 concentrations. A multinomial logistic model showed that the probability of each morphological stage occurrence was function of concentration, time and interaction between both. Results of oxidative balance parameter measurements (72 h and 7 days) suggest that polyps set up defense mechanisms to limit lipid peroxidation caused by DR1. DR1 exposure at hormetic concentrations induces increase of asexual reproductive rates. This result suggests (1) an impact on the fitness-related phenotypical traits and (2) trade-offs between reproduction and maintenance to allow the population to survive harsher conditions. Changes in serotonin immuno-labeling in polyps showing alterations in feeding behavior suggest that chronic DR1 exposure impaired neuronal processes related to ingesting behavior in H. attenuata. This ecotoxicity study sheds light on the possible serotonin function in Hydra model and reports for the first time that serotonin could play a significant role in feeding behavior. This study used a multi-scale biomarker approach investigating biochemical, morphological, reproductive and behavioral endpoints in Hydra attenuata. This organism is proposed for a pertinent animal model to assess ecotoxicological impact of pollutant mixtures in freshwater environment.

  7. Ecotoxicological assessment of cobalt using Hydra model: ROS, oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis as mechanisms of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Mohammed; Murugadas, Anbazhagan; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2017-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying cobalt toxicity in aquatic species in general and cnidarians in particular remain poorly understood. Herein we investigated cobalt toxicity in a Hydra model from morphological, histological, developmental, and molecular biological perspectives. Hydra, exposed to cobalt (0-60 mg/L), were altered in morphology, histology, and regeneration. Exposure to standardized sublethal doses of cobalt impaired feeding by affecting nematocytes, which in turn affected reproduction. At the cellular level, excessive ROS generation, as the principal mechanism of action, primarily occurred in the lysosomes, which was accompanied by the upregulation of expression of the antioxidant genes SOD, GST, GPx, and G6PD. The number of Hsp70 and FoxO transcripts also increased. Interestingly, the upregulations were higher in the 24-h than in the 48-h time-point group, indicating that ROS overwhelmed the cellular defense mechanisms at the latter time-point. Comet assay revealed DNA damage. Cell cycle analysis indicated the induction of apoptosis accompanied or not by cell cycle arrest. Immunoblot analyses revealed that cobalt treatment triggered mitochondria-mediated apoptosis as inferred from the modulation of the key proteins Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3. From this data, we suggest the use of Hydra as a model organism for the risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. RGIsearch: A C++ program for the determination of Renormalization Group Invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Verheyen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    RGIsearch is a C++ program that searches for invariants of a user-defined set of renormalization group equations. Based on the general shape of the $\\beta$-functions of quantum field theories, RGIsearch searches for several types of invariants that require different methods. Additionally, it supports the computation of invariants up to two-loop level. A manual for the program is given, including the settings and set-up of the program, as well as a test case.

  9. Psychosocial determinants of physical activity in children attending afterschool programs: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; McCarthy, Valerie Lander; Speck, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is important for controlling childhood obesity, but a comprehensive PA model for school-aged children is lacking. Guided by the youth PA promotion (YPAP) model, this study estimated the direct and indirect effects of self-efficacy, enjoyment, parental influence, and environment on self-reported PA and pedometer steps. A secondary purpose was to explore the association between self-reported PA and pedometer steps. An observational and prospective study was conducted among 133 children, aged 8-11 years old, from 10 elementary schools with afterschool programs in a Midwestern U.S. school district from August through October 2013. PA was assessed by a 7-day recall scale and pedometers. Other variables were assessed by validated questionnaires. Approximately 65 (49%) children were overweight or obese-only 17 (13%) met national PA recommendations-and body mass index z-score was negatively correlated with pedometer steps (r = -.18 p = .04). A path analysis showed that self-efficacy had a direct effect on self-reported PA and pedometer steps, enjoyment had only a direct effect on self-reported PA, and parental influence had a direct effect on pedometer steps and an indirect effect on self-reported PA through self-efficacy and enjoyment. The association between self-reported PA and pedometer steps was not significant. Because this study only partially supports the YPAP model, studies with a larger sample size and longitudinal design are essential to further examine this model. The nonsignificant relationship of self-reported PA with pedometer steps may be due to the systematic error resulting from a common method artifact of self-report. Given the importance of parental influence, enjoyment, and self-efficacy, targeting these three determinants in future interventions to increase PA among children is recommended.

  10. Individual Programming for Children with Learning Disabilities as Determined by Screening, Identification, and Differential Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Gladys

    A program for screening, identifying, and diagnosing learning disabilities is described. The multidisciplinary approach is emphasized. The school psychologist or counselor, the coordinator of the language therapy program, the administrative staff, and the classroom teacher meet to share findings and impressions, and the information is synthesized…

  11. Determining Areas of Weakness in Introductory Programming as a Foundation for Reusable Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Eileen; Sherry, Elisabeth; Magee, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Teaching programming to novices has proved challenging for both learner and lecturer due to the abstraction and complexity of the subject matter. The work described in this paper is part of an EU funded Minerva project called TUPULO (Teaching Undergraduate Programming Using Learning Objects) which aims to address the challenges faced by novice…

  12. Transforming Dissatisfaction with Services into Self-Determination: A Social Psychological Perspective on Community Program Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Cathaleene; Aronson, Elliot; Hargreaves, William; Weary, Gifford; Barreira, Paul J; Harvey, John; Rodican, Charles F; Bickman, Leonard; Fisher, William

    2009-08-01

    A field study of supported employment for adults with mental illness (N=174) provided an experimental test of cognitive dissonance theory. We predicted that most work-interested individuals randomly assigned to a non-preferred program would reject services and lower their work aspirations. However, individuals who chose to pursue employment through a non-preferred program were expected to resolve this dissonance through favorable service evaluations and strong efforts to succeed at work. Significant work interest-by-service preference interactions supported these predictions. Over two years, participants interested in employment who obtained work through a non-preferred program stayed employed a median of 362 days versus 108 days for those assigned to a preferred program, and participants who obtained work through a non-preferred program had higher service satisfaction.

  13. Determinants of Farmers’ Participation in Horticulturebased Extension Programs in Iran: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Akbari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discover the determinants of farmers’ participation in horticulture-based Education programs in the Western Azerbaijan province, Iran. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, the study also tries to make a comparison between participants and non-participants, who have achieved in this program. A sample of 231 farmers (137 participants and 94 non-participants was selected based on a stratified random sampling method. Data gathering instrument was a questionnaire that its validity was approved by a group of experts and its reliability was confirmed by calculating Cronbach's alpha (α=0.71. The results showed that, there were significant differences between participants and non-participants in agricultural education programs in terms of all the TPB contexts. Additionally, the results of the regression analysis showed that attitude to how thinking and decision and subjective norms were the best determinants of farmers’ participation.

  14. DETERMINING THE COMPOSITION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF FOSSIL FUEL BASED ON VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES AND GEOMETRIC PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velibor V Vujović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the algorithm and results of a computer program for calculation of complex equilibrium composition for the high temperature fossil fuel combustion products. The method of determining the composition of high temperatures combustion products at the temperatures appearing in the open cycle MHD power generation is given. The determination of combustion product composition is based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The number of equations to be solved is reduced by using variational principles and a method of geometric programming and is equal to the sum of the numbers of elements and phases. A short description of the computer program for the calculation of the composition and an example of the results are also given.

  15. Determinants of participation in a web-based health risk assessment and consequences for health promotion programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.J. Niessen (Maurice); E.L. Laan (Eva); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise); N. Peek (Niels); R.A. Kraaijenhagen (Roderik); C.K. van Kalken (Coen); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The health risk assessment (HRA) is a type of health promotion program frequently offered at the workplace. Insight into the underlying determinants of participation is needed to evaluate and implement these interventions. Objective: To analyze whether individual characterist

  16. Private landowners and environmental conservation: a case study of social-psychological determinants of conservation program participation in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Drescher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of biodiversity and continued provision of ecosystem services increasingly relies on environmental conservation on private lands. Despite a multitude of past studies, our knowledge of the motives, opportunities, and challenges of private land conservation, especially on nonworking lands, where financial incentives are less relevant, remains incomplete. A key reason is that a variety of theoretical approaches, resulting in diverging study results, have been used to investigate private land conservation. To help remedy this problem, the current study rigorously examined several established social-psychological determinants of proenvironmental behaviors and developed a comprehensive model, which merged elements from previous studies, to investigate landowner participation in a government-sponsored private land conservation program for nonworking lands. The results are based on analysis of a mailed survey of 800 program-eligible landowners. Contrasting program participants with nonparticipants, we elicited information such as about values, worldviews, socio-demographic characteristics, and property attributes that led landowners to participate in this conservation program. The results of our study illustrate the complex relationships among values, worldviews, norms, attitudes, and behaviors emphasizing the importance of proenvironmental worldviews and of formal education for increasing the likelihood of enrollment in this government-sponsored private land conservation program. Against expectation, neither personal norms, household income, political leaning, nor the size of the eligible property area were found to be important in directly determining the decision to enroll in this conservation program. However, an association of political leaning with stated personal obligation for private land conservation was found. Our results highlight the relationship between formal education and achievement of private land conservation goals

  17. Military Personnel: Performance Measures Needed to Determine How Well DOD’s Credentialing Program Helps Servicemembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    strategies to enable states to accelerate the licensing and certification of veterans based on the challenges identified, such as working with educational ...information by reviewing the program data and service officials’ responses to our data reliability questionnaire . We found this information and data to be...funding for the program out of existing service funds, while the Air Force used funding associated with a budget activity for voluntary education

  18. Healthhazard evaluation report HETA 84-075-1634, Hydra-Matic Division of General Motors, Ypsilanti, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, W.J.; Orris, P.

    1985-11-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for total particulates, trace metals, glycol ethers, and other organic materials at Hydra/Matic, a division of General Motors, in Ypsilanti, Michigan in March, 1984 and March, 1985. The evaluation was requested confidentially to investigate employee exposures to machine coolants and additives used in the centerless grinding operation. The central coolant system had been contaminated by sewage and high concentrations of chemicals had reportedly been added to the system to prevent bacterial growth. Questionnaire interviews were conducted with 75 employees. Eye irritation, sinus congestion, rhinitis, daily cough, upper respiratory infections, and skin complaints such as frequent dryness, itching, rash, and pimples were reported. All concentrations of chemical agents were below their relevant standards or not detectable. The authors note that no airborne contaminant that would pose a health hazard has been identified. Recommendations include properly maintaining the coolant system and individual machines, training employees in proper work practices for use with cutting fluids, and making barrier creams and protective clothing available.

  19. Constraints on the gamma-ray emission from the cluster-scale AGN outburst in the Hydra A galaxy cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Becker, J; Bernloehr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Buesching, I; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Atai, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Foerster, A; Fuessling, M; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Gast, H; Gerard, L; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glueck, B; Goering, D; Grondin, M -H; Haeffner, S; Hague, J D; Hahn, J; Hampf, D; Harris, J; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzynski, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khelifi, B; Klochkov, D; Kluzniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Krayzel, F; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J -P; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Mehault, J; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nguyen, N; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Wilhelmi, E de Ona; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Puehlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raue, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sheidaei, F; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Voelk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S; Ali, M O

    2012-01-01

    In some galaxy clusters powerful AGN have blown bubbles with cluster scale extent into the ambient medium. The main pressure support of these bubbles is not known to date, but cosmic rays are a viable possibility. For such a scenario copious gamma-ray emission is expected as a tracer of cosmic rays from these systems. Hydra A, the closest galaxy cluster hosting a cluster scale AGN outburst, located at a redshift of 0.0538, is investigated for being a gamma-ray emitter with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) array and the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). Data obtained in 20.2 hours of dedicated H.E.S.S. observations and 38 months of Fermi-LAT data, gathered by its usual all-sky scanning mode, have been analyzed to search for a gamma-ray signal. No signal has been found in either data set. Upper limits on the gamma-ray flux are derived and are compared to models. These are the first limits on gamma-ray emission ever presented for galaxy clusters hosting cluster scale AGN outbursts. The non-de...

  20. A Radiation-Hydrodynamics Code Comparison for Laser-Produced Plasmas: FLASH versus HYDRA and the Results of Validation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Orban, Chris; Chawla, Sugreev; Wilks, Scott C; Lamb, Donald Q

    2013-01-01

    The potential for laser-produced plasmas to yield fundamental insights into high energy density physics (HEDP) and deliver other useful applications can sometimes be frustrated by uncertainties in modeling the properties and expansion of these plasmas using radiation-hydrodynamics codes. In an effort to overcome this and to corroborate the accuracy of the HEDP capabilities recently added to the publicly available FLASH radiation-hydrodynamics code, we present detailed comparisons of FLASH results to new and previously published results from the HYDRA code used extensively at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We focus on two very different problems of interest: (1) an Aluminum slab irradiated by 15.3 and 76.7 mJ of "pre-pulse" laser energy and (2) a mm-long triangular groove cut in an Aluminum target irradiated by a rectangular laser beam. Because this latter problem bears a resemblance to astrophysical jets, Grava et al., Phys. Rev. E, 78, (2008) performed this experiment and compared detailed x-ray int...

  1. Evidence for Accretion High-Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of the Classical T Tauri Star TW Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Kästner, J H; Schulz, N S; Canizares, C R; Weintraub, D A; Kastner, Joel H.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Canizares, Claude R.; Weintraub, David A.

    2002-01-01

    We present high resolution X-ray spectra of the X-ray bright classical T Tauri star, TW Hydrae, covering the wavelength range of 1.5-25 AA. The differential emission measure derived from fluxes of temperature-sensitive emission lines shows a plasma with a sharply peaked temperature distribution, peaking at log T = 6.5. Abundance anomalies are apparent, with iron very deficient relative to oxygen, while neon is enhanced relative to oxygen. Density-sensitive line ratios of Ne IX and O VII indicate densities near log n_e = 13. A flare with rapid (~1 ks) rise time was detected during our 48 ksec observation; however, based on analysis of the emission-line spectrum during quiescent and flaring states, the derived plasma parameters do not appear strongly time-dependent. The inferred plasma temperature distribution and densities are consistent with a model in which the bulk of the X-ray emission from TW Hya is generated via mass accretion from its circumstellar disk. Assuming accretion powers the X-ray emission, our...

  2. WIYN Open Cluster Study. XXXIX. Abundances in NGC 6253 from HYDRA Spectroscopy of the Li 6708 A Region

    CERN Document Server

    Anthony-Twarog, B J; Twarog, B A; Cummings, J D; Maderak, R M

    2010-01-01

    High-dispersion spectra of 89 potential members of the old, super-metal-rich open cluster, NGC 6253, have been obtained with the HYDRA multi-object spectrograph. Based upon radial-velocity measurements alone, 47 stars at the turnoff of the cluster color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and 18 giants are identified as potential members. Five turnoff stars exhibit evidence of binarity while proper-motion data eliminates two of the dwarfs as members. The mean cluster radial velocity from probable single-star members is -29.4 +/- 1.3 km/sec (sd). A discussion of the current estimates for the cluster reddening, derived independently of potential issues with the BV cluster photometry, lead to an adopted reddening of E(B-V) = 0.22 +/- 0.04. From equivalent width analyses of 38 probable single-star members near the CMD turnoff, the weighted average abundances are found to be [Fe/H] = +0.43 +/- 0.01, [Ni/H] = +0.53 +/- 0.02 and [Si/H] = +0.43 (+0.03,-0.04), where the errors refer to the standard errors of the weighted mean. We...

  3. Peering into the Giant Planet Forming Region of the TW Hydrae Disk with the Gemini Planet Imager

    CERN Document Server

    Rapson, Valerie A; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A; Dong, Ruobing

    2015-01-01

    We present Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) adaptive optics near-infrared images of the giant planet-forming regions of the protoplanetary disk orbiting the nearby (D = 54 pc), pre-main sequence (classical T Tauri) star TW Hydrae. The GPI images, which were obtained in coronagraphic/polarimetric mode, exploit starlight scattered off small dust grains to elucidate the surface density structure of the TW Hya disk from 80 AU to within 10 AU of the star at 1.5 AU resolution. The GPI polarized intensity images unambiguously con?rm the presence of a gap in the radial surface brightness distribution of the inner disk. The gap is centered near 23 AU, with a width of 5 AU and a depth of 50%. In the context of recent simulations of giant planet formation in gaseous, dusty disks orbiting pre-main sequence stars, these results indicate that at least one young planet with a mass 0.2 M_J could be present in the TW Hya disk at an orbital semi-major axis similar to that of Uranus. If this (proto)planet is actively accreting gas fr...

  4. Discovery of seven T Tauri stars and a brown dwarf candidate in the nearby TW Hydrae Association

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, R A; Platais, I; Patience, J; White, R J; Schwartz, M J; McCarthy, C

    1999-01-01

    We report the discovery of five T Tauri star systems, two of which are resolved binaries, in the vicinity of the nearest known region of recent star formation, the TW Hydrae Association. The newly discovered systems display the same signatures of youth (namely high X-ray flux, large Li abundance and strong chromospheric activity) and the same proper motion as the original five members. These similarities firmly establish the group as a bona fide T Tauri association, unique in its proximity to Earth and its complete isolation from any known molecular clouds. At an age of ~10 Myr and a distance of ~50 pc, the association members are excellent candidates for future studies of circumstellar disk dissipation and the formation of brown dwarfs and planets. Indeed, as an example, our speckle imaging revealed a faint, very likely companion 2" north of CoD-33 7795 (TWA 5). Its color and brightness suggest a spectral type ~M8.5 which, at an age of ~10^7 years, implies a mass ~20 M(Jupiter).

  5. Expulsion of symbiotic algae during feeding by the green hydra--a mechanism for regulating symbiont density?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Fishman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Algal-cnidarian symbiosis is one of the main factors contributing to the success of cnidarians, and is crucial for the maintenance of coral reefs. While loss of the symbionts (such as in coral bleaching may cause the death of the cnidarian host, over-proliferation of the algae may also harm the host. Thus, there is a need for the host to regulate the population density of its symbionts. In the green hydra, Chlorohydra viridissima, the density of symbiotic algae may be controlled through host modulation of the algal cell cycle. Alternatively, Chlorohydra may actively expel their endosymbionts, although this phenomenon has only been observed under experimentally contrived stress conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show, using light and electron microscopy, that Chlorohydra actively expel endosymbiotic algal cells during predatory feeding on Artemia. This expulsion occurs as part of the apocrine mode of secretion from the endodermal digestive cells, but may also occur via an independent exocytotic mechanism. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate, for the first time, active expulsion of endosymbiotic algae from cnidarians under natural conditions. We suggest this phenomenon may represent a mechanism whereby cnidarians can expel excess symbiotic algae when an alternative form of nutrition is available in the form of prey.

  6. Effects of a nutritional intervention program based on the self-determination theory and promoting the Mediterranean diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Leblanc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine gender differences in the impact of a nutritional intervention based on the self-determination theory and promoting the Mediterranean diet on changes in eating-related self-determined motivation and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Changes in eating-related self-determined motivation were larger in men than in women in response to the intervention and at follow-up, but the magnitude of change decreased with time in both genders. Changes in eating-related self-determined motivation were positively associated with changes in the Mediterranean diet adherence in response to the intervention and at follow-up in men only, suggesting that the nutritional program seems to fit better men than women.

  7. An easy-to-use program for the determination of common opaque minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, H. J.; Voncken, J. H. L.

    2010-12-01

    A Microsoft Excel macro is described that enables rapid recognition of common opaque minerals. The program uses ore mineralogical features such as reflectance, anisotropy, bireflectance, Vickers Hardness and morphological features (bladed crystals, zoning and twinning) to identify possible candidates from a database of 200 common ore minerals. Reflectance can be estimated from the uncorrected light of a microscope lamp. While the program yields all possible minerals matching the entered search criteria, these must be distinguished by additional information such as paragenesis, and detailed checks of observed features with data listed in reference works. The program is especially suited for students of ore microscopy and for mineralogists and petrologists who are not experts in ore microscopy.

  8. Determinants of malaria program expenditures during elimination: case study evidence from select provinces in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jenny X; Newby, Gretchen; Brackery, Aprielle; Smith Gueye, Cara; Candari, Christine J; Escubil, Luz R; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Baquilod, Mario

    2013-01-01

    ...Even though eliminating malaria from the endemic margins is a part of the Global Malaria Action Plan, little guidance exists on what resources are needed to transition from controlling malaria to eliminating it. Using Philippines as an example, this study aimed to (1) estimate the financial resources used by sub-national malaria programs in different phases during elimination and (2) understand how different environmental and organizational factors may influence expenditure levels and spending proportions. The Philippines provides an opportunity to study variations in sub-national programs because its epidemiological and ecological diversity, devolved health system, and progressive elimination strategy all allow greater flexibility for lower-level governments to direct activities, but also create challenges for coordination and resource mobilization. Through key informant interviews and archival record retrieval in four selected provinces chosen based on eco-epidemiological variation, expenditures associated with provincial malaria programs were collected for selected years (mid-1990s to 2010). Results show that expenditures per person at risk per year decrease as programs progress from a state of controlled low-endemic malaria to elimination to prevention of reintroduction regardless of whether elimination was deliberately planned. However, wide variation across provinces were found: expenditures were generally higher if mainly financed with donor grants, but were moderated by the level of economic development, the level of malaria transmission and receptivity, and the capacity of program staff. Across all provinces, strong leadership appears to be a necessary condition for maintaining progress and is vital in controlling outbreaks. While sampled provinces and years may not be representative of other sub-national malaria programs, these findings suggest that the marginal yearly cost declines with each phase during elimination.

  9. Determinants of malaria program expenditures during elimination: case study evidence from select provinces in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny X Liu

    Full Text Available ...Even though eliminating malaria from the endemic margins is a part of the Global Malaria Action Plan, little guidance exists on what resources are needed to transition from controlling malaria to eliminating it. Using Philippines as an example, this study aimed to (1 estimate the financial resources used by sub-national malaria programs in different phases during elimination and (2 understand how different environmental and organizational factors may influence expenditure levels and spending proportions. The Philippines provides an opportunity to study variations in sub-national programs because its epidemiological and ecological diversity, devolved health system, and progressive elimination strategy all allow greater flexibility for lower-level governments to direct activities, but also create challenges for coordination and resource mobilization. Through key informant interviews and archival record retrieval in four selected provinces chosen based on eco-epidemiological variation, expenditures associated with provincial malaria programs were collected for selected years (mid-1990s to 2010. Results show that expenditures per person at risk per year decrease as programs progress from a state of controlled low-endemic malaria to elimination to prevention of reintroduction regardless of whether elimination was deliberately planned. However, wide variation across provinces were found: expenditures were generally higher if mainly financed with donor grants, but were moderated by the level of economic development, the level of malaria transmission and receptivity, and the capacity of program staff. Across all provinces, strong leadership appears to be a necessary condition for maintaining progress and is vital in controlling outbreaks. While sampled provinces and years may not be representative of other sub-national malaria programs, these findings suggest that the marginal yearly cost declines with each phase during elimination.

  10. 78 FR 70530 - Notice of Determination; New and Revised Treatments for the Imported Fire Ant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... Program AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising... quarantine and cooperating with imported fire ant-infested States to mitigate the risks associated with the... intended to prevent the imported fire ant from spreading throughout its ecological range within the country...

  11. Determining the Value of Undergraduate Business Programs from Market vs Academic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Steven; Chi, Robert; Fisher, Dorothy; Kiang, Melody

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to generate an understanding of the value-added to students enrolled in selected undergraduate business programs from an academic and market perspectives. Although there are numerous studies that rank undergraduate colleges and universities, the selection of the "best value" undergraduate business…

  12. A review of potential methods of determining critical effect size for designing environmental monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkittrick, Kelly R; Arens, Collin J; Lowell, Richard B; Kaminski, Greg P

    2009-07-01

    The effective design of field studies requires that sample size requirements be estimated for important endpoints before conducting assessments. This a priori calculation of sample size requires initial estimates for the variability of the endpoints of interest, decisions regarding significance levels and the power desired, and identification of an effect size to be detected. Although many programs have called for use of critical effect sizes (CES) in the design of monitoring programs, few attempts have been made to define them. This paper reviews approaches that have been or could be used to set specific CES. The ideal method for setting CES would be to define the level of protection that prevents ecologically relevant impacts and to set a warning level of change that would be more sensitive than that CES level to provide a margin of safety; however, few examples of this approach being applied exist. Program-specific CES could be developed through the use of numbers based on regulatory or detection limits, a number defined through stakeholder negotiation, estimates of the ranges of reference data, or calculation from the distribution of data using frequency plots or multivariate techniques. The CES that have been defined often are consistent with a CES of approximately 25%, or two standard deviations, for many biological or ecological monitoring endpoints, and this value appears to be reasonable for use in a wide variety of monitoring programs and with a wide variety of endpoints.

  13. Determining the Value of Undergraduate Business Programs from Market vs Academic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Steven; Chi, Robert; Fisher, Dorothy; Kiang, Melody

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to generate an understanding of the value-added to students enrolled in selected undergraduate business programs from an academic and market perspectives. Although there are numerous studies that rank undergraduate colleges and universities, the selection of the "best value" undergraduate business…

  14. Building a Framework for Determining the Authenticity of Instructional Tasks within Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Heidi L.; Lewis, Mark A.; Talbot, Robert M., III

    2008-01-01

    We propose a framework for evaluating the degree of authenticity of instructional tasks used within a teacher education program. First, we provide a defense for authenticity as an exemplary aspect of education. Second, we synthesize the theoretical literature on authenticity into conceptual codes. Using these codes, we build our authenticity…

  15. Determinants of Self-Reflective Learning and Its Consequences in Online Master Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Yoram; Neumann, Edith; Lewis, Shelia

    2017-01-01

    Based on recent studies of self-reflective learning and its effects on various learning outcomes, this study examined the concept of self-reflective learning in the context of the Robust Learning Model (RLM), which is a learning model designed for improving the educational effectiveness of online degree programs. Two models were introduced to…

  16. Determination of the Ultimate Limit States of Shallow Foundations using Gene Expression Programming (GEP) Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahmasebi poor, A; Barari, Amin; Behnia, M;

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a gene expression programming (GEP) approach was employed to develop modified expressions for predicting the bearing capacity of shallow foundations founded on granular material. The model was validate against the results of load tests on full-scale and model footings obtained from...

  17. The Politics of Extension Water Programming: Determining if Affiliation Impacts Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Courtney T.; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2017-01-01

    Research has found levels of engagement in environmental behaviors and participation in Extension programming around environmental issues are directly associated with political affiliation. Democrat and Independent parties encourage members to vote for stricter environmental regulations, such as water conservation efforts, while Republicans…

  18. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... opportunity to make an oral presentation at the public meeting. Such persons may hand-deliver requests to... feedback on how manufacturers currently develop any simulation tools to ensure they are applicable across a... with the Building Technologies Program in advance. When necessary, the request to give an...

  19. Fully automatic input function determination program for simple noninvasive (123)I-IMP microsphere cerebral blood flow quantification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kosuke; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Ofuji, Asato; Mimura, Hiroaki; Okumiya, Shintaro; Takaki, Akihiro; Sone, Teruki; Ito, Shigeki

    2016-09-01

    We recently developed a simple noninvasive (123)I-IMP microsphere (SIMS) method using chest dynamic planar images and brain single photon emission computed tomography. The SIMS method is an automatic analysis method, except for the process of setting the region of interest (ROI) of the input function. If a fully automatic ROI setting algorithm can be developed to determine the input function for the SIMS method, repeatability and reproducibility of the analysis of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the SIMS method can be guaranteed. The purpose of this study is to develop a fully automatic input function determination program for the SIMS method and to confirm the clinical usefulness of this program. The automatic input function determination program consists of two ROI setting programs for the PA and lung regions, and it is developed using the image phase analysis of a chest RI angiogram. To confirm the clinical usefulness of this program, the rCBF in 34 patients measured using the automatic method were compared with the values obtained through the manual setting method. Input functions by the automatic and manual methods were approximately equal. A good correlation was observed between the rCBF values obtained by the automatic method and those obtained by the manual setting method (r=0.96, p<0.01). Further, the total time taken for the automatic SIMS analysis is 1-2min as compared to 20-30min for the current analysis, and therefore, this technique contributes to the improvement of the throughput of nuclear medical examinations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. User Guide to RockJock - A Program for Determining Quantitative Mineralogy from X-Ray Diffraction Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    RockJock is a computer program that determines quantitative mineralogy in powdered samples by comparing the integrated X-ray diffraction (XRD) intensities of individual minerals in complex mixtures to the intensities of an internal standard. Analysis without an internal standard (standardless analysis) also is an option. This manual discusses how to prepare and X-ray samples and mineral standards for these types of analyses and describes the operation of the program. Carefully weighed samples containing an internal standard (zincite) are ground in a McCrone mill. Randomly oriented preparations then are X-rayed, and the X-ray data are entered into the RockJock program. Minerals likely to be present in the sample are chosen from a list of standards, and the calculation is begun. The program then automatically fits the sum of stored XRD patterns of pure standard minerals (the calculated pattern) to the measured pattern by varying the fraction of each mineral standard pattern, using the Solver function in Microsoft Excel to minimize a degree of fit parameter between the calculated and measured pattern. The calculation analyzes the pattern (usually 20 to 65 degrees two-theta) to find integrated intensities for the minerals. Integrated intensities for each mineral then are determined from the proportion of each mineral standard pattern required to give the best fit. These integrated intensities then are compared to the integrated intensity of the internal standard, and the weight percentages of the minerals are calculated. The results are presented as a list of minerals with their corresponding weight percent. To some extent, the quality of the analysis can be checked because each mineral is analyzed independently, and, therefore, the sum of the analysis should approach 100 percent. Also, the method has been shown to give good results with artificial mixtures. The program is easy to use, but does require an understanding of mineralogy, of X-ray diffraction practice, and

  1. The Role of the School Nurse in the Special Education Process: Part 2: Eligibility Determination and the Individualized Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Robin Adair; Yonkaitis, Catherine Falusi

    2017-07-01

    This is the second of two articles outlining the professional school nurse's role in the special education process for students with disabilities. The Individuals with Disabilities in Education Improvement Act of 2004 mandates the special education process: identification, full and individual evaluation, eligibility determination, and development of the individual education program (IEP), including special education placement. Part 1 focused on the importance of the school nurse's role in student identification, response to intervention, and the full and individual evaluation. Part 2 highlights the school nurse's vital and unique contribution to the subsequent special education steps of eligibility determination, IEP development, and special education services placement and minutes.

  2. Can cash transfers improve determinants of maternal mortality? Evidence from the household and community programs in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Dian; Cohen, Jessica; McConnell, Margaret; Berman, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Despite global efforts in maternal health, 303,000 maternal deaths still occurred globally in 2015. One explanation is a considerable inequality in maternal mortality and the sources such as nutritional status and health utilization. One strategy to fight health inequality due to poverty is conditional cash transfer (CCT). Taking advantage of two large clustered-randomized trials in Indonesia from 2007 to 2009, this paper provides evidence on the effects of household cash transfers (PKH) and community cash transfers (Generasi) on determinants of maternal mortality. The sample sizes are 14,000 households for PKH and 12,000 households for Generasi. After two years of implementation, difference-in-differences (DID) analyses show that the two programs can improve determinants of maternal mortality with Generasi provides positive impact in some aspects of determinants, but PKH does not. Generasi improves maternal health knowledge, reduces financial barriers to accessing health services and improves utilization of health services, increases utilization among higher-risk women, improves posyandu equipment, and increases nutritional intake. As for PKH, evidence shows its strongest effects only on utilization of health services. Both programs, however, are unlikely to have a large effect on maternal mortality due to design and implementation issues that might significantly reduce program effectiveness. While the programs improved utilization, they did so at community-based facilities not equipped with emergency obstetric care. In the midst of popularity of household cash transfer, our results show that community cash transfer offers a viable policy alternative to improve the determinants of maternal mortality by allowing more flexibility in activities and at lower cost by monitoring at community level.

  3. The molecular cell death machinery in the simple cnidarian Hydra includes an expanded caspase family and pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasi, Margherita; Pauly, Barbara; Schmidt, Nikola; Cikala, Mihai; Stiening, Beate; Käsbauer, Tina; Zenner, Gerhardt; Popp, Tanja; Wagner, Anita; Knapp, Regina T; Huber, Andreas H; Grunert, Michaela; Söding, Johannes; David, Charles N; Böttger, Angelika

    2010-07-01

    The fresh water polyp Hydra belongs to the phylum Cnidaria, which diverged from the metazoan lineage before the appearance of bilaterians. In order to understand the evolution of apoptosis in metazoans, we have begun to elucidate the molecular cell death machinery in this model organism. Based on ESTs and the whole Hydra genome assembly, we have identified 15 caspases. We show that one is activated during apoptosis, four have characteristics of initiator caspases with N-terminal DED, CARD or DD domain and two undergo autoprocessing in vitro. In addition, we describe seven Bcl-2-like and two Bak-like proteins. For most of the Bcl-2 family proteins, we have observed mitochondrial localization. When expressed in mammalian cells, HyBak-like 1 and 2 strongly induced apoptosis. Six of the Bcl-2 family members inhibited apoptosis induced by camptothecin in mammalian cells with HyBcl-2-like 4 showing an especially strong protective effect. This protein also interacted with HyBak-like 1 in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Mutation of the conserved leucine in its BH3 domain abolished both the interaction with HyBak-like 1 and the anti-apoptotic effect. Moreover, we describe novel Hydra BH-3-only proteins. One of these interacted with Bcl-2-like 4 and induced apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our data indicate that the evolution of a complex network for cell death regulation arose at the earliest and simplest level of multicellular organization, where it exhibited a substantially higher level of complexity than in the protostome model organisms Caenorhabditis and Drosophila.

  4. Hydra myc2, a unique pre-bilaterian member of the myc gene family, is activated in cell proliferation and gametogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hartl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The myc protooncogene encodes the Myc transcription factor which is the essential part of the Myc–Max network controlling fundamental cellular processes. Deregulation of myc leads to tumorigenesis and is a hallmark of many human cancers. We have recently identified homologs of myc (myc1, myc2 and max in the early diploblastic cnidarian Hydra and have characterized myc1 in detail. Here we show that myc2 is transcriptionally activated in the interstitial stem cell system. Furthermore, in contrast to myc1, myc2 expression is also detectable in proliferating epithelial stem cells throughout the gastric region. myc2 but not myc1 is activated in cycling precursor cells during early oogenesis and spermatogenesis, suggesting that the Hydra Myc2 protein has a possible non-redundant function in cell cycle progression. The Myc2 protein displays the principal design and properties of vertebrate Myc proteins. In complex with Max, Myc2 binds to DNA with similar affinity as Myc1–Max heterodimers. Immunoprecipitation of Hydra chromatin revealed that both Myc1 and Myc2 bind to the enhancer region of CAD, a classical Myc target gene in mammals. Luciferase reporter gene assays showed that Myc1 but not Myc2 transcriptionally activates the CAD promoter. Myc2 has oncogenic potential when tested in primary avian fibroblasts but to a lower degree as compared to Myc1. The identification of an additional myc gene in Cnidaria, a phylum that diverged prior to bilaterians, with characteristic expression patterns in tissue homeostasis and developmental processes suggests that principle functions of myc genes have arisen very early in metazoan evolution.

  5. Determination of Satisfaction Index as a tool in evaluation of CME Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuing Medical Education is an indispensable part of physician's learning. Welldesigned program based on andragogy principles can enhance learning by motivatingthe learner and providing platform to encourage self directed learning. The presentstudy aimed to explore the impact of program “NAMS-AIIMS Regional Symposiumon Sleep Medicine” in changing the behavior and attitude of participants using“Satisfaction Index” and descriptive analysis of responses as evaluation tools forprogram effectiveness. This descriptive cross sectional study captured the response ofparticipants through a pre-tested and validated questionnaire administered at the end ofsymposium. The result showed almost equal sex distribution (M: F- 27: 34 withmajority being UG students (86%. Reliability of data showed Cronbach's Alpha of0.98 indicating high reliability. Satisfaction index (SI calculated as per WHOEducational Handbook for Health Personnel showed highest satisfaction for conduciveenvironment of symposium (87.87 % followed by provision for time to seekclarifications (87.21%, provision of appropriate Learning Resource material (85.90% and handling of critical comments by organizers (85.57%. Descriptive analysisshowed majority responses as highly positive to our questionnaire with suggestions formore such activity, inclusion of clinical cases and other aspects of practical relevance.Key words : evaluation, program, satisfaction index, Kirkpatrick Model, studentsatisfaction, adult learning, Knowles Theory.

  6. Lemonade from lemons: a program response to RRC-determined probation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassler; Dobkin; Horowitz; Morejon; Reilly; Civetta

    2000-07-01

    To assess resident satisfaction as a result of changes made to an integrated surgical residency in response to probation.The University of Connecticut Integrated General Surgery Residency (UCIGSR), which consists of 5 hospitals, 18 rotations, and has a complement of 44 residents, was placed on probation by the Residency Review Committee (RRC) in Surgery in November 1998. Among the deficiencies cited by the RRC were inadequate evaluation of the program, rotations, residents, and the faculty by the residents, along with inadequate documentation issues. Lack of organized educational conferences, lack of faculty involvement, excessive service responsibilities and work hours, and hospital environmental issues were also cited. It was also apparent that morale of the residents and faculty had significantly eroded. Rather than trying patchwork "fixes" of deficiencies, we used this opportunity to reengineer the program, rededicating ourselves to educating and developing future surgeons. Task forces, including joint faculty and resident participation, were set up to develop solutions, based on the answer to the question: "Do we want a residency or not?" This focus was especially helpful to create hospital administration and faculty support.A survey was created to assess the changes made in the program. The survey included 65 questions pertaining to the learning environment, hospital and departmental support, and balance between clinical and educational responsibilities and overall working environment. Each resident was asked to fill out 3 identical surveys, 1 just before the RRC report, and the other 2 at 6-month intervals after the probation announcement. A 4-point grading scale was used.Our results were reflective of resident perceptions of improvement and increased satisfaction. These data demonstrated that the changes implemented as a result of the RRC findings had a positive effect on the residency program, and they corresponded to the areas where changes were

  7. Determining the Reach of a Home-Based Physical Activity Program for Older Adults within the Context of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M.; Fanning, Jason T.; Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the reach of physical activity (PA) programs is challenging due to inconsistent reporting across studies. The purpose of this study was to document multiple indicators of program reach for a 6-month, Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)-delivered home-based PA program. Radio, newspaper and direct mailing advertisements were tracked to…

  8. Employing Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework to determine the effectiveness of health information management courses and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Donald Nick

    2011-04-01

    Evaluation of the impact and effectiveness of courses is necessary so that strengths and weaknesses can be identified and improvements made. This article uses Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework to present a model that health information management (HIM) instructors can use to improve upon the standard course evaluation form. Kirkpatrick's model stresses evaluation on the levels of reaction, learning, behavior, and results. The proposed course evaluation model addresses the first three of these levels and focuses on the conditions necessary for transfer of learned knowledge and skills into on-the-job application. The article provides concrete tips that HIM instructors can apply in the process of evaluating the effectiveness of their courses and programs.

  9. Determination of the biodegradation rate of asphalt for the Hanford grout vaults. Hanford Grout Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luey, J.; Li, S.W.

    1993-04-01

    Testing was initiated in March 1991 and completed in November 1992 to determine the rate at which asphalt is biodegraded by microorganisms native to the Hanford Site soils. The asphalt tested (AR-6000, US Oil, Tacoma, Washington) is to be used in the construction of a diffusion barrier for the Hanford grout vaults. Experiments to determine asphalt biodegradation rates were conducted using three separate test sets. These test sets were initiated in March 1991, January 1992, and June 1992 and ran for periods of 6 months, 11 months, and 6 months, respectively. The experimental method used was one originally developed by Bartha and Pramer (1965), and further refined by Bowerman et al. (1985), that determined the asphalt biodegradation rate through the measurement of carbon dioxide evolved.

  10. Analysis of selection procedures to determine priority areas for payment for water ecosystem services programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Feital Gjorup

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The approach of ecosystem services has shown promise for the evaluation of interactions between ecosystems and society, integrating environmental and socioeconomic concepts which require interdisciplinary knowledge. However, its usefulness in decision making is limited due to information gaps. This study was therefore developed in order to contribute to the application of principles of ecosystem services in the decision-making for water resources management. It aims to identify procedures and methodologies used for decision-making in order to select priority areas to be included in projects or compensation programs for environmental services. To do so, we searched technical and scientific literature describing methods and experiences used to select priority areas. Key steps in the process of selecting priority areas were identified; then a survey was conducted of the procedures adopted for each key step considering the literature selected; and, finally, the information collected was analyzed and classified. Considering the study’s sample, we noted that the selection of priority areas was based on the direct use of predetermined criteria. The use of indicators and spatial analyses are practices still scarcely employed. We must highlight, however, that most of the analyzed documents did not aim to describe the process of selecting priority areas in detail, which may have resulted in some omissions. Although these conditions may limit the analysis in this study, the results presented here allow us to identify the main objectives, actions and criteria used to select priority areas for programs or compensation projects for environmental services.

  11. DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL CONTOURS OF OPEN PIT MINE DURING OIL SHALE EXPLOITATION, BY MINEX 5.2.3. PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Ignjatović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By examination and determination of optimal solution of technological processes of exploitation and oil shale processing from Aleksinac site and with adopted technical solution and exploitation of oil shale, derived a technical solution that optimize contour of the newly defined open pit mine. In the world, this problem is solved by using a computer program that has become the established standard for quick and efficient solution for this problem. One of the computer’s program, which can be used for determination of the optimal contours of open pit mines is Minex 5.2.3. program, produced in Australia in the Surpac Minex Group Pty Ltd Company, which is applied at the Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor (no. of licenses are SSI - 24765 and SSI - 24766. In this study, authors performed 11 optimization of deposit geo - models in Minex 5.2.3. based on the tests results, performed in a laboratory for soil mechanics of Mining and Metallurgy Institute, Bor, on samples from the site of Aleksinac deposits.

  12. 78 FR 78802 - Medicare Program; Right of Appeal for Medicare Secondary Payer Determination Relating to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... administrative appeal rights or judicial review. CMS' recovery contractor addresses any dispute raised by the... applicable plan but does not provide formal administrative appeal rights. The RFA requires agencies to...; Right of Appeal for Medicare Secondary Payer Determination Relating to Liability Insurance...

  13. 75 FR 54117 - Building Energy Standards Program: Preliminary Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... energy consumption of buildings built to Standard 90.1-2007, as compared with buildings built to Standard... building energy consumption. Additionally, DOE has preliminarily determined site energy savings are...] [FR Doc No: 2010-22060] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [Docket No. EERE-2006-BC-0132] RIN 1904-AC18......

  14. 75 FR 69591 - Medicaid Program; Withdrawal of Determination of Average Manufacturer Price, Multiple Source Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... of Average Manufacturer Price, Multiple Source Drug Definition, and Upper Limits for Multiple Source....502 ``Definitions'' was intended to apply to both AMP and best price calculations. While the... Determination of Best Price (Sec. 447.505). Therefore, we see no need to withdraw the definition of bona fide...

  15. 75 FR 54073 - Medicaid Program; Withdrawal of Determination of Average Manufacturer Price, Multiple Source Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Average Manufacturer Price, Multiple Source Drug Definition, and Upper Limits for Multiple Source Drugs... the statutory definition of `average manufacturer price' or the statutory definition of `multiple... provisions we are proposing to withdraw are as follows: The determination of average manufacturer price (AMP...

  16. 78 FR 29034 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Determination 28 for Significant New Alternatives Policy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... of Acceptability. SUMMARY: This Determination of Acceptability expands the list of acceptable... substitutes in: Rigid polyurethane spray Extruded polystyrene, boardstock and billet HFC-365mfc is also known.... Extruded polystyrene, boardstock Commercial blends of HFC- Acceptable The manufacturer has an and...

  17. Regeneration of roots from callus reveals stability of the developmental program for determinate root growth in Sonoran Desert Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkova, Svetlana; García-Mendoza, Edith; Castillo-Díaz, Vicente; Moreno, Norma E; Arellano, Jesús; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2007-05-01

    In some Sonoran Desert Cactaceae the primary root has a determinate root growth: the cells of the root apical meristem undergo only a few cell division cycles and then differentiate. The determinate growth of primary roots in Cactaceae was found in plants cultivated under various growth conditions, and could not be reverted by any treatment tested. The mechanisms involved in root meristem maintenance and determinate root growth in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, we have shown that roots regenerated from the callus of two Cactaceae species, Stenocereus gummosus and Ferocactus peninsulae, have a determinate growth pattern, similar to that of the primary root. To demonstrate this, a protocol for root regeneration from callus was established. The determinate growth pattern of roots regenerated from callus suggests that the program of root development is very stable in these species. These findings will permit future analysis of the role of certain Cactaceae genes in the determinate pattern of root growth via the regeneration of transgenic roots from transformed calli.

  18. Programmed death-1 concentration at the immunological synapse is determined by ligand affinity and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentcheva-Hoang, Tsvetelina; Chen, Lieping; Pardoll, Drew M; Allison, James P

    2007-11-06

    Despite the importance of programmed death-1 (PD-1) for T cell inhibition, little is known about its intracellular trafficking or requirements for localization to the immunological synapse. Here, we show that in activated T cells, PD-1 is present at the plasma membrane, near the Golgi and in the trans-Golgi network. Unlike CD28 and CTLA-4, PD-1 accumulation at the synapse is extensive only when T cells interact with dendritic cells (DCs) expressing high B7-DC levels. However, B7-H1 is also critically important, especially when the DCs have little B7-DC. Despite this preference, B7-H1(-/-) DCs elicit greater cytokine secretion than B7-DC(-/-) DCs during T cell restimulation, possibly because they also express less B7-DC. PD-1 and CD28 have similar kinetics of synaptic accumulation, suggesting that the process involves T cell receptor-triggered cytoskeletal reorganization followed by ligand binding.

  19. Method and program product for determining a radiance field in an optical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersman, Phillip N. (Inventor); Carder, Kendall L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid method is presented by which Monte Carlo techniques are combined with iterative relaxation techniques to solve the Radiative Transfer Equation in arbitrary one-, two- or three-dimensional optical environments. The optical environments are first divided into contiguous regions, or elements, with Monte Carlo techniques then being employed to determine the optical response function of each type of element. The elements are combined, and the iterative relaxation techniques are used to determine simultaneously the radiance field on the boundary and throughout the interior of the modeled environment. This hybrid model is capable of providing estimates of the under-water light field needed to expedite inspection of ship hulls and port facilities. It is also capable of providing estimates of the subaerial light field for structured, absorbing or non-absorbing environments such as shadows of mountain ranges within and without absorption spectral bands such as water vapor or CO.sub.2 bands.

  20. Genetic, nongenetic and epigenetic risk determinants in developmental programming of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaag, Allan; Brøns, Charlotte; Gillberg, Linn

    2014-01-01

    the mother and her offspring. Epigenetic mechanisms may explain the link between factors operating in fetal life and later risk of developing T2D, but so far convincing evidence is lacking for epigenetic changes as a prime and direct cause of T2D. This review addresses recent literature on the early origins...... of adult disease hypothesis, with a special emphasis on the role of genetic compared with nongenetic and epigenetic risk determinants and disease mechanisms....

  1. Comparison of Strong Gravitational Lens Model Software II. HydraLens: Computer-Assisted Strong Gravitational Lens Model Generation and Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Lefor, Alsn T

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of strong gravitational lens model software in the analysis of lens models is not necessarily consistent among the various software available, suggesting that the use of several models may enhance the understanding of the system being studied. Among the publicly available codes, the model input files are heterogeneous, making the creation of multiple models tedious. An enhanced method of creating model files and a method to easily create multiple models, may increase the number of comparison studies. HydraLens simplifies the creation of model files for four strong gravitational lens model software packages, including Lenstool, Gravlens/Lensmodel, glafic and PixeLens, using a custom designed GUI for each of the four codes that simplifies the entry of the model for each of these codes, obviating the need for user manuals to set the values of the many flags and in each data field. HydraLens is designed in a modular fashion, which simplifies the addition of other strong gravitational lens codes in th...

  2. SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and velicer's MAP test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, B P

    2000-08-01

    Popular statistical software packages do not have the proper procedures for determining the number of components in factor and principal components analyses. Parallel analysis and Velicer's minimum average partial (MAP) test are validated procedures, recommended widely by statisticians. However, many researchers continue to use alternative, simpler, but flawed procedures, such as the eigenvalues-greater-than-one rule. Use of the proper procedures might be increased if these procedures could be conducted within familiar software environments. This paper describes brief and efficient programs for using SPSS and SAS to conduct parallel analyses and the MAP test.

  3. Determinants of compliance in the emissions compensation program in Santiago, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Milagros [Universidad de Concepcion, Master Program in Natural Resources and Environmental Economics, Concepcion (Chile); Chavez, Carlos [Universidad de Concepcion, Dept. of Economics, Concepcion (Chile)

    2005-08-01

    The Emissions Compensation (EC) Program in Santiago, Chile, has been affected from the beginning by the incidence of individual violations of maximum-emission capacity permits. Based on information at the individual source level, in this paper we develop and estimate a model explaining the individual compliance decision with emission capacity permits. Our results indicate that the compliance behavior of sources during the period 1993-1999 do in fact depend on their individual characteristics. Among other factors, type of equipment used, industrial sector to which the source belongs, fuel type used, the initial allocation of emission capacity permits to the source, and population density as well as average income in the area where the source is located, turn out to be relevant. Furthermore, the evidence does not allow us to reject the presence of structural change in the individual decision to comply with permit holdings because of the introduction of natural gas in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago at the end of 1997. (Author)

  4. Identifying determinants of nations' wetland management programs using structural equation modeling: An exploratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Peyre, M.K.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Reams, M.A.; Templet, P.H.; Grace, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Integrated management and policy models suggest that solutions to environmental issues may be linked to the socioeconomic and political Characteristics of a nation. In this study, we empirically explore these suggestions by applying them to the wetland management activities of nations. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate a model of national wetland management effort and one of national wetland protection. Using five predictor variables of social capital, economic capital, environmental and political characteristics, and land-use pressure, the multivariate models were able to explain 60% of the variation in nations' wetland protection efforts based on data from 90 nations, as defined by level of participation, in the international wetland convention. Social capital had the largest direct effect on wetland protection efforts, suggesting that increased social development may eventually lead to better wetland protection. In contrast, increasing economic development had a negative linear relationship with wetland protection efforts, suggesting the need for explicit wetland protection programs as nations continue to focus on economic development. Government, environmental characteristics, and land-use pressure also had a positive direct effect on wetland protection, and mediated the effect of social capital on wetland protection. Explicit wetland protection policies, combined with a focus on social development, would lead to better wetland protection at the national level.

  5. A genome resource to address mechanisms of developmental programming: determination of the fetal sheep heart transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Laura A; Glenn, Jeremy P; Spradling, Kimberly D; Nijland, Mark J; Garcia, Roy; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2012-06-15

    The pregnant sheep has provided seminal insights into reproduction related to animal and human development (ovarian function, fertility, implantation, fetal growth, parturition and lactation). Fetal sheep physiology has been extensively studied since 1950, contributing significantly to the basis for our understanding of many aspects of fetal development and behaviour that remain in use in clinical practice today. Understanding mechanisms requires the combination of systems approaches uniquely available in fetal sheep with the power of genomic studies. Absence of the full range of sheep genomic resources has limited the full realization of the power of this model, impeding progress in emerging areas of pregnancy biology such as developmental programming. We have examined the expressed fetal sheep heart transcriptome using high-throughput sequencing technologies. In so doing we identified 36,737 novel transcripts and describe genes, gene variants and pathways relevant to fundamental developmental mechanisms. Genes with the highest expression levels and with novel exons in the fetal heart transcriptome are known to play central roles in muscle development. We show that high-throughput sequencing methods can generate extensive transcriptome information in the absence of an assembled and annotated genome for that species. The gene sequence data obtained provide a unique genomic resource for sheep specific genetic technology development and, combined with the polymorphism data, augment annotation and assembly of the sheep genome. In addition, identification and pathway analysis of novel fetal sheep heart transcriptome splice variants is a first step towards revealing mechanisms of genetic variation and gene environment interactions during fetal heart development.

  6. The Primary Observation of Monster Hydras from Heterograft%异种嫁接的水螅畸形体初步观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小婷; 吴佩玲; 汪安泰; 吴程琛; 邓利

    2011-01-01

    Hydra robusta and H. Vulgaris were cut transversely in the sub-hypostome region and the basal portion of two hydranth were grafted together. Three kinds of monster hydras, totally 78 individuals were found after 280 days continuous observation, it was shown that: ① monster and its asexual reproduction offspring contained 2 kinds of falcate nematocyst ( H. Robusta' s and H. Vulgaris' falcate nematocyst) ; ② its length could reach 52 mm when it stretched its body; ③ the average period of asexual gemmation was more than 10 days; ④ individuals died after reproducing 3-8 generations; ⑤ those who had 4, 5 and 6 tentacles consisted of 80% , 10% and 10% the individuals respectively; ⑥ it had no sexual reproduction; ⑦ it needed a relatively long time to regenerate after being cut off. When completing regeneration, both its form and development were as the normal one; ⑧ hyperplastic tissue appeared on the surface of its ectoderm, and went to apoptosis on the scapus, or disintegrated 1-2 days after disengaging form matrix; endodenn's cellular conglomeration frequently disengaged from the body, entering digestive chambers. The phenomena of hyperplasia and apoptosis appeared on the monster hydra from heterograft showed that hydra might have primitive immune system that can identify and exclude heterogenetic tissues.%摘要:把强壮水螅(Hydra robusta)和普通水螅(H.vulgaris)除头后进行异种切口嫁接实验,共获得3例畸形体,对其进行280 d的培养,获得78只畸形子代。追踪观察发现:①畸形体及其无性生殖子代均具有2种钩刺丝囊(强壮水媳钩刺丝囊和普通水螅钩刺丝囊);②其身体伸展时最长达52 mm;③无性出芽生殖的平均生殖周期10 d以上;④个体无性生殖3~8代后凋亡;⑤触手数为4、5和6条的个体分别占80%、10%和10%;⑥不发生有性生殖;⑦切割再生时间长,再生后形态与发育特性同术前个体;⑧

  7. Training medical students in the social determinants of health: the Health Scholars Program at Puentes de Salud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Matthew J; Garland, Joseph M; Murphy, Katie M; Shuman, Sarah J; Whitaker, Robert C; Larson, Steven C

    2014-01-01

    Given the large influence of social conditions on health, physicians may be more effective if they are trained to identify and address social factors that impact health. Despite increasing interest in teaching the social determinants of health in undergraduate medical education, few models exist. We present a 9-month pilot course on the social determinants of health for medical and other health professional students, which is based at Puentes de Salud, Philadelphia, PA, USA, a community health center serving a Latino immigrant population. This service-learning course, called the Health Scholars Program (HSP), was developed and implemented by volunteer medical and public health faculty in partnership with the community-based clinic. The HSP curriculum combines didactic instruction with service experiences at Puentes de Salud and opportunities for critical reflection. The HSP curriculum also includes a longitudinal project where students develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention to address a community-defined need. In our quantitative evaluation, students reported high levels of agreement with the HSP meeting stated course goals, including developing an understanding of the social determinants of health and working effectively with peers to implement community-based projects. Qualitative assessments revealed students' perception of learning more about this topic in the HSP than in their formal medical training and of developing a long-term desire to serve vulnerable communities as a result. Our experience with the HSP suggests that partnerships between academic medical centers and community-based organizations can create a feasible, effective, and sustainable platform for teaching medical students about the social determinants of health. Similar medical education programs in the future should seek to achieve a larger scale and to evaluate both students' educational experiences and community-defined outcomes.

  8. Environmental Service-Learning Programs in Florida High Schools and Colleges: Nature, Status, and Effects as Determined by a Statewide Program Census

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Yuliya A.; Marcinkowski, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe environmental service-learning (SL) programs in Florida high schools and colleges through a statewide program census that explored (a) academic, service, and reflection program features; (b) effects of Furco's SL outcome domains on student outcomes; and (c) program partnerships. The results of the study reveal that secondary…

  9. Bioassay program: determination of I-131 body burden among radiation workers and nuclear medicine laboratory technicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, E.B.; Napenas, D.; San Jose, V.; Juan, N.

    The body burden of I-131 was determined among the radiation workers of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) who are directly involved in I-131 processing and nuclear laboratory technicians of University of Santo Tomas and Veterans Hospital, who handle and dispense I-131 to patients. The routine monitoring was done by urine analysis. The untreated urine samples were counted directly for 4000 seconds using Nal(Tl) scintillation detector coupled to an ND66 microcomputer-based multichannel analyzer. Urine samples of radiation workers of PAEC who are not involved in I-131 processing and non-radiation workers were also assayed for comparison. For radiation workers of PAEC who are directly involved in processing I-131, the estimated body burden of I-131 ranged from <0.055 to 8.53 uCi (282 urine samples). These values were higher than those observed for radiation workers not involved in the handling or processing of I-131 with estimated body burden of I-131 ranging from <0.055 to 0.52 uCi (48 urine samples) or than those observed from non-radiation workers (<0.055 uCi). The maximum permissible burden of I-131 is 0.7 uCi.

  10. Using an experimental manipulation to determine the effectiveness of a stock enhancement program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2015-01-01

    We used an experimental manipulation to determine the impact of stocking 178 mm channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in six impoundments. The study design consisted of equal numbers (two) of control, ceased-stock, and stocked treatments that were sampled one year before and two years after stocking. Relative abundance, growth, size structure, and average weight significantly changed over time based on samples collected with hoop nets. Catch rates decreased at both ceased-stock lakes and increased for one stocked lake, while growth rates changed for at least one ceased-stock and stocked lake. The average weight of channel catfish in the ceased-stock treatment increased by 6% and 25%, whereas weight decreased by 28% and 78% in both stocked lakes. The variability in observed responses between lakes in both ceased-stock and stocked treatments indicates that a one-size-fits-all stocking agenda is impractical, suggesting lake specific and density-dependent mechanisms affect channel catfish population dynamics.

  11. Test Results For a 25-m Prototype Fault Current Limiting HTS Cable for Project Hydra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, Christopher M [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its recently upgraded HTS cable test facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture of Southwire and nkt cables with FCL features and HTS wire provided by American Superconductor Corporation. The overall project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ~ 200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3- ) Triax design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

  12. Grasping the hydra: the need for a holistic and systematic approach to disaster risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Becker

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article stresses the significance of recognising interdependencies between factors determining disaster risk in any attempts to integrate disaster risk reduction in international development cooperation. It bases its arguments on the case studies of four past projects in Sri Lanka and Tajikistan, which are scrutinised using a theoretical framework based on systems approaches. It appears that the results of ignoring interdependencies may (1cause sub-optimisation problems where the desired outcome is not reached as the factor focused on and/or the desired outcome are dependent on other factors, and (2 make it difficult or impossible to monitor and evaluate the actual effects of international development cooperation projects in disaster risk reduction.

  13. RKR1: A computer program implementing the first-order RKR method for determining diatomic molecule potential energy functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes computer program RKR1, which implements the first-order semiclassical Rydberg-Klein-Rees procedure for determining the potential energy function for a diatomic molecule from a knowledge of the dependence of the molecular vibrational energies Gv and inertial rotation constants Bv on the vibrational quantum number v. RKR1 allows the vibrational energies and rotational constants to be defined in terms of: (i) conventional Dunham polynomial expansions, (ii) near-dissociation expansions (NDE's), or (iii) the mixed Dunham/NDE "MXR" functions introduced by Tellinghuisen [J Chem Phys 2003; 118: 3532]. Internal convergence tests ascertain and report on the precision of the resulting turning points. For cases in which only vibrational data are available, RKR1 also allows an overall potential to be constructed by combining directly-calculated well widths with inner turning points generated from a Morse function. It can also automatically smooth over irregular or unphysical behavior of the steep inner wall of the potential.

  14. Proceedings of the relevance of mass spectrometry to DNA sequence determination: Research needs for the Human Genome Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, C.G.; Smith, R.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Smith, L.M. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A workshop was sponsored for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Health and Environmental Research by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, April 4--5, 1990, in Seattle, Washington, to examine the potential role of mass spectrometry in the joint DOE/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Genome Program. The workshop was occasioned by recent developments in mass spectrometry that are providing new levels for selectivity, sensitivity, and, in particular, new methods of ionization appropriate for large biopolymers such as DNA. During discussions, three general mass spectrometric approaches to the determination of DNA sequence were considered: (1) the mass spectrometric detection of isotopic labels from DNA sequencing mixtures separated using gel electrophoresis, (2) the direct mass spectrometric analysis from direct ionization of unfractionated sequencing mixtures where the measured mass of the constituents functions to identify and order the base sequence (replacing separation by gel electrophoresis), and (3) an approach in which a single highly charged molecular ion of a large DNA segment produced is rapidly sequenced in an ion cyclotron resonance ion trap. The consensus of the workshop was that, on the basis of the new developments, mass spectrometry has the potential to provide the substantial increases in sequencing speed required for the Human Genome Program. 66 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Proceedings of the relevance of mass spectrometry to DNA sequence determination: Research needs for the Human Genome Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, C.G.; Smith, R.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Smith, L.M. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A workshop was sponsored for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Health and Environmental Research by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, April 4--5, 1990, in Seattle, Washington, to examine the potential role of mass spectrometry in the joint DOE/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Genome Program. The workshop was occasioned by recent developments in mass spectrometry that are providing new levels for selectivity, sensitivity, and, in particular, new methods of ionization appropriate for large biopolymers such as DNA. During discussions, three general mass spectrometric approaches to the determination of DNA sequence were considered: (1) the mass spectrometric detection of isotopic labels from DNA sequencing mixtures separated using gel electrophoresis, (2) the direct mass spectrometric analysis from direct ionization of unfractionated sequencing mixtures where the measured mass of the constituents functions to identify and order the base sequence (replacing separation by gel electrophoresis), and (3) an approach in which a single highly charged molecular ion of a large DNA segment produced is rapidly sequenced in an ion cyclotron resonance ion trap. The consensus of the workshop was that, on the basis of the new developments, mass spectrometry has the potential to provide the substantial increases in sequencing speed required for the Human Genome Program. 66 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Training medical students in the social determinants of health: the Health Scholars Program at Puentes de Salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Brien MJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Matthew J O’Brien,1–4 Joseph M Garland,4,5 Katie M Murphy,4,6,7 Sarah J Shuman,3,4 Robert C Whitaker,1,3,8 Steven C Larson4,9 1Center for Obesity Research and Education, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Section of General Internal Medicine, Temple University of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Puentes de Salud Health Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 6Master of Public Health Program, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 7Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 8Department of Pediatrics, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 9Department of Emergency Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Purpose: Given the large influence of social conditions on health, physicians may be more effective if they are trained to identify and address social factors that impact health. Despite increasing interest in teaching the social determinants of health in undergraduate medical education, few models exist. Participants and methods: We present a 9-month pilot course on the social determinants of health for medical and other health professional students, which is based at Puentes de Salud, Philadelphia, PA, USA, a community health center serving a Latino immigrant population. This service-learning course, called the Health Scholars Program (HSP, was developed and implemented by volunteer medical and public health faculty in partnership with the community-based clinic. The HSP curriculum combines didactic instruction with service experiences at Puentes de Salud and opportunities for critical reflection. The HSP curriculum also includes a longitudinal project where

  17. Mathematical programming (MP) model to determine optimal transportation infrastructure for geologic CO2 storage in the Illinois basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmer, Donald E.

    Analysis of results from a mathematical programming model were examined to 1) determine the least cost options for infrastructure development of geologic storage of CO2 in the Illinois Basin, and 2) perform an analysis of a number of CO2 emission tax and oil price scenarios in order to implement development of the least-cost pipeline networks for distribution of CO2. The model, using mixed integer programming, tested the hypothesis of whether viable EOR sequestration sites can serve as nodal points or hubs to expand the CO2 delivery infrastructure to more distal locations from the emissions sources. This is in contrast to previous model results based on a point-to- point model having direct pipeline segments from each CO2 capture site to each storage sink. There is literature on the spoke and hub problem that relates to airline scheduling as well as maritime shipping. A large-scale ship assignment problem that utilized integer linear programming was run on Excel Solver and described by Mourao et al., (2001). Other literature indicates that aircraft assignment in spoke and hub routes can also be achieved using integer linear programming (Daskin and Panayotopoulos, 1989; Hane et al., 1995). The distribution concept is basically the reverse of the "tree and branch" type (Rothfarb et al., 1970) gathering systems for oil and natural gas that industry has been developing for decades. Model results indicate that the inclusion of hubs as variables in the model yields lower transportation costs for geologic carbon dioxide storage over previous models of point-to-point infrastructure geometries. Tabular results and GIS maps of the selected scenarios illustrate that EOR sites can serve as nodal points or hubs for distribution of CO2 to distal oil field locations as well as deeper saline reservoirs. Revenue amounts and capture percentages both show an improvement over solutions when the hubs are not allowed to come into the solution. Other results indicate that geologic

  18. Determine The Factors Affecting The Blood Donors Of Selecting Blood Donor Program Me In Western Province Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perera D. A. K.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blood and blood component transfusion is one of the major therapeutic practices throughout the world. National Blood Transfusion Service NBTS in Sri Lanka requires approximately 300000 blood units annually. After initiating mobile donor programme there have been two types of blood donation programs in Sri Lanka since 1980. Since second half of first decade of 21st century Sri Lanka shifted to 100 non-replacement blood transfusion policy. That means whole blood and blood component requirement of NBTS has to be collected through mobile blood donor program and voluntary In-house blood donor program. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting the blood donors of selecting blood donor program in Western province Sri Lanka. Methodology This was a cross sectional descriptive study. The study composed of two components. .First the factors that cause the blood donor to select a blood donor programme second the facility survey of blood banks In-house donation. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 410 Mobile blood donors. Facility survey was done using a checklist. The dependant variables were the attendance of the blood donors to Mobile blood donation and In-house blood donation. Independent variables included were the factors related to socio demography service quality accessibility availability and intrinsic extrinsic motivation. The analytical statistics applied for testing the association of factors with the blood donor programme was chi-square test. The study has shown some important findings. There was significant association between income level and donating blood. Only 3.3 of In-house blood donor population was female. Majority of In-house population belonged to 30-41 age group. A statistically significant association exists between age and repeat blood donation. The female blood donors tendency of becoming repeat donors was very low. Distance problem and non

  19. Glycosaminoglycans in Hydra magnipapillata (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): demonstration of chondroitin in the developing nematocyst, the sting organelle, and structural characterization of glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shuhei; Morimoto, Hideto; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2007-08-01

    The hydrozoan is the simplest organism whose movements are governed by the neuromuscular system, and its de novo morphogenesis can be easily induced by the removal of body parts. These features make the hydrozoan an excellent model for studying the regeneration of tissues in vivo, especially in the nervous system. Although glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) have been implicated in the signaling functions of various growth factors and play critical roles in the development of the central nervous system, the isolation and characterization of GAGs from hydrozoans have never been reported. Here, we characterized GAGs of Hydra magnipapillata. Immunostaining using anti-GAG antibodies showed chondroitin or chondroitin sulfate (CS) in the developing nematocyst, which is a sting organelle specific to cnidarians. The CS-PGs might furnish an environment for assembling nematocyst components, and might themselves be components of nematocysts. Therefore, GAGs were isolated from Hydra and their structural features were examined. A considerable amount of CS, three orders of magnitude less heparan sulfate (HS), but no hyaluronan were found, as in Caenorhabditis elegans. Analysis of the disaccharide composition of HS revealed glucosamine 2-N-sulfation, glucosamine 6-O-sulfation, and uronate 2-O-sulfation. CS contains not only nonsulfated and 4-O-sulfated N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) but also 6-O-sulfated GalNAc. The average molecular size of CS and HS was 110 and 10 kDa, respectively. It has also been established here that CS chains are synthesized on the core protein through the ubiquitous linkage region tetrasaccharide, suggesting that indispensable functions of the linkage region in the synthesis of GAGs have been conserved during evolution.

  20. Determinants of retention in care in an antiretroviral therapy (ART program in urban Cameroon, 2003-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Cecile Zoung-Kanyi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Retention in long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART program remains a major challenge for effective management of HIV infected people in sub-Saharan Africa. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (ART discontinuation raises concerns about drug resistance and could negate much of the benefit sought by ART programs. Methods:Based on existing patient records, we assessed determinants of retention in HIV care among HIV patients enrolled in an urban ART at two urban hospitals in Cameroon. Extended Cox regression procedures were used to identify significant predictors of retention in HIV care. Results:Of 455 patients, 314 (69% were women, median (IQR age and baseline CD4 cell count were respectively 36 years (30 – 43 and 110 cells/µL (39 – 177. Forty patients (9% had active tuberculosis (TB at enrollment. After a median (IQR follow-up of 18 months (10–18, 346 (75% were still in care, 8 (2% were known dead, and 101 (22% were lost to follow-up (LFU. Severe immunosuppression (CD4 cell count ≤ 50 cells/µL at baseline (aHR 2.3; 95% CI 1.4 - 3.7 and active tuberculosis upon enrollment (aHR 1.8; 95% CI 1.0 - 3.6 were independent predictors of cohort losses to follow-up within the first 6 months after HAART initiation. Conclusion:These data suggest that three-quarter of HIV patients initiated on HAART remained in care and on HAART by 18 months; however, those with compromised immunologic status at treatment initiation, and those co-infected with TB were at increased risk for being lost to follow-up within the first 6 months on treatment.

  1. Walking in the high-rise city: a Health Enhancement and Pedometer-determined Ambulatory (HEPA program in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung AYM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Angela YM Leung,1,2 Mike KT Cheung,3 Michael A Tse,4 Wai Chuen Shum,5 BJ Lancaster,1,6 Cindy LK Lam7 1School of Nursing, 2Research Centre on Heart, Brain, Hormone and Healthy Aging, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, 3Centre on Research and Advocacy, Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation, 4Institute of Human Performance, University of Hong Kong, 5Sheng Kung Hui Holy Carpenter Church Social Services, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People’s Republic of China; 6School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 7Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Due to the lack of good infrastructure in the public estates, many older adults in urban areas are sedentary. The Health Enhancement and Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory (HEPA program was developed to assist older adults with diabetes and/or hypertension to acquire walking exercise habits and to build social support, while engaged in regular physical activity. This study aimed to describe the HEPA program and to report changes in participants’ walking capacity and body strength after 10-week walking sessions. A pre- and postintervention design was used. Pedometers were used to measure the number of steps taken per day before and after the 10-week intervention. Upper and lower body strength, lower body flexibility, and quality of life were assessed. A total of 205 older adults completed the program and all health assessments. After the 10-week intervention, the average number of steps per day increased by 36%, from 6,591 to 8,934. Lower body strength, upper body strength, and aerobic fitness increased significantly after 10 weeks, along with improvement in the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF™-12 physical and mental health component summary scores. A social support network was built in the neighborhood, and the local environment was

  2. HypCal, a general-purpose computer program for the determination of standard reaction enthalpy and binding constant values by means of calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Giuseppe; Gans, Peter; Sgarlata, Carmelo

    2016-09-01

    The program HypCal has been developed to provide a means for the simultaneous determination, from data obtained by isothermal titration calorimetry, of both standard enthalpy of reaction and binding constant values. The chemical system is defined in terms of species of given stoichiometry rather than in terms of binding models (e.g., independent or cooperative). The program does not impose any limits on the complexity of the chemical systems that can be treated, including competing ligand systems. Many titration curves may be treated simultaneously. HypCal can also be used as a simulation program when designing experiments. The use of the program is illustrated with data obtained with nicotinic acid (niacin, pyridine-3 carboxylic acid). Preliminary experiments were used to establish the rather different titration conditions for the two sets of titration curves that are needed to determine the parameters for protonation of the carboxylate and amine groups.

  3. 长蛇灸治疗强直性脊柱炎中的护理安全管理%Nursing security management of hydra moxibustion treatment applied in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊丽萍; 龚小燕; 潘芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨长蛇灸治疗强直性脊柱炎中的护理安全问题及其防范措施,防止不良并发症发生.方法 对患者施灸前做好充分的灸前准备,并针对治疗中容易发生的皮肤过敏及感染、烫伤、晕厥等安全问题进行积极防范以及灸后的护理干预.结果 38例患者无并发症发生,保障了患者安全.结论 针对长蛇灸治疗强直性脊柱炎中的护理安全问题积极防范,可以保障患者安全.%Objective To explore nursing safety problems and management strategies of hydra moxibustion treatment applied in patients with ankyiosing spondylitis, so as to prevent the occurrence of adverse complications. Methods Adequate preparation was done before hydra moxibustion treatment, and the problems, which were easy to occur during the treatment,such as skin allergies and infections,burns,syncope and other safety issues, were prevented actively,and nursing interventions after hydra moxibustion treatment were strengthened. Result No adverse complications happened in 38 patients, and the safty of patients was protected. Conclusion Positive prevention of nursing security problems during hydra moxibustion treatment can enhance the safety of patients.

  4. DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING A SITUATED LEARNING PROGRAM AND DETERMINING ITS IMPACT ON THE STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrozaman Naeemi HOSSAINY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Inability to use knowledge is one of the major problems that university graduates face. Some instructional designers recommend situated learning for the solution. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of situated learning on students' school motivation and achievement. The two main hypotheses are: 1- Situated learning increases learning. 2- Situated learning increases school motivation. Thirty four psychology junior students at Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran participated in the study. Classes were randomly selected for situated learning curriculum and lecture- based curriculum. Lecture-based curriculum was performed in face to face classroom. Situated learning was carried out in blended learning approach. Data was collected by school achievement test and the short form of Mc Inerney and Sinclaier standard motivation questionnaire, before and after interventions. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software version 15. It was shown that situated learning increased academic achievement (p<0.001 and motivation (p<0.001 in comparison to lecture- based learning and can serve as a good method in instructional programs.

  5. Methodology for determining whether an increase in a state's child poverty rate is the result of the TANF program--Administration for Children and Families, HHS. Proposed rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-23

    The Administration for Children and Families is proposing a methodology to determine the child poverty rate in each State. If a State experiences an increase in its child poverty rate of 5 percent or more as a result of its Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, the State must submit and implement a corrective action plan. This requirement is a part of the new welfare reform block grant program enacted in 1996.

  6. Horizontal gene transfer contributed to the evolution of extracellular surface structures: the freshwater polyp Hydra is covered by a complex fibrous cuticle containing glycosaminoglycans and proteins of the PPOD and SWT (sweet tooth families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Böttger

    Full Text Available The single-cell layered ectoderm of the fresh water polyp Hydra fulfills the function of an epidermis by protecting the animals from the surrounding medium. Its outer surface is covered by a fibrous structure termed the cuticle layer, with similarity to the extracellular surface coats of mammalian epithelia. In this paper we have identified molecular components of the cuticle. We show that its outermost layer contains glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans and we have identified chondroitin and chondroitin-6-sulfate chains. In a search for proteins that could be involved in organising this structure we found PPOD proteins and several members of a protein family containing only SWT (sweet tooth domains. Structural analyses indicate that PPODs consist of two tandem β-trefoil domains with similarity to carbohydrate-binding sites found in lectins. Experimental evidence confirmed that PPODs can bind sulfated glycans and are secreted into the cuticle layer from granules localized under the apical surface of the ectodermal epithelial cells. PPODs are taxon-specific proteins which appear to have entered the Hydra genome by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. Their acquisition at the time Hydra evolved from a marine ancestor may have been critical for the transition to the freshwater environment.

  7. FIT: Computer Program that Interactively Determines Polynomial Equations for Data which are a Function of Two Independent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, P. D.; Sliwa, S. M.; Roy, M. L.; Tiffany, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program for interactively developing least-squares polynomial equations to fit user-supplied data is described. The program is characterized by the ability to compute the polynomial equations of a surface fit through data that are a function of two independent variables. The program utilizes the Langley Research Center graphics packages to display polynomial equation curves and data points, facilitating a qualitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the fit. An explanation of the fundamental principles and features of the program, as well as sample input and corresponding output, are included.

  8. A truly human interface: interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower) repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots) become hybrid agents (“echoborgs”) capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people’s experiences interacting with echoborgs and the extent to which echoborgs pass as autonomous humans. First, participants in a Turing Test spoke with a chat bot via either a text interface or an echoborg. Human shadowing did not improve the chat bot’s chance of passing but did increase interrogators’ ratings of how human-like the chat bot seemed. In our second study, participants had to decide whether their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot or simply pretended to be one. Compared to those who engaged a text interface, participants who engaged an echoborg were more likely to perceive their interlocutor as pretending to be a chat bot. In our third study, participants were naïve to the fact that their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot. Unlike those who engaged a text interface, the vast majority of participants who engaged an echoborg did not sense a robotic interaction. These findings have implications for android science, the Turing Test paradigm, and human–computer interaction. The human body, as the delivery mechanism of communication, fundamentally alters the social psychological dynamics of interactions with machine intelligence. PMID:26042066

  9. A truly human interface: Interacting face-to-face with someone whose words are determined by a computer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eCorti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We use speech shadowing to create situations wherein people converse in person with a human whose words are determined by a conversational agent computer program. Speech shadowing involves a person (the shadower repeating vocal stimuli originating from a separate communication source in real-time. Humans shadowing for conversational agent sources (e.g., chat bots become hybrid agents (echoborgs capable of face-to-face interlocution. We report three studies that investigated people’s experiences interacting with echoborgs and the extent to which echoborgs pass as autonomous humans. First, participants in a Turing Test spoke with a chat bot via either a text interface or an echoborg. Human shadowing did not improve the chat bot’s chance of passing but did increase interrogators’ ratings of how human-like the chat bot seemed. In our second study, participants had to decide whether their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot or simply pretended to be one. Compared to those who engaged a text interface, participants who engaged an echoborg were more likely to perceive their interlocutor as pretending to be a chat bot. In our third study, participants were naïve to the fact that their interlocutor produced words generated by a chat bot. Unlike those who engaged a text interface, the vast majority of participants who engaged an echoborg neither sensed nor suspected a robotic interaction. These findings have implications for android science, the Turing Test paradigm, and human-computer interaction. The human body, as the delivery mechanism of communication, fundamentally alters the social psychological dynamics of interactions with machine intelligence.

  10. Evaluation of condylar inclination of dentulous subjects determined by axiograph and to compare with manual programming of articulators using protrusive interocclusal record

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Krishna D.; Manoj Shetty; Chandy, Binoj K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To determine the average condylar inclination using ultrasonic axiograph; to determine the average condylar inclination using protrusive interocclusal bite records; to compare whether there is any marked difference in the values obtained by these techniques. Settings and Design: This clinical study compares the mean horizontal condylar inclination of the ultrasonic axiograph (Axioquick system) and the manual programming using protrusive interocclusal records. Materials and Methods: The ...

  11. Removing Size as a Determinant of Quality: A Per Capita Approach to Ranking Doctoral Programs in Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Roger McNeill; White, John Bryan; Barth, Michael M.

    2011-01-01

    Rankings of finance doctoral programs generally fall into two categories: a qualitative opinion survey or a quantitative analysis of research productivity. The consistency of these rankings suggests either the best programs have the most productive faculty, or that the university affiliations most often seen in publications are correlated with…

  12. Livelihood strategies in settlement projects in the Brazilian Amazon: Determining drivers and factors within the Agrarian Reform Program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diniz, F.H.; Hoogstra, M.A.; Kok, K.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, hundreds of thousands of families have settled in the Brazilian Amazon within the framework of the Agrarian Reform Program (ARP). The rationale behind the program is to enable settlers to earn their living by small-scale farming and producing an agricultural surplus for the ma

  13. A Method of Determination of an Acquisition Program in Order to Maximize the Total Utility Using Linear Programming in Integer Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Cristian Ioan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper solves in a different way the problem of maximization of the total utility using the linear programming in integer numbers. The author uses the diofantic equations (equations in integers numbers and after a decomposing in different cases, he obtains the maximal utility.

  14. Medicare Program: Changes to the Medicare Claims and Entitlement, Medicare Advantage Organization Determination, and Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Determination Appeals Procedures. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    This final rule revises the procedures that the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) follows at the Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) level for appeals of payment and coverage determinations for items and services furnished to Medicare beneficiaries, enrollees in Medicare Advantage (MA) and other Medicare competitive health plans, and enrollees in Medicare prescription drug plans, as well as appeals of Medicare beneficiary enrollment and entitlement determinations, and certain Medicare premium appeals. In addition, this final rule revises procedures that the Department of Health and Human Services follows at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Medicare Appeals Council (Council) levels of appeal for certain matters affecting the ALJ level.

  15. Atmospheric deposition levels of chosen elements in the Czech Republic determined in the framework of the International Bryomonitoring Program 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucharova, J.; Suchara, I. [Research Institute of Ornamental Gardening, Laboratory of Trace Elements, CZ-252 43, Pruhonice (Czech Republic)

    1998-11-03

    In order to determine the atmospheric loads of 13 elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, V, Zn), samples of Pleurozium schreberi (81.1%), Hypnum cupressiforme (11.2%) and Pseudoscleropodium purum (7.7%) bryophytes (mosses) were taken and analysed from an approx. 20x20-km grid extending over the entire territory (78-864 km{sup 2}) of the Czech Republic (abbreviated 'the CZ' in this study). The level of the elements found in the bryophytes reflects the relative atmospheric deposition loads of the elements at the investigated sites. Five hot spots indicating relatively high deposition levels were identified in the CZ. The marginal hot spots are the following: the CZ part of the so-called Black Triangle I territory in northwestern CZ; the CZ part of the Black Triangle II territory in northeastern CZ; and the CZ part of the Sudeten mountains (Jizerske Mts and Giant Mts) and their foothills in northern CZ. Inland hot spots were found in the southwestern industrial part of central Bohemia and in the southern Moravian industrial district. The average element contents in CZ bryophytes were comparable with the respective average values obtained in Germany and Poland. However, the CZ average bryophyte values were higher and lower in comparison to the average Austrian and Slovak values, respectively. The CZ average relative atmospheric deposition loads of the elements were found to be 2-3 times higher than the respective loads in the cleanest parts of Europe (e.g. clean parts of Nordic countries). A comparison of the analytical results obtained repeatedly at 20 identical localities in the CZ showed a significant decrease in the relative deposition loads of all of the investigated elements in 1995 as compared to 1991. This decrease has been caused by the dramatic restriction of the industrial production, mainly that of the metallurgical and chemical industries, in the CZ. Desulphurisation programs and the effective trapping of flying dust particles in CZ

  16. A Field Program to Identify TRI Chemicals and Determine Emission Factors from DoD Munitions Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    FINAL REPORT to STRATEGIC ENVIROMENTAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (SERDP) on A FIELD PROGRAM TO IDENTIFY TRI CHEMICALS...adhere to EPCRA, including the toxic release inventory (TRI) requirements. A particularly difficult reporting issue for DoD concerns air emissions...primarily because of constraints imposed on the physical location of the lidar due to laser safety issues . The lack of flexibility in repositioning

  17. A TARGETED SEARCH FOR PECULIARLY RED L AND T DWARFS IN SDSS, 2MASS, AND WISE: DISCOVERY OF A POSSIBLE L7 MEMBER OF THE TW HYDRAE ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, Kendra; Metchev, Stanimir [Western University, Centre for Planetary and Space Exploration, 1151 Richmond St, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Geißler, Kerstin; Hicks, Shannon [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11790 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kurtev, Radostin, E-mail: kkellogg@uwo.ca, E-mail: smetchev@uwo.ca [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Ave. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Casilla 53, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-12-15

    We present the first results from a targeted search for brown dwarfs with unusual red colors indicative of peculiar atmospheric characteristics. These include objects with low surface gravities or with unusual dust content or cloud properties. From a positional cross-match of SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE, we have identified 40 candidate peculiar early-L to early-T dwarfs that are either new objects or have not been identified as peculiar through prior spectroscopy. Using low-resolution spectra, we confirm that 10 of the candidates are either peculiar or potential L/T binaries. With a J − K{sub s} color of 2.62 ± 0.15 mag, one of the new objects—the L7 dwarf 2MASS J11193254–1137466—is among the reddest field dwarfs currently known. Its proper motion and photometric parallax indicate that it is a possible member of the TW Hydrae moving group. If confirmed, it would be the lowest-mass (5–6 M{sub Jup}) free-floating member. We also report a new T dwarf, 2MASS J22153705+2110554, that was previously overlooked in the SDSS footprint. These new discoveries demonstrate that despite the considerable scrutiny already devoted to the SDSS and 2MASS surveys, our exploration of these data sets is not yet complete.

  18. A Chandra study of the large-scale shock and cool filaments in Hydra A: Evidence for substantial gas dredge-up by the central outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Gitti, Myriam; David, Laurence P; McNamara, Brian R; Wise, Michael W

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a Chandra study of the Hydra A galaxy cluster, where a powerful AGN outburst created a large-scale cocoon shock. We investigated possible azimuthal variations in shock strength and shape, finding indications for a weak shock with a Mach number in the range ~1.2-1.3. We measured the temperature change across the shock front. However, the detection of a temperature rise in the regions immediately inside of the front is complicated by the underlying temperature profile of the cluster atmosphere. We measured the global temperature profile of the cluster up to 700 kpc, which represents the farthest measurement obtained with Chandra for this cluster. A "plateau" in the temperature profile in the range ~70-150 kpc indicates the presence of cool gas, which is likely the result of uplift of material by the AGN outburst. After masking the cool filaments visible in the hardness ratio map, the plateau disappears and the temperature profile recovers a typical shape with a peak around 190 kpc, jus...

  19. CAPSIZE: A personal computer program and cross-section library for determining the shielding requirements, size, and capacity of shipping casks subject to various proposed objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1987-05-01

    A new interactive program called CAPSIZE has been written for the IBM-PC to rapidly determine the likely impact that proposed design objectives might have on the size and capacity of spent fuel shipping casks designed to meet those objectives. Given the burnup of the spent fuel, its cooling time, the thickness of the internal basket walls, the desired external dose rate, and the nominal weight limit of the loaded cask, the CAPSIZE program will determine the maximum number of PWR fuel assemblies that may be shipped in a lead-, steel-, or uranium-shielded cask meeting those objectives. The necessary neutron and gamma shield thicknesses are determined by the program in such a way as to meet the specified external dose rate while simultaneously minimizing the overall weight of the loaded cask. The one-group cross-section library used in the CAPSIZE program has been distilled from the intermediate results of several hundred 1-D multigroaup discrete ordinates calculations for different types of casks. Neutron and gamma source terms, as well as the decay heat terms, are based on ORIGEN-S analyses of PWR fuel assemblies having exposures of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 gigawatt days per metric tonne of initial heavy metal (GWD/MTIHM). In each case, values have been tabulated at 17 different decay times between 120 days and 25 years. Other features of the CAPSIZE program include a steady-state heat transfer calculation which will minimize the size and weight of external cooling fins, if and when such fins are required. Comparisons with previously reported results show that the CAPSIZE program can generally estimate the necessary neutron and gamma shield thicknesses to within 0.16 in. and 0.08 in., respectively. The corresponding cask weights have generally been found to be within 1000 lbs of previously reported results. 13 refs., 20 figs., 54 tabs.

  20. Effectiveness and Factors Determining the Success of Management Programs for Patients With Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanguren, Juana; Latorre García, Pedro María; Torcal Laguna, Jesús; Lekuona Goya, Iñaki; Rubio Martín, Susana; Maull Lafuente, Elena; Grandes, Gonzalo

    2016-10-01

    Heart failure management programs reduce hospitalizations. Some studies also show reduced mortality. The determinants of program success are unknown. The aim of the present study was to update our understanding of the reductions in mortality and readmissions produced by these programs, elucidate their components, and identify the factors determining program success. Systematic literature review (1990-2014; PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library) and manual search of relevant journals. The studies were selected by 3 independent reviewers. Methodological quality was evaluated in a blinded manner by an external researcher (Jadad scale). These results were pooled using random effects models. Heterogeneity was evaluated with the I(2) statistic, and its explanatory factors were determined using metaregression analysis. Of the 3914 studies identified, 66 randomized controlled clinical trials were selected (18 countries, 13 535 patients). We determined the relative risks to be 0.88 for death (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.81-0.96; P < .002; I(2), 6.1%), 0.92 for all-cause readmissions (95%CI, 0.86-0.98; P < .011; I(2), 58.7%), and 0.80 for heart failure readmissions (95%CI, 0.71-0.90; P < .0001; I(2), 52.7%). Factors associated with program success were implementation after 2001, program location outside the United States, greater baseline use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, a higher number of intervention team members and components, specialized heart failure cardiologists and nurses, protocol-driven education and its assessment, self-monitoring of signs and symptoms, detection of deterioration, flexible diuretic regimen, early care-seeking among patients and prompt health care response, psychosocial intervention, professional coordination, and program duration. We confirm the reductions in mortality and readmissions with heart failure management programs. Their success is associated with various structural and

  1. Medicaid program; withdrawal of determination of average manufacturer prices, multiple source drug definition, and upper limits for multiple source drugs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    This final rule withdraws two provisions from the "Medicaid Program; Prescription Drugs'' final rule (referred to hereafter as "AMP final rule") published in the July 17, 2007 Federal Register. The provisions we are withdrawing are as follows: The determination of average manufacturer price, and the Federal upper limits for multiple source drugs. We are also withdrawing the definition of "multiple source drug" as it was revised in the ``Medicaid Program; Multiple Source Drug Definition'' final rule published in the October 7, 2008 Federal Register.

  2. A Focus Group Assessment to Determine Motivations, Barriers and Effectiveness of a University-Based Worksite Wellness Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E. Hill-Mey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study explores university employee perceptions and under-standing about its Worksite Health Promotion Program (WHPP. The WHPP included a Health Risk Appraisal (HRA, biometric screening, publicity for on-campus health programs and facilities, and health coaching. Methods: A qualitative design was used based on a grounded theory approach. Four 90 minutes focus groups with 6-8 participants in each were con-ducted within a two 2 week period among employees, representing faculty/participants, faculty/nonparticipants, staff/participants, and staff/nonparticipants. Responses to questions about motivations, barriers, and perceived health benefits that impacted participation in the WHPP were digitally recorded, transcribed and coded for themes. Results: Incentives effectively motivated participation. Biometric screening had the largest impact on behavior change, followed by the information learned from the HRA. However, despite two-thirds of the employees participating in the program, lack of a full understanding of WHPP benefits and services lowered participation in follow-up services and supplemental pro-grams. Conclusions: Biometric screening and HRAs effectively motivate program participation. Communication of benefits and services are important when providing WHPPs.

  3. A focus group assessment to determine motivations, barriers and effectiveness of a university-based worksite wellness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Mey, Patricia E; Merrill, Ray M; Kumpfer, Karol L; Reel, Justine; Hyatt-Neville, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    This study explores university employee perceptions and under-standing about its Worksite Health Promotion Program (WHPP). The WHPP included a Health Risk Appraisal (HRA), biometric screening, publicity for on-campus health programs and facilities, and health coaching. A qualitative design was used based on a grounded theory ap-proach. Four 90 minutes focus groups with 6-8 participants in each were conducted within a two 2 week period among employees, representing fac-ulty/participants, fac-ulty/nonparticipants, staff/participants, and staff/nonparticipants. Responses to questions about motivations, barriers, and perceived health benefits that impacted participation in the WHPP were digi-tally recorded, transcribed and coded for themes. Incentives effectively motivated participation. Biometric screening had the largest impact on behavior change, followed by the information learned from the HRA. However, despite two-thirds of the employees partici-pating in the pro-gram, lack of a full understanding of WHPP benefits and services lowered partici-pation in follow-up services and supplemental pro-grams. Biometric screening and HRAs effectively motivate program par-ticipation. Communication of benefits and services are important when providing WHPPs.

  4. Requirements for regional short-haul air service and the definition of a flight program to determine neighborhood reactions to small transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, K.; Bollinger, L.; Bowles, J. V.; Waters, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the current status and future requirements of an intraregional short haul air service is given. A brief definition of the different types of short haul air service is given. This is followed by a historical review of previous attempts to develop short haul air service in high density urban areas and an assessment of the current status. The requirements for intraregional air service, the need for economic and environmental viability and the need for a flight research program are defined. A detailed outline of a research program that would determine urban community reaction to frequent operations of small transport aircraft is also given. Both the operation of such an experiment in a specific region (San Francisco Bay area) and the necessary design modifications of an existing fixed wing aircraft which could be used in the experiment are established. An estimate is made of overall program costs.

  5. 77 FR 74592 - Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program From Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program (77 FR 4300... use change GHG emissions related to grain sorghum ethanol by approximately 1.2 kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per million British thermal units of grain sorghum ethanol (kgCO 2...

  6. Recovery after short-stay total hip and knee arthroplasty. Evaluation of a support program and outcome determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker-Scheek, Inge van den

    2007-01-01

    As a result of the increasing demand for total hip arthroplasties (THA) and total knee arthroplasties (TKA), waiting lists are growing. To cope with this problem, many hospitals have introduced short-stay programs; a consequence is increased responsibility of the patient regarding his own rehabilita

  7. Small Business: Action Needed to Determine Whether DOD’s Comprehensive Subcontracting Plan Test Program Should Be Made Permanent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    contractor plants , divisions, or entire companies can yield administrative cost savings and enhance small business subcontracting opportunities...participant in the Test Program negotiates and reports on subcontracting goals and achievements for a specific fiscal year on a plant , division, or...Kristopher Keener (Assistant Director), Kathryn (Emily) Bond, Joe Hunter (Analyst-in-Charge), Cale Jones, Julia Kennon, Stephen V. Marchesani, Sylvia

  8. Aquatic toxicity of petroleum products and dispersant agents determined under the U.S. EPA Oil Spill Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development has developed baseline data on the ecotoxicity of selected petroleum products and several chemical dispersants as part of its oil spills research program. Two diluted bitumens (dilbits) from the Alberta Tar Sands were tested for acu...

  9. Learning to Teach in New York City: How Teachers and Schools Jointly Determine the Implementation of a Districtwide Mentoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Pam; Loeb, Susanna; Myung, Jeannie; Boyd, Donald; Lankford, Hamilton; Wyckoff, James

    2012-01-01

    Districts nationwide are implementing teacher induction programs as a strategy to increase both beginning teacher retention and student achievement. The induction of beginning teachers has been widely acknowledged as important for teachers' feelings of success and their retention (Darling-Hammond, 1994; Huling-Austin, 1989; Smylie, 1994).…

  10. QtUCP-A program for determining unit-cell parameters in electron diffraction experiments using double-tilt and rotation-tilt holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Hongsheng [Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: zhaohscas@yahoo.com.cn; Wu Deqi [Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yao Jincheng; Chang Aimin [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A computer program, QtUCP, has been developed based on several well-established algorithms using GCC 4.0 and Qt 4.0 (Open Source Edition) under Debian GNU/Linux 4.0r0. It can determine the unit-cell parameters from an electron diffraction tilt series obtained from both double-tilt and rotation-tilt holders. In this approach, two or more primitive cells of the reciprocal lattice are determined from experimental data, in the meantime, the measurement errors of the tilt angles are checked and minimized. Subsequently, the derived primitive cells are converted into the reduced form and then transformed into the reduced direct primitive cell. Finally all the patterns are indexed and the least-squares refinement is employed to obtain the optimized results of the lattice parameters. Finally, two examples are given to show the application of the program, one is based on the experiment, the other is from the simulation.

  11. QtUCP-a program for determining unit-cell parameters in electron diffraction experiments using double-tilt and rotation-tilt holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongsheng; Wu, Deqi; Yao, Jincheng; Chang, Aimin

    2008-11-01

    A computer program, QtUCP, has been developed based on several well-established algorithms using GCC 4.0 and Qt 4.0 (Open Source Edition) under Debian GNU/Linux 4.0r0. It can determine the unit-cell parameters from an electron diffraction tilt series obtained from both double-tilt and rotation-tilt holders. In this approach, two or more primitive cells of the reciprocal lattice are determined from experimental data, in the meantime, the measurement errors of the tilt angles are checked and minimized. Subsequently, the derived primitive cells are converted into the reduced form and then transformed into the reduced direct primitive cell. Finally all the patterns are indexed and the least-squares refinement is employed to obtain the optimized results of the lattice parameters. Finally, two examples are given to show the application of the program, one is based on the experiment, the other is from the simulation.

  12. Determinants of Successful Weight Loss After Using a Commercial Web-Based Weight Reduction Program for Six Months: Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postrach, Elisa; Aspalter, Rosa; Elbelt, Ulf; Koller, Michael; Longin, Rita; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet is widely available and commonly used for health information; therefore, Web-based weight loss programs could provide support to large parts of the population in self-guided weight loss. Previous studies showed that Web-based weight loss interventions can be effective, depending on the quality of the program. The most effective program tools are visual progress charts or tools for the self-monitoring of weight, diet, and exercises. KiloCoach, a commercial program currently available in German-speaking countries, incorporates these features. A previous investigation showed that the program effectively supports users in losing weight. Objective We investigated weight loss dynamics stratified by weight loss success after 6-month use of KiloCoach. Furthermore, we analyzed possible associations between intensity of program use and weight loss. The results are intended for tailoring user recommendations for weight-loss Internet platforms. Methods Datasets of KiloCoach users (January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2011) who actively used the platform for 6 months or more were assigned to this retrospective analysis. Users (N=479) were 42.2% men, mean age of 44.0 years (SD 11.7), with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 31.7 kg/m2 (SD 3.2). Based on the weight loss achieved after 6 months, 3 success groups were generated. The unsuccessful group lost weight. At baseline, the unsuccessful (n=261, 54.5%), moderate success (n=133, 27.8%), and high success (n=85, 17.8%) groups were similar in age, weight, BMI, and gender distribution. Results After 6 months, the unsuccessful group lost 1.2% (SD 2.4), the moderate success group lost 7.4% (SD 1.5), and the high success group lost 14.2% (SD 3.8) of their initial weight (Pweight loss (weeks 3-4), the total number of dietary protocols, and the total number of weight entries were independent predictors for 6-month weight reduction (all Pweight reduction. Sensitivity analysis by baseline carried forward method confirmed

  13. Sex, polyps, and medusae: Determination and maintenance of sex in cnidarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Stefan; Juliano, Celina E

    2017-02-01

    Mechanisms of sex determination vary greatly among animals. Here we survey what is known in Cnidaria, the clade that forms the sister group to Bilateria and shows a broad array of sexual strategies and sexual plasticity. This observed diversity makes Cnidaria a well-suited taxon for the study of the evolution of sex determination, as closely related species can have different mechanisms, which allows for comparative studies. In this review, we survey the extensive descriptive data on sexual systems (e.g., gonochorism and hermaphroditism) and the plasticity of sex in various cnidarian taxa. Within Cnidaria, hydrozoans (e.g., Hydra, Hydractinia, and Clytia) are the best understood in regard to mechanistic determination and maintenance of sex, largely due to the discovery of the interstitial stem cells, which give rise to the germ cells. We also present a hypothesis for the evolution of the various sexual systems that are observed in Hydra. Finally, given the rapid advances in genome sequencing and editing, several exciting possible future directions for increasing our understanding of sex determination mechanisms in cnidarians are discussed. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 84: 105-119, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. An in vivo root hair assay for determining rates of apoptotic-like programmed cell death in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogg Bridget V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Arabidopsis thaliana we demonstrate that dying root hairs provide an easy and rapid in vivo model for the morphological identification of apoptotic-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD in plants. The model described here is transferable between species, can be used to investigate rates of AL-PCD in response to various treatments and to identify modulation of AL-PCD rates in mutant/transgenic plant lines facilitating rapid screening of mutant populations in order to identify genes involved in AL-PCD regulation.

  15. Designing and Implementing a Situated Learning Program and Determining Its Impact on the Students' Motivation and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossainy, Fakhrozaman Naeemi; Zare, Hossein; Hormozi, Mahmud; Shaghaghi, Farhad; Kaveh, Mohamad Hossain

    2012-01-01

    Inability to use knowledge is one of the major problems that university graduates face. Some instructional designers recommend situated learning for the solution. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of situated learning on students' school motivation and achievement. The two main hypotheses are: 1- Situated learning increases…

  16. Effects of the Self-Directed Individualized Education Program on Self-Determination and Transition of Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Youjin; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Palmer, Susan B.; Little, Todd D.

    2015-01-01

    The 1990 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) reauthorization introduced transition mandates that included a "student involvement in transition planning" requirement, creating an emphasis on promoting such involvement so as to enhance the self-determination of students with disabilities and positive transition-related…

  17. Feasibility of a Self-Determination Theory-Based Exercise Program in Community-Dwelling South Korean Older Adults: Experiences from a 13-Month Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minyoung; Kim, Min Joo; Suh, Dongwon; Kim, Jungjin; Jo, Eunkyoung; Yoon, BumChul

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of self-determination theory (SDT), a representative motivational theory, on exercise domain in older adults. This feasibility study used quantitative and qualitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of a 13-month group exercise program applying SDT-based motivational strategies on exercise adherence, physical fitness, and quality of life, and to explore factors affecting exercise adherence in South Korean older adults (N = 18). Exercise attendance rate was high (82.52%). There were significant differences in aerobic endurance (p < .001), lower body strength (p < .05), dynamic balance (p < .001), and perceived social functioning (p < .05) at 13 months compared with baseline. Factors affecting exercise adherence were related to the SDT-based motivational strategies. These results support the importance of health professionals applying SDT-based motivational strategies to exercise programs to help facilitate motivation for participation and to promote physical fitness and quality of life in older adults.

  18. Determinants of customers' intention to participate in a Korean restaurant health promotion program: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyungeui; Gittelsohn, Joel; Joung, Hyojee

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of personal characteristics and theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs on the intention to participate in a restaurant health promotion program. In total, 830 adults residing in Seoul were sampled by a multi-stage cluster and random sampling design. Data were collected from a structured self-administered questionnaire, which covered variables concerning demographics, health status and TPB constructs including attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. A path analysis combining personal characteristics and TPB constructs was used to investigate determinants of the customers' intention. Positive and negative attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control directly affected the intention to participate. Demographics and health status both directly and indirectly affected the intention to participate. This study identifies personal characteristics and TPB constructs that are important to planning and implementing a restaurant health promotion program.

  19. 某人行天桥吊杆更换方案的确定%The Determination of Boom Replacement Program for A Footbridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄帅

    2012-01-01

    For the example of a footbridge,the paper discussed the choice and determination of boom replacement program, and analyzed the feasibility of boom replacement program from the safety.%以某人行天桥为例,对拱桥吊杆更换方案进行比选,确定出合理的吊杆更换方案,通过建立有限元模型模拟吊杆更换过程中可能存在的状况,分析在不同工况下吊杆及桥面系的应力情况,从安全性方面说明吊杆更换设计方案是可行的。

  20. Determination of appropriate education program for participation of local authorities for controlling of hunting and game management: A case study on East Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tolunay

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the village headmen who are legally responsible in the Eastern Anatolian Region have sufficient knowledge regarding the follow-up of closed seasons or not, and to create an appropriate training program for the target audience, which would ensure more efficient control in rural areas and the village headmen’s efficient participation in the sustainability of hunting-wildlife. The study includes the Ardahan, Kars, Igdir, Agri, Van, Hakkari, Bitlis, Mus, Bingol, Elazig, Malatya, Tunceli, Erzincan and Erzurum provinces. Data collected with surveys through face to face interviews to be made with 346 people in 146 villages in total. The level of knowledge of the village headmen, members of board of alderman and, village watchmen on the issues such as wildlife, protection-control, legislation and public relations questioned, and a training program appropriate for the abovementioned audience created.

  1. Pyrotechnic hazards classification and evaluation program. Phase 2, segment 3: Test plan for determining hazards associated with pyrotechnic manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A comprehensive test plan for determining the hazards associated with pyrotechnic manufacturing processes is presented. The rationale for each test is based on a systematic analysis of historical accounts of accidents and a detailed study of the characteristics of each manufacturing process. The most hazardous manufacturing operations have been determined to be pressing, mixing, reaming, and filling. The hazard potential of a given situation is evaluated in terms of the probabilities of initiation, communication, and transition to detonation (ICT). The characteristics which affect the ICT probabilities include the ignition mechanisms which are present either in normal or abnormal operation, the condition and properties of the pyrotechnic material, and the configuration of the processing equipment. Analytic expressions are derived which describe the physical conditions of the system, thus permitting a variety of processes to be evaluated in terms of a small number of experiments.

  2. Outpatient therapeutic feeding program outcomes and determinants in treatment of severe acute malnutrition in tigray, northern ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henock Gebremedhin Yebyo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outpatient Therapeutic feeding Program (OTP brings the services for management of Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM closer to the community by making services available at decentralized treatment points within the primary health care settings, through the use of ready-to-use therapeutic foods, community outreach and mobilization. Little is known about the program outcomes. This study revealed the levels of program outcome indictors and determinant factors to recovery rate. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 628 children who had been managed for SAM under OTP from April/2008 to January/2012. The children were selected using systematic random sampling from 12 health posts and 4 health centers. The study relied on information of demographic characteristics, anthropometries, Plumpy'Nut, medical problems and routine medications intakes. The results were estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log-rank test and Cox-regression. RESULTS: The recovery, defaulter, mortality and weight gain rates were 61.78%, 13.85%, 3.02% and 5.23 gm/kg/day, respectively. Routine medications were administered partially and children with medical problems were managed inappropriately under the program. As a child consumed one more sachet of Plumpy'Nut, the recovery rate from SAM increased by 4% (HR = 1.04, 95%-CI = 1.03, 1.05, P<0.001. The adjusted hazard ratios to recovery of children with diarrhea, appetite loss with Plumpy'Nut and failure to gain weight were 2.20 (HR = 2.20, 95%-CI = 1.31, 3.41, P = 0.001, 4.49 (HR = 1.74, 95%-CI = 1.07, 2.83, P = 0.046 and 3.88 (HR = 1.95, 95%-CI = 1.17, 3.23, P<0.001, respectively. Children who took amoxicillin and de-worming had 95% (HR = 1.95, 95%-CI = 1.17, 3.23 and 74% (HR = 1.74, 95%-CI = 1.07, 2.83 more probability to recover from SAM as compared to those who didn't take them. CONCLUSIONS: The OTP was partially successful. Management of

  3. Outpatient therapeutic feeding program outcomes and determinants in treatment of severe acute malnutrition in tigray, northern ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebyo, Henock Gebremedhin; Kendall, Carl; Nigusse, Daniel; Lemma, Wuleta

    2013-01-01

    Outpatient Therapeutic feeding Program (OTP) brings the services for management of Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) closer to the community by making services available at decentralized treatment points within the primary health care settings, through the use of ready-to-use therapeutic foods, community outreach and mobilization. Little is known about the program outcomes. This study revealed the levels of program outcome indictors and determinant factors to recovery rate. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 628 children who had been managed for SAM under OTP from April/2008 to January/2012. The children were selected using systematic random sampling from 12 health posts and 4 health centers. The study relied on information of demographic characteristics, anthropometries, Plumpy'Nut, medical problems and routine medications intakes. The results were estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log-rank test and Cox-regression. The recovery, defaulter, mortality and weight gain rates were 61.78%, 13.85%, 3.02% and 5.23 gm/kg/day, respectively. Routine medications were administered partially and children with medical problems were managed inappropriately under the program. As a child consumed one more sachet of Plumpy'Nut, the recovery rate from SAM increased by 4% (HR = 1.04, 95%-CI = 1.03, 1.05, P<0.001). The adjusted hazard ratios to recovery of children with diarrhea, appetite loss with Plumpy'Nut and failure to gain weight were 2.20 (HR = 2.20, 95%-CI = 1.31, 3.41, P = 0.001), 4.49 (HR = 1.74, 95%-CI = 1.07, 2.83, P = 0.046) and 3.88 (HR = 1.95, 95%-CI = 1.17, 3.23, P<0.001), respectively. Children who took amoxicillin and de-worming had 95% (HR = 1.95, 95%-CI = 1.17, 3.23) and 74% (HR = 1.74, 95%-CI = 1.07, 2.83) more probability to recover from SAM as compared to those who didn't take them. The OTP was partially successful. Management of children with comorbidities under the program and partial

  4. A Research on Determination of Individual Career Goals of the Students in Office Management and Assistance Manager Programs

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    Ezgi CEVHER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the students spend their time on making plans for their education and career. The career planning process varies for each student according to their experiences, interests, abilities and values. The students' awareness about their career aims at the first or last period of their education is an important factor in managing their future. In career planning, the aim which is desired to be achieved is put forth with the help of the curriculum vitae in line with the interest and expectations. The curriculum vitae is a presentation about the person's education, work experience, fields of interests, career aims, the owned skills and about the things what the person wants to do in the future. In the research the curriculum vitae of the students were examined according to content analysis in order to identify and determine the career plans of the students attending the department of office management and executive assistant. The students were especially asked to specify their” aims and objectives, fields of interests, past experiences”, and these curriculum vitaes were subjected to evaluation within the scope of “career planning steps”. The obtained findings revealed the self-awareness, knowledge skills and experiences of the students attending this department, whether they made researches about their career options or not. The universities offered suggestions by taking the “career development efforts” into consideration in order to shape the students' career plans and to help them determine their career aims.

  5. Determinants of Glycated Hemoglobin in Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance: Subanalysis of the Japan Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakane, Naoki; Sato, Juichi; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Tsujii, Satoru; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Kawazu, Shoji; Sato, Yuzo; Usui, Takeshi; Kamae, Isao; Yoshida, Toshihide; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sato, Shigeaki; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Nirengi, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Kaoru; Kuzuya, Hideshi; Group, JDPP Research

    2017-01-01

    Background Limited evidence is available about the relationship of lifestyle factors with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. The aim of study was to identify such determinant factors of HbA1c in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Methods This cross-sectional study included 121 men and 124 women with impaired glucose tolerance, who were diagnosed based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Demographic and biochemical parameters, including the body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h post-load glucose (2-h PG), and HbA1c, were measured. The pancreatic β-cell function and insulin resistance were assessed using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-β). Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Results The levels of FPG, 2-h PG, and carbohydrate intake were correlated with the HbA1c level in men, while the FPG and 2-h PG levels were correlated with the HbA1c level in women. In multiple regression analyses, BMI, FPG, 2-h PG, and white rice intake were associated with HbA1c levels in men, while BMI, FPG, HOMA-β, and bread intake were associated with HbA1c levels in women. Conclusions The present findings suggest that a substantial portion of HbA1c may be composed of not only glycemic but also several lifestyle factors in men with impaired glucose tolerance. These factors can be taken into consideration as modifiable determinants in assessing the HbA1c level for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of the disease course. PMID:28270897

  6. The determination of the absolute bioavailability for drug substances with long elimination half-lives (with PC-programs for the method of truncated areas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnand, H P

    1992-01-01

    A survey is given of the methods for the determination of the absolute bioavailability for drug substances with long elimination half-lives. All methods depend on the assumption of linear pharmacokinetics. Emphasis is laid on Urso and Aarons' regression method of truncated areas-under-the-curve (AUC) to obtain estimates of the absolute bioavailability, F, and the absorption rate constant, ka, without obeying the otherwise general rule of following blood or plasma levels for at least three times the terminal half-life. It is shown by simulation when the linear and when the logarithmic trapezoidal rule is to be used for the calculation of the AUC. Two PC-programs for the regression method of truncated areas are presented: one program (SIMF&KA.EXE) simulates, based on tentative pharmacokinetic parameters, whether a blood sampling scheme, together with the precision of the analytical assay, is adequate to obtain accurate and precise estimates of F and ka; the method is insensitive to large variations in the tentative value of the elimination half-life. The other program (ESTF&KA.EXE) provides estimates of F and ka, with standard deviations of the estimates, from empirical data.

  7. Evaluation of condylar inclination of dentulous subjects determined by axiograph and to compare with manual programming of articulators using protrusive interocclusal record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna D Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the average condylar inclination using ultrasonic axiograph; to determine the average condylar inclination using protrusive interocclusal bite records; to compare whether there is any marked difference in the values obtained by these techniques. Settings and Design: This clinical study compares the mean horizontal condylar inclination of the ultrasonic axiograph (Axioquick system and the manual programming using protrusive interocclusal records. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 30 subjects reporting to Department of Prosthodontics. Axioquick software system of SAM III (School Articulator Munich fully-adjustable articulator was used, and interocclusal recording of condylar inclination is the manual method used in semi-adjustable articulators using Aluwax. The condylar inclination of the articulator was adjusted and set using protrusive interocclusal record. Statistical Analysis: The horizontal condylar inclination values of both methods were collected, and the mean of right and left condylar inclination was compared using paired t-test. Results: A statistically significant difference exists between Axioquick system and the manual method of programming articulator with protrusive interocclusal records (P ≤ 0.001. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, the following conclusions were drawn: The average condylar inclination by axiograph is 42.125°. The average condylar inclination by interocclusal record is 33.25°. Comparison of both values shows a difference of 8.88° ± 4.03° that showed a significant difference (P < 0.001.

  8. Evaluation of condylar inclination of dentulous subjects determined by axiograph and to compare with manual programming of articulators using protrusive interocclusal record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Krishna D.; Shetty, Manoj; Chandy, Binoj K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To determine the average condylar inclination using ultrasonic axiograph; to determine the average condylar inclination using protrusive interocclusal bite records; to compare whether there is any marked difference in the values obtained by these techniques. Settings and Design: This clinical study compares the mean horizontal condylar inclination of the ultrasonic axiograph (Axioquick system) and the manual programming using protrusive interocclusal records. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 30 subjects reporting to Department of Prosthodontics. Axioquick software system of SAM III (School Articulator Munich) fully-adjustable articulator was used, and interocclusal recording of condylar inclination is the manual method used in semi-adjustable articulators using Aluwax. The condylar inclination of the articulator was adjusted and set using protrusive interocclusal record. Statistical Analysis: The horizontal condylar inclination values of both methods were collected, and the mean of right and left condylar inclination was compared using paired t-test. Results: A statistically significant difference exists between Axioquick system and the manual method of programming articulator with protrusive interocclusal records (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, the following conclusions were drawn: The average condylar inclination by axiograph is 42.125°. The average condylar inclination by interocclusal record is 33.25°. Comparison of both values shows a difference of 8.88° ± 4.03° that showed a significant difference (P < 0.001). PMID:26321837

  9. Is "football for all" safe for all? Cross-sectional study of disparities as determinants of 1-year injury prevalence in youth football programs.

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    Örjan Dahlström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Football (soccer is endorsed as a health-promoting physical activity worldwide. When football programs are introduced as part of general health promotion programs, equal access and limitation of pre-participation disparities with regard to injury risk are important. The aim of this study was to explore if disparity with regard to parents' educational level, player body mass index (BMI, and self-reported health are determinants of football injury in community-based football programs, separately or in interaction with age or gender. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four community football clubs with 1230 youth players agreed to participate in the cross-sectional study during the 2006 season. The study constructs (parents' educational level, player BMI, and self-reported health were operationalized into questionnaire items. The 1-year prevalence of football injury was defined as the primary outcome measure. Data were collected via a postal survey and analyzed using a series of hierarchical statistical computations investigating associations with the primary outcome measure and interactions between the study variables. The survey was returned by 827 (67.2% youth players. The 1-year injury prevalence increased with age. For youths with parents with higher formal education, boys reported more injuries and girls reported fewer injuries than expected; for youths with lower educated parents there was a tendency towards the opposite pattern. Youths reporting injuries had higher standardized BMI compared with youths not reporting injuries. Children not reporting full health were slightly overrepresented among those reporting injuries and underrepresented for those reporting no injury. CONCLUSION: Pre-participation disparities in terms of parents' educational level, through interaction with gender, BMI, and self-reported general health are associated with increased injury risk in community-based youth football. When introduced as a general health

  10. Algorithm and program for precise determination of unit-cell parameters of single crystal taking into account the sample eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudka, A. P.; Smirnova, E. S.; Verin, I. A.; Bolotina, N. B.

    2017-07-01

    A technique has been developed to refine the unit-cell parameters of single crystals with minimization of the influence of instrumental errors on the result. The corresponding computational procedure HuberUB is added to the software package of Huber-5042 diffractometer with a point detector and closedcycle helium cryostat Displex DE-202. The parameters of unit cell, its orientation, the goniometer zero angles, the sample eccentricity, the distances in the goniometer, and the radiation wavelength were refined by the nonlinear least-squares method, which allows imposition of constraints on the unit-cell parameters, depending on the crystal symmetry. The technique is approved on a LuB12 single crystal. The unit-cell parameters are determined in a temperature range of 20-295 K, with an absolute error not larger than 0.0004 Å (the relative error is of 5 × 10-5). The estimates of the unit-cell parameters obtained by the proposed method are evidenced to be unbiased. Some specific features of the behavior of parameters in the ranges of 120-140 and 20-50 K are revealed, which correlate with the anomalies of the physical properties of the crystal.

  11. Hypoxia determines survival outcomes of bacterial infection through HIF-1alpha dependent re-programming of leukocyte metabolism *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A.A.R.; Dickinson, R.S.; Murphy, F.; Thomson, J. P.; Marriott, H.M.; Tavares, A.; Willson, J.; Williams, L.; Lewis, A.; Mirchandani, A.; Dos Santos Coelho, P.; Doherty, C.; Ryan, E.; Watts, E.; Morton, N. M.; Forbes, S.; Stimson, R. H.; Hameed, A. G.; Arnold, N.; Preston, J.A.; Lawrie, A.; Finisguerra, V.; Mazzone, M.; Sadiku, P.; Goveia, J.; Taverna, F.; Carmeliet, P.; Foster, S.J.; Chilvers, E.R.; Cowburn, A.S.; Dockrell, D.H.; Johnson, R.S.; Meehan, R. R.; Whyte, M.K.B.; Walmsley, S.R.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia and bacterial infection frequently co-exist, in both acute and chronic clinical settings, and typically result in adverse clinical outcomes. To ameliorate this morbidity, we investigated the interaction between hypoxia and the host response. In the context of acute hypoxia, both S. aureus and S. pneumoniae infections rapidly induced progressive neutrophil mediated morbidity and mortality, with associated hypothermia and cardiovascular compromise. Preconditioning animals through longer exposures to hypoxia, prior to infection, prevented these pathophysiological responses and profoundly dampened the transcriptome of circulating leukocytes. Specifically, perturbation of HIF pathway and glycolysis genes by hypoxic preconditioning was associated with reduced leukocyte glucose utilisation, resulting in systemic rescue from a global negative energy state and myocardial protection. Thus we demonstrate that hypoxia preconditions the innate immune response and determines survival outcomes following bacterial infection through suppression of HIF-1α and neutrophil metabolism. The therapeutic implications of this work are that in the context of systemic or tissue hypoxia therapies that target the host response could improve infection associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:28386604

  12. Hypoxia determines survival outcomes of bacterial infection through HIF-1alpha dependent re-programming of leukocyte metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A A R; Dickinson, R S; Murphy, F; Thomson, J P; Marriott, H M; Tavares, A; Willson, J; Williams, L; Lewis, A; Mirchandani, A; Dos Santos Coelho, P; Doherty, C; Ryan, E; Watts, E; Morton, N M; Forbes, S; Stimson, R H; Hameed, A G; Arnold, N; Preston, J A; Lawrie, A; Finisguerra, V; Mazzone, M; Sadiku, P; Goveia, J; Taverna, F; Carmeliet, P; Foster, S J; Chilvers, E R; Cowburn, A S; Dockrell, D H; Johnson, R S; Meehan, R R; Whyte, M K B; Walmsley, S R

    2017-02-10

    Hypoxia and bacterial infection frequently co-exist, in both acute and chronic clinical settings, and typically result in adverse clinical outcomes. To ameliorate this morbidity, we investigated the interaction between hypoxia and the host response. In the context of acute hypoxia, both S. aureus and S. pneumoniae infections rapidly induced progressive neutrophil mediated morbidity and mortality, with associated hypothermia and cardiovascular compromise. Preconditioning animals through longer exposures to hypoxia, prior to infection, prevented these pathophysiological responses and profoundly dampened the transcriptome of circulating leukocytes. Specifically, perturbation of HIF pathway and glycolysis genes by hypoxic preconditioning was associated with reduced leukocyte glucose utilisation, resulting in systemic rescue from a global negative energy state and myocardial protection. Thus we demonstrate that hypoxia preconditions the innate immune response and determines survival outcomes following bacterial infection through suppression of HIF-1α and neutrophil metabolism. The therapeutic implications of this work are that in the context of systemic or tissue hypoxia therapies that target the host response could improve infection associated morbidity and mortality.

  13. "I am very, very proud of myself": improving youth activity levels using self-determination theory in program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Judy B

    2013-01-01

    Many adolescents are not meeting recommended levels for physical activity. Increasing physical activity among urban African American youth is both a challenge and a public health priority. Most research in community-based interventions has taken a didactic approach, focusing on skill and knowledge development alone, with inconclusive results. This 10-week progressive activity intervention with adolescents in an urban faith community introduced a self-determination theory (SDT) approach with the aim of promoting the adoption of self-management skills necessary for sustaining activity. Components of SDT included relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Together with didactics, aligning activities with participant interests, and using existing social structures for health message delivery, the approach led to high satisfaction ratings for the three components of SDT along with improved skills, knowledge, and outcomes in cardiovascular fitness. Understanding and utilizing approaches that enhance enjoyment, personal choice, confidence, and social affiliation may lead to more lasting healthy activity behaviors and attitudes than didactic approaches alone in this and other adolescent populations. The SDT is reviewed in the context of this youth intervention.

  14. Social Determinants of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Families of Migrants participating in Mexico-Canada Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program: A Study in Guadalupe Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Gines Martínez Fernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the social determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis in the families of migrant laborers registered in the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP and residing in Guadalupe Zaragoza Tlahuapan, Puebla, México. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study of the interaction between migration, social determinants, and pulmonary tuberculosis. Results: In this poor and patriarchal community, the SAWP offers financial opportunities for the men of Guadalupe Zaragoza. The remittances of these migrant workers have enabled their families to live in adequate housing, but their health situation is still vulnerable. Only half of the families have access to public health services or the special health programs for migrant worker families. 13% of migrant family members were infected with pulmonary tuberculosis as measured by the Quantiferon-TB test. The female partners of migrants typically do not study past elementary school, become housewives with no pay, are forced to take on added work in the household, and experience subjective symptoms of stress and fatigue. The children of Guadalupe Zaragoza are also vulnerable; the number of children in this community who can regularly attend school is below the national average because many children have to work. These families end up paying more for education, housing, and health services than the average Mexican family. Conclusions: In the families of SAWP migrant workers, the prevalence of latent pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be lower than the national average based on studies using the tuberculin test; this may be due to the greater specificity of the Quantiferon-TB Gold test. There is a significant risk of reactivation tuberculosis in these families due to the inequity in the social determinants of health.

  15. Determining the Number of Factors to Retain in EFA: An easy-to-use computer program for carrying out Parallel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Daniel Ledesma

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Parallel Analysis is a Monte Carlo simulation technique that aids researchers in determining the number of factors to retain in Principal Component and Exploratory Factor Analysis. This method provides a superior alternative to other techniques that are commonly used for the same purpose, such as the Scree test or the Kaiser's eigenvalue-greater-than-one rule. Nevertheless, Parallel Analysis is not well known among researchers, in part because it is not included as an analysis option in the most popular statistical packages. This paper describes and illustrates how to apply Parallel Analysis with an easy-to-use computer program called ViSta-PARAN. ViSta-PARAN is a user-friendly application that can compute and interpret Parallel Analysis. Its user interface is fully graphic and includes a dialog box to specify parameters, and specialized graphics to visualize the analysis output.

  16. Problems in determining thalassemia carrier status in a program for prevention and control of severe thalassemia syndromes: a lesson from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viprakasit, Vip; Limwongse, Chanin; Sukpanichnant, Sathein; Ruangvutilert, Pornpimol; Kanjanakorn, Chompunut; Glomglao, Waraporn; Sirikong, Monchan; Utto, Witayakarn; Tanphaichitr, Voravarn S

    2013-08-01

    Prevention and control of severe β thalassemia by carrier detection and identification of couples at risk in developed countries is one of the most successful stories in modern medicine. Similar programs in developing countries especially Southeast Asia, are more problematic because both α and β thalassemias are highly prevalent. In Thailand, there are limited data on whether we could determine, based on hematological phenotypes, the mutation severity and/or coinheritance of α thalassemia in β thalassemia traits. Comprehensive molecular, hematology and hemoglobin analyses of the α and β globin genes were performed in 141 healthy individuals identified as β thalassemia carriers. Seventeen different β globin mutations were successfully identified out of all cases analyzed. Although the majority of the mutations identified were the β⁰ or severe β⁺ thalassemia alleles, a high proportion of mild mutations (25%) was observed. Of these β thalassemia traits, 22.3% were found to co-inherit the α thalassemias. Milder hematological phenotypes were noted in β⁺ compared with β⁰ thalassemia traits when the α globin genes were intact. Although co-inheritance of α⁰ thalassemia might be suspected in cases with skewed profiles, due to the overlapping values, it remains difficult to apply these parameters for reliable carrier determination. A combination of hemoglobin analysis and DNA testing seems to be the best way to confirm carrier status in a region with high frequency for both α and β thalassemias. Underdiagnoses of carrier status could hamper the effectiveness of a thalassemia prevention and control program.

  17. Determining HER2 (ERBB2) amplification status in women with breast cancer: final results from the Australian in situ hybridisation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Adrienne L; Brown, Belinda; Farshid, Gelareh; Fox, Stephen B; Francis, Glenn D; McCue, Glenda; von Neumann-Cosel, Vita; Bilous, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Appropriate and accurate determination of HER2 status in women with breast cancer is critical for stratifying anti-HER2 therapies, and for access to subsidised treatment in the Australian setting. We conducted a regulated, nationwide program providing HER2 in situ hybridisation (ISH) testing for patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Cases with equivocal or non-diagnostic ISH test results at the local laboratory were sent to a high volume central testing laboratory for analysis using fluorescence ISH (FISH). We tested 78,408 early breast cancers and 3469 metastatic cancers using ISH. Of these, 12,405 early breast cancers (15.8%) and 798 metastatic cancers (23.0%) were HER2 positive. During the testing period, the proportion of core biopsy samples increased, the number of repeat tests remained stable and testing turnaround time declined. Discordant 3+ IHC, ISH negative results dropped from 20% to 13% in early breast cancers and from 35% to 8% among metastatic breast cancers. Following central laboratory FISH testing only 87 samples remained non-diagnostic (1.9% of FISH-tested samples, 0.1% of the whole cohort), most being decalcified specimens. This is a successful story of a cohesive service determining HER2 status in women with breast cancer in a 'real-world' setting.

  18. Liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of captopril, piroxicam, and amlodipine in bulk drug, pharmaceutical formulation, and human serum by programming the detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Najma; Arayne, M Saeed; Ali, Saeeda Nadir

    2013-10-01

    A highly sensitive LC method with UV detection has been developed for the simultaneous determination of coadministered drugs captopril, piroxicam, and amlodipine in bulk drug, pharmaceutical formulations, and human serum at the isosbestic point (235 nm) and at individual λmax (220, 255, and 238 nm, respectively) by programming the detector with time to match the individual analyte's chromophore, which enhanced the sensitivity with linear range. The assay involved an isocratic elution of analytes on a Bondapak C18 (10 μm, 25 × 0.46 cm) column at ambient temperature using a mobile phase of methanol/water 80:20 at pH 2.9 and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Linearity was found to be 0.25-25, 0.10-6.0, and 0.20-13.0 μg/mL with correlation coefficient >0.998 and detection limits of 7.39, 3.90, and 9.38 ng/mL, respectively, whereas calibration curves for wavelength-programmed analysis were 0.10-6.0, 0.04-2.56, and 0.10-10.0 μg/mL with correlation coefficient >0.998 and detection limits of 5.79, 2.68, and 3.87 ng/mL, respectively. All the validated parameters were in the acceptable range. The recovery of drugs was 99.32-100.39 and 98.65-101.96% in pharmaceutical formulation and human serum, respectively, at the isosbestic point and at individual λmax . This method is applicable for the analysis of drugs in bulk drug, tablets, serum, and in clinical samples without interference of excipients or endogenous serum components.

  19. High-frequency video capture and a computer program with frame-by-frame angle determination functionality as tools that support judging in artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omorczyk, Jarosław; Nosiadek, Leszek; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Nosiadek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to verify the usefulness of selected simple methods of recording and fast biomechanical analysis performed by judges of artistic gymnastics in assessing a gymnast's movement technique. The study participants comprised six artistic gymnastics judges, who assessed back handsprings using two methods: a real-time observation method and a frame-by-frame video analysis method. They also determined flexion angles of knee and hip joints using the computer program. In the case of the real-time observation method, the judges gave a total of 5.8 error points with an arithmetic mean of 0.16 points for the flexion of the knee joints. In the high-speed video analysis method, the total amounted to 8.6 error points and the mean value amounted to 0.24 error points. For the excessive flexion of hip joints, the sum of the error values was 2.2 error points and the arithmetic mean was 0.06 error points during real-time observation. The sum obtained using frame-by-frame analysis method equaled 10.8 and the mean equaled 0.30 error points. Error values obtained through the frame-by-frame video analysis of movement technique were higher than those obtained through the real-time observation method. The judges were able to indicate the number of the frame in which the maximal joint flexion occurred with good accuracy. Using the real-time observation method as well as the high-speed video analysis performed without determining the exact angle for assessing movement technique were found to be insufficient tools for improving the quality of judging.

  20. Salt-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with programmed temperature vaporization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of haloacetonitriles in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huilian; Li, Yun; Zhang, Haijun; Shah, Syed Mazhar; Chen, Jiping

    2014-09-01

    We report here a new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of seven haloacetonitriles (HANs) in drinking water by coupling salt-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SADLLME) with programmed temperature vaporizer-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PTV-GC-MS). The newly developed method involves the dispersion of the extractant in aqueous sample by addition of a few grams of salt and no dispersion liquid was required as compared to the traditional DLLME methods. The extractant (CH2Cl2, 50μL) and the salt (Na2SO4, 2.4g) were successively added to water (8mL) in a conical centrifuge tube that was shaken for 1min and centrifuged (3500rpm, 3min). The aliquot of sedimented phase (4μL) was then directly injected into the PTV-GC-MS system. The limits of detection and quantification for the HANs were 0.4-13.2ngL(-1) and 1.2-43.9ngL(-1), respectively. The calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2)≥0.9904) over 3 orders of magnitude. The repeatability of the method was investigated by evaluating the intra- and inter-day precisions. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) obtained were lower than 10.2% and 7.8% at low and high concentration levels. The relative recoveries ranged from 79.3% to 105.1%. The developed methodology was applied for the analysis of seven HANs in several drinking water samples in coastal and inland cities of China. It was demonstrated to be a simple, sensible, reproducible and environment friendly method for the determination of trace HANs in drinking water samples.

  1. Determination of antioxidants in new and used lubricant oils by headspace-programmed temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogal Sanchez, Miguel del; Perez Pavon, Jose Luis; Garcia Pinto, Carmelo; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Salamanca (Spain); Glanzer, Paul [University of Vienna, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-12-15

    A sensitive method is presented to determine antioxidants (2-, 3-, and 4-tert-butylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, 1-naphthol, and diphenylamine) in new and used lubricant oil samples. Research was carried out on a GC device equipped with a headspace sampler, a programmed temperature vaporizer, and an MS detector unit. The proposed method does not require sample treatment prior to analyses, hence eliminating possible errors occurring in this step. Sample preparation is reduced when placing the oil sample (2.0 g) in the vial and adding propyl acetate (20 {mu}L). Solvent vent injection mode permits a pre-concentration of the compounds of interest in the liner filled with Tenax-TA {sup registered}, while venting other species present in the headspace. Thereby, both the life of the liner and the capillary column is prolonged, and unnecessary contamination of the detector unit is avoided. Calibration was performed by adding different concentrations of analytes to a new oil which did not contain any of the studied compounds. Limits of detection as low as 0.57 {mu}g/L (2-tert-butylphenol) with a precision lower or equal to 5.3% were achieved. Prediction of the antioxidants in new oil samples of different viscosities (5W40, 10W40, and 15W40) was accomplished with the previous calibration, and the results were highly satisfactory. To determine antioxidants in used engine oils, standard addition method was used due to the matrix effect. (orig.)

  2. Screening of Native Rotifers, Hydra, Planaria for Deriving Aquatic Life Criteria%水生生物水质基准研究中轮虫、水螅、涡虫类受试生物的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑欣; 闫振广; 刘征涛; 刘婷婷; 王晓南; 武江越; 王伟莉

    2015-01-01

    轮虫、水螅、涡虫是水生生态系统的重要生物类群.因其对水体污染较敏感,所以对水生生物基准研究有重要意义.依据我国生物区系资料及毒性数据丰度,筛选出8种代表性本土轮虫、水螅、涡虫类生物.参照美国水生生物基准技术指南,搜集、筛选了这8种代表性生物的急性毒性数据,通过数据分析,筛选出对各物种毒性最大的污染物,主要包括重金属、农药、有机锡化物、表面活性剂、吡啶胺类杀菌剂.分析污染物的物种敏感度分布,依据累积概率对代表性生物的物种敏感性进行分类,结果为:萼花臂尾轮虫(Brachionus calyciflorus)、绿水螅(Hydrav iridissima)、普通水螅(Hydra vulgaris)对重金属铜的累积概率为6.5%、85%和10.4%,普通水螅(Hydra vulgaris)对重金属汞的累积概率为6.3%;龟甲轮虫(Keratella cochlearis)和四齿腔轮虫(Lecane quadridentata)对五氯酚钠的累积概率为5.1%和7.6%;褐水螅(Hydrao ligactis)和绿水螅(Hydra viridissima)对三丁基氧化锡的累积概率为6.9%和13.8%,萼花臂尾轮虫(Brachionus calyciflorus)对氟啶胺的累积概率为6.7%,日本三角涡虫(Dugesia japonica)对四氯化碳、十二烷基苯磺酸钠的累积概率分别为6.7%和7.1%.上述结果表明:萼花臂尾轮虫、绿水螅对重金属铜敏感;普通水螅对重金属铜和汞敏感;龟甲轮虫和四齿腔轮虫对农药敏感;褐水螅和绿水螅对有机锡化物敏感;萼花臂尾轮虫对吡啶胺类杀菌剂敏感;日本三角涡虫对四氯化碳、表面活性剂敏感.这7种代表性生物可作为相关污染物的水生生物基准受试物种.

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of Pre-Hypertension among Omani Adults Attending Non-Communicable Disease Screening Program in Primary Care Setting in Sohar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdullah Al-Maqbali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of pre-hypertension and its association with some selected cardiovascular risk factors among the Omani adult population in the primary healthcare setting.Method: A cross-sectional study involving a sample taken from a National Screening Program of chronic non-communicable diseases in primary healthcare institutions, Sohar city, Sultanate of Oman (July 2006 - December 2007. Inclusion criteria included Omanis aged 40 years or above residents of Sohar city attending primary healthcare institutions not previously diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or chronic kidney diseases. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the demographic, physical and metabolic characteristics. Univariate analysis was used to identify the significant association between the characteristics and normal blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension. Chi-squared test was used for categorical variables analysis and independent t-test was used for continuous variables analysis. In order to examine the strength of significant associations, the multinomial logistic regression analysis was used.Results: There were 1498 participants, 41% were males and 59% were females. Overall, pre-hypertension was observed in 45% of the total study population (95% CI: 0.422 - 0.473. There were more males affected than females (46% versus 44%. About 34% of the total study population was hypertensive. The multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that an increase of one unit of age, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and total blood cholesterol, were significantly associated with higher risk in both pre-hypertension and hypertension. High odds ratio of pre-hypertension and hypertension was found with the total blood cholesterol.Conclusion: The prevalence of pre-hypertension was high among the Omani adult population. The determinants of pre-hypertension in this research age, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and total blood

  4. Rates and determinants of repeated participation in a web-based behavior change program for healthy body weight and healthy lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Jans, M.P.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In recent years, many tailored lifestyle counseling programs have become available through the Internet. Previous research into such programs has shown selective enrollment of relatively healthy people. However, because of the known dose-response relationship between the intensity and fr

  5. The use of linear programming to determine whether a formulated complementary food product can ensure adequate nutrients for 6- to 11-month-old Cambodian infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick; Bunthang, Touch; Chamnan, Chhoun

    2014-01-01

    A new software tool, Optifood, developed by the WHO and based on linear programming (LP) analysis, has been developed to formulate food-based recommendations.......A new software tool, Optifood, developed by the WHO and based on linear programming (LP) analysis, has been developed to formulate food-based recommendations....

  6. Rates and determinants of uptake and use of an internet physical activity and weight management program in office and manufacturing work sites in England: Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internet-based physical activity (PA) and weight management programs have the potential to improve employees' health in large occupational health settings. To be successful, the program must engage a wide range of employees, especially those at risk of weight gain or ill health. The aim of the study...

  7. Determinants of adoption and euthanasia of shelter dogs spayed or neutered in the university of california veterinary student surgery program compared to other shelter dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, Jaime; Kass, Philip H

    2003-01-01

    Limited economic resources and pet overpopulation force animals shelters to consider euthanasia of adoptable animals every day. Veterinary medical schools can play a positive role in increasing pet adoption and combating overpopulation by providing free neutering for shelter animals. This retrospective cohort study illustrated that the cooperative efforts of a veterinary medicine surgical teaching program and local animal shelters decreases euthanasia of adoptable pets. At the University of California, Davis (UCD), shelter dogs are neutered by veterinary students and then returned to the shelter for adoption. The rates of adoption and euthanasia of the dogs neutered at UCD were contrasted with a comparison shelter group to determine the effect of pre-adoption neutering. The UCD-neutered dogs had a lower rate of euthanasia than the comparison shelter group at the shelters investigated. At Sacramento County Animal Care and Regulation, 73% of the UCD group but only 36% of the comparison group were adopted. At Yolo County Animal Services, 71% of the UCD group and 45% of the comparison group were adopted. The sex of an animal did not significantly affect the rate of euthanasia. Dogs that were predominantly pit bull, rottweiler, or chow chow breeds had higher rates of euthanasia than other breeds, independent of neuter status. Also, juveniles (less than one year old) had lower rates of euthanasia than adults, independent of neuter status. UCD adult dogs had lower rates of euthanasia than comparison adults. Post-surgical UCD dogs spent a longer average time in the shelter before adoption (15 days at Sacramento; 16 days at Yolo) than the comparison dogs (11 and 12 days, respectively). UCD dogs also spent a longer average time in the shelter before euthanasia (18 and 25 days, respectively) than the comparison dogs (13 days at both shelters). Lower probabilities of euthanasia for behavioral or medical reasons were found for UCD dogs than for the comparison dogs. The

  8. A MASSIF Effort To Determine The Mass-Luminosity Relation for Stars of Various Ages, Metallicities, and Evolution States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Todd J.; Beedict, G. Fritz; Gies, Douglas R.; Golimowski, David A.; Ianna, Philip A.; Mason, Brian; McArthur, Barbara; Nelan, Edmund; Torres, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    The MASSIF (Masses and Stellar Systems with Interferometry) Team will use SIM to investigate the mass content of the Galaxy - from huge stars to barely glimmering brown dwarfs, and from hot white dwarfs to exotic black holes. We will target various samples of the Galactic population to determine and relate the fundamental characteristics of mass, luminosity, age, composition, and multiplicity - attributes that together yield an extensive understanding of the stars. Our samples will include distant clusters that span a factor of 5000 in age, and commonplace stars and substellar objects that lurk near the Sun. The principal goals of the MASSIF Key Project are to (1) define the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars in five fundamental clusters so that effects of age and metallicity can be mapped (Trapezium, TW Hydrae, Pleiades, Hyades, and M67), and (2) determine accurate masses for representative examples of nearly every type of star, stellar descendant or brown dwarf in the Galaxy.

  9. A decision support tool to determine cost-to-benefit of a family-centered in-home program for at-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fernando A; Araz, Ozgur M; Thompson, Ronald W; Ringle, Jay L; Mason, W Alex; Stimpson, Jim P

    2016-06-01

    Family-centered program research has demonstrated its effectiveness in improving adolescent outcomes. However, given current fiscal constraints faced by governmental agencies, a recent report from the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council highlighted the need for cost-benefit analyses to inform decision making by policymakers. Furthermore, performance management tools such as balanced scorecards and dashboards do not generally include cost-benefit analyses. In this paper, we describe the development of an Excel-based decision support tool that can be used to evaluate a selected family-based program for at-risk children and adolescents relative to a comparison program or the status quo. This tool incorporates the use of an efficient, user-friendly interface with results provided in concise tabular and graphical formats that may be interpreted without need for substantial training in economic evaluation. To illustrate, we present an application of this tool to evaluate use of Boys Town's In-Home Family Services (IHFS) relative to detention and out-of-home placement in New York City. Use of the decision support tool can help mitigate the need for programs to contract experts in economic evaluation, especially when there are financial or time constraints.

  10. Assessing the Impact of the Cambridge International Acceleration Program on U.S. University Determinants of Success: A Multi-Level Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stuart; Warren, Jayne; Gill, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the research being conducted by Cambridge International Examinations (Cambridge) to ensure that its international assessments prepare students as well as other acceleration programs for continued study in U.S. colleges and universities. The study, which builds on previous freshman GPA data modeling work using data supplied…

  11. Determining Treatment Outcome in Early Intervention Programs for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Critical Analysis of Measurement Issues in Learning Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.

    2007-01-01

    One of the areas receiving the greatest attention from researchers studying autism spectrum disorders in recent years involves psychologically based early intervention programs. Various claims of cure, marked improvement in social and communication skills, and improved I.Q. are among the conclusions that have been drawn by various researchers.…

  12. An Examination of U.S. AACSB International Accounting-Accredited Schools to Determine Global Travel Experience Requirements in Accounting Masters Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Susan Lee; Finley, Jane B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the extent to which U.S. graduate accounting programs accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business have included some type of global travel experience in their graduate accounting curriculum. The authors contacted 137 member schools offering accounting masters degrees. Only one school required an…

  13. Assessing the Impact of the Cambridge International Acceleration Program on U.S. University Determinants of Success: A Multi-Level Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stuart; Warren, Jayne; Gill, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the research being conducted by Cambridge International Examinations (Cambridge) to ensure that its international assessments prepare students as well as other acceleration programs for continued study in U.S. colleges and universities. The study, which builds on previous freshman GPA data modeling work using data supplied…

  14. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 277 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Administration of the Food Stamp Program by State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or holiday premiums, and fringe benefits) may be allowed in lieu of actual allowable indirect cost... functions related to the Program is allowable. (5) Bonding. Costs of premiums on bonds covering employees... cost under any recognized method of pricing consistently applied. Incoming transportation charges are a...

  15. Determining the impact on the professional learning of graduates of a science and pedagogical content knowledge-based graduate degree program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike, Alyson Mary

    This study examined the professional learning of participants in a science and pedagogical content knowledge-based graduate degree program, specifically the Master of Science in Science Education (MSSE) at Montana State University. The program's blended learning model includes distance learning coursework and laboratory, field and seminar experiences. Three-quarters of the faculty are scientists. The study sought to identify program components that contribute to a graduate course of study that is coherent, has academic rigor, and contributes to educator's professional growth and learning. The study examined the program from three perspectives: recommendations for teachers' professional learning through professional development, components of a quality graduate program, and a framework for distance learning. No large-scale studies on comprehensive models of teacher professional learning leading to change in practice have been conducted in the United States. The literature on teachers' professional learning is small. Beginning with a comprehensive review of the literature, this study sought to identify components of professional learning through professional development for teachers. The MSSE professional learning survey was designed for students and faculty, and 349 students and 24 faculty responded. The student survey explored how course experiences fostered professional learning. Open-ended responses on the student survey provided insight regarding specific program experiences influencing key categories of professional learning. A parallel faculty survey was designed to elicit faculty perspectives on the extent to which their courses fostered science content knowledge and other aspects of professional learning. Case study data and portfolios from MSSE students were used to provide deeper insights into the influential aspects of the program. The study provided evidence of significant professional learning among science teacher participants. This growth occurred in

  16. Determination of homovanillic, isohomovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids in human urine by means of glass capillary gas-liquid chromatography with temperature-programmed electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, J; Darbre, A

    1980-10-10

    The determination of urinary homovanillic, isohomovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids as their trifluoroacetylhexafluoroisopropyl ester derivatives by glass capillary gas-liquid chromatography has been studied. It was shown that even with high column efficiencies a single peak-single compound relationship could not be assumed and for reliable quantitation it was necessary to check determinations with a second gas-liquid chromatography column.

  17. Behavioral program synthesis with genetic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Krawiec, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Genetic programming (GP) is a popular heuristic methodology of program synthesis with origins in evolutionary computation. In this generate-and-test approach, candidate programs are iteratively produced and evaluated. The latter involves running programs on tests, where they exhibit complex behaviors reflected in changes of variables, registers, or memory. That behavior not only ultimately determines program output, but may also reveal its `hidden qualities' and important characteristics of the considered synthesis problem. However, the conventional GP is oblivious to most of that information and usually cares only about the number of tests passed by a program. This `evaluation bottleneck' leaves search algorithm underinformed about the actual and potential qualities of candidate programs. This book proposes behavioral program synthesis, a conceptual framework that opens GP to detailed information on program behavior in order to make program synthesis more efficient. Several existing and novel mechanisms subs...

  18. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  19. Reputation strength as a determinant of faculty employment: a test of the step-down thesis among clinical psychology doctoral programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael C; Ilardi, Stephen S; Johnson, Rebecca J

    2006-07-01

    This study tested the folkloristic belief that doctoral degree recipients who pursue academic careers typically wind up at institutions ranked lower in prestige than the institutions at which they trained (the step-down thesis). We used a database of faculty members in 150 clinical psychology doctoral programs accredited by the American Psychological Association, and compared each faculty member's training institution with the current employing institution on three distinct reputation ranking systems: The Center (University of Florida, Gainesville) for overall university reputation, the National Research Council (Washington, DC) for doctoral degree department reputation, and the news magazine, U.S. News and World Report ranking for clinical psychology training program reputation. Although support for the step-down thesis was found across all three ranking systems, a disproportionately large number of professors were also observed to move laterally in terms of their employing institution's reputation.

  20. A Study to Determine the Impact of Medical Readiness Programs on Fiscal Year 1987 Resource Utilization at Tripler Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    Requirements..48 McAdam III Ligt of Tables (Continued) Table Number Title Pale Nomber 1 Opportunity Cost of Exercise Support .... 50 19 Total Manpower...Advanced Trauma Life Support Materials Costo Medical Supplies Item Required Unit Price Unit of Measure Unit Cost Quantity Cost Catheter, 16 gauge S 48.22 50...McAdam 56 Chapter III - Summary Medical readiness programs are a vital part of the Army Medical Department mission. They are an integral part of

  1. A Fortran Program for the Determination of Unsteady Air Forces on General Combinations of Interfering Lifting Surfaces Oscillating in Subsonic Flow,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Operations and Airworthiness Division STATUTORY AND STATE AUTHORITIES AND INDUSTRY Trans-Australia Airlines, Library Qantas Airways Limited Ansett...distributions APPENDIX H-Input data for program AIRFORTP APPENDIX I-Example of input preparation for the analysis of Stark’s T-tail TABLES FIGURES * DISTRIBUTION...steady Kernel function since this function is amenable to an analytical approach. The underlying assumption of this analysis is that the salient features

  2. A Pilot Study of Determinants of Ongoing Participation in EnhanceFitness, a Community-Based Group Exercise Program for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna Georgeta; Herting, Jerald Roy; Belza, Basia Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Physical activity has many benefits for older adults, but adherence is often low. The purposes of this study were to: 1) identify motivators and barriers for participation in EnhanceFitness (EF), a group-based exercise program; and 2) quantitatively examine the association between motivators, barriers and individual characteristics, and ongoing participation in the program. Methods This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. We mailed a pilot, investigator-developed survey to assess motivators and barriers to exercising to 340 adults who started a new EF class, regardless of their attendance rate. We pre-coded surveys based on class attendance, with former participants defined as having no attendance a month or more before a four-month fitness check. Results Of the 241 respondents (71% response rate), 61 (25%) were pre-coded as former participants and 180 (75%) as current participants. The mean age of respondents was 71 and they were predominately female (89%). More than half of respondents were Caucasian (58%), and almost half were married (46%). Former participants reported lower total motivation scores compared to current participants (pbarrier score (p barriers (“Class was too hard,” “Class was too easy,” “I don’t like to exercise,” “Personal illness,” “Exercise caused pain”) and 2 motivators (“I want to exercise,” and “I plan exercise as part of my day”) were significantly different between current and former participants. Discrete event history models show dropout was related positively to ethnicity (Caucasians were more likely to drop out), and health-related barriers. Discussion In newly formed EF classes, participants who drop out report more program, psychosocial, and health barriers, and fewer program and psycho-social motivators. Total barrier score and health barriers significantly predict a participant’s dropping out, and Caucasian ethnicity is associated with a higher likelihood of dropping

  3. Determining the Science, Agriculture and Natural Resource, and Youth Leadership Outcomes for Students Participating in an Innovative Middle School Agriscience Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Peter; Stair, Kristin S.; Dormody, Tom; Vanleeuwen, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center (MMSAEEC) located in Las Vegas, New Mexico is a youth science center focusing on agriculture and natural resources. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study of the MMSAEEC teaching and learning model was to determine if differences exist in science achievement, agriculture…

  4. Exercise and diet determinants of overweight women participating in an exercise and diet program: a prospective examination of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rebecca Ellis; Hausenblas, Heather A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine prospectively the ability of direct and belief-based measures of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs to predict exercise and diet intention and behavior of overweight women. Participants were 117 overweight, community-dwelling women and university students enrolled in a 4-week exercise and diet program. Participants completed baseline measures of demographic characteristics and the TPB constructs. Their exercise and diet adherence were also recorded. We found that: (1) the direct measure of perceived behavioral control (PBC) predicted exercise intention, (2) the direct measures of instrumental attitude, subjective norm, and PBC predicted diet intention, and (3) none of the direct or belief-based measures of the TPB constructs predicted 4-week exercise or diet behavior. Furthermore, several beliefs were associated with the direct measures of attitude, subjective norm, PBC, and intention. Implications of these results for designing exercise and diet interventions with overweight women are discussed.

  5. Rapid determination of thermodynamic parameters from one-dimensional programmed-temperature gas chromatography for use in retention time prediction in comprehensive multidimensional chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinitie, Teague M; Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; Harynuk, James J

    2014-01-17

    A new method for estimating the thermodynamic parameters of ΔH(T0), ΔS(T0), and ΔCP for use in thermodynamic modeling of GC×GC separations has been developed. The method is an alternative to the traditional isothermal separations required to fit a three-parameter thermodynamic model to retention data. Herein, a non-linear optimization technique is used to estimate the parameters from a series of temperature-programmed separations using the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. With this method, the time required to obtain estimates of thermodynamic parameters a series of analytes is significantly reduced. This new method allows for precise predictions of retention time with the average error being only 0.2s for 1D separations. Predictions for GC×GC separations were also in agreement with experimental measurements; having an average relative error of 0.37% for (1)tr and 2.1% for (2)tr.

  6. Direct determination of sulfur species in coals from the Argonne premium sample program by solid sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniela; Vogt, Thomas; Klinger, Mathias; Masset, Patrick Joseph; Otto, Matthias

    2014-10-21

    A new direct solid sampling method for speciation of sulfur in coals by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ETV-ICP OES) is presented. On the basis of the controlled thermal decomposition of coal in an argon atmosphere, it is possible to determine the different sulfur species in addition to elemental sulfur in coals. For the assignment of the obtained peaks from the sulfur transient emission signal, several analytical techniques (reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction) were used. The developed direct solid sampling method enables a good accuracy (relative standard deviation ≤ 6%), precision and was applied to determine the sulfur forms in the Argonne premium coals, varying in rank. The generated method is time- and cost-effective and well suited for the fast characterization of sulfur species in coal. It can be automated to a large extent and is applicable for process-accompanying analyses.

  7. Application of a computer-assisted structure elucidation program for the structural determination of a new terpenoid aldehyde with an unusual skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Nuo; Ridge, Clark D; Mazzola, Eugene P; Sun, Jianghao; Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Moser, Arvin; DiMartino, Joseph C; MacDonald, Scott A; Chen, Pei

    2017-03-01

    The structure of a novel compound from Adansonia digitata has been elucidated, and its (1) H and (13) C NMR spectra have been assigned employing a variety of one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR techniques without degradative chemistry. The Advanced Chemistry Development ACD/Structure Elucidator software was important for determining part of this structure that contained a fused bicyclic system with very few hydrogen atoms, which in turn, exhibited essentially no discriminating HMBC connectivities throughout that portion of the molecule. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Coral Point Count with Excel extensions (CPCe): A Visual Basic program for the determination of coral and substrate coverage using random point count methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Kevin E.; Gill, Shaun M.

    2006-11-01

    Photographic and video methods are frequently used to increase the efficiency of coral reef monitoring efforts. The random point count method is commonly used on still images or frame-grabbed video to estimate the community statistics of benthos. A matrix of randomly distributed points is overlaid on an image, and the species or substrate-type lying beneath each point is visually identified. Coral Point Count with Excel extensions (CPCe) is a standalone Visual Basic program which automates, facilitates, and speeds the random point count analysis process. CPCe includes automatic frame-image sequencing, single-click species/substrate labeling, auto-advancement of data point focus, zoom in/out, zoom hold, and specification of random point number, distribution type, and frame border location. Customization options include user-specified coral/substrate codes and data point shape, size, and color. CPCe can also perform image calibration and planar area and length calculation of benthic features. The ability to automatically generate analysis spreadsheets in Microsoft Excel based upon the supplied species/substrate codes is a significant feature. Data from individual frames can be combined to produce both inter- and intra-site comparisons. Spreadsheet contents include header information, statistical parameters of each species/substrate type (relative abundance, mean, standard deviation, standard error) and the calculation of the Shannon-Weaver diversity index for each species. Additional information can be found at http://www.nova.edu/ocean/cpce/.

  9. Medicare program; appeals of CMS or CMS contractor determinations when a provider or supplier fails to meet the requirements for Medicare billing privileges. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-27

    This final rule implements a number of regulatory provisions that are applicable to all providers and suppliers, including durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS) suppliers. This final rule establishes appeals processes for all providers and suppliers whose enrollment, reenrollment or revalidation application for Medicare billing privileges is denied and whose Medicare billing privileges are revoked. It also establishes timeframes for deciding enrollment appeals by an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) within the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) or the Departmental Appeals Board (DAB), or Board, within the DHHS; and processing timeframes for CMS' Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) contractors. In addition, this final rule allows Medicare FFS contractors to revoke Medicare billing privileges when a provider or supplier submits a claim or claims for services that could not have been furnished to a beneficiary. This final rule also specifies that a Medicare contractor may establish a Medicare enrollment bar for any provider or supplier whose billing privileges have been revoked. Lastly, the final rule requires that all providers and suppliers receive Medicare payments by electronic funds transfer (EFT) if the provider or supplier, is submitting an initial enrollment application to Medicare, changing their enrollment information, revalidating or re-enrolling in the Medicare program.

  10. Keeping the Voice Fit in the Group Fitness Industry: A Qualitative Study to Determine What Instructors Want in a Voice Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Patrick J; Rumbach, Anna F

    2017-05-18

    This study aimed to provide a descriptive summary of (1) group fitness instructors' (GFIs') experiences of occupational voice use and education, and (2) the content and mode of delivery desired by GFIs in an education and training program. This is a qualitative inductive approach using a semi-structured interview. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight GFIs recruited via self-selection sampling. Participants were asked to comment on their experiences of voice use, voice education, and their preferences for future education and training. Participants reported experiencing occupational voice difficulties, and cited inadequate voice education, faulty equipment, and apathetic fitness industry attitudes as core barriers to vocal health. Content focusing on vocal hygiene, safe occupational voice use, use of amplification equipment, and addressing industry attitudes to voice was desired by participants. A combination of face-to-face, web-based, and app-based delivery options was suggested. The data from this study should be considered when designing a vocal education and training package tailored to the needs of GFIs and the fitness industry. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DETERMINING THE NEEDS OF EDUCATIONISTS RELATED TO THE ISSUE OF PREPARING PRESENTATIONS IN POWERPOINT PROGRAM WHICH IS ONE OF THE IMPORTANT DIMENSIONS OF EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent TEZEL

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, primary school teachers using the effective and powerful tool in teaching forpreparing presentartions is the PowerPoint program that has been aimed to cover the educational needs.The research ia a general research type, it’s a descriptive study. To make the data collective tool easier, it has been seenappropriate to collect data through a face-to-face session. The participants were 11 primary school teachers from Famagustaarea called Serdarlı, and in the face-to-face sessions, the information was filled out in a form.The aim of the study, teachers from Serdarlı Primary school alter their needs of education through preparing presentationsthrough PowerPoint as they note down as an effective teaching tool moreover, it’s generally thought that this will contributeto education and learning. After making a few resource reasearches, it has shown that teachers at schools are generallyfamiliar in using the computer, in contrast it has shown that in being able to prepare presentations on the PowerPoint programthe teachers are required more educational needs.For this reason, it is thought that this study will show a light for furthersstudies that will be made in the future.

  12. Effects of a tailored interactive multimedia computer program on determinants of colorectal cancer screening: a randomized controlled pilot study in physician offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerant, Anthony; Kravitz, Richard L; Rooney, Mairin; Amerson, Scott; Kreuter, Matthew; Franks, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Screening reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality and is cost-effective, yet uptake is suboptimal. We developed and evaluated a personally tailored interactive multimedia computer program (IMCP) to encourage CRC screening. Randomized controlled pilot trial evaluating the effects of the personally tailored CRC screening IMCP as compared with a non-tailored IMCP ("electronic leaflet") control. The IMCP was tailored to patient preference, self-efficacy, barriers, and readiness and deployed in busy primary care offices before scheduled doctor visits. Main outcomes were: CRC screening knowledge, self-efficacy, benefits and barriers, and stage of readiness. We enrolled 54 subjects; software glitches occurred in 5, leaving 49 subjects for analysis. In adjusted analyses, compared with control, the experimental group had a significant increase in CRC screening self-efficacy (p=0.049), a significantly greater likelihood of moving to a more advanced stage of readiness for screening (p=0.034), a trend toward fewer perceived barriers to screening (p=0.149), and no difference in perceived benefits or knowledge of screening. Our personally tailored IMCP was significantly more effective than control in bolstering CRC screening readiness and self-efficacy. If further streamlined, personally tailored IMCPs might be usefully deployed in busy primary care offices to improve uptake of CRC screening.

  13. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, selected persistent organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated flame retardants in fillets of fishes from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; May, Thomas W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 20 to 1,200 nanograms per gram. Chlordanes and DDT-related chemicals constituted the primary classes of pesticides present at elevated concentrations in most samples, and ranged from 5 to 340 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of about 5 to about 410 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of total technical chlordane ranged from less than 5 to 260 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were all greatest in samples of blue catfish from Cape Girardeau and Weldon Spring.

  14. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, selected persistent organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated flame retardants in fillets of fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

  15. Determination of pKa values of tenoxicam from 1H NMR chemical shifts and of oxicams from electrophoretic mobilities (CZE) with the aid of programs SQUAD and HYPNMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barrientos, Damaris; Rojas-Hernández, Alberto; Gutiérrez, Atilano; Moya-Hernández, Rosario; Gómez-Balderas, Rodolfo; Ramírez-Silva, María Teresa

    2009-12-15

    In this work it is explained, by the first time, the application of programs SQUAD and HYPNMR to refine equilibrium constant values through the fit of electrophoretic mobilities determined by capillary zone electrophoresis experiments, due to the mathematical isomorphism of UV-vis absorptivity coefficients, NMR chemical shifts and electrophoretic mobilities as a function of pH. Then, the pK(a) values of tenoxicam in H(2)O/DMSO 1:4 (v/v) have been obtained from (1)H NMR chemical shifts, as well as of oxicams in aqueous solution from electrophoretic mobilities determined by CZE, at 25 degrees C. These values are in very good agreement with those reported by spectrophotometric and potentiometric measurements.

  16. Determination of the genetic structure of remnant Morus boninensis Koidz. trees to establish a conservation program on the Bonin Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Naoki; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Takayuki; Hoshi, Yoshio; Nobushima, Fuyuo; Yasui, Takaya

    2006-10-11

    Morus boninensis, is an endemic plant of the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands of Japan and is categorized as "critically endangered" in the Japanese red data book. However, little information is available about its ecological, evolutionary and genetic status, despite the urgent need for guidelines for the conservation of the species. Therefore, we adopted Moritz's MU concept, based on the species' current genetic structure, to define management units and to select mother tree candidates for seed orchards. Nearly all individuals of the species were genotyped on the basis of seven microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity levels in putative natural populations were higher than in putative man-made populations with the exception of those on Otouto-jima Island. This is because a limited number of maternal trees are likely to have been used for seed collection to establish the man-made populations. A model-based clustering analysis clearly distinguished individuals into nine clusters, with a large difference in genetic composition between the population on Otouto-jima Island, the putative natural populations and the putative man-made populations. The Otouto-jima population appeared to be genetically differentiated from the others; a finding that was also supported by pairwise FST and RST analysis. Although multiple clusters were detected in the putative man-made populations, the pattern of genetic diversity was monotonous in comparison to the natural populations. The genotyping by microsatellite markers revealed strong genetic structures. Typically, artificial propagation of this species has ignored the genetic structure, relying only on seeds from Otouto-jima for replanting on other islands, because of a problem with inter-specific hybridization on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima Islands. However, this study demonstrates that we should be taking into consideration the genetic structure of the species when designing a propagation program for the conservation of this species.

  17. Determination of the genetic structure of remnant Morus boninensis Koidz. trees to establish a conservation program on the Bonin Islands, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobushima Fuyuo

    2006-10-01

    propagation program for the conservation of this species.

  18.  "Maternal Health and Family Planning Distance Education" experience among physicians: a three-phase study to determine the educational needs, develop education program, and evaluate efficacy of the education administered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciftci B

    2016-06-01

    sufficient high level knowledge increased from 55% to 68.5%. Conclusion: The education on Maternal Health and Family Planning refreshed the knowledge of participants and highly met the preeducation expectations. Determining the educational needs and expectations of the target population prior to the education program seems to have an important role on determining its overall success. Keywords: maternal health, family planning, physician education, education program, education level, expectations

  19. Sex difference determined the role of sex hormone-binding globulin in obese children during short-term weight reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Min; Lin, Chien-Ming; Lien, Shao-Hung; Wu, Li-Wei; Huang, Ching-Feng; Chu, Der-Ming

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between hyperinsulinemia and decreased sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels has been observed in obese adults and children. Weight reduction not only increased insulin sensitivity but also elevated serum SHBG levels in obese adults and children. However, the correlation between the changes in insulin resistance indices and serum SHBG concentration during weight reduction program (WRP) is not fully understood, particularly in obese children. This study is to evaluate whether SHBG level is a potential biomarker that can be used to assess insulin resistance in obese children during a short-term WRP. Forty-eight obese Taiwanese children (11.7 ± 2.2 years; 25 boys and 23 girls) participating in 8-week WRP were studied. Anthropometric measurements, lipid profiles, insulin resistance indices, and serum SHBG concentration were recorded at baseline and at the end of the WRP. The results showed body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), body fat weight (BFW), and insulin resistance indices such as fasting insulin, fasting insulin to glucose ratio, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance, log (HOMA) all significantly decreased after the 8-week WRP. With respect to lipid profiles, only high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels increased in both sexes. At baseline, insulin resistance indices were inversely correlated with SHBG concentrations in girls, but not in boys. The difference in SHBG after WRP was 2.58 nmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.51, 8.66) in boys and 0.58 nmol/L (95% CI: -5.23, 6.39) in girls. There was a trend toward increased serum SHBG levels in boys (P = .39) and girls (P = .84) after weight loss, but a significantly negative correlation between the change in SHBG and in each of the insulin resistance indices only in the girls after adjusting age and ΔBFW during WRP.In conclusion, short-term WRP has the potential effects of decreased BW, BMI, BF%, and BFW, as

  20. Programa Interactivo para el Modelado y Determinación de las Características Dinámicas de Rotores Interactive Program for Modeling and Determining the Dynamic Characteristics of Rotating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vergara

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el desarrollo de un programa computacional para simular y determinar las características dinámicas de rotores. Estos juegan un rol importante tanto en el diseño, como en la producción, la operación y el mantenimiento de maquinaria rotativa. El modelado y análisis de una maquinaria con componentes rotativos requieren la determinación de las características dinámicas del sistema, representadas por frecuencias naturales, modos de vibración, velocidades críticas y respuesta armónica del sistema. El modelo es analizado de manera automática con la ayuda de un programa comercial de elementos finitos, y los resultados son tomados y presentados al usuario de forma conveniente. Con el fin de validar el programa, se comparan sus resultados con los obtenidos experimentalmente y con otros disponibles en la literatura.A computer program to simulate and to determine the dynamic characteristics of rotors is presented. These characteristics play an important role in the design, production, operation and maintenance of rotating machinery. The modeling and analysis of machinery with rotating components require the determination of the dynamic characteristics of the system, represented by natural frequencies, vibration modes, critical speeds and harmonic response of the system. The model is analyzed in an automatic way, with the help of a commercial program of finite elements, and the results are taken and presented to the user in a convenient way. To validate the program, the results are compared with those obtained experimentally and with others reported in the literature.

  1. Four-colour photometry of eclipsing binaries. XLI uvby light curves for AD Bootis, HW Canis Majoris, SW Canis Majoris, V636 Centauri, VZ Hydrae, and WZ Ophiuchi

    CERN Document Server

    Clausen, J V; García, J M; Giménez, A; Helt, B E; Olsen, E H; Andersen, J

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Accurate mass, radius, and abundance determinations from binaries provide important information on stellar evolution, fundamental to central fields in modern astrophysics and cosmology. AIMS: Within the long-term Copenhagen Binary Project, we aim to obtain high-quality light curves and standard photometry for double-lined detached eclipsing binaries with late A, F, and G type main-sequence components, needed for the determination of accurate absolute dimensions and abundances, and for detailed comparisons with results from recent stellar evolutionary models. METHODS: Between March 1985 and July 2007, we carried out photometric observations of AD Boo, HW CMA, SW CMa, V636 Cen, VZ Hya, and WZ Oph at the Str"omgren Automatic Telescope at ESO, La Silla. RESULTS: We obtained complete uvby light curves, ephemerides, and standard uvby\\beta indices for all six systems.For V636 Cen and HW CMa, we present the first modern light curves, whereas for AD Boo, SW CMa, VZ Hya, and WZ Oph, they are both more accurate...

  2. ‘I am very, very proud of myself’: Improving youth activity levels using self-determination theory in program development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy B Springer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many adolescents are not meeting recommended levels for physical activity. Increasing physical activity among urban African American youth is both a challenge and a public health priority. Most research in community-based interventions has taken a didactic approach, focusing on skill and knowledge development alone, with inconclusive results. This ten-week progressive activity intervention with adolescents in an urban faith community introduced a self-determination theory (SDT approach with the aim of promoting the adoption of self-management skills necessary for sustaining activity. Components of SDT included relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Together with didactics, aligning activities with participant interests, and using existing social structures for health message delivery, the approach led to high satisfaction ratings for the three components of SDT along with improved skills, knowledge, and outcomes in cardiovascular fitness. Understanding and utilizing approaches that enhance enjoyment, personal choice, confidence, and social affiliation may lead to more lasting healthy activity behaviors and attitudes than didactic approaches alone in this and other adolescent populations. The SDT is reviewed in the context of this youth intervention.

  3. Determinants of HIV-1 drug resistance in treatment-naïve patients and its clinical implications in an antiretroviral treatment program in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zoufaly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Facing the rapid scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART programs in resource-limited settings, monitoring of treatment outcome is essential in order to timely detect and tackle drawbacks [1]. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 300 consecutive patients starting first-line ART were enrolled between 2009 and2010 in a large HIV treatment centre in rural Cameroon. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Virologic failure was defined as a VL >1000 cop/mL at month 12. Besides CD4 and viral load (VL analysis, HIV-1 drug resistance testing was performed in patients with VL>1000 copies (c/mL plasma. In those patients and controls, minority HIV-1 drug resistance mutations at baseline, and plasma drug levels were analyzed in order to identify the risk factors for virologic failure. Results: Most enrolled patients (71% were female. At baseline median CD4 cell count was 162/µL (IQR 59-259, median log10 VL was 5.4 (IQR 5.0–5.8 c/mL, and one-third of patients had World Health Organisation (WHO stage 3 or 4; 30 patients died during follow-up. Among all patients who completed follow-up 38/238 had virologic failure. These patients were younger, had lower CD4 cell counts and more often had WHO stage 3 or 4 at baseline compared to patients with VL<1000c/mL. Sixty-three percent of failing patients (24/38 had at least one mutation associated with high-level drug resistance. The M184V mutation was the most frequently detected nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI mutation (n=18 followed by TAMs (n=5 and multi-NRTI resistance mutations (n=4. The most commonly observed non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI resistance mutations were K103N (n=10, Y181C (n=7, and G190A (n=6. Drug resistance mutations at baseline were detected in 12/65 (18% patients, in 6 patients with and 6 patients without virological failure (p=0.77. Subtherapeutic NNRTI levels (OR 6.67, 95% CI 1.98–22.43, p<0.002 and poorer adherence (OR 1.54, 95% CI

  4. Simultaneous determination of gasoline oxygenates and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene in water samples using headspace-programmed temperature vaporization-fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pavón, José Luis; del Nogal Sánchez, Miguel; Fernández Laespada, María Esther; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo

    2007-12-14

    A sensitive method is presented for the fast analysis of seven fuel oxygenates (methanol, ethanol, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and diisopropyl ether (DIPE)) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene (BTEX) in water samples. The applicability of a headspace (HS) autosampler in combination with a GC device equipped with a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) and a MS detector is explored. The proposed method achieves a clear improvement in sensitivity with respect to conventional headspace methods due to the use of the PTV. Two different packed liners with materials of different trapping strengths (glass wool and Tenax-TA) were compared. The benefits of using Tenax-TA instead of glass wool as packed material for the measurement of the 11 compounds emerged as better signal-to-noise ratios and hence better detection limits. The proposed method is extremely sensitive. The limits of detection are of the order of ng/L for six of the compounds studied and of the order of microg/L for the rest, with the exception of the most polar and volatile compound: methanol. Precision (measured as the relative standard deviation for a level with an S/N ratio close to 3) was equal to or lower than 15% in all cases. The method was applied to the determination of the analytes in natural matrixes (tap, river and sea water) and the results obtained can be considered highly satisfactory. The methodology has much lower detection limits than the concentration limits proposed in drinking water by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union for compounds under regulation.

  5. Reliability considerations of NDT by probability of detection (POD). Determination using ultrasound phased array. Results from a project in frame of the German nuclear safety research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Jochen H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren (IZEP), Saarbruecken (Germany); Dugan, Sandra; Juengert, Anne [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA)

    2013-07-01

    Reliable assessment procedures are an important aspect of maintenance concepts. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods are an essential part of a variety of maintenance plans. Fracture mechanical assessments require knowledge of flaw dimensions, loads and material parameters. NDT methods are able to acquire information on all of these areas. However, it has to be considered that the level of detail information depends on the case investigated and therefore on the applicable methods. Reliability aspects of NDT methods are of importance if quantitative information is required. Different design concepts e.g. the damage tolerance approach in aerospace already include reliability criteria of NDT methods applied in maintenance plans. NDT is also an essential part during construction and maintenance of nuclear power plants. In Germany, type and extent of inspection are specified in Safety Standards of the Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA). Only certified inspections are allowed in the nuclear industry. The qualification of NDT is carried out in form of performance demonstrations of the inspection teams and the equipment, witnessed by an authorized inspector. The results of these tests are mainly statements regarding the detection capabilities of certain artificial flaws. In other countries, e.g. the U.S., additional blind tests on test blocks with hidden and unknown flaws may be required, in which a certain percentage of these flaws has to be detected. The knowledge of the probability of detection (POD) curves of specific flaws in specific testing conditions is often not present. This paper shows the results of a research project designed for POD determination of ultrasound phased array inspections of real and artificial cracks. The continuative objective of this project was to generate quantitative POD results. The distribution of the crack sizes of the specimens and the inspection planning is discussed, and results of the ultrasound inspections are presented. In

  6. On finitely recursive programs

    CERN Document Server

    Baselice, Sabrina; Criscuolo, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Disjunctive finitary programs are a class of logic programs admitting function symbols and hence infinite domains. They have very good computational properties, for example ground queries are decidable while in the general case the stable model semantics is highly undecidable. In this paper we prove that a larger class of programs, called finitely recursive programs, preserves most of the good properties of finitary programs under the stable model semantics, namely: (i) finitely recursive programs enjoy a compactness property; (ii) inconsistency checking and skeptical reasoning are semidecidable; (iii) skeptical resolution is complete for normal finitely recursive programs. Moreover, we show how to check inconsistency and answer skeptical queries using finite subsets of the ground program instantiation. We achieve this by extending the splitting sequence theorem by Lifschitz and Turner: We prove that if the input program P is finitely recursive, then the partial stable models determined by any smooth splittin...

  7. Determination of methylic alcohol and fusel oil in wines by gas chromatography with programmed temperature%程序升温毛细管气相色谱法测定白酒中甲醇和杂醇油

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫国荣

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立毛细管气相色谱法测定白酒中甲醇和杂醇油.方法:采用程序升温法,选用大口径HP - INNOWAX柱,气相色谱法测定测定白酒中甲醇和杂醇油的最佳条件.结果:在选定的试验条件下,各组分线性良好.检出限:甲醇0.5 ng,异丁醇0.2 ng,异戊醇0.12 ng.相对标准偏差在1.21%~3.93%之间,样品的加标回收率在91.5%~101%之间.结论:该方法准确灵敏、精密度好,适用于白酒中甲醇和杂醇油的测定,结果满意.%Objective:To establish the method for determination of methylic alcohol and fusel oil in the wines by gas chroma-tography with programmed temperature. Methods:Programmed temperature method, HP - INNOWAX column and gas chroma-tography were used to determine methylic alcohol and fusel oil in wines. Results:Good linearities were obtained in all groups under this experimental condition, the relative standard deviation in the range was 1.21% ~ 3.93% , the recovery rate was 91.5% - 101% , detection limit of methylic alcohol was 0.5 ng, isobuthl alcohol was 0.2 ng, and isoamyl alcohol was 0. 12 ng. Conclusion:The method had the advantages of good precision, accuracy and sensitivity, which was suitable to determine methylic alcohol and fusel oil in the wines.

  8. Investigation of the performance of digital mammographic X-ray equipment: determination of noise equivalent quanta (NEQQC) and detective quantum efficiency (DQEQC) compared with the automated analysis of CDMAM test images with CDCOM and CDIC programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, C; Buhr, H; Blendl, C

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the values for noise equivalent quanta, detective quantum efficiency, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and the values for the parameters for automated CDMAM test phantom analyses required to achieve satisfactory quality of digital mammograms. During the course of tests according to PAS 1054 (8 CR and 12 DR systems), test images were made with a test phantom insertion plate containing two lead edges in nearly horizontal and vertical directions. Only original data were processed with a program that was developed at the Cologne University of Applied Sciences (FH-Köln). All equipment systems complied with the requirements regarding visual recognition of gold-plated mammo detail test objects. CDMAM test images were also evaluated using the CDIC (CUAS) and CDCOM (EUREF) programs. CDMAM test images show comparable values for the parameters, precision, sensitivity and specificity. DR systems require about half the dose used for CR systems for similar results. The NEQ values achieved with the dose used for the CDMAM test images show larger scatter ranges. The MTF of the different equipment system types differ significantly from each other. Visual evaluation of CDMAM test images can be replaced by automated evaluation. Limiting values were determined for each parameter. Automated evaluation of CDMAM test phantom images should be used to determine the physical parameter NEQQC. This method is much more sensitive to noise and sharpness influences and has a higher validity than diagnostic methods. Automated evaluation objectivizes testing. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Trends in and determinants of loss to follow up and early mortality in a rapid expansion of the antiretroviral treatment program in Vietnam: findings from 13 outpatient clinics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dam Anh Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to describe the trends in and determinants of six month mortality and loss to follow up (LTFU during 2005-2009 in 13 outpatient clinics in Vietnam. METHOD: Data were obtained from clinical records of 3,449 Vietnamese HIV/AIDS patients aged 18 years or older who initiated ART between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2009. Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test, log rank test were conducted to examine the trends of baseline characteristics, six month mortality and LTFU. Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed to compute hazard ratio (HR and 95% Confidence Interval (CI. RESULTS: Though there was a declining trend, the incidence of six month mortality and LTFU remained as high as 6% and 15%, respectively. Characteristics associated with six month mortality were gender (HR females versus males 0.54, 95%CI: 0.34-0.85, years of initiation (HR 2009 versus 2005 0.54, 95%CI: 0.41-0.80, low baseline CD4 (HR 350-500 cells/mm(3 versus <50 cells/mm(3 0.26, 95%CI: 0.18-0.52, low baseline BMI (one unit increase: HR 0.96, 95%CI: 0.94-0.97, co-infection with TB (HR 1.61, 95%CI: 1.46-1.95, history of injecting drugs (HR 1.58, 95%CI: 1.31-1.78. Characteristics associated with LTFU were younger age (one year younger: HR 0.97, 95%CI: 0.95-0.98, males (HR females versus males 0.82, 95%CI: 0.63-0.95, and poor adherence (HR 0.55, 95%CI: 0.13-0.87. CONCLUSIONS: To reduce early mortality, special attention is required to ensure timely access to ART services, particularly for patients at higher risk. Patients at risk for LTFU after ART initiation should be targeted through enhancing treatment counselling and improving patient tracing system at ART clinics.

  10. "Maternal Health and Family Planning Distance Education" experience among physicians: a three-phase study to determine the educational needs, develop education program, and evaluate efficacy of the education administered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Bestami; Uzel, Nesibe; Ozel, M Onur; Zergeroglu, Sema; Deger, Cetin; Turasan, S Sare; Karakoc, Ayse Gul; Ozbalci, Semra

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the educational needs of family practitioners and evaluate the efficacy of the ongoing "Maternal Health and Family Planning Distance Education" program conducted by the General Directorate of Health Research (SAGEM) of the Turkish Ministry of Health. This study consisted of three phases. In the first phase, an online survey on maternal health and family planning educational needs was sent to 20,611 physicians via e-mail. Of the 20,611 physicians, 4,729 completed the survey. In the second phase, of the 1,061 physicians registered to the education program, 632 physicians with active participation were included. In the third phase, the preeducation expectations of 287 physicians and posteducation satisfaction of 54 physicians were analyzed with a questionnaire. The majority of the physicians were employed in a family health center (97.4%) and practicing for 16-20 years (23.2%) without any prior in-service training (60.9%). High-to-very high educational need was expressed by 56.4% of physicians for pregnancy, delivery, and puerperality. Topics that the physicians, including both those with ≥16 years in practice and without prior in-service training, expressed need for more detailed content were pregnancy, delivery, and puerperality (37.5%); emergency obstetric approach in the primary care setting (33.1%); and gynecological infectious diseases and treatment approach (32.4%). Following the education program, the participants' expectations were fulfilled in terms of refreshing their knowledge, particularly in the field of Maternal Health and Family Planning (87.1% and 75.9%) and the percentage of participants who expressed that they had sufficient high level knowledge increased from 55% to 68.5%. The education on Maternal Health and Family Planning refreshed the knowledge of participants and highly met the preeducation expectations. Determining the educational needs and expectations of the target population prior to the education program seems

  11. HipMatch: an object-oriented cross-platform program for accurate determination of cup orientation using 2D-3D registration of single standard X-ray radiograph and a CT volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guoyan; Zhang, Xuan; Steppacher, Simon D; Murphy, Stephen B; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Tannast, Moritz

    2009-09-01

    The widely used procedure of evaluation of cup orientation following total hip arthroplasty using single standard anteroposterior (AP) radiograph is known inaccurate, largely due to the wide variability in individual pelvic orientation relative to X-ray plate. 2D-3D image registration methods have been introduced for an accurate determination of the post-operative cup alignment with respect to an anatomical reference extracted from the CT data. Although encouraging results have been reported, their extensive usage in clinical routine is still limited. This may be explained by their requirement of a CAD model of the prosthesis, which is often difficult to be organized from the manufacturer due to the proprietary issue, and by their requirement of either multiple radiographs or a radiograph-specific calibration, both of which are not available for most retrospective studies. To address these issues, we developed and validated an object-oriented cross-platform program called "HipMatch" where a hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme combining an iterative landmark-to-ray registration with a 2D-3D intensity-based registration was implemented to estimate a rigid transformation between a pre-operative CT volume and the post-operative X-ray radiograph for a precise estimation of cup alignment. No CAD model of the prosthesis is required. Quantitative and qualitative results evaluated on cadaveric and clinical datasets are given, which indicate the robustness and the accuracy of the program. HipMatch is written in object-oriented programming language C++ using cross-platform software Qt (TrollTech, Oslo, Norway), VTK, and Coin3D and is transportable to any platform.

  12. Process stability assessed by selecting Shewhart's psi statistical analysis technique of the influence of matrix modifier and furnace program in the optimization and precision of zinc determinations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tufail, M; Akram, M; Haq, A

    1999-03-01

    The method previously used in the Toxicology Laboratories of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center for determining the zinc concentration in serum by Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer was improved by modifying the matrix modifier and by changing the heated graphite furnace atomization (HGA) program. After trying several methods we failed to achieve the required precision and the accuracy of methods for serum zinc determination. We changed the matrix modifier to a fifty percent mixture (v/v) of 3.90 grams per liter of ammonium phosphate in Type 1 water with 0.2% nitric acid and 1.0 gram per liter of magnesium nitrate in acidic water (0.2% HNO3) with 0.1% triton X-100 was used as matrix modifier. A twenty-five fold dilution of the sample in matrix modifier was injected on the L'vov's platform of the furnace. In order to reduce the high sensitivity of Zn the furnace program was modified. The method is found very robust. The average reproducibility between inter-runs and intra-run is less than 1.59% with a high degree of accuracy. We used two levels of controls i.e. normal or low level and abnormal or high level. The linearity and the detection limit of the assay were 0.9992 and 0.010 micromol/L respectively. Average recovery of the analyte was 98.65%. The X-Bar and R charts were constructed by using Shewhart's statistical analysis technique to assess the test methodology. It was found that the assay is capable and stable for routine clinical and research analysis. The capability index (C(P)) of the assay, an indicator of the precision, was calculated.

  13. Programming Bacteriophages by Swapping Their Specificity Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Moran G; Yosef, Ido; Qimron, Udi

    2015-12-01

    Bacteriophages, bacteria's natural enemies, may serve as potent antibacterial agents. Their specificity for certain bacterial sub-species limits their effectiveness, but allows selective targeting of bacteria. Lu and colleagues present a platform for such targeting through alteration of bacteriophages' host specificity by swapping specificity domains in their host-recognition ligand.

  14. Collectively loading programs in a multiple program multiple data environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Miller, Samuel J.

    2016-11-08

    Techniques are disclosed for loading programs efficiently in a parallel computing system. In one embodiment, nodes of the parallel computing system receive a load description file which indicates, for each program of a multiple program multiple data (MPMD) job, nodes which are to load the program. The nodes determine, using collective operations, a total number of programs to load and a number of programs to load in parallel. The nodes further generate a class route for each program to be loaded in parallel, where the class route generated for a particular program includes only those nodes on which the program needs to be loaded. For each class route, a node is selected using a collective operation to be a load leader which accesses a file system to load the program associated with a class route and broadcasts the program via the class route to other nodes which require the program.

  15. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  16. Intercellular junctions in nerve-free hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDowall, A W; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    with particles in an "enplaque conformation appearing as a raised plateau on the E-face or as a depression on the P-face; (ii) structures morphologically similar to gap junctions in rat liver, containing particles on the P-face and corresponding pits on the E-face, both having hexagonal packing with a lattice...

  17. 77 FR 58208 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Privatization Pilot Program and has determined that the final application is substantially complete and accepted... privatization pilot program and authorizes the Department of Transportation to grant exemptions from certain...

  18. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  19. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional survey of general medical outpatient clinics using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omech B

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bernard Omech,1 Jose-Gaby Tshikuka,2 Julius C Mwita,1 Billy Tsima,2 Oathokwa Nkomazana,3 Kennedy Amone-P’Olak4 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, 3Department of Surgery, 4Department of Psychology, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana Background: Low- and middle-income countries, including Botswana, are facing rising prevalence of obesity and obesity-related cardiometabolic complications. Very little information is known about clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in the outpatient setting during routine visits. We aimed to assess the prevalence and identify the determinants of metabolic syndrome among the general outpatients’ attendances in Botswana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2014 involving outpatients aged ≥20 years without diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. A precoded questionnaire was used to collect data on participants’ sociodemographics, risk factors, and anthropometric indices. Fasting blood samples were drawn and analyzed for glucose and lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results: In total, 291 participants were analyzed, of whom 216 (74.2% were females. The mean age of the total population was 50.1 (±11 years. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.1% (n=79, with no significant difference between the sexes (female =29.6%, males =20%, P=0.11. A triad of central obesity, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure constituted the largest proportion (38 [13.1%] of cases of metabolic syndrome, followed by a combination of low high-density lipoprotein, elevated triglycerides, central obesity, and elevated blood pressure, with 17 (5.8% cases. Independent determinants of metabolic syndrome were antihypertensive use and increased waist circumference. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in

  20. Fermion Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    The current status of bounds on and limits of fermion determinants in two, three and four dimensions in QED and QCD is reviewed. A new lower bound on the two-dimensional QED determinant is derived. An outline of the demonstration of the continuity of this determinant at zero mass when the background magnetic field flux is zero is also given.

  1. Factores que determinan la participación en el tamizaje de cáncer cervical en el estado de Morelos Factors which determine participation in an early detection program of cervical cancer in the state of Morelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo César Lazcano-Ponce

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVO. Determinar los principales factores relacionados con la participación en un programa de detección oportuna de cáncer (DOC en una población con elevada mortalidad por cáncer cervical (CACU. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. En el estado de Morelos se desarrolló un estudio con base poblacional que incluyó 3 197 mujeres de entre 15 y 49 años de edad, seleccionadas aleatoriamente de un marco muestral de viviendas de los 33 municipios que componen dicha entidad. RESULTADOS. El conocimiento de la utilidad de la prueba de Papanicolaou (Pap (RM 29.6, IC95% 23.6-37 y la historia previa de síntomas ginecológicos (RM 1.7; IC95% 1.2-2.4 predisponen a utilizar el programa de DOC. Los factores asociados a la utilización de la prueba de Pap fueron que las mujeres tuvieran antecedentes en la utilización de uno (RM 1.4; IC95% 1.1-1.8, dos o más métodos de planificación familiar (RM 2.1; IC95% 1.6-2.8. CONCLUSIONES. En el estado de Morelos, México, el tamizaje en CACU se ofrece predominantemente en forma oportunista, por lo que el antecedente de utilización de los servicios de salud constituye el principal determinante para la utilización del programa de DOC. Estos resultados revelan la necesidad de establecer estrategias alternativas para integrar a las mujeres que no tienen acceso a dichos servicios de atención médica, ya que constituyen el grupo de más alto riesgo para contraer CACU.OBJECTIVE. To determine the main factors associated to participation in an early detection program of cancer (DPC, in a population with a high cervical cancer (CC mortality rate. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed in the state of Morelos, which included 3 197 women aged between 15 and 49 years, randomly selected from a household sample frame of the 33 municipalities of the state. RESULTS. Awareness of the utility of the Papanicolau (Pap test (OR29.6, 95% CI 23.6-37 and a former history of gynecological symptoms (OR1

  2. Determination of robust ocular pharmacokinetic parameters in serum and vitreous humor of albino rabbits following systemic administration of ciprofloxacin from sparse data sets by using IT2S, a population pharmacokinetic modeling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusano, G L; Liu, W; Perkins, R; Madu, A; Madu, C; Mayers, M; Miller, M H

    1995-08-01

    Robust determination of the concentration-time profile of anti-infective agents in certain specialized compartments is often limited by the inability to obtain more than a single sample from such a site in any one subject. Vitreous humor and cerebrospinal fluid are obvious examples for which the determination of concentrations of anti-infective agents is limited. Advances in pharmacodynamics have pointed out the importance of understanding the profiles of drugs in the plasma and in specialized compartments in order to dose the drugs to obtain the best patient outcomes. Advances in population pharmacokinetic modeling hold the promise of allowing proper estimation of drug penetration into the vitreous (or other specialized compartment) with only a single vitreous sample, in conjunction with plasma sampling. We have developed a rabbit model which allows multiple samples of vitreous to be obtained without breaking down the blood-vitreous barrier. We have employed this model to test the hypothesis that robust estimates of vitreous penetration by the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin can be obtained from a traditional intensive plasma sampling set plus a single vitreous sample. We studied 33 rabbits which were receiving 40 mg of ciprofloxacin per kg of body weight intravenously as short infusions and from which multiple plasma and vitreous samples were obtained and assayed for ciprofloxacin content by high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed by the iterative two-stage population modeling technique (IT2S), employing the iterative two-stage program of Forrest et al. (Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:1065-1072, 1993). Two data sets were analyzed: all plasma and vitreous samples versus all plasma samples and the initially obtained single vitreous sample. The pharmacokinetic parameter values identified were used to calculate the percent vitreous penetration as the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve for the vitreous to that for the plasma. The

  3. Quasiconvex Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Eppstein, David

    2004-01-01

    We define quasiconvex programming, a form of generalized linear programming in which one seeks the point minimizing the pointwise maximum of a collection of quasiconvex functions. We survey algorithms for solving quasiconvex programs either numerically or via generalizations of the dual simplex method from linear programming, and describe varied applications of this geometric optimization technique in meshing, scientific computation, information visualization, automated algorithm analysis, an...

  4. 基于GIS与RS的退耕还林生态补偿金的确定%Determination of eco-compensation of sloping land conversion program based on GIS and RS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭慧敏; 王武魁; 冯仲科

    2015-01-01

    Since the implementation of ecological compensation policy in China, micro difference of geographic location does not been considered basically, but the implementation of the "sweeping approach" national compensation policy is divided into north and south of the Yangtze River. In practical application, although it has the advantages of unified standard, it ignores the actual existence of many realistic factors, such as terrain, soil, climate in forest land. The gap between compensation and woodland fine operation and management is very big. The objective of this paper was to solve the problem of ecological compensation standard in different regions. Taking compensation configuration of the Sloping Land Conversion Program in Zhangjiakou area as the research object, remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS) and other space technologies were applied, the method of qualitative and quantitative analysis was adopted, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the factors affecting ecological compensation weight, and the space allocation model of ecological compensation was established in this research. The results showed that: 1) The AHP method and the spatial analysis technology of RS and GIS were integrated. The AHP was good at multi-factor comprehensive evaluation, and in the application process, the GIS software showed a greater advantage on the data expression space, the digital and graphics integration as a whole, and the data processing, analysis and management functions, which could objectively reflect the specific situation of the region. Overall, the method in this research provides a new way for the calculation of the ecological compensation standard of farmland. 2) Among affecting factors of ecological restoration compensation in the study area, the weights of natural factors, social factors, economic factors were 0.5279, 0.3325 and 0.1396, respectively. 3) Based on the total sum of annual payment for ecosystem services (PES

  5. 14 CFR 314.16 - Final determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final determination. 314.16 Section 314.16... REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Determination of Qualifying Dislocation § 314.16 Final determination... determination and, within 3 business days after the determination, serve a copy of the order on the persons...

  6. Sex determination

    OpenAIRE

    McCullagh, W. McK. H.

    2013-01-01

    How the sex of offspring is determined has puzzled philosophers and scientists for millennia. Modern science has identified both genetic and environmental factors, but the question is still not yet fully answered.

  7. 2. Determinants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    ... P.O Box 50110, Lusaka. National Food and Nutrition Commission, Ministry of Health, Lusaka ... malnourished case of admissions among HIV infected children and were .... However, service factors emerged as important determinants during.

  8. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilbeck, G. [Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  9. Miramar College Program Evaluation: Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Bruce; Brumley, Leslie

    Qualitative and quantitative data are presented in this evaluation of the curricular, personnel, and financial status of Miramar College's program in criminal justice. The report first outlines the information gathered in an interview with the program chairperson, conducted to determine program objectives and goals and how they were determined,…

  10. Program Fullerene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Lukas; Peter, Schwerdtfeger,; Avery, James Emil

    2013-01-01

    Fullerene (Version 4.4), is a general purpose open-source program that can generate any fullerene isomer, perform topological and graph theoretical analysis, as well as calculate a number of physical and chemical properties. The program creates symmetric planar drawings of the fullerene graph, an......-Fowler, and Brinkmann-Fowler vertex insertions. The program is written in standard Fortran and C++, and can easily be installed on a Linux or UNIX environment....

  11. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  12. Programming F#

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Why learn F#? This multi-paradigm language not only offers you an enormous productivity boost through functional programming, it also lets you develop applications using your existing object-oriented and imperative programming skills. With Programming F#, you'll quickly discover the many advantages of Microsoft's new language, which includes access to all the great tools and libraries of the .NET platform. Learn how to reap the benefits of functional programming for your next project -- whether it's quantitative computing, large-scale data exploration, or even a pursuit of your own. With th

  13. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Make cool stuff. If you're a designer or artist without a lot of programming experience, this book will teach you to work with 2D and 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, and electronic circuitry to create all sorts of interesting and compelling experiences -- online and off. Programming Interactivity explains programming and electrical engineering basics, and introduces three freely available tools created specifically for artists and designers: Processing, a Java-based programming language and environment for building projects on the desktop, Web, or mobile phonesArduino, a system t

  14. Promoting Continuing Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Gayle A.

    This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and…

  15. Computer Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tiffoni

    This module provides information on development and use of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) software program that seeks to link literacy skills education, safety training, and human-centered design. Section 1 discusses the development of the software program that helps workers understand the MSDSs that accompany the chemicals with which they…

  16. Choreographic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    , as they offer a concise view of the message flows enacted by a system. For this reason, in the last decade choreographies have been used in the development of programming languages, giving rise to a programming paradigm that in this dissertation we refer to as Choreographic Programming. Recent studies show...... sessions; it remains thus unclear whether choreographies can still guarantee safety when dealing with such nontrivial features. This PhD dissertation argues for the suitability of choreographic programming as a paradigm for the development of safe distributed systems. We proceed by investigating its...... foundations and application. To this aim, we provide three main contributions. The first contribution is the development of a formal model for choreographic programming that supports asynchrony, mobility, modularity, and multiparty sessions. In the model, choreographies are projected to distributed endpoint...

  17. Fault Localization for Java Programs using Probabilistic Program Dependence Graph

    CERN Document Server

    Askarunisa, A; Babu, B Giri

    2012-01-01

    Fault localization is a process to find the location of faults. It determines the root cause of the failure. It identifies the causes of abnormal behaviour of a faulty program. It identifies exactly where the bugs are. Existing fault localization techniques are Slice based technique, Program- Spectrum based Technique, Statistics Based Technique, Program State Based Technique, Machine learning based Technique and Similarity Based Technique. In the proposed method Model Based Fault Localization Technique is used, which is called Probabilistic Program Dependence Graph . Probabilistic Program Dependence Graph (PPDG) is an innovative model that scans the internal behaviour of the project. PPDG construction is enhanced by Program Dependence Graph (PDG). PDG is achieved by the Control Flow Graph (CFG). The PPDG construction augments the structural dependences represented by a program dependence graph with estimates of statistical dependences between node states, which are computed from the test set. The PPDG is base...

  18. 49 CFR 107.221 - Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination. 107.221 Section 107.221... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Preemption Waiver of Preemption Determinations § 107.221 Determination. (a) After... Chief Counsel issues a determination. (b) The Chief Counsel may issue a waiver of preemption only on...

  19. 49 CFR 107.209 - Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination. 107.209 Section 107.209... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Preemption Preemption Determinations § 107.209 Determination. (a) Upon consideration of the application and other relevant information received, the Chief Counsel issues a determination. (b...

  20. Programming Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2011-01-01

    If you've mastered Python's fundamentals, you're ready to start using it to get real work done. Programming Python will show you how, with in-depth tutorials on the language's primary application domains: system administration, GUIs, and the Web. You'll also explore how Python is used in databases, networking, front-end scripting layers, text processing, and more. This book focuses on commonly used tools and libraries to give you a comprehensive understanding of Python's many roles in practical, real-world programming. You'll learn language syntax and programming techniques in a clear and co

  1. Overseas programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Subprograms of the Overseas Program of the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources are presented and discussed. Topics addressed in the subprograms include volcanology, the geology and geophysics of Southwest Pacific island arcs and structural basins, and antarctic paleomagnetism and geology.

  2. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  3. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; Zimmerman, Patrick L.; Khatri, Reshma

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  4. 1990 Resource Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-07-01

    This document is a summary providing an overview of the analysis, thought process, and conclusions of the Resource Program. This summary is accompanied by a Technical Report, under separate cover, that provides a more in-depth discussion of the information presented here. Another companion document published under separate cover, the Resource Program Public Comment Summary and BPA's Response, provides a detailed summary of public comments on the Draft 1990 Resource Program and BPA's response to those comments. For a thorough understanding of how BPA arrived at the following conclusions, all three documents should be consulted. The 1990 Resource Program describes the actions Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) will take to develop new resources to meet the power requirements of its customers. The main focus is to determine what BPA should do in Fiscal Years (FY's) 1992 and 1993. This document presents Energy Resource budgets for these years. However, much care has been taken to define near-term actions aimed at meeting BPA's long-term resource needs. consequently, proposed program actions are presented for FY's 1994 through 1997. In addition, the 1990 Resource Program addresses some resource-related policy issues.

  5. Moderator Chemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  6. Moderator Chemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  7. Mammography accreditation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, P.

    1993-12-31

    In the mid-1980`s, the movement toward the use of dedicated mammography equipment provided significant improvement in breast cancer detection. However, several studies demonstrated that this change was not sufficient to ensure optimal image quality at a low radiation dose. In particular, the 1985 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends identified the wide variations in image quality and radiation dose, even from dedicated units. During this time period, the American Cancer Society (ACS) launched its Breast Cancer Awareness Screening Campaign. However, there were concerns about the ability of radiology to respond to the increased demand for optimal screening examinations that would result from the ACS program. To respond to these concerns, the ACS and the American College of Radiology (ACR) established a joint committee on mammography screening in 1986. After much discussion, it was decided to use the ACR Diagnostic Practice Accreditation Program as a model for the development of a mammography accreditation program. However, some constraints were required in order to make the program meet the needs of the ACS. This voluntary, peer review program had to be timely and cost effective. It was determined that the best way to address these needs would be to conduct the program by mail. Finally, by placing emphasis on the educational nature of the program, it would provide an even greater opportunity for improving mammographic quality. The result of this effort was that, almost six years ago, in May 1987, the pilot study for the ACR Mammography Accreditation Program (MAP) began, and in August of that year, the first applications were received. In November 1987, the first 3-year accreditation certificates were awarded.

  8. INDICTORS OF RESTORATION OF PROGRAM FACILITY OF MECHATRONICS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Frolov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of reliability indictors of program facilities of mechatronic systems are offered. The defaillance modes of program facilities are represent. A short review of model reliability of program facility is presented. The indictors of restoration, their mathematical determinations and application for the characteristics of program facility restoration are offered.

  9. INDICTORS OF RESTORATION OF PROGRAM FACILITY OF MECHATRONICS SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Frolov, V.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of reliability indictors of program facilities of mechatronic systems are offered. The defaillance modes of program facilities are represent. A short review of model reliability of program facility is presented. The indictors of restoration, their mathematical determinations and application for the characteristics of program facility restoration are offered.

  10. SERI Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  11. Integer programming

    CERN Document Server

    Conforti, Michele; Zambelli, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    This book is an elegant and rigorous presentation of integer programming, exposing the subject’s mathematical depth and broad applicability. Special attention is given to the theory behind the algorithms used in state-of-the-art solvers. An abundance of concrete examples and exercises of both theoretical and real-world interest explore the wide range of applications and ramifications of the theory. Each chapter is accompanied by an expertly informed guide to the literature and special topics, rounding out the reader’s understanding and serving as a gateway to deeper study. Key topics include: formulations polyhedral theory cutting planes decomposition enumeration semidefinite relaxations Written by renowned experts in integer programming and combinatorial optimization, Integer Programming is destined to become an essential text in the field.

  12. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Conference Registry Login SCR Training and Testing Cancer Cancer Programs Cancer Programs Overview of Cancer Programs Cancer Programs News American Joint Committee on ...

  13. Programming Algol

    CERN Document Server

    Malcolme-Lawes, D J

    2014-01-01

    Programming - ALGOL describes the basics of computer programming using Algol. Commands that could be added to Algol and could increase its scope are described, including multiplication and division and the use of brackets. The idea of labeling or naming a command is also explained, along with a command allowing two alternative results. Most of the important features of Algol syntax are discussed, and examples of compound statements (that is, sets of commands enclosed by a begin ... end command) are given.Comprised of 11 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the digital computer an

  14. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Ready to create rich interactive experiences with your artwork, designs, or prototypes? This is the ideal place to start. With this hands-on guide, you'll explore several themes in interactive art and design-including 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, computer vision, and geolocation-and learn the basic programming and electronics concepts you need to implement them. No previous experience is necessary. You'll get a complete introduction to three free tools created specifically for artists and designers: the Processing programming language, the Arduino microcontroller, and the openFr

  15. Online Programs and Geographic Proximity are Key Determinants of Information Professionals’ Interest in Pursuing Post-Master’s Education at the Doctoral Level. A Review of: Powell, Ronald R. and Susan E. Boling. “Post-Master’s Educational Needs of Information Professionals.” Journal of Access Services 3.4 (2005: 29-43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate post-master’s educational needs and interests of information professionals.Design – Survey research using print and electronic questionnaires.Setting – The geographic area surrounding Wayne State University in Michigan, United States of America.Subjects – Members of the library associations of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Southwestern Ontario, Canada.Methods – Systematic random samples were derived from the membership lists of the library associations in Ohio, Indiana, and Southwestern Ontario. Paper questionnaires were mailed to those selected. Michigan Library Association’s official policy barred the release of its membership list to researchers. Consequently, announcements of the survey were placed in three successive issues of the Association’s electronic newsletter. Interested members were directed to a website to complete an electronic version of the questionnaire. This option was also extended to members of the other three library associations. The overall research question was investigated through specific questions that sought to ascertain the overall level of interest in professional library and information studies (LIS education, levels of interest in specific types of programs, factors that favoured or deterred enrolment in doctoral programs, as well as the fields of study that were preferred for combination with LIS in doctoral programs. With the exception of demographic type questions (e.g., place of residence and educational qualifications and two questions that required open ended responses, the questionnaire design encompassed questions with Likert scale type responses. Analysis of the responses included descriptive statistics, the use of Pearson chi square to determine statistically significant relationships, and, to a lesser extent, content analysis.Main Results – A total of 270 questionnaires(33% were returned from three populations: Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario. A self

  16. Programming Language Use in US Academia and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Arfa Rabai, Latifa; Cohen, Barry; Mili, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In the same way that natural languages influence and shape the way we think, programming languages have a profound impact on the way a programmer analyzes a problem and formulates its solution in the form of a program. To the extent that a first programming course is likely to determine the student's approach to program design, program analysis,…

  17. ORGEL program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1963-09-01

    Parameter optimization studies for an ORGEL power plant are reported, and the ESSOR test reactor used in the program is described. Research at Ispra in reactor physics, technology, metallurgy, heat transfer, chemistry, and physical chemistry associated with ORGEL development is also summarized. (D.C.W.)

  18. Determination of Lead, Cadmiun, Nickel, and Chromiun in Soil by Temperature Programed Digestion-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry%程序控温消解-原子吸收光谱法分析土壤中的铅、镉、镍和铬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔光辉; 李勇; 刘亚丽

    2012-01-01

    A temperature programed digestion-atomic absorption spectrometry method was established for the determina?tion of lead, cadmiun, nickel, and chromiun in soil. The temperature program for digestion was set as 80℃for 1 h, 120 ℃for 2 h, and 300 ℃ for the remove of acid solution. The result shows that the average recoveries for lead, cadmiun, nickel, and chromiun were 100. 4% , 99. 4%, 95. 0%, and 94. 0% , respectively. Verified by the standard samples GBW07406 and GBW07407, the established method was found to have a good accuracy. In compariaon with the traditional digestion method, the established method in this atudy was proved to have better accuracy and precision. This method was also proved to have good operability and its easy to spread.

  19. Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Wesley

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

  20. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.