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Sample records for hydra identifies 14-3-3

  1. Proteomic screen in the simple metazoan Hydra identifies 14-3-3 binding proteins implicated in cellular metabolism, cytoskeletal organisation and Ca2+ signalling

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    Imhof Axel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 14-3-3 proteins have been implicated in many signalling mechanisms due to their interaction with Ser/Thr phosphorylated target proteins. They are evolutionarily well conserved in eukaryotic organisms from single celled protozoans and unicellular algae to plants and humans. A diverse array of target proteins has been found in higher plants and in human cell lines including proteins involved in cellular metabolism, apoptosis, cytoskeletal organisation, secretion and Ca2+ signalling. Results We found that the simple metazoan Hydra has four 14-3-3 isoforms. In order to investigate whether the diversity of 14-3-3 target proteins is also conserved over the whole animal kingdom we isolated 14-3-3 binding proteins from Hydra vulgaris using a 14-3-3-affinity column. We identified 23 proteins that covered most of the above-mentioned groups. We also isolated several novel 14-3-3 binding proteins and the Hydra specific secreted fascin-domain-containing protein PPOD. In addition, we demonstrated that one of the 14-3-3 isoforms, 14-3-3 HyA, interacts with one Hydra-Bcl-2 like protein in vitro. Conclusion Our results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins have been ubiquitous signalling components since the start of metazoan evolution. We also discuss the possibility that they are involved in the regulation of cell numbers in response to food supply in Hydra.

  2. Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peder Pedersen, Claus; Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2009-01-01

    Beskrivelse af kontekst og baggrund for et forskningsprojekt gennemført på den græske ø Hydra i perioden 2004-2008......Beskrivelse af kontekst og baggrund for et forskningsprojekt gennemført på den græske ø Hydra i perioden 2004-2008...

  3. A small molecule screen identifies a novel compound that induces a homeotic transformation in Hydra.

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    Glauber, Kristine M; Dana, Catherine E; Park, Steve S; Colby, David A; Noro, Yukihiko; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Chamberlin, A Richard; Steele, Robert E

    2013-12-01

    Developmental processes such as morphogenesis, patterning and differentiation are continuously active in the adult Hydra polyp. We carried out a small molecule screen to identify compounds that affect patterning in Hydra. We identified a novel molecule, DAC-2-25, that causes a homeotic transformation of body column into tentacle zone. This transformation occurs in a progressive and polar fashion, beginning at the oral end of the animal. We have identified several strains that respond to DAC-2-25 and one that does not, and we used chimeras from these strains to identify the ectoderm as the target tissue for DAC-2-25. Using transgenic Hydra that express green fluorescent protein under the control of relevant promoters, we examined how DAC-2-25 affects tentacle patterning. Genes whose expression is associated with the tentacle zone are ectopically expressed upon exposure to DAC-2-25, whereas those associated with body column tissue are turned off as the tentacle zone expands. The expression patterns of the organizer-associated gene HyWnt3 and the hypostome-specific gene HyBra2 are unchanged. Structure-activity relationship studies have identified features of DAC-2-25 that are required for activity and potency. This study shows that small molecule screens in Hydra can be used to dissect patterning processes.

  4. Bacterial co-expression of human Tau protein with protein kinase A and 14-3-3 for studies of 14-3-3/phospho-Tau interaction.

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    Tugaeva, Kristina V; Tsvetkov, Philipp O; Sluchanko, Nikolai N

    2017-01-01

    Abundant regulatory 14-3-3 proteins have an extremely wide interactome and coordinate multiple cellular events via interaction with specifically phosphorylated partner proteins. Notwithstanding the key role of 14-3-3/phosphotarget interactions in many physiological and pathological processes, they are dramatically underexplored. Here, we focused on the 14-3-3 interaction with human Tau protein associated with the development of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Among many known phosphorylation sites within Tau, protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates several key residues of Tau and induces its tight interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. However, the stoichiometry and mechanism of 14-3-3 interaction with phosphorylated Tau (pTau) are not clearly elucidated. In this work, we describe a simple bacterial co-expression system aimed to facilitate biochemical and structural studies on the 14-3-3/pTau interaction. We show that dual co-expression of human fetal Tau with PKA in Escherichia coli results in multisite Tau phosphorylation including also naturally occurring sites which were not previously considered in the context of 14-3-3 binding. Tau protein co-expressed with PKA displays tight functional interaction with 14-3-3 isoforms of a different type. Upon triple co-expression with 14-3-3 and PKA, Tau protein could be co-purified with 14-3-3 and demonstrates complex which is similar to that formed in vitro between individual 14-3-3 and pTau obtained from dual co-expression. Although used in this study for the specific case of the previously known 14-3-3/pTau interaction, our co-expression system may be useful to study of other selected 14-3-3/phosphotarget interactions and for validations of 14-3-3 complexes identified by other methods.

  5. RNAseq versus genome-predicted transcriptomes: a large population of novel transcripts identified in an Illumina-454 Hydra transcriptome.

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    Wenger, Yvan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2013-03-25

    Evolutionary studies benefit from deep sequencing technologies that generate genomic and transcriptomic sequences from a variety of organisms. Genome sequencing and RNAseq have complementary strengths. In this study, we present the assembly of the most complete Hydra transcriptome to date along with a comparative analysis of the specific features of RNAseq and genome-predicted transcriptomes currently available in the freshwater hydrozoan Hydra vulgaris. To produce an accurate and extensive Hydra transcriptome, we combined Illumina and 454 Titanium reads, giving the primacy to Illumina over 454 reads to correct homopolymer errors. This strategy yielded an RNAseq transcriptome that contains 48'909 unique sequences including splice variants, representing approximately 24'450 distinct genes. Comparative analysis to the available genome-predicted transcriptomes identified 10'597 novel Hydra transcripts that encode 529 evolutionarily-conserved proteins. The annotation of 170 human orthologs points to critical functions in protein biosynthesis, FGF and TOR signaling, vesicle transport, immunity, cell cycle regulation, cell death, mitochondrial metabolism, transcription and chromatin regulation. However, a majority of these novel transcripts encodes short ORFs, at least 767 of them corresponding to pseudogenes. This RNAseq transcriptome also lacks 11'270 predicted transcripts that correspond either to silent genes or to genes expressed below the detection level of this study. We established a simple and powerful strategy to combine Illumina and 454 reads and we produced, with genome assistance, an extensive and accurate Hydra transcriptome. The comparative analysis of the RNAseq transcriptome with genome-predicted transcriptomes lead to the identification of large populations of novel as well as missing transcripts that might reflect Hydra-specific evolutionary events.

  6. 14-3-3τ promotes breast cancer invasion and metastasis by inhibiting RhoGDIα.

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    Xiao, Yang; Lin, Vivian Y; Ke, Shi; Lin, Gregory E; Lin, Fang-Tsyr; Lin, Weei-Chin

    2014-07-01

    14-3-3τ is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer; however, whether it contributes to breast cancer progression remains undetermined. Here, we identify a critical role for 14-3-3τ in promoting breast cancer metastasis, in part through binding to and inhibition of RhoGDIα, a negative regulator of Rho GTPases and a metastasis suppressor. 14-3-3τ binds Ser174-phosphorylated RhoGDIα and blocks its association with Rho GTPases, thereby promoting epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 activation. When 14-3-3τ is overexpressed in MCF7 breast cancer cells that express 14-3-3τ at low levels, it increases motility, reduces adhesion, and promotes metastasis in mammary fat pad xenografts. On the other hand, depletion of 14-3-3τ in MCF7 cells and in an invasive cell line, MDA-MB231, inhibits Rho GTPase activation and blocks breast cancer migration and invasion. Moreover, 14-3-3τ overexpression in human breast tumors is associated with the activation of ROCK (a Rho GTPase effector), high metastatic rate, and shorter survival, underscoring a clinically significant role for 14-3-3τ in breast cancer progression. Our work indicates that 14-3-3τ is a novel therapeutic target to prevent breast cancer metastasis.

  7. 14-3-3 Sigma And p53 Expression in Gastric Cancer and Its Clinical Applications

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    Gilbert Mühlmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 14-3-3 sigma (σ induces G2 arrest enabling the repair of damaged DNA. The function of 14-3-3 σ is frequently lost in tumor cells, indicating a potential tumor suppressor function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of 14-3-3 σ expression in human gastric cancer. 14-3-3 σ expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 157 tumor samples of patients, who underwent resection for gastric cancer. Since 14-3-3 σ is involved in the p53 network, p53 expression was detected in parallel and correlated with 14-3-3 σ. 14-3-3 σ was found to be overexpressed in 75 (47.8% of 157 cases, the overexpression rate of p53 protein was 27.4%. 14-3-3 σ overexpression was statistically significantly associated with pT-stage (p=0.041 pN-stage (p=0.015 and UICC-stage (p=0.019 and showed a borderline significance with Lauren classification (p=0.057. Univariate survival calculations revealed a coexistent 14-3-3 σ and p53 overexpression as a significant predictor of disease-free survival. Multivariate analysis did not unfold 14-3-3 as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival and overall survival. Concomitant 14-3-3 σ and p53 overexpression in tumor cells of patients with gastric cancer identifies a population of patients with relatively unfavorable prognosis.

  8. Efficient nuclear export of p65-IkappaBalpha complexes requires 14-3-3 proteins.

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    Aguilera, Cristina; Fernández-Majada, Vanessa; Inglés-Esteve, Julia; Rodilla, Verónica; Bigas, Anna; Espinosa, Lluís

    2006-09-01

    IkappaB are responsible for maintaining p65 in the cytoplasm under non-stimulating conditions and promoting the active export of p65 from the nucleus following NFkappaB activation to terminate the signal. We now show that 14-3-3 proteins regulate the NFkappaB signaling pathway by physically interacting with p65 and IkappaBalpha proteins. We identify two functional 14-3-3 binding domains in the p65 protein involving residues 38-44 and 278-283, and map the interaction region of IkappaBalpha in residues 60-65. Mutation of these 14-3-3 binding domains in p65 or IkappaBalpha results in a predominantly nuclear distribution of both proteins. TNFalpha treatment promotes recruitment of 14-3-3 and IkappaBalpha to NFkappaB-dependent promoters and enhances the binding of 14-3-3 to p65. Disrupting 14-3-3 activity by transfection with a dominant-negative 14-3-3 leads to the accumulation of nuclear p65-IkappaBalpha complexes and the constitutive association of p65 with the chromatin. In this situation, NFkappaB-dependent genes become unresponsive to TNFalpha stimulation. Together our results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins facilitate the nuclear export of IkappaBalpha-p65 complexes and are required for the appropriate regulation of NFkappaB signaling.

  9. 14-3-3 α and 14-3-3 ζ contribute to immune responses in planarian Dugesia japonica.

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    Lu, Qingqing; Wu, Suge; Zhen, Hui; Deng, Hongkuan; Song, Qian; Ma, Kaifu; Cao, Zhonghong; Pang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Bosheng

    2017-06-05

    14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved acidic proteins that regulate cellular processes. They act as a kind of important signaling molecules taking part in many crucial decisions throughout the development process. We have isolated and characterized two members of the 14-3-3 family, namely, Dj14-3-3 α and Dj14-3-3 ζ in the planarian Dugesia japonica. The Dj14-3-3 α and ζ genes encode polypeptides of 260 and 255 amino acids respectively. We have proved that the Dj14-3-3 α and ζ genes were especially expressed in the pharynx in adult and regenerating planarians by in situ hybridization and they were not involved in regeneration process. Besides, Dj14-3-3 α and ζ genes can compensate each other in planarians by RNA interference. The Dj14-3-3 α and ζ were significantly up-regulated expression when planarians were stimulated with the pathogen-associated molecular patterns including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), β-Glu and Poly (I:C), indicating that the Dj14-3-3 α and ζ may be involved in the immune responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 14-3-3 proteins in guard cell signaling

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    Valérie eCotelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Guard cells are specialized cells located at the leaf surface delimiting pores which control gas exchanges between the plant and the atmosphere. To optimize the CO2 uptake necessary for photosynthesis while minimizing water loss, guard cells integrate environmental signals to adjust stomatal aperture. The size of the stomatal pore is regulated by movements of the guard cells driven by variations in their volume and turgor. As guard cells perceive and transduce a wide array of environmental cues, they provide an ideal system to elucidate early events of plant signaling. Reversible protein phosphorylation events are known to play a crucial role in the regulation of stomatal movements. However, in some cases, phosphorylation alone is not sufficient to achieve complete protein regulation, but is necessary to mediate the binding of interactors that modulate protein function. Among the phosphopeptide-binding proteins, the 14-3-3 proteins are the best characterized in plants. The 14-3-3s are found as multiple isoforms in eukaryotes and have been shown to be involved in the regulation of stomatal movements. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about 14-3-3 roles in the regulation of their binding partners in guard cells: receptors, ion pumps, channels, protein kinases and some of their substrates. Regulation of these targets by 14-3-3 proteins is discussed and related to their function in guard cells during stomatal movements in response to abiotic or biotic stresses.

  11. PAK6 Phosphorylates 14-3-3γ to Regulate Steady State Phosphorylation of LRRK2

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    Laura Civiero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD and, as such, LRRK2 is considered a promising therapeutic target for age-related neurodegeneration. Although the cellular functions of LRRK2 in health and disease are incompletely understood, robust evidence indicates that PD-associated mutations alter LRRK2 kinase and GTPase activities with consequent deregulation of the downstream signaling pathways. We have previously demonstrated that one LRRK2 binding partner is P21 (RAC1 Activated Kinase 6 (PAK6. Here, we interrogate the PAK6 interactome and find that PAK6 binds a subset of 14-3-3 proteins in a kinase dependent manner. Furthermore, PAK6 efficiently phosphorylates 14-3-3γ at Ser59 and this phosphorylation serves as a switch to dissociate the chaperone from client proteins including LRRK2, a well-established 14-3-3 binding partner. We found that 14-3-3γ phosphorylated by PAK6 is no longer competent to bind LRRK2 at phospho-Ser935, causing LRRK2 dephosphorylation. To address whether these interactions are relevant in a neuronal context, we demonstrate that a constitutively active form of PAK6 rescues the G2019S LRRK2-associated neurite shortening through phosphorylation of 14-3-3γ. Our results identify PAK6 as the kinase for 14-3-3γ and reveal a novel regulatory mechanism of 14-3-3/LRRK2 complex in the brain.

  12. Aberrant upregulation of 14-3-3ơ expression serves as an inferior prognostic biomarker for gastric cancer

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    Li Hai-gang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 14-3-3ơ is an intracellular, phosphoserine binding protein and proposed to be involved in tumorigenesis. However, the expression dynamics of 14-3-3ơ and its clinicopathological/prognostic significance in human tumors are still controversial. Methods The method of immunohistochemistry (IHC and Western blot were utilized to examine the protein expression of 14-3-3ơ in gastric cancer and paired normal adjacent gastric mucosal tissues. Receive operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was employed to determine a cutoff score for 14-3-3ơ expression in a training set (n = 66. For validation, the ROC-derived cutoff score was subjected to analysis of the association of 14-3-3ơ expression with patient outcome and clinical characteristics in a testing set (n = 86 and overall patients (n = 152. Results The expression frequency and expression levels of 14-3-3ơ were significantly higher in gastric cancer than in normal gastric mucosal tissues. Correlation analysis demonstrated that high expression of 14-3-3ơ in gastric cancer was significantly correlated with clinical stage and tumor invasion. Furthermore, in the testing set and overall patients, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that elevated 14-3-3ơ expression predicted poorer overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS. Importantly, high 14-3-3ơ expression was also associated with shortened survival time in stage III and stage IV gastric cancer patients. Multivariate analyses revealed that 14-3-3ơ expression was an independent prognostic parameter in gastric cancer. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that high expression of 14-3-3ơ may be important in the tumor progression and servers as an independent molecular marker for poor prognosis of gastric cancer. Thus, overexpression of 14-3-3ơ identifies patients at high risk and is a novel therapeutic molecular target for this tumor.

  13. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the 14-3-3 Family Genes in Medicago truncatula

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    Cheng eQin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The 14-3-3 gene family, which is conserved in eukaryotes, is involved in protein-protein interactions and mediates signal transduction. However, detailed investigations of the 14-3-3 gene family in Medicago truncatula are largely unknown. In this study, the identification and study of M. truncatula 14-3-3-family genes were performed based on the latest M. truncatula genome. In the M. truncatula genome, 10 14-3-3 family genes were identified, and they can be grouped into ε and non-ε groups. An exon-intron analysis showed that the gene structures are conserved in the same group. The protein structure analysis showed that 14-3-3 proteins in M. truncatula are composed of nine typical antiparallel α-helices. The expression patterns of Mt14-3-3 genes indicated that they are expressed in all tissues. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of Mt14-3-3 under hormone treatment and Sinorhizobium meliloti infection showed that the Mt14-3-3 genes were involve in nodule formation. Our findings lay a solid foundation for further functional studies of 14-3-3 in M. truncatula.

  14. 14-3-3 Proteins Buffer Intracellular Calcium Sensing Receptors to Constrain Signaling.

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    Michael P Grant

    Full Text Available Calcium sensing receptors (CaSR interact with 14-3-3 binding proteins at a carboxyl terminal arginine-rich motif. Mutations identified in patients with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, autosomal dominant hypocalcemia, pancreatitis or idiopathic epilepsy support the functional importance of this motif. We combined total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and biochemical approaches to determine the mechanism of 14-3-3 protein regulation of CaSR signaling. Loss of 14-3-3 binding caused increased basal CaSR signaling and plasma membrane levels, and a significantly larger signaling-evoked increase in plasma membrane receptors. Block of core glycosylation with tunicamycin demonstrated that changes in plasma membrane CaSR levels were due to differences in exocytic rate. Western blotting to quantify time-dependent changes in maturation of expressed wt CaSR and a 14-3-3 protein binding-defective mutant demonstrated that signaling increases synthesis to maintain constant levels of the immaturely and maturely glycosylated forms. CaSR thus operates by a feed-forward mechanism, whereby signaling not only induces anterograde trafficking of nascent receptors but also increases biosynthesis to maintain steady state levels of net cellular CaSR. Overall, these studies suggest that 14-3-3 binding at the carboxyl terminus provides an important buffering mechanism to increase the intracellular pool of CaSR available for signaling-evoked trafficking, but attenuates trafficking to control the dynamic range of responses to extracellular calcium.

  15. 14-3-3 Proteins regulate exonuclease 1-dependent processing of stalled replication forks.

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    Kim Engels

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Replication fork integrity, which is essential for the maintenance of genome stability, is monitored by checkpoint-mediated phosphorylation events. 14-3-3 proteins are able to bind phosphorylated proteins and were shown to play an undefined role under DNA replication stress. Exonuclease 1 (Exo1 processes stalled replication forks in checkpoint-defective yeast cells. We now identify 14-3-3 proteins as in vivo interaction partners of Exo1, both in yeast and mammalian cells. Yeast 14-3-3-deficient cells fail to induce Mec1-dependent Exo1 hyperphosphorylation and accumulate Exo1-dependent ssDNA gaps at stalled forks, as revealed by electron microscopy. This leads to persistent checkpoint activation and exacerbated recovery defects. Moreover, using DNA bi-dimensional electrophoresis, we show that 14-3-3 proteins promote fork progression under limiting nucleotide concentrations. We propose that 14-3-3 proteins assist in controlling the phosphorylation status of Exo1 and additional unknown targets, promoting fork progression, stability, and restart in response to DNA replication stress.

  16. Amygdala 14-3-3ζ as a novel modulator of escalating alcohol intake in mice.

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    Heidi M B Lesscher

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a devastating brain disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. The development of alcoholism is caused by alcohol-induced maladaptive changes in neural circuits involved in emotions, motivation, and decision-making. Because of its involvement in these processes, the amygdala is thought to be a key neural structure involved in alcohol addiction. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the development of alcoholism are incompletely understood. We have previously shown that in a limited access choice paradigm, C57BL/6J mice progressively escalate their alcohol intake and display important behavioral characteristic of alcohol addiction, in that they become insensitive to quinine-induced adulteration of alcohol. This study used the limited access choice paradigm to study gene expression changes in the amygdala during the escalation to high alcohol consumption in C57BL/6J mice. Microarray analysis revealed that changes in gene expression occurred predominantly after one week, i.e. during the initial escalation of alcohol intake. One gene that stood out from our analysis was the adapter protein 14-3-3ζ, which was up-regulated during the transition from low to high alcohol intake. Independent qPCR analysis confirmed the up-regulation of amygdala 14-3-3ζ during the escalation of alcohol intake. Subsequently, we found that local knockdown of 14-3-3ζ in the amygdala, using RNA interference, dramatically augmented alcohol intake. In addition, knockdown of amygdala 14-3-3ζ promoted the development of inflexible alcohol drinking, as apparent from insensitivity to quinine adulteration of alcohol. This study identifies amygdala 14-3-3ζ as a novel key modulator that is engaged during escalation of alcohol use.

  17. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) 14-3-3 proteins participate in regulation of fibre initiation and elongation by modulating brassinosteroid signalling.

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    Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Ze-Ting; Li, Mo; Wei, Xin-Zheng; Li, Xiao-Jie; Li, Bing-Ying; Li, Xue-Bao

    2015-02-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibre is an important natural raw material for textile industry in the world. Understanding the molecular mechanism of fibre development is important for the development of future cotton varieties with superior fibre quality. In this study, overexpression of Gh14-3-3L in cotton promoted fibre elongation, leading to an increase in mature fibre length. In contrast, suppression of expression of Gh14-3-3L, Gh14-3-3e and Gh14-3-3h in cotton slowed down fibre initiation and elongation. As a result, the mature fibres of the Gh14-3-3 RNAi transgenic plants were significantly shorter than those of wild type. This 'short fibre' phenotype of the 14-3-3 RNAi cotton could be partially rescued by application of 2,4-epibrassinolide (BL). Expression levels of the BR-related and fibre-related genes were altered in the Gh14-3-3 transgenic fibres. Furthermore, we identified Gh14-3-3 interacting proteins (including GhBZR1) in cotton. Site mutation assay revealed that Ser163 in GhBZR1 and Lys51/56/53 in Gh14-3-3L/e/h were required for Gh14-3-3-GhBZR1 interaction. Nuclear localization of GhBZR1 protein was induced by BR, and phosphorylation of GhBZR1 by GhBIN2 kinase was helpful for its binding to Gh14-3-3 proteins. Additionally, 14-3-3-regulated GhBZR1 protein may directly bind to GhXTH1 and GhEXP promoters to regulate gene expression for responding rapid fibre elongation. These results suggested that Gh14-3-3 proteins may be involved in regulating fibre initiation and elongation through their interacting with GhBZR1 to modulate BR signalling. Thus, our study provides the candidate intrinsic genes for improving fibre yield and quality by genetic manipulation. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression analyses of the 14-3-3 family reveal their involvement in the development, ripening and abiotic stress response in banana

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    meiying li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana.

  19. Genome-wide identification, classification, and expression analysis of 14-3-3 gene family in Populus.

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    Tian, Fengxia; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yuli; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    In plants, 14-3-3 proteins are encoded by a large multigene family and are involved in signaling pathways to regulate plant development and protection from stress. Although twelve Populus 14-3-3s were identified based on the Populus trichocarpa genome V1.1 in a previous study, no systematic analysis including genome organization, gene structure, duplication relationship, evolutionary analysis and expression compendium has been conducted in Populus based on the latest P. trichocarpa genome V3.0. Here, a comprehensive analysis of Populus 14-3-3 family is presented. Two new 14-3-3 genes were identified based on the latest P. trichocarpa genome. In P. trichocarpa, fourteen 14-3-3 genes were grouped into ε and non-ε group. Exon-intron organizations of Populus 14-3-3s are highly conserved within the same group. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection plays a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of Populus 14-3-3 family. Protein conformational analysis indicated that Populus 14-3-3 consists of a bundle of nine α-helices (α1-α9); the first four are essential for formation of the dimer, while α3, α5, α7, and α9 form a conserved peptide-binding groove. In addition, α1, α3, α5, α7, and α9 were evolving at a lower rate, while α2, α4, and α6 were evolving at a relatively faster rate. Microarray analyses showed that most Populus 14-3-3s are differentially expressed across tissues and upon exposure to various stresses. The gene structures and their coding protein structures of Populus 14-3-3s are highly conserved among group members, suggesting that members of the same group might also have conserved functions. Microarray and qRT-PCR analyses showed that most Populus 14-3-3s were differentially expressed in various tissues and were induced by various stresses. Our investigation provided a better understanding of the complexity of the 14-3-3 gene family in poplars.

  20. Investigating the clinical potential for 14-3-3 zeta protein to serve as a biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hatzipetros, Ioannis; Gocze, Peter; Koszegi, Tamas; Jaray, Akos; Szereday, Laszlo; Polgar, Beata; Farkas, Nelli; Farkas, Balint

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recently, 14-3-3 zeta protein was identified as a potential serum biomarker of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical potential of 14-3-3 zeta protein for monitoring EOC progression compared with CA-125 and HE4. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting University of Pecs Medical Center Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology/Oncology (Pecs, Hungary). Population Thirteen EOC patients with advanced stage (FIGO IIb-IIIc) epithelial ov...

  1. The head organizer in Hydra.

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    Bode, Hans R

    2012-01-01

    Organizers and organizing centers play critical roles in axis formation and patterning during the early stages of embryogenesis in many bilaterians. The presence and activity of an organizer was first described in adult Hydra about 100 years ago, and in the following decades organizer regions were identified in a number of bilaterian embryos. In an adult Hydra, the cells of the body column are constantly in the mitotic cycle resulting in continuous displacement of the tissue to the extremities where it is sloughed. In this context, the head organizer located in the hypostome is continuously active sending out signals to maintain the structure and morphology of the head, body column and foot of the animal. The molecular basis of the head organizer involves the canonical Wnt pathway, which acts in a self-renewing manner to maintain itself in the context of the tissue dynamics of Hydra. During bud formation, Hydra's mode of asexual reproduction, a head organizer based on the canonical Wnt pathway is set up to initiate and control the development of a new Hydra. As this pathway plays a central role in vertebrate embryonic organizers, its presence and activity in Hydra indicate that the molecular basis of the organizer arose early in metazoan evolution.

  2. 14-3-3 proteins and the p53 family : a study in keratinocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Several associations between 14-3-3 proteins and members of the p53 family have been revealed. However, numerous questions regarding 14-3-3 proteins, p53 family members and the relationships between thetwo families remain. This thesis contributes to answer these questions. Downregulation of 14-3-3ζ

  3. Hydra Code Release

    OpenAIRE

    Couchman, H. M. P.; Pearce, F. R.; Thomas, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Comment: A new version of the AP3M-SPH code, Hydra, is now available as a tar file from the following sites; http://coho.astro.uwo.ca/pub/hydra/hydra.html , http://star-www.maps.susx.ac.uk/~pat/hydra/hydra.html . The release now also contains a cosmological initial conditions generator, documentation, an installation guide and installation tests. A LaTex version of the documentation is included here

  4. Investigating the clinical potential for 14-3-3 zeta protein to serve as a biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzipetros, Ioannis; Gocze, Peter; Koszegi, Tamas; Jaray, Akos; Szereday, Laszlo; Polgar, Beata; Farkas, Nelli; Farkas, Balint

    2013-11-15

    Recently, 14-3-3 zeta protein was identified as a potential serum biomarker of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical potential of 14-3-3 zeta protein for monitoring EOC progression compared with CA-125 and HE4. Prospective follow-up study. University of Pecs Medical Center Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology/Oncology (Pecs, Hungary). Thirteen EOC patients with advanced stage (FIGO IIb-IIIc) epithelial ovarian cancer that underwent radical surgery and received six consecutive cycles of first line chemotherapy (paclitaxel, carboplatin) in 21-day intervals. Pre- and post-chemotherapy computed tomography (CT) scans were performed. Serum levels of CA-125, HE4, and 14-3-3 zeta protein were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA). Serum levels of CA-125, HE4, and 14-3-3 zeta protein, as well as lesion size according to pre- and post-chemotherapy CT scans. Serum levels of CA-125 and HE4 were found to significantly decrease following chemotherapy, and this was consistent with the decrease in lesion size detected post-chemotherapy. In contrast, 14-3-3 zeta protein levels did not significantly differ in healthy postmenopausal patients versus EOC patients. Determination of CA-125 and HE4 serum levels for the determination of the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) represents a useful tool for the prediction of chemotherapy efficacy for EOC patients. However, levels of 14-3-3 zeta protein were not found to vary significantly as a consequence of treatment. Therefore we question if 14-3-3 zeta protein is a reliable biomarker, which correlates with the clinical behavior of EOC.

  5. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja) Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Chen, Chao; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Shen, Yang; Meiping, Zhang; Mingyang, Cong; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  6. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Sun

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  7. Class-Specific Evolution and Transcriptional Differentiation of 14-3-3 Family Members in Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, Ruby; Augustine, Rehna; Kanchupati, Praveena; Kumar, Roshan; Kumar, Pawan; Arya, Gulab C.; Bisht, Naveen C.

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3s are highly conserved, multigene family proteins that have been implicated in modulating various biological processes. The presence of inherent polyploidy and genome complexity has limited the identification and characterization of 14-3-3 proteins from globally important Brassica crops. Through data mining of Brassica rapa, the model Brassica genome, we identified 21 members encoding 14-3-3 proteins namely, BraA.GRF14.a to BraA.GRF14.u. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that B. rapa contains both ε (epsilon) and non-ε 14-3-3 isoforms, having distinct intron-exon structural organization patterns. The non-ε isoforms showed lower divergence rate (Ks 0.48), suggesting class-specific divergence pattern. Synteny analysis revealed that mesohexaploid B. rapa genome has retained 1–5 orthologs of each Arabidopsis 14-3-3 gene, interspersed across its three fragmented sub-genomes. qRT-PCR analysis showed that 14 of the 21 BraA.GRF14 were expressed, wherein a higher abundance of non-ε transcripts was observed compared to the ε genes, indicating class-specific transcriptional bias. The BraA.GRF14 genes showed distinct expression pattern during plant developmental stages and in response to abiotic stress, phytohormone treatments, and nutrient deprivation conditions. Together, the distinct expression pattern and differential regulation of BraA.GRF14 genes indicated the occurrence of functional divergence of B. rapa 14-3-3 proteins during plant development and stress responses. PMID:26858736

  8. Dynamic imaging of interaction between protein 14-3-3 and Bid in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tongsheng; Xing, Da; Wang, Jinjun

    2006-02-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are known to sequester certain pro-apoptotic members of this family. BH3- interacting domain death agonist (Bid) may contribute to tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α)-induced neuronal death, although regulation by 14-3-3 has not been reported. In this study we examined whether 14-3-3 proteins interact with Bid/tBid during TNF-α-induced cell death. The TNF-αtriggered Bid cleavage and tBid translocated to mitochondria. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells were co-transfected with both CFP-Bid and 14-3-3-YFP plasmids, and the dynamical interaction between the Bid/tBid and 14-3-3 were performed on laser confocal fluorescence microscope in single living cell during TNF-α-induced cell apoptosis. The Bid distribute equally only in the cytoplasm of healthy cells, and the 14-3-3 protein distribute not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of healthy cells. Our data showed that the tBid aggregate, but the 14-3-3 protein does not aggregate as the tBid, and the 14-3-3 protein separate from the aggregated tBid, implying that the 14-3-3 proteins do not interact with the aggregated tBid after TNF-αtreatment.

  9. P53 suppresses expression of the 14-3-3gamma oncogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wenqing

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins that are involved in a wide range of cellular processes. Recent evidence indicates that some of these proteins have oncogenic activity and that they may promote tumorigenesis. We previously showed that one of the 14-3-3 family members, 14-3-3gamma, is over expressed in human lung cancers and that it can induce transformation of rodent cells in vitro. Methods qRTPCR and Western blot analysis were performed to examine 14-3-3gamma expression in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC. Gene copy number was analyzed by qPCR. P53 mutations were detected by direct sequencing and also by western blot. CHIP and yeast one hybrid assays were used to detect p53 binding to 14-3-3gamma promoter. Results Quantitative rtPCR results showed that the expression level of 14-3-3gamma was elevated in the majority of NSCLC that we examined which was also consistent with protein expression. Further analysis of the expression pattern of 14-3-3gamma in lung tumors showed a correlation with p53 mutations suggesting that p53 might suppress 14-3-3 gamma expression. Analysis of the gamma promoter sequence revealed the presence of a p53 consensus binding motif and in vitro assays demonstrated that wild-type p53 bound to this motif when activated by ionizing radiation. Deletion of the p53 binding motif eliminated p53's ability to suppress 14-3-3gamma expression. Conclusion Increased expression of 14-3-3gamma in lung cancer coincides with loss of functional p53. Hence, we propose that 14-3-3gamma's oncogenic activities cooperate with loss of p53 to promote lung tumorigenesis.

  10. 14-3-3 Proteins in Brain Development: Neurogenesis, Neuronal Migration and Neuromorphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Cornell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved, multifunctional proteins that are highly expressed in the brain during development. Cumulatively, the seven 14-3-3 isoforms make up approximately 1% of total soluble brain protein. Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated implicating the importance of the 14-3-3 protein family in the development of the nervous system, in particular cortical development, and have more recently been recognized as key regulators in a number of neurodevelopmental processes. In this review we will discuss the known roles of each 14-3-3 isoform in the development of the cortex, their relation to human neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as the challenges and questions that are left to be answered. In particular, we focus on the 14-3-3 isoforms and their involvement in the three key stages of cortical development; neurogenesis and differentiation, neuronal migration and neuromorphogenesis and synaptogenesis.

  11. Hyperglycemia decreases expression of 14-3-3 proteins in an animal model of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seong-Jun; Sung, Jin-Hee; Koh, Phil-Ok

    2016-07-28

    Diabetes is a severe metabolic disorder and a major risk factor for stroke. Stroke severity is worse in patients with diabetes compared to the non-diabetic population. The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved acidic proteins that are ubiquitously expressed in cells and tissues. These proteins are involved in many cellular processes including metabolic pathways, signal transduction, protein trafficking, protein synthesis, and cell cycle control. This study investigated 14-3-3 proteins expression in the cerebral cortex of animals with diabetes, cerebral ischemic injury and a combination of both diabetes and cerebral ischemic injury. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40mg/kg) in adult male rats. After 4 weeks of treatment, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed for the induction of focal cerebral ischemia and cerebral cortex tissue was collected 24h after MCAO. We confirmed that diabetes increases infarct volume following MCAO compared to non-diabetic animals. In diabetic animals with MCAO injury, reduction of 14-3-3 β/α, 14-3-3 ζ/δ, 14-3-3 γ, and 14-3-3 ε isoforms was detected. The expression of these proteins was significantly decreased in diabetic animals with MCAO injury compared to diabetic-only and MCAO-only animals. Moreover, Western blot analysis ascertained the decreased expression of 14-3-3 family proteins in diabetic animals with MCAO injury, including β/α, ζ/δ, γ, ε, τ, and η isoforms. These results show the changes of 14-3-3 proteins expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals with MCAO injury. Thus, these findings suggest that decreases in 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins under the presence of diabetes following MCAO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 14-3-3 mediates transcriptional regulation by modulating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of tobacco DNA-binding protein phosphatase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, José L; Castelló, María José; Vera, Pablo

    2006-08-11

    Tobacco DBP1 is the founding member of a novel class of plant transcription factors featuring sequence-specific DNA binding and protein phosphatase activity. To understand the mechanisms underlying the function of this family of transcriptional regulators, we have identified the tobacco 14-3-3 isoform G as the first protein interacting with a DBP factor. 14-3-3 recognition involves the N-terminal region of DBP1, which also supports the DNA binding activity attributed to DBP1. The relevance of this interaction is reinforced by its conservation in Arabidopsis plants, where the closest relative of DBP1 in this species also interacts with a homologous 14-3-3 protein through its N-terminal region. Furthermore, we show that in planta 14-3-3 G is directly involved in regulating DBP1 function by promoting nuclear export and subsequent cytoplasmic retention of DBP1 under conditions that in turn alleviate DBP1-mediated repression of target gene expression.

  13. Evidence-based guideline: Diagnostic accuracy of CSF 14-3-3 protein in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muayqil, Taim; Gronseth, Gary; Camicioli, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the available evidence for the diagnostic accuracy of CSF testing for protein 14-3-3 in patients with suspected sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Methods: The authors performed a systematic review of the available literature from 1995 to January 1, 2011, to identify articles involving patients who were suspected of having sCJD and who had CSF analysis for protein 14-3-3. Studies were rated according to the American Academy of Neurology classification of evidence scheme for diagnostic studies, and recommendations were linked to the strength of the evidence. A pooled estimate of sensitivity and specificity was obtained for all studies rated Class II or higher. The question asked is “Does CSF 14-3-3 protein accurately identify Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in patients with sCJD?” Results: The analysis was conducted on the basis of samples of 1,849 patients with suspected sCJD from 9 Class II studies. Assays for CSF 14-3-3 protein are probably moderately accurate in diagnosing sCJD: sensitivity 92% (95% confidence interval [CI] 89.8–93.6), specificity 80% (95% CI 77.4–83.0), likelihood ratio of 4.7, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.10. Recommendation: For patients who have rapidly progressive dementia and are strongly suspected of having sCJD and for whom diagnosis remains uncertain (pretest probability ∼20%–90%), clinicians should order CSF 14-3-3 assays to reduce the uncertainty of the diagnosis (Level B). PMID:22993290

  14. 14-3-3ε Is required for germ cell migration in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kirki Tsigkari

    Full Text Available Although 14-3-3 proteins participate in multiple biological processes, isoform-specific specialized functions, as well as functional redundancy are emerging with tissue and developmental stage-specificity. Accordingly, the two 14-3-3ε proteins in Drosophila exhibit functional specificity and redundancy. Homozygotes for loss of function alleles of D14-3-3ε contain significantly fewer germ line cells (pole cells in their gonads, a phenotype not shared by mutants in the other 14-3-3 gene leo. We show that although D14-3-3ε is enriched within pole cells it is required in mesodermal somatic gonad precursor cells which guide pole cells in their migration through the mesoderm and coalesce with them to form the embryonic gonad. Loss of D14-3-3ε results in defective pole cell migration, reduced pole cell number. We present evidence that D14-3-3ε loss results in reduction or loss of the transcription factor Zfh-1, one of the main regulatory molecules of the pole cell migration, from the somatic gonad precursor cells.

  15. Expression of 14-3-3 protein isoforms in mouse oocytes, eggs and ovarian follicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Santanu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 14-3-3 (YWHA proteins are a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed family of proteins. Seven mammalian isoforms of 14-3-3 are known (β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ and, σ. These proteins associate with many intracellular proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes including regulation of the cell cycle, metabolism and protein trafficking. We are particularly interested in the role of 14-3-3 in meiosis in mammalian eggs and the role 14-3-3 proteins may play in ovarian function. Therefore, we examined the expression of 14-3-3 proteins in mouse oocyte and egg extracts by Western blotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, viewed fixed cells by indirect immunofluorescence, and examined mouse ovarian cells by immunohistochemical staining to study the expression of the different 14-3-3 isoforms. Results We have determined that all of the mammalian 14-3-3 isoforms are expressed in mouse eggs and ovarian follicular cells including oocytes. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of isolated oocytes and eggs confirmed the presence of all of the isoforms with characteristic differences in some of their intracellular localizations. For example, some isoforms (β, ε, γ, and ζ are expressed more prominently in peripheral cytoplasm compared to the germinal vesicles in oocytes, but are uniformly dispersed within eggs. On the other hand, 14-3-3η is diffusely dispersed in the oocyte, but attains a uniform punctate distribution in the egg with marked accumulation in the region of the meiotic spindle apparatus. Immunohistochemical staining detected all isoforms within ovarian follicles, with some similarities as well as notable differences in relative amounts, localizations and patterns of expression in multiple cell types at various stages of follicular development. Conclusions We found that mouse oocytes, eggs and follicular cells within the ovary express all seven isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein. Examination of the

  16. AKT and 14-3-3 Regulate Notch4 Nuclear Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Gopalakrishnan; Davaakhuu, Gantulga; Chung, Wen Cheng; Zhu, He; Rana, Ajay; Filipovic, Aleksandra; Green, Andrew R.; Atfi, Azeddine; Pannuti, Antonio; Miele, Lucio; Tzivion, Guri

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Notch family of transmembrane receptors, Notch1-4 in mammals, are involved in the regulation of cell fate decisions and cell proliferation in various organisms. The Notch4 isoform, which is specific to mammals, was originally identified as a viral oncogene in mice, Int3, able to initiate mammary tumors. In humans, Notch4 expression appears to be associated with breast cancer stem cells and endocrine resistance. Following ligand binding, the Notch4 receptor undergoes cleavage at the membrane and the Notch4-intracellular domain (ICD), translocates to the nucleus and regulates gene transcription. Little is known on the mechanisms regulating Notch4-ICD and its nuclear localization. Here, we describe the identification of four distinct AKT phosphorylation sites in human Notch4-ICD and demonstrate that AKT binds Notch4-ICD and phosphorylates all four sites in vitro and in vivo. The phosphorylation in cells is regulated by growth factors and is sensitive to phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitors. This phosphorylation generates binding sites to the 14-3-3 regulatory proteins, which are involved in the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of target proteins, restricting phosphorylated Notch4-ICD to the cytoplasm. Our findings provide a novel mechanism for Notch4-ICD regulation, suggesting a negative regulatory role for the PI3K-AKT pathway in Notch4 nuclear signaling. PMID:25740432

  17. Small-molecule stabilization of the p53 - 14-3-3 protein-protein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doveston, Richard G; Kuusk, Ave; Andrei, Sebastian A; Leysen, Seppe; Cao, Qing; Castaldi, Maria P; Hendricks, Adam; Brunsveld, Luc; Chen, Hongming; Boyd, Helen; Ottmann, Christian

    2017-08-01

    14-3-3 proteins are positive regulators of the tumor suppressor p53, the mutation of which is implicated in many human cancers. Current strategies for targeting of p53 involve restoration of wild-type function or inhibition of the interaction with MDM2, its key negative regulator. Despite the efficacy of these strategies, the alternate approach of stabilizing the interaction of p53 with positive regulators and, thus, enhancing tumor suppressor activity, has not been explored. Here, we report the first example of small-molecule stabilization of the 14-3-3 - p53 protein-protein interaction (PPI) and demonstrate the potential of this approach as a therapeutic modality. We also observed a disconnect between biophysical and crystallographic data in the presence of a stabilizing molecule, which is unusual in 14-3-3 PPIs. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Ischemia preconditioning protects astrocytes from ischemic injury through 14-3-3γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ying; Chai, Chao Rui; Gao, Kai; Jia, Xi Hua; Kong, Jin Ge; Chen, Xiao Qian; Vatcher, Greg; Chen, Jian Guo; Yu, Albert Cheung Hoi

    2015-10-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and new strategies are required to reduce neuronal injury and improve prognosis. Ischemia preconditioning (IPC) is an intrinsic phenomenon that protects cells from subsequent ischemic injury and might provide promising mechanisms for clinical treatment. In this study, primary astrocytes exhibited significantly less cell death than control when exposed to different durations of IPC (15, 30, 60, or 120 min). A 15-min duration was the most effective IPC to protect astrocytes from 8-hr-ischemia injury. The protective mechanisms of IPC involve the upregulation of protective proteins, including 14-3-3γ, and attenuation of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and ATP depletion. 14-3-3γ is an antiapoptotic intracellular protein that was significantly upregulated for up to 84 hr after IPC. In addition, IPC promoted activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)-1/2, p38, and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways. When JNK was specifically inhibited with SP600125, the upregulation of 14-3-3γ induced by IPC was almost completely abolished; however, there was no effect on ATP or MDA levels. This suggests that, even though both energy preservation and 14-3-3γ up-regulation were turned on by IPC, they were controlled by different pathways. The ERK1/2, p38, and Akt signaling pathways were not involved in the 14-3-3γ upregulation and energy preservation. These results indicate that IPC could protect astrocytes from ischemia injury by inducing 14-3-3γ and by alleviating energy depletion through different pathways, suggesting multiple protection of IPC and providing new insights into potential stroke therapies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 14-3-3γ affects mTOR pathway and regulates lactogenesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudhair, Nagam; Luo, Chaochao; Khalid, Ahmed; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shuang; Ao, Jinxia; Li, Qingzhang; Gao, Xuejun

    2015-08-01

    14-3-3 proteins are an acidic protein family that is highly conserved and widely distributed in eukaryotic cells. Recent studies have found that 14-3-3 proteins play critical roles in cell signal transductions, cell growth and differentiation, and protein synthesis. 14-3-3γ is an important member of 14-3-3 protein family. In our previous study, we found that 14-3-3γ was upregulated by estrogen in dairy cow mammary epithelial cell (DCMEC), but the function and mechanism of 14-3-3γ is not known. In this experiment, we first cultured and purified the primary DCMEC and found 14-3-3γ located both in the cytoplasm and nucleus by using immunofluorescence assay. Methionine, lysine, estrogen, and prolactin could upregulate the expression of 14-3-3γ, stimulate the secretion of β-casein and triglyceride, and raise the cell viability of DCMEC. We constructed a stable 14-3-3γ overexpression cell line of DCMEC and found that the expressions of mTOR and p-mTOR, the secretion of triglyceride and β-casein (CSN2), and the cell viability of DCMEC were all upregulated. We also observed the effects of 14-3-3γ gene silencing and gained consistent results with 14-3-3γ overexpression. These findings reveal that 14-3-3γ affects the mTOR pathway and regulates lactogenesis in DCMECs.

  20. Regulation of the Regulators: Post-Translational Modifications, Subcellular, and Spatiotemporal Distribution of Plant 14-3-3 Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rashaun S; Swatek, Kirby N; Thelen, Jay J

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins bind to and modulate the activity of phosphorylated proteins that regulate a variety of metabolic processes in eukaryotes. Multiple 14-3-3 isoforms are expressed in most organisms and display redundancy in both sequence and function. Plants contain the largest number of 14-3-3 isoforms. For example, Arabidopsis thaliana contains thirteen 14-3-3 genes, each of which is expressed. Interest in the plant 14-3-3 field has swelled over the past decade, largely due to the vast number of possibilities for 14-3-3 metabolic regulation. As the field progresses, it is essential to understand these proteins' activities at both the spatiotemporal and subcellular levels. This review summarizes current knowledge of 14-3-3 proteins in plants, including 14-3-3 interactions, regulatory functions, isoform specificity, and post-translational modifications. We begin with a historical overview and structural analysis of 14-3-3 proteins, which describes the basic principles of 14-3-3 function, and then discuss interactions and regulatory effects of plant 14-3-3 proteins in specific tissues and subcellular compartments. We conclude with a summary of 14-3-3 phosphorylation and current knowledge of the functional effects of this modification in plants.

  1. Sommerskole 2004 - Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Montagen af/som nye erfaringsrum: intensiteter gennem disjunktioner. Arbejdsprocessen var struktureret gennem en række fortløbende spørgsmål, der blev formuleret successivt i perioden. Hydra kan ses som en kompleks topologisk konfiguration: hvis man betragter dens morfologi som en plastisk membran...... - en latex hvorigennem de topologiske kræfter tegner konturer - vil særlige strukturer danne ar i væv. Hydra kan ses som 2 komplekse topologiske og morfologiske plastiske membraner, der overførte eller snarere relaterede sine "mulige ny ar, rifter, knuder og forvridninger" i en symbiose....../metamorfose gennem rum og tid, at hver gruppe spænder en hinde ud over Hydra og går "på opdagelse" i "dette mellemlag" af en iagttaget og på ny konfigureret plan af Hydra, turisme, geografi etc....

  2. Genetic and immunological characterization of the 14-3-3xi molecule from Schistosoma bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, N; Muro, A; Vieira, C; Lopez-Aban, J; del Olmo, E; Suárez, L; Martínez-Fernández, A R; Siles-Lucas, M

    2007-08-01

    Currently available candidate vaccines against schistosomiasis elicit only partial protection. In addition, the type of immune response that could lead to the highest level of protection against schistosomes has not yet been described. Thus, efforts should be made in both the identification of novel proteins essential for the parasite cycle and in the modulation of immune responses against these novel candidates through the combined use of immunomodulatory molecules. Several parasites have 14-3-3 proteins, and these proteins are known to play a key role in parasite biology. In the present work, we report the isolation and characterization of a new 14-3-3 gene from Schistosoma bovis and offer new information regarding the genetic structure of the gene. In addition, we have produced the corresponding recombinant protein. Finally, we describe the immune responses elicited by this protein when combined with 4 different immunomodulators in immunized mice.

  3. 14-3-3, an integrator of cell mechanics and cytokinesis

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Douglas N.

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of understanding cytokinesis is to uncover the molecular regulation of the cellular mechanical properties that drive cell shape change. Such regulatory pathways are likely to be used at multiple stages of a cell's life, but are highly featured during cell division. Recently, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 (encoded by a single gene in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum) serves to integrate key cytoskeletal components—microtubules, Rac and myosin II—to control cell mechani...

  4. Transplantation analysis of developmental mechanisms in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Ethel Browne (1909) who demonstrated for the first time the concept of organizer activity, i.e. the potency of an apical Hydra tissue to induce a secondary axis when transplanted onto a host, Hydra flourished as a fruitful model system for developmental studies. Over the next 60 years this efficient transplantation approach identified graded biological activities along the body column of Hydra named Head Acti-vation and Head Inhibition. These properties inspired theoretical modelers including Lewis Wolpert, Alfred Gierer and Hans Meinhardt to propose models for morphogenesis, respectively the positional information (1969) and reaction-diffusion (1972) models. In 1973, Tsutomu Sugiyama and Toshitaka Fujisawa initiated in Mishima a unique project to analyze the properties of Hydra strains with distinct morphological and developmental characters. To this end, they collected in several areas of Japan multiple Hydra strains that they subsequently characterized and crossed. They also established a lateral transplantation strategy that was much more powerful than the previous ones, as it combined quantitative measurements with cellular analyses thanks to the chimera procedures developed by Campbell and colleagues. In-deed this approach provided a paradigm to quantify in any morphological phenotype the Head Activation and Head Inhibition levels along the body column. In this article, I review the various strains identified by Sugiyama and colleagues, the principles and the main results deduced from the quantitative lateral transplantation strategy. In addition, I briefly discuss the relevance of this approach in the era of molecular biology.

  5. Targeting 14-3-3 adaptor protein-protein interactions to stimulate central nervous system repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kaplan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of developing treatments for central nervous system (CNS injuries is becoming more attainable with the recent identification of various drugs that can repair damaged axons. These discoveries have stemmed from screening efforts, large expression datasets and an improved understanding of the cellular and molecular biology underlying axon growth. It will be important to continue searching for new compounds that can induce axon repair. Here we describe how a family of adaptor proteins called 14-3-3s can be targeted using small molecule drugs to enhance axon outgrowth and regeneration. 14-3-3s bind to many functionally diverse client proteins to regulate their functions. We highlight the recent discovery of the axon-growth promoting activity of fusicoccin-A, a fungus-derived small molecule that stabilizes 14-3-3 interactions with their client proteins. Here we discuss how fusicoccin-A could serve as a starting point for the development of drugs to induce CNS repair.

  6. Inhibition of 14-3-3 Proteins Leads to Schizophrenia-Related Behavioral Phenotypes and Synaptic Defects in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Molly; Qiao, Haifa; Graham, Kourtney; Wu, Yuying; Zhou, Yi

    2015-09-15

    The 14-3-3 family of proteins is implicated in the regulation of several key neuronal processes. Previous human and animal studies suggested an association between 14-3-3 dysregulation and schizophrenia. We characterized behavioral and functional changes in transgenic mice that express an isoform-independent 14-3-3 inhibitor peptide in the brain. We recently showed that 14-3-3 functional knockout mice (FKO) exhibit impairments in associative learning and memory. We report here that these 14-3-3 FKO mice display other behavioral deficits that correspond to the core symptoms of schizophrenia. These behavioral deficits may be attributed to alterations in multiple neurotransmission systems in the 14-3-3 FKO mice. In particular, inhibition of 14-3-3 proteins results in a reduction of dendritic complexity and spine density in forebrain excitatory neurons, which may underlie the altered synaptic connectivity in the prefrontal cortical synapse of the 14-3-3 FKO mice. At the molecular level, this dendritic spine defect may stem from dysregulated actin dynamics secondary to a disruption of the 14-3-3-dependent regulation of phosphorylated cofilin. Collectively, our data provide a link between 14-3-3 dysfunction, synaptic alterations, and schizophrenia-associated behavioral deficits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Transgenic overexpression of 14-3-3 zeta protects hippocampus against endoplasmic reticulum stress and status epilepticus in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P Brennan

    Full Text Available 14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitous molecular chaperones that are abundantly expressed in the brain where they regulate cell functions including metabolism, the cell cycle and apoptosis. Brain levels of several 14-3-3 isoforms are altered in diseases of the nervous system, including epilepsy. The 14-3-3 zeta (ζ isoform has been linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER function in neurons, with reduced levels provoking ER stress and increasing vulnerability to excitotoxic injury. Here we report that transgenic overexpression of 14-3-3ζ in mice results in selective changes to the unfolded protein response pathway in the hippocampus, including down-regulation of glucose-regulated proteins 78 and 94, activating transcription factors 4 and 6, and Xbp1 splicing. No differences were found between wild-type mice and transgenic mice for levels of other 14-3-3 isoforms or various other 14-3-3 binding proteins. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were potently protected against cell death caused by intracerebroventricular injection of the ER stressor tunicamycin. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were also potently protected against neuronal death caused by prolonged seizures. These studies demonstrate that increased 14-3-3ζ levels protect against ER stress and seizure-damage despite down-regulation of the unfolded protein response. Delivery of 14-3-3ζ may protect against pathologic changes resulting from prolonged or repeated seizures or where injuries provoke ER stress.

  8. The Hydra small ubiquitin-like modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Umair; Mehere, Prajwalini; Deivasigamani, Senthilkumar; Ratnaparkhi, Girish S

    2013-09-01

    SUMO is a protein posttranslational modifier. SUMO cycle components are believed to be conserved in all eukaryotes. Proteomic analyses have lead to the identification a wealth of SUMO targets that are involved in almost every cellular function in eukaryotes. In this article, we describe the characterization of SUMO Cycle components in Hydra, a Cnidarian with an ability to regenerate body parts. In cells, the translated SUMO polypeptide cannot conjugate to a substrate protein unless the C-terminal tail is cleaved, exposing the di-Glycine motif. This critical task is done by SUMO proteases that in addition to SUMO maturation are also involved in deconjugating SUMO from its substrate. We describe the identification, bioinformatics analysis, cloning, and biochemical characterization of Hydra SUMO cycle components, with a focus on SUMO and SUMO proteases. We demonstrate that the ability of SUMO proteases to process immature SUMO is conserved from Hydra to flies. A transgenic Hydra, expressing a SUMO-GFP fusion protein under a constitutive actin promoter, is generated in an attempt to monitor the SUMO Cycle in vivo as also to purify and identify SUMO targets in Hydra. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Catch and release: 14-3-3 controls Ncd in meiotic spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasso, Mary

    2017-10-02

    During Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis, spindle assembly occurs without centrosomes and relies on signals from chromosomes. Beaven et al. (2017. J. Cell. Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201704120) show that 14-3-3 proteins bind and inhibit a key microtubule motor, Ncd, during oogenesis, but Aurora B releases Ncd inhibition near chromosomes, allowing Ncd to work in the right time and place. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.

  10. 14-3-3 testing in diagnosing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a prospective study in 112 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, A. W.; van Meegen, M. T.; Vreyling, J. P.; Meijerink, P. H.; Jansen, G. H.; Bulk, S.; Baas, F.; van Gool, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the sensitivity and specificity of 14-3-3 testing in a prospective series of patients suspected of having Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). BACKGROUND: The 14-3-3 protein immunoassay on CSF has favorable test characteristics as a premortem diagnostic tool in CJD. However, the

  11. 14-3-3σ regulates β-catenin-mediated mouse embryonic stem cell proliferation by sequestering GSK-3β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ching Chang

    Full Text Available Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are considered to be an unlimited cell source for tissue regeneration and cell-based therapy. Investigating the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of embryonic stem cell expansion is thus important. 14-3-3 proteins are implicated in controlling cell division, signaling transduction and survival by interacting with various regulatory proteins. However, the function of 14-3-3 in embryonic stem cell proliferation remains unclear.In this study, we show that all seven 14-3-3 isoforms were detected in mouse embryonic stem cells. Retinoid acid suppressed selectively the expression of 14-3-3σ isoform. Knockdown of 14-3-3σ with siRNA reduced embryonic stem cell proliferation, while only 14-3-3σ transfection increased cell growth and partially rescued retinoid acid-induced growth arrest. Since the growth-enhancing action of 14-3-3σ was abrogated by β-catenin knockdown, we investigated the influence of 14-3-3σ overexpression on β-catenin/GSK-3β. 14-3-3σ bound GSK-3β and increased GSK-3β phosphorylation in a PI-3K/Akt-dependent manner. It disrupted β-catenin binding by the multiprotein destruction complex. 14-3-3σ overexpression attenuated β-catenin phosphorylation and rescued the decline of β-catenin induced by retinoid acid. Furthermore, 14-3-3σ enhanced Wnt3a-induced β-catenin level and GSK-3β phosphorylation. DKK, an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, abolished Wnt3a-induced effect but did not interfere GSK-3β/14-3-3σ binding.Our findings show for the first time that 14-3-3σ plays an important role in regulating mouse embryonic stem cell proliferation by binding and sequestering phosphorylated GSK-3β and enhancing Wnt-signaled GSK-3β inactivation. 14-3-3σ is a novel target for embryonic stem cell expansion.

  12. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β exerts anti-cancer effects through inducing ER stress in human glioma U87 cells: Involvement of CHOP–Wnt pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Lei; Lei, Hui; Chang, Ming-Ze; Liu, Zhi-Qin [Department of Neurological Disease, Xi' an Central Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710000 (China); Bie, Xiao-Hua, E-mail: biexiaohua_xjtu@126.com [Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Xi' an Red Cross Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China)

    2015-07-10

    We previously identified 14-3-3β as a tumor-specific isoform of 14-3-3 protein in astrocytoma, but its functional role in glioma cells and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 14-3-3β inhibition in human glioma U87 cells using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results showed that 14-3-3β is highly expressed in U87 cells but not in normal astrocyte SVGp12 cells. Knockdown of 14-3-3β by Si-14-3-3β transfection significantly decreased the cell viability but increased the LDH release in a time-dependent fashion in U87 cells, and these effects were accompanied with G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, 14-3-3β knockdown induced ER stress in U87 cells, as evidenced by ER calcium release, increased expression of XBP1S mRNA and induction of ER related pro-apoptotic factors. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β significantly decreased the nuclear localization of β-catenin and inhibited Topflash activity, which was shown to be reversely correlated with CHOP. Furthermore, Si-CHOP and sFRP were used to inhibit CHOP and Wnt, respectively. The results showed that the anti-cancer effects of 14-3-3β knockdown in U87 cells were mediated by increased expression of CHOP and followed inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In summary, the remarkable efficiency of 14-3-3β knockdown to induce apoptotic cell death in U87 cells may find therapeutic application for the treatment of glioma patients. - Highlights: • Knockdown of 14-3-3β leads to cytotoxicity in human glioma U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β results in ER stress in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β inhibits Wnt/β-catenin pathway via CHOP activation.

  13. Klotho Regulates 14-3-3ζ Monomerization and Binding to the ASK1 Signaling Complex in Response to Oxidative Stress.

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    Reynolds K Brobey

    Full Text Available The reactive oxygen species (ROS-sensitive apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1 signaling complex is a key regulator of p38 MAPK activity, a major modulator of stress-associated with aging disorders. We recently reported that the ratio of free ASK1 to the complex-bound ASK1 is significantly decreased in Klotho-responsive manner and that Klotho-deficient tissues have elevated levels of free ASK1 which coincides with increased oxidative stress. Here, we tested the hypothesis that: 1 covalent interactions exist among three identified proteins constituting the ASK1 signaling complex; 2 in normal unstressed cells the ASK1, 14-3-3ζ and thioredoxin (Trx proteins simultaneously engage in a tripartite complex formation; 3 Klotho's stabilizing effect on the complex relied solely on 14-3-3ζ expression and its apparent phosphorylation and dimerization changes. To verify the hypothesis, we performed 14-3-3ζ siRNA knock-down experiments in conjunction with cell-based assays to measure ASK1-client protein interactions in the presence and absence of Klotho, and with or without an oxidant such as rotenone. Our results show that Klotho activity induces posttranslational modifications in the complex targeting 14-3-3ζ monomer/dimer changes to effectively protect against ASK1 oxidation and dissociation. This is the first observation implicating all three proteins constituting the ASK1 signaling complex in close proximity.

  14. A NudE/14-3-3 pathway coordinates dynein and the kinesin Khc73 to position the mitotic spindle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Michelle S; Prehoda, Kenneth E

    2013-08-26

    Mitotic spindle position is controlled by interactions of cortical molecular motors with astral microtubules. In animal cells, Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) acts at the cortex to coordinate the activity of Dynein and Kinesin-73 (Khc73; KIF13B in mammals) to orient the spindle. Though the two motors move in opposite directions, their synergistic activity is required for robust Pins-mediated spindle orientation. Here, we identify a physical connection between Dynein and Khc73 that mediates cooperative spindle positioning. Khc73's motor and MBS domains link Pins to microtubule plus ends, while its stalk domain is necessary for Dynein activation and precise positioning of the spindle. A motif in the stalk domain binds, in a phospho-dependent manner, 14-3-3ζ, which dimerizes with 14-3-3ε. The 14-3-3ζ/ε heterodimer binds the Dynein adaptor NudE to complete the Dynein connection. The Khc73 stalk/14-3-3/NudE pathway defines a physical connection that coordinates the activities of multiple motor proteins to precisely position the spindle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of 14-3-3η protein on cardiac fatty acid metabolism and macrophage polarization after high fat diet induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, Remya; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Koga, Yusuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Harima, Meilei; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2017-07-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), a metabolic disorder, is one of the leading causes of mortality around the world and its pathogenesis involves cardiac inflammation and altered metabolic profile. Altered fatty acid metabolism during DCM can cause macrophage polarization in which inflammatory M1 phenotype dominates over the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Hence, it is essential to identify a specific target, which could revert the metabolic profile and thereby reducing the M1 macrophage polarization. 14-3-3η protein has several cellular protective functions especially in the heart as plenty of reports available in various animal models of heart failure including diabetes mellitus. However, its role in the cardiac fatty acid metabolism and macrophage polarization remains unidentified. The present study has been designed to delineate the effect of cardiospecific dominant negative mutation of 14-3-3η protein (DN14-3-3) on various lipid metabolism related marker proteins expressions and cardiac macrophage phenotype in high fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Feeding HFD for 12 weeks has produced significant increase in body weight in the DN14-3-3 (TG) mice than C57BL6/J (WT) mice. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining analysis of the heart tissue has revealed an increase in the expression of markers of cardiac fatty acid synthesis related proteins in addition to the reduced expression of fatty acid oxidation related proteins in TG mice fed HFD than WT mice fed HFD. Furthermore, the M1 macrophage marker proteins were increasingly expressed while M2 markers expressions were reduced in the hearts of TG mice fed HFD. In conclusion, our current study has identified that there is a definite role for the 14-3-3η protein against the pathogenesis of heart failure via regulation of cardiac fatty acid metabolism and macrophage polarization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Measuring glutathione-induced feeding response in hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ram; Galande, Sanjeev

    2014-11-16

    Hydra is among the most primitive organisms possessing a nervous system and chemosensation for detecting reduced glutathione (GSH) for capturing the prey. The movement of prey organisms causes mechanosensory discharge of the stinging cells called nematocysts from hydra, which are inserted into the prey. The feeding response in hydra, which includes curling of the tentacles to bring the prey towards the mouth, opening of the mouth and consequent engulfing of the prey, is triggered by GSH present in the fluid released from the injured prey. To be able to identify the molecular mechanism of the feeding response in hydra which is unknown to date, it is necessary to establish an assay to measure the feeding response. Here, we describe a simple method for the quantitation of the feeding response in which the distance between the apical end of the tentacle and mouth of hydra is measured and the ratio of such distance before and after the addition of GSH is determined. The ratio, called the relative tentacle spread, was found to give a measure of the feeding response. This assay was validated using a starvation model in which starved hydra show an enhanced feeding response in comparison with daily fed hydra.

  17. Altered expression of 14-3-3ζ protein in spinal cords of rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-na Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large number of studies have confirmed that excessive apoptosis is one of the reasons for deficient neuronal function in neural tube defects (NTDs. A previous study from our laboratory used 2-D gel electrophoresis to demonstrate that 14-3-3ζ expression was low in the spinal cords of rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta at embryonic day (E 17. As a member of the 14-3-3 protein family, 14-3-3ζ plays a crucial role in the determination of cell fate and anti-apoptotic activity. However, neither the expression of 14-3-3ζ in defective spinal cords, nor the correlation between 14-3-3ζ and excessive apoptosis in NTDs has been fully confirmed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used immunoblotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR to quantify the expression of 14-3-3ζ and double immunofluorescence to visualize 14-3-3ζ and apoptosis. We found that, compared with controls, 14-3-3ζ was down-regulated in spina bifida between E12 and E15. Excessive apoptotic cells and low expression of 14-3-3ζ were observed in the dorsal region of spinal cords with spina bifida during the same time period. To initially explore the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in NTDs, we investigated the expression of microRNA-7 (miR-7, microRNA-375 (miR-375 and microRNA-451 (miR-451, which are known to down-regulate 14-3-3ζ in several different cell types. We also investigated the expression of p53, a molecule that is downstream of 14-3-3ζ and can be down-regulated by it. We discovered that, in contrast to the reduction of 14-3-3ζ expression, the expression of miR-451, miR-375 and p53 increased in spina bifida rat fetuses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that the reduced expression of 14-3-3ζ plays a role in the excessive apoptosis that occurs in spina bifida and may be partly regulated by the over-expression of miR-451 and miR-375, and the consequent up-regulation of p53 might further promote apoptosis in spina bifida.

  18. Altered expression of 14-3-3ζ protein in spinal cords of rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-na; Wei, Xiao-wei; Fan, Yang; Miao, Jia-ning; Wang, Li-li; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Di; Yuan, Zheng-wei

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have confirmed that excessive apoptosis is one of the reasons for deficient neuronal function in neural tube defects (NTDs). A previous study from our laboratory used 2-D gel electrophoresis to demonstrate that 14-3-3ζ expression was low in the spinal cords of rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta at embryonic day (E) 17. As a member of the 14-3-3 protein family, 14-3-3ζ plays a crucial role in the determination of cell fate and anti-apoptotic activity. However, neither the expression of 14-3-3ζ in defective spinal cords, nor the correlation between 14-3-3ζ and excessive apoptosis in NTDs has been fully confirmed. We used immunoblotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to quantify the expression of 14-3-3ζ and double immunofluorescence to visualize 14-3-3ζ and apoptosis. We found that, compared with controls, 14-3-3ζ was down-regulated in spina bifida between E12 and E15. Excessive apoptotic cells and low expression of 14-3-3ζ were observed in the dorsal region of spinal cords with spina bifida during the same time period. To initially explore the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in NTDs, we investigated the expression of microRNA-7 (miR-7), microRNA-375 (miR-375) and microRNA-451 (miR-451), which are known to down-regulate 14-3-3ζ in several different cell types. We also investigated the expression of p53, a molecule that is downstream of 14-3-3ζ and can be down-regulated by it. We discovered that, in contrast to the reduction of 14-3-3ζ expression, the expression of miR-451, miR-375 and p53 increased in spina bifida rat fetuses. These data suggest that the reduced expression of 14-3-3ζ plays a role in the excessive apoptosis that occurs in spina bifida and may be partly regulated by the over-expression of miR-451 and miR-375, and the consequent up-regulation of p53 might further promote apoptosis in spina bifida.

  19. Hydra Rendezvous and Docking Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Fred; Carrington, Connie

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. technology to support a CEV AR&D activity is mature and was developed by NASA and supporting industry during an extensive research and development program conducted during the 1990's and early 2000 time frame at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development and demonstration of a rendezvous/docking sensor was identified early in the AR&D Program as the critical enabling technology that allows automated proxinity operations and docking. A first generation rendezvous/docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS) was developed and successfully flown on STS 87 and again on STS 95, proving the concept of a video-based sensor. Advances in both video and signal processing technologies and the lessons learned from the two successful flight experiments provided a baseline for the development of a new generation of video based rendezvous/docking sensor. The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) has greatly increased performance and additional capability for longer-range operation. A Demonstration Automatic Rendezvous Technology (DART) flight experiment was flown in April 2005 using AVGS as the primary proximity operations sensor. Because of the absence of a docking mechanism on the target satellite, this mission did not demonstrate the ability of the sensor to coltrold ocking. Mission results indicate that the rendezvous sensor operated successfully in "spot mode" (2 km acquisition of the target, bearing data only) but was never commanded to "acquire and track" the docking target. Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of current design AVGS units to support the NASA Exploration initiative. This flight proven AR&D technology is being modularized and upgraded with additional capabilities through the Hydra project at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Hydra brings a unique engineering approach and sensor architecture to the table, to solve the continuing issues of parts obsolescence and multiple sensor integration. This paper presents an approach to

  20. Transcriptional increase and misexpression of 14-3-3 epsilon in sea urchin embryos exposed to UV-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Roberta; Zito, Francesca; Costa, Caterina; Bonaventura, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Members of the 14-3-3 protein family are involved in many important cellular events, including stress response, survival and apoptosis. Genes of the 14-3-3 family are conserved from plants to humans, and some members are responsive to UV radiation. Here, we report the isolation of the complete cDNA encoding the 14-3-3 epsilon isoform from Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos, referred to as Pl14-3-3ε, and the phylogenetic relationship with other homologues described in different phyla. Pl14-3-3ε mRNA levels were measured by QPCR during development and found to increase from the mesenchyme blastula to the prism stage. In response to UV-B (312 nm) exposure, early stage embryos collected 2 h later showed a 2.3-fold (at 400 J/m2) and a 2.7-fold (at 800 J/m2) increase in Pl14-3-3ε transcript levels compared with controls. The spatial expression of Pl14-3-3ε mRNA, detected by whole mount in situ hybridization in both control and UV-B exposed embryos, harvested at late developmental stages, showed transcripts to be located in the archenteron of gastrula stage and widely distributed in all germ layers, respectively. The Pl14-3-3ε mRNA delocalization parallels the failure in archenteron elongation observed morphologically, as well as the lack of specific endoderm markers, investigated by indirect immuno-fluorescence on whole mount embryos. Results confirm the involvement of 14-3-3ε in the stress response elicited by UV-B and demonstrate, for the first time, its contribution at the transcriptional level in the sea urchin embryo. PMID:20607471

  1. Regulation of the Water Channel Aquaporin-2 via 14-3-3 Theta (θ) and Zeta (ζ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Hanne B; Slengerik-Hansen, Joachim Enevoldsen; Aroankins, Takwa

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family of proteins are multifunctional proteins that interact with many of their cellular targets in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Here, we determined that 14-3-3 proteins interact with phosphorylated forms of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and modulate its function...... levels. In conclusion, this study demonstrates phosphorylation-dependent interactions of AQP2 with 14-3-3 θ and ζ. These interactions play divergent roles in modulating AQP2 trafficking, phosphorylation, ubiquitylation and degradation....

  2. AtSKIP18 and AtSKIP31, F-box subunits of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, mediate the degradation of 14-3-3 proteins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jong-Pil; Adams, Eri; Yanagawa, Yuki; Matsui, Minami; Shin, Ryoung

    2017-03-25

    14-3-3 proteins regulate numerous cellular processes through interaction with their target proteins in a phosphorylation dependent manner. Although proteins that are regulated by 14-3-3s have been studied, the regulatory mechanism of 14-3-3s is poorly understood. In the present study, F-box proteins, a component of Skp1-Cullin-F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase, were identified as 14-3-3 targets using yeast two-hybrid screening. Among them, AtSKIP18 and AtSKIP31, were shown to mediate the degradation of Arabidopsis 14-3-3s. Mutational analyses of AtSKIP18 and AtSKIP31 indicated that the phosphorylation of AtSKIPs is critical for interaction and degradation of 14-3-3s. The loss-of-function mutation in AtSKIP31 resulted in enhanced primary root growth under nitrogen deficient conditions. These findings suggest that AtSKIP31 regulates the primary root growth in nitrogen deficiency via degrading 14-3-3s. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cloning, expression and molecular characterization of a 14-3-3 gene from a parasitic ciliate, Cryptocaryon irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianqian; Yang, Mei; Huang, Zhen; Ni, Wei; Fu, Guoliang; Guo, Guowei; Wang, Zhengchao; Huang, Xiaohong

    2013-11-08

    Cryptocaryon irritans is a parasitic ciliate and responsible for cryptocaryosis of ocean teleostean. In this paper, one gene homologous to 14-3-3 was isolated from cDNA library of C. irritans trophont/protomont stage and designated as Ci14-3-3. The full-length cDNA of the gene was 892bp with an open reading frame of 744bp, which encoded a polypeptide of 247 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 28.4kDa. After modification of the non-universal genetic codes, the open reading frame of Ci14-3-3 was inserted into plasmid pGEX-4T-1, transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α strain and then expressed as a glutathione S transferase fusion protein (rCi14-3-3). The result of western blot analysis showed that the rCi14-3-3 had antigenicity and the Ci14-3-3 gene in C. irritans was expressed at all stages of life cycle. The endogenous Ci14-3-3 not only distributed in cytoplasm, but also presented on the plasma membrane and the front end of cytostome in newly hatched theronts. However, when theronts were dying the protein appeared as dot-like aggregates around the nucleuses. The murine anti-rCi14-3-3 sera were capable of causing agglutination/immobilization of theronts, suggesting its potential for vaccine development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 14-3-3 regulation of Ncd reveals a new mechanism for targeting proteins to the spindle in oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaven, Robin; Bastos, Ricardo Nunes; Spanos, Christos; Romé, Pierre; Cullen, C Fiona; Rappsilber, Juri; Giet, Régis; Goshima, Gohta; Ohkura, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-02

    The meiotic spindle is formed without centrosomes in a large volume of oocytes. Local activation of crucial spindle proteins around chromosomes is important for formation and maintenance of a bipolar spindle in oocytes. We found that phosphodocking 14-3-3 proteins stabilize spindle bipolarity in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. A critical 14-3-3 target is the minus end-directed motor Ncd (human HSET; kinesin-14), which has well-documented roles in stabilizing a bipolar spindle in oocytes. Phospho docking by 14-3-3 inhibits the microtubule binding activity of the nonmotor Ncd tail. Further phosphorylation by Aurora B kinase can release Ncd from this inhibitory effect of 14-3-3. As Aurora B localizes to chromosomes and spindles, 14-3-3 facilitates specific association of Ncd with spindle microtubules by preventing Ncd from binding to nonspindle microtubules in oocytes. Therefore, 14-3-3 translates a spatial cue provided by Aurora B to target Ncd selectively to the spindle within the large volume of oocytes. © 2017 Beaven et al.

  5. 14-3-3 regulation of Ncd reveals a new mechanism for targeting proteins to the spindle in oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ricardo Nunes; Romé, Pierre; Cullen, C. Fiona; Rappsilber, Juri

    2017-01-01

    The meiotic spindle is formed without centrosomes in a large volume of oocytes. Local activation of crucial spindle proteins around chromosomes is important for formation and maintenance of a bipolar spindle in oocytes. We found that phosphodocking 14-3-3 proteins stabilize spindle bipolarity in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. A critical 14-3-3 target is the minus end–directed motor Ncd (human HSET; kinesin-14), which has well-documented roles in stabilizing a bipolar spindle in oocytes. Phospho docking by 14-3-3 inhibits the microtubule binding activity of the nonmotor Ncd tail. Further phosphorylation by Aurora B kinase can release Ncd from this inhibitory effect of 14-3-3. As Aurora B localizes to chromosomes and spindles, 14-3-3 facilitates specific association of Ncd with spindle microtubules by preventing Ncd from binding to nonspindle microtubules in oocytes. Therefore, 14-3-3 translates a spatial cue provided by Aurora B to target Ncd selectively to the spindle within the large volume of oocytes. PMID:28860275

  6. 14-3-3{sigma} controls corneal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation through the Notch signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Ying [Stem Cell Institute, James Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Lu, Qingxian [Tumor Immunobiology Group, James Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Li, Qiutang, E-mail: q.li@louisville.edu [Stem Cell Institute, James Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)

    2010-02-19

    14-3-3{sigma} (also called stratifin) is specifically expressed in the stratified squamous epithelium and its function was recently shown to be linked to epidermal stratification and differentiation in the skin. In this study, we investigated its role in corneal epithelium cell proliferation and differentiation. We showed that the 14-3-3{sigma} mutation in repeated epilation (Er) mutant mice results in a dominant negative truncated protein. Primary corneal epithelial cells expressing the dominant negative protein failed to undergo high calcium-induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation. We further demonstrated that blocking endogenous 14-3-3{sigma} activity in corneal epithelial cells by overexpressing dominative negative 14-3-3{sigma} led to reduced Notch activity and Notch1/2 transcription. Significantly, expression of the active Notch intracellular domain overcame the block in epithelial cell differentiation in 14-3-3{sigma} mutant-expressing corneal epithelial cells. We conclude that 14-3-3{sigma} is critical for regulating corneal epithelial proliferation and differentiation by regulating Notch signaling activity.

  7. Human 14-3-3 paralogs differences uncovered by cross-talk of phosphorylation and lysine acetylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Uhart

    Full Text Available The 14-3-3 protein family interacts with more than 700 different proteins in mammals, in part as a result of its specific phospho-serine/phospho-threonine binding activity. Upon binding to 14-3-3, the stability, subcellular localization and/or catalytic activity of the ligands are modified. Seven paralogs are strictly conserved in mammalian species. Although initially thought as redundant, the number of studies showing specialization is growing. We created a protein-protein interaction network for 14-3-3, kinases and their substrates signaling in human cells. We included information of phosphorylation, acetylation and other PTM sites, obtaining a complete representation of the 14-3-3 binding partners and their modifications. Using a computational system approach we found that networks of each 14-3-3 isoform are statistically different. It was remarkable to find that Tyr was the most phosphorylatable amino acid in domains of 14-3-3 epsilon partners. This, together with the over-representation of SH3 and Tyr_Kinase domains, suggest that epsilon could be involved in growth factors receptors signaling pathways particularly. We also found that within zeta's network, the number of acetylated partners (and the number of modify lysines is significantly higher compared with each of the other isoforms. Our results imply previously unreported hidden differences of the 14-3-3 isoforms interaction networks. The phosphoproteome and lysine acetylome within each network revealed post-transcriptional regulation intertwining phosphorylation and lysine acetylation. A global understanding of these networks will contribute to predict what could occur when regulatory circuits become dysfunctional or are modified in response to external stimuli.

  8. Light modulated activity of root alkaline/neutral invertase involves the interaction with 14-3-3 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; van Kleeff, Paula J M; Oecking, Claudia; Li, Ka Wan; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hincha, Dirk K; de Boer, Albertus H

    2014-12-01

    Alkaline/neutral invertases (A/N-Invs) are now recognized as essential proteins in plant life. They catalyze the irreversible breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose and thus supply the cells with energy as well as signaling molecules. In this study we report on a mechanism that affects the activity of the cytosolic invertase AtCINV1 (At-A/N-InvG or AT1G35580). We demonstrate that Ser547 at the extreme C-terminus of the AtCINV1 protein is a substrate of calcium-dependent kinases (CPK3 and 21) and that phosphorylation creates a high-affinity binding site for 14-3-3 proteins. The invertase as such has basal activity, but we provide evidence that interaction with 14-3-3 proteins enhances its activity. The analysis of three quadruple 14-3-3 mutants generated from six T-DNA insertion mutants of the non-epsilon family shows both specificity as well as redundancy for this function of 14-3-3 proteins. The strong reduction in hexose levels in the roots of one 14-3-3 quadruple mutant plant is in line with the activating function of 14-3-3 proteins. The physiological relevance of this mechanism that affects A/N-invertase activity is underscored by the light-induced activation and is another example of the central role of 14-3-3 proteins in mediating dark/light signaling. The nature of the light-induced signal that travels from the shoot to root and the question whether this signal is transmitted via cytosolic Ca(++) changes that activate calcium-dependent kinases, await further study. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The peripheral binding of 14-3-3γ to membranes involves isoform-specific histidine residues.

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    Helene J Bustad

    Full Text Available Mammalian 14-3-3 protein scaffolds include seven conserved isoforms that bind numerous phosphorylated protein partners and regulate many cellular processes. Some 14-3-3-isoforms, notably γ, have elevated affinity for membranes, which might contribute to modulate the subcellular localization of the partners and substantiate the importance of investigating molecular mechanisms of membrane interaction. By applying surface plasmon resonance we here show that the binding to phospholipid bilayers is stimulated when 14-3-3γ is complexed with its partner, a peptide corresponding to the Ser19-phosphorylated N-terminal region of tyrosine hydroxylase. Moreover, membrane interaction is dependent on salts of kosmotropic ions, which also stabilize 14-3-3γ. Electrostatic analysis of available crystal structures of γ and of the non-membrane-binding ζ-isoform, complemented with molecular dynamics simulations, indicate that the electrostatic potential distribution of phosphopeptide-bound 14-3-3γ is optimal for interaction with the membrane through amphipathic helices at the N-terminal dimerization region. In addition, His158, and especially His195, both specific to 14-3-3γ and located at the convex lateral side, appeared to be pivotal for the ligand induced membrane interaction, as corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis. The participation of these histidine residues might be associated to their increased protonation upon membrane binding. Overall, these results reveal membrane-targeting motifs and give insights on mechanisms that furnish the 14-3-3γ scaffold with the capacity for tuned shuffling from soluble to membrane-bound states.

  10. 14-3-3 theta binding to cell cycle regulatory factors is enhanced by HIV-1 Vpr

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    Sakai Keiko

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite continuing advances in our understanding of AIDS pathogenesis, the mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion in HIV-1-infected individuals remains unclear. The HIV-1 Vpr accessory protein causes cell death, likely through a mechanism related to its ability to arrest cells in the G2,M phase. Recent evidence implicated the scaffold protein, 14-3-3, in Vpr cell cycle blockade. Results We found that in human T cells, 14-3-3 plays an active role in mediating Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest and reveal a dramatic increase in the amount of Cdk1, Cdc25C, and CyclinB1 bound to 14-3-3 θ during Vprv-induced G2,M arrest. By contrast, a cell-cycle-arrest-dead Vpr mutant failed to augment 14-3-3 θ association with Cdk1 and CyclinB1. Moreover, G2,M arrest caused by HIV-1 infection strongly correlated with a disruption in 14-3-3 θ binding to centrosomal proteins, Plk1 and centrin. Finally, Vpr caused elevated levels of CyclinB1, Plk1, and Cdk1 in a complex with the nuclear transport and spindle assembly protein, importin β. Conclusion Thus, our data reveal a new facet of Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest involving previously unrecognized abnormal rearrangements of multiprotein assemblies containing key cell cycle regulatory proteins. Reviewers This article was reviewed by David Kaplan, Nathaniel R. Landau and Yan Zhou.

  11. Identification of a lacosamide binding protein using an affinity bait and chemical reporter strategy: 14-3-3 ζ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Duk; Kim, Dongwook; Reamtong, Onrapak; Eyers, Claire; Gaskell, Simon J; Liu, Rihe; Kohn, Harold

    2011-07-27

    We have advanced a useful strategy to elucidate binding partners of ligands (drugs) with modest binding affinity. Key to this strategy is attaching to the ligand an affinity bait (AB) and a chemical reporter (CR) group, where the AB irreversibly attaches the ligand to the receptor upon binding and the CR group is employed for receptor detection and isolation. We have tested this AB&CR strategy using lacosamide ((R)-1), a low-molecular-weight antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate that using a (R)-lacosamide AB&CR agent ((R)-2) 14-3-3 ζ in rodent brain soluble lysates is preferentially adducted, adduction is stereospecific with respect to the AB&CR agent, and adduction depends upon the presence of endogenous levels of the small molecule metabolite xanthine. Substitution of lacosamide AB agent ((R)-5) for (R)-2 led to the identification of the 14-3-3 ζ adduction site (K120) by mass spectrometry. Competition experiments using increasing amounts of (R)-1 in the presence of (R)-2 demonstrated that (R)-1 binds at or near the (R)-2 modification site on 14-3-3 ζ. Structure-activity studies of xanthine derivatives provided information concerning the likely binding interaction between this metabolite and recombinant 14-3-3 ζ. Documentation of the 14-3-3 ζ-xanthine interaction was obtained with isothermal calorimetry using xanthine and the xanthine analogue 1,7-dimethylxanthine.

  12. Paracoccidoides brasiliensis 30 kDa adhesin: identification as a 14-3-3 protein, cloning and subcellular localization in infection models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julhiany de Fatima da Silva

    Full Text Available Paracoccidoides brasiliensis adhesion to lung epithelial cells is considered an essential event for the establishment of infection and different proteins participate in this process. One of these proteins is a 30 kDa adhesin, pI 4.9 that was described as a laminin ligand in previous studies, and it was more highly expressed in more virulent P. brasiliensis isolates. This protein may contribute to the virulence of this important fungal pathogen. Using Edman degradation and mass spectrometry analysis, this 30 kDa adhesin was identified as a 14-3-3 protein. These proteins are a conserved group of small acidic proteins involved in a variety of processes in eukaryotic organisms. However, the exact function of these proteins in some processes remains unknown. Thus, the goal of the present study was to characterize the role of this protein during the interaction between the fungus and its host. To achieve this goal, we cloned, expressed the 14-3-3 protein in a heterologous system and determined its subcellular localization in in vitro and in vivo infection models. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed the ubiquitous distribution of this protein in the yeast form of P. brasiliensis, with some concentration in the cytoplasm. Additionally, this 14-3-3 protein was also present in P. brasiliensis cells at the sites of infection in C57BL/6 mice intratracheally infected with P. brasiliensis yeast cells for 72 h (acute infections and 30 days (chronic infection. An apparent increase in the levels of the 14-3-3 protein in the cell wall of the fungus was also noted during the interaction between P. brasiliensis and A549 cells, suggesting that this protein may be involved in host-parasite interactions, since inhibition assays with the protein and this antibody decreased P. brasiliensis adhesion to A549 epithelial cells. Our data may lead to a better understanding of P. brasiliensis interactions with host tissues and paracoccidioidomycosis pathogenesis.

  13. Accumulation and tolerance to cadmium heavy metal ions and induction of 14-3-3 gene expression in response to cadmium exposure in Coprinus atramentarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chengjian; Hu, Liujie; Yang, Yongzhu; Liao, Dunxiu; Yang, Xingyong

    2017-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd), one of the most toxic heavy-metal pollutants, has a strong and irreversible tendency to accumulate. Bioremediation is a promising technology to remedy and control heavy metal pollutants because of its low cost and ability to recycle heavy metals. Coprinus atramentarius is recognized as being able to accumulate heavy metal ions. In this work, C. atramentarius is cultivated on a solid medium containing Cd2+ ions to analyze its ability to tolerate different concentrations of the heavy metal ion. It is found that the growth of C. atramentarius is not significantly inhibited when the concentration of Cd2+ is less than 0.6mgL-1. The accumulation capacity of C. atramentarius at different Cd2+ concentrations also was determined. The results show that 76% of the Cd2+ present can be accumulated even when the concentration of the Cd2+ is 1mgL-1. The different proteins of C. atramentarius exposed to Cd2+ were further analyzed using gel electrophoresis. A 14-3-3 protein was identified and shown to be significantly up-regulated. In a further study, a full-length 14-3-3 gene was cloned containing a 759bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide consisting of 252 amino acids and 3 introns. The gene expression work also showed that the 14-3-3 was significantly induced, and showed coordinated patterns of expression, with Cd2+ exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening.

  15. Progesterone regulates granulosa cell viability through a protein kinase G-dependent mechanism that may involve 14-3-3sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, J J; Pappalardo, A

    2004-12-01

    Progesterone (P4) inhibits granulosa cell and spontaneously immortalized granulosa cell (SIGC) apoptosis by regulating membrane-initiated events. However, the nature of the signal transduction pathway that is induced by these membrane-initiated events has not been defined. To gain insights into the P4-regulated signal transduction pathway, mouse granulosa cells and SIGCs were cultured with 8-br-cGMP and P4. In culture, 8-br-cGMP mimicked P4's antiapoptotic actions. Because cGMP activates protein kinase G (PKG), the effect of PKG antagonists on P4-regulated SIGC viability was assessed. P4's antiapoptotic action was attenuated by the PKG inhibitors, Rp-8-pCPT-cGMP, KT5823, the PKG-1alpha-specific inhibitor, DT-3, and a dominant negative PKG-1alpha. Further, the type I isoform of PKG was shown to be expressed by SIGCs and activated by P4. P4's antiapoptotic action was not affected by the PKA inhibitor, KT5720. Collectively, these findings indicate that P4 maintains SIGC viability by activating PKG-1alpha. PKG-1alpha-GFP was shown to localize predominantly to the cytoplasm of SIGCs. To identify potential cytoplasmic targets of PKG-1alpha, SIGCs were cultured for 5 h with P4 in the presence or absence of DT-3. Cell lysates were prepared and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. The resulting gels were sequentially stained with ProQ-Diamond Gel Stain and Coomassie Blue to reveal phosphorylated proteins. The two-dimensional gels revealed one major protein, the phosphorylation status of which was abrogated by DT-3. Mass spectrometric analysis identified this protein as 14-3-3sigma, with 14-3-3sigma being phosphorylated on tyrosine 19, serine 28, serine 69, serine 74, threonine 90, threonine 98, and serine 116. Finally, difopein, a specific 14-3-3 inhibitor, was shown to induce apoptosis even in the presence of serum. These data suggest that 1) P4 regulates the phosphorylation status of 14-3-3sigma through a PKG-dependent pathway and 2) 14-3-3sigma plays a central

  16. Expression of OsSPY and 14-3-3 genes involved in plant height variations of ion-beam-induced KDML 105 rice mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phanchaisri, Boonrak [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Samsang, Nuananong [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, Liang Deng; Singkarat, Somsorn [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, Somboon, E-mail: soanu.1@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2012-06-01

    The culm length of two semidwarf rice mutants (PKOS1, HyKOS1) obtained from low-energy N-ion beam bombardments of dehusked Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) seeds showed 25.7% and 21.5% height reductions and one spindly rice mutant (TKOS4) showed 21.4% increase in comparison with that of the KDML 105 control. A cDNA-RAPD analysis identified differential gene expression in internode tissues of the rice mutants. Two genes identified from the cDNA-RAPD were OsSPY and 14-3-3, possibly associated with stem height variations of the semidwarf and spindly mutants, respectively. The OsSPY gene encoded the SPY protein which is considered to be a negative regulator of gibberellin (GA). On the other hand, the 14-3-3 encoded a signaling protein which can bind and prevent the RSG (repression of shoot growth) protein function as a transcriptional repressor of the kaurene oxidase (KO) gene in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Expression analysis of OsSPY, 14-3-3, RSG, KO, and SLR1 was confirmed in rice internode tissues during the reproductive stage of the plants by semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique. The expression analysis showed a clear increase of the levels of OsSPY transcripts in PKOS1 and HyKOS1 tissue samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and TKOS4 samples at the age of 50-60 days which were at the ages of internode elongation. The 14-3-3 expression had the highest increase in the TKOS4 samples compared to those in KDML 105, PKOS1 and HyKOS1 samples. The expression analysis of RSG and KO showed an increase in TKOS4 samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and that of the two semidwarf mutants. These results indicate that changes of OsSPY and 14-3-3 expression could affect internode elongation and cause the phenotypic changes of semidwarf and spindly rice mutants, respectively.

  17. The dynamic genome of Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jarrod A; Kirkness, Ewen F; Simakov, Oleg; Hampson, Steven E; Mitros, Therese; Weinmaier, Thomas; Rattei, Thomas; Balasubramanian, Prakash G; Borman, Jon; Busam, Dana; Disbennett, Kathryn; Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Sumin, Nadezhda; Sutton, Granger G; Viswanathan, Lakshmi Devi; Walenz, Brian; Goodstein, David M; Hellsten, Uffe; Kawashima, Takeshi; Prochnik, Simon E; Putnam, Nicholas H; Shu, Shengquiang; Blumberg, Bruce; Dana, Catherine E; Gee, Lydia; Kibler, Dennis F; Law, Lee; Lindgens, Dirk; Martinez, Daniel E; Peng, Jisong; Wigge, Philip A; Bertulat, Bianca; Guder, Corina; Nakamura, Yukio; Ozbek, Suat; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Khalturin, Konstantin; Hemmrich, Georg; Franke, André; Augustin, René; Fraune, Sebastian; Hayakawa, Eisuke; Hayakawa, Shiho; Hirose, Mamiko; Hwang, Jung Shan; Ikeo, Kazuho; Nishimiya-Fujisawa, Chiemi; Ogura, Atshushi; Takahashi, Toshio; Steinmetz, Patrick R H; Zhang, Xiaoming; Aufschnaiter, Roland; Eder, Marie-Kristin; Gorny, Anne-Kathrin; Salvenmoser, Willi; Heimberg, Alysha M; Wheeler, Benjamin M; Peterson, Kevin J; Böttger, Angelika; Tischler, Patrick; Wolf, Alexander; Gojobori, Takashi; Remington, Karin A; Strausberg, Robert L; Venter, J Craig; Technau, Ulrich; Hobmayer, Bert; Bosch, Thomas C G; Holstein, Thomas W; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Bode, Hans R; David, Charles N; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Steele, Robert E

    2010-03-25

    The freshwater cnidarian Hydra was first described in 1702 and has been the object of study for 300 years. Experimental studies of Hydra between 1736 and 1744 culminated in the discovery of asexual reproduction of an animal by budding, the first description of regeneration in an animal, and successful transplantation of tissue between animals. Today, Hydra is an important model for studies of axial patterning, stem cell biology and regeneration. Here we report the genome of Hydra magnipapillata and compare it to the genomes of the anthozoan Nematostella vectensis and other animals. The Hydra genome has been shaped by bursts of transposable element expansion, horizontal gene transfer, trans-splicing, and simplification of gene structure and gene content that parallel simplification of the Hydra life cycle. We also report the sequence of the genome of a novel bacterium stably associated with H. magnipapillata. Comparisons of the Hydra genome to the genomes of other animals shed light on the evolution of epithelia, contractile tissues, developmentally regulated transcription factors, the Spemann-Mangold organizer, pluripotency genes and the neuromuscular junction.

  18. Role of 14-3-3ζ in Platelet Glycoprotein Ibα-von Willebrand Factor Interaction-Induced Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesheng Dai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of platelet glycoprotein (GP Ib-IX with von Willebrand factor (VWF exposed at the injured vessel wall or atherosclerotic plaque rupture initiates platelet transient adhesion to the injured vessel wall, which triggers intracellular signaling cascades leading to platelet activation and thrombus formation. 14-3-3ζ has been verified to regulate the VWF binding function of GPIb-IX by interacting with the cytoplasmic domains of GPIb-IX. However, the data regarding the role of 14-3-3ζ in GPIb-IX-VWF interaction-induced signaling still remain controversial. In the present study, the data indicate that the S609A mutation replacing Ser609 of GPIbα with alanine (S609A significantly prevented the association of 14-3-3ζ with GPIbα before and after the VWF binding to GPIbα. GPIb-IX-VWF interaction-induced activations of Src family kinases and protein kinase C were clearly reduced in S609A mutation. Furthermore, S609A mutation significantly inhibited GPIb-IX-VWF interaction-induced elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels in flow cytometry analysis. Taken together, these data indicate that the association of 14-3-3ζ with the cytoplasmic domain of GPIbα plays an important role in GPIb-IX-VWF interaction-induced signaling.

  19. 14-3-3 proteins function in the initiation and elongation steps of DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaoui, Wafaa; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2009-12-15

    14-3-3s are highly conserved abundant eukaryotic proteins essential for viability, at least in lower eukaryotes. We previously showed that they associate with mammalian and yeast replication origins in a cell-cycle-dependent manner, and are involved in the initiation of DNA replication. Here, we present evidence that 14-3-3 proteins are novel regulators of the initiation and elongation steps of DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results show that the Bmh2 protein, one of the two 14-3-3 homologues in S. cerevisiae, interacts with Mcm2 and Orc2 proteins, binds to ARS1 maximally at the G1 phase, is essential for plasmid stability, and is required for normal S-phase entry and progression. Furthermore, during G1 phase, the Bmh2 protein is required for the association of MCM proteins with chromatin and their maintenance at replication origins. The results reveal that 14-3-3 proteins function as essential factors for the assembly and maintenance of the pre-replication complex during G1 phase.

  20. [Effect of acupuncture intervention on 14-3-3 expression in cerebral cortex of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-er; Yuan, Qing; Tang, Chun-zhi; Chen, Fei; Zhao, Rong; Liu, Long-lin; Yu, Yu-tian; Cao, Yong; Wu, Jia-li; Sun, Shuo

    2014-12-01

    To observe the effect of acupuncture therapy on 14-3-3, Bcl-2 and Bax expression levels in the cerebral cortex in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage(HIBD). Timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rat dams were delivered either vaginally (normal group), or by C-section (sham-operation group) or by C-section with 5 min of global anoxia (anoxia group), with 8 rats in each group. The rat pups of the anoxia group were randomly divided into model group and acupuncture group (n =8). Acupuncture stimulation of "Naosanzhen" "Niesanzhen" and "Zhisanzhen" acupoints was given begin- ning from the 14th day after birth, once daily for 7 consecutive days. All rat pups were killed by decapitation on day 21 after birth, and then 14-3-3, Bcl-2 and Bax immunoactivity (expression) in the cerebral cortex were detected by immunohistochemistry. In comparison with the normal group, the expression level of cerebral cortical 14-3-3 was significantly decreased, and that of Bax remarkably increased in the model group (Poperation group (P0. 05). Acupuncture intervention can increase the expression of 14-3-3 and Bcl-2 in the cerebral cortex in HIBD rats.

  1. Deep sequencing reveals unique small RNA repertoire that is regulated during head regeneration in Hydra magnipapillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Srikar; Nair, Aparna; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Poduval, Deepak; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi; Ghanekar, Yashoda

    2013-01-07

    Small non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs, piRNAs and endo-siRNAs fine-tune gene expression through post-transcriptional regulation, modulating important processes in development, differentiation, homeostasis and regeneration. Using deep sequencing, we have profiled small non-coding RNAs in Hydra magnipapillata and investigated changes in small RNA expression pattern during head regeneration. Our results reveal a unique repertoire of small RNAs in hydra. We have identified 126 miRNA loci; 123 of these miRNAs are unique to hydra. Less than 50% are conserved across two different strains of Hydra vulgaris tested in this study, indicating a highly diverse nature of hydra miRNAs in contrast to bilaterian miRNAs. We also identified siRNAs derived from precursors with perfect stem-loop structure and that arise from inverted repeats. piRNAs were the most abundant small RNAs in hydra, mapping to transposable elements, the annotated transcriptome and unique non-coding regions on the genome. piRNAs that map to transposable elements and the annotated transcriptome display a ping-pong signature. Further, we have identified several miRNAs and piRNAs whose expression is regulated during hydra head regeneration. Our study defines different classes of small RNAs in this cnidarian model system, which may play a role in orchestrating gene expression essential for hydra regeneration.

  2. Adaptation to endosymbiosis in the green Hydra, Hydra viridissima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the growth advantage conferred by algae on green hydra disappears when they are amply fed. From this observation an hypothesis has been advanced that the association may have evolved such that the rate of algal photosynthate translocation is adjusted according to the host's nutritional need. Evidence presented here contradicts this hypothesis. In controlled feeding studies, green hydra grow more rapidly than do aposymbionts at all feeding levels in a way that suggests that the per capita algal contribution to host growth is independent of host feeding rate. The rate of /sup 14/C translocation appears to vary in response to the algae's needs for photosynthate to support their own growth and within a range that suggests that dramatic differences in the algal effect on hydra growth are not likely to be caused by variation in algal carbon translocation. A correspondence in the timing of host and algal mitotic activity has been interpreted to suggest that algal density in hydra is accomplished through closely coordinated host and algal cell division. Similar rates of algal mitosis in growing and in shrinking endosymbiont populations show that some additional mechanism is required. Finally, host digestion of endosymbionts is considered to be rare except in unnatural associations. The absence of algal digestion in the hydra symbiosis has been considered to reflect coevolution between the symbionts, and yet the hydra in this study routinely lost significant numbers of endosymbionts apparently to intracellular digestion.

  3. Polar Hydra Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, J. D.; Hall, Van Allen

    1998-01-01

    The science activities are: 1) Hydra is still operating successfully on orbit. 2) A large amount of analysis and discovery has occurred with the Hydra ground data processing this past year. 3) Full interdetector calibration has been implemented and documented. This intercalibration was necessitated by the incorrect installation of bias resistors in the pre-acceleration stage to the electron channeltrons. This had the effect of making the counting efficiency for electrons energy dependent as well as channeltron specific. The nature of the error had no impact on the ion detection efficiency since they have a different bias arrangement. This intercalibration is so effective, that the electron and ion moment densities are routinely produced with a level of agreement better than 20%. 4) The data processing routinely removes glint in the sensors and produces public energy time spectrograms on the web overnight. 6) Routine, but more intensive computer processing codes are operational that determine for electrons and ions, the density, the flow vector, the pressure tensor and the heat flux by numerical integration. These codes use the magnetic field to sustain the quality of their output. To gain access to this high quality magnetic field within our data stream we have monitored Russell's web page for zero levels and timing files (since his data acquisition is not telemetry synchronous) and have a local reconstruction of B for our use. We have also detected a routine anomaly in the magnetometer data stream that we have documented to Chris Russell and developed an editing algorithm to intercept these "hits" and remove them from the geophysical analysis.

  4. Conservation of the nucleotide excision repair pathway: characterization of hydra Xeroderma Pigmentosum group F homolog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Barve

    Full Text Available Hydra, one of the earliest metazoans with tissue grade organization and nervous system, is an animal with a remarkable regeneration capacity and shows no signs of organismal aging. We have for the first time identified genes of the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway from hydra. Here we report cloning and characterization of hydra homolog of xeroderma pigmentosum group F (XPF gene that encodes a structure-specific 5' endonuclease which is a crucial component of NER. In silico analysis shows that hydra XPF amino acid sequence is very similar to its counterparts from other animals, especially vertebrates, and shows all features essential for its function. By in situ hybridization, we show that hydra XPF is expressed prominently in the multipotent stem cell niche in the central region of the body column. Ectoderm of the diploblastic hydra was shown to express higher levels of XPF as compared to the endoderm by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis also demonstrated that interstitial cells, a multipotent and rapidly cycling stem cell lineage of hydra, express higher levels of XPF mRNA than other cell types. Our data show that XPF and by extension, the NER pathway is highly conserved during evolution. The prominent expression of an NER gene in interstitial cells may have implications for the lack of senescence in hydra.

  5. Conservation of the nucleotide excision repair pathway: characterization of hydra Xeroderma Pigmentosum group F homolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barve, Apurva; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    Hydra, one of the earliest metazoans with tissue grade organization and nervous system, is an animal with a remarkable regeneration capacity and shows no signs of organismal aging. We have for the first time identified genes of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway from hydra. Here we report cloning and characterization of hydra homolog of xeroderma pigmentosum group F (XPF) gene that encodes a structure-specific 5' endonuclease which is a crucial component of NER. In silico analysis shows that hydra XPF amino acid sequence is very similar to its counterparts from other animals, especially vertebrates, and shows all features essential for its function. By in situ hybridization, we show that hydra XPF is expressed prominently in the multipotent stem cell niche in the central region of the body column. Ectoderm of the diploblastic hydra was shown to express higher levels of XPF as compared to the endoderm by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis also demonstrated that interstitial cells, a multipotent and rapidly cycling stem cell lineage of hydra, express higher levels of XPF mRNA than other cell types. Our data show that XPF and by extension, the NER pathway is highly conserved during evolution. The prominent expression of an NER gene in interstitial cells may have implications for the lack of senescence in hydra.

  6. 14-3-3 binding and phosphorylation of neuroglobin during hypoxia modulate six-to-five heme pocket coordination and rate of nitrite reduction to nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Thottala; Tejero, Jesús; Chen, Bill B; Blood, Arlin B; Frizzell, Sheila; Shapiro, Calli; Tiso, Mauro; Hood, Brian L; Wang, Xunde; Zhao, Xuejun; Conrads, Thomas P; Mallampalli, Rama K; Gladwin, Mark T

    2011-12-09

    Neuroglobin protects neurons from hypoxia in vitro and in vivo; however, the underlying mechanisms for this effect remain poorly understood. Most of the neuroglobin is present in a hexacoordinate state with proximal and distal histidines in the heme pocket directly bound to the heme iron. At equilibrium, the concentration of the five-coordinate neuroglobin remains very low (0.1-5%). Recent studies have shown that post-translational redox regulation of neuroglobin surface thiol disulfide formation increases the open probability of the heme pocket and allows nitrite binding and reaction to form NO. We hypothesized that the equilibrium between the six- and five-coordinate states and secondary reactions with nitrite to form NO could be regulated by other hypoxia-dependent post-translational modification(s). Protein sequence models identified candidate sites for both 14-3-3 binding and phosphorylation. In both in vitro experiments and human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells exposed to hypoxia and glucose deprivation, we observed that 1) neuroglobin phosphorylation and protein-protein interactions with 14-3-3 increase during hypoxic and metabolic stress; 2) neuroglobin binding to 14-3-3 stabilizes and increases the half-life of phosphorylation; and 3) phosphorylation increases the open probability of the heme pocket, which increases ligand binding (CO and nitrite) and accelerates the rate of anaerobic nitrite reduction to form NO. These data reveal a series of hypoxia-dependent post-translational modifications to neuroglobin that regulate the six-to-five heme pocket equilibrium and heme access to ligands. Hypoxia-regulated reactions of nitrite and neuroglobin may contribute to the cellular adaptation to hypoxia.

  7. Molecular basis of the 14-3-3 protein-dependent activation of yeast neutral trehalase Nth1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alblová, Miroslava; Šmídová, Aneta; Dočekal, V.; Veselý, J.; Herman, P.; Obšilová, Veronika; Obšil, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 46 (2017), E9811-E9820 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02739S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00726S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 14-3-3 protein * trehalase * crystal structure * enzyme * allostery Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  8. 14-3-3 interacts with LKB1 via recognizing phosphorylated threonine 336 residue and suppresses LKB1 kinase function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Zhou, Tao; Fu, Haian; Sun, Hanyan; Huang, Bei

    2012-04-24

    Here we report a regulatory mechanism by which LKB1 is controlled by 14-3-3 proteins through phorsphorylation of Thr336. The results from the current study indicate that 14-3-3 ζ inhibits LKB1 from phosphorylating its substrate, AMPK (AMP-dependent protein kinase) and attenuates LKB1-mediated G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by interfering with the interaction between LKB1 and its substrates. This regulation does not change either the LKB1 catalytic activity or subcellular localization of LKB1. Moreover, we demonstrate that serum starvation enhances LKB1 activity and increases the phosphorylation of Thr336. Taken together, our results suggest that autophosphorylation of Thr336 acts as an activating signal for LKB1 to recruit 14-3-3, which in turn attenuates the activation of LKB1 to keep the activity of LKB1 in check. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Sb14-3-3zeta recombinant protein protects against Schistosoma bovis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, N; Siles-Lucas, M; López-Abán, J; Esteban, A; Suarez, L; Martínez-Fernández, A; del Olmo, E; Muro, A

    2007-06-06

    Schistosoma bovis is a trematode parasite mainly affecting cattle and sheep. Evidences about the arise of drug resistance and the high rates of re-infection of animals in endemic areas have pointed out the need of developing new control tools, e.g., effective vaccines. Schistosomes 14-3-3 proteins have been defined as vaccine candidates against respective infections. We have therefore investigated the protective capacity of the 14-3-3 protein from S. bovis - Sb14zeta - against S. bovis in mice. In addition, we have addressed the influence of the co-administration of four different immunomodulators with the 14-3-3 polypeptide. The values of protection against S. bovis were statistically significant when the Sb14zeta was combined in two independent experiments with the AA0029 (61.0% and 40.31%), AA2829 (49% and 36.3%) and PAL (49% and 40.075%) immunomodulatory molecules. Immune responses from vaccinated animals showed that the highest protection rates do not necessarily match with a dominant Th1-type response.

  10. The Silencing of a 14-3-3ɛ Homolog in Tenebrio molitor Leads to Increased Antimicrobial Activity in Hemocyte and Reduces Larval Survivability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Gi Won; Jo, Yong Hun; Seong, Jeong Hwan; Park, Ki Beom; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Tindwa, Hamisi; Kim, Sun-Am; Lee, Yong Seok; Kim, Yu Jung; Han, Yeon Soo

    2016-08-20

    The 14-3-3 family of phosphorylated serine-binding proteins acts as signaling molecules in biological processes such as metabolism, division, differentiation, autophagy, and apoptosis. Herein, we report the requirement of 14-3-3ɛ isoform from Tenebrio molitor (Tm14-3-3ɛ) in the hemocyte antimicrobial activity. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript is 771 nucleotides in length and encodes a polypeptide of 256 amino acid residues. The protein has the typical 14-3-3 domain, the nuclear export signal (NES) sequence, and the peptide binding residues. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript shows a significant three-fold expression in the hemocyte of T. molitor larvae when infected with Escherichia coli Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced larvae show significantly lower survival rates when infected with E. coli. Under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition, a strong antimicrobial activity is elicited in the hemocyte of the host inoculated with E. coli. This suggests impaired secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) into the hemolymph. Furthermore, a reduction in AMP secretion under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition would be responsible for loss in the capacity to kill bacteria and might explain the reduced survivability of the larvae upon E. coli challenge. This shows that Tm14-3-3ɛ is required to maintain innate immunity in T. molitor by enabling antimicrobial secretion into the hemolymph and explains the functional specialization of the isoform.

  11. The Silencing of a 14-3-3ɛ Homolog in Tenebrio molitor Leads to Increased Antimicrobial Activity in Hemocyte and Reduces Larval Survivability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi Won Seo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 14-3-3 family of phosphorylated serine-binding proteins acts as signaling molecules in biological processes such as metabolism, division, differentiation, autophagy, and apoptosis. Herein, we report the requirement of 14-3-3ɛ isoform from Tenebrio molitor (Tm14-3-3ɛ in the hemocyte antimicrobial activity. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript is 771 nucleotides in length and encodes a polypeptide of 256 amino acid residues. The protein has the typical 14-3-3 domain, the nuclear export signal (NES sequence, and the peptide binding residues. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript shows a significant three-fold expression in the hemocyte of T. molitor larvae when infected with Escherichia coli Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced larvae show significantly lower survival rates when infected with E. coli. Under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition, a strong antimicrobial activity is elicited in the hemocyte of the host inoculated with E. coli. This suggests impaired secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMP into the hemolymph. Furthermore, a reduction in AMP secretion under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition would be responsible for loss in the capacity to kill bacteria and might explain the reduced survivability of the larvae upon E. coli challenge. This shows that Tm14-3-3ɛ is required to maintain innate immunity in T. molitor by enabling antimicrobial secretion into the hemolymph and explains the functional specialization of the isoform.

  12. Revisiting the age, evolutionary history and species level diversity of the genus Hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwentner, Martin; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2015-10-01

    The genus Hydra has long served as a model system in comparative immunology, developmental and evolutionary biology. Despite its relevance for fundamental research, Hydra's evolutionary origins and species level diversity are not well understood. Detailed previous studies using molecular techniques identified several clades within Hydra, but how these are related to described species remained largely an open question. In the present study, we compiled all published sequence data for three mitochondrial and nuclear genes (COI, 16S and ITS), complemented these with some new sequence data and delimited main genetic lineages (=hypothetical species) objectively by employing two DNA barcoding approaches. Conclusions on the species status of these main lineages were based on inferences of reproductive isolation. Relevant divergence times within Hydra were estimated based on relaxed molecular clock analyses with four genes (COI, 16S, EF1α and 28S) and four cnidarians fossil calibration points All in all, 28 main lineages could be delimited, many more than anticipated from earlier studies. Because allopatric distributions were common, inferences of reproductive isolation often remained ambiguous but reproductive isolation was rarely refuted. Our results support three major conclusions which are central for Hydra research: (1) species level diversity was underestimated by molecular studies; (2) species affiliations of several crucial 'workhorses' of Hydra evolutionary research were wrong and (3) crown group Hydra originated ∼200mya. Our results demonstrate that the taxonomy of Hydra requires a thorough revision and that evolutionary studies need to take this into account when interspecific comparisons are made. Hydra originated on Pangea. Three of four extant groups evolved ∼70mya ago, possibly on the northern landmass of Laurasia. Consequently, Hydra's cosmopolitan distribution is the result of transcontinental and transoceanic dispersal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  13. Serum 14-3-3η is a novel marker that complements current serological measurements to enhance detection of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymowych, Walter P; Naides, Stanley J; Bykerk, Vivian; Siminovitch, Katherine A; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Boers, Maarten; Landewé, Robert; van der Heijde, Désirée; Tak, Paul-P; Genovese, Mark C; Weinblatt, Michael E; Keystone, Edward C; Zhukov, Olga S; Abolhosn, Rania W; Popov, Joanna M; Britsemmer, Karin; van Kuijk, Arno W; Marotta, Anthony

    2014-11-01

    Serum 14-3-3η is a novel joint-derived proinflammatory mediator implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In our study, we assessed the diagnostic utility of 14-3-3η and its association with standard clinical and serological measures. A quantitative ELISA was used to assess 14-3-3η levels. Early (n=99) and established patients with RA (n=135) were compared to all controls (n=385), including healthy subjects (n=189). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 14-3-3η, and the likelihood ratios (LR) for RA were determined through receiver-operator curve analysis. The incremental value of adding 14-3-3η to anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) in diagnosing early and established RA was assessed. Serum 14-3-3η differentiated established patients with RA from healthy individuals and all controls (p<0.0001). A serum 14-3-3η cutoff of ≥0.19 ng/ml delivered a sensitivity and specificity of 77% and 93%, respectively, with corresponding LR positivity of 10.4. At this cutoff in early RA, 64% of patients with early RA were positive for 14-3-3η, with a corresponding specificity of 93% (LR+ of 8.6), while 59% and 57% were positive for ACPA or RF, respectively. When ACPA, RF, and 14-3-3η positivity were used in combination, 77 of the 99 patients (78%) with early RA were positive for any 1 of the 3 markers. Serum 14-3-3η did not correlate with C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, or Disease Activity Score, but patients who were 14-3-3η-positive had significantly worse disease. Serum 14-3-3η is a novel RA mechanistic marker that is highly specific, associated with worse disease, and complements current markers, enabling a more accurate diagnosis of RA.

  14. Characterizing TW Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Kimberly R.; Deen, Casey P.; Mace, Gregory N.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Oh, Heeyoung; Kim, Hwihyun; Kidder, Benjamin T.; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2018-02-01

    At 60 pc, TW Hydra (TW Hya) is the closest example of a star with a gas-rich protoplanetary disk, though TW Hya may be relatively old (3–15 Myr). As such, TW Hya is especially appealing for testing our understanding of the interplay between stellar and disk evolution. We present a high-resolution near-infrared spectrum of TW Hya obtained with the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) to re-evaluate the stellar parameters of TW Hya. We compare these data to synthetic spectra of magnetic stars produced by MoogStokes, and use sensitive spectral line profiles to probe the effective temperature, surface gravity, and magnetic field. A model with {T}{eff}=3800 K, {log} g=4.2, and B=3.0 kG best fits the near-infrared spectrum of TW Hya. These results correspond to a spectral type of M0.5 and an age of 8 Myr, which is well past the median life of gaseous disks.

  15. Hymyc1 downregulation promotes stem cell proliferation in Hydra vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosone, Alfredo; Marchesano, Valentina; Tino, Angela; Hobmayer, Bert; Tortiglione, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Hydra is a unique model for studying the mechanisms underlying stem cell biology. The activity of the three stem cell lineages structuring its body constantly replenishes mature cells lost due to normal tissue turnover. By a poorly understood mechanism, stem cells are maintained through self-renewal while concomitantly producing differentiated progeny. In vertebrates, one of many genes that participate in regulating stem cell homeostasis is the protooncogene c-myc, which has been recently identified also in Hydra, and found expressed in the interstitial stem cell lineage. In the present paper, by developing a novel strategy of RNA interference-mediated gene silencing (RNAi) based on an enhanced uptake of small interfering RNAi (siRNA), we provide molecular and biological evidence for an unexpected function of the Hydra myc gene (Hymyc1) in the homeostasis of the interstitial stem cell lineage. We found that Hymyc1 inhibition impairs the balance between stem cell self renewal/differentiation, as shown by the accumulation of stem cell intermediate and terminal differentiation products in genetically interfered animals. The identical phenotype induced by the 10058-F4 inhibitor, a disruptor of c-Myc/Max dimerization, demonstrates the specificity of the RNAi approach. We show the kinetic and the reversible feature of Hymyc1 RNAi, together with the effects displayed on regenerating animals. Our results show the involvement of Hymyc1 in the control of interstitial stem cell dynamics, provide new clues to decipher the molecular control of the cell and tissue plasticity in Hydra, and also provide further insights into the complex myc network in higher organisms. The ability of Hydra cells to uptake double stranded RNA and to trigger a RNAi response lays the foundations of a comprehensive analysis of the RNAi response in Hydra allowing us to track back in the evolution and the origin of this process.

  16. Hymyc1 downregulation promotes stem cell proliferation in Hydra vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ambrosone

    Full Text Available Hydra is a unique model for studying the mechanisms underlying stem cell biology. The activity of the three stem cell lineages structuring its body constantly replenishes mature cells lost due to normal tissue turnover. By a poorly understood mechanism, stem cells are maintained through self-renewal while concomitantly producing differentiated progeny. In vertebrates, one of many genes that participate in regulating stem cell homeostasis is the protooncogene c-myc, which has been recently identified also in Hydra, and found expressed in the interstitial stem cell lineage. In the present paper, by developing a novel strategy of RNA interference-mediated gene silencing (RNAi based on an enhanced uptake of small interfering RNAi (siRNA, we provide molecular and biological evidence for an unexpected function of the Hydra myc gene (Hymyc1 in the homeostasis of the interstitial stem cell lineage. We found that Hymyc1 inhibition impairs the balance between stem cell self renewal/differentiation, as shown by the accumulation of stem cell intermediate and terminal differentiation products in genetically interfered animals. The identical phenotype induced by the 10058-F4 inhibitor, a disruptor of c-Myc/Max dimerization, demonstrates the specificity of the RNAi approach. We show the kinetic and the reversible feature of Hymyc1 RNAi, together with the effects displayed on regenerating animals. Our results show the involvement of Hymyc1 in the control of interstitial stem cell dynamics, provide new clues to decipher the molecular control of the cell and tissue plasticity in Hydra, and also provide further insights into the complex myc network in higher organisms. The ability of Hydra cells to uptake double stranded RNA and to trigger a RNAi response lays the foundations of a comprehensive analysis of the RNAi response in Hydra allowing us to track back in the evolution and the origin of this process.

  17. HYDRA: High Speed Simulation Architecture for Precision Spacecraft Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bryan J.; Sohl, Garett A.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes HYDRA, which is architecture to facilitate high-fidelity and real-time simulation of formation flying missions. The contents include: 1) Motivation; 2) Objective; 3) HYDRA-Description and Overview; 4) HYDRA-Hierarchy; 5) Communication in HYDRA; 6) Simulation Specific Concerns in HYDRA; 7) Example application (Formation Acquisition); and 8) Sample Problem Results.

  18. Injury-induced immune responses in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Yvan; Buzgariu, Wanda; Reiter, Silke; Galliot, Brigitte

    2014-08-01

    The impact of injury-induced immune responses on animal regenerative processes is highly variable, positive or negative depending on the context. This likely reflects the complexity of the innate immune system that behaves as a sentinel in the transition from injury to regeneration. Early-branching invertebrates with high regenerative potential as Hydra provide a unique framework to dissect how injury-induced immune responses impact regeneration. A series of early cellular events likely require an efficient immune response after amputation, as antimicrobial defence, epithelial cell stretching for wound closure, migration of interstitial progenitors toward the wound, cell death, phagocytosis of cell debris, or reconstruction of the extracellular matrix. The analysis of the injury-induced transcriptomic modulations of 2636 genes annotated as immune genes in Hydra identified 43 genes showing an immediate/early pulse regulation in all regenerative contexts examined. These regulations point to an enhanced cytoprotection via ROS signaling (Nrf, C/EBP, p62/SQSMT1-l2), TNFR and TLR signaling (TNFR16-like, TRAF2l, TRAF5l, jun, fos-related, SIK2, ATF1/CREB, LRRC28, LRRC40, LRRK2), proteasomal activity (p62/SQSMT1-l1, Ced6/Gulf, NEDD8-conjugating enzyme Ubc12), stress proteins (CRYAB1, CRYAB2, HSP16.2, DnaJB9, HSP90a1), all potentially regulating NF-κB activity. Other genes encoding immune-annotated proteins such as NPYR4, GTPases, Swap70, the antiproliferative BTG1, enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (5-lipoxygenase, ACSF4), secreted clotting factors, secreted peptidases are also pulse regulated upon bisection. By contrast, metalloproteinases and antimicrobial peptide genes largely follow a context-dependent regulation, whereas the protease inhibitor α2macroglobulin gene exhibits a sustained up-regulation. Hence a complex immune response to injury is linked to wound healing and regeneration in Hydra. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  19. Spinach 14-3-3 protein interacts with the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and nitrate reductase in response to excess nitrate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huini; Zhao, Xiuling; Guo, Chuanlong; Chen, Limei; Li, Kunzhi

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the function of 14-3-3 protein in response to excess nitrate stress, a 14-3-3 protein, designated as So14-3-3, was isolated from spinach. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that So14-3-3 belongs to non-ε group of 14-3-3 superfamily. Real time-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that So14-3-3 was induced by excess nitrate stress in spinach roots and leaves. After nitrate treatment, the phosphorylated H(+)-ATPase and nitrate reductase (NR) increased and decreased respectively. Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) suggested that the interaction of So14-3-3 with the phosphorylated H(+)-ATPase enhanced, but reduced with phosphorylated NR in spinach roots after nitrate treatment. Besides, 5 proteins interacted with So14-3-3 were found by Co-IP and LC-MS/MS analysis. So14-3-3 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants showed enhanced tolerance to nitrate treatment at the germination and young seedlings stage. The transgenic plants showed longer root length, lower malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, protein carbonyl contents, relatively higher soluble sugar and protein contents, than the WT plants after nitrate treatment. The phosphorylation levels of H(+)-ATPase in transgenic plants were higher than the WT plants after nitrate treatment, whereas NR were lower. Additionally, in transgenic plants, the interaction of So14-3-3 with phosphorylated H(+)-ATPase and NR increased and decreased more than the WT plants under nitrate stress, leading to higher H(+)-ATPase and NR activities in transgenic plants. These data suggested that So14-3-3 might be involved in nitrate stress response by interacting with H(+)-ATPase and NR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The Hydra drawings: digital imperfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2008-01-01

    Teksten diskuterer den digitale tegnings potenitaler med udgangspunkt i et kunstnerisk udviklingsarbejde gennemført på den græske ø Hydra. Den fokuserer på tegningens historiske betydning som medie for arkitektonisk formgivning og diskuterer muligheden for at gentænke forholdet mellem det åbent...

  1. Do 14-3-3 proteins and plasma membrane H+-AtPases interact in the barley epidermis in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finni, Christine; Andersen, Claus H; Borch, Jonas

    2002-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins form a family of highly conserved proteins with central roles in many eukaryotic signalling networks. In plants, they bind to and activate the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, creating a binding site for the phytotoxin fusicoccin. Barley 14-3-3 transcripts accumulate in the epidermis upon...

  2. Aberrant upregulation of 14-3-3σ and EZH2 expression serves as an inferior prognostic biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the fifth most common malignancy in the world. It is of important significance to find biomarkers for the prognostic monitoring of HCC. The 14-3-3σ and EZH2 proteins are involved in cell cycle regulation and epigenetic silencing. We herein examined the significance of 14-3-3 σ and EZH2 in HCC (n = 167 by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. The correlation between 14-3-3σ and EZH2 expression and patients' clinicopathologic features were examined, as was the correlation between 14-3-3σ and EZH2 expression and the prognosis of HCC patients. We found that 14-3-3σ and EZH2 were highly expressed in HCC (71% and 90%, the expression of EZH2, but not 14-3-3σ, is associated with vascular invasion and tumor differentiation (p<0.01. The coexistence of 14-3-3σ and EZH2 overexpression is associated with a relatively unfavorable prognosis (p<0.01, suggesting that aberrant upregulation of 14-3-3σ and EZH2 expression serves as an inferior prognostic biomarker for HCC.

  3. The crystal structure of Giardia duodenalis 14-3-3 in the apo form: when protein post-translational modifications make the difference.

    KAUST Repository

    Fiorillo, Annarita

    2014-03-21

    The 14-3-3s are a family of dimeric evolutionary conserved pSer/pThr binding proteins that play a key role in multiple biological processes by interacting with a plethora of client proteins. Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated protozoan that affects millions of people worldwide causing an acute and chronic diarrheal disease. The single giardial 14-3-3 isoform (g14-3-3), unique in the 14-3-3 family, needs the constitutive phosphorylation of Thr214 and the polyglycylation of its C-terminus to be fully functional in vivo. Alteration of the phosphorylation and polyglycylation status affects the parasite differentiation into the cyst stage. To further investigate the role of these post-translational modifications, the crystal structure of the g14-3-3 was solved in the unmodified apo form. Oligomers of g14-3-3 were observed due to domain swapping events at the protein C-terminus. The formation of filaments was supported by TEM. Mutational analysis, in combination with native PAGE and chemical cross-linking, proved that polyglycylation prevents oligomerization. In silico phosphorylation and molecular dynamics simulations supported a structural role for the phosphorylation of Thr214 in promoting target binding. Our findings highlight unique structural features of g14-3-3 opening novel perspectives on the evolutionary history of this protein family and envisaging the possibility to develop anti-giardial drugs targeting g14-3-3.

  4. The crystal structure of Giardia duodenalis 14-3-3 in the apo form: when protein post-translational modifications make the difference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarita Fiorillo

    Full Text Available The 14-3-3s are a family of dimeric evolutionary conserved pSer/pThr binding proteins that play a key role in multiple biological processes by interacting with a plethora of client proteins. Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated protozoan that affects millions of people worldwide causing an acute and chronic diarrheal disease. The single giardial 14-3-3 isoform (g14-3-3, unique in the 14-3-3 family, needs the constitutive phosphorylation of Thr214 and the polyglycylation of its C-terminus to be fully functional in vivo. Alteration of the phosphorylation and polyglycylation status affects the parasite differentiation into the cyst stage. To further investigate the role of these post-translational modifications, the crystal structure of the g14-3-3 was solved in the unmodified apo form. Oligomers of g14-3-3 were observed due to domain swapping events at the protein C-terminus. The formation of filaments was supported by TEM. Mutational analysis, in combination with native PAGE and chemical cross-linking, proved that polyglycylation prevents oligomerization. In silico phosphorylation and molecular dynamics simulations supported a structural role for the phosphorylation of Thr214 in promoting target binding. Our findings highlight unique structural features of g14-3-3 opening novel perspectives on the evolutionary history of this protein family and envisaging the possibility to develop anti-giardial drugs targeting g14-3-3.

  5. Rac1 activation driven by 14-3-3ζ dimerization promotes prostate cancer cell-matrix interactions, motility and transendothelial migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Goc

    Full Text Available 14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed dimeric adaptor proteins that have emerged as key mediators of many cell signaling pathways in multiple cell types. Its effects are mainly mediated by binding to selective phosphoserine/threonine proteins. The importance of 14-3-3 proteins in cancer have only started to become apparent and its exact role in cancer progression as well as the mechanisms by which 14-3-3 proteins mediate cancer cell function remain unknown. While protein 14-3-3σ is widely accepted as a tumor suppressor, 14-3-3ζ, β and γ isoforms have been shown to have tumor promoting effects. Despite the importance of 14-3-3 family in mediating various cell processes, the exact role and mechanism of 14-3-3ζ remain unexplored. In the current study, we investigated the role of protein 14-3-3ζ in prostate cancer cell motility and transendothelial migration using biochemical, molecular biology and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing approaches as well as cell based functional assays. Our study indicated that expression with wild-type protein 14-3-3ζ significantly enhanced Rac activity in PC3 cells. In contrast, expression of dimer-resistant mutant of protein 14-3-3ζ (DM-14-3-3 inhibited Rac activity and associated phosphorylation of p21 activated kinase-1 and 2. Expression with wild-type 14-3-3ζ or constitutively active Rac1 enhanced extracellular matrix recognition, lamellipodia formation, cell migration and trans-endothelial migration by PC3 cells. In contrast, expression with DM 14-3-3ζ or DN-Rac1 in PC3 cells significantly inhibited these cell functions. Our results demonstrate for the first time that 14-3-3ζ enhances prostate cancer cell-matrix interactions, motility and transendothelial migration in vitro via activation of Rac1-GTPase and is an important target for therapeutic interventions for prostate cancer.

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection combined with DENA revealed altered expression of p53 and 14-3-3 isoforms in Gulo-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagappan, Arulkumar; Park, Hyeon Soo; Park, Kwang Il; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Yumnam, Silvia; Lee, Ho Jeong; Kim, Mun Ki; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Won Sup; Lee, Wang Jae; Cho, Myung Je; Lee, Woo Kon; Won, Chung Kil; Cho, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Gon Sup

    2013-11-25

    Unlike most other mammals, human bodies do not have the ability to synthesize vitamin C inside of their own bodies. Therefore, humans must obtain vitamin C through daily diet. Gulo(-/-) mice strain is known with deficiency, in which vitamin C intake can be controlled by diet like human, and would be valuable for investigating the molecular mechanism of various diseases. In the present study, we established Gulo(-/-) mice model and investigated the differentially expressed proteins in stomach tissue of Gulo(-)(/-) mice after Helicobacter pylori-infected, and followed by DENA, using immunohistochemistry and proteomic approach. The results of immunohistochemistry analysis of stomach tissue showed that the tumor suppressor, p53 protein, expression was significantly decreased (p<0.05) but not messenger RNA (mRNA) transcriptional level, and 14-3-3 ε, 14-3-3 δ, Ki-67 and cleaved caspase 3 expressions were significantly increased (p<0.05) by H. Pylori infection, and followed by DENA treatment in Gulo(-/-) mice. Moreover, knockdown of 14-3-3 isoforms (14-3-3 ε, 14-3-3 σ, 14-3-3 ζ and 14-3-3 η) were significantly increased sub-G1 phase (characteristics of apoptosis) in AGS cells and, phenotypic changes like cell shrinkage, density and cleaved nuclei were also observed. Proteome analyses showed that 14-3-3 σ, 14-3-3 η, and tropomyosin alpha-1 chain were down-regulated, and Hspd1 protein and HSC70 were up-regulated after H. Pylori-infection, and followed by DENA. The combined results of immunohistochemistry and proteomic analysis suggest that H. pylori altered the p53 and 14-3-3 isoforms expression and DENA further enhanced the H. pylori effect, which might be involved in carcinogenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer on Gulo(-/-) mice. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Arabidopsis protein kinase PKS5 inhibits the plasma membrane H+ -ATPase by preventing interaction with 14-3-3 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Guo, Yan; Cuin, Tracey A.

    2007-01-01

    that an Arabidopsis thaliana Ser/Thr protein kinase, PKS5, is a negative regulator of the plasma membrane proton pump (PM Hþ-ATPase). Loss-of-function pks5 mutant plants are more tolerant of high external pH due to extrusion of protons to the extracellular space. PKS5 phosphorylates the PM Hþ-ATPase AHA2 at a novel...... site, Ser-931, in the C-terminal regulatory domain. Phosphorylation at this site inhibits interaction between the PM Hþ-ATPase and an activating 14-3-3 protein in a yeast expression system. We show that PKS5 interacts with the calcium binding protein SCaBP1 and that high external pH can trigger...... an increase in the concentration of cytosolic-free calcium. These results suggest that PKS5 is part of a calcium-signaling pathway mediating PM Hþ-ATPase regulation....

  8. Evidence-based guideline: diagnostic accuracy of CSF 14-3-3 protein in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: report of the guideline development subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muayqil, Taim; Gronseth, Gary; Camicioli, Richard

    2012-10-02

    To assess the available evidence for the diagnostic accuracy of CSF testing for protein 14-3-3 in patients with suspected sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). The authors performed a systematic review of the available literature from 1995 to January 1, 2011, to identify articles involving patients who were suspected of having sCJD and who had CSF analysis for protein 14-3-3. Studies were rated according to the American Academy of Neurology classification of evidence scheme for diagnostic studies, and recommendations were linked to the strength of the evidence. A pooled estimate of sensitivity and specificity was obtained for all studies rated Class II or higher. The question asked is "Does CSF 14-3-3 protein accurately identify Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in patients with sCJD?" The analysis was conducted on the basis of samples of 1,849 patients with suspected sCJD from 9 Class II studies. Assays for CSF 14-3-3 protein are probably moderately accurate in diagnosing sCJD: sensitivity 92% (95% confidence interval [CI] 89.8-93.6), specificity 80% (95% CI 77.4-83.0), likelihood ratio of 4.7, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.10. For patients who have rapidly progressive dementia and are strongly suspected of having sCJD and for whom diagnosis remains uncertain (pretest probability ∼20%-90%), clinicians should order CSF 14-3-3 assays to reduce the uncertainty of the diagnosis (Level B).

  9. Hydra, the everlasting embryo, confronts aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Daniel E; Bridge, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Existing data imply that the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris does not undergo senescence. In contrast, the related species Hydra oligactis shows increased mortality and physiological deterioration following sexual reproduction. Hydra thus offers the chance to study a striking difference in lifespan in members of the same genus. Adult Hydra possess three well-characterized stem cell populations, one of which gives rise to both somatic cells and gametes. The lack of senescence in Hydra vulgaris raises the question of how these stem cell populations are maintained over long periods of time. Investigation of the roles in Hydra of proteins involved in cellular stress responses in other organisms should provide insight into this issue. Proteins of particular interest include the Hsp70 family proteins and the transcription factor FoxO.

  10. A Comprehensive Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analysis of Hydra Head Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hendrik O; Höger, Stefanie K; Looso, Mario; Lengfeld, Tobias; Kuhn, Anne; Warnken, Uwe; Nishimiya-Fujisawa, Chiemi; Schnölzer, Martina; Krüger, Marcus; Özbek, Suat; Simakov, Oleg; Holstein, Thomas W

    2015-08-01

    The cnidarian freshwater polyp Hydra sp. exhibits an unparalleled regeneration capacity in the animal kingdom. Using an integrative transcriptomic and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture proteomic/phosphoproteomic approach, we studied stem cell-based regeneration in Hydra polyps. As major contributors to head regeneration, we identified diverse signaling pathways adopted for the regeneration response as well as enriched novel genes. Our global analysis reveals two distinct molecular cascades: an early injury response and a subsequent, signaling driven patterning of the regenerating tissue. A key factor of the initial injury response is a general stabilization of proteins and a net upregulation of transcripts, which is followed by a subsequent activation cascade of signaling molecules including Wnts and transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-related factors. We observed moderate overlap between the factors contributing to proteomic and transcriptomic responses suggesting a decoupled regulation between the transcriptional and translational levels. Our data also indicate that interstitial stem cells and their derivatives (e.g., neurons) have no major role in Hydra head regeneration. Remarkably, we found an enrichment of evolutionarily more recent genes in the early regeneration response, whereas conserved genes are more enriched in the late phase. In addition, genes specific to the early injury response were enriched in transposon insertions. Genetic dynamicity and taxon-specific factors might therefore play a hitherto underestimated role in Hydra regeneration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. A Comprehensive Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analysis of Hydra Head Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hendrik O.; Höger, Stefanie K.; Looso, Mario; Lengfeld, Tobias; Kuhn, Anne; Warnken, Uwe; Nishimiya-Fujisawa, Chiemi; Schnölzer, Martina; Krüger, Marcus; Özbek, Suat; Simakov, Oleg; Holstein, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    The cnidarian freshwater polyp Hydra sp. exhibits an unparalleled regeneration capacity in the animal kingdom. Using an integrative transcriptomic and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture proteomic/phosphoproteomic approach, we studied stem cell-based regeneration in Hydra polyps. As major contributors to head regeneration, we identified diverse signaling pathways adopted for the regeneration response as well as enriched novel genes. Our global analysis reveals two distinct molecular cascades: an early injury response and a subsequent, signaling driven patterning of the regenerating tissue. A key factor of the initial injury response is a general stabilization of proteins and a net upregulation of transcripts, which is followed by a subsequent activation cascade of signaling molecules including Wnts and transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-related factors. We observed moderate overlap between the factors contributing to proteomic and transcriptomic responses suggesting a decoupled regulation between the transcriptional and translational levels. Our data also indicate that interstitial stem cells and their derivatives (e.g., neurons) have no major role in Hydra head regeneration. Remarkably, we found an enrichment of evolutionarily more recent genes in the early regeneration response, whereas conserved genes are more enriched in the late phase. In addition, genes specific to the early injury response were enriched in transposon insertions. Genetic dynamicity and taxon-specific factors might therefore play a hitherto underestimated role in Hydra regeneration. PMID:25841488

  12. Nodal signalling determines biradial asymmetry in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Schmidt, Heiko A; Kuhn, Anne; Höger, Stefanie K; Kocagöz, Yigit; Laumann-Lipp, Nico; Ozbek, Suat; Holstein, Thomas W

    2014-11-06

    In bilaterians, three orthogonal body axes define the animal form, with distinct anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and left-right asymmetries. The key signalling factors are Wnt family proteins for the anterior-posterior axis, Bmp family proteins for the dorsal-ventral axis and Nodal for the left-right axis. Cnidarians, the sister group to bilaterians, are characterized by one oral-aboral body axis, which exhibits a distinct biradiality of unknown molecular nature. Here we analysed the biradial growth pattern in the radially symmetrical cnidarian polyp Hydra, and we report evidence of Nodal in a pre-bilaterian clade. We identified a Nodal-related gene (Ndr) in Hydra magnipapillata, and this gene is essential for setting up an axial asymmetry along the main body axis. This asymmetry defines a lateral signalling centre, inducing a new body axis of a budding polyp orthogonal to the mother polyp's axis. Ndr is expressed exclusively in the lateral bud anlage and induces Pitx, which encodes an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that functions downstream of Nodal. Reminiscent of its function in vertebrates, Nodal acts downstream of β-Catenin signalling. Our data support an evolutionary scenario in which a 'core-signalling cassette' consisting of β-Catenin, Nodal and Pitx pre-dated the cnidarian-bilaterian split. We presume that this cassette was co-opted for various modes of axial patterning: for example, for lateral branching in cnidarians and left-right patterning in bilaterians.

  13. Plasma Membrane CRPK1-Mediated Phosphorylation of 14-3-3 Proteins Induces Their Nuclear Import to Fine-Tune CBF Signaling during Cold Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziyan; Jia, Yuxin; Ding, Yanglin; Shi, Yiting; Li, Zhen; Guo, Yan; Gong, Zhizhong; Yang, Shuhua

    2017-04-06

    In plant cells, changes in fluidity of the plasma membrane may serve as the primary sensor of cold stress; however, the precise mechanism and how the cell transduces and fine-tunes cold signals remain elusive. Here we show that the cold-activated plasma membrane protein cold-responsive protein kinase 1 (CRPK1) phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins. The phosphorylated 14-3-3 proteins shuttle from the cytosol to the nucleus, where they interact with and destabilize the key cold-responsive C-repeat-binding factor (CBF) proteins. Consistent with this, the crpk1 and 14-3-3κλ mutants show enhanced freezing tolerance, and transgenic plants overexpressing 14-3-3λ show reduced freezing tolerance. Further study shows that CRPK1 is essential for the nuclear translocation of 14-3-3 proteins and for 14-3-3 function in freezing tolerance. Thus, our study reveals that the CRPK1-14-3-3 module transduces the cold signal from the plasma membrane to the nucleus to modulate CBF stability, which ensures a faithfully adjusted response to cold stress of plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure of a 14-3-3 coordinated hexamer of the plant plasma membrane H+ -ATPase by combining X-ray crystallography and electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmann, Christian; Marco, Sergio; Jaspert, Nina; Marcon, Caroline; Schauer, Nicolas; Weyand, Michael; Vandermeeren, Caroline; Duby, Geoffrey; Boutry, Marc; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Rigaud, Jean-Louis; Oecking, Claudia

    2007-02-09

    Regulatory 14-3-3 proteins activate the plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase by binding to its C-terminal autoinhibitory domain. This interaction requires phosphorylation of a C-terminal, mode III, recognition motif as well as an adjacent span of approximately 50 amino acids. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of 14-3-3 in complex with the entire binding motif, revealing a previously unidentified mode of interaction. A 14-3-3 dimer simultaneously binds two H(+)-ATPase peptides, each of which forms a loop within the typical 14-3-3 binding groove and therefore exits from the center of the dimer. Several H(+)-ATPase mutants support this structure determination. Accordingly, 14-3-3 binding could result in H(+)-ATPase oligomerization. Indeed, by using single-particle electron cryomicroscopy, the 3D reconstruction of the purified H(+)-ATPase/14-3-3 complex demonstrates a hexameric arrangement. Fitting of 14-3-3 and H(+)-ATPase atomic structures into the 3D reconstruction map suggests the spatial arrangement of the holocomplex.

  15. Expression of cell cycle regulators, 14-3-3σ and p53 proteins, and vimentin in canine transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Bonnet, Alejandro; Herráez, Pedro; Aguirre, Maria; Suárez-Bonnet, Elena; Andrada, Marisa; Rodríguez, Francisco; Espinosa de Los Monteros, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The study of the expression of 14-3-3σ, p53, and vimentin proteins in canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) evaluating differences with normal bladder tissues, and the association with clinicopathological variables. We analyze by immunohistochemistry in 19 canine TCCs the expression of 14-3-3σ, p53, and vimentin using monoclonal antibodys. A semiquantitative scoring method was employed and statistical analysis was performed to display relationships between variables. In contrast to normal urinary bladder epithelium, which showed high levels of 14-3-3σ, its expression was decreased in 53% of the studied tumors (P = 0.0344). The 14-3-3σ protein was expressed by neoplastic emboli and by highly infiltrative neoplastic cells. The p53 protein was expressed in 26% of TCCs, but no significant association between 14-3-3σ and p53 was detected. Neoplastic epithelial cells displayed vimentin immunoreactivity in 21% of TCCs, and a positive correlation with mitotic index was observed (P = 0.042). Coexpression of vimentin and 14-3-3σ by highly infiltrative neoplastic cells was also observed. 14-3-3σ is deregulated in canine TCCs and its expression by highly infiltrative tumor cells may be related to the acquisition of aggressive behavior. Furthermore, this article reinforce the role of canine TCC as relevant model of human urothelial carcinoma and we suggest 14-3-3σ as a potential therapeutic target. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of 14-3-3σ in canine TCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The 14-3-3 protein interacts directly with the C-terminal region of the plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, T.; Fuglsang, A.T.; Olsson, A.

    1997-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that 14-3-3 proteins are involved in the regulation of plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. However, it is not known whether the 14-3-3 protein interacts directly or indirectly with the H(+)-ATPase. In this study, detergent-solubilized plasma membrane H(+)-AT...... plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. We propose that the 14-3-3 protein is a natural ligand of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, regulating proton pumping by displacing the C-terminal autoinhibitory domain of the H(+)-ATPase....

  17. 14-3-3 checkpoint regulatory proteins interact specifically with DNA repair protein human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) via a semi-conserved motif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Keijzers, Guido; Rampakakis, E.

    2012-01-01

    are specifically induced by replication inhibition leading to protein ubiquitination and degradation. We demonstrate direct and robust interaction between hEXO1 and six of the seven 14-3-3 isoforms in vitro, suggestive of a novel protein interaction network between DNA repair and cell cycle control. Binding...... experiments reveal weak affinity of the more selective isoform 14-3-3 sigma but both 14-3-3 isoforms eta and sigma significantly stimulate hEXO1 activity, indicating that these regulatory proteins exert a common regulation mode on hEXO1. Results demonstrate that binding involves the phosphorable amino acid S...

  18. Do 14-3-3 proteins and plasma membrane H+-ATPases interact in the barley epidermis in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, C.; Andersen, C.H.; Borch, J.

    2002-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins form a family of highly conserved proteins with central roles in many eukaryotic signalling networks. In plants, they bind to and activate the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, creating a binding site for the phytotoxin fusicoccin. Barley 14-3-3 transcripts accumulate in the epidermis upon......+-ATPase. These effects are seen specifically in the inoculated epidermis and not in the whole leaf. We propose that 14-3-3 proteins are involved in an epidermis-specific response to the powdery mildew fungus, possibly via an activation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase....

  19. Pim kinases phosphorylate multiple sites on Bad and promote 14-3-3 binding and dissociation from Bcl-XL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastie C James

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pim-1, 2 and 3 are a group of enzymes related to the calcium calmodulin family of protein kinases. Over-expression of Pim-1 and Pim-2 in mice promotes the development of lymphomas, and up-regulation of Pim expression has been observed in several human cancers. Results Here we show that the pim kinases are constitutively active when expressed in HEK-293 cells and are able to phosphorylate the Bcl-2 family member Bad on three residues, Ser112, Ser136 and Ser155 in vitro and in cells. In vitro mapping showed that Pim-2 predominantly phosphorylated Ser112, while Pim-1 phosphorylated Ser112, but also Ser136 and Ser155 at a reduced rate compared to Ser112. Pim-3 was found to be the least specific for Ser112, and the most effective at phosphorylating Ser136 and Ser155. Pim-3 was also able to phosphorylate other sites in Bad in vitro, including Ser170, another potential in vivo site. Mutation of Ser136 to alanine prevented the phosphorylation of Ser112 and Ser155 by Pim kinases in HEK-293 cells, suggesting that this site must be phosphorylated first in order to make the other sites accessible. Pim phosphorylation of Bad was also found to promote the 14-3-3 binding of Bad and block its association with Bcl-XL. Conclusion All three Pim kinase family members predominantly phosphorylate Bad on Ser112 and in addition are capable of phosphorylating Bad on multiple sites associated with the inhibition of the pro-apoptotic function of Bad in HEK-293 cells. This would be consistent with the proposed function of Pim kinases in promoting cell proliferation and preventing cell death.

  20. Induction of expression of a 14-3-3 gene in response to copper exposure in the marine alga, Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jennifer R; Morris, Ceri A; Nicolaus, Beate; Harwood, John L; Kille, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The macro-alga Fucus vesiculosus has a broad global and estuarine distribution and exhibits exceptional resistance to toxic metals, the molecular basis of which is poorly understood. To address this issue a cDNA library was constructed from an environmental isolate of F. vesiculosus growing in an area with chronic copper pollution. Characterisation of this library led to the identification of a cDNA encoding a protein known to be synthesised in response to toxicity, a full length 14-3-3 exhibiting a 71% identity to human/mouse epsilon isoform, 70-71% identity to yeast BMH1/2 and 95 and 71% identity to the Ectocarpus siliculosus 14-3-3 isoforms 1 and 2 respectively. Preliminary characterisation of the expression profile of the 14-3-3 indicated concentration- and time-dependent inductions on acute exposure of F. vesiculosus of copper (3-30 μg/l). Higher concentrations of copper (≥150 μg/l) did not elicit significant induction of the 14-3-3 gene compared with the control even though levels of both intracellular copper and the expression of a cytosolic metal chaperone, metallothionein, continued to rise. Analysis of gene expression within environmental isolates demonstrated up-regulation of the 14-3-3 gene associated with the known copper pollution gradient. Here we report for the first time, identification of a gene encoding a putative 14-3-3 protein in a multicellular alga and provide preliminary evidence to link the induction of this 14-3-3 gene to copper exposure in this alga. Interestingly, the threshold exposure profile may be associated with a decrease in the organism's ability to control copper influx so that it perceives copper as a toxic response.

  1. Coexistence of neuropeptides in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1983-01-01

    Using a technique for simultaneous visualisation of two antigens in one section, oxytocin-like immunoreactivity has been found to coexist with bombesin-like immunoreactivity in neurons of the basal disk, gastric region and tentacles of hydra. Neurons with oxytocin-like immunoreactivity in peduncle...... and hypostome, on the other hand, have little or no bombesin-like material. Oxytocin-like immunoreactivity never coexists with FMRFamide-immunoreactivity. The neurons with oxytocin- and FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity, however, are often found to be closely intermingled. The results show that coexistence...

  2. 14-3-3 Binding and Sumoylation Concur to the Down-Modulation of β-catenin Antagonist chibby 1 in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Mancini

    Full Text Available The down-modulation of the β-catenin antagonist Chibby 1 (CBY1 associated with the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML contributes to the aberrant activation of β-catenin, particularly in leukemic stem cells (LSC resistant to tyrosine kinase (TK inhibitors. It is, at least partly, driven by transcriptional events and gene promoter hyper-methylation. Here we demonstrate that it also arises from reduced protein stability upon binding to 14-3-3σ adapter protein. CBY1/14-3-3σ interaction in BCR-ABL1+ cells is mediated by the fusion protein TK and AKT phosphorylation of CBY1 at critical serine 20, and encompasses the 14-3-3σ binding modes I and II involved in the binding with client proteins. Moreover, it is impaired by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK phosphorylation of 14-3-3σ at serine 186, which promotes dissociation of client proteins. The ubiquitin proteasome system UPS participates in reducing stability of CBY1 bound with 14-3-3σ through enhanced SUMOylation. Our results open new routes towards the research on molecular pathways promoting the proliferative advantage of leukemic hematopoiesis over the normal counterpart.

  3. Molecular phylogenetic study in genus Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaida, Hitomi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Tachida, Hidenori; Kobayakawa, Yoshitaka

    2010-11-15

    Among 8000-9000 species of Cnidaria, only several dozens of species of Hydrozoa have been found in the fresh water. Hydra is such a fresh water polyp and has been used as a good material for research in developmental biology, regeneration and pattern formation. Although the genus Hydra has only a few ten species, its distribution is cosmopolitan. The phylogenetic relationship between hydra species is fascinating from the aspect of evolutionary biology and biogeography. However, only a few molecular phylogenetic studies have been reported on hydra. Therefore, we conducted a molecular phylogenetic study of the genus Hydra based on mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide sequences using a hydra collection that has been kept in the National Institute of Genetics (NIG) of Japan. The results support the idea that four species groups comprise the genus Hydra. Within the viridissima group (green hydra) and braueri group, genetic distances between strains were relatively large. In contrast, genetic distances between strains among the vulgaris and oligactis groups were small irrespective of their geographic distribution. The vulgaris group strains were classified at least (as far as our investigated samples) into three sub-groups, vulgaris sub-group, carnea sub-group, and H. sp. (K5 and K6) sub-group. All of the vulgaris sub-group and H. sp. (K5 and K6) sub-group strains were collected in Eurasia. The carnea sub-group strains in NIG collection were all collected in North America. A few newly collected samples in Japan, however, suggested belonging to the carnea sub-group according to the molecular phylogenic analysis. This suggests a trans-Pacific distribution of the carnea sub-group hydra. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. PIWI proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs function in Hydra somatic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Celina E; Reich, Adrian; Liu, Na; Götzfried, Jessica; Zhong, Mei; Uman, Selen; Reenan, Robert A; Wessel, Gary M; Steele, Robert E; Lin, Haifan

    2014-01-07

    PIWI proteins and their bound PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are found in animal germlines and are essential for fertility, but their functions outside of the gonad are not well understood. The cnidarian Hydra is a simple metazoan with well-characterized stem/progenitor cells that provides a unique model for analysis of PIWI function. Here we report that Hydra has two PIWI proteins, Hydra PIWI (Hywi) and Hydra PIWI-like (Hyli), both of which are expressed in all Hydra stem/progenitor cells, but not in terminally differentiated cells. We identified ∼15 million piRNAs associated with Hywi and/or Hyli and found that they exhibit the ping-pong signature of piRNA biogenesis. Hydra PIWI proteins are strictly cytoplasmic and thus likely act as posttranscriptional regulators. To explore this function, we generated a Hydra transcriptome for piRNA mapping. piRNAs map to transposons with a 25- to 35-fold enrichment compared with the abundance of transposon transcripts. By sequencing the small RNAs specific to the interstitial, ectodermal, and endodermal lineages, we found that the targeting of transposons appears to be largely restricted to the interstitial lineage. We also identified putative nontransposon targets of the pathway unique to each lineage. Finally we demonstrate that hywi function is essential in the somatic epithelial lineages. This comprehensive analysis of the PIWI-piRNA pathway in the somatic stem/progenitor cells of a nonbilaterian animal suggests that this pathway originated with broader stem cell functionality.

  5. Chandra Observations of Hydra A

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Brian; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present Chandra X-ray Observations of the Hydra A cluster of galaxies, and we report the discovery of structure in the central 80 kpc of the cluster's X-ray-emitting gas. The most remarkable structures are depressions in the X-ray surface brightness, approx. 25 - 35 kpc diameter, that are coincident with Hydra A's radio lobes. The depressions are nearly devoid of X-ray-emitting gas, and there is no evidence for shock-heated gas surrounding the radio lobes. We suggest the gas within the surface brightness depressions was displaced as the radio lobes expanded subsonically, leaving cavities in the hot atmosphere. The gas temperature declines from 4 keV at 70 kpc to 3 keV in the inner 20 kpc of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and the cooling time of the gas is approx. 600 Myr in the inner 10 kpc. These properties are consistent with the presence of a approx. 34 solar mass/yr cooling flow within a 70 kpc radius. Bright X-ray emission is present in the BCG surrounding a recently-accreted disk of nebular emission and young stars. The star formation rate is commensurate with the cooling rate of the hot gas within the volume of the disk, although the sink for the material that may be cooling at larger radii remains elusive.

  6. UVB-induced nuclear translocation of TC-PTP by AKT/14-3-3σ axis inhibits keratinocyte survival and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mihwa; Morales, Liza D; Baek, Minwoo; Slaga, Thomas J; DiGiovanni, John; Kim, Dae Joon

    2017-10-31

    Understanding protein subcellular localization is important to determining the functional role of specific proteins. T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) contains bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSI and NLSII) in its C-terminus. We previously have demonstrated that the nuclear form of TC-PTP (TC45) is mainly localized to the cytoplasm in keratinocytes and it is translocated to the nucleus following UVB irradiation. Here, we report that TC45 is translocated by an AKT/14-3-3σ-mediated mechanism in response to UVB exposure, resulting in increased apoptosis and decreased keratinocyte proliferation. We demonstrate that UVB irradiation increased phosphorylation of AKT and induced nuclear translocation of 14-3-3σ and TC45. However, inhibition of AKT blocked nuclear translocation of TC45 and 14-3-3σ. Site-directed mutagenesis of 14-3-3σ binding sites within TC45 showed that a substitution at Threonine 179 (TC45/T179A) effectively blocked UVB-induced nuclear translocation of ectopic TC45 due to the disruption of the direct binding between TC45 and 14-3-3σ. Overexpression of TC45/T179A in keratinocytes resulted in a decrease of UVB-induced apoptosis which corresponded to an increase in nuclear phosphorylated STAT3, and cell proliferation was higher in TC45/T179A-overexpressing keratinocytes compared to control keratinocytes following UVB irradiation. Furthermore, deletion of TC45 NLSII blocked its UVB-induced nuclear translocation, indicating that both T179 and NLSII are required. Taken together, our findings suggest that AKT and 14-3-3σ cooperatively regulate TC45 nuclear translocation in a critical step of an early protective mechanism against UVB exposure that signals the deactivation of STAT3 in order to promote keratinocyte cell death and inhibit keratinocyte proliferation.

  7. Extract from mistletoe, Viscum album L., reduces Hsp27 and 14-3-3 protein expression and induces apoptosis in C6 rat glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, E Ö; Arda, N; Aitken, A

    2012-08-24

    Extracts of mistletoe (Viscum album) are intensively used in complementary medicine, but their mechanisms are not fully understood in most cases, and the effects on metabolism have not been investigated in detail. However, some biologically active natural products are well known to provoke unexpected cellular responses. They reduce overexpression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in cancer cells. The aim of the current study was to determine whether methanolic extract of V. album, which possesses antioxidant activity, has an effect on expression levels of Hsp27 and 14-3-3 proteins in a C6 glioma cell line. For the first time, the apoptosis-inducing effect of this extract was also determined via caspase-3 activation in the cells. Overexpression of Hsps was induced by heat shock at 42°C for 1 h. Expression levels of Hsp27 and 14-3-3 proteins were determined using Western blot analysis. The apoptosis-inducing effect was also evaluated via caspase-3 activation in C6 glioma cells. Pretreatment of the cells with a nontoxic dose (100 μg/mL) of V. album extract before heat shock significantly reduced expression levels of Hsp27 (73%) and 14-3-3β (124%), 14-3-3γ (23%), and 14-3-3ζ (84%) proteins. Pretreatment with the extract before heat shock increased apoptosis via caspase-3 activation (60%) in C6 glioma cells. This result suggested that the methanolic extract of V. album downregulates expression of Hsp27 and 14-3-3 chaperone proteins and induces apoptosis, which warrants further exploration as a potential bioactive compound for cancer therapy.

  8. Evidence against a role for the JIL-1 kinase in H3S28 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 recruitment to active genes in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    Full Text Available JIL-1 is the major kinase controlling phosphorylation of histone H3S10 and has been demonstrated to function to counteract heterochromatization and gene silencing. However, an alternative model has been proposed in which JIL-1 is required for transcription to occur, additionally phosphorylates H3S28, and recruits 14-3-3 to active genes. Since these findings are incompatible with our previous demonstration that there are robust levels of transcription in the complete absence of JIL-1 and that JIL-1 is not present at developmental or heat shock-induced polytene chromosome puffs, we have reexamined JIL-1's possible role in H3S28 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 recruitment. Using two different H3S28ph antibodies we show by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting that in Drosophila the H3S28ph mark is not present at detectable levels above background on polytene chromosomes at interphase but only on chromosomes at pro-, meta-, and anaphase during cell division in S2 cells and third instar larval neuroblasts. Moreover, this mitotic H3S28ph signal is also present in a JIL-1 null mutant background at undiminished levels suggesting that JIL-1 is not the mitotic H3S28ph kinase. We also demonstrate that H3S28ph is not enriched at heat shock puffs. Using two different pan-specific 14-3-3 antibodies as well as an enhancer trap 14-3-3ε-GFP line we show that 14-3-3, while present in salivary gland nuclei, does not localize to chromosomes but only to the nuclear matrix surrounding the chromosomes. In our hands 14-3-3 is not recruited to developmental or heat shock puffs. Furthermore, using a lacO repeat tethering system to target LacI-JIL-1 to ectopic sites on polytene chromosomes we show that only H3S10ph is present and upregulated at such sites, not H3S28ph or 14-3-3. Thus, our results argue strongly against a model where JIL-1 is required for H3S28 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 recruitment at active genes.

  9. Extraocular spectral photosensitivity in the tentacles of Hydra vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, S; Kass-Simon, G

    2015-06-01

    Previous electrophysiological studies on the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris have shown that hydra have a highly developed and specific photoresponse despite their lack of any structure recognizable as a traditional photoreceptor. In an effort to identify the site of hydra's photoreceptors, we recorded extracellularly from single excised tentacles and from ablated hypostomes lacking tentacles in absolute darkness and during exposure to light of various wavelengths. During recording, after an initial period of absolute darkness, tentacles or hypostomes were exposed to light from 450nm to 600nm, red, and white light. Exposure to light caused a change in the pattern and frequency of impulses in the tentacles that varied with color. The number of large tentacle pulses (TPs) increased at 550 and 600nm relative to darkness, whereas the number of small tentacle pulses (STPs) tended to decrease in 500nm light. Impulse frequency was significantly different among the different wavelengths. In addition to bursts of tentacle contraction pulses, long trains of pulses were observed. A change in lighting caused a switch from bursting to trains or vice versa. In contrast to excised tentacles, no change in electrical activity was seen in ablated hypostomes at any of the wavelengths relative to each other or relative to darkness. These results indicate that isolated tentacles can distinguish among and respond to various colors across the visible spectrum and suggest that electromagnetic information is transmitted from the tentacles to the hypostome where it may be integrated by the hypostomal nervous system, ultimately contributing to hydra's photoreceptive behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolutionary Analysis of Minor Histocompatibility Genes In Hydra

    KAUST Repository

    Aalismail, Nojood

    2016-05-01

    Hydra is a simple freshwater solitary polyp used as a model system to study evolutionary aspects. The immune response of this organism has not been studied extensively and the immune response genes have not been identified and characterized. On the other hand, immune response has been investigated and genetic analysis has been initiated in other lower invertebrates. In the present study we took initiative to study the self/nonself recognition in hydra and its relation to the immune response. Moreover, performing phylogenetic analysis to look for annotated immune genes in hydra gave us a potential to analyze the expression of minor histocompatibility genes that have been shown to play a major role in grafting and transplantation in mammals. Here we obtained the cDNA library that shows expression of minor histocompatibility genes and confirmed that the annotated sequences in databases are actually present. In addition, grafting experiments suggested, although still preliminary, that homograft showed less rejection response than in heterograft. Involvement of possible minor histocompatibility gene orthologous in immune response was examined by qPCR.

  11. The comprehensive analysis of DEG/ENaC subunits in Hydra reveals a large variety of peptide-gated channels, potentially involved in neuromuscular transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Marc; Kuhn, Anne; Dürrnagel, Stefan; Holstein, Thomas W; Gründer, Stefan

    2014-10-14

    It is generally the case that fast transmission at neural synapses is mediated by small molecule neurotransmitters. The simple nervous system of the cnidarian Hydra, however, contains a large repertoire of neuropeptides and it has been suggested that neuropeptides are the principal transmitters of Hydra. An ion channel directly gated by Hydra-RFamide neuropeptides has indeed been identified in Hydra - the Hydra Na+ channel (HyNaC) 2/3/5, which is expressed at the oral side of the tentacle base. Hydra-RFamides are more widely expressed, however, being found in neurons of the head and peduncle region. Here, we explore whether further peptide-gated HyNaCs exist, where in the animal they are expressed, and whether they are all gated by Hydra-RFamides. We report molecular cloning of seven new HyNaC subunits - HyNaC6 to HyNaC12, all of which are members of the DEG/ENaC gene family. In Xenopus oocytes, these subunits assemble together with the four already known subunits into thirteen different ion channels that are directly gated by Hydra-RFamide neuropeptides with high affinity (up to 40 nM). In situ hybridization suggests that HyNaCs are expressed in epitheliomuscular cells at the oral and the aboral side of the tentacle base and at the peduncle. Moreover, diminazene, an inhibitor of HyNaCs, delayed tentacle movement in live Hydra. Our results show that Hydra has a large variety of peptide-gated ion channels that are activated by a restricted number of related neuropeptides. The existence and expression pattern of these channels, and behavioral effects induced by channel blockers, suggests that Hydra co-opted neuropeptides for fast neuromuscular transmission.

  12. + 6 TEKSTER. KARTOGRAFI HYDRA 2013 #3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2013-01-01

    +6 TEKSTER #3 indeholder en række indlæg, der er relateret til 14 NYE LANDSKABER/HYDRA 9, 2012 #1. Arbejdet med topologien og kartografien omkring tre urbane udsnit i Berlin, Paris og Tokyo har ført til en række udgivelser i GRID og følges op her med en række betragtninger, der perspektiverer denne...... at frembringe de baner, vi må tænke videre i. Denne serie af publikationer rummer også 10 NYE LANDSKABER/HYDRA 10 #2, 2013 og planlægges at blive fulgt op med et HYDRA 11 #4 i 2014. HYDRA refererer til en ø i Grækenland, der siden 2004 har dannet rammen om en sommerskole, der er optaget af KARTOGRAFI, MORFOLOGI...

  13. Neuropeptides and epitheliopeptides: structural and functional diversity in an ancestral metazoan Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshio

    2013-06-01

    Peptides are known to play important developmental and physiological roles in signaling. The rich diversity of peptides, with functions as diverse as intercellular communication, neurotransmission and signaling that spatially and temporally controls axis formation and cell differentiation, hints at the wealth of information passed between interacting cells. Little is known about peptides that control developmental processes such as cell differentiation and pattern formation in metazoans. The cnidarian Hydra is one of the most basic metazoans and is a key model system for study of the peptides involved in these processes. We developed a novel peptidomic approach for the isolation and identification of functional peptide signaling molecules from Hydra (the Hydra Peptide Project). Over the course of this project, a wide variety of novel neuropeptides were identified. Most of these peptides act directly on muscle cells and their functions include induction of contraction and relaxation. Some peptides are involved in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. Moreover, epitheliopeptides that are produced by epithelial cells were originally identified in Hydra. Some of these epitheliopeptides exhibit morphogen-like activities, whereas others are involved in regulating neuron differentiation, possibly through neuron-epithelial cell interactions. We also describe below our high-throughput reverse-phase nano-flow LCMALDI- TOF-MS/MS approach, which has proved a powerful tool for the discovery of novel peptide signaling molecules in Hydra.

  14. Hydra, a model system for environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Brian; Gagné, François; Blaise, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Hydra have been extensively used for studying the teratogenic and toxic potential of numerous toxins throughout the years and are more recently growing in popularity to assess the impacts of environmental pollutants. Hydra are an appropriate bioindicator species for use in environmental assessment owing to their easily measurable physical (morphology), biochemical (xenobiotic biotransformation; oxidative stress), behavioural (feeding) and reproductive (sexual and asexual) endpoints. Hydra also possess an unparalleled ability to regenerate, allowing the assessment of teratogenic compounds and the impact of contaminants on stem cells. Importantly, Hydra are ubiquitous throughout freshwater environments and relatively easy to culture making them appropriate for use in small scale bioassay systems. Hydra have been used to assess the environmental impacts of numerous environmental pollutants including metals, organic toxicants (including pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds), nanomaterials and industrial and municipal effluents. They have been found to be among the most sensitive animals tested for metals and certain effluents, comparing favourably with more standardised toxicity tests. Despite their lack of use in formalised monitoring programmes, Hydra have been extensively used and are regarded as a model organism in aquatic toxicology.

  15. Ser9-phosphorylated GSK3β induced by 14-3-3ζ actively antagonizes cell apoptosis in a NF-κB dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuejuan; He, Yujiao; Gao, Ling-Mei; Feng, Junxia; Xie, Yingying; Liu, Xiaohui; Liu, Langxia

    2014-10-01

    The activity of glycogen synthase kinase beta (GSK3β) is mainly regulated by its Ser9 phosphorylation. It has been believed for a long time that Ser9 phosphorylation regulates the functions of GSK3β through inhibition of its kinase activity. In this study, we have confirmed the interaction of Ser9-phosphorylated GSK3β with 14-3-3ζ by using GST pull-down assays. We show that 14-3-3ζ enhances Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK3β by PKC. Surprisingly, using a NF-κB luciferase reporter system, we find that Ser9-phosphorylation of GSK3β promoted by 14-3-3ζ is critical for the activation of NF-κB pathway, which may thwart the pro-apoptotic activity of GSK3β. Inhibition of either NF-κB or GSK3β significantly abolishes the anti-apoptotic effect of 14-3-3ζ and Ser9-phosphorylated GSK3β, suggesting that Ser9-phosphorylated GSK3β actively antagonizes cell apoptosis in a NF-κB dependent manner.

  16. Genetic disruption of AMPK signaling abolishes both contraction- and insulin-stimulated TBC1D1 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehmøller, Christian; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Birk, Jesper Bratz

    2009-01-01

    ) phosphorylation or 14-3-3 binding to TBC1D1. However, insulin increased Thr(596) phosphorylation, and intriguingly this response was fully abolished in the AMPK KD mice. Thus, TBC1D1 is differentially regulated in response to insulin and contraction. This study provides genetic evidence to support an important...

  17. Observation of interaction between bid and 14-3-3 proteins by FRET in living cell during TNF-a-induced apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjun; Chen, Tongsheng; Xing, Da; Wang, Fang

    2005-01-01

    Caspase8 is activated and cleaves Bid into two fragments when cells are exposed to death-inducing molecules such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Then the C-terminal fragment relocates from cytosol to mitochondria and promotes the release of cytochrome c, in the final cellular apoptosis is induced. Despite recent progress in the study of Bid during apoptosis induction, it remains unclear how C-terminal fragment of Bid cleaved moves to mitochondria and then induces the release of cytochrome c and so on. The 14-3-3 proteins are known to sequester certain pro-apoptotic members of Bcl-2 family. In order to further study the biological action of Bid during apoptosis, especially under physiological condition of living cell, the plasmids pBid-CFP and pYFP-14-3-3 were constructed. By the transient transfection of pBid-CFP and pYFP-14-3-3, the dynamic process of interaction of Bid and 14-3-3 protein in individual living cell during the apoptosis was primarily investigated with FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer) technique by the use of fluorescence microscopy.

  18. Cytokine-induced macropinocytosis in macrophages is regulated by 14-3-3ζ through its interaction with serine-phosphorylated coronin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BoseDasgupta, Somdeb; Moes, Suzette; Jenoe, Paul; Pieters, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The induction of macropinocytosis in macrophages during an inflammatory response is important for clearance of pathogenic microbes as well as the generation of appropriate immune responses. Recent data suggest that cytokine stimulation of macrophages induces macropinocytosis through phosphorylation of the protein coronin 1, thereby redistributing coronin 1 from the cell cortex to the cytoplasm followed by the activation of phosphoinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase. However, how coronin 1 phosphorylation regulates these processes remains unclear. We here define an essential role for 14-3-3ζ in cytokine-induced and coronin-1-dependent macropinocytosis in macrophages. We found that, upon stimulation, phosphorylated coronin 1 transiently associated with 14-3-3ζ and receptor of activated C kinase 1 (RACK1). Importantly, downregulation of 14-3-3ζ, but not RACK1, prevented relocation of coronin 1, as well as the induction of PI-3 kinase activity and thereby macropinocytosis upon cytokine stimulation. Together these data define an essential role for 14-3-3ζ in the regulation of macropinocytosis in macrophages upon cytokine stimulation through modulation of the localization of coronin 1. © 2015 FEBS.

  19. Isolation of four novel neuropeptides, the hydra-RFamides I-IV, from Hydra magnipapillata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moosler, A; Rinehart, K L; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1996-01-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay for the sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide), we have isolated four novel peptides from extracts of Hydra magnipapillata:......Using a radioimmunoassay for the sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide), we have isolated four novel peptides from extracts of Hydra magnipapillata:...

  20. Rapid antidepressants stimulate the decoupling of GABAB receptors from GIRK/Kir3 channels through increased protein stability of 14-3-3η

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, E R; Haddick, P C G; Bush, K; Dilly, G A; Niere, F; Zemelman, B V; Raab-Graham, K F

    2015-01-01

    A single injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists produces a rapid antidepressant response. Lasting changes in the synapse structure and composition underlie the effectiveness of these drugs. We recently discovered that rapid antidepressants cause a shift in the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABABR) signaling pathway, such that GABABR activation shifts from opening inwardly rectifiying potassium channels (Kir/GIRK) to increasing resting dendritic calcium signal and mammalian Target of Rapamycin activity. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that initiate this shift. Herein, we show that GABABR signaling to Kir3 (GIRK) channels decreases with NMDAR blockade. Blocking NMDAR signaling stabilizes the adaptor protein 14-3-3η, which decouples GABABR signaling from Kir3 and is required for the rapid antidepressant efficacy. Consistent with these results, we find that key proteins involved in GABABR signaling bidirectionally change in a depression model and with rapid antidepressants. In socially defeated rodents, a model for depression, GABABR and 14-3-3η levels decrease in the hippocampus. The NMDAR antagonists AP5 and Ro-25-6981, acting as rapid antidepressants, increase GABABR and 14-3-3η expression and decrease Kir3.2. Taken together, these data suggest that the shift in GABABR function requires a loss of GABABR-Kir3 channel activity mediated by 14-3-3η. Our findings support a central role for 14-3-3η in the efficacy of rapid antidepressants and define a critical molecular mechanism for activity-dependent alterations in GABABR signaling. PMID:25560757

  1. Rapid antidepressants stimulate the decoupling of GABA(B) receptors from GIRK/Kir3 channels through increased protein stability of 14-3-3η.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, E R; Haddick, P C G; Bush, K; Dilly, G A; Niere, F; Zemelman, B V; Raab-Graham, K F

    2015-03-01

    A single injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists produces a rapid antidepressant response. Lasting changes in the synapse structure and composition underlie the effectiveness of these drugs. We recently discovered that rapid antidepressants cause a shift in the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABABR) signaling pathway, such that GABABR activation shifts from opening inwardly rectifiying potassium channels (Kir/GIRK) to increasing resting dendritic calcium signal and mammalian Target of Rapamycin activity. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that initiate this shift. Herein, we show that GABABR signaling to Kir3 (GIRK) channels decreases with NMDAR blockade. Blocking NMDAR signaling stabilizes the adaptor protein 14-3-3η, which decouples GABABR signaling from Kir3 and is required for the rapid antidepressant efficacy. Consistent with these results, we find that key proteins involved in GABABR signaling bidirectionally change in a depression model and with rapid antidepressants. In socially defeated rodents, a model for depression, GABABR and 14-3-3η levels decrease in the hippocampus. The NMDAR antagonists AP5 and Ro-25-6981, acting as rapid antidepressants, increase GABABR and 14-3-3η expression and decrease Kir3.2. Taken together, these data suggest that the shift in GABABR function requires a loss of GABABR-Kir3 channel activity mediated by 14-3-3η. Our findings support a central role for 14-3-3η in the efficacy of rapid antidepressants and define a critical molecular mechanism for activity-dependent alterations in GABABR signaling.

  2. Thrombospondin Type-1 Repeat Domain-Containing Proteins Are Strongly Expressed in the Head Region of Hydra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Hamaguchi-Hamada

    Full Text Available The head region of Hydra, the hypostome, is a key body part for developmental control and the nervous system. We herein examined genes specifically expressed in the head region of Hydra oligactis using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cloning. A total of 1414 subtracted clones were sequenced and found to be derived from at least 540 different genes by BLASTN analyses. Approximately 25% of the subtracted clones had sequences encoding thrombospondin type-1 repeat (TSR domains, and were derived from 17 genes. We identified 11 TSR domain-containing genes among the top 36 genes that were the most frequently detected in our SSH library. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analyses confirmed that at least 13 out of 17 TSR domain-containing genes were expressed in the hypostome of Hydra oligactis. The prominent expression of TSR domain-containing genes suggests that these genes play significant roles in the hypostome of Hydra oligactis.

  3. Thrombospondin Type-1 Repeat Domain-Containing Proteins Are Strongly Expressed in the Head Region of Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi-Hamada, Kayoko; Kurumata-Shigeto, Mami; Minobe, Sumiko; Fukuoka, Nozomi; Sato, Manami; Matsufuji, Miyuki; Koizumi, Osamu; Hamada, Shun

    2016-01-01

    The head region of Hydra, the hypostome, is a key body part for developmental control and the nervous system. We herein examined genes specifically expressed in the head region of Hydra oligactis using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cloning. A total of 1414 subtracted clones were sequenced and found to be derived from at least 540 different genes by BLASTN analyses. Approximately 25% of the subtracted clones had sequences encoding thrombospondin type-1 repeat (TSR) domains, and were derived from 17 genes. We identified 11 TSR domain-containing genes among the top 36 genes that were the most frequently detected in our SSH library. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analyses confirmed that at least 13 out of 17 TSR domain-containing genes were expressed in the hypostome of Hydra oligactis. The prominent expression of TSR domain-containing genes suggests that these genes play significant roles in the hypostome of Hydra oligactis.

  4. Characterization of the Interactome of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nonstructural Protein 2 Reveals the Hyper Variable Region as a Binding Platform for Association with 14-3-3 Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yihong; Wu, Weining; Gao, Jiming; Smith, Nikki; Burkard, Christine; Xia, Dong; Zhang, Minxia; Wang, Chengbao; Archibald, Alan; Digard, Paul; Zhou, En-Min; Hiscox, Julian A

    2016-05-06

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major threat to the swine industry worldwide and hence global food security, exacerbated by a newly emerged highly pathogenic (HP-PRRSV) strain from China. PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) is a multifunctional polypeptide with strain-dependent influences on pathogenicity. A number of discrete functional regions have been identified on the protein. Quantitative label free proteomics was used to identify cellular binding partners of nsp2 expressed by HP-PRRSV. This allowed the identification of potential cellular interacting partners and the discrimination of nonspecific interactions. The interactome data were further investigated and validated using biological replicates and also compared with nsp2 from a low pathogenic (LP) strain of PRRSV. Validation included both forward and reverse pulldowns and confocal microscopy. The data indicated that nsp2 interacted with a number of cellular proteins including 14-3-3, CD2AP, and other components of cellular aggresomes. The hyper-variable region of nsp2 protein was identified as a binding platform for association with 14-3-3 proteins.

  5. Exercise-induced TBC1D1 Ser237 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 protein binding capacity in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Christian; Pehmøller, Christian; Birk, Jesper Bratz

    2010-01-01

    increasing 60 - 250% (Pprotein kinase (AMPK) induced both Ser237 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding properties on human TBC1D1 when evaluated in vitro. To further characterize the role of AMPK as an upstream kinase regulating TBC1D1, extensor digitorum longus......TBC1D1 is a Rab-GTPase activating protein involved in regulation of GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle. We here evaluated exercise-induced regulation of TBC1D1 Ser237 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 protein binding capacity in human skeletal muscle. In separate experiments healthy men performed all......-out cycle exercise lasting either 30 sec, 2 min or 20 min. After all exercise protocols, TBC1D1 Ser237 phosphorylation increased (~70 - 230%, Pprotein showed a similar pattern of regulation...

  6. Generation of transgenic Hydra by embryo microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Celina E; Lin, Haifan; Steele, Robert E

    2014-09-11

    As a member of the phylum Cnidaria, the sister group to all bilaterians, Hydra can shed light on fundamental biological processes shared among multicellular animals. Hydra is used as a model for the study of regeneration, pattern formation, and stem cells. However, research efforts have been hampered by lack of a reliable method for gene perturbations to study molecular function. The development of transgenic methods has revitalized the study of Hydra biology(1). Transgenic Hydra allow for the tracking of live cells, sorting to yield pure cell populations for biochemical analysis, manipulation of gene function by knockdown and over-expression, and analysis of promoter function. Plasmid DNA injected into early stage embryos randomly integrates into the genome early in development. This results in hatchlings that express transgenes in patches of tissue in one or more of the three lineages (ectodermal epithelial, endodermal epithelial, or interstitial). The success rate of obtaining a hatchling with transgenic tissue is between 10% and 20%. Asexual propagation of the transgenic hatchling is used to establish a uniformly transgenic line in a particular lineage. Generating transgenic Hydra is surprisingly simple and robust, and here we describe a protocol that can be easily implemented at low cost.

  7. Structural Insight into the 14-3-3 Protein-dependent Inhibition of Protein Kinase ASK1 (Apoptosis Signal-regulating kinase 1)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrvalská, Olivia; Košek, Dalibor; Kukačka, Zdeněk; Tošner, Z.; Man, Petr; Večeř, J.; Herman, P.; Obšilová, Veronika; Obšil, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 39 (2016), s. 20753-20765 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10061S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : 14-3-3 protein * apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) * fluorescence * nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) * protein cross-linking * small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2016

  8. A Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o participates in stomatal and root hair development and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiao; Sun, Mingzhe; Chen, Chao; Ding, Xiaodong; Wang, Xuedong; Yang, Shanshan; Yu, Qingyue; Jia, Bowei; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that 14-3-3 proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. However, the biological functions of soybean 14-3-3 proteins, especially in plant drought response, are not yet known. In this study, we characterized a Glycine soja 14-3-3 gene, GsGF14o, which is involved in plant development and drought response. GsGF14o expression was greatly induced by drought stress, as evidenced by the quantitative real-time PCR and β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity analysis. GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in decreased drought tolerance during seed germination and seedling growth. Furthermore, silencing of AtGF14µ, the most homologous 14-3-3 gene of GsGF14o, led to enhanced drought tolerance at both the seed germination and seedling stage. Unexpectedly, GsGF14o transgenic lines showed reduced water loss and transpiration rates compared with wild-type plants, which was demonstrated to be the consequence of the decreased stomatal size. At the same time, the smaller stomata due to GsGF14o overexpression led to a relatively slow net photosynthesis rate, which led to a growth penalty under drought stress. We further demonstrated that GsGF14o overexpression caused deficits in root hair formation and development, and thereby reduced the water intake capacity of the transgenic root system. In addition, GsGF14o overexpression down-regulated the transcript levels of drought-responsive marker genes. Finally, we also investigated the tissue-specific accumulation of GsGF14o by using a GUS activity assay. Collectively, the results presented here confirm that GsGF14o plays a dual role in drought stress responses through its involvement in the regulation of stomatal size and root hair development.

  9. The Arabidopsis 14-3-3 protein RARE COLD INDUCIBLE 1A links low-temperature response and ethylene biosynthesis to regulate freezing tolerance and cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá, Rafael; López-Cobollo, Rosa; Mar Castellano, M; Angosto, Trinidad; Alonso, José M; Ecker, Joseph R; Salinas, Julio

    2014-08-01

    In plants, the expression of 14-3-3 genes reacts to various adverse environmental conditions, including cold, high salt, and drought. Although these results suggest that 14-3-3 proteins have the potential to regulate plant responses to abiotic stresses, their role in such responses remains poorly understood. Previously, we showed that the RARE COLD INDUCIBLE 1A (RCI1A) gene encodes the 14-3-3 psi isoform. Here, we present genetic and molecular evidence implicating RCI1A in the response to low temperature. Our results demonstrate that RCI1A functions as a negative regulator of constitutive freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in Arabidopsis thaliana by controlling cold-induced gene expression. Interestingly, this control is partially performed through an ethylene (ET)-dependent pathway involving physical interaction with different ACC SYNTHASE (ACS) isoforms and a decreased ACS stability. We show that, consequently, RCI1A restrains ET biosynthesis, contributing to establish adequate levels of this hormone in Arabidopsis under both standard and low-temperature conditions. We further show that these levels are required to promote proper cold-induced gene expression and freezing tolerance before and after cold acclimation. All these data indicate that RCI1A connects the low-temperature response with ET biosynthesis to modulate constitutive freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in Arabidopsis. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. The Schistosoma bovis Sb14-3-3zeta recombinant protein cross-protects against Schistosoma mansoni in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles-Lucas, M; Uribe, N; López-Abán, J; Vicente, B; Orfao, A; Nogal-Ruiz, J J; Feliciano, A San; Muro, A

    2007-10-10

    Current control programs against schistosomiasis could be reinforced through the use of an effective vaccine. Schistosome 14-3-3 proteins have been proposed as candidates for vaccine against the respective infections, and were seen to elicit high protection levels against Schistosoma bovis in a previous work done by our group. We have therefore investigated the protective capacity of the 14-3-3 protein from S. bovis - Sb14zeta - against Schistosoma mansoni in mice. In addition, we have addressed the influence of the co-administration of three different immunomodulators with the 14-3-3 polypeptide. Protection was high when the Sb14zeta protein was combined in two independent experiments with the AA2829 and PAL immunomodulatory molecules as regards both the reduction of worm numbers (mean: 64.8%) and egg loads in liver (mean: 73.9%) or intestine (mean: 71.5%). In contrast, the degree of protection achieved with the Sb14zeta-CpG vaccine was very low (14.9% reduction in worm numbers, and 46.6% and 32% reduction in liver and intestinal egg loads). The immune responses observed in the vaccinated animals showed that the production of IFNgamma and the absence of IL-4, accompanied by a strong humoral response, are insufficient to elicit protection against S. mansoni.

  11. TRIM25 is associated with cisplatin resistance in non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cell line via downregulation of 14-3-3σ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xia; Qiu, Feng; Zou, Zhen

    2017-11-04

    Lung cancer, in particular, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin, CDDP) as first-line chemotherapy for NSCLC, but resistance occurs frequently. We previously reported that Tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25) was highly expressed in cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells (A549/CDDP) in comparison with its parental A549 cells. Herein, we take a further step to demonstrate the association of TRIM25 and cisplatin resistance and also the underlying mechanisms. Knockdown of TRIM25 by RNA interference in A549/CDDP cells decreased half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values and promoted apoptosis in response to cisplatin, whereas overexpression of TRIM25 had opposite effects. More importantly, we found that concomitant knockdown of 14-3-3σ and TRIM25 absolutely reversed the decreased MDM2, increased p53, increased cleaved-Capsese3 and decreased IC50 value induced by knockdown of TRIM25 individually, suggesting that TRIM25 mediated cisplatin resistance primarily through downregulation of 14-3-3σ. Our results indicate that TRIM25 is associated with cisplatin resistance and 14-3-3σ-MDM2-p53 signaling pathway is involved in this process, suggesting targeting TRIM25 may be a potential strategy for the reversal of cisplatin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Hydra genome: insights, puzzles and opportunities for developmental biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    The sequencing of a Hydra genome marked the beginning of a new era in the use of Hydra as a developmental model. Analysis of the genome sequence has led to a number of interesting findings, has required revisiting of previous work, and most importantly presents new opportunities for understanding the developmental biology of Hydra. This review will de-scribe the history of the Hydra genome project, a selection of results from it that are relevant to developmental biologists, and some future research opportunities provided by Hydra genomics.

  13. HucMSC Exosome-Delivered 14-3-3ζ Orchestrates Self-Control of the Wnt Response via Modulation of YAP During Cutaneous Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Shi, Yinghong; Gong, Aihua; Pan, Zhaoji; Shi, Hui; Yang, Huan; Fu, Hailong; Yan, Yongmin; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies showed that mesenchymal stem cells derived exosome (MSC-Ex) markedly enhanced tissue regeneration, however, the issue of whether MSC-Ex could control stem cells expansion after a regenerative response to prevent tissue from overcrowding and dysplasia remains to be established. Herein, we found that human umbilical cord MSC (hucMSC)-exosomal14-3-3ζ mediated the binding of YAP and p-LATS by forming a complex to promote the phosphorylation of YAP, which orchestrate exosomal Wnt4 signal in cutaneous regeneration. First, we assessed deep second-degree burn rats treated with hucMSC-Ex and discovered that hucMSC-Ex promoting self-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling at the remodeling phase of cutaneous regeneration. HucMSC-Ex restricted excessive skin cell expansion and collagen deposition at 4 weeks. Under high cell density conditions, hucMSC-Ex inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling through induction of YAP phosphorylation. Second, hucMSC-Ex proteomic analysis revealed that 14-3-3 proteins could be transported by exosome. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, our results showed that hucMSC-exosomal 14-3-3ζ controlled YAP activities and phosphorylation at Ser127 site, and were required for the binding of YAP and p-LATS. Further studies revealed that 14-3-3ζ recruited YAP and p-LATS to form a complex under high cells density status and 14-3-3ζ other than YAP or p-LATS was the key regulatory molecule of this complex. These findings collectively indicate that hucMSC-Ex functions not only as an "accelerator" of the Wnt/β-catenin signal to repair damaged skin tissue but also as a "brake" of the signal by modulating YAP to orchestrate controlled cutaneous regeneration. Stem Cells 2016;34:2485-2500. © 2016 The Authors STEM CELLS published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Pres.

  14. Physical Mechanisms Driving Cell Sorting in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Locke, Tiffany T; Shi, Winnie H; Steele, Robert E; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2017-12-19

    Cell sorting, whereby a heterogeneous cell mixture organizes into distinct tissues, is a fundamental patterning process in development. Hydra is a powerful model system for carrying out studies of cell sorting in three dimensions, because of its unique ability to regenerate after complete dissociation into individual cells. The physicists Alfred Gierer and Hans Meinhardt recognized Hydra's self-organizing properties more than 40 years ago. However, what drives cell sorting during regeneration of Hydra from cell aggregates is still debated. Differential motility and differential adhesion have been proposed as driving mechanisms, but the available experimental data are insufficient to distinguish between these two. Here, we answer this longstanding question by using transgenic Hydra expressing fluorescent proteins and a multiscale experimental and numerical approach. By quantifying the kinematics of single cell and whole aggregate behaviors, we show that no differences in cell motility exist among cell types and that sorting dynamics follow a power law with an exponent of ∼0.5. Additionally, we measure the physical properties of separated tissues and quantify their viscosities and surface tensions. Based on our experimental results and numerical simulations, we conclude that tissue interfacial tensions are sufficient to explain cell sorting in aggregates of Hydra cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the aggregate's geometry during sorting is key to understanding the sorting dynamics and explains the exponent of the power law behavior. Our results answer the long standing question of the physical mechanisms driving cell sorting in Hydra cell aggregates. In addition, they demonstrate how powerful this organism is for biophysical studies of self-organization and pattern formation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamics of Mouth Opening in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason A; Hyland, Callen; Steele, Robert E; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2016-03-08

    Hydra, a simple freshwater animal famous for its regenerative capabilities, must tear a hole through its epithelial tissue each time it opens its mouth. The feeding response of Hydra has been well-characterized physiologically and is regarded as a classical model system for environmental chemical biology. However, due to a lack of in vivo labeling and imaging tools, the biomechanics of mouth opening have remained completely unexplored. We take advantage of the availability of transgenic Hydra lines to perform the first dynamical analysis, to our knowledge, of Hydra mouth opening and test existing hypotheses regarding the underlying cellular mechanisms. Through cell position and shape tracking, we show that mouth opening is accompanied by changes in cell shape, but not cellular rearrangements as previously suggested. Treatment with a muscle relaxant impairs mouth opening, supporting the hypothesis that mouth opening is an active process driven by radial contractile processes (myonemes) in the ectoderm. Furthermore, we find that all events exhibit the same relative rate of opening. Because one individual can open consecutively to different amounts, this suggests that the degree of mouth opening is controlled through neuronal signaling. Finally, from the opening dynamics and independent measurements of the elastic properties of the tissues, we estimate the forces exerted by the myonemes to be on the order of a few nanoNewtons. Our study provides the first dynamical framework, to our knowledge, for understanding the remarkable plasticity of the Hydra mouth and illustrates that Hydra is a powerful system for quantitative biomechanical studies of cell and tissue behaviors in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. On the evolutionary constraint surface of hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodkin, L. B.; Dunn, K.

    1983-01-01

    Food consumption, body size, and budding rate were measured simultaneously in isolated individual hydra of six strains. For each individual hydra the three measurements define a point in the three dimensional space with axes: food consumption, budding rate, and body size. These points lie on a single surface, regardless of species. Floating rate and incidence of sexuality map onto this surface. It is suggested that this surface is an example of a general class of evolutionary constraint surfaces derived from the conjunction of evolutinary theory and the theory of ecological resource budgets. These constraint surfaces correspond to microevolutionary domains.

  17. GENERAL CONTROL NONREPRESSIBLE4 Degrades 14-3-3 and the RIN4 Complex to Regulate Stomatal Aperture with Implications on Nonhost Disease Resistance and Drought Tolerance[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sunhee; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Rojas, Clemencia M.

    2017-01-01

    Plants have complex and adaptive innate immune responses against pathogen infections. Stomata are key entry points for many plant pathogens. Both pathogens and plants regulate stomatal aperture for pathogen entry and defense, respectively. Not all plant proteins involved in stomatal aperture regulation have been identified. Here, we report GENERAL CONTROL NONREPRESSIBLE4 (GCN4), an AAA+-ATPase family protein, as one of the key proteins regulating stomatal aperture during biotic and abiotic stress. Silencing of GCN4 in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana compromises host and nonhost disease resistance due to open stomata during pathogen infection. AtGCN4 overexpression plants have reduced H+-ATPase activity, stomata that are less responsive to pathogen virulence factors such as coronatine (phytotoxin produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae) or fusicoccin (a fungal toxin produced by the fungus Fusicoccum amygdali), reduced pathogen entry, and enhanced drought tolerance. This study also demonstrates that AtGCN4 interacts with RIN4 and 14-3-3 proteins and suggests that GCN4 degrades RIN4 and 14-3-3 proteins via a proteasome-mediated pathway and thereby reduces the activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase complex, thus reducing proton pump activity to close stomata. PMID:28855332

  18. p21WAF1/CIP1 and 14-3-3 sigma gene expression in degenerated aortic valves: a link between cell cycle checkpoints and calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubnitschaja, O; Yeghiazaryan, K; Skowasch, D; Schild, H; Bauriedel, G

    2006-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying aortic valve degeneration are largely unknown. Cardiac tissue responds to a variety of stimuli by hypertrophic growth. Molecular mechanisms resulting in the hypertrophic response indicate similarity and overlap with those involved in both cell growth and death. We hypothesized cell cycle control to be the key event in progression regulation of heart valve degeneration followed by tissue mineralization. Human post-operative tissue samples of native non-rheumatic stenosed aortic valves were categorized according to absence (group 1) or presence of calcification (group 2). The samples were ex vivo examined for cell density and presence of macrophage (CD68), as well as expression of two checkpoint genes, p21WAF1/CIP1 and 14-3-3 sigma, arresting the G1 and G2 cell cycle phases, respectively. Expression rates were measured by "Real-Time"-PCR on transcriptional level. Target protein expression was measured and their co-localization in different kinds of valvular cells was tested using immunohistochemical analysis. Whereas macrophages were localized predominantly in sub-endothelial layer of valvular fibrosis, p21WAF1/CIP1 and 14-3-3 sigma expression was observed also in the valvular spongiosa co-localized with alpha-actin positive cells. Significantly higher cell density and inflammation grade were observed in group 2 versus group 1. Accordingly, p21WAF1/CIP1 and 14-3-3 sigma expression was several fold higher in group 1 versus group 2 on both transcription and translation levels. The present findings on degenerated aortic valves show that increased cell density accompanied with consequent calcification might be attributed to the down-regulation of both G1 and G2 checkpoint genes.

  19. The Hydra-k Partial Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pendavingh; S.H.M. van Zwam (Stefan)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the paper "Confinement of matroid representations to subsets of partial fields" (arXiv:0806.4487) we introduced the Hydra-k partial fields to study quinary matroids with inequivalent representations. The proofs of some results on these partial fields require extensive computations.

  20. Evo-devo: Hydra raises its Noggin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramore, Kalpana; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2011-08-01

    Noggin, along with other secreted bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitors, plays a crucial role in neural induction and neural tube patterning as well as in somitogenesis, cardiac morphogenesis and formation of the skeleton in vertebrates. The BMP signalling pathway is one of the seven fundamental pathways that drive embryonic development and pattern formation in animals. Understanding its evolutionary origin and role in pattern formation is, therefore, important to evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). We have studied the evolutionary origin of BMP-Noggin antagonism in hydra, which is a powerful diploblastic model to study evolution of pattern-forming mechanisms because of the unusual cellular dynamics during its pattern formation and its remarkable ability to regenerate. We cloned and characterized the noggin gene from hydra and found it to exhibit considerable similarity with its orthologues at the amino acid level. Microinjection of hydra Noggin mRNA led to duplication of the dorsoventral axis in Xenopus embryos, demonstrating its functional conservation across the taxa. Our data, along with those of others, indicate that the evolutionarily conserved antagonism between BMP and its inhibitors predates bilateral divergence. This article reviews the various roles of Noggin in different organisms and some of our recent work on hydra Noggin in the context of evolution of developmental signalling pathways.

  1. Intercellular junctions in nerve-free hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDowall, A W; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    Epithelial cells of nerve-free hydra contain septate and gap junctions. In thin sections the gap junctions are characterized by a gap of 3-4 nm. Freeze-fracture demonstrates the presence of septate junctions and two further types of structures: (i) the "E-type" or "inverted" gap junctions...

  2. Hydra A at Low Radio Frequencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, W. M; Clarke, T. E; Taylor, G. B; Perley, R. A; Kassim, N. E

    2004-01-01

    We present new, low-frequency images of the powerful FR I radio galaxy Hydra A (3C 218). Images were made with the Very Large Array at frequencies of 1415, 330, and 74 MHz, with resolutions on the order of 20...

  3. Evo-devo: Hydra raises its Noggin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 3. Evo-devo: Hydra ... The BMP signalling pathway is one of the seven fundamental pathways that drive embryonic development and pattern formation in animals. ... Division of Animal Sciences, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune 411 004, India ...

  4. Hydra constitutively expresses transcripts involved in vertebrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    conserved glycolytic pathway. Noggin is expressed in the Spemann organizer in the. Xenopus embryo and is required for neural induction. Figure 1. Noggin- and goosecoid-like transcripts in P. oligactis. (a) Noggin-like transcripts in the hypostomal region (hp) and basal disc (bp) in an adult hydra. (b) Noggin-like transcripts ...

  5. The Hydra model - a model for what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierer, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    The introductory personal remarks refer to my motivations for choosing research projects, and for moving from physics to molecular biology and then to development, with Hydra as a model system. Historically, Trembley's discovery of Hydra regeneration in 1744 was the beginning of developmental biology as we understand it, with passionate debates about preformation versus de novo generation, mechanisms versus organisms. In fact, seemingly conflicting bottom-up and top-down concepts are both required in combination to understand development. In modern terms, this means analysing the molecules involved, as well as searching for physical principles underlying development within systems of molecules, cells and tissues. During the last decade, molecular biology has provided surprising and impressive evidence that the same types of molecules and molecular systems are involved in pattern formation in a wide range of organisms, including coelenterates like Hydra, and thus appear to have been "invented" early in evolution. Likewise, the features of certain systems, especially those of developmental regulation, are found in many different organisms. This includes the generation of spatial structures by the interplay of self-enhancing activation and "lateral" inhibitory effects of wider range, which is a main topic of my essay. Hydra regeneration is a particularly clear model for the formation of defined patterns within initially near-uniform tissues. In conclusion, this essay emphasizes the analysis of development in terms of physical laws, including the application of mathematics, and insists that Hydra was, and will continue to be, a rewarding model for understanding general features of embryogenesis and regeneration.

  6. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ in an Experimental Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Chieh Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ and NF-κB-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ signaling.

  7. Stem cell-specific activation of an ancestral myc protooncogene with conserved basic functions in the early metazoan Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Markus; Mitterstiller, Anna-Maria; Valovka, Taras; Breuker, Kathrin; Hobmayer, Bert; Bister, Klaus

    2010-03-02

    The c-myc protooncogene encodes a transcription factor (Myc) with oncogenic potential. Myc and its dimerization partner Max are bHLH-Zip DNA binding proteins controlling fundamental cellular processes. Deregulation of c-myc leads to tumorigenesis and is a hallmark of many human cancers. We have identified and extensively characterized ancestral forms of myc and max genes from the early diploblastic cnidarian Hydra, the most primitive metazoan organism employed so far for the structural, functional, and evolutionary analysis of these genes. Hydra myc is specifically activated in all stem cells and nematoblast nests which represent the rapidly proliferating cell types of the interstitial stem cell system and in proliferating gland cells. In terminally differentiated nerve cells, nematocytes, or epithelial cells, myc expression is not detectable by in situ hybridization. Hydra max exhibits a similar expression pattern in interstitial cell clusters. The ancestral Hydra Myc and Max proteins display the principal design of their vertebrate derivatives, with the highest degree of sequence identities confined to the bHLH-Zip domains. Furthermore, the 314-amino acid Hydra Myc protein contains basic forms of the essential Myc boxes I through III. A recombinant Hydra Myc/Max complex binds to the consensus DNA sequence CACGTG with high affinity. Hybrid proteins composed of segments from the retroviral v-Myc oncoprotein and the Hydra Myc protein display oncogenic potential in cell transformation assays. Our results suggest that the principal functions of the Myc master regulator arose very early in metazoan evolution, allowing their dissection in a simple model organism showing regenerative ability but no senescence.

  8. Rapid divergence of histones in Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) and evolution of a novel histone involved in DNA damage response in hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Ubhe, Suyog; Sirwani, Neha; Lohokare, Rasika; Galande, Sanjeev

    2017-08-01

    Histones are fundamental components of chromatin in all eukaryotes. Hydra, an emerging model system belonging to the basal metazoan phylum Cnidaria, provides an ideal platform to understand the evolution of core histone components at the base of eumetazoan phyla. Hydra exhibits peculiar properties such as tremendous regenerative capacity, lack of organismal senescence and rarity of malignancy. In light of the role of histone modifications and histone variants in these processes it is important to understand the nature of histones themselves and their variants in hydra. Here, we report identification of the complete repertoire of histone-coding genes in the Hydra magnipapillata genome. Hydra histones were classified based on their copy numbers, gene structure and other characteristic features. Genomic organization of canonical histone genes revealed the presence of H2A-H2B and H3-H4 paired clusters in high frequency and also a cluster with all core histones along with H1. Phylogenetic analysis of identified members of H2A and H2B histones suggested rapid expansion of these groups in Hydrozoa resulting in the appearance of unique subtypes. Amino acid sequence level comparisons of H2A and H2B forms with bilaterian counterparts suggest the possibility of a highly mobile nature of nucleosomes in hydra. Absolute quantitation of transcripts confirmed the high copy number of histones and supported the canonical nature of H2A. Furthermore, functional characterization of H2A.X.1 and a unique variant H2A.X.2 in the gastric region suggest their role in the maintenance of genome integrity and differentiation processes. These findings provide insights into the evolution of histones and their variants in hydra. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. FoxO and stress responses in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the face of changing environmental conditions, the mechanisms underlying stress responses in diverse organisms are of increasing interest. In vertebrates, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, FoxO transcription factors mediate cellular responses to stress, including oxidative stress and dietary restriction. Although FoxO genes have been identified in early-arising animal lineages including sponges and cnidarians, little is known about their roles in these organisms. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have examined the regulation of FoxO activity in members of the well-studied cnidarian genus Hydra. We find that Hydra FoxO is expressed at high levels in cells of the interstitial lineage, a cell lineage that includes multipotent stem cells that give rise to neurons, stinging cells, secretory cells and gametes. Using transgenic Hydra that express a FoxO-GFP fusion protein in cells of the interstitial lineage, we have determined that heat shock causes localization of the fusion protein to the nucleus. Our results also provide evidence that, as in bilaterian animals, Hydra FoxO activity is regulated by both Akt and JNK kinases. CONCLUSIONS: These findings imply that basic mechanisms of FoxO regulation arose before the evolution of bilaterians and raise the possibility that FoxO is involved in stress responses of other cnidarian species, including corals.

  10. The binding site for regulatory 14-3-3 protein in plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase: Involvement of a region promoting phosphorylation-independent interaction in addition to the phosphorylation-dependent C-terminal end

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Anja T; Borch, Jonas; Bych, Katrine

    2003-01-01

    ) in the extreme C-terminal end of the H+-ATPase interacts with the binding cleft of 14-3-3 protein (Wurtele, M., Jelich-Ottmann, C., Wittinghofer, A., and Oecking, C. (2003) EMBO J. 22, 987-994). We report binding of 14-3-3 protein to a nonphosphorylated peptide representing the 34 C-terminal residues...

  11. Three different prohormones yield a variety of Hydra-RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2) neuropeptides in Hydra magnipapillata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darmer, D; Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P

    1998-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra is the most frequently used model for the study of development in cnidarians. Recently we isolated four novel Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide) neuropeptides, the Hydra-RFamides I-IV, from Hydra magnipapillata. Here we describe the molecular cloning of three different preprohormones...... from H. magnipapillata, each of which gives rise to a variety of RFamide neuropeptides. Preprohormone A contains one copy of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide I (QWLGGRFG), II (QWFNGRFG), III/IV [(KP)HLRGRFG] and two putative neuropeptide sequences (QLMSGRFG and QLMRGRFG). Preprohormone B has the same general...... organization as preprohormone A, but instead of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide III/IV it contains a slightly different neuropeptide sequence [(KP)HYRGRFG]. Preprohormone C contains one copy of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide I and seven additional putative neuropeptide sequences (with the common N-terminal sequence QWF...

  12. DNA damage and expression of checkpoint genes p21(WAF1/CIP1) and 14-3-3 sigma in taurine-deficient cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubnitschaja, Olga; Moenkemann, Heike; Kim, Kerstin; Mozaffari, Mahmood S

    2003-08-01

    Taurine depletion is associated with development of cardiomyopathy. Further, oxidative stress is advanced as a critical factor mediating the effect of taurine deficiency on target organs. However, the molecular mechanism(s) linking taurine deficiency with the development of cardiomyopathy remains elusive. Since transition between apoptotic degeneration and cell proliferation in stress conditions is regulated at cell cycle checkpoints, we determined the expression of two such genes, namely p21(WAF1/CIP1) and 14-3-3 sigma as well as p53 that are responsible for oxidative stress and DNA damage. We also carried out quantitative determination of DNA damage. Cardiomyocytes from beta-alanine-induced taurine-depleted (TD) rats were used for this investigation. Single- and double-stranded DNA damage was quantified using comet assay analysis. Western blot and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with immunoblotting analysis were applied for protein analysis. Comet assay analysis indicated that the extent of double-stranded DNA damage was greater in TD than in control cardiomyocytes. Whereas only traces of both p53 and p21(WAF1/CIP1) and no detectable expression of 14-3-3 sigma were found in cardiomyocytes of control animals, the TD cardiomyocytes expressed all three genes. DNA damage and the consequent up-regulation of checkpoint proteins observed in TD cardiomyocytes indicate the involvement of cell cycle control mechanisms in the effect of taurine deficiency on cardiomyocytes. Single- and double-stranded DNA damage and the consequent arrest of cell proliferation in both G(1) and G(2) phases of the cell cycle induced by checkpoint proteins may trigger the cardiomyopathy that is associated with taurine deficiency.

  13. Mechanochemical symmetry breaking in Hydra aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercker, Moritz; Köthe, Alexandra; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna

    2015-05-05

    Tissue morphogenesis comprises the self-organized creation of various patterns and shapes. Although detailed underlying mechanisms are still elusive in many cases, an increasing amount of experimental data suggests that chemical morphogen and mechanical processes are strongly coupled. Here, we develop and test a minimal model of the axis-defining step (i.e., symmetry breaking) in aggregates of the Hydra polyp. Based on previous findings, we combine osmotically driven shape oscillations with tissue mechanics and morphogen dynamics. We show that the model incorporating a simple feedback loop between morphogen patterning and tissue stretch reproduces a wide range of experimental data. Finally, we compare different hypothetical morphogen patterning mechanisms (Turing, tissue-curvature, and self-organized criticality). Our results suggest the experimental investigation of bigger (i.e., multiple head) aggregates as a key step for a deeper understanding of mechanochemical symmetry breaking in Hydra. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Microbial ecology in Hydra: why viruses matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Thomas C G; Grasis, Juris A; Lachnit, Tim

    2015-03-01

    While largely studied because of their harmful effects on human health, there is growing appreciation that viruses are also important members of the animal holobiont. This review highlights recent findings on viruses associated with Hydra and related Cnidaria. These early evolutionary diverging animals not only select their bacterial communities but also select for viral communities in a species-specific manner. The majority of the viruses associating with these animals are bacteriophages. We demonstrate that the animal host and its virome have evolved into a homeostatic, symbiotic relationship and propose that viruses are an important part of the Hydra holobiont by controlling the species-specific microbiome. We conclude that beneficial virus-bacterial-host interactions should be considered as an integral part of animal development and evolution.

  15. The Delta Np63 alpha phosphoprotein binds the p21 and 14-3-3 sigma promoters in vivo and has transcriptional repressor activity that is reduced by Hay-Wells syndrome-derived mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Matthew D; Mays, Deborah J; Sniezek, Joseph C; Pietenpol, Jennifer A

    2003-04-01

    p63 is a recently identified homolog of p53 that is found in the basal layer of several stratified epithelial tissues such as the epidermis, oral mucosa, prostate, and urogenital tract. Studies with p63(-/-) mice and analysis of several human autosomal-dominant disorders with germ line p63 mutations suggest p63 involvement in maintaining epidermal stem cell populations. The p63 gene encodes six splice variants with reported transactivating or dominant-negative activities. The goals of the current study were to determine the splice variants that are expressed in primary human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) and the biochemical activity p63 has in these epithelial cell populations. We found that the predominant splice variant expressed in HEKs was Delta Np63 alpha, and it was present as a phosphorylated protein. During HEK differentiation, Delta Np63 alpha and p53 levels decreased, while expression of p53 target genes p21 and 14-3-3 sigma increased. Delta Np63 alpha had transcriptional repressor activity in vitro, and this activity was reduced in Delta Np63 alpha proteins containing point mutations, corresponding to those found in patients with Hay-Wells syndrome. Further, we show that Delta Np63 alpha and p53 can bind the p21 and 14-3-3 sigma promoters in vitro and in vivo, with decreased binding of p63 to these promoters during HEK differentiation. These data suggest that Delta Np63 alpha acts as a transcriptional repressor at select growth regulatory gene promoters in HEKs, and this repression likely plays an important role in the proliferative capacity of basal keratinocytes.

  16. Chaotic Rotation of Nix and Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Mark R.

    2014-05-01

    Disk-integrated photometry of Hydra and Nix from HST during 2010-2012 show large variations, which can be attributed to a combination of the phase function and the rotational light curves of the moons. After dividing out a model phase curve, variations by more than a factor of two remain, indicating that both Nix and Hydra are distinctly irregular in shape. Unexpectedly, Nix and Hydra's variations show no correlation with orbital longitude, as one would expect for bodies in synchronous rotation. In fact, Fourier analysis of the measurements does not reveal any fixed rotation periods compatible with the data. Compounding the mystery, Nix increased in absolute brightness by about 30% between 2010 and 2012, whereas Hydra was stable.I have developed a numeric integrator that tracks the position, velocity, orientation and rotation state of a moon as it orbits the Pluto-Charon "binary planet". The moons are represented by triaxial ellipsoids with arbitrary axial ratios. Pluto and Charon follow circular orbits about their common barycenter. I have run simulations for periods of up to 1000 years and for a variety of axial ratios and starting conditions. If an object is started in synchronous rotation with its long axis pointed toward the system barycenter, then it remains synchronously locked for the duration of the integrations. However, other initial conditions commonly lead to chaotic rotation, with Lyupanov times as brief as 30 days. Moons will sometimes temporarily lock into a nearly fixed rotation state, but commonly break out again within ~ 500 days. Depending on the axial ratios, polar flips are also commonly observed; this polar wander provides a plausible explanation for the year-by-year change in the observed brightness of Nix.Chaotic rotation is rare in the solar system, having previously been noted only for Hyperion and possibly Nereid. However, both photometry and dynamical simulations support the notion that chaotic rotation is a natural state for

  17. Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Yanaihara, N

    1981-01-01

    With immunocytochemical methods, nerve cells have been detected in Hydra attenuata containing bombesin-like immunoreactivity. These nerve cells are located in ectoderm of all body regions of the animal and are especially abundant in basal disk and tentacles. Radioimmunoassay of extracts of hydra ...

  18. Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Carraway, R E; Rökaeus, A

    1981-01-01

    Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity is found in nerve fibers present in all body regions of hydra. The nerve fibers are especially numerous in the ectoderm at the bases of the tentacles and in the ectoderm at a site just above the foot. Radioimmunoassays of acetic-acid extracts of hydra, using vari...

  19. HYDRA: a decision support model for irrigation water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacucci, G.; Kabat, P.; Verrier, P.J.; Teixeira, J.L.; Steduto, P.; Bertanzon, G.; Giannerini, G.; Huygen, J.; Fernando, R.M.; Hooijer, A.A.; Simons, W.; Toller, G.; Tziallas, G.; Uhrik, C.; Broek, van den B.J.; Vera Munoz, J.; Yovchev, P.

    1995-01-01

    HYDRA introduces information modelling and decision-support systems (DSS) to farmers and authorities in European Mediterranean agriculture in order to improve irrigation practices at different levels. Key components of HYDRA-DSS are a hierarchical setof water balance and crop growth simulation

  20. Value of the Hydra model system for studying symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Green Hydra is used as a classical example for explaining symbiosis in schools as well as an excellent research model. Indeed the cosmopolitan green Hydra (Hydra viridissima) provides a potent experimental framework to investigate the symbiotic relationships between a complex eumetazoan organism and a unicellular photoautotrophic green algae named Chlorella. Chlorella populates a single somatic cell type, the gastrodermal myoepithelial cells (also named digestive cells) and the oocyte at the time of sexual reproduction. This symbiotic relationship is stable, well-determined and provides biological advantages to the algal symbionts, but also to green Hydra over the related non-symbiotic Hydra i.e. brown hydra. These advantages likely result from the bidirectional flow of metabolites between the host and the symbiont. Moreover genetic flow through horizontal gene transfer might also participate in the establishment of these selective advantages. However, these relationships between the host and the symbionts may be more complex. Thus, Jolley and Smith showed that the reproductive rate of the algae increases dramatically outside of Hydra cells, although this endosymbiont isolation is debated. Recently it became possible to keep different species of endosymbionts isolated from green Hydra in stable and permanent cultures and compare them to free-living Chlorella species. Future studies testing metabolic relationships and genetic flow should help elucidate the mechanisms that support the maintenance of symbiosis in a eumetazoan species.

  1. Constant mortality and fertility over age in Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaible, R.; Scheuerlein, A.; Danko, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    , or remain constant with age, but the data are scanty and problematic. Here, we present compelling evidence for constant age-specific death and reproduction rates in Hydra, a basal metazoan, in a set of experiments comprising more than 3.9 million days of observations of individual Hydra. Our data show...... that 2,256 Hydra from two closely related species in two laboratories in 12 cohorts, with cohort age ranging from 0 to more than 41 y, have extremely low, constant rates of mortality. Fertility rates for Hydra did not systematically decline with advancing age. This falsifies the universality...... of the theories of the evolution of aging that posit that all species deteriorate with age after maturity. The nonsenescent life history of Hydra implies levels of maintenance and repair that are sufficient to prevent the accumulation of damage for at least decades after maturity, far longer than the short life...

  2. HYDRA: a Java library for Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Warnes

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydra is an open-source, platform-neutral library for performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo. It implements the logic of standard MCMC samplers within a framework designed to be easy to use, extend, and integrate with other software tools. In this paper, we describe the problem that motivated our work, outline our goals for the Hydra pro ject, and describe the current features of the Hydra library. We then provide a step-by-step example of using Hydra to simulate from a mixture model drawn from cancer genetics, first using a variable-at-a-time Metropolis sampler and then a Normal Kernel Coupler. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for Hydra.

  3. Two related low-temperature-inducible genes of Arabidopsis encode proteins showing high homology to 14-3-3 proteins, a family of putative kinase regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarillo, J A; Capel, J; Leyva, A; Martínez-Zapater, J M; Salinas, J

    1994-07-01

    We have isolated two Rare Cold-Inducible (RCI1 and RCI2) cDNAs by screening a cDNA library prepared from cold-acclimated etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana with a subtracted probe. RNA-blot hybridizations revealed that the expression of both RCI1 and RCI2 genes is induced by low temperature independently of the plant organ or the developmental stage considered. However, RCI1 mRNA accumulates faster and at higher levels than the RCI2 one indicating that these genes have differential responsiveness to cold stress. Additionally, when plants are returned to room temperature, RCI1 mRNA decreases faster than RCI2. In contrast to most of the cold-inducible plant genes characterized, the expression of RCI1 and RCI2 is not induced by ABA or water stress. The nucleotide sequences of RCI1 and RCI2 cDNAs predict two acidic polypeptides of 255 and 251 amino acids with molecular weights of 29 and 28 kDa respectively. The alignment of these polypeptides indicates that they have 181 identical amino acids suggesting that the corresponding genes have a common origin. Sequence comparisons reveal no similarities between the RCI proteins and any other cold-regulated plant protein so far described. Instead, they demonstrate that the RCI proteins are highly homologous to a family of proteins, known as 14-3-3 proteins, which are thought to be involved in the regulation of multifunctional protein kinases.

  4. Calcium-dependent protein kinase 21 phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins in response to ABA signaling and salt stress in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixing; Zhou, Xiaojin; Chang, Shu; Chu, Zhilin; Wang, Hanmeng; Han, Shengcheng; Wang, Yingdian

    2017-12-02

    The calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are a class of plant-specific kinase that directly bind Ca2+ and mediate the calcium-signaling pathways to play important physiological roles in growth and development. The rice genome contains 31 CDPK genes, one of which, OsCPK21, is known to modulate the abscisic acid (ABA) and salt stress responses in this crop; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation are largely unknown. In the present study, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening, glutathione S-transferase pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to confirm the interaction between OsCPK21 and one of its putative targets, Os14-3-3 (OsGF14e). We used an in vitro kinase assay and site-directed mutagenesis to verify that OsCPK21 phosphorylates OsGF14e at Tyr-138. We used real-time PCR to reveal that several ABA and salt inducible genes were more highly expressed in the OsCPK21-OE and OsGF14e WT-OE plants than in the mutant OsGF14e Y138A-OE and wild-type plants. These results suggest that OsCPK21 phosphorylates OsGF14e to facilitate the response to ABA and salt stress. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In-vivo administration of clozapine affects behaviour but does not reverse dendritic spine deficits in the 14-3-3ζ KO mouse model of schizophrenia-like disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaehne, Emily J; Ramshaw, Hayley; Xu, Xiangjun; Saleh, Eiman; Clark, Scott R; Schubert, Klaus Oliver; Lopez, Angel; Schwarz, Quenten; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-11-01

    Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug used in the treatment of schizophrenia, which has been shown to reverse behavioural and dendritic spine deficits in mice. It has recently been shown that deficiency of 14-3-3ζ has an association with schizophrenia, and that a mouse model lacking this protein displays several schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits. To test the effect of clozapine in this mouse model, 14-3-3ζ KO mice were administered clozapine (5mg/kg) for two weeks prior to being analysed in a test battery of cognition, anxiety, and despair (depression-like) behaviours. Following behavioural testing brain samples were collected for analysis of specific anatomical defects and dendritic spine formation. We found that clozapine reduced despair behaviour of 14-3-3ζ KO mice in the forced swim test (FST) and altered the behaviour of wild types and 14-3-3ζ KO mice in the Y-maze task. In contrast, clozapine had no effects on hippocampal laminar defects or decreased dendritic spine density observed in 14-3-3ζ KO mice. Our results suggest that clozapine may have beneficial effects on clinical behaviours associated with deficiencies in the 14-3-3ζ molecular pathway, despite having no effects on morphological defects. These findings may provide mechanistic insight to the action of this drug. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction of Hydra A jets with the intracluster medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Mohammad Ali; Bicknell, Geoffrey Vincent; Wagner, Alex; Slatyer Sutherland, Ralph; McNamara, Brian

    2015-08-01

    An important research area of modern astronomy is to understand the physics of jets from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and their interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM) or intracluster medium (ICM). The aims of our project is to understand the energetics and composition of the jet near its origin, and its interaction with the ICM, focusing on detailed models of the inner structure of a spectacular radio source Hydra A. The key features of our modelling are that 1) We identify the four bright knots in the northern jet of Hydra A as biconical reconfinement shocks, which result when an over-pressured jet starts to come into equilibrium whit the galactic atmosphere 2) The curved morphology of the source and the turbulent transition of the jet to a plume are produced by the dynamical interaction of a precessing jet with the ICM. We provided an innovative theoretical approach to estimate the jet velocity from the information of the inner jet knots and the oscillation of the jet boundary. We also explored the complex morphology of the source and the heating of the ambient medium via the forward shock using a three dimensional precessing jet-ICM interaction model. With the 3D models We successfully reproduced key features of the source, for example, i) Four bright knots along the jet trajectory at approximately correct locations, 2) The curvature of the jet within 10 kpc, 3) The turbulent transition of the jet to a plume, and 4) A misaligned bright knot in the turbulent flaring zone. From our model we determined that the heating of the atmosphere by the jet would be gentle, which is consistent with the assessment of the physics of cooling flow.

  7. Germline stem cells and sex determination in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimiya-Fujisawa, Chiemi; Kobayashi, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    The sex of germline stem cells (GSCs) in Hydra is determined in a cell-autonomous manner. In gonochoristic species like Hydra magnipapillata or H. oligactis, where the sexes are separate, male polyps have sperm-restricted stem cells (SpSCs), while females have egg-restricted stem cells (EgSCs). These GSCs self-renew in a polyp, and are usually transmitted to a new bud from a parental polyp during asexual reproduction. But if these GSCs are lost during subsequent budding or regeneration events, new ones are generated from multipotent stem cells (MPSCs). MPSCs are the somatic stem cells in Hydra that ordinarily differentiate into nerve cells, nematocytes (stinging cells in cnidarians), and gland cells. By means of such a backup system, sexual reproduction is guaranteed for every polyp. Interestingly, Hydra polyps occasionally undergo sex-reversal. This implies that each polyp can produce either type of GSCs, i.e. Hydra are genetically hermaphroditic. Nevertheless a polyp possesses only one type of GSCs at a time. We propose a plausible model for sex-reversal in Hydra. We also discuss so-called germline specific genes, which are expressed in both GSCs and MPSCs, and some future plans to investigate Hydra GSCs.

  8. The polymorphism of YWHAE, a gene encoding 14-3-3epsilon, and brain morphology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Kido

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: YWHAE is a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia that encodes 14-3-3epsilon, a Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1-interacting molecule, but the effect of variation in its genotype on brain morphology remains largely unknown. METHODS: In this voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study, we conducted whole-brain analyses regarding the effects of YWHAE single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs28365859, rs11655548, and rs9393 and DISC1 SNP (rs821616 on gray matter volume in a Japanese sample of 72 schizophrenia patients and 86 healthy controls. On the basis of a previous animal study, we also examined the effect of rs28365859 genotype specifically on hippocampal volume. RESULTS: Whole-brain analyses showed no significant genotype effect of these SNPs on gray matter volume in all subjects, but we found significant genotype-by-diagnosis interaction for rs28365859 in the left insula and right putamen. The protective C allele carriers of rs28365859 had a significantly larger left insula than the G homozygotes only for schizophrenia patients, while the controls with G allele homozygosity had a significantly larger right putamen than the C allele carriers. The C allele carriers had a larger right hippocampus than the G allele homozygotes in schizophrenia patients, but not in healthy controls. No significant interaction was found between rs28365859 and DISC1 SNP on gray matter volume. CONCLUSIONS: These different effects of the YWHAE (rs28365859 genotype on brain morphology in schizophrenia and healthy controls suggest that variation in its genotype might be, at least partly, related to the abnormal neurodevelopment, including in the limbic regions, reported in schizophrenia. Our results also suggest its specific role among YWHAE SNPs in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  9. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of three homoeologous Ta14S genes encoding 14-3-3 proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinguo Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize Ta14S homoeologs and assess their functions in wheat seed development. The genomic and cDNA sequences of three Ta14S homoeologous genes encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated. Sequence analysis revealed that the three homoeologs consisted of five exons and four introns and were very highly conserved in the coding regions and in exon/intron structure, whereas the cDNA sequences were variable in the 5′ and 3′-UTR. The three genes, designated as Ta14S-2A, Ta14S-2B and Ta14S-2D, were located in homoeologous group 2 chromosomes. The polypeptide chains of the three Ta14S genes were highly similar. These genes were most homologous to Hv14A from barley. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that the three Ta14S genes were differentially expressed in different organs at different developmental stages and all exhibited greater expression in primary roots of 1-day-old germlings than in other tissues. Comparison of the expression patterns of the three homoeologous genes at different times after pollination also revealed that their expression was developmentally regulated. The transcription of Ta14S-2B was clearly higher during seed germination, whereas expressions of Ta14S-2A and Ta14S-2D were up-regulated at the beginning of seed imbibition (0–12 h, but declined thereafter. The results suggested that the three Ta14S homoeologous genes have regulatory roles in seed development and germination.

  10. 14-3-3γ Regulates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses and Lactation in Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting NF-κB and MAPKs and Up-Regulating mTOR Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Lin, Ye; Liu, Lili; Bian, Yanjie; Zhang, Li; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

    2015-01-01

    As a protective factor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury, 14-3-3γ has been the subject of recent research. Nevertheless, whether 14-3-3γ can regulate lactation in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) induced by LPS remains unknown. Here, the anti-inflammatory effect and lactation regulating ability of 14-3-3γ in LPS-induced DCMECs are investigated for the first time, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for their effects are explored. The results of qRT-PCR showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis revealed that 14-3-3γ overexpression also suppressed the production of TNF-α and IL-6 in cell culture supernatants. Meanwhile, CASY-TT Analyser System showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression clearly increased the viability and proliferation of cells. The results of kit methods and western blot analysis showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression promoted the secretion of triglycerides and lactose and the synthesis of β-casein. Furthermore, the expression of genes relevant to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and lactation-associated proteins were assessed by western blot, and the results suggested that 14-3-3γ overexpression inactivated the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways by down-regulating extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) phosphorylation levels, as well as by inhibiting NF-κB translocation. Meanwhile, 14-3-3γ overexpression enhanced the expression levels of β-casein, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), serine/threonine protein kinase Akt 1 (AKT1), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR

  11. 14-3-3γ Regulates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses and Lactation in Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting NF-κB and MAPKs and Up-Regulating mTOR Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As a protective factor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced injury, 14-3-3γ has been the subject of recent research. Nevertheless, whether 14-3-3γ can regulate lactation in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs induced by LPS remains unknown. Here, the anti-inflammatory effect and lactation regulating ability of 14-3-3γ in LPS-induced DCMECs are investigated for the first time, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for their effects are explored. The results of qRT-PCR showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analysis revealed that 14-3-3γ overexpression also suppressed the production of TNF-α and IL-6 in cell culture supernatants. Meanwhile, CASY-TT Analyser System showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression clearly increased the viability and proliferation of cells. The results of kit methods and western blot analysis showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression promoted the secretion of triglycerides and lactose and the synthesis of β-casein. Furthermore, the expression of genes relevant to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs and lactation-associated proteins were assessed by western blot, and the results suggested that 14-3-3γ overexpression inactivated the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways by down-regulating extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK and inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB phosphorylation levels, as well as by inhibiting NF-κB translocation. Meanwhile, 14-3-3γ overexpression enhanced the expression levels of β-casein, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1, serine/threonine protein kinase Akt 1 (AKT1, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

  12. Development of a dot blot assay with antibodies to recombinant “core” 14-3-3 protein: Evaluation of its usefulness in diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Definitive diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD requires demonstration of infective prion protein (PrPSc in brain tissues by immunohistochemistry or immunoblot, making antemortem diagnosis of CJD difficult. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends detection of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in cases of dementia, with clinical correlation, as a useful diagnostic marker for CJD, obviating the need for brain biopsy.This facility is currently available in only a few specialized centers in the West and no commercial kit is available for clinical diagnostic use in India. Hence the objective of this study was to develop an in-house sensitive assay for quantitation of 14-3-3 protein and to evaluate its diagnostic potential to detect 14-3-3 proteins in CSF as a biomarker in suspected cases of CJD. Materials and Methods: A minigene expressing the “core” 14-3-3 protein was synthesized by overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the recombinant protein was produced by employing a bacterial expression system. Polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbit against the purified recombinant protein were used for developing a dot blot assay with avidin-biotin technology for signal amplification and quantitation of 14-3-3 protein in CSF. Results: The results in the present study suggest the diagnostic potential of the dot blot method with about 10-fold difference (P< 0.001 in the CSF levels of 14-3-3 protein between the CJD cases (N= 50 and disease controls (N= 70. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis of the results suggested an optimal cutoff value of 2 ng/mL. Conclusions: We have developed an indigenous, economical, and sensitive dot blot method for the quantitation of 14-3-3 protein in CSF.

  13. Hydra, a powerful model for aging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Szymon; Fischer, Kathleen; Austad, Steven; Galliot, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarian Hydra polyps escape senescence, most likely due to the robust activity of their three stem cell populations. These stem cells continuously self-renew in the body column and differentiate at the extremities following a tightly coordinated spatial pattern. Paul Brien showed in 1953 that in one particular species, Hydra oligactis, cold-dependent sexual differentiation leads to rapid aging and death. Here, we review the features of this inducible aging phenotype. These cellular alterations, detected several weeks after aging was induced, are characterized by a decreasing density of somatic interstitial cell derivatives, a disorganization of the apical nervous system, and a disorganization of myofibers of the epithelial cells. Consequently, tissue replacement required to maintain homeostasis, feeding behavior, and contractility of the animal are dramatically affected. Interestingly, this aging phenotype is not observed in all H. oligactis strains, thus providing a powerful experimental model for investigations of the genetic control of aging. Given the presence in the cnidarian genome of a large number of human orthologs that have been lost in ecdysozoans, such approaches might help uncover novel regulators of aging in vertebrates. PMID:26120246

  14. Proteomic pathway analysis of the hippocampus in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder implicates 14-3-3 signaling, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, and glucose metabolism: potential roles in GABAergic interneuron pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Klaus Oliver; Föcking, Melanie; Cotter, David R

    2015-09-01

    Neuropathological changes of the hippocampus have been associated with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Recent work has particularly implicated hippocampal GABAergic interneurons in the pathophysiology of these diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying structural and cellular hippocampal pathology remain poorly understood. We used data from comprehensive difference-in-gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) investigations of postmortem human hippocampus of people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, covering the acidic (isoelectric point (pI) between pH4 and 7) and, separately, the basic (pI between pH6 and 11) sub-proteome, for Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of implicated protein networks and pathways. Comparing disease and control cases, we identified 58 unique differentially expressed proteins in schizophrenia, and 70 differentially expressed proteins in bipolar disorder, using mass spectrometry. IPA implicated, most prominently, 14-3-3 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in schizophrenia, and gluconeogenesis/glycolysis in bipolar disorder. Both disorders were characterized by alterations of proteins involved in the oxidative stress response, mitochondrial function, and protein-endocytosis, -trafficking, -degradation, and -ubiquitination. These findings are interpreted with a focus on GABAergic interneuron pathology in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese green hydra, Hydra sinensis (Hydroida: Hydridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Chun; Qian, Xiao-Cheng; Li, Ping; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, An-Tai

    2014-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese green hydra, Hydra sinensis (Hydroida: Hydridae) is a linear molecule of 16,189 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, small and large subunit ribosomal RNAs, methionine and tryptophan transfer RNAs, a pseudogene consisting of a partial copy of COI and terminal sequences at two ends of the linear mitochondrial DNA. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 77.2% (T: 41.7%; C: 10.9%; A: 35.5%; and G: 11.9%). COI and ND1 genes begin with GTG as start codon, while other 11 protein-coding genes start with a typical ATG initiation codon. COII, ATP8, ATP6, COIII, ND5, ND6, ND3, ND1, ND4 and COI genes are terminated with TAA as stop codon, ND4L ends with TAG, ND2 ends with TA and Cyt b ends with T.

  16. HYDRA: A Java Library for Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warnes, Gregory R

    2002-01-01

    .... We then provide a step-by-step example of using Hydra to simulate from a mixture model drawn from cancer genetics, first using a variable-at-a-time Metropolis sampler and then a Normal Kernel Coupler...

  17. No junctional communication between epithelial cells in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Laat, S W; Tertoolen, L G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    Diffusion gradients of morphogens have been inferred as a basis for the control of morphogenesis in hydra, and morphogenetic substances have been found which, on the basis of their molecular weight (MW), should be able to pass gap junctions. There have been several reports of the presence of gap...... junctions between epithelial cells of hydra. However, until now, there has been no report published on whether these junctions enable the epithelial cells to exchange molecules of small molecular weight, as has been described in other organisms. Therefore we decided to investigate the communicative...... properties of the junctional membranes by electrophysiological methods and by intracellular-dye iontophoresis. We report here that no electrotonic coupling is detectable between epithelial cells of Hydra attenuata in: (1) intact animals, (2) head-regenerating animals, (3) cell re-aggregates, and (4) hydra...

  18. Dynamic expression of a Hydra FGF at boundaries and termini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Ellen; Bertrand, Stephanie; Holz, Oliver; Rebscher, Nicole; Hassel, Monika

    2014-12-01

    Guidance of cells and tissue sheets is an essential function in developing and differentiating animal tissues. In Hydra, where cells and tissue move dynamically due to constant cell proliferation towards the termini or into lateral, vegetative buds, factors essential for guidance are still unknown. Good candidates to take over this function are fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). We present the phylogeny of several Hydra FGFs and analysis of their expression patterns. One of the FGFs is expressed in all terminal regions targeted by tissue movement and at boundaries crossed by moving tissue and cells with an expression pattern slightly differing in two Hydra strains. A model addressing an involvement of this FGF in cell movement and morphogenesis is proposed: Hydra FGFf-expressing cells might serve as sources to attract tissue and cells towards the termini of the body column and across morphological boundaries. Moreover, a function in morphogenesis and/or differentiation of cells and tissue is suggested.

  19. Constant mortality and fertility over age in Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaible, R.; Scheuerlein, A.; Danko, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Senescence, the increase in mortality and decline in fertility with age after maturity, was thought to be inevitable for all multicellular species capable of repeated breeding. Recent theoretical advances and compilations of data suggest that mortality and fertility trajectories can go up or down...... that 2,256 Hydra from two closely related species in two laboratories in 12 cohorts, with cohort age ranging from 0 to more than 41 y, have extremely low, constant rates of mortality. Fertility rates for Hydra did not systematically decline with advancing age. This falsifies the universality...... expectancy of Hydra in the wild. A high proportion of stem cells, constant and rapid cell turnover, few cell types, a simple body plan, and the fact that the germ line is not segregated from the soma are characteristics of Hydra that may make nonsenescence feasible. Nonsenescence may be optimal because...

  20. Organizer formation in Hydra is disrupted by thalidomide treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brooun, Maria; Manoukian, Armen; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Bode, Hans R; McNeill, Helen

    2013-01-01

    .... Surprisingly, thalidomide does not have teratogenic effects on mouse development. We investigated the effect of thalidomide on patterning in hydra, an early metazoan with a very simple axial symmetry...

  1. Species-specific viromes in the ancestral holobiont Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasis, Juris A; Lachnit, Tim; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Lim, Yan Wei; Schmieder, Robert; Fraune, Sebastian; Franzenburg, Sören; Insua, Santiago; Machado, GloriaMay; Haynes, Matthew; Little, Mark; Kimble, Robert; Rosenstiel, Philip; Rohwer, Forest L; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence showing host specificity of colonizing bacteria supports the view that multicellular organisms are holobionts comprised of the macroscopic host in synergistic interdependence with a heterogeneous and host-specific microbial community. Whereas host-bacteria interactions have been extensively investigated, comparatively little is known about host-virus interactions and viral contribution to the holobiont. We sought to determine the viral communities associating with different Hydra species, whether these viral communities were altered with environmental stress, and whether these viruses affect the Hydra-associated holobiont. Here we show that each species of Hydra harbors a diverse host-associated virome. Primary viral families associated with Hydra are Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Inoviridae, and Herpesviridae. Most Hydra-associated viruses are bacteriophages, a reflection of their involvement in the holobiont. Changes in environmental conditions alter the associated virome, increase viral diversity, and affect the metabolism of the holobiont. The specificity and dynamics of the virome point to potential viral involvement in regulating microbial associations in the Hydra holobiont. While viruses are generally regarded as pathogenic agents, our study suggests an evolutionary conserved ability of viruses to function as holobiont regulators and, therefore, constitutes an emerging paradigm shift in host-microbe interactions.

  2. Evidence that polycystins are involved in Hydra cnidocyte discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Susan

    2017-03-01

    Like other cnidarians, the freshwater organism Hydra is characterized by the possession of cnidocytes (stinging cells). Most cnidocytes are located on hydra tentacles, where they are organized along with sensory cells and ganglion cells into battery complexes. The function of the battery complexes is to integrate multiple types of stimuli for the regulation of cnidocyte discharge. The molecular mechanisms controlling the discharge of cnidocytes are not yet fully understood, but it is known that discharge depends on extracellular Ca 2+ and that mechanically induced cnidocyte discharge can be enhanced by the presence of prey extracts and other chemicals. Experiments in this paper show that a PKD2 (polycystin 2) transient receptor potential (TRP) channel is expressed in hydra tentacles and bases. PKD2 (TRPP) channels belong to the TRP channel superfamily and are non-selective Ca 2+ channels involved in the transduction of both mechanical and chemical stimuli in other organisms. Non-specific PKD2 channel inhibitors Neo (neomycin) and Gd 3+ (gadolinium) inhibit both prey capture and cnidocyte discharge in hydra. The PKD2 activator Trip (triptolide) enhances cnidocyte discharge in both starved and satiated hydra and reduces the inhibition of cnidocyte discharge caused by Neo. PKD1 and 2 proteins are known to act together to transduce mechanical and chemical stimuli; in situ hybridization experiments show that a PKD1 gene is expressed in hydra tentacles and bases, suggesting that polycystins play a direct or indirect role in cnidocyte discharge.

  3. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    We have developed an assay for a substance from hydra that accelerates foot regeneration in the animal. This substance is specific for the foot as evidenced by the following findings: (1) It is present in the animal as a steep gradient descending from foot to head, paralleling the foot-forming po......We have developed an assay for a substance from hydra that accelerates foot regeneration in the animal. This substance is specific for the foot as evidenced by the following findings: (1) It is present in the animal as a steep gradient descending from foot to head, paralleling the foot......-forming potential of the tissue (2) It does not accelerate head regeneration, nor do the head factors of hydra discovered by Schaller (1973) and Berking (1977) accelerate foot regeneration. We propose that the foot-activating substance is a morphogen responsible for foot formation in hydra. The foot activator can...... be extracted from hydra tissue with methanol and separated from other known morphogens of hydra by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. A substance with similar biological and physicochemical properties can be isolated from sea anemones....

  4. Two-color double-labeling in situ hybridization of whole-mount Hydra using RNA probes for five different Hydra neuropeptide preprohormones: evidence for colocalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, G N; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2000-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra magnipapillata has a primitive nervous system that produces at least three distinct classes of neuropeptides: various peptides having the C-terminal sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (the Hydra-RFamide family), Leu-Trp-NH2 (the Hydra-LWamide family), and a single peptide having the C......-terminal sequence Lys-Val-NH2 (Hydra-KVamide). The various Hydra-RFamides are synthesized by three different preprohormones: preprohormone-A, -B, and -C. The various Hydra-LWamides are synthesized by a single preprohormone (prepro-Hydra-LWamide), as is Hydra-KVamide (prepro-Hydra-KVamide). Using a wholemount double......-labeling two-color in situ hybridization technique and RNA probes specific for each of these five Hydra preprohormone mRNAs, we found that specific sets of neurons express each of the five preprohormones, except for the peduncle region of Hydra (an area just above the basal disk), where a population of neurons...

  5. Towards a Full Braginskii Formulation in HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    The magnetic field package in the ICF radiation transport simulation code HYDRA currently contains a resistive MHD solver and includes the dielectric pressure source term, anisotropic electron thermal conduction and magnetic field effects on alpha charged particle transport. This package has been improved with the addition of Nernst and Hall terms implemented using a discrete differential forms method. The Nernst magnetic term includes a limiting method for any large thermal or magnetic gradients. The Nernst thermal term results in a non-symmetric matrix solved using GMRES. The Hall term is discretized using methods based on constrained transport magnetic advection. All of the terms utilize discrete differential forms methods to maintain zero magnetic divergence exactly while properly treating the appropriate continuity of all vector field terms. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Partial Funding provided by Sandia National Laboratory.

  6. A multiscale strength model in HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Barton, N. R.

    2016-10-01

    We describe a multiscale strength model recently implemented in HYDRA. The model incorporates results from a hierarchy of methods which span from the atomistic to the continuum level. Those are obtained from focused physics codes that treat density functional theory, molecular statics, molecular dynamics, dislocation dynamics and continuum mechanics. The model is designed to handle extreme pressures and temperatures, and is especially appropriate for strain rates in excess of 104 s-1. As such it can be used to provide insight into HEDP experimental observations. The model has demonstrated success in capturing planar Rayleigh-Taylor growth for 1 Mbar shocks in Ta and V. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. HYDRA, a new tool for mechanical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, P. W.

    1994-01-01

    The introduction outlines the verification concept for programs of the European Space Agency (ESA). The role of the Agency in coordinating the activities of major European space test centers is summarized. Major test facilities of the environmental test center at ESTEC, the Space Research and Technology Center of ESA, are shown and their specific characteristics are highlighted with special emphasis on the 6-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) hydraulic shaker. The specified performance characteristics for sine and transient tests are presented. Results of single-axis hardware tests and 6-DOF computer simulations are included. Efforts employed to protect payloads against accidental damage in case of malfunctions of the facility are listed. Finally the operational advantages of the facility, as well as the possible use of the HYDRA control system design for future applications are indicated.

  8. 3D HYDRA Simulations of NIF Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinak, M M; Kerbel, G D; Gentile, N A; Jones, O; Pollaine, S; Dittrich, T R; Haan, S W

    2000-10-20

    The performance of NIF target designs is simulated in three dimensions using the HYDRA multiphysics radiation hydrodynamics code. In simulations of a cylindrical NIF hohlraum that include an imploding capsule, the motion of the wall material inside the hohlraum shows a high degree of axisymmetry. Laser radiation is able to propagate through the entrance hole for the required duration of the pulse. Gross hohlraum energetics in the simulation mirror the results from an axisymmetric simulation. A simulation of a copper-doped beryllium ablator NIF capsule carried out over large solid angle resolved the full spectrum of the most dangerous modes that grow from surface roughness. Hydrodynamic instabilities evolve into the weakly nonlinear regime. There is no evidence of low mode jetting driven by nonlinear mode coupling.

  9. Constant mortality and fertility over age in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Ralf; Scheuerlein, Alexander; Dańko, Maciej J; Gampe, Jutta; Martínez, Daniel E; Vaupel, James W

    2015-12-22

    Senescence, the increase in mortality and decline in fertility with age after maturity, was thought to be inevitable for all multicellular species capable of repeated breeding. Recent theoretical advances and compilations of data suggest that mortality and fertility trajectories can go up or down, or remain constant with age, but the data are scanty and problematic. Here, we present compelling evidence for constant age-specific death and reproduction rates in Hydra, a basal metazoan, in a set of experiments comprising more than 3.9 million days of observations of individual Hydra. Our data show that 2,256 Hydra from two closely related species in two laboratories in 12 cohorts, with cohort age ranging from 0 to more than 41 y, have extremely low, constant rates of mortality. Fertility rates for Hydra did not systematically decline with advancing age. This falsifies the universality of the theories of the evolution of aging that posit that all species deteriorate with age after maturity. The nonsenescent life history of Hydra implies levels of maintenance and repair that are sufficient to prevent the accumulation of damage for at least decades after maturity, far longer than the short life expectancy of Hydra in the wild. A high proportion of stem cells, constant and rapid cell turnover, few cell types, a simple body plan, and the fact that the germ line is not segregated from the soma are characteristics of Hydra that may make nonsenescence feasible. Nonsenescence may be optimal because lifetime reproduction may be enhanced more by extending adult life spans than by increasing daily fertility.

  10. Interaction Analyses of the Integrin β2 Cytoplasmic Tail with the F3 FERM Domain of Talin and 14-3-3ζ Reveal a Ternary Complex with Phosphorylated Tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Deepak; Zhiping, Lewis Lu; Tan, Suet-Mien; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2016-10-09

    Integrins, which are heterodimeric (α and β subunits) signal-transducer proteins, are essential for cell adhesion and migration. β cytosolic tails (β-CTs) of integrins interact with a number of cytosolic proteins including talin, Dok1, and 14-3-3ζ. The formation of multiprotein complexes with β-CTs is involved in the activation and regulation of integrins. The leukocyte-specific β2 integrins are essential for leukocyte trafficking, phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and proliferation. In this study, we examined the binding interactions between integrin β2-CT and T758-phosphorylated β2-CT with positive regulators talin and 14-3-3ζ and negative regulator Dok1. Residues of the F3 domain of talin belonging to the C-terminal helix, β-strand 5, and the adjacent loop were found to be involved in the binding interactions with β2-CT. The binding affinity between talin F3 and β2-CT was reduced when β2 T758 was phosphorylated, but this modification promoted 14-3-3ζ binding. However, we were able to detect stable ternary complex formation of T758-phosphorylated β2-CT, talin F3, and 14-3-3ζ that involved the repositioning of talin F3 on β2-CT. We showed that Dok1 binding to β2-CT was reduced in the presence of 14-3-3ζ and when β2 T758 was phosphorylated. Based on these data, we propose a sequential model of β2 integrin activation involving these molecules. Our study provides for the first time insights toward β2 integrin activation that involves a multiprotein complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Combinatorial H3K9acS10ph Histone Modification in IgH Locus S Regions Targets 14-3-3 Adaptors and AID to Specify Antibody Class-Switch DNA Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guideng Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Class-switch DNA recombination (CSR is central to the antibody response, in that it changes the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH constant region, thereby diversifying biological effector functions of antibodies. The activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID-centered CSR machinery excises and rejoins DNA between an upstream (donor and a downstream (acceptor S region, which precede the respective constant region DNA. AID is stabilized on S regions by 14-3-3 adaptors. These adaptors display a high affinity for 5′-AGCT-3′ repeats, which recur in all S regions. However, how 14-3-3, AID, and the CSR machinery target exclusively the donor and acceptor S regions is poorly understood. Here, we show that histone methyltransferases and acetyltransferases are induced by CD40 or Toll-like receptor signaling and catalyze H3K4me3 and H3K9ac/K14ac histone modifications, which are enriched in S regions but do not specify the S region targets of CSR. By contrast, the combinatorial H3K9acS10ph modification specifically marks the S regions set to recombine and directly recruits 14-3-3 adaptors for AID stabilization there. Inhibition of the enzymatic activity of GCN5 and PCAF histone acetyltransferases reduces H3K9acS10ph in S regions, 14-3-3 and AID stabilization, and CSR. Thus, H3K9acS10ph is a histone code that is “written” specifically in S regions and is “read” by 14-3-3 adaptors to target AID for CSR as an important biological outcome.

  12. Hydra viridissima (green Hydra) rapidly recovers from multiple magnesium pulse exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouse, Andrea E; Hogan, Alicia C; Harford, Andrew J; van Dam, Rick A; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2015-08-01

    The time taken for organisms to recover from a pulsed toxicant exposure is an important consideration when water quality guidelines are applied to intermittent events in the environment. Organisms may appear to have recovered by standard toxicity testing methods but could carry residual toxicant or damage that may make them more sensitive to subsequent pulses. Such cumulative effects may render guidelines underprotective. The present study evaluated recovery of the freshwater cnidarian Hydra viridissima following multiple pulse exposure to magnesium (Mg). The H. viridissima were exposed to 4-h pulses of 790 mg/L and 1100 mg/L separated by 2-h, 10-h, 18-h, 24-h, 48-h, and 72-h recovery periods. Twenty-four-hour pulses of 570 mg/L, 910 mg/L, and 940 mg/L were separated by 24-h, 96-h, and 168-h recovery periods. All treatments showed similar or reduced sensitivity to the second pulse when compared with the single pulse, indicating that full recovery occurred prior to a second pulse-exposure. Five variations of equivalent time-weighted average concentrations were used to compare sensitivity of Hydra with various pulse scenarios. The sensitivity of the organisms to the multiple pulses was significantly lower than the time-weighted average continuous exposure response in 3 of the 4 scenarios tested, indicating that the Hydra benefited from interpulse recovery periods. The findings will be utilized alongside those from other species to inform the use of a site-specific, duration-based water quality guideline for Mg, and they provide an example of the use of empirical data in the regulation of toxicant pulses in the environment. © 2015 Commonwealth of Australia.

  13. Effects of predation by Hydra (Cnidaria on cladocerans (Crustacea: Cladocera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Rivera-De la Parra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Planktonic cladocerans have evolved different strategies to avoid predation from vertebrates; these include changes in morphology, behavior, physiology, and/or life-history traits. However, littoral cladocerans are better adapted to avoid invertebrate predation particularly from insect larvae by evolving morphological and physiological adaptations. Nevertheless, this has not been proven for some littoral predators such as Hydra. In this study, we provide quantitative data on how Hydra affects its zooplankton prey. We studied the predation behavior on Alona glabra, Ceridodaphnia dubia, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia cf. mendotae, Diaphanosoma birgei, Macrothrix triserialis, Moina macrocopa, Pleuroxus aduncus, Scapholeberis kingi, Simocephalus vetulus, Elaphoidella grandidieri, Brachionus rubens and Euchlanis dilatata. We also tested the indirect effect of allelochemicals from Hydra on the demography of Daphnia cf. mendotae. Littoral cladocerans are specially adapted to resist nematocyst injection and discharge of toxic substances from Hydra. A significant decrease in the population growth rate from 0.21 to 0.125 d-1 was observed at densities of 2 ind. ml-1. The role of carapace thickness as an adaptive strategy of littoral cladocerans against Hydra predation is discussed.

  14. Hydra and Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840)--two peas in a pod? The molecular basis of extracellular matrix structure in the invertebrate, Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarras, M P; Deutzmann, R

    2001-08-01

    The body wall of Hydra is organized as an epithelial bilayer with an intervening extracellular matrix (ECM). Molecular and biochemical analyses of Hydra ECM have established that it contains components similar to those seen in more complicated vertebrates such as human. In terms of biophysical parameters, Hydra ECM is highly flexible; a property that facilitates continuous movements along the organism's longitudinal and radial axis. A more rigid ECM, as in vertebrates, would not be compatible with this degree of movement. The flexible nature of Hydra ECM can now be explained in part by the unique structure of the organism's collagens. Interestingly, some aspects of the structural features of Hydra collagens mimic what is seen in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, an inherited condition in humans that results in an abnormally flexible ECM that can be debilitating in extreme cases. This review will focus on structure-function relationships of the ECM of Hydra. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Slaying Hydra: A Python-Based Reduction Pipeline for the Hydra Multi-Object Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Richard; Mann, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    We present a Python-based data reduction pipeline for the Hydra Multi-Object Spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope, an instrument which enables simultaneous spectroscopy of up to 93 targets. The reduction steps carried out include flat-fielding, dynamic fiber tracing, wavelength calibration, optimal fiber extraction, and sky subtraction. The pipeline also supports the use of sky lines to correct for zero-point offsets between fibers. To account for the moving parts on the instrument and telescope, fiber positions and wavelength solutions are derived in real-time for each dataset. The end result is a one-dimensional spectrum for each target fiber. Quick and fully automated, the pipeline enables on-the-fly reduction while observing, and has been known to outperform the IRAF pipeline by more accurately reproducing known RVs. While Hydra has many configurations in both high- and low-resolution, the pipeline was developed and tested with only one high-resolution mode. In the future we plan to expand the pipeline to work in most commonly used modes.

  16. A novel gene family controls species-specific morphological traits in Hydra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Khalturin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular events that underlie the evolution of morphological diversity is a major challenge in biology. Here, to identify genes whose expression correlates with species-specific morphologies, we compared transcriptomes of two closely related Hydra species. We find that species-specific differences in tentacle formation correlate with expression of a taxonomically restricted gene encoding a small secreted protein. We show that gain of function induces changes in morphology that mirror the phenotypic differences observed between species. These results suggest that "novel" genes may be involved in the generation of species-specific morphological traits.

  17. An Atlas of annotations of Hydra vulgaris transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Daniela; Tripathi, Kumar Parijat; Guarracino, Mario Rosario

    2016-09-22

    RNA sequencing takes advantage of the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies for analyzing RNA transcript counts with an excellent accuracy. Trying to interpret this huge amount of data in biological information is still a key issue, reason for which the creation of web-resources useful for their analysis is highly desiderable. Starting from a previous work, Transcriptator, we present the Atlas of Hydra's vulgaris, an extensible web tool in which its complete transcriptome is annotated. In order to provide to the users an advantageous resource that include the whole functional annotated transcriptome of Hydra vulgaris water polyp, we implemented the Atlas web-tool contains 31.988 accesible and downloadable transcripts of this non-reference model organism. Atlas, as a freely available resource, can be considered a valuable tool to rapidly retrieve functional annotation for transcripts differentially expressed in Hydra vulgaris exposed to the distinct experimental treatments. WEB RESOURCE URL: http://www-labgtp.na.icar.cnr.it/Atlas .

  18. Multi-functionality and plasticity characterize epithelial cells in Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzgariu, W; Al Haddad, S; Tomczyk, S; Wenger, Y; Galliot, B

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial sheets, a synapomorphy of all metazoans but porifers, are present as 2 layers in cnidarians, ectoderm and endoderm, joined at their basal side by an extra-cellular matrix named mesoglea. In the Hydra polyp, epithelial cells of the body column are unipotent stem cells that continuously self-renew and concomitantly express their epitheliomuscular features. These multifunctional contractile cells maintain homeostasis by providing a protective physical barrier, by digesting nutrients, by selecting a stable microbiota, and by rapidly closing wounds. In addition, epithelial cells are highly plastic, supporting the adaptation of Hydra to physiological and environmental changes, such as long starvation periods where survival relies on a highly dynamic autophagy flux. Epithelial cells also play key roles in developmental processes as evidenced by the organizer activity they develop to promote budding and regeneration. We propose here an integrative view of the homeostatic and developmental aspects of epithelial plasticity in Hydra. PMID:26716072

  19. 90 GHz Observations of M87 and Hydra A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, W. D.; Mason, B. S.; Dicker, S. R.; Korngut, P. M.; Devlin, M. J.; Aquirre, J.; Benford, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J. G.; Irwin, K. D.; hide

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents new observations of the active galactic nuclei M87 and Hydra A at 90 GHz made with the MUSTANG array on the Green Bank Telescope at 8"5 resolution. A spectral analysis is performed combining this new data and archival VLA 7 data on these objects at longer wavelengths. This analysis can detect variations in spectral index and curvature expected from energy losses in the radiating particles. M87 shows only weak evidence for steepening of the spectrum along the jet suggesting either re-acceleration of the relativistic particles in the jet or insufficient losses to affect the spectrum at 90 GHz. The jets in Hydra A show strong steepening as they move from the nucleus suggesting unbalanced losses of the higher energy relativistic particles. The difference between these two sources may be accounted for by the lengths over which the jets are observable, 2 kpc for M87 and 45 kpc for Hydra A.

  20. Comparative analysis of septic injury-inducible genes in phylogenetically distant model organisms of regeneration and stem cell research, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilcinskas Andreas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris have emerged as valuable model organisms in regeneration and stem cell research because of their prominent ability to regenerate a complete organism from any small body fragment. Under natural conditions wounding may result from predator attacks. These injuries open their innermost to a wide array of microbes present in the environment. Therefore, we established the hypothesis that regeneration processes may be linked to or at least accompanied by innate immune responses. In order to screen for septic wounding inducible genes we dissected individuals using a scalpel in the presence of a crude bacterial lipopolysaccharide preparation that is commonly used to elicit innate immune responses in animals and applied the suppression subtractive hybridization technique that selectively amplifies cDNAs of differentially expressed genes. Results This analysis revealed the induced expression of 27 genes in immune challenged Schmidtea and 35 genes in immune challenged Hydra. Identified genes from both animals encode proteins that share sequence similarities with potential homologues from other organisms known to be involved in signaling (e.g. calreticulin in Schmidtea and major vault protein in Hydra, stress responses (e.g. Hsp20 in Schmidtea and a PRP19/PSO4 DNA repair protein in Hydra, or to represent potential antimicrobial effectors (e.g. perforin-like protein in Schmidtea and PR-1-like protein and neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 in Hydra. As expected, septic wounding also induces expression of genes in Schmidtea and Hydra potentially involved in tissue remodeling associated with regeneration processes (e.g. matrix metalloproteinase in Schmidtea and a potential von Willebrand factor in Hydra. Conclusion We identified numerous immune-inducible genes in Hydra and Schmidtea that show a similar distribution corresponding to their physiological roles, although lineages of

  1. Differential Effects of Ethanol on c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase, 14-3-3 Proteins, and Bax in Postnatal Day 4 and Postnatal Day 7 Rat Cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Marieta Barrow; Paiva, Michael; Kubovic, Stacey; Kotler, Alexandra; Rogozinski, Jonathan; Swanson, Eric; Madorsky, Vladimir; Posados, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    These studies investigated ethanol effects on upstream cellular elements and interactions which contribute to Bax-related apoptosis in neonatal rat cerebellum at ages of peak ethanol sensitivity (postnatal day 4 [P4]), compared to later ages of relative resistance (P7). Analyses were made of basal levels of the pro-apoptotic c-jun N-termimal kinase (JNK), Bax, and the 14-3-3 anchoring proteins, as well as the responsiveness of these substances to ethanol at P4 versus P7. Dimerization of Bax with 14-3-3 was also investigated at the two ages following ethanol treatment, a process which sequesters Bax in the cytosol, thus inhibiting its mitochondrial translocation and disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Cultured cerebellar granule cells were used to examine the protective potential of JNK inhibition on ethanol-mediated cell death. Basal levels of JNK were significantly higher at P4 than P7, but no differences in the other proteins were found. Activated JNK, and cytosolic and mitochondrially-translocated Bax were increased in P4 but not P7 animals following ethanol exposure, while protective 14-3-3 proteins were increased only at P7. Ethanol treatment resulted in decreases in Bax:14-3-3 heterodimers at P4, but not at P7. Inhibition of JNK activity in vitro provided partial protection against ethanol neurotoxicity. Thus, differential temporal vulnerability to ethanol in this CNS region correlates with differences in both levels of apoptosis-related substances (e.g., JNK), and differential cellular responsiveness, favoring apoptosis at the most sensitive age and survival at the resistant age. The upstream elements contributing to this vulnerability can be targets for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:22169498

  2. The Arabidopsis 14-3-3 Protein RARE COLD INDUCIBLE 1A Links Low-Temperature Response and Ethylene Biosynthesis to Regulate Freezing Tolerance and Cold Acclimation[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá, Rafael; López-Cobollo, Rosa; Mar Castellano, M.; Angosto, Trinidad; Alonso, José M.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Salinas, Julio

    2014-01-01

    In plants, the expression of 14-3-3 genes reacts to various adverse environmental conditions, including cold, high salt, and drought. Although these results suggest that 14-3-3 proteins have the potential to regulate plant responses to abiotic stresses, their role in such responses remains poorly understood. Previously, we showed that the RARE COLD INDUCIBLE 1A (RCI1A) gene encodes the 14-3-3 psi isoform. Here, we present genetic and molecular evidence implicating RCI1A in the response to low temperature. Our results demonstrate that RCI1A functions as a negative regulator of constitutive freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in Arabidopsis thaliana by controlling cold-induced gene expression. Interestingly, this control is partially performed through an ethylene (ET)-dependent pathway involving physical interaction with different ACC SYNTHASE (ACS) isoforms and a decreased ACS stability. We show that, consequently, RCI1A restrains ET biosynthesis, contributing to establish adequate levels of this hormone in Arabidopsis under both standard and low-temperature conditions. We further show that these levels are required to promote proper cold-induced gene expression and freezing tolerance before and after cold acclimation. All these data indicate that RCI1A connects the low-temperature response with ET biosynthesis to modulate constitutive freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in Arabidopsis. PMID:25122152

  3. Jet-intracluster medium interaction in Hydra A - I. Estimates of jet velocity from inner knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, M. A.; Wagner, A. Y.; Bicknell, G. V.; Sutherland, R. S.; McNamara, B. R.

    2014-10-01

    We present the first stage of an investigation of the interactions of the jets in the radio galaxy Hydra A with the intracluster medium. We consider the jet kinetic power, the galaxy and cluster atmosphere and the inner structure of the radio source. Analysing radio observations of the inner lobes of Hydra A by Taylor et al. we confirm the jet power estimates ˜1045 erg s-1 derived by Wise et al. from dynamical analysis of the X-ray cavities. With this result and a model for the galaxy halo, we explore the jet-intracluster medium interactions occurring on a scale of 10 kpc using two-dimensional, axisymmetric, relativistic pure hydrodynamic simulations. A key feature is that we identify the three bright knots in the northern jet as biconical reconfinement shocks, which result when an overpressured jet starts to come into equilibrium with the galactic atmosphere. Through an extensive parameter space study we deduce that the jet velocity is approximately 0.8c at a distance 0.5 kpc from the black hole. The combined constraints of jet power, the observed jet radius profile along the jet and the estimated jet pressure and jet velocity imply a value of the jet density parameter χ ≈ 13 for the northern jet. We show that for a jet β = 0.8 and θ = 42°, an intrinsic asymmetry in the emissivity of the northern and southern jet is required for a consistent brightness ratio ≈7 estimated from the 6-cm Very Large Array image of Hydra A.

  4. Prediction and cloning linear Tcell epitopes of P14-3-3 antigen into pEGFP–N1 as a DNA vaccine model to induse immuno response against hydatidosis and it\\'s expression in CHO cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R mesri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background & purpose: Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease that caused by infection with the larvae of Echinococcus granulosus. Different antigens produced in larval stage of this parasite that recombinant vaccine base these antigens created significant immunity in infected animals. One of the important antigens is p14-3-3 that it's recombinant antigen created considerable immunity in mouse models. In this study according to the high immunity of antigen epitopes region the coding sequence of T-cell epitopes of P14-3-3 was cloned into pEGFP-N1vector in order to produce an effective DNA vaccine model to stimulate high level of Th1 immune response.   Material and method: In this study bioinformatics tools were used to prediction of linear T-Cell epitopes of Echinococcus granulosus P14-3-3 &zeta antigen. The nucleotide coding sequence of these epitopes was synthesized by PCR. the ampliqon was digested with XhoI restriction enzyme and cloned into pEGFP–N1 vector That has been purificated by modified sambrook method with CaCl2 and PEG6000..Positive colony was selected by direct colony PCR and confirmed by the sequencing.and evaluation of it's expression in Eukaryotic cells was done by transformed to CHO cell line with electroporation. Results: Linear T-cell epitopes of Echinococcus granulosus P14-3-3 after prediction,synthesis and amplification wae successfully cloned into pEGFP-N1 vector that purificated by new method with maximum vector and minimum RNA concentration.The expression of new constract in CHO cell line as a eukaryotic cells achivment by fluorescent microscope and will be used as a DNA vaccine model to evaluation immuno response in mouse models.   Discussion: Successfully cloning of The linear T-cell epitppes coding sequence of Echinococcus granulosus P14-3-3&zeta antigen into pEGFP-N1 verificated by sequencing and fluorscent microscope images demonstrated expression of recombinant protein in CHO cell line

  5. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Schot, L P

    1982-01-01

    FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity has been localized in different parts of the hydra nervous system. Immunoreactivity occurs in nerve perikarya and processes in the ectoderm of the lower peduncle region near the basal disk, in the ectoderm of the hypostome and in the ectoderm of the tentacles...

  6. Unraveling the non-senescence phenomenon in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dańko, Maciej J; Kozłowski, Jan; Schaible, Ralf

    2015-10-07

    Unlike other metazoans, Hydra does not experience the distinctive rise in mortality with age known as senescence, which results from an increasing imbalance between cell damage and cell repair. We propose that the Hydra controls damage accumulation mainly through damage-dependent cell selection and cell sloughing. We examine our hypothesis with a model that combines cellular damage with stem cell renewal, differentiation, and elimination. The Hydra individual can be seen as a large single pool of three types of stem cells with some features of differentiated cells. This large stem cell community prevents "cellular damage drift," which is inevitable in complex conglomerate (differentiated) metazoans with numerous and generally isolated pools of stem cells. The process of cellular damage drift is based on changes in the distribution of damage among cells due to random events, and is thus similar to Muller's ratchet in asexual populations. Events in the model that are sources of randomness include budding, cellular death, and cellular damage and repair. Our results suggest that non-senescence is possible only in simple Hydra-like organisms which have a high proportion and number of stem cells, continuous cell divisions, an effective cell selection mechanism, and stem cells with the ability to undertake some roles of differentiated cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Communication about Groups: The Hydra Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Roger Jon; Bezzini, John

    A study investigated how the attribution of a problem solution to an individual or group affects the consumer's perception of the solution's quality. Based on the tendency to support group decision-making (Hydra phenomenon) it was predicted that decisions attributed to groups would be perceived as higher in quality than those made by individuals,…

  8. Observations of M87 and Hydra A at 90 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, W. D.; Mason, B. S.; Dicker, S.; Korngut, P.; Devlin, M. J.; Aquirre, J.; Benford, D.; Moseley, H.; Staguhn, J.; Irwin, K.; hide

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents new observations of the AGNs M87 and Hydra A at 90 GHz made with the MUSTANG bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope at 8.5" resolution. A spectral analysis is performed combining this new data and archival VLA data or1 these objects at longer wavelengths. This analysis can detect variations in spectral index and curvature expected from energy losses in the radiating particles. L187 shows only weak evidence for steepening of the spectrum along the jet suggesting either re-acceleration of the relativistic particles in the jet or insufficient losesto affect the spectrum at 90 GHz The jets in Hydra A show strong steepening as they move from the nucleus suggesting unbalanced losses of the higher energy relativistic particles The difference between these two sources may be accounted for by the different lengths over which the jets are observable, 2 kpc for 5187 and 45 kpc for Hydra A. Subject headings: galaxies: jets, galaxies: active, radio continuum, galaxies: individual (M87. Hydra A),

  9. The Origin of Mucosal Immunity: Lessons from the Holobiont Hydra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Schroder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Historically, mucosal immunity—i.e., the portion of the immune system that protects an organism’s various mucous membranes from invasion by potentially pathogenic microbes—has been studied in single-cell epithelia in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts of vertebrates. Phylogenetically, mucosal surfaces appeared for the first time about 560 million years ago in members of the phylum Cnidaria. There are remarkable similarities and shared functions of mucosal immunity in vertebrates and innate immunity in cnidarians, such as Hydra species. Here, we propose a common origin for both systems and review observations that indicate that the ultimately simple holobiont Hydra provides both a new perspective on the relationship between bacteria and animal cells and a new prism for viewing the emergence and evolution of epithelial tissue-based innate immunity. In addition, recent breakthroughs in our understanding of immune responses in Hydra polyps reared under defined short-term gnotobiotic conditions open up the potential of Hydra as an animal research model for the study of common mucosal disorders.

  10. The Origin of Mucosal Immunity: Lessons from the Holobiont Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Katja; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2016-11-01

    Historically, mucosal immunity-i.e., the portion of the immune system that protects an organism's various mucous membranes from invasion by potentially pathogenic microbes-has been studied in single-cell epithelia in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts of vertebrates. Phylogenetically, mucosal surfaces appeared for the first time about 560 million years ago in members of the phylum Cnidaria. There are remarkable similarities and shared functions of mucosal immunity in vertebrates and innate immunity in cnidarians, such as Hydra species. Here, we propose a common origin for both systems and review observations that indicate that the ultimately simple holobiont Hydra provides both a new perspective on the relationship between bacteria and animal cells and a new prism for viewing the emergence and evolution of epithelial tissue-based innate immunity. In addition, recent breakthroughs in our understanding of immune responses in Hydra polyps reared under defined short-term gnotobiotic conditions open up the potential of Hydra as an animal research model for the study of common mucosal disorders. Copyright © 2016 Schröder and Bosch.

  11. Hydra, a fruitful model system for 270 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliot, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of Hydra regeneration by Abraham Trembley in 1744 promoted much scientific curiosity thanks to his clever design of experimental strategies away from the natural environment. Since then, this little freshwater cnidarian polyp flourished as a potent and fruitful model system. Here, we review some general biological questions that benefitted from Hydra research, such as the nature of embryogenesis, neurogenesis, induction by organizers, sex reversal, symbiosis, aging, feeding behavior, light regulation, multipotency of somatic stem cells, temperature-induced cell death, neuronal transdifferentiation, to cite only a few. To understand how phenotypes arise, theoricists also chose Hydra to model patterning and morphogenetic events, providing helpful concepts such as reaction-diffusion, positional information, and autocatalysis combined with lateral inhibition. Indeed, throughout these past 270 years, scientists used transplantation and grafting experiments, together with tissue, cell and molecular labelings, as well as biochemical procedures, in order to establish the solid foundations of cell and developmental biology. Nowadays, thanks to transgenic, genomic and proteomic tools, Hydra remains a promising model for these fields, but also for addressing novel questions such as evolutionary mechanisms, maintenance of dynamic homeostasis, regulation of stemness, functions of autophagy, cell death, stress response, innate immunity, bioactive compounds in ecosystems, ecotoxicant sensing and science communication.

  12. HydraPower out to make a big bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Revill, John

    2006-01-01

    "An engineering company has provided equipment for a £1.3 billion international project to recreate the conditions of the 'Big Bang". Garry Williams, technical director of hydraPower dynamics, has been asked to return to Switzerland by CERN."

  13. Effects of removing symbiotic green algae on the response of Hydra viridissima (Pallas 1776) to metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karntanut, W; Pascoe, D

    2005-03-01

    Hydra viridissima is distinctively green due to symbiotic algae within the endodermal cells. The current investigation was designed to see if these algae influenced the response of Hydra to pollutants, by comparing the toxicity of copper, cadmium, and zinc to both symbiotic and aposymbiotic (free of their endosymbiotic algae) H. viridissima. The results demonstrated that the toxicity of the metals was generally similar for both groups of Hydra. However, at the lowest copper concentrations there was a difference between the two group of polyps, with aposymbiotic animals dying at concentrations where symbiotic Hydra survived. The lowest observed effect concentrations were 0.0068 and 0.016 mg/L for aposymbiotic and symbiotic Hydra, respectively. It is suggested that the symbiotic Hydra derive benefits from the association that enable them to better tolerate the toxicant. This work demonstrated that experimental manipulation of symbionts can help to explain their complex interactions and the ways in which they respond to pollutants.

  14. Mutagenesis and functional analysis of the pore-forming toxin HALT-1 from Hydra magnipapillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Yvonne Jing Mei; Soh, Wai Tuck; Jiemy, William Febry; Hwang, Jung Shan

    2015-02-03

    Actinoporins are small 18.5 kDa pore-forming toxins. A family of six actinoporin genes has been identified in the genome of Hydra magnipapillata, and HALT-1 (Hydra actinoporin-like toxin-1) has been shown to have haemolytic activity. In this study, we have used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the role of amino acids in the pore-forming N-terminal region and the conserved aromatic cluster required for cell membrane binding. A total of 10 mutants of HALT-1 were constructed and tested for their haemolytic and cytolytic activity on human erythrocytes and HeLa cells, respectively. Insertion of 1-4 negatively charged residues in the N-terminal region of HALT-1 strongly reduced haemolytic and cytolytic activity, suggesting that the length or charge of the N-terminal region is critical for pore-forming activity. Moreover, substitution of amino acids in the conserved aromatic cluster reduced haemolytic and cytolytic activity by more than 80%, suggesting that these aromatic amino acids are important for attachment to the lipid membrane as shown for other actinoporins. The results suggest that HALT-1 and other actinoporins share similar mechanisms of pore formation and that it is critical for HALT-1 to maintain an amphipathic helix at the N-terminus and an aromatic amino acid-rich segment at the site of membrane binding.

  15. Mutagenesis and Functional Analysis of the Pore-Forming Toxin HALT-1 from Hydra magnipapillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Jing Mei Liew

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinoporins are small 18.5 kDa pore-forming toxins. A family of six actinoporin genes has been identified in the genome of Hydra magnipapillata, and HALT-1 (Hydra actinoporin-like toxin-1 has been shown to have haemolytic activity. In this study, we have used site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the role of amino acids in the pore-forming N-terminal region and the conserved aromatic cluster required for cell membrane binding. A total of 10 mutants of HALT-1 were constructed and tested for their haemolytic and cytolytic activity on human erythrocytes and HeLa cells, respectively. Insertion of 1–4 negatively charged residues in the N-terminal region of HALT-1 strongly reduced haemolytic and cytolytic activity, suggesting that the length or charge of the N-terminal region is critical for pore-forming activity. Moreover, substitution of amino acids in the conserved aromatic cluster reduced haemolytic and cytolytic activity by more than 80%, suggesting that these aromatic amino acids are important for attachment to the lipid membrane as shown for other actinoporins. The results suggest that HALT-1 and other actinoporins share similar mechanisms of pore formation and that it is critical for HALT-1 to maintain an amphipathic helix at the N-terminus and an aromatic amino acid-rich segment at the site of membrane binding.

  16. Nerve ring of the hypostome in hydra. I. Its structure, development, and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koizumi, O; Itazawa, M; Mizumoto, H

    1992-01-01

    The anatomy and developmental dynamics of the nerve ring in the hypostome of Hydra oligactis were examined immunocytochemically with an antiserum against a neuropeptide and with neuron-specific monoclonal antibodies. The nerve ring is unique in the mesh-like nerve net of hydra. It is a distinct...... appeared only after the nerve net of ganglion and sensory cells had formed. Every epithelial cell is continuously displaced with neurons toward either head or foot in an adult hydra. However, the ectoderm in the immediate vicinity of, and including, the nerve ring constitutes a stationary zone...... ring is static and stable in contrast to the dynamic features of the nerve net of hydra....

  17. A peptide-gated ion channel from the freshwater polyp Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubovic, Andjelko; Kuhn, Anne; Williamson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    regarded as a curiosity, and it was not known whether peptide-gated ionotropic receptors are also present in other animal groups. Nervous systems first evolved in cnidarians, which extensively use neuropeptides. Here we report cloning from the freshwater cnidarian Hydra of a novel ion channel (Hydra sodium...... channel, HyNaC) that is directly gated by the neuropeptides Hydra-RFamides I and II and is related to FaNaC. The cells expressing HyNaC localize to the base of the tentacles, adjacent to the neurons producing the Hydra-RFamides, suggesting that the peptides are the natural ligands for this channel. Our...

  18. Phylogeny and biogeography of Hydra (Cnidaria: Hydridae) using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, D E; Iñiguez, A R; Percell, K M; Willner, J B; Signorovitch, J; Campbell, R D

    2010-10-01

    The polyp hydra is ubiquitous in freshwater and is highly variable, with many species names assigned to different strains. Types of hydra do fall into four morphologically recognizable groups but many of the species determinations are confusing. To assess the diversity of hydra we collected 101 strains from six continents and built a phylogeny using three genetic markers. Each of the four well-defined groups of species represents a clade in our phylogeny. The green hydra group diverged first, followed by the braueri group and finally the sister groups vulgaris and oligactis. Each of eight species easily definable by morphological criteria represents a distinct clade in our phylogeny. Hydra of two clades, the green and the vulgaris hydra, are found on all continents (except Antarctica) and many islands, whereas hydra of the other two groups (braueri and oligactis) are restricted to the Northern Hemisphere. Our best estimate of the time of origin of hydra is about 60 Ma, long after the breakage of Pangea into northern and southern landmasses. Hydra appear to have diversified in the Northern Hemisphere, and their current diversity is greatest here. Two species were then able to disperse to the Southern Hemisphere, perhaps due to their thermal tolerance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydra-Ring: a computational framework to combine failure probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diermanse, Ferdinand; Roscoe, Kathryn; IJmker, Janneke; Mens, Marjolein; Bouwer, Laurens

    2013-04-01

    This presentation discusses the development of a new computational framework for the safety assessment of flood defence systems: Hydra-Ring. Hydra-Ring computes the failure probability of a flood defence system, which is composed of a number of elements (e.g., dike segments, dune segments or hydraulic structures), taking all relevant uncertainties explicitly into account. This is a major step forward in comparison with the current Dutch practice in which the safety assessment is done separately per individual flood defence section. The main advantage of the new approach is that it will result in a more balanced prioratization of required mitigating measures ('more value for money'). Failure of the flood defence system occurs if any element within the system fails. Hydra-Ring thus computes and combines failure probabilities of the following elements: - Failure mechanisms: A flood defence system can fail due to different failure mechanisms. - Time periods: failure probabilities are first computed for relatively small time scales (<1 day) in which the temporal variation of the relevant hydraulic variables (water level, wind etc) is small enough to be assumed constant. However, the required output of Hydra-Ring is an annual failure probability, which means failure probabilities of the smaller time scales need to be combined (scaled-up) into an annual failure probability. - Cross-sections: The probability of failure is first derived for a single location (cross-section) of the flood defence segment. This probability is subsequently scaled up to a failure probability of the entire flood defence segment. Besides the assessment of flood defense systems, Hydra-Ring can also be used to derive fragility curves, to asses the efficiency of flood mitigating measures, and to quantify the impact of climate change and land subsidence on flood risk. Hydra-Ring is being developed in the context of the Dutch situation. However, the computational concept is generic and the model is set

  20. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Schot, L P

    1982-01-01

    FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity has been localized in different parts of the hydra nervous system. Immunoreactivity occurs in nerve perikarya and processes in the ectoderm of the lower peduncle region near the basal disk, in the ectoderm of the hypostome and in the ectoderm of the tentacles. The ...... Sephadex G-50 in several components emerging shortly before or after position of authentic FMRFamide. The presence of FMRFamide-like material in coelenterates shows that this family of peptides is of great antiquity........ The immunoreactive nerve perikarya in the lower peduncle region form ganglion-like structures. Radioimmunoassays of extracts of hydra gave displacement curves parallel to standard FMRFamide and values of at least 8 pmol/gram wet weight of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity. The immunoreactive material eluted from...

  1. Naturally occurring tumours in the basal metazoan Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Klimovich, Alexander; Anokhin, Boris; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Hamm, Mailin J; Lange, Christina; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2014-06-24

    The molecular nature of tumours is well studied in vertebrates, although their evolutionary origin remains unknown. In particular, there is no evidence for naturally occurring tumours in pre-bilaterian animals, such as sponges and cnidarians. This is somewhat surprising given that recent computational studies have predicted that most metazoans might be prone to develop tumours. Here we provide first evidence for naturally occurring tumours in two species of Hydra. Histological, cellular and molecular data reveal that these tumours are transplantable and might originate by differentiation arrest of female gametes. Growth of tumour cells is independent from the cellular environment. Tumour-bearing polyps have significantly reduced fitness. In addition, Hydra tumours show a greatly altered transcriptome that mimics expression shifts in vertebrate cancers. Therefore, this study shows that spontaneous tumours have deep evolutionary roots and that early branching animals may be informative in revealing the fundamental mechanisms of tumorigenesis.

  2. Parameters of self-organization in Hydra aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Technau, Ulrich; Cramer von Laue, Christoph; Rentzsch, Fabian; Luft, Susanne; Hobmayer, Bert; Bode, Hans R.; Holstein, Thomas W.

    2000-01-01

    Self-organization has been demonstrated in a variety of systems ranging from chemical-molecular to ecosystem levels, and evidence is accumulating that it is also fundamental for animal development. Yet, self-organization can be approached experimentally in only a few animal systems. Cells isolated from the simple metazoan Hydra can aggregate and form a complete animal by self-organization. By using this experimental system, we found that clusters of 5–15 epithelial ...

  3. Hydra-TH Extensions for Multispecies and Thermosolutal Convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stagg, Alan K [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States; Yoon, Su-Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) work conducted for completion of the Thermal Hydraulics Methods (THM) Level 3 Milestone THM.CFD.P11.02: Hydra-TH Extensions for Multispecies and Thermosolutal Convection. A critical requirement for modeling reactor thermal hydraulics is to account for species transport within the fluid. In particular, this capability is needed for modeling transport and diffusion of boric acid within water for emergency, reactivity-control scenarios. To support this need, a species transport capability has been implemented in Hydra-TH for binary systems (for example, solute within a solvent). A species transport equation is solved for the species (solute) mass fraction, and both thermal and solutal buoyancy effects are handled with specification of a Boussinesq body force. Species boundary conditions can be specified with a Dirichlet condition on mass fraction or a Neumann condition on diffusion flux. To enable enhanced species/fluid mixing in turbulent flow, the molecular diffusivity for the binary system is augmented with a turbulent diffusivity in the species transport calculation. The new capabilities are demonstrated by comparison of Hydra-TH calculations to the analytic solution for a thermosolutal convection problem, and excellent agreement is obtained.

  4. Organizer formation in Hydra is disrupted by thalidomide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooun, Maria; Manoukian, Armen; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Bode, Hans R; McNeill, Helen

    2013-06-01

    Thalidomide is a drug that is well known for its teratogenic properties in humans. Surprisingly, thalidomide does not have teratogenic effects on mouse development. We investigated the effect of thalidomide on patterning in hydra, an early metazoan with a very simple axial symmetry. Hydra develops asexually via Wnt-dependent organizer formation, leading to the budding of a new organism. We observe both induction and inhibition of organizer formation depending on cellular context. Interestingly, thalidomide treatment altered budding and the developing organizer, but had little effect on the adult. Expression of Hybra1, a marker of the organizer increased upon thalidomide treatment. However when the organizer is induced by ectopic activation of Wnt signaling via GSK3 inhibition, thalidomide suppresses induction. We show that inhibition of Wnt signaling is not mediated by induction of the BMP pathway. We show that thalidomide activity on organizer formation in hydra depends on the activity of casein kinase1 and the abundance of β-catenin. Finally, we find that interstitial cells, multipotent cells which give rise to nemoatocytes, neural, digestive and germline cells, are partially responsible for the inhibitory effect of thalidomide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Population-based structural variation discovery with Hydra-Multi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Michael R; Hall, Ira M; Quinlan, Aaron R

    2015-04-15

    Current strategies for SNP and INDEL discovery incorporate sequence alignments from multiple individuals to maximize sensitivity and specificity. It is widely accepted that this approach also improves structural variant (SV) detection. However, multisample SV analysis has been stymied by the fundamental difficulties of SV calling, e.g. library insert size variability, SV alignment signal integration and detecting long-range genomic rearrangements involving disjoint loci. Extant tools suffer from poor scalability, which limits the number of genomes that can be co-analyzed and complicates analysis workflows. We have developed an approach that enables multisample SV analysis in hundreds to thousands of human genomes using commodity hardware. Here, we describe Hydra-Multi and measure its accuracy, speed and scalability using publicly available datasets provided by The 1000 Genomes Project and by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Hydra-Multi is written in C++ and is freely available at https://github.com/arq5x/Hydra. aaronquinlan@gmail.com or ihall@genome.wustl.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Histone deacetylase turnover and recovery in sulforaphane-treated colon cancer cells: competing actions of 14-3-3 and Pin1 in HDAC3/SMRT corepressor complex dissociation/reassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Praveen; Delage, Barbara; Dashwood, W Mohaiza; Yu, Tian-Wei; Wuth, Bradyn; Williams, David E; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2011-05-30

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical evaluation as anti-cancer agents. Dietary constituents share certain properties of HDAC inhibitor drugs, including the ability to induce global histone acetylation, turn-on epigenetically-silenced genes, and trigger cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or differentiation in cancer cells. One such example is sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from the glucosinolate precursor glucoraphanin, which is abundant in broccoli. Here, we examined the time-course and reversibility of SFN-induced HDAC changes in human colon cancer cells. Cells underwent progressive G2/M arrest over the period 6-72 h after SFN treatment, during which time HDAC activity increased in the vehicle-treated controls but not in SFN-treated cells. There was a time-dependent loss of class I and selected class II HDAC proteins, with HDAC3 depletion detected ahead of other HDACs. Mechanism studies revealed no apparent effect of calpain, proteasome, protease or caspase inhibitors, but HDAC3 was rescued by cycloheximide or actinomycin D treatment. Among the protein partners implicated in the HDAC3 turnover mechanism, silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) was phosphorylated in the nucleus within 6 h of SFN treatment, as was HDAC3 itself. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed SFN-induced dissociation of HDAC3/SMRT complexes coinciding with increased binding of HDAC3 to 14-3-3 and peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase 1 (Pin1). Pin1 knockdown blocked the SFN-induced loss of HDAC3. Finally, SFN treatment for 6 or 24 h followed by SFN removal from the culture media led to complete recovery of HDAC activity and HDAC protein expression, during which time cells were released from G2/M arrest. The current investigation supports a model in which protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates SMRT and HDAC3 in the nucleus, resulting in dissociation of the corepressor complex and enhanced binding of HDAC3 to 14-3-3 or Pin1. In

  7. Histone deacetylase turnover and recovery in sulforaphane-treated colon cancer cells: competing actions of 14-3-3 and Pin1 in HDAC3/SMRT corepressor complex dissociation/reassembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams David E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical evaluation as anti-cancer agents. Dietary constituents share certain properties of HDAC inhibitor drugs, including the ability to induce global histone acetylation, turn-on epigenetically-silenced genes, and trigger cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or differentiation in cancer cells. One such example is sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate derived from the glucosinolate precursor glucoraphanin, which is abundant in broccoli. Here, we examined the time-course and reversibility of SFN-induced HDAC changes in human colon cancer cells. Results Cells underwent progressive G2/M arrest over the period 6-72 h after SFN treatment, during which time HDAC activity increased in the vehicle-treated controls but not in SFN-treated cells. There was a time-dependent loss of class I and selected class II HDAC proteins, with HDAC3 depletion detected ahead of other HDACs. Mechanism studies revealed no apparent effect of calpain, proteasome, protease or caspase inhibitors, but HDAC3 was rescued by cycloheximide or actinomycin D treatment. Among the protein partners implicated in the HDAC3 turnover mechanism, silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT was phosphorylated in the nucleus within 6 h of SFN treatment, as was HDAC3 itself. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed SFN-induced dissociation of HDAC3/SMRT complexes coinciding with increased binding of HDAC3 to 14-3-3 and peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase 1 (Pin1. Pin1 knockdown blocked the SFN-induced loss of HDAC3. Finally, SFN treatment for 6 or 24 h followed by SFN removal from the culture media led to complete recovery of HDAC activity and HDAC protein expression, during which time cells were released from G2/M arrest. Conclusion The current investigation supports a model in which protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates SMRT and HDAC3 in the nucleus, resulting in dissociation of the corepressor

  8. Substance P-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Balfe, A; Emson, P C

    1981-01-01

    Using immunocytochemistry we find substance P-like material in nerve cells of hydra. These nerve cells are situated in the ectoderm of the basal disk and tentacles. Radioimmunoassay of hydra extracts gives dilution curves parallel to that of synthetic substance P, from which it can be calculated ...

  9. What hydra has to say about the role and origin of symbiotic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Thomas C G

    2012-08-01

    The Hydra holobiont involves at least three types of organisms that all share a long coevolutionary history and appear to depend on each other. Here I review how symbiotic algae and stably associated bacteria interact with the Hydra host and where in the tissue they are located. In particular I discuss the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in maintaining Hydra's species-specific microbiota. I also discuss studies in Hydra viridis and its symbiotic Chlorella algae which indicate that the symbiotic algae are critically involved in the control of sexual differentiation in green Hydra. Finally, I review the state of "omics" in this tripartite association and the fact that the functioning of this holobiont is also a tale of several genomes.

  10. Performance Characteristics of HYDRA - a Multi-Physics simulation code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Steven H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Karlin, Ian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marinak, Marty M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-01-09

    HYDRA is used to simulate a variety of experiments carried out at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [4] and other high energy density physics facilities. HYDRA has packages to simulate radiation transfer, atomic physics, hydrodynamics, laser propagation, and a number of other physics effects. HYDRA has over one million lines of code and includes both MPI and thread-level (OpenMP and pthreads) parallelism. This paper measures the performance characteristics of HYDRA using hardware counters on an IBM BlueGene/Q system. We report key ratios such as bytes/instruction and memory bandwidth for several different physics packages. The total number of bytes read and written per time step is also reported. We show that none of the packages which use significant time are memory bandwidth limited on a Blue Gene/Q. HYDRA currently issues very few SIMD instructions. The pressure on memory bandwidth will increase if high levels of SIMD instructions can be achieved.

  11. Hydra effects in stable communities and their implications for system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Michael H; Abrams, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    A hydra effect occurs when the mean density of a species increases in response to greater mortality. We show that, in a stable multispecies system, a species exhibits a hydra effect only if maintaining that species at its equilibrium density destabilizes the system. The stability of the original system is due to the responses of the hydra-effect species to changes in the other species' densities. If that dynamical feedback is removed by fixing the density of the hydra-effect species, large changes in the community make-up (including the possibility of species extinction) can occur. This general result has several implications: (1) Hydra effects occur in a much wider variety of species and interaction webs than has previously been described, and may occur for multiple species, even in small webs; (2) conditions for hydra effects caused by predators (or diseases) often differ from those caused by other mortality factors; (3) introducing a specialist or a switching predator of a hydra-effect species often causes large changes in the community, which frequently involve extinction of other species; (4) harvest policies that attempt to maintain a constant density of a hydra-effect species may be difficult to implement, and, if successful, are likely to cause large changes in the densities of other species; and (5) trophic cascades and other indirect effects caused by predators of hydra-effect species can exhibit amplification of effects or unexpected directions of change. Although we concentrate on systems that are originally stable and models with no stage-structure or trait variation, the generality of our result suggests that similar responses to mortality will occur in many systems without these simplifying assumptions. In addition, while hydra effects are defined as responses to altered mortality, they also imply counterintuitive responses to changes in immigration and other parameters affecting population growth.

  12. Retrieval of exoplanet emission spectra with HyDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Siddharth; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2018-02-01

    Thermal emission spectra of exoplanets provide constraints on the chemical compositions, pressure-temperature (P-T) profiles, and energy transport in exoplanetary atmospheres. Accurate inferences of these properties rely on the robustness of the atmospheric retrieval methods employed. While extant retrieval codes have provided significant constraints on molecular abundances and temperature profiles in several exoplanetary atmospheres, the constraints on their deviations from thermal and chemical equilibria have yet to be fully explored. Our present work is a step in this direction. We report HyDRA, a disequilibrium retrieval framework for thermal emission spectra of exoplanetary atmospheres. The retrieval code uses the standard architecture of a parametric atmospheric model coupled with Bayesian statistical inference using the Nested Sampling algorithm. For a given dataset, the retrieved compositions and P-T profiles are used in tandem with the GENESIS self-consistent atmospheric model to constrain layer-by-layer deviations from chemical and radiative-convective equilibrium in the observable atmosphere. We demonstrate HyDRA on the Hot Jupiter WASP-43b with a high-precision emission spectrum. We retrieve an H2O mixing ratio of log(H2O) = -3.54^{+0.82}_{-0.52}, consistent with previous studies. We detect H2O and a combined CO/CO2 at 8-sigma significance. We find the dayside P-T profile to be consistent with radiative-convective equilibrium within the 1-sigma limits and with low day-night redistribution, consistent with previous studies. The derived compositions are also consistent with thermochemical equilibrium for the corresponding distribution of P-T profiles. In the era of high precision and high resolution emission spectroscopy, HyDRA provides a path to retrieve disequilibrium phenomena in exoplanetary atmospheres.

  13. Identification and characterization of VEGF and FGF from Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnapati, Lakshmi-Surekha; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) play important roles in the formation of the blood vascular system and in axon guidance, nervous system development and function. Here, we report isolation and characterization of VEGF and FGF homologues from Hydra vulgaris Ind-Pune, a Cnidarian which exhibits an organized nervous system and primitive epithelio-muscular cells. VEGF expression was prominent in the endoderm of the peduncle region and tentacles, as evident from in situ hybridization of whole polyps and its transverse sections. High levels of FGF were detected in the ectoderm of the budding region. The expression of VEGF in endodermal and FGF in interstitial cells was confirmed using sf-1 hydra, a temperature-sensitive mutant strain of Hydra magnipapillata. Tissue-specific expression of VEGF and FGF was confirmed by semi quantitative RT-PCR for ectodermal and endodermal tissues in H. vulgaris Ind-Pune. Treatment with SU5416, a specific inhibitor of the VEGF receptor, did not affect the whole polyp, but did delay both budding and head regeneration, suggesting a possible role of VEGF in nerve cell development, tube formation and/or in branching. FGF expression in the ectoderm of budding region, where the majority of interstitial stem cells reside suggests its role in interstitial stem cell maintenance. Further, activation of canonical Wnt signalling with the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor alsterpaullone caused down-regulation of VEGF and FGF, suggesting an antagonistic relationship between the Wnt and VEGF/FGF pathways. Our results indicate that VEGF and FGF evolved early in evolution, before the development of the blood vascular system, and open up the possibility of elucidating the evolutionarily ancient functions of VEGF and FGF.

  14. TW Hydrae: multi-wavelength interferometry of a transition disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menu, J.; van Boekel, R.; Henning, T.; Benisty, M.; Chandler, C. J.; Linz, H.; Waelkens, C.; Andrews, S. M.; Calvet, N.; Carpenter, J. M.; Corder, S. A.; Deller, A. T.; Dullemond, C. P.; Greaves, J. S.; Harris, R. J.; Isella, A.; Kwon, W.; Lazio, J.; Mundy, L. G.; Perez, L. M.; Ricci, L.; Sargent, A. I.; Storm, S.; Testi, L.; Wilner, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    For over a decade, the structure of the inner ``hole'' in the transition disk around TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. To probe the innermost regions of the protoplanetary disk, observations at the highest possible spatial resolution are required. We present new interferometric data of TW Hya from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths. We confront existing models of the disk structure with the complete data set and develop a new, detailed radiative-transfer model. This model is characterized by: 1) a spatial separation of the largest grains from the small disk grains; and 2) a smooth inner rim structure, rather than a sharp disk edge.

  15. Peptidomic approaches to the identification and characterization of functional peptides in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Fujisawa, Toshitaka

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about peptides that control developmental processes such as cell differentiation and pattern formation in metazoans. The cnidarian Hydra is one of the most basal metazoans and is a key model system for studying the peptides involved in these processes. We developed a novel peptidomic approach to the isolation and identification of functional signalling peptides from Hydra (the Hydra peptide project). First, peptides extracted from the tissue of Hydra magnipapillata are purified to homogeneity using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The isolated peptides are then tested for their ability to alter gene expression in Hydra using differential display-PCR (DD-PCR). If gene expression is altered, the peptide is considered as a putative signalling peptide and is subjected to amino acid sequencing. Following the sequencing, synthetic peptides are produced and compared to their native counterparts by HPLC and/or mass spectrometry (MS). The synthetic peptides, which are available in larger quantities than their native analogues, are then tested in a variety of biological assays in Hydra to determine their functions. Here we present our strategies and a systematic approach to the identification and characterization of novel signalling peptides in Hydra. We also describe our high-throughput reverse-phase nano-flow liquid chromatography matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-MALDI-TOF-MS/MS) approach, which was proved to be a powerful tool in the discovery of novel signalling peptides.

  16. Cloning of noggin gene from hydra and analysis of its functional conservation using Xenopus laevis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramore, Kalpana; Ito, Yuzuro; Takahashi, Shuji; Asashima, Makoto; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2010-01-01

    Hydra, a member of phylum Cnidaria that arose early in evolution, is endowed with a defined axis, organized nervous system, and active behavior. It is a powerful model system for the elucidation of evolution of developmental mechanisms in animals. Here, we describe the identification and cloning of noggin-like gene from hydra. Noggin is a secreted protein involved at multiple stages of vertebrate embryonic development including neural induction and is known to exert its effects by inhibiting the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-signaling pathway. Sequence analysis revealed that hydra Noggin shows considerable similarity with its orthologs at the amino acid level. When microinjected in the early Xenopus embryos, hydra noggin mRNA induced a secondary axis in 100% of the injected embryos, demonstrating functional conservation of hydra noggin in vertebrates. This was further confirmed by the partial rescue of Xenopus embryos by hydra noggin mRNA from UV-induced ventralization. By using animal cap assay in Xenopus embryos, we demonstrate that these effects of hydra noggin in Xenopus embryos are because of inhibition of BMP signaling by Noggin. Our data indicate that BMP/Noggin antagonism predates the bilaterian divergence and is conserved during the evolution.

  17. Biometric and statistical investigations on the cnidoma of the genus Hydra (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Deserti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals about the nematocysts like a source of biometric information for comparison between the species Hydra vulgaris Pallas, 1766, Hydra vulgaris pedunculata Deserti et al., 2011 and Hydra pseudoligactis (Hyman, 1931. This biometric tool lets us carry out statistical comparisons and adding these results to the identification of specimens from different classificatory groups. In this particular study, we obtained significant differences between species, individuals of each species and nematocysts type when compared the biometry of its nematocysts. Another result was the variation in of particular nematocysts, like atrichous isorhiza and holotrichous isorhiza for the species H. vulgaris in relation to the column size.

  18. Components, structure, biogenesis and function of the Hydra extracellular matrix in regeneration, pattern formation and cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarras, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    The body wall of Hydra is organized as an epithelial bilayer (ectoderm and endoderm) with an intervening extracellular matrix (ECM), termed mesoglea by early biologists. Morphological studies have determined that Hydra ECM is composed of two basal lamina layers positioned at the base of each epithelial layer with an intervening interstitial matrix. Molecular and biochemical analyses of Hydra ECM have established that it contains components similar to those seen in more complicated vertebrate species. These components include such macromolecules as laminin, type IV collagen, and various fibrillar collagens. These components are synthesized in a complicated manner involving cross-talk between the epithelial bilayer. Any perturbation to ECM biogenesis leads to a blockage in Hydra morphogenesis. Blockage in ECM/cell interactions in the adult polyp also leads to problems in epithelial transdifferentiation processes. In terms of biophysical parameters, Hydra ECM is highly flexible; a property that facilitates continuous movements along the organism's longitudinal and radial axis. This is in contrast to the more rigid matrices often found in vertebrates. The flexible nature of Hydra ECM can in part now be explained by the unique structure of the organism's type IV collagen and fibrillar collagens. This review will focus on Hydra ECM in regard to: 1) its general structure, 2) its molecular composition, 3) the biophysical basis for the flexible nature of Hydra's ECM, 4) the relationship of the biogenesis of Hydra ECM to regeneration of body form, and 5) the functional role of Hydra ECM during pattern formation and cell differentiation.

  19. Floating attenuator wave energy device: Wavegen HYDRA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research funded by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) into the feasibility of developing and constructing a floating attenuator wave energy device known as HYDRA following initial studies by Wavegen. HYDRA is a floating externally tensioned articulated raft wave energy generator based on work by Professor FJM Farley and colleagues during the 1980s. The project's first four work tasks confirmed the theoretical potential of the device but also highlighted significant practical problems in translating that potential into a viable design. It was therefore decided not to proceed further, i.e. not to construct and test a prototype device. The report provides a general description of the device and describes the results of the initial analysis and the first series of model tests. It then discusses device design and component testing and explains the methodology for determining device performance at a particular site and mathematical modelling of a one-third scale device. To help future research and development programmes, the report emphasises the generic problems associated with the development of wave devices.

  20. A secreted antibacterial neuropeptide shapes the microbiome of Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, René; Schröder, Katja; Murillo Rincón, Andrea P; Fraune, Sebastian; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Herbst, Eva-Maria; Wittlieb, Jörg; Schwentner, Martin; Grötzinger, Joachim; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2017-09-26

    Colonization of body epithelial surfaces with a highly specific microbial community is a fundamental feature of all animals, yet the underlying mechanisms by which these communities are selected and maintained are not well understood. Here, we show that sensory and ganglion neurons in the ectodermal epithelium of the model organism hydra (a member of the animal phylum Cnidaria) secrete neuropeptides with antibacterial activity that may shape the microbiome on the body surface. In particular, a specific neuropeptide, which we call NDA-1, contributes to the reduction of Gram-positive bacteria during early development and thus to a spatial distribution of the main colonizer, the Gram-negative Curvibacter sp., along the body axis. Our findings warrant further research to test whether neuropeptides secreted by nerve cells contribute to the spatial structure of microbial communities in other organisms.Certain neuropeptides, in addition to their neuromodulatory functions, display antibacterial activities of unclear significance. Here, the authors show that a secreted neuropeptide modulates the distribution of bacterial communities on the body surface during development of the model organism Hydra.

  1. Molecular Characterization of a Catalase from Hydra vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Bhagirathi; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Catalase, an antioxidant and hydroperoxidase enzyme protects the cellular environment from harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide by facilitating its degradation to oxygen and water. Molecular information on a cnidarian catalase and/or peroxidase is, however, limited. In this work an apparent full length cDNA sequence coding for a catalase (HvCatalase) was isolated from Hydra vulgaris using 3’- and 5’- (RLM) RACE approaches. The 1859 bp HvCatalase cDNA included an open reading frame of 1518 bp encoding a putative protein of 505 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 57.44 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of HvCatalase contained several highly conserved motifs including the heme-ligand signature sequence RLFSYGDTH and the active site signature FXRERIPERVVHAKGXGA. A comparative analysis showed the presence of conserved catalytic amino acids [His(71), Asn(145), and Tyr(354)] in HvCatalase as well. Homology modeling indicated the presence of the conserved features of mammalian catalase fold. Hydrae exposed to thermal, starvation, metal and oxidative stress responded by regulating its catalase mRNA transcription. These results indicated that the HvCatalase gene is involved in the cellular stress response and (anti)oxidative processes triggered by stressor and contaminant exposure. PMID:22521743

  2. From Hydra to Samvera: an open source community journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Awre

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Hydra Project started in 2008 through a partnership between the University of Hull, University of Virginia, Stanford University and Fedora Commons (now DuraSpace to create tools that support use of the Fedora digital repository. Hull adopted the software outputs from this collaboration for its institutional repository in 2011 and remains an active Partner in the community, serving on the Steering Group and fostering development of the community and software in the UK and mainland Europe: the community now has 35 formal Partners and over 70 known adopters internationally. In June 2017 Hydra changed its name to Samvera, Icelandic for ‘being together’, to recognise the value gained from multiple institutions working together to create the underlying common basis upon which multiple different repository solutions have been implemented. Samvera can be adopted through a set of tools to develop your own repository (using a package called Hyrax as the starting point and is also available as a complete repository solution, hosted or local, through the use of Hyku. The community has been at the heart of making Samvera a success, and will continue to underpin its future direction.

  3. Evo-devo: Hydra raises its Noggin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    blastema formation and D-V patterning of the body during regeneration (Ogawa et al. 2002). In addition, noggin is identified in sea urchin (Lapraz et al. 2006), amphioxus (Yu et al. 2007) and Ciona intestinalis (Imai et al. 2004). However, functional characterization of Noggin from these organisms has not yet been reported.

  4. Hydra actinoporin-like toxin-1, an unusual hemolysin from the nematocyst venom of Hydra magnipapillata which belongs to an extended gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Eliezra; Rachamim, Tamar; Aharonovich, Dikla; Sher, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Cnidarians rely on their nematocysts and the venom injected through these unique weaponry systems to catch prey and protect themselves from predators. The development and physiology of the nematocysts of Hydra magnipapillata, a classic model organism, have been intensively studied, yet the composition and biochemical activity of their venom components are mostly unknown. Here, we show that hydra actinoporin-like toxins (HALTs), which have previously been associated with Hydra nematocysts, belong to a multigene family comprising six genes, which have diverged from a single common ancestor. All six genes are expressed in a population of Hydra magnipapillata. When expressed recombinantly, HALT-1 (Δ-HYTX-Hma1a), an actinoporin-like protein found in the stenoteles (the main penetrating nematocysts used in prey capture), reveals hemolytic activity, albeit about two-thirds lower than that of the anemone actinoporin equinatoxin II (EqTII, Δ-AITX-Aeq1a). HALT-1 also differs from EqTII in the size of its pores, and likely does not utilize sphingomyelin as a membrane receptor. We describe features of the HALT-1 sequence which may contribute to this difference in activity, and speculate on the role of this unusual family of pore-forming toxins in the ecology of Hydra. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Symbiosis between hydra and chlorella: molecular phylogenetic analysis and experimental study provide insight into its origin and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaida, Hitomi; Ohba, Kohki; Koutake, Yuhki; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Tachida, Hidenori; Kobayakawa, Yoshitaka

    2013-03-01

    Although many physiological studies have been reported on the symbiosis between hydra and green algae, very little information from a molecular phylogenetic aspect of symbiosis is available. In order to understand the origin and evolution of symbiosis between the two organisms, we compared the phylogenetic relationships among symbiotic green algae with the phylogenetic relationships among host hydra strains. To do so, we reconstructed molecular phylogenetic trees of several strains of symbiotic chlorella harbored in the endodermal epithelial cells of viridissima group hydra strains and investigated their congruence with the molecular phylogenetic trees of the host hydra strains. To examine the species specificity between the host and the symbiont with respect to the genetic distance, we also tried to introduce chlorella strains into two aposymbiotic strains of viridissima group hydra in which symbiotic chlorella had been eliminated in advance. We discussed the origin and history of symbiosis between hydra and green algae based on the analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Loss of neurogenesis in Hydra leads to compensatory regulation of neurogenic and neurotransmission genes in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Y; Buzgariu, W; Galliot, B

    2016-01-05

    Hydra continuously differentiates a sophisticated nervous system made of mechanosensory cells (nematocytes) and sensory-motor and ganglionic neurons from interstitial stem cells. However, this dynamic adult neurogenesis is dispensable for morphogenesis. Indeed animals depleted of their interstitial stem cells and interstitial progenitors lose their active behaviours but maintain their developmental fitness, and regenerate and bud when force-fed. To characterize the impact of the loss of neurogenesis in Hydra, we first performed transcriptomic profiling at five positions along the body axis. We found neurogenic genes predominantly expressed along the central body column, which contains stem cells and progenitors, and neurotransmission genes predominantly expressed at the extremities, where the nervous system is dense. Next, we performed transcriptomics on animals depleted of their interstitial cells by hydroxyurea, colchicine or heat-shock treatment. By crossing these results with cell-type-specific transcriptomics, we identified epithelial genes up-regulated upon loss of neurogenesis: transcription factors (Dlx, Dlx1, DMBX1/Manacle, Ets1, Gli3, KLF11, LMX1A, ZNF436, Shox1), epitheliopeptides (Arminins, PW peptide), neurosignalling components (CAMK1D, DDCl2, Inx1), ligand-ion channel receptors (CHRNA1, NaC7), G-Protein Coupled Receptors and FMRFRL. Hence epitheliomuscular cells seemingly enhance their sensing ability when neurogenesis is compromised. This unsuspected plasticity might reflect the extended multifunctionality of epithelial-like cells in early eumetazoan evolution. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Molecular cloning of a preprohormone from Hydra magnipapillata containing multiple copies of Hydra-L Wamide (Leu-Trp-NH2) neuropeptides: evidence for processing at Ser and Asn residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leviev, I; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1997-01-01

    The simple, freshwater polyp Hydra is often used as a model to study development in cnidarians. Recently, a neuropeptide, ... from Hydra magnipapillata containing 11 (eight different) immature neuropeptide sequences that are structurally related to the metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide from sea anermones. During the final phase of our cloning experiments, another research team independently isolated and sequenced five....... Thus, the structure of the Hydra preprohormone confirms our earlier findings that cnidarian preprohormones contain unusual or novel processing sites. Nearly all neuropeptide copies located on the Hydra preprohormone will give rise to mature neuropeptides with a C-terminal Gly-Leu-Trp-NH2 sequence (the...

  8. Immunochemical Localization of GABAAReceptor Subunits in the Freshwater Polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concas, A; Imperatore, R; Santoru, F; Locci, A; Porcu, P; Cristino, L; Pierobon, P

    2016-11-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, responding to GABA positive allosteric modulators, are present in the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa), one of the most primitive metazoans to develop a nervous system. We examined the occurrence and distribution of GABA A receptor subunits in Hydra tissues by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Antibodies against different GABA A receptor subunits were used in Hydra membrane preparations. Unique protein bands, inhibited by the specific peptide, appeared at 35, 60, ∼50 and ∼52 kDa in membranes incubated with α3, β1, γ3 or δ antibodies, respectively. Immunohistochemical screening of whole mount Hydra preparations revealed diffuse immunoreactivity to α3, β1 or γ3 antibodies in tentacles, hypostome, and upper part of the gastric region; immunoreactive fibers were also present in the lower peduncle. By contrast, δ antibodies revealed a strong labeling in the lower gastric region and peduncle, as well as in tentacles. Double labeling showed colocalization of α3/β1, α3/γ3 and α3/δ immunoreactivity in granules or cells in tentacles and gastric region. In the peduncle, colocalization of both α3/β1 and α3/γ3 immunoreactivity was found in fibers running horizontally above the foot. These data indicate that specific GABA A receptor subunits are present and differentially distributed in Hydra body regions. Subunit colocalization suggests that Hydra GABA receptors are heterologous multimers, possibly sub-serving different physiological activities.

  9. Understanding complex host-microbe interactions in Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Thomas C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Any multicellular organism may be considered a metaorganism or holobiont—comprised of the macroscopic host and synergistic interdependence with bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and numerous other microbial and eukaryotic species including algal symbionts. Defining the individual microbe-host conversations in these consortia is a challenging but necessary step on the path to understanding the function of the associations as a whole. Dissecting the fundamental principles that underlie all host-microbe interactions requires simple animal models with only a few specific bacterial species. Here I present Hydra as such a model with one of the simplest epithelia in the animal kingdom, with the availability of a fully sequenced genome and numerous genomic tools, and with few associated bacterial species. PMID:22688725

  10. 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of hohlraums including fill tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J.; Hammel, B. A.; Macphee, A. G.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of fill tube perturbations from hydro growth radiography (HGR) experiments on the National Ignition Facility show spoke perturbations in the ablator radiating from the base of the tube. These correspond to the shadow of the 10 μm diameter glass fill tube cast by hot spots at early time. We present 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of these experiments which include the fill tube. Meshing techniques are described which were employed to resolve the fill tube structure and associated perturbations in the simulations. We examine the extent to which the specific illumination geometry necessary to accommodate a backlighter in the HGR experiment contributes to the spoke pattern. Simulations presented include high resolution calculations run on the Trinity machine operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES) partnership. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Hydra vulgaris (Hydroida: Hydridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Chun; Fang, Hong-Yan; Li, Shi-Wei; Liu, Jun-Hong; Wang, Ying; Wang, An-Tai

    2014-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Hydra vulgaris (Hydroida: Hydridae) is composed of two linear DNA molecules. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule 1 is 8010 bp long and contains six protein-coding genes, large subunit rRNA, methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, two pseudogenes consisting respectively of a partial copy of COI, and terminal sequences at two ends of the linear mtDNA, while the mtDNA molecule 2 is 7576 bp long and contains seven protein-coding genes, small subunit rRNA, methionine tRNA, a pseudogene consisting of a partial copy of COI and terminal sequences at two ends of the linear mtDNA. COI gene begins with GTG as start codon, whereas other 12 protein-coding genes start with a typical ATG initiation codon. In addition, all protein-coding genes are terminated with TAA as stop codon.

  12. Hydra: a service oriented architecture for scientific simulation integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Russell [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Djidjev, Tatiana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hayes, Birch P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holland, Joe V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khalsa, Hari S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Linger, Steve P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mathis, Mark M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mniszewski, Sue M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bush, Brian [NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LAB

    2008-01-01

    One of the current major challenges in scientific modeling and simulation, in particular in the infrastructure-analysis community, is the development of techniques for efficiently and automatically coupling disparate tools that exist in separate locations on different platforms, implemented in a variety of languages and designed to be standalone. Recent advances in web-based platforms for integrating systems such as SOA provide an opportunity to address these challenges in a systematic fashion. This paper describes Hydra, an integrating architecture for infrastructure modeling and simulation that defines geography-based schemas that, when used to wrap existing tools as web services, allow for seamless plug-and-play composability. Existing users of these tools can enhance the value of their analysis by assessing how the simulations of one tool impact the behavior of another tool and can automate existing ad hoc processes and work flows for integrating tools together.

  13. Robust G2 pausing of adult stem cells in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzgariu, Wanda; Crescenzi, Marco; Galliot, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Hydra is a freshwater hydrozoan polyp that constantly renews its two tissue layers thanks to three distinct stem cell populations that cannot replace each other, epithelial ectodermal, epithelial endodermal, and multipotent interstitial. These adult stem cells, located in the central body column, exhibit different cycling paces, slow for the epithelial, fast for the interstitial. To monitor the changes in cell cycling in Hydra, we established a fast and efficient flow cytometry procedure, which we validated by confirming previous findings, as the Nocodazole-induced reversible arrest of cell cycling in G2/M, and the mitogenic signal provided by feeding. Then to dissect the cycling and differentiation behaviors of the interstitial stem cells, we used the AEP_cnnos1 and AEP_Icy1 transgenic lines that constitutively express GFP in this lineage. For the epithelial lineages we used the sf-1 strain that rapidly eliminates the fast cycling cells upon heat-shock and progressively becomes epithelial. This study evidences similar cycling patterns for the interstitial and epithelial stem cells, which all alternate between the G2 and S-phases traversing a minimal G1-phase. We also found interstitial progenitors with a shorter G2 that pause in G1/G0. At the animal extremities, most cells no longer cycle, the epithelial cells terminally differentiate in G2 and the interstitial progenitors in G1/G0. At the apical pole ~80% cells are post-mitotic differentiated cells, reflecting the higher density of neurons and nematocytes in this region. We discuss how the robust G2 pausing of stem cells, maintained over weeks of starvation, may contribute to regeneration. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Three homologous subunits form a high affinity peptide-gated ion channel in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrnagel, Stefan; Kuhn, Anne; Tsiairis, Charisios D; Williamson, Michael; Kalbacher, Hubert; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Holstein, Thomas W; Gründer, Stefan

    2010-04-16

    Recently, three ion channel subunits of the degenerin (DEG)/epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) gene family have been cloned from the freshwater polyp Hydra magnipapillata, the Hydra Na(+) channels (HyNaCs) 2-4. Two of them, HyNaC2 and HyNaC3, co-assemble to form an ion channel that is gated by the neuropeptides Hydra-RFamides I and II. The HyNaC2/3 channel is so far the only cloned ionotropic receptor from cnidarians and, together with the related ionotropic receptor FMRFamide-activated Na(+) channel (FaNaC) from snails, the only known peptide-gated ionotropic receptor. The HyNaC2/3 channel has pore properties, like a low Na(+) selectivity and a low amiloride affinity, that are different from other channels of the DEG/ENaC gene family, suggesting that a component of the native Hydra channel might still be lacking. Here, we report the cloning of a new ion channel subunit from Hydra, HyNaC5. The new subunit is closely related to HyNaC2 and -3 and co-localizes with HyNaC2 and -3 to the base of the tentacles. Coexpression in Xenopus oocytes of HyNaC5 with HyNaC2 and -3 largely increases current amplitude after peptide stimulation and affinity of the channel to Hydra-RFamides I and II. Moreover, the HyNaC2/3/5 channel has altered pore properties and amiloride affinity, more similarly to other DEG/ENaC channels. Collectively, our results suggest that the three homologous subunits HyNaC2, -3, and -5 form a peptide-gated ion channel in Hydra that could contribute to fast synaptic transmission.

  15. Fluorescent nanocrystals reveal regulated portals of entry into and between the cells of Hydra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Tortiglione

    Full Text Available Initially viewed as innovative carriers for biomedical applications, with unique photophysical properties and great versatility to be decorated at their surface with suitable molecules, nanoparticles can also play active roles in mediating biological effects, suggesting the need to deeply investigate the mechanisms underlying cell-nanoparticle interaction and to identify the molecular players. Here we show that the cell uptake of fluorescent CdSe/CdS quantum rods (QRs by Hydra vulgaris, a simple model organism at the base of metazoan evolution, can be tuned by modifying nanoparticle surface charge. At acidic pH, amino-PEG coated QRs, showing positive surface charge, are actively internalized by tentacle and body ectodermal cells, while negatively charged nanoparticles are not uptaken. In order to identify the molecular factors underlying QR uptake at acidic pH, we provide functional evidence of annexins involvement and explain the QR uptake as the combined result of QR positive charge and annexin membrane insertion. Moreover, tracking QR labelled cells during development and regeneration allowed us to uncover novel intercellular trafficking and cell dynamics underlying the remarkable plasticity of this ancient organism.

  16. The phosphatidylserine receptor from Hydra is a nuclear protein with potential Fe(II dependent oxygenase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiening Beate

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptotic cell death plays an essential part in embryogenesis, development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis in metazoan animals. The culmination of apoptosis in vivo is the phagocytosis of cellular corpses. One morphological characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis is loss of plasma membrane phospholipid asymmetry and exposure of phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet. Surface exposure of phosphatidylserine is recognised by a specific receptor (phosphatidylserine receptor, PSR and is required for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages and fibroblasts. Results We have cloned the PSR receptor from Hydra in order to investigate its function in this early metazoan. Bioinformatic analysis of the Hydra PSR protein structure revealed the presence of three nuclear localisation signals, an AT-hook like DNA binding motif and a putative 2-oxoglutarate (2OG-and Fe(II-dependent oxygenase activity. All of these features are conserved from human PSR to Hydra PSR. Expression of GFP tagged Hydra PSR in hydra cells revealed clear nuclear localisation. Deletion of one of the three NLS sequences strongly diminished nuclear localisation of the protein. Membrane localisation was never detected. Conclusions Our results suggest that Hydra PSR is a nuclear 2-oxoglutarate (2OG-and Fe(II-dependent oxygenase. This is in contrast with the proposed function of Hydra PSR as a cell surface receptor involved in the recognition of apoptotic cells displaying phosphatidylserine on their surface. The conservation of the protein from Hydra to human infers that our results also apply to PSR from higher animals.

  17. Algal endosymbionts in European Hydra strains reflect multiple origins of the zoochlorella symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajević, Nives; Kovačević, Goran; Kalafatić, Mirjana; Gould, Sven B; Martin, William F; Franjević, Damjan

    2015-12-01

    Symbiotic associations are of broad significance in evolution and biodiversity. Green Hydra is a classic example of endosymbiosis. In its gastrodermal myoepithelial cells it harbors endosymbiotic unicellular green algae, most commonly from the genus Chlorella. We reconstructed the phylogeny of cultured algal endosymbionts isolated and maintained in laboratory conditions for years from green Hydra strains collected from four different geographical sites within Croatia, one from Germany and one from Israel. Nuclear (18S rDNA, ITS region) and chloroplast markers (16S, rbcL) for maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were used. We focused on investigating the positions of these algal endosymbiotic strains within the chlorophyte lineage. Molecular analyses established that different genera and species of unicellular green algae are present as endosymbionts in green Hydra, showing that endosymbiotic algae growing within green Hydra sampled from four Croatian localities are not monophyletic. Our results indicate that the intracellular algal endosymbionts of green Hydra have become established several times independently in evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Three homologous subunits form a high affinity peptide-gated ion channel in Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dürrnagel, Stefan; Kuhn, Anne; Tsiairis, Charisios D

    2010-01-01

    Recently, three ion channel subunits of the degenerin (DEG)/epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) gene family have been cloned from the freshwater polyp Hydra magnipapillata, the Hydra Na(+) channels (HyNaCs) 2-4. Two of them, HyNaC2 and HyNaC3, co-assemble to form an ion channel that is gated...... by the neuropeptides Hydra-RFamides I and II. The HyNaC2/3 channel is so far the only cloned ionotropic receptor from cnidarians and, together with the related ionotropic receptor FMRFamide-activated Na(+) channel (FaNaC) from snails, the only known peptide-gated ionotropic receptor. The HyNaC2/3 channel has pore...... properties, like a low Na(+) selectivity and a low amiloride affinity, that are different from other channels of the DEG/ENaC gene family, suggesting that a component of the native Hydra channel might still be lacking. Here, we report the cloning of a new ion channel subunit from Hydra, HyNaC5. The new...

  19. Development and population growth of Hydra viridissima Pallas, 1766 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FC. Massaro

    Full Text Available Hydras, the most representative freshwater Cnidaria, are of common occurrence in bodies of water in every continent except Antarctica. This study was planned with the aim of maintaining a population of Hydra viridissima in laboratory culture to enable the determination of the individual and population growth-rates of this species, as well as its population doubling time and generation time, with a view to employing these common animals as test-organisms in ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were maintained in reconstituted water at 20 ± 2 °C, illuminated at 800 lux with a photoperiod of 12 hours light: 12 hours dark, and were fed on neonates of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii (3 or 4 neonates per hydra, 3 times a week. The individual growth-rate (k of the species was 0.43, the maximum length of the column 2.53 mm and the generation time 6.6 ± 1.5 days on average. The hydra population showed an intrinsic growth-rate (r of 0.0468, according to the fitted curve, and a doubling time of 14.8 ± 2.63 days. Hydra viridissima is easy to grow in the laboratory and performs well in the conditions used in this study. It is thus a promising candidate test-organism for ecotoxicological studies.

  20. Hydra-TH User's Manual, Version: LA-CC-11120, Dated: December 1, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christon, Mark A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bakosi, Jozsef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lowrie, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-19

    Hydra-TH is a hybrid finite-element/finite-volume code built using the Hydra toolkit specifically to attack a broad class of incompressible, viscous fluid dynamics problems prevalent in the thermalhydraulics community. The purpose for this manual is provide sufficient information for an experience analyst to use Hydra-TH in an effective way. The Hydra-TH User's Manual present a brief overview of capabilities and visualization interfaces. The execution and restart models are described before turning to the detailed description of keyword input. Finally, a series of example problems are presented with sufficient data to permit the user to verify the local installation of Hydra-TH, and to permit a convenient starting point for more detailed and complex analyses.

  1. Sloshing in its cD halo: MUSE kinematics of the central galaxy NGC 3311 in the Hydra I cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C. E.; Arnaboldi, M.; Coccato, L.; Gerhard, O.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Hilker, M.; Richtler, T.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Early-type galaxies (ETGs) show a strong size evolution with redshift. This evolution is explained by fast "in-situ" star formation at high-z followed by a late mass assembly mostly driven by minor mergers that deposit stars primarily in the outer halo. Aims: We aim to identify the main structural components of the Hydra I cD galaxy NGC 3311 to investigate the connection between the central galaxy and the surrounding stellar halo. Methods: We produce maps of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) moments from a mosaic of MUSE pointings covering NGC 3311 out to 25 kpc. Combining deep photometric and spectroscopic data, we model the LOSVD maps using a finite mixture distribution, including four non-concentric components that are nearly isothermal spheroids, with different line-of-sight systemic velocities V, velocity dispersions σ, and small (constant) values of the higher order Gauss-Hermite moments h3 and h4. Results: The kinemetry analysis indicates that NGC 3311 is classified as a slow rotator, although the galaxy shows a line-of-sight velocity gradient along the photometric major axis. The comparison of the correlations between h3 and h4 with V/σ with simulated galaxies indicates that NGC 3311 assembled mainly through dry mergers. The σ profile rises to ≃ 400 km s-1 at 20 kpc, a significant fraction (0.55) of the Hydra I cluster velocity dispersion, indicating that stars there were stripped from progenitors orbiting in the cluster core. The finite mixture distribution modeling supports three inner components related to the central galaxy and a fourth component with large effective radius (51 kpc) and velocity dispersion (327 km s-1) consistent with a cD envelope. We find that the cD envelope is offset from the center of NGC 3311 both spatially (8.6 kpc) and in velocity (ΔV = 204 km s-1), but coincides with the cluster core X-ray isophotes and the mean velocity of core galaxies. Also, the envelope contributes to the broad wings of the

  2. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, Yasuharu; Hwang, Jung Shan; Wolf, Alexander; Böttger, Angelika; Shimizu, Hiroshi; David, Charles N.; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential for this behavior, although nerve cells in Hydra are organized in a diffuse network and do not form ganglia. Here we show that the gap junction protein innexin-2 is expressed in a small group of nerve cells in the lower body column of Hydra and that an anti-innexin-2 antibody binds to gap junctions in the same region. Treatment of live animals with innexin-2 antibody eliminates gap junction staining and reduces spontaneous body column contractions. We conclude that a small subset of nerve cells, connected by gap junctions and capable of synchronous firing, act as a pacemaker to coordinate the contraction of the body column in the absence of ganglia.

  3. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps

    KAUST Repository

    Takaku, Yasuharu

    2014-01-07

    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential for this behavior, although nerve cells in Hydra are organized in a diffuse network and do not form ganglia. Here we show that the gap junction protein innexin-2 is expressed in a small group of nerve cells in the lower body column of Hydra and that an anti-innexin-2 antibody binds to gap junctions in the same region. Treatment of live animals with innexin-2 antibody eliminates gap junction staining and reduces spontaneous body column contractions. We conclude that a small subset of nerve cells, connected by gap junctions and capable of synchronous firing, act as a pacemaker to coordinate the contraction of the body column in the absence of ganglia.

  4. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, Yasuharu; Hwang, Jung Shan; Wolf, Alexander; Böttger, Angelika; Shimizu, Hiroshi; David, Charles N; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-07

    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential for this behavior, although nerve cells in Hydra are organized in a diffuse network and do not form ganglia. Here we show that the gap junction protein innexin-2 is expressed in a small group of nerve cells in the lower body column of Hydra and that an anti-innexin-2 antibody binds to gap junctions in the same region. Treatment of live animals with innexin-2 antibody eliminates gap junction staining and reduces spontaneous body column contractions. We conclude that a small subset of nerve cells, connected by gap junctions and capable of synchronous firing, act as a pacemaker to coordinate the contraction of the body column in the absence of ganglia.

  5. Development of the two-part pattern during regeneration of the head in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bode, Matthias; Awad, T A; Koizumi, O

    1988-01-01

    The head of a hydra is composed of two parts, a domed hypostome with a mouth at the top and a ring of tentacles below. When animals are decapitated a new head regenerates. During the process of regeneration the apical tip passes through a transient stage in which it exhibits tentacle-like charact......The head of a hydra is composed of two parts, a domed hypostome with a mouth at the top and a ring of tentacles below. When animals are decapitated a new head regenerates. During the process of regeneration the apical tip passes through a transient stage in which it exhibits tentacle......-Phe-amide (RFamide), which in the head of hydra is specific to the sensory cells of the hypostomal apex and the ganglion cells of the lower hypostome and tentacles. The TS-19 expression and the ganglion cells with RFamide-like immunoreactivity (RLI) arose first at the apex and spread radially. Once the tentacles...

  6. Regional modulation of the response to glutathione in Hydra vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierobon, Paola

    2015-07-01

    In the presence of prey, or upon exposure to reduced glutathione (GSH), Hydra polyps open a mouth to ingest the captured prey and close it after feeding; at rest the mouth is not evident. In previous papers we have shown that GABA, glycine and NMDA modulate the mechanisms of mouth closure through ligand-gated-ion-channel receptors that are similar to their mammalian analogues in terms of biochemical and pharmacological properties. In order to study the regional distribution of these receptors, we have applied the GSH assay to polyps amputated at different levels of the body column. The response to 1-10 µmol l(-1) GSH of polyps lacking either peduncle and foot or the entire body columns (heads) was not different from control, whole animals. In the presence of GABA or muscimol, duration of the response was significantly decreased in heads; the decrease was suppressed by the GABA antagonists gabazine and bicuculline. By contrast, in animals lacking peduncle and foot, duration of the response did not vary upon GABA administration. Conversely, in the presence of glycine, duration of the response in heads preparations was similar to control, whereas in footless polyps, it was significantly reduced. The decrease was mimicked by the glycine agonists taurine and β-alanine, and counteracted by strychnine. These results suggest a regional distribution of receptors to GABA and glycine in the neuromuscular circuitry modulating the feeding behaviour. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Slow-cycling stem cells in hydra contribute to head regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy, Niraimathi; Murthy, Supriya; Ghanekar, Yashoda

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adult stem cells face the challenge of maintaining tissue homeostasis by self-renewal while maintaining their proliferation potential over the lifetime of an organism. Continuous proliferation can cause genotoxic/metabolic stress that can compromise the genomic integrity of stem cells. To prevent stem cell exhaustion, highly proliferative adult tissues maintain a pool of quiescent stem cells that divide only in response to injury and thus remain protected from genotoxic stress. Hydra is a remarkable organism with highly proliferative stem cells and ability to regenerate at whole animal level. Intriguingly, hydra does not display consequences of high proliferation, such as senescence or tumour formation. In this study, we investigate if hydra harbours a pool of slow-cycling stem cells that could help prevent undesirable consequences of continuous proliferation. Hydra were pulsed with the thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) and then chased in the absence of EdU to monitor the presence of EdU-retaining cells. A significant number of undifferentiated cells of all three lineages in hydra retained EdU for about 8–10 cell cycles, indicating that these cells did not enter cell cycle. These label-retaining cells were resistant to hydroxyurea treatment and were predominantly in the G2 phase of cell cycle. Most significantly, similar to mammalian quiescent stem cells, these cells rapidly entered cell division during head regeneration. This study shows for the first time that, contrary to current beliefs, cells in hydra display heterogeneity in their cell cycle potential and the slow-cycling cells in this population enter cell cycle during head regeneration. These results suggest an early evolution of slow-cycling stem cells in multicellular animals. PMID:25432513

  8. Generation and Long-term Maintenance of Nerve-free Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cassidy M; Fu, Sharon; Rowe, Trevor; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2017-07-07

    The interstitial cell lineage of Hydra includes multipotent stem cells, and their derivatives: gland cells, nematocytes, germ cells, and nerve cells. The interstitial cells can be eliminated through two consecutive treatments with colchicine, a plant-derived toxin that kills dividing cells, thus erasing the potential for renewal of the differentiated cells that are derived from the interstitial stem cells. This allows for the generation of Hydra that lack nerve cells. A nerve-free polyp cannot open its mouth to feed, egest, or regulate osmotic pressure. Such animals, however, can survive and be cultured indefinitely in the laboratory if regularly force-fed and burped. The lack of nerve cells allows for studies of the role of the nervous system in regulating animal behavior and regeneration. Previously published protocols for nerve-free Hydra maintenance involve outdated techniques such as mouth-pipetting with hand-pulled micropipette tips to feed and clean the Hydra. Here, an improved protocol for maintenance of nerve-free Hydra is introduced. Fine-tipped forceps are used to force open the mouth and insert freshly killed Artemia. Following force-feeding, the body cavity of the animal is flushed with fresh medium using a syringe and hypodermic needle to remove undigested material, referred to here as "burping". This new method of force-feeding and burping nerve-free Hydra through the use of forceps and syringes eliminates the need for mouth-pipetting using hand-pulled micropipette tips. It thus makes the process safer and significantly more time efficient. To ensure that the nerve cells in the hypostome have been eliminated, immunohistochemistry using anti-tyrosine-tubulin is conducted.

  9. Slow-cycling stem cells in hydra contribute to head regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraimathi Govindasamy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells face the challenge of maintaining tissue homeostasis by self-renewal while maintaining their proliferation potential over the lifetime of an organism. Continuous proliferation can cause genotoxic/metabolic stress that can compromise the genomic integrity of stem cells. To prevent stem cell exhaustion, highly proliferative adult tissues maintain a pool of quiescent stem cells that divide only in response to injury and thus remain protected from genotoxic stress. Hydra is a remarkable organism with highly proliferative stem cells and ability to regenerate at whole animal level. Intriguingly, hydra does not display consequences of high proliferation, such as senescence or tumour formation. In this study, we investigate if hydra harbours a pool of slow-cycling stem cells that could help prevent undesirable consequences of continuous proliferation. Hydra were pulsed with the thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU and then chased in the absence of EdU to monitor the presence of EdU-retaining cells. A significant number of undifferentiated cells of all three lineages in hydra retained EdU for about 8–10 cell cycles, indicating that these cells did not enter cell cycle. These label-retaining cells were resistant to hydroxyurea treatment and were predominantly in the G2 phase of cell cycle. Most significantly, similar to mammalian quiescent stem cells, these cells rapidly entered cell division during head regeneration. This study shows for the first time that, contrary to current beliefs, cells in hydra display heterogeneity in their cell cycle potential and the slow-cycling cells in this population enter cell cycle during head regeneration. These results suggest an early evolution of slow-cycling stem cells in multicellular animals.

  10. Evolution of hydra, a recently evolved testis-expressed gene with nine alternative first exons in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Tao Chen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the Drosophila gene hydra that appears to have originated de novo in the melanogaster subgroup and subsequently evolved in both structure and expression level in Drosophila melanogaster and its sibling species. D. melanogaster hydra encodes a predicted protein of approximately 300 amino acids with no apparent similarity to any previously known proteins. The syntenic region flanking hydra on both sides is found in both D. ananassae and D. pseudoobscura, but hydra is found only in melanogaster subgroup species, suggesting that it originated less than approximately 13 million y ago. Exon 1 of hydra has undergone recurrent duplications, leading to the formation of nine tandem alternative exon 1s in D. melanogaster. Seven of these alternative exons are flanked on their 3' side by the transposon DINE-1 (Drosophila interspersed element-1. We demonstrate that at least four of the nine duplicated exon 1s can function as alternative transcription start sites. The entire hydra locus has also duplicated in D. simulans and D. sechellia. D. melanogaster hydra is expressed most intensely in the proximal testis, suggesting a role in late-stage spermatogenesis. The coding region of hydra has a relatively high Ka/Ks ratio between species, but the ratio is less than 1 in all comparisons, suggesting that hydra is subject to functional constraint. Analysis of sequence polymorphism and divergence of hydra shows that it has evolved under positive selection in the lineage leading to D. melanogaster. The dramatic structural changes surrounding the first exons do not affect the tissue specificity of gene expression: hydra is expressed predominantly in the testes in D. melanogaster, D. simulans, and D. yakuba. However, we have found that expression level changed dramatically (approximately >20-fold between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. While hydra initially evolved in the absence of nearby transposable element insertions, we suggest that the subsequent

  11. The Hydra regeneration assay reveals ecological risks in running waters: a new proposal to detect environmental teratogenic threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversetti, Lorenzo; Del Grosso, Floriano; Malafoglia, Valentina; Colasanti, Marco; Ceschin, Simona; Larsen, Stefano; Scalici, Massimiliano

    2017-03-01

    The regenerative ability of Hydra vulgaris was tested as potential biomarker for the development of a new eco-toxicological index. The test is based on the regeneration rate and the aberration frequency of the columna (body and adhesive foot) after separation from head and tentacles by a bistoury. Particularly, 45 columnae were submerged in the rearing solution (that is Hydra medium) to have control, and 285 in potential contaminated waters to have treatments, collected from 19 sites along 10 rivers in central Italy. ANCOVA and chi-square tests were used to compare values from each site to a laboratory control. Subsequently the values on regeneration rate and aberration frequency were inserted in a double entry matrix, where the match of the two entries in the matrix provides the score of the proposed Teratogenic Risk Index (TRI). Each score corresponded to one of the 5 teratogenic risk classes, to which a risk level was associated: from 1 (no risk) to 5 (very high risk). On the whole, 32% of the studied sites were classified as no teratogenic risk while the remaining showed a variable risk level from low to very high. This study proposed for the first time an early warning system to detect the presence of teratogens in running waters, providing a rapid and cost-effective evaluation method. Therefore, TRI may contribute to initiate adequate measures to manage riverine habitats, and to monitor the running water teratogenic status. Specifically, this index may provide the opportunity to identify the disturbance sources and then to drive the decisions, together with competent authorities, on the catchment and landscape management and on the possible use of waters for urban, agricultural, and industrial activities, since they may show significant effects on the human health.

  12. Hydra myc2, a unique pre-bilaterian member of the myc gene family, is activated in cell proliferation and gametogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Markus; Glasauer, Stella; Valovka, Taras; Breuker, Kathrin; Hobmayer, Bert; Bister, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The myc protooncogene encodes the Myc transcription factor which is the essential part of the Myc–Max network controlling fundamental cellular processes. Deregulation of myc leads to tumorigenesis and is a hallmark of many human cancers. We have recently identified homologs of myc (myc1, myc2) and max in the early diploblastic cnidarian Hydra and have characterized myc1 in detail. Here we show that myc2 is transcriptionally activated in the interstitial stem cell system. Furthermore, in contrast to myc1, myc2 expression is also detectable in proliferating epithelial stem cells throughout the gastric region. myc2 but not myc1 is activated in cycling precursor cells during early oogenesis and spermatogenesis, suggesting that the Hydra Myc2 protein has a possible non-redundant function in cell cycle progression. The Myc2 protein displays the principal design and properties of vertebrate Myc proteins. In complex with Max, Myc2 binds to DNA with similar affinity as Myc1–Max heterodimers. Immunoprecipitation of Hydra chromatin revealed that both Myc1 and Myc2 bind to the enhancer region of CAD, a classical Myc target gene in mammals. Luciferase reporter gene assays showed that Myc1 but not Myc2 transcriptionally activates the CAD promoter. Myc2 has oncogenic potential when tested in primary avian fibroblasts but to a lower degree as compared to Myc1. The identification of an additional myc gene in Cnidaria, a phylum that diverged prior to bilaterians, with characteristic expression patterns in tissue homeostasis and developmental processes suggests that principle functions of myc genes have arisen very early in metazoan evolution. PMID:24771621

  13. Hydra myc2, a unique pre-bilaterian member of the myc gene family, is activated in cell proliferation and gametogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hartl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The myc protooncogene encodes the Myc transcription factor which is the essential part of the Myc–Max network controlling fundamental cellular processes. Deregulation of myc leads to tumorigenesis and is a hallmark of many human cancers. We have recently identified homologs of myc (myc1, myc2 and max in the early diploblastic cnidarian Hydra and have characterized myc1 in detail. Here we show that myc2 is transcriptionally activated in the interstitial stem cell system. Furthermore, in contrast to myc1, myc2 expression is also detectable in proliferating epithelial stem cells throughout the gastric region. myc2 but not myc1 is activated in cycling precursor cells during early oogenesis and spermatogenesis, suggesting that the Hydra Myc2 protein has a possible non-redundant function in cell cycle progression. The Myc2 protein displays the principal design and properties of vertebrate Myc proteins. In complex with Max, Myc2 binds to DNA with similar affinity as Myc1–Max heterodimers. Immunoprecipitation of Hydra chromatin revealed that both Myc1 and Myc2 bind to the enhancer region of CAD, a classical Myc target gene in mammals. Luciferase reporter gene assays showed that Myc1 but not Myc2 transcriptionally activates the CAD promoter. Myc2 has oncogenic potential when tested in primary avian fibroblasts but to a lower degree as compared to Myc1. The identification of an additional myc gene in Cnidaria, a phylum that diverged prior to bilaterians, with characteristic expression patterns in tissue homeostasis and developmental processes suggests that principle functions of myc genes have arisen very early in metazoan evolution.

  14. Horizontal gene transfer contributed to the evolution of extracellular surface structures: the freshwater polyp Hydra is covered by a complex fibrous cuticle containing glycosaminoglycans and proteins of the PPOD and SWT (sweet tooth) families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, Angelika; Doxey, Andrew C; Hess, Michael W; Pfaller, Kristian; Salvenmoser, Willi; Deutzmann, Rainer; Geissner, Andreas; Pauly, Barbara; Altstätter, Johannes; Münder, Sandra; Heim, Astrid; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; McConkey, Brendan J; David, Charles N

    2012-01-01

    The single-cell layered ectoderm of the fresh water polyp Hydra fulfills the function of an epidermis by protecting the animals from the surrounding medium. Its outer surface is covered by a fibrous structure termed the cuticle layer, with similarity to the extracellular surface coats of mammalian epithelia. In this paper we have identified molecular components of the cuticle. We show that its outermost layer contains glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans and we have identified chondroitin and chondroitin-6-sulfate chains. In a search for proteins that could be involved in organising this structure we found PPOD proteins and several members of a protein family containing only SWT (sweet tooth) domains. Structural analyses indicate that PPODs consist of two tandem β-trefoil domains with similarity to carbohydrate-binding sites found in lectins. Experimental evidence confirmed that PPODs can bind sulfated glycans and are secreted into the cuticle layer from granules localized under the apical surface of the ectodermal epithelial cells. PPODs are taxon-specific proteins which appear to have entered the Hydra genome by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. Their acquisition at the time Hydra evolved from a marine ancestor may have been critical for the transition to the freshwater environment.

  15. Horizontal gene transfer contributed to the evolution of extracellular surface structures: the freshwater polyp Hydra is covered by a complex fibrous cuticle containing glycosaminoglycans and proteins of the PPOD and SWT (sweet tooth families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Böttger

    Full Text Available The single-cell layered ectoderm of the fresh water polyp Hydra fulfills the function of an epidermis by protecting the animals from the surrounding medium. Its outer surface is covered by a fibrous structure termed the cuticle layer, with similarity to the extracellular surface coats of mammalian epithelia. In this paper we have identified molecular components of the cuticle. We show that its outermost layer contains glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans and we have identified chondroitin and chondroitin-6-sulfate chains. In a search for proteins that could be involved in organising this structure we found PPOD proteins and several members of a protein family containing only SWT (sweet tooth domains. Structural analyses indicate that PPODs consist of two tandem β-trefoil domains with similarity to carbohydrate-binding sites found in lectins. Experimental evidence confirmed that PPODs can bind sulfated glycans and are secreted into the cuticle layer from granules localized under the apical surface of the ectodermal epithelial cells. PPODs are taxon-specific proteins which appear to have entered the Hydra genome by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. Their acquisition at the time Hydra evolved from a marine ancestor may have been critical for the transition to the freshwater environment.

  16. Two-step evolution of endosymbiosis between hydra and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masakazu; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. On the structure of the transition disk around TW Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menu, J.; van Boekel, R.; Henning, Th.; Chandler, C. J.; Linz, H.; Benisty, M.; Lacour, S.; Min, M.; Waelkens, C.; Andrews, S. M.; Calvet, N.; Carpenter, J. M.; Corder, S. A.; Deller, A. T.; Greaves, J. S.; Harris, R. J.; Isella, A.; Kwon, W.; Lazio, J.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Ménard, F.; Mundy, L. G.; Pérez, L. M.; Ricci, L.; Sargent, A. I.; Storm, S.; Testi, L.; Wilner, D. J.

    2014-04-01

    Context. For over a decade, the structure of the inner cavity in the transition disk of TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. Modeling the disk with data obtained at different wavelengths has led to a variety of proposed disk structures. Rather than being inconsistent, the individual models might point to the different faces of physical processes going on in disks, such as dust growth and planet formation. Aims: Our aim is to investigate the structure of the transition disk again and to find to what extent we can reconcile apparent model differences. Methods: A large set of high-angular-resolution data was collected from near-infrared to centimeter wavelengths. We investigated the existing disk models and established a new self-consistent radiative-transfer model. A genetic fitting algorithm was used to automatize the parameter fitting, and uncertainties were investigated in a Bayesian framework. Results: Simple disk models with a vertical inner rim and a radially homogeneous dust composition from small to large grains cannot reproduce the combined data set. Two modifications are applied to this simple disk model: (1) the inner rim is smoothed by exponentially decreasing the surface density in the inner ~3 AU, and (2) the largest grains (>100 μm) are concentrated towards the inner disk region. Both properties can be linked to fundamental processes that determine the evolution of protoplanetary disks: the shaping by a possible companion and the different regimes of dust-grain growth, respectively. Conclusions: The full interferometric data set from near-infrared to centimeter wavelengths requires a revision of existing models for the TW Hya disk. We present a new model that incorporates the characteristic structures of previous models but deviates in two key aspects: it does not have a sharp edge at 4 AU, and the surface density of large grains differs from that of smaller grains. This is the first successful radiative-transfer-based model for a full set of

  18. Two-Step Evolution of Endosymbiosis between Hydra and Algae

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-07-09

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians.

  19. Oxytocin/vasopressin-like immunoreactivity is present in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dierickx, K; Boer, G J

    1982-01-01

    Nerve cells have been found in hydra, which react with antisera to oxytocin, vasopressin and mesotocin. These nerve cells have a high density in the ectoderm of basal disk and tentacles and lower density in the ectoderm of peduncle, gastric region and hypostome. A very small number of nerve cells...

  20. The synaptonemal complex of basal metazoan hydra: more similarities to vertebrate than invertebrate meiosis model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraune, Johanna; Wiesner, Miriam; Benavente, Ricardo

    2014-03-20

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is an evolutionarily well-conserved structure that mediates chromosome synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division. Although its structure is conserved, the characterized protein components in the current metazoan meiosis model systems (Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Mus musculus) show no sequence homology, challenging the question of a single evolutionary origin of the SC. However, our recent studies revealed the monophyletic origin of the mammalian SC protein components. Many of them being ancient in Metazoa and already present in the cnidarian Hydra. Remarkably, a comparison between different model systems disclosed a great similarity between the SC components of Hydra and mammals while the proteins of the ecdysozoan systems (D. melanogaster and C. elegans) differ significantly. In this review, we introduce the basal-branching metazoan species Hydra as a potential novel invertebrate model system for meiosis research and particularly for the investigation of SC evolution, function and assembly. Also, available methods for SC research in Hydra are summarized. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Direct evidence for outflow of metal-enriched gas along the radio jets of Hydra A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkpatrick, C.C.; Gitti, M.; Cavagnolo, K.W.; McNamara, B.R.; David, L.P.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Wise, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Using deep Chandra observations of the Hydra A galaxy cluster, we examine the metallicity structure near the central galaxy and along its powerful radio source. We show that the metallicity of the intracluster medium is enhanced by up to 0.2 dex along the radio jets and lobes compared to the

  2. Phase Curves of Nix and Hydra from the New Horizons Imaging Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbiscer, Anne J.; Porter, Simon B.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Weaver, Harold A.; Spencer, John R.; Showalter, Mark R.; Buie, Marc W.; Hofgartner, Jason D.; Hicks, Michael D.; Ennico-Smith, Kimberly; Olkin, Catherine B.; Stern, S. Alan; Young, Leslie A.; Cheng, Andrew; (The New Horizons Team

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft’s voyage through the Pluto system centered on 2015 July 14 provided images of Pluto’s small satellites Nix and Hydra at viewing angles unattainable from Earth. Here, we present solar phase curves of the two largest of Pluto’s small moons, Nix and Hydra, observed by the New Horizons LOng Range Reconnaissance Imager and Multi-spectral Visible Imaging Camera, which reveal the scattering properties of their icy surfaces in visible light. Construction of these solar phase curves enables comparisons between the photometric properties of Pluto’s small moons and those of other icy satellites in the outer solar system. Nix and Hydra have higher visible albedos than those of other resonant Kuiper Belt objects and irregular satellites of the giant planets, but not as high as small satellites of Saturn interior to Titan. Both Nix and Hydra appear to scatter visible light preferentially in the forward direction, unlike most icy satellites in the outer solar system, which are typically backscattering.

  3. Profiling of adhesive-related genes in the freshwater cnidarian Hydra magnipapillata by transcriptomics and proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Marcelo; Ostermann, Thomas; Kremeser, Leopold; Lindner, Herbert; Beisel, Christian; Berezikov, Eugene; Hobmayer, Bert; Ladurner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The differentiated ectodermal basal disc cells of the freshwater cnidarian Hydra secrete proteinaceous glue to temporarily attach themselves to underwater surfaces. Using transcriptome sequencing and a basal disc-specific RNA-seq combined with in situ hybridisation a highly specific set of candidate

  4. In vivo imaging of basement membrane movement: ECM patterning shapes Hydra polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufschnaiter, Roland; Zamir, Evan A; Little, Charles D; Özbek, Suat; Münder, Sandra; David, Charles N; Li, Li; Sarras, Michael P; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2011-12-01

    Growth and morphogenesis during embryonic development, asexual reproduction and regeneration require extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). We used the simple metazoan Hydra to examine the fate of ECM during tissue morphogenesis and asexual budding. In growing Hydra, epithelial cells constantly move towards the extremities of the animal and into outgrowing buds. It is not known, whether these tissue movements involve epithelial migration relative to the underlying matrix or whether cells and ECM are displaced as a composite structure. Furthermore, it is unclear, how the ECM is remodeled to adapt to the shape of developing buds and tentacles. To address these questions, we used a new in vivo labeling technique for Hydra collagen-1 and laminin, and tracked the fate of ECM in all body regions of the animal. Our results reveal that Hydra 'tissue movements' are largely displacements of epithelial cells together with associated ECM. By contrast, during the evagination of buds and tentacles, extensive movement of epithelial cells relative to the matrix is observed, together with local ECM remodeling. These findings provide new insights into the nature of growth and morphogenesis in epithelial tissues.

  5. A comparison of metal accumulation by the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris directly from water or

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchamai Karntanut

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The cnidarian Hydra has been widely used to assess the acute toxicity of freshwater pollutants, but very little is known about pollutant accumulation by this animal. The purpose of this study was to measurethe accumulation of the three metals, i.e., copper, cadmium and zinc directly from water and also via its prey and to relate the recorded tissue concentrations to any change in biological activities. It was found thatcopper, cadmium and zinc all were accumulated in the tissues of Hydra exposed directly to the metals in water and also those exposed indirectly through feeding on contaminated prey. The bioconcentration factor(BCF recorded at 48 hours following direct uptake from water was greatest for copper (773, followed by cadmium (409 and zinc (125, although the greatest increase in body burden occurred with cadmium, Metal body burdens of Hydra fed on contaminated prey (Artemia increased in the same metal sequence as fordirect uptake from water and the increase was highest (250 times that of control Hydra for cadmium; however, biomagnification factors (BMFs were all < 1.0 indicating that there was little potential for increasingaccumulation via the food chain. There was significant inhibition of regeneration and bud production in polyps which had fed on cadmium-containing Artemia but not on copper or zinc- containing Artemia.

  6. HYDRA : High-speed simulation architecture for precision spacecraft formation simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bryan J.; Sohl, Garett.

    2003-01-01

    e Hierarchical Distributed Reconfigurable Architecture- is a scalable simulation architecture that provides flexibility and ease-of-use which take advantage of modern computation and communication hardware. It also provides the ability to implement distributed - or workstation - based simulations and high-fidelity real-time simulation from a common core. Originally designed to serve as a research platform for examining fundamental challenges in formation flying simulation for future space missions, it is also finding use in other missions and applications, all of which can take advantage of the underlying Object-Oriented structure to easily produce distributed simulations. Hydra automates the process of connecting disparate simulation components (Hydra Clients) through a client server architecture that uses high-level descriptions of data associated with each client to find and forge desirable connections (Hydra Services) at run time. Services communicate through the use of Connectors, which abstract messaging to provide single-interface access to any desired communication protocol, such as from shared-memory message passing to TCP/IP to ACE and COBRA. Hydra shares many features with the HLA, although providing more flexibility in connectivity services and behavior overriding.

  7. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of two cation chloride cotransporter subfamily members of Hydra vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anna-Maria; Pisella, Lucie I; Medina, Igor; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2017-01-01

    Cation Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs) comprise secondary active membrane proteins mainly mediating the symport of cations (Na+, K+) coupled with chloride (Cl-). They are divided into K+-Cl- outward transporters (KCCs), the Na+-K+-Cl- (NKCCs) and Na+-Cl- (NCCs) inward transporters, the cation chloride cotransporter interacting protein CIP1, and the polyamine transporter CCC9. KCCs and N(K)CCs are established in the genome since eukaryotes and metazoans, respectively. Most of the physiological and functional data were obtained from vertebrate species. To get insights into the basal functional properties of KCCs and N(K)CCs in the metazoan lineage, we cloned and characterized KCC and N(K)CC from the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris. HvKCC is composed of 1,032 amino-acid residues. Functional analyses revealed that hvKCC mediates a Na+-independent, Cl- and K+ (Tl+)-dependent cotransport. The classification of hvKCC as a functional K-Cl cotransporter is furthermore supported by phylogenetic analyses and a similar structural organization. Interestingly, recently obtained physiological analyses indicate a role of cnidarian KCCs in hyposmotic volume regulation of nematocytes. HvN(K)CC is composed of 965 amino-acid residues. Phylogenetic analyses and structural organization suggest that hvN(K)CC is a member of the N(K)CC subfamily. However, no inorganic ion cotransport function could be detected using different buffer conditions. Thus, hvN(K)CC is a N(K)CC subfamily member without a detectable inorganic ion cotransporter function. Taken together, the data identify two non-bilaterian solute carrier 12 (SLC12) gene family members, thereby paving the way for a better understanding of the evolutionary paths of this important cotransporter family.

  8. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of two cation chloride cotransporter subfamily members of Hydra vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Hartmann

    Full Text Available Cation Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs comprise secondary active membrane proteins mainly mediating the symport of cations (Na+, K+ coupled with chloride (Cl-. They are divided into K+-Cl- outward transporters (KCCs, the Na+-K+-Cl- (NKCCs and Na+-Cl- (NCCs inward transporters, the cation chloride cotransporter interacting protein CIP1, and the polyamine transporter CCC9. KCCs and N(KCCs are established in the genome since eukaryotes and metazoans, respectively. Most of the physiological and functional data were obtained from vertebrate species. To get insights into the basal functional properties of KCCs and N(KCCs in the metazoan lineage, we cloned and characterized KCC and N(KCC from the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris. HvKCC is composed of 1,032 amino-acid residues. Functional analyses revealed that hvKCC mediates a Na+-independent, Cl- and K+ (Tl+-dependent cotransport. The classification of hvKCC as a functional K-Cl cotransporter is furthermore supported by phylogenetic analyses and a similar structural organization. Interestingly, recently obtained physiological analyses indicate a role of cnidarian KCCs in hyposmotic volume regulation of nematocytes. HvN(KCC is composed of 965 amino-acid residues. Phylogenetic analyses and structural organization suggest that hvN(KCC is a member of the N(KCC subfamily. However, no inorganic ion cotransport function could be detected using different buffer conditions. Thus, hvN(KCC is a N(KCC subfamily member without a detectable inorganic ion cotransporter function. Taken together, the data identify two non-bilaterian solute carrier 12 (SLC12 gene family members, thereby paving the way for a better understanding of the evolutionary paths of this important cotransporter family.

  9. Aging and potential for self-renewal: hydra living in the age of aging - a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Ralf; Sussman, Meir; Kramer, Boris H

    2014-01-01

    Hydra present an interesting deviation from typical life histories: they have an extensive capacity to regenerate and self-renew and seem to defy the aging process. Hydra have the ability to decouple the aging process from their life history and therefore provide us with a unique opportunity to gain insight into the aging process not only for basal hydrozoans but also for other species across the tree of life. We argue that under steady feeding and asexual reproduction Hydra species are able to escape aging as a result of high levels of cell proliferation and regenerative ability. We further highlight cellular processes for stem cell maintenance, such as the telomere dynamic, which prevent the accumulation of damage and protect against diseases and pathogens that mediate this condition. In addition, we discuss the causes of aging in other Hydra species. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Ultrastructural localization of RFamide-like peptides in neuronal dense-cored vesicles in the peduncle of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koizumi, O; Wilson, Douglas Clyde; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1989-01-01

    The presence of Arg-Phe-amide (RFamide)-like peptides in dense-cored vesicles in neurons of the peduncle of Hydra was demonstrated by immunogold electron microscopy. Thin sections of Lowicryl-embedded tissue labeled with antisera to RFamide and 5-nm gold-conjugated, secondary antibody and of Epon....../ml RFamide. These results are the first demonstration that the dense-cored vesicles of Hydra neurons contain a neuropeptide....

  11. Epithelial morphogenesis in hydra requires de novo expression of extracellular matrix components and matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jinsong; Leontovich, Alexey; Fei, Kaiyin; Yan, Li; Sarras, Michael P

    2002-03-01

    As a member of the phylum Cnidaria, the body wall of hydra is organized as an epithelium bilayer (ectoderm and endoderm) with an intervening extracellular matrix (ECM). Previous studies have established the general molecular structure of hydra ECM and indicate that it is organized as two subepithelial zones that contain basement membrane components such as laminin and a central fibrous zone that contains interstitial matrix components such as a unique type I fibrillar collagen. Because of its simple structure and high regenerative capacity, hydra has been used as a developmental model to study cell-ECM interaction during epithelial morphogenesis. The current study extends previous studies by focusing on the relationship of ECM biogenesis to epithelial morphogenesis in hydra, as monitored during head regeneration or after simple incision of the epithelium. Histological studies indicated that decapitation or incision of the body column resulted in an immediate retraction of the ECM at the wound site followed by a re-fusion of the bilayer within 1 hour. After changes in the morphology of epithelial cells at the regenerating pole, initiation of de novo biogenesis of an ECM began within hours while full reformation of the mature matrix required approximately 2 days. These processes were monitored using probes to three matrix or matrix-associated components: basement membrane-associated hydra laminin beta1 chain (HLM-beta1), interstitial matrix-associated hydra fibrillar collagen (Hcol-I) and hydra matrix metalloproteinase (HMMP). While upregulation of mRNA for both HLM-beta1 and Hcol-I occurred by 3 hours, expression of the former was restricted to the endoderm and expression of the latter was restricted to the ectoderm. Upregulation of HMMP mRNA was also associated with the endoderm and its expression paralleled that for HLM-beta1. As monitored by immunofluorescence, HLM-beta1 protein first appeared in each of the two subepithelial zones (basal lamina) at about 7 hours

  12. Structural and Sequence Similarities of Hydra Xeroderma Pigmentosum A Protein to Human Homolog Suggest Early Evolution and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Barve

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA is a protein that binds to damaged DNA, verifies presence of a lesion, and recruits other proteins of the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway to the site. Though its homologs from yeast, Drosophila, humans, and so forth are well studied, XPA has not so far been reported from protozoa and lower animal phyla. Hydra is a fresh-water cnidarian with a remarkable capacity for regeneration and apparent lack of organismal ageing. Cnidarians are among the first metazoa with a defined body axis, tissue grade organisation, and nervous system. We report here for the first time presence of XPA gene in hydra. Putative protein sequence of hydra XPA contains nuclear localization signal and bears the zinc-finger motif. It contains two conserved Pfam domains and various characterized features of XPA proteins like regions for binding to excision repair cross-complementing protein-1 (ERCC1 and replication protein A 70 kDa subunit (RPA70 proteins. Hydra XPA shows a high degree of similarity with vertebrate homologs and clusters with deuterostomes in phylogenetic analysis. Homology modelling corroborates the very close similarity between hydra and human XPA. The protein thus most likely functions in hydra in the same manner as in other animals, indicating that it arose early in evolution and has been conserved across animal phyla.

  13. Structural and sequence similarities of hydra xeroderma pigmentosum A protein to human homolog suggest early evolution and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barve, Apurva; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) is a protein that binds to damaged DNA, verifies presence of a lesion, and recruits other proteins of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway to the site. Though its homologs from yeast, Drosophila, humans, and so forth are well studied, XPA has not so far been reported from protozoa and lower animal phyla. Hydra is a fresh-water cnidarian with a remarkable capacity for regeneration and apparent lack of organismal ageing. Cnidarians are among the first metazoa with a defined body axis, tissue grade organisation, and nervous system. We report here for the first time presence of XPA gene in hydra. Putative protein sequence of hydra XPA contains nuclear localization signal and bears the zinc-finger motif. It contains two conserved Pfam domains and various characterized features of XPA proteins like regions for binding to excision repair cross-complementing protein-1 (ERCC1) and replication protein A 70 kDa subunit (RPA70) proteins. Hydra XPA shows a high degree of similarity with vertebrate homologs and clusters with deuterostomes in phylogenetic analysis. Homology modelling corroborates the very close similarity between hydra and human XPA. The protein thus most likely functions in hydra in the same manner as in other animals, indicating that it arose early in evolution and has been conserved across animal phyla.

  14. Bacteria–bacteria interactions within the microbiota of the ancestral metazoan Hydra contribute to fungal resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraune, Sebastian; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Augustin, René; Franzenburg, Sören; Knop, Mirjam; Schröder, Katja; Willoweit-Ohl, Doris; Bosch, Thomas CG

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial surfaces of most animals are colonized by diverse microbial communities. Although it is generally agreed that commensal bacteria can serve beneficial functions, the processes involved are poorly understood. Here we report that in the basal metazoan Hydra, ectodermal epithelial cells are covered with a multilayered glycocalyx that provides a habitat for a distinctive microbial community. Removing this epithelial microbiota results in lethal infection by the filamentous fungus Fusarium sp. Restoring the complex microbiota in gnotobiotic polyps prevents pathogen infection. Although mono-associations with distinct members of the microbiota fail to provide full protection, additive and synergistic interactions of commensal bacteria are contributing to full fungal resistance. Our results highlight the importance of resident microbiota diversity as a protective factor against pathogen infections. Besides revealing insights into the in vivo function of commensal microbes in Hydra, our findings indicate that interactions among commensal bacteria are essential to inhibit pathogen infection. PMID:25514534

  15. Bacteria-bacteria interactions within the microbiota of the ancestral metazoan Hydra contribute to fungal resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraune, Sebastian; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Augustin, René; Franzenburg, Sören; Knop, Mirjam; Schröder, Katja; Willoweit-Ohl, Doris; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial surfaces of most animals are colonized by diverse microbial communities. Although it is generally agreed that commensal bacteria can serve beneficial functions, the processes involved are poorly understood. Here we report that in the basal metazoan Hydra, ectodermal epithelial cells are covered with a multilayered glycocalyx that provides a habitat for a distinctive microbial community. Removing this epithelial microbiota results in lethal infection by the filamentous fungus Fusarium sp. Restoring the complex microbiota in gnotobiotic polyps prevents pathogen infection. Although mono-associations with distinct members of the microbiota fail to provide full protection, additive and synergistic interactions of commensal bacteria are contributing to full fungal resistance. Our results highlight the importance of resident microbiota diversity as a protective factor against pathogen infections. Besides revealing insights into the in vivo function of commensal microbes in Hydra, our findings indicate that interactions among commensal bacteria are essential to inhibit pathogen infection.

  16. Notch-signalling is required for head regeneration and tentacle patterning in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münder, Sandra; Tischer, Susanne; Grundhuber, Maresa; Büchels, Nathalie; Bruckmeier, Nadine; Eckert, Stefanie; Seefeldt, Carolin A; Prexl, Andrea; Käsbauer, Tina; Böttger, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Local self-activation and long ranging inhibition provide a mechanism for setting up organising regions as signalling centres for the development of structures in the surrounding tissue. The adult hydra hypostome functions as head organiser. After hydra head removal it is newly formed and complete heads can be regenerated. The molecular components of this organising region involve Wnt-signalling and β-catenin. However, it is not known how correct patterning of hypostome and tentacles are achieved in the hydra head and whether other signals in addition to HyWnt3 are needed for re-establishing the new organiser after head removal. Here we show that Notch-signalling is required for re-establishing the organiser during regeneration and that this is due to its role in restricting tentacle activation. Blocking Notch-signalling leads to the formation of irregular head structures characterised by excess tentacle tissue and aberrant expression of genes that mark the tentacle boundaries. This indicates a role for Notch-signalling in defining the tentacle pattern in the hydra head. Moreover, lateral inhibition by HvNotch and its target HyHes are required for head regeneration and without this the formation of the β-catenin/Wnt dependent head organiser is impaired. Work on prebilaterian model organisms has shown that the Wnt-pathway is important for setting up signalling centres for axial patterning in early multicellular animals. Our data suggest that the integration of Wnt-signalling with Notch-Delta activity was also involved in the evolution of defined body plans in animals. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chandra Observations of the Nuclei of Radio Galaxies: 3C 295 and Hydra A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. E.; McNamara, B. R.; David, L. P.; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The angular resolution available with Chandra allows us to isolate the X-ray emission from the nucleus of many radio galaxies and obtain their spectra. As expected from unification schemes, spectra so far obtained can best be interpreted as heavily absorbed power laws. We present the spectral parameters so derived for 3C 295 and Hydra A and compare them to data obtained at other wavelengths.

  18. Apical and basal epitheliomuscular F-actin dynamics during Hydra bud evagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufschnaiter, Roland; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bending of 2D cell sheets is a fundamental morphogenetic mechanism during animal development and reproduction. A critical player driving cell shape during tissue bending is the actin cytoskeleton. Much of our current knowledge about actin dynamics in whole organisms stems from studies of embryonic development in bilaterian model organisms. Here, we have analyzed actin-based processes during asexual bud evagination in the simple metazoan Hydra. We created transgenic Hydra strains stably expressing the actin marker Lifeact-GFP in either ectodermal or endodermal epitheliomuscular cells. We then combined live imaging with conventional phalloidin staining to directly follow actin reorganization. Bending of the Hydra epithelial double layer is initiated by a group of epitheliomuscular cells in the endodermal layer. These cells shorten their apical-basal axis and arrange their basal muscle processes in a circular configuration. We propose that this rearrangement generates the initial forces to bend the endoderm towards the ectoderm. Convergent tissue movement in both epithelial layers towards the centre of evagination then leads to elongation and extension of the bud along its new body axis. Tissue movement into the bud is associated with lateral intercalation of epithelial cells, remodelling of apical septate junctions, and rearrangement of basal muscle processes. The work presented here extends the analysis of morphogenetic mechanisms beyond embryonic tissues of model bilaterians. PMID:28630355

  19. Impact of Carbon Nano-Onions on Hydra vulgaris as a Model Organism for Nanoecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marchesano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The toxicological effects of pristine and chemically modified carbon nano-onions (CNOs on the development of the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris were investigated in order to elucidate the ecotoxicological effects of CNOs. Chemical modifications of the CNOs were accomplished by surface functionalization with benzoic acid, pyridine and pyridinium moieties. thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the covalent surface functionalization of CNOs. Hydra specimens were exposed to the carbon nanomaterials by prolonged incubation within their medium. Uptake was monitored by optical microscopy, and the toxicological effects of the CNOs on Hydra behavior, morphology, as well as the long-term effects on the development and reproductive capability were examined. The obtained data revealed the absence of adverse effects of CNOs (in the range 0.05–0.1 mg/L in vivo at the whole animal level. Together with previously performed in vitro toxicological analyses, our findings indicate the biosafety of CNOs and the feasibility of employing them as materials for biomedical applications.

  20. Structural Inheritance of the Actin Cytoskeletal Organization Determines the Body Axis in Regenerating Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livshits, Anton; Shani-Zerbib, Lital; Maroudas-Sacks, Yonit; Braun, Erez; Keren, Kinneret

    2017-02-07

    Understanding how mechanics complement bio-signaling in defining patterns during morphogenesis is an outstanding challenge. Here, we utilize the multicellular polyp Hydra to investigate the role of the actomyosin cytoskeleton in morphogenesis. We find that the supra-cellular actin fiber organization is inherited from the parent Hydra and determines the body axis in regenerating tissue segments. This form of structural inheritance is non-trivial because of the tissue folding and dynamic actin reorganization involved. We further show that the emergence of multiple body axes can be traced to discrepancies in actin fiber alignment at early stages of the regeneration process. Mechanical constraints induced by anchoring regenerating Hydra on stiff wires suppressed the emergence of multiple body axes, highlighting the importance of mechanical feedbacks in defining and stabilizing the body axis. Together, these results constitute an important step toward the development of an integrated view of morphogenesis that incorporates mechanics. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Peptide-gated ion channels and the simple nervous system of Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründer, Stefan; Assmann, Marc

    2015-02-15

    Neurons either use electrical or chemical synapses to communicate with each other. Transmitters at chemical synapses are either small molecules or neuropeptides. After binding to their receptors, transmitters elicit postsynaptic potentials, which can either be fast and transient or slow and longer lasting, depending on the type of receptor. Fast transient potentials are mediated by ionotropic receptors and slow long-lasting potentials by metabotropic receptors. Transmitters and receptors are well studied for animals with a complex nervous system such as vertebrates and insects, but much less is known for animals with a simple nervous system like Cnidaria. As cnidarians arose early in animal evolution, nervous systems might have first evolved within this group and the study of neurotransmission in cnidarians might reveal an ancient mechanism of neuronal communication. The simple nervous system of the cnidarian Hydra extensively uses neuropeptides and, recently, we cloned and functionally characterized an ion channel that is directly activated by neuropeptides of the Hydra nervous system. These results demonstrate the existence of peptide-gated ion channels in Hydra, suggesting they mediate fast transmission in its nervous system. As related channels are also present in the genomes of the cnidarian Nematostella, of placozoans and of ctenophores, it should be considered that the early nervous systems of cnidarians and ctenophores have co-opted neuropeptides for fast transmission at chemical synapses. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. How to use Hydra as a model system to teach biology in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, Patricia; Galliot, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    As scientists it is our duty to fight against obscurantism and loss of rational thinking if we want politicians and citizens to freely make the most intelligent choices for the future generations. With that aim, the scientific education and training of young students is an obvious and urgent necessity. We claim here that Hydra provides a highly versatile but cheap model organism to study biology at any age. Teachers of biology have the unenviable task of motivating young people, who with many other motivations that are quite valid, nevertheless must be guided along a path congruent with a 'syllabus' or a 'curriculum'. The biology of Hydra spans the history of biology as an experimental science from Trembley's first manipulations designed to determine if the green polyp he found was plant or animal to the dissection of the molecular cascades underpinning, regeneration, wound healing, stemness, aging and cancer. It is described here in terms designed to elicit its wider use in classrooms. Simple lessons are outlined in sufficient detail for beginners to enter the world of 'Hydra biology'. Protocols start with the simplest observations to experiments that have been pretested with students in the USA and in Europe. The lessons are practical and can be used to bring 'life', but also rational thinking into the study of life for the teachers of students from elementary school through early university.

  3. What Hydra can teach us about chemical ecology -how a simple, soft organism survives in a hostile aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachamim, Tamar; Sher, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Hydra and its fellow cnidarians - sea anemones, corals and jellyfish - are simple, mostly sessile animals that depend on bioactive chemicals for survival. In this review, we briefly describe what is known about the chemical armament of Hydra, and detail future research directions where Hydra can help illuminate major questions in chemical ecology, pharmacology, developmental biology and evolution. Focusing on two groups of putative toxins from Hydra - phospholipase A2s and proteins containing ShK and zinc metalloprotease domains, we ask: how do different venom components act together during prey paralysis? How is a venom arsenal created and how does it evolve? How is the chemical arsenal delivered to its target? To what extent does a chemical and biotic coupling exist between an organism and its environment? We propose a model whereby in Hydra and other cnidarians, bioactive compounds are secreted both as localized point sources (nematocyte discharges) and across extensive body surfaces, likely combining to create complex "chemical landscapes". We speculate that these cnidarian-derived chemical landscapes may affect the surrounding community on scales from microns to, in the case of coral reefs, hundreds of kilometers.

  4. Phospholipase C cDNAs from sponge and hydra: antiquity of genes involved in the inositol phospholipid signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, M; Ono, K; Suga, H; Iwabe, N; Miyata, T

    1998-11-13

    To know whether or not the set of genes involved in the inositol phospholipid signaling pathway already existed in the early evolution of animals, we carried out cloning of cDNAs encoding phospholipase Cs (PLCs) from Ephydatia fluviatilis (freshwater sponge) and Hydra magnipapillata strain 105 (hydra). We isolated two PLC cDNAs, PLC-betaS and PLC-gammaS, from sponge and three cDNAs, PLC-betaH1, PLC-betaH2, and PLC-deltaH, from hydra. From the domain organization and the divergence pattern in the PLC family tree, the sponge PLC-betaS and PLC-gammaS and the hydra PLC-deltaH are possibly homologous to the vertebrate PLC-beta, PLC-gamma and PLC-delta subtypes, respectively. A detailed phylogenetic analysis suggests that the hydra PLC-betaH1 and PLC-betaH2 are homologs of the vertebrate PLC-beta1/2/3/Drosophila PLC21 and the vertebrate PLC-beta4/Drosophila norpA, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the PLC family and the protein kinase C (PKC) family, together with that of the G protein alpha subunit (Galpha) family, revealed that the origin of the set of genes G(alpha)q, PLC, PKC involved in the inositol phospholipid signaling pathway is very old, going back to dates before the parazoan-eumetazoan split, the earliest branching among extant animal phyla.

  5. Einstein observations of the Hydra A cluster and the efficiency of galaxy formation in groups and clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, L. P.; Arnaud, K. A.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Einstein imaging proportional counter observations of the poor cluster of galaxies centered on the radio galaxy Hydra A are examined. From the surface brightness profile, it is found that the X-ray-emitting gas in the Hydra A cluster must be condensing out of the intracluster medium at a rate of 600 solar masses/yr. This is one of the largest mass deposition rates observed in a cluster of galaxies. The ratio of gas mass to stellar mass is compared for a variety of systems, showing that this ratio correlates with the gas temperature.

  6. “Is the Hydra the Enemy?” A Review of English Language as Hydra: Its Impacts on Non-English Language Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corazon D. Villareal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book, part of the series on Linguistic Diversity and Language Rights of Multilingual Matters, seeks "to promote multilingualism as a resource, the maintenance of the linguistic diversity and development of and respect for linguistic human rights worldwide through the dissemination of theoretical and empirical research"(ii. The context for this advocacy is English whose domain is perceived to have reduced linguistic and cultural diversity; this encounter is the core concern of the book, as the title suggests. The contributors unabashedly articulate their disgust and rage against this hydra through a seemingly inexhaustible arsenal of metaphors - thief, bully, juggernaut,an intractable governess, "a partner in crime," "an overstaying auntie," etc. The tone is combative, sometimes veering dangerously close to simplistic name-calling and clichéd emotionalism. So it seems.

  7. Sequential development of apical-basal and planar polarities in aggregating epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Anna; Salvenmoser, Willi; Hobmayer, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Apical-basal and planar cell polarities are hallmarks of metazoan epithelia required to separate internal and external environments and to regulate trans- and intracellular transport, cytoskeletal organization, and morphogenesis. Mechanisms of cell polarization have been intensively studied in bilaterian model organisms, particularly in early embryos and cultured cells, while cell polarity in pre-bilaterian tissues is poorly understood. Here, we have studied apical-basal and planar polarization in regenerating (aggregating) clusters of epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra, a simple representative of the ancestral, pre-bilaterian phylum Cnidaria. Immediately after dissociation, single epitheliomuscular cells do not exhibit cellular polarity, but they polarize de novo during aggregation. Reestablishment of the Hydra-specific epithelial bilayer is a result of short-range cell sorting. In the early phase of aggregation, apical-basal polarization starts with an enlargement of the epithelial apical-basal diameter and by the development of belt-like apical septate junctions. Specification of the basal pole of epithelial cells occurs shortly later and is linked to synthesis of mesoglea, development of hemidesmosome-like junctions, and formation of desmosome-like junctions connecting the basal myonemes of neighbouring cells. Planar polarization starts, while apical-basal polarization is already ongoing. It is executed gradually starting with cell-autonomous formation, parallelization, and condensation of myonemes at the basal end of each epithelial cell and continuing with a final planar alignment of epitheliomuscular cells at the tissue level. Our findings reveal that epithelial polarization in Hydra aggregates occurs in defined steps well accessible by histological and ultrastructural techniques and they will provide a basis for future molecular studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 3, Verification/validation assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.

    1987-10-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum are enhanced by the incorporation of directional porosities and permeabilities that aid in modeling solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated procedures are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume I - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. Volume II - User's Manual contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a model problem. This volume, Volume III - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. This volume also documents comparisons between the results of simulations of single- and multiassembly storage systems and actual experimental data. 11 refs., 55 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Initial Homotypic Cell Pair Adhesion in Regenerating Hydra Facilitates Subsequent Adhesion of Homotypic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, Y.; Hariyama, T.; Tsukahara, Y.

    In Hydra vulgaris at the level of dissociated single cells endodermal cells adhere to each other more readily than to ectodermal cells at the initial adhesion. The time required for adhesion to occur between two adjacent cells is shorter for both endodermal and ectodermal homotypic cell adhesions once the initial adhesion of the first pair of cells has been established. It is confirmed that contact of an aggregated pair with additional homotypic cells facilitates the occurrence of homotypic adhesions; heterotypic adhesions are discouraged. This suggests that adhesion of homotypic cells contributes to an increased readiness for subsequent homotypic cells to adhere.

  10. Advances in HYDRA and its applications to simulations of inertial confinement fusion targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinak M.M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new set of capabilities has been implemented in the HYDRA 2D/3D multiphysics inertial confinement fusion simulation code. These include a Monte Carlo particle transport library. It models transport of neutrons, gamma rays and light ions, as well as products they generate from nuclear and coulomb collisions. It allows accurate simulations of nuclear diagnostic signatures from capsule implosions. We apply it to here in a 3D simulation of a National Ignition Facility (NIF ignition capsule which models the full capsule solid angle. This simulation contains a severely rough ablator perturbation and provides diagnostics signatures of capsule failure due to excessive instability growth.

  11. A fragmented metazoan organellar genome: the two mitochondrial chromosomes of Hydra magnipapillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wörheide Gert

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mitochondrial (mt genomes are characteristically circular molecules of ~16–20 kb. Medusozoa (Cnidaria excluding Anthozoa are exceptional in that their mt genomes are linear and sometimes subdivided into two to presumably four different molecules. In the genus Hydra, the mt genome comprises one or two mt chromosomes. Here, we present the whole mt genome sequence from the hydrozoan Hydra magnipapillata, comprising the first sequence of a fragmented metazoan mt genome encoded on two linear mt chromosomes (mt1 and mt2. Results The H. magnipapillata mt chromosomes contain the typical metazoan set of 13 genes for respiratory proteins, the two rRNA genes and two tRNA genes. All genes are unidirectionally oriented on mt1 and mt2, and several genes overlap. The gene arrangement suggests that the two mt chromosomes originated from one linear molecule that separated between nd5 and rns. Strong correlations between the AT content of rRNA genes (rns and rnl and the AT content of protein-coding genes among 24 cnidarian genomes imply that base composition is mainly determined by mt genome-wide constraints. We show that identical inverted terminal repeats (ITR occur on both chromosomes; these ITR contain a partial copy or part of the 3' end of cox1 (54 bp. Additionally, both mt chromosomes possess identical oriented sequences (IOS at the 5' and 3' ends (5' and 3' IOS adjacent to the ITR. The 5' IOS contains trnM and non-coding sequences (119 bp, whereas the 3' IOS comprises a larger part (mt2 with a larger partial copy of cox1 (243 bp. Conclusion ITR are also documented in the two other available medusozoan mt genomes (Aurelia aurita and Hydra oligactis. In H. magnipapillata, the arrangement of ITR and 5' IOS and 3' IOS suggest that these regions are crucial for mt DNA replication and/or transcription initiation. An analogous organization occurs in a highly fragmented ichthyosporean mt genome. With our data, we can reject a model of

  12. Effects of pesticide formulations and active ingredients on the coelenterate Hydra attenuata (Pallas, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrio, Pablo M; Bulus Rossini, Gustavo D; Bonetto, Carlos A; Ronco, Alicia E

    2012-01-01

    Lethal effects of active ingredients and formulations of widely used soybean pesticides were assessed with the Hydra attenuata toxicity test. Studied pesticides were insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin, and herbicide glyphosate. Results indicate the following toxicity trend: chlorpyrifos > cypermethrin > glyphosate. Tested active ingredients of insecticides and respective formulations did not significantly differ between them. Glyphosate formulation exhibited higher toxicity at low concentrations (LC(1-10)) respect to active ingredient, reversing this behavior at higher concentrations (LC(50-90)). Comparing H. attenuata sensitivity with existent toxicity data for aquatic organisms indicates that this species is poorly sensitive to tested insecticides and highly sensitive to the herbicide.

  13. The putative Notch ligand HyJagged is a transmembrane protein present in all cell types of adult Hydra and upregulated at the boundary between bud and parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prexl, Andrea; Münder, Sandra; Loy, Bernhard; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Tischer, Susanne; Böttger, Angelika

    2011-09-07

    The Notch signalling pathway is conserved in pre-bilaterian animals. In the Cnidarian Hydra it is involved in interstitial stem cell differentiation and in boundary formation during budding. Experimental evidence suggests that in Hydra Notch is activated by presenilin through proteolytic cleavage at the S3 site as in all animals. However, the endogenous ligand for HvNotch has not been described yet. We have cloned a cDNA from Hydra, which encodes a bona-fide Notch ligand with a conserved domain structure similar to that of Jagged-like Notch ligands from other animals. Hyjagged mRNA is undetectable in adult Hydra by in situ hybridisation but is strongly upregulated and easily visible at the border between bud and parent shortly before bud detachment. In contrast, HyJagged protein is found in all cell types of an adult hydra, where it localises to membranes and endosomes. Co-localisation experiments showed that it is present in the same cells as HvNotch, however not always in the same membrane structures. The putative Notch ligand HyJagged is conserved in Cnidarians. Together with HvNotch it may be involved in the formation of the parent-bud boundary in Hydra. Moreover, protein distribution of both, HvNotch receptor and HyJagged indicate a more widespread function for these two transmembrane proteins in the adult hydra, which may be regulated by additional factors, possibly involving endocytic pathways.

  14. The putative Notch ligand HyJagged is a transmembrane protein present in all cell types of adult Hydra and upregulated at the boundary between bud and parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tischer Susanne

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Notch signalling pathway is conserved in pre-bilaterian animals. In the Cnidarian Hydra it is involved in interstitial stem cell differentiation and in boundary formation during budding. Experimental evidence suggests that in Hydra Notch is activated by presenilin through proteolytic cleavage at the S3 site as in all animals. However, the endogenous ligand for HvNotch has not been described yet. Results We have cloned a cDNA from Hydra, which encodes a bona-fide Notch ligand with a conserved domain structure similar to that of Jagged-like Notch ligands from other animals. Hyjagged mRNA is undetectable in adult Hydra by in situ hybridisation but is strongly upregulated and easily visible at the border between bud and parent shortly before bud detachment. In contrast, HyJagged protein is found in all cell types of an adult hydra, where it localises to membranes and endosomes. Co-localisation experiments showed that it is present in the same cells as HvNotch, however not always in the same membrane structures. Conclusions The putative Notch ligand HyJagged is conserved in Cnidarians. Together with HvNotch it may be involved in the formation of the parent-bud boundary in Hydra. Moreover, protein distribution of both, HvNotch receptor and HyJagged indicate a more widespread function for these two transmembrane proteins in the adult hydra, which may be regulated by additional factors, possibly involving endocytic pathways.

  15. Hydra II: A Faint and Compact Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Nidever, David L.; Besla, Gurtina; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Gruendl, Robert A.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Blum, Robert D.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Bell, Eric F.; Chu, You-Hua; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; de Boer, Thomas J. L.; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Kunder, Andrea; Majewski, Steven R.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E. D.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m Telescope. The new satellite is compact ({{r}h}=68 ± 11 pc) and faint ({{M}V}=-4.8 ± 0.3),

  16. A new species of hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Hydridae) and molecular phylogenetic analysis of six congeners from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Tai; Deng, Li; Liu, Hong-Tao

    2012-12-01

    A new species of genus Hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Hydridae), Hydra shenzhensis sp. nov. from Guangdong Province, China, is described and illustrated. Most polyps have five tentacles. Column length reaches 11 mm when relaxed. Buds do not acquire tentacles synchronously. Stenotele is broad and pyriform in shape, 1.2 times as long as its width. Holotrichous isorhiza is asymmetrical and slender (more than 2.7 times as long as its width), with transverse and slanting coils. Atrichous isorhiza is long, resembling a melon-seed in shape. Desmoneme is asymmetrically pyriform in shape. The new species, belonging to the vulgaris group, is dioecious; sexual reproduction was found to occur mostly during November and December under conditions of dense culture or food shortage. Two to thirteen testes, cone-like shape with papilla, formed beneath the tentacles. One to three ovaries, with an egg cup, milky white in color, formed on body column. Ninety percent of individuals developed only one ovum. On a mother polyp, a fertilized ovum developed an embryonic theca covering its surface. The embryotheca is brown, with a spine-like structure, covering a layer of transparent, membrane-like material. For phylogenetic analysis, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) of six hydra species collected from China was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Morphological characters in combination with molecular evidence support the hydra described here as a new species.

  17. X-Ray Supercavities in the Hydra A Cluster and the Outburst History of the Central Galaxy's Active Nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wise, M.; McNamara, B.R.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Houck, J.C.; David, L.P.

    2007-01-01

    A 227 ks Chandra X-ray image of the hot plasma in the Hydra A cluster has revealed an extensive cavity system. The system was created by a continuous outflow or a series of bursts from the nucleus of the central galaxy over the past 200-500 Myr. The cavities have displaced 10% of the plasma within a

  18. The identity and occurrence of Kerona pediculus (Ciliophora: Hypotrichida), a well-known epizoite of Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, A.; Robson, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Epizoic Kerona pediculus have been found on Hydra vulgaris and on Cristatella mucedo (Bryozoa) in the same habitat. On the basis of morphological characters (using Nomarski and Scanning Electron Microscopy) specimens from the two hosts are indistinguishable. Details revealed by SEM agree with

  19. Hydra multiple head star sensor and its in-flight self-calibration of optical heads alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, L.; Blarre, L.; Perrimon, N.; Kocher, Y.; Martinez, P. E.; Dussy, S.

    2017-11-01

    HYDRA is EADS SODERN new product line of APS-based autonomous star trackers. The baseline is a multiple head sensor made of three separated optical heads and one electronic unit. Actually the concept which was chosen offers more than three single-head star trackers working independently. Since HYDRA merges all fields of view the result is a more accurate, more robust and completely autonomous multiple-head sensor, releasing the AOCS from the need to manage the outputs of independent single-head star trackers. Specific to the multiple head architecture and the underlying data fusion, is the calibration of the relative alignments between the sensor optical heads. The performance of the sensor is related to its estimation of such alignments. HYDRA design is first reminded in this paper along with simplification it can bring at system level (AOCS). Then self-calibration of optical heads alignment is highlighted through descriptions and simulation results, thus demonstrating the performances of a key part of HYDRA multiple-head concept.

  20. The Super Gaussian Laser Intensity Profile in HYDRA's 3D Laser Ray Trace Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepke, Scott M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    In this note, the laser focal plane intensity pro le for a beam modeled using the 3D ray trace package in HYDRA is determined. First, the analytical model is developed followed by a practical numerical model for evaluating the resulting computationally intensive normalization factor for all possible input parameters.

  1. Validity of HydraTrend reagent strips for the assessment of hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Bryce M; Heelan, Kate A; Brown, Gregory A; Bartee, Rodrick T

    2014-09-01

    Hydration is used by athletic governing organizations for weight class eligibility. The measurement of urine specific gravity (USG) as a measure of hydration by reagent strips is a controversial issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of HydraTrend reagent strips that facilitate the correction of USG for alkaline urine samples against refractometry for the assessment of USG. Fifty-one participants (33 males, age = 22.3 ± 1.3 years; 18 females, age = 22.4 ± 1.2 years) provided 84 urine samples. The samples were tested for USG using refractometry and reagent strips and for pH using reagent strips and a digital pH meter. Strong correlation coefficients were found between refractometry and reagent strips for USG (rs(82) = 0.812, p refractometry with USG >1.020, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.020) occurred 39% (33/84) of the time and false negative results for National Federation of State High School Association (NFHS) requirements (fail refractometry with USG >1.025, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.025) occurred 14% (12/84) of the time. There were no false positives (pass refractometry and fail reagent strips) for NCAA or NFHS requirements. These data show that refractometry and reagent strips have strong positive correlations. However, the risk of a false negative result leading to incorrect certification of euhydration status outweighs the benefits of the HydraTrend reagent strips for the measurement of USG.

  2. Different Endosymbiotic Interactions in Two Hydra Species Reflect the Evolutionary History of Endosymbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-06-19

    Endosymbiosis is an important evolutionary event for organisms, and there is widespread interest in understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis establishment. Hydra is one of the most suitable organisms for studying the evolution of endosymbiosis. Within the genus Hydra, H. viridissima and H. vulgaris show endosymbiosis with green algae. Previous studies suggested that the endosymbiosis in H. vulgaris took place much more recently than that in H. viridissima, noting that the establishment of the interaction between H. vulgaris and its algae is not as stable as in H. viridissima. To investigate the on-going process of endosymbiosis, we first compared growth and tolerance to starvation in symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of both species. The results revealed that symbiotic H. viridissima had a higher growth rate and greater tolerance to starvation than aposymbiotic polyps. By contrast, growth of symbiotic H. vulgaris was identical to that of aposymbiotic polyps, and symbiotic H. vulgaris was less tolerant to starvation. Moreover, our gene expression analysis showed a pattern of differential gene expression in H. viridissima similar to that in other endosymbiotically established organisms, and contrary to that observed in H. vulgaris. We also showed that H. viridissima could cope with oxidative stress that caused damage, such as cell death, in H. vulgaris. These observations support the idea that oxidative stress related genes play an important role in the on-going process of endosymbiosis evolution. The different evolutionary stages of endosymbiosis studied here provide a deeper insight into the evolutionary processes occurring toward a stable endosymbiosis.

  3. High-resolution 3D simulations of NIF ignition targets performed on Sequoia with HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Clark, D. S.; Jones, O. S.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.; Koning, J. M.; Schroeder, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Developments in the multiphysics ICF code HYDRA enable it to perform large-scale simulations on the Sequoia machine at LLNL. With an aggregate computing power of 20 Petaflops, Sequoia offers an unprecedented capability to resolve the physical processes in NIF ignition targets for a more complete, consistent treatment of the sources of asymmetry. We describe modifications to HYDRA that enable it to scale to over one million processes on Sequoia. These include new options for replicating parts of the mesh over a subset of the processes, to avoid strong scaling limits. We consider results from a 3D full ignition capsule-only simulation performed using over one billion zones run on 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations through modes l = 200. We also report progress towards a high-resolution 3D integrated hohlraum simulation performed using 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations on the ignition capsule through modes l = 70. These aim for the most complete calculations yet of the interactions and overall impact of the various sources of asymmetry for NIF ignition targets. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Analysis of vascular development in the hydra sterol biosynthetic mutants of Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Pullen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The control of vascular tissue development in plants is influenced by diverse hormonal signals, but their interactions during this process are not well understood. Wild-type sterol profiles are essential for growth, tissue patterning and signalling processes in plant development, and are required for regulated vascular patterning.Here we investigate the roles of sterols in vascular tissue development, through an analysis of the Arabidopsis mutants hydra1 and fackel/hydra2, which are defective in the enzymes sterol isomerase and sterol C-14 reductase respectively. We show that defective vascular patterning in the shoot is associated with ectopic cell divisions. Expression of the auxin-regulated AtHB8 homeobox gene is disrupted in mutant embryos and seedlings, associated with variably incomplete vascular strand formation and duplication of the longitudinal axis. Misexpression of the auxin reporter proIAA2ratioGUS and mislocalization of PIN proteins occurs in the mutants. Introduction of the ethylene-insensitive ein2 mutation partially rescues defective cell division, localization of PIN proteins, and vascular strand development.The results support a model in which sterols are required for correct auxin and ethylene crosstalk to regulate PIN localization, auxin distribution and AtHB8 expression, necessary for correct vascular development.

  5. Unique, polyfucosylated glycan-receptor interactions are essential for regeneration of Hydra magnipapillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahadevan, Sonu; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Haslam, Stuart M; Dell, Anne; Ramaswamy, Subramanian; Babu, Ponnusamy

    2014-01-17

    Cell-cell communications, cell-matrix interactions, and cell migrations play a major role in regeneration. However, little is known about the molecular players involved in these critical events, especially cell surface molecules. Here, we demonstrate the role of specific glycan-receptor interactions in the regenerative process using Hydra magnipapillata as a model system. Global characterization of the N- and O-glycans expressed by H. magnipapillata using ultrasensitive mass spectrometry revealed mainly polyfucosylated LacdiNAc antennary structures. Affinity purification showed that a putative C-type lectin (accession number Q6SIX6) is a likely endogenous receptor for the novel polyfucosylated glycans. Disruption of glycan-receptor interactions led to complete shutdown of the regeneration machinery in live Hydra. A time-dependent, lack-of-regeneration phenotype observed upon incubation with exogenous fuco-lectins suggests the involvement of a polyfucose receptor-mediated signaling mechanism during regeneration. Thus, for the first time, the results presented here provide direct evidence for the role of polyfucosylated glycan-receptor interactions in the regeneration of H. magnipapillata.

  6. Dust formation and wind acceleration around the aluminum oxide-rich AGB star W Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Aki; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Tachibana, Shogo; Yamamura, Issei

    2017-11-01

    Dust grains, formed around asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, are accelerated by stellar radiation to drive stellar winds, which supply freshly synthesized nuclides to the Galaxy. Silicate is the dominant dust species in space, but 40% of oxygen-rich AGB stars are thought to have comparable amounts of aluminum oxide dust. Dust formation and the wind-driving mechanism around these oxygen-rich stars, however, are poorly understood. We report on the spatial distributions of AlO and 29SiO molecules around an aluminum oxide-rich M-type AGB star, W Hydrae, based on observations obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. AlO molecules were only observed within three stellar radii (Rstar), whereas 29SiO was distributed in the accelerated wind beyond 5 Rstar without significant depletion. This strongly suggests that condensed aluminum oxide dust plays a key role in accelerating the stellar wind and in preventing the efficient formation of silicate dust around W Hydrae.

  7. Autoregulatory and repressive inputs localize Hydra Wnt3 to the head organizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukio; Tsiairis, Charisios D.; Özbek, Suat; Holstein, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Polarized Wnt signaling along the primary body axis is a conserved property of axial patterning in bilaterians and prebilaterians, and depends on localized sources of Wnt ligands. However, the mechanisms governing the localized Wnt expression that emerged early in evolution are poorly understood. Here we find in the cnidarian Hydra that two functionally distinct cis-regulatory elements control the head organizer-associated Hydra Wnt3 (HyWnt3). An autoregulatory element, which mediates direct inputs of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, highly activates HyWnt3 transcription in the head region. In contrast, a repressor element is necessary and sufficient to restrict the activity of the autoregulatory element, thereby allowing the organizer-specific expression. Our results reveal that a combination of autoregulation and repression is crucial for establishing a Wnt-expressing organizing center in a basal metazoan. We suggest that this transcriptional control is an evolutionarily old strategy in the formation of Wnt signaling centers and metazoan axial patterning. PMID:21576458

  8. Resource allocation and post-reproductive degeneration in the freshwater cnidarian Hydra oligactis (Pallas, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tökölyi, Jácint; Ősz, Zsófia; Sebestyén, Flóra; Barta, Zoltán

    2017-02-01

    Freshwater hydra are among the few animal groups that show negligible senescence and can maintain high survival and reproduction rates when kept under stable conditions in the laboratory. Yet, one species of Hydra (H. oligactis) undergoes a senescence-like process in which polyps degenerate and die after sexual reproduction. The ultimate factors responsible for this phenomenon are unclear. High mortality in reproducing animals could be the consequence of increased allocation of resources to reproduction at the expense of somatic maintenance. This hypothesis predicts that patterns of reproduction and survival are influenced by resource availability. To test this prediction we investigated survival and reproduction at different levels of food availability in 10 lineages of H. oligactis derived from a single Hungarian population. Sexual reproduction was accompanied by reduced survival, but a substantial proportion of animals regenerated after sexual reproduction and continued reproducing asexually. Polyps belonging to different lineages showed differences in their propensity to initiate sexual reproduction, gonad number and survival rate. Food availability significantly affected fecundity (number of eggs or testes produced), with the largest number of gonads being produced by animals kept on a high food regime. On the other hand, survival rate was not affected by the amount of food. These results show that survival is conserved at the expense of reproduction in this population when food is low. It remains a question still to be answered why survival is prioritized over reproduction in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. UV induced foot duplication in regenerating hydra is mediated by metalloproteinases and modulation of the Wnt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnapati, Lakshmi-Surekha; Londhe, Rohini; Deoli, Vaishali; Barve, Apurva; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2016-01-01

    We have shown earlier that irradiation with UV induces duplication of foot in regenerating middle pieces of hydra. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) leading to this curious phenomenon. UV irradiation induced duplicated foot in about 30% of regenerating middle pieces. Metalloproteinases are important in foot formation, while Wnt pathway genes are important in head formation in hydra. The effect of UV irradiation on expression of these genes was studied by in situ hybridization and q-PCR. In whole polyps and middle pieces, UV irradiation led to up-regulation of HMP2 and HMMP, the two metalloproteinases involved in foot formation in hydra. HMP2 expression was significantly increased starting from 30 min post exposure to UV at 254 nm (500 J/m(2)), while HMMP showed significant up-regulation 6 h post UV exposure onwards. In middle pieces, increased expression of both metalloproteinases was observed only at 48 h. In whole polyps as well as in middle pieces, expression of Wnt3 and β-catenin was detected within 30 min of UV exposure and was accompanied by up-regulation of GSK3β, DKK3 and DKK1/2/4, inhibitors of the Wnt pathway. These conditions likely lead to inactivation of Wnt signaling. We therefore conclude that duplication of foot due to UV irradiation in regenerating middle pieces of hydra is a combined effect of up-regulation of metalloproteinases and inactivation of the Wnt pathway. Our results suggest that UV irradiation can be employed as a tool to understand patterning mechanisms during foot formation in hydra.

  10. Hydra phantom applicability for carrying out tests of field uniformity in gamma cameras; Aplicabilidade do fantoma hydra para realizacao dos testes de uniformidade de campo em gama camaras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragao Filho, Geraldo L., E-mail: geraldo_lemos10@hotmail.com [Centro de Medicina Nuclear de Pernambuco (CEMUPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Oliveira, Alex C.H., E-mail: oliveira_ach@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand J.; Vieira, Jose W., E-mail: ferdinand.lopes@oi.com.br, E-mail: jose-wilson59@live.com [Instituto Federal de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical modality that makes use of radioactive material 'in vivo' in humans, making them a temporary radioactive source. The radiation emitted by the patient's body is detected by a specific equipment, called a gamma camera, creates an image showing the spatial and temporal biodistribution of radioactive material administered to the patient. Therefore, it's of fundamental importance a number of specific measures to make sure that procedure be satisfactory, called quality control. To Nuclear Medicine, quality control of gamma camera has the purpose of ensuring accurate scintillographic imaging, truthful and reliable for the diagnosis, guaranteeing visibility and clarity of details of structures, and also to determine the frequency and the need for preventive maintenance of equipment. To ensure the quality control of the gamma camera it's necessary to use some simulators, called phantom, used in Nuclear Medicine to evaluate system performance, system calibration and simulation of injuries. The goal of this study was to validate a new simulator for nuclear medicine, the Hydra phantom. The phantom was initially built for construction of calibration curves used in radiotherapy planning and quality control in CT. It has similar characteristics to specific phantoms in nuclear medicine, containing inserts and water area. Those inserts are regionally sourced materials, many of them are already used in the literature and based on information about density and interaction of radiation with matter. To verify its efficiency in quality control in Nuclear Medicine, was performed a test for uniformity field, one of the main tests performed daily, so we can verify the ability of the gamma camera to reproduce a uniform distribution of the administered activity in the phantom, been analysed qualitatively, through the image, and quantitatively, through values established for Central Field Of View (CFOV) and Useful Field Of View (UFOV

  11. A new case of neuropeptide coexpression (RGamide and LWamides) in Hydra, found by whole-mount, two-color double-labeling in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Georg N; Williamson, Michael; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2002-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra has a primitive nervous system that expresses at least six different neuropeptide genes: (1) three genes, coding for the preprohormones-A, -B, and -C that each gives rise to a variety of peptides with the C-terminal sequence Arg-Phe-NH(2) (the Hydra-RFamides); (2) one...... gene, coding for a preprohormone that gives rise to five peptides with the C-terminal sequence Leu-Trp-NH(2) (the Hydra-LWamides); (3) one gene, coding for a preprohormone that produces a peptide with the C-terminal sequence Lys-Val-NH(2) (Hydra-KVamide, also called Hym-176); and (4) one gene, coding...... for a preprohormone that gives rise to a peptide with the C-terminal sequence Arg-Gly NH(2) (Hydra-RGamide, also called Hym-355). In a previous paper, we described that a population of neurons in the peduncle (a region just above the foot) of Hydra coexpresses the preprohormone-A and KVamide genes, whereas neurons...

  12. 2D HYDRA Calculations of Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Growth and Feedthrough in Cylindrical Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Matthew; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Peterson, Kyle; Hess, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Cylindrical liner implosions are susceptible to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT), along with the azimuthal current-carrying modes (sausage, kink, etc). ``Feedthrough'' of these instabilities has a strong influence on the integrity of the liner/fuel interface in the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept (MagLIF). The linearized ideal MHD equations can be solved to quantify these effects, including the presence of an effective gravity and an axial magnetic field. We investigate the potential of this field to mitigate feedthrough, due to MRT growth from various initial surface finishes (seeded, rough), throughout the implosion using our analytic results and the LLNL code, HYDRA. We will present both low and high convergence cases. Lastly, we illustrate the effect shock compression can have on feedthrough in seeded liners for various fill gases (cold and pre-heated) and magnetic field configurations. M. R. Weis was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories.

  13. Reduction of low frequency error for SED36 and APS based HYDRA star trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouaknine, Julien; Blarre, Ludovic; Oddos-Marcel, Lionel; Montel, Johan; Julio, Jean-Marc

    2017-11-01

    In the frame of the CNES Pleiades satellite, a reduction of the star tracker low frequency error, which is the most penalizing error for the satellite attitude control, was performed. For that purpose, the SED36 star tracker was developed, with a design based on the flight qualified SED16/26. In this paper, the SED36 main features will be first presented. Then, the reduction process of the low frequency error will be developed, particularly the optimization of the optical distortion calibration. The result is an attitude low frequency error of 1.1" at 3 sigma along transverse axes. The implementation of these improvements to HYDRA, the new multi-head APS star tracker developed by SODERN, will finally be presented.

  14. Hydra meiosis reveals unexpected conservation of structural synaptonemal complex proteins across metazoans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraune, Johanna; Alsheimer, Manfred; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Busch, Karoline; Fraune, Sebastian; Bosch, Thomas C. G.; Benavente, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a key structure of meiosis, mediating the stable pairing (synapsis) of homologous chromosomes during prophase I. Its remarkable tripartite structure is evolutionarily well conserved and can be found in almost all sexually reproducing organisms. However, comparison of the different SC protein components in the common meiosis model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Mus musculus revealed no sequence homology. This discrepancy challenged the hypothesis that the SC arose only once in evolution. To pursue this matter we focused on the evolution of SYCP1 and SYCP3, the two major structural SC proteins of mammals. Remarkably, our comparative bioinformatic and expression studies revealed that SYCP1 and SYCP3 are also components of the SC in the basal metazoan Hydra. In contrast to previous assumptions, we therefore conclude that SYCP1 and SYCP3 form monophyletic groups of orthologous proteins across metazoans. PMID:23012415

  15. Toxicity of water and sediment from stormwater retarding basins to Hydra hexactinella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj; Pollino, Carmel A.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2008-01-01

    of 50 ml/L and 100 ml/L, while the 7 h pulse exposure caused a significant increase in the mean population growth rate compared to the control. Water samples from the two other retarding basins were found non-toxic to H. hexactinella. This is the first study to employ sediment tests with Hydra spp....... on stormwater sediments and a lower population growth rate was observed for organisms exposed to sediment from the Avoca St retarding basins. The behavioral study showed that H. hexactinella tended to avoid the sediment-water interface when exposed to sediment from all retarding basins, compared...... to the reference sediment. Further work is needed to determine the long-term effects of stormwater polluted sediments and acute effects due to organism exposure to short-term high concentrations during rain events. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. Where simplicity meets complexity: hydra, a model for host-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, René; Fraune, Sebastian; Franzenburg, Sören; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2012-01-01

    For a long time, the main purpose of microbiology and immunology was to study pathogenic bacteria and infectious disease; the potential benefit of commensal bacteria remained unrecognised. Discovering that individuals from Hydra to man are not solitary, homogenous entities but consist of complex communities of many species that likely evolved during a billion years of coexistence (Fraune and Bosch 2010) led to the hologenome theory of evolution (Zilber-Rosenberg and Rosenberg 2008) which considers the holobiont with its hologenome as the unit of selection in evolution. Defining the individual microbe-host conversations in these consortia is a challenging but necessary step on the path to understanding the function of the associations as a whole. Untangling the complex interactions requires simple animal models with only a few specific bacterial species. Such models can function as living test tubes and may be key to dissecting the fundamental principles that underlie all host-microbe interactions. Here we introduce Hydra (Bosch et al. 2009) as such a model with one of the simplest epithelia in the animal kingdom (only two cell layers), with few cell types derived from only three distinct stem cell lineages, and with the availability of a fully sequenced genome and numerous genomic tools including transgenesis. Recognizing the entire system with its inputs, outputs and the interconnections (Fraune and Bosch 2010; Bosch et al. 2009; Fraune and Bosch 2007; Fraune et al. 2009a) we here present observations which may have profound impact on understanding a strictly microbe-dependent life style and its evolutionary consequences.

  17. Different Endosymbiotic Interactions in Two Hydra Species Reflect the Evolutionary History of Endosymbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masakazu; Yuyama, Ikuko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-08-03

    Endosymbiosis is an important evolutionary event for organisms, and there is widespread interest in understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis establishment. Hydra is one of the most suitable organisms for studying the evolution of endosymbiosis. Within the genus Hydra, H. viridissima and H. vulgaris show endosymbiosis with green algae. Previous studies suggested that the endosymbiosis in H. vulgaris took place much more recently than that in H. viridissima, noting that the establishment of the interaction between H. vulgaris and its algae is not as stable as in H. viridissima. To investigate the on-going process of endosymbiosis, we first compared growth and tolerance to starvation in symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of both species. The results revealed that symbiotic H. viridissima had a higher growth rate and greater tolerance to starvation than aposymbiotic polyps. By contrast, growth of symbiotic H. vulgaris was identical to that of aposymbiotic polyps, and symbiotic H. vulgaris was less tolerant to starvation. Moreover, our gene expression analysis showed a pattern of differential gene expression in H. viridissima similar to that in other endosymbiotically established organisms, and contrary to that observed in H. vulgaris We also showed that H. viridissima could cope with oxidative stress that caused damage, such as cell death, in H. vulgaris These observations support the idea that oxidative stress related genes play an important role in the on-going process of endosymbiosis evolution. The different evolutionary stages of endosymbiosis studied here provide a deeper insight into the evolutionary processes occurring toward a stable endosymbiosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. ROS dependent copper toxicity in Hydra-biochemical and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Mohammed; Murugadas, Anbazhagan; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Rajendran, Ramasamy Babu; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2016-01-01

    Copper, an essential microelement, is known to be toxic to aquatic life at concentrations higher than that could be tolerated. Copper-induced oxidative stress has been documented in vitro, yet the in vivo effects of metal-induced oxidative stress have not been extensively studied in the lower invertebrates. The objective of the present study has been to find the effect of ROS-mediated toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of copper at organismal and cellular levels in Hydra magnipapillata. Exposure to copper at sublethal concentrations (0.06 and 0.1mg/L) for 24 or 48h resulted in generation of significant levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We infer that the free radicals here originate predominantly at the lysosomes but partly at the mitochondria also as visualized by H2-DHCFDA staining. Quantitative real-time PCR of RNA extracted from copper-exposed polyps revealed dose-dependent up-regulation of all antioxidant response genes (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST, GR, G6PD). Concurrent increase of Hsp70 and FoxO genes suggests the ability of polyps to respond to stress, which at 48h was not the same as at 24h. Interestingly, the transcript levels of all genes were down-regulated at 48h as compared to 24h incubation period. Comet assay indicated copper as a powerful genotoxicant, and the DNA damage was dose- as well as duration-dependent. Western blotting of proteins (Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3) confirmed ROS-mediated mitochondrial cell death in copper-exposed animals. These changes correlated well with changes in morphology, regeneration and aspects of reproduction. Taken together, the results indicate increased production of intracellular ROS in Hydra on copper exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Karyotyping and single-gene detection using fluorescence in situ hybridization on chromosomes of Hydra magnipapillata (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Anokhin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fresh water polyp Hydra L., 1758 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa plays a key role as a model organism in modern evolutionary and developmental biology. A complete genome sequence has been published recently for Hydra magnipapillata Ito, 1947 and molecular data are rapidly accumulating in the literature, but little information is available on its chromosomes. In this study, an efficient fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH method is described for H. magnipapillata which not only allows identification of the chromosomes but also visualization of the location of individual genetic loci. Together with cDNA and genomic sequencing this may provide the foundation for increasingly precise genetic and physical mapping in this basal metazoan model organism.

  20. Analysis of Hydra PIWI proteins and piRNAs uncover early evolutionary origins of the piRNA pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Robyn S M; Anand, Amit; Nishimiya-Fujisawa, Chiemi; Kobayashi, Satoru; Kai, Toshie

    2014-02-01

    To preserve genome integrity, an evolutionarily conserved small RNA-based silencing mechanism involving PIWI proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) represses potentially deleterious transposons in animals. Although there has been extensive research into PIWI proteins in bilaterians, these proteins remain to be examined in ancient phyla. Here, we investigated the PIWI proteins Hywi and Hyli in the cnidarian Hydra, and found that both PIWI proteins are enriched in multipotent stem cells, germline stem cells, and in the female germline. Hywi and Hyli localize to the nuage, a perinuclear organelle that has been implicated in piRNA-mediated transposon silencing, together with other conserved nuage and piRNA pathway components. Our findings provide the first report of nuage protein localization patterns in a non-bilaterian. Hydra PIWI proteins possess symmetrical dimethylarginines: modified residues that are known to aid in PIWI protein localization to the nuage and proper piRNA loading. piRNA profiling suggests that transposons are the major targets of the piRNA pathway in Hydra. Our data suggest that piRNA biogenesis through the ping-pong amplification cycle occurs in Hydra and that Hywi and Hyli are likely to preferentially bind primary and secondary piRNAs, respectively. Presumptive piRNA clusters are unidirectionally transcribed and primarily give rise to piRNAs that are antisense to transposons. These results indicate that various conserved features of PIWI proteins, the piRNA pathway, and their associations with the nuage were likely established before the evolution of bilaterians. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. GLOMOMIDIELLA N. GEN. (FORAMINIFERA, MILIOLATA, NEODISCIDAE: A NEW GENUS FROM THE LATE GUADALUPIAN-LOPINGIAN OF HYDRA ISLAND (GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL VACHARD

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of Foraminifera (Miliolata, Cornuspiroidea, Neodiscidae is erected from the late Guadalupian (Capitanian = Midian to Lopingian sedimentary succession of the island of Hydra (Greece. It represents an important phylogenetic form, probably at the origin of several genera (or subfamilies of the authors that became relatively widespread during the Lopingian (Late Permian. Glomomidiella n. gen. is characterized by an entirely glomospiral coiling and rudimentary pseudoseptation. 

  2. Determination of mercury in ayurvedic dietary supplements that are not rasa shastra using the hydra-C direct mercury analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Amir A; Smith, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Mercury has been determined in Ayurvedic dietary supplements (Trifala, Trifala Guggulu, Turmeric, Mahasudarshan, Yograj, Shatawari, Hingwastika, Shatavari, and Shilajit) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and direct mercury analysis using the Hydra-C direct mercury analyzer (Teledyne Leeman Labs Hudson, NH, USA). Similar results were obtained from the two methods, but the direct mercury analysis method was much faster and safer and required no microwave digestion (unlike ICP-MS). Levels of mercury ranged from 0.002 to 56  μ g/g in samples of dietary supplements. Standard reference materials Ephedra 3240 and tomato leaves that were from the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) and dogfish liver (DOLT3) that was from the Canadian Research Council were analyzed using Hydra-C method. Average mercury recoveries were 102% (RSD% 0.0018), 100% (RSD% 0.0009), and 101% (RSD% 0.0729), respectively. Hydra-C method Limit Of Quantitation was 0.5 ng.

  3. Hydra as a model organism to decipher the toxic effects of copper oxide nanorod: Eco-toxicogenomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugadas, Anbazhagan; Zeeshan, Mohammed; Thamaraiselvi, Kaliannan; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a powerful field of applied research. However, the potential toxicity of nano-materials is a cause of concern. A thorough toxicological investigation is required before a nanomaterial is evaluated for application of any kind. In this context, there is concerted effort to find appropriate test systems to assess the toxicity of nanomaterials. Toxicity of a nanomaterial greatly depends on its physicochemical properties and the biological system with which it interacts. The present research was carried out with a view to generate data on eco-toxicological impacts of copper oxide nanorod (CuO NR) in Hydra magnipapillata 105 at organismal, cellular and molecular levels. Exposure of hydra to CuO NR resulted in severe morphological alterations in a concentration- as well as duration-dependent manner. Impairment of feeding, population growth, and regeneration was also observed. In vivo and in vitro analyses revealed induction of oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and molecular machinery of apoptotic cell death, accompanied by disruption of cell cycle progression. Taken together, CuO nanorod is potentially toxic to the biological systems. Also, hydra offers potential to be used as a convenient model organism for aquatic ecotoxicological risk assessment of nanomaterials. PMID:27417574

  4. Hydratools manual version 1.0, documentation for a MATLAB®-based post-processing package for the Sontek Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Marinna A.; Sherwood, Chris; Horwitz, Rachel; Ramsey, Andree; Lightsom, Fran; Lacy, Jessie; Xu, Jingping

    2006-01-01

    The Sediment Transport Instrumentation Group (STG) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Woods Hole Science Center has a long-standing comitment to providing scientists with high quality oceanographic data. To meet this commitment, STG personnel are vigilant in checking data as well as hardware for signs of instrument malfunction. STG data sets are accompanied by processing histories to detail data processing procedures that may have modified the natural data signal while removing noise from the data. The history also allows the data to be reprocessed in the ligth of new insight into instrument function and moored conditions. This toolbox was compiled to meet these data quality commitments for data generated by Sontek Hydra systems using both ADV and PCADP probes. In the mid 1900's, the USGS Coastal and Marine Program began frequent deployments of Sontek Hydra systems in support of projects in estuaries, coastal, and continental shelf regions nationwide. Hydra data sets are large and complex in structure, and existing processing and editing tools consisted of fragments of MATLAB code written by USGS scientists to satisfy personal research needs. This code did not meet STG quality control criteria. This toolbox permits engineers and scientists to monitor data quality by: 1.\tprocessing data with interactive critical review;

  5. Determination of Mercury in Ayurvedic Dietary Supplements That Are Not Rasa Shastra Using the Hydra-C Direct Mercury Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury has been determined in Ayurvedic dietary supplements (Trifala, Trifala Guggulu, Turmeric, Mahasudarshan, Yograj, Shatawari, Hingwastika, Shatavari, and Shilajit by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and direct mercury analysis using the Hydra-C direct mercury analyzer (Teledyne Leeman Labs Hudson, NH, USA. Similar results were obtained from the two methods, but the direct mercury analysis method was much faster and safer and required no microwave digestion (unlike ICP-MS. Levels of mercury ranged from 0.002 to 56 μg/g in samples of dietary supplements. Standard reference materials Ephedra 3240 and tomato leaves that were from the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST and dogfish liver (DOLT3 that was from the Canadian Research Council were analyzed using Hydra-C method. Average mercury recoveries were 102% (RSD% 0.0018, 100% (RSD% 0.0009, and 101% (RSD% 0.0729, respectively. Hydra-C method Limit Of Quantitation was 0.5 ng.

  6. Hydra: software for tailored processing of H/D exchange data from MS or tandem MS analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Melissa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS experiments implemented to characterize protein interaction and protein folding generate large quantities of data. Organizing, processing and visualizing data requires an automated solution, particularly when accommodating new tandem mass spectrometry modes for H/DX measurement. We sought to develop software that offers flexibility in defining workflows so as to support exploratory treatments of H/DX-MS data, with a particular focus on the analysis of very large protein systems and the mining of tandem mass spectrometry data. Results We present a software package ("Hydra" that supports both traditional and exploratory treatments of H/DX-MS data. Hydra's software architecture tolerates flexible data analysis procedures by allowing the addition of new algorithms without significant change to the underlying code base. Convenient user interfaces ease the organization of raw data files and input of peptide data. After executing a user-defined workflow, extracted deuterium incorporation values can be visualized in tabular and graphical formats. Hydra also automates the extraction and visualization of deuterium distribution values. Manual validation and assessment of results is aided by an interface that aligns extracted ion chromatograms and mass spectra, while providing a means of rapidly reprocessing the data following manual adjustment. A unique feature of Hydra is the automated processing of tandem mass spectrometry data, demonstrated on a large test data set in which 40,000 deuterium incorporation values were extracted from replicate analysis of approximately 1000 fragment ions in one hour using a typical PC. Conclusion The customizable workflows and user-friendly interfaces of Hydra removes a significant bottleneck in processing and visualizing H/DX-MS data and helps the researcher spend more time executing new experiments and interpreting results. This increased

  7. Bud detachment in hydra requires activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor and a Rho–ROCK–myosin II signaling pathway to ensure formation of a basal constriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Oliver; Apel, David; Steinmetz, Patrick; Lange, Ellen; Hopfenmüller, Simon; Ohler, Kerstin; Sudhop, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hydra propagates asexually by exporting tissue into a bud, which detaches 4 days later as a fully differentiated young polyp. Prerequisite for detachment is activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling. The mechanism which enables constriction and tissue separation within the monolayered ecto‐ and endodermal epithelia is unknown. Results: Histological sections and staining of F‐actin by phalloidin revealed conspicuous cell shape changes at the bud detachment site indicating a localized generation of mechanical forces and the potential enhancement of secretory functions in ectodermal cells. By gene expression analysis and pharmacological inhibition, we identified a candidate signaling pathway through Rho, ROCK, and myosin II, which controls bud base constriction and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Specific regional myosin phosphorylation suggests a crucial role of ectodermal cells at the detachment site. Inhibition of FGFR, Rho, ROCK, or myosin II kinase activity is permissive for budding, but represses myosin phosphorylation, rearrangement of F‐actin and constriction. The young polyp remains permanently connected to the parent by a broad tissue bridge. Conclusions: Our data suggest an essential role of FGFR and a Rho‐ROCK‐myosin II pathway in the control of cell shape changes required for bud detachment. Developmental Dynamics 246:502–516, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Developmental Dynamics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Anatomists PMID:28411398

  8. The development of the cnidoblasts of Hydra; an electron microscope study of cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLAUTTERBACK, D B; FAWCETT, D W

    1959-05-25

    The general histological organization of Hydra is reviewed and electron microscopic observations are presented which bear upon the nature of the mesoglea, the mode of attachment of the contractile processes of the musculo-epithelial cells, and the cytomorphosis of the cnidoblasts. Particular attention is devoted to the changes in form and distribution of the cytoplasmic organelles in the course of nematocyst formation. The undifferentiated interstitial cell is characterized by a small Golgi complex, few mitochondria, virtual absence of the endoplasmic reticulum, and a cytoplasmic matrix crowded with fine granules presumed to be ribonucleoprotein. These cytological characteristics persist through the early part of the period of interstitial cell proliferation which leads to formation of clusters of cnidoblasts. With the initiation of nematocyst formation in the cnidoblasts, numerous membrane-bounded vesicles appear in their cytoplasm. These later coalesce to form a typical endoplasmic reticulum with associated ribonucleoprotein granules. During the ensuing period of rapid growth of the nematocyst the reticulum becomes very extensive and highly organized. Finally, when the nematocyst has attained its full size, the reticulum breaks up again into isolated vesicles. The Golgi complex remains closely applied to the apical pole of the nematocyst throughout its development and apparently contributes to its enlargement by segregating formative material in vacuoles whose contents are subsequently incorporated in the nematocyst. The elaboration of this complex cell product appears to require the cooperative participation of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. Their respective roles in the formative process are discussed.

  9. M Stars in the TW Hydra Association: A Chandra Large Program Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzi, Kristina; Kastner, Joel; Principe, David; Stelzer, Beate; Gorti, Uma; Pascucci, Illaria; Argiroffi, Costanza

    2018-01-01

    We have conducted a Cycle 18 Chandra Large Program survey of very cool members of the $\\sim$ 8 Myr-old TW Hydra Association (TWA) to extend our previous study of the potential connections between M star disks and X-rays (Kastner et al. 2016, AJ, 152, 3) to the extreme low-mass end of the stellar initial mass function. The spectral types of our targets extend down to the M/L borderline. Thus we can further investigate the potential connection between the intense X-ray emission from young, low-mass stars and the lifetimes of their circumstellar planet-forming discs, as well as better constrain the age at which coronal activity declines for stellar masses approaching the H-burning limit of $\\sim$ 0.08 M$_{\\odot}$. We present preliminary results from the Cycle 18 survey, including X-ray detection statistics and measurements of relative X-ray luminosities and coronal (X-ray) temperatures for those TWA stars detected by Chandra. This research is supported by SAO/CXC grant GO7-18002A and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis program grants NNX12AH37G and NNX16AG13G to RIT.

  10. Taming the hydra of specialized metabolism: how systems biology and comparative approaches are revolutionizing plant biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilmiller, Anthony L; Pichersky, Eran; Last, Robert L

    2012-06-01

    Specialized (traditionally called 'secondary') metabolism can be thought of as a hydra with hundreds of thousands of compounds produced by thousands of enzymes across the entire plant kingdom. Until recently, plants that produce the most interesting and valuable metabolites were recalcitrant to modern molecular biology approaches for gene and pathway discovery. Recent advances in technologies for genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic methods now allow for deployment of 'systems biology' approaches to help elucidate unknown steps in specialized metabolite pathways, for example through co-expression analyses. Inexpensive transcriptome and whole genome sequencing (WGS) promises to provide direct access to metabolic pathways in plants not currently used as reference organisms. For example, WGS has uncovered cases of physical proximity of genes of specialized metabolism. Further integration of multiple 'omics' datasets through advances in bioinformatics tools will increase our knowledge of pathway architecture and regulation at an ever-increasing rate. As such the era of systems biology is rapidly providing a broader and deeper understanding of plant specialized metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoionized Features in the X-ray Spectrum of EX Hydrae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, G M; Raymond, J C; Brickhouse, N S; Mauche, C W; Proga, D; Steeghs, D; Hoogerwerf, R

    2009-09-28

    We present the first results from a long (496 ks) Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating observation of the intermediate polar EX Hydrae. In addition to the narrow emission lines from the cooling post-shock gas, for the first time we have detected a broad component in some of the X-ray emission lines, namely O VIII {lambda}18.97, Mg XII {lambda}8.42, Si XIV {lambda}6.18, and Fe XVII {lambda}16.78. The broad and narrow components have widths of {approx} 1600 km s{sup -1} and {approx} 150 km s{sup -1}, respectively. We also find that the flux of the broad component is modulated at the white dwarf spin period, constraining the region where the gas is formed. We propose a scenario where the broad component is formed in the pre-shock flow photoionized by radiation from the post-shock flow. Because the photoionized region has to be close to the radiation source in order to produce strong photoionized emission lines from ions like O VIII, Mg XII, and Si XIV, our photoionization model constrains the height of the standing shock above the white dwarf surface.

  12. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-3 (TRPM3) Mediates Nociceptive-Like Responses in Hydra vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafoglia, Valentina; Traversetti, Lorenzo; Del Grosso, Floriano; Scalici, Massimiliano; Lauro, Filomena; Russo, Valeria; Persichini, Tiziana; Salvemini, Daniela; Mollace, Vincenzo; Fini, Massimo; Raffaeli, William; Muscoli, Carolina; Colasanti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The ability of mammals to feel noxious stimuli lies in a heterogeneous group of primary somatosensory neurons termed nociceptors, which express specific membrane receptors, such as the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family. Here, we show that one of the most important nociceptive-like pathways is conserved in the freshwater coelenterate Hydra vulgaris, the most primitive organism possessing a nervous system. In particular, we found that H. vulgaris expresses TRPM3, a nociceptor calcium channel involved in the detection of noxious heat in mammals. Furthermore, we detected that both heat shock and TRPM3 specific agonist (i.e., pregnenolone sulfate) induce the modulation of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS), two genes activated by TRP-mediated heat painful stimuli in mammals. As expected, these effects are inhibited by a TRPM3 antagonist (i.e., mefenamic acid). Interestingly, the TRPM3 agonist and heat shock also induce the expression of nuclear transcription erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), known markers of oxidative stress; noteworthy gene expression was also inhibited by the TRPM3 antagonist. As a whole, our results demonstrate the presence of conserved molecular oxidative/nociceptive-like pathways at the primordial level of the animal kingdom.

  13. Hydratools, a MATLAB® based data processing package for Sontek Hydra data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M.; Lightsom, F.L.; Sherwood, C.R.; Xu, Jie; Lacy, J.R.; Ramsey, A.; Horwitz, R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a set of MATLAB tools to process and convert data collected by Sontek Hydra instruments to netCDF, which is a format used by the USGS to process and archive oceanographic time-series data. The USGS makes high-resolution current measurements within 1.5 meters of the bottom. These data are used in combination with other instrument data from sediment transport studies to develop sediment transport models. Instrument manufacturers provide software which outputs unique binary data formats. Multiple data formats are cumbersome. The USGS solution is to translate data streams into a common data format: netCDF. The Hydratools toolbox is written to create netCDF format files following EPIC conventions, complete with embedded metadata. Data are accepted from both the ADV and the PCADP. The toolbox will detect and remove bad data, substitute other sources of heading and tilt measurements if necessary, apply ambiguity corrections, calculate statistics, return information about data quality, and organize metadata. Standardized processing and archiving makes these data more easily and routinely accessible locally and over the Internet. In addition, documentation of the techniques used in the toolbox provides a baseline reference for others utilizing the data.

  14. DISCOVERY OF A DISK GAP CANDIDATE AT 20 AU IN TW HYDRAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, E.; Kusakabe, N.; Kandori, R. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Muto, T. [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); Kataoka, A.; Kuzuhara, M. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Oklahoma, Ookayama, Meguro-ko, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Hashimoto, J.; Wisniewski, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Tsukagoshi, T. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1, Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Kwon, J. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kudo, T.; Currie, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650, North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Grady, C. A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Takami, M. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Janson, M. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm, SE-106 91 (Sweden); Henning, T.; Carson, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sitko, M. L. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Mayama, S. [The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advance Studies, Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0115 (Japan); Thalmann, C., E-mail: eiji.akiyama@nao.ac.jp [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2015-04-01

    We present a new Subaru/HiCIAO high-contrast H-band polarized intensity (PI) image of a nearby transitional disk associated with TW Hydrae. The scattered light from the disk was detected from 0.″ 2 to 1.″ 5 (11–81 AU) and the PI image shows a clear axisymmetric depression in PI at ∼0.″ 4 (∼20 AU) from the central star, similar to the ∼80 AU gap previously reported from Hubble Space Telescope images. The azimuthal PI profile also shows that the disk beyond 0.″ 2 is almost axisymmetric. We discuss two possible scenarios explaining the origin of the PI depression: (1) a gap structure may exist at ∼20 AU from the central star because of a shallow slope seen in the PI profile, and (2) grain growth may be occurring in the inner region of the disk. Multi-band observations at near-infrared and millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths play a complementary role in investigating dust opacity and may help reveal the origin of the gap more precisely.

  15. Hydra: a self regenerating high performance computing grid for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Drew; Gobbi, Alberto; Lardy, Matthew A; Perkins, Charles; Little, Zach

    2008-04-01

    Computer aided drug design is progressing and playing an increasingly important role in drug discovery. Computational methods are being used to evaluate larger and larger numbers of real and virtual compounds. New methods based on molecular simulations that take protein and ligand flexibility into account also contribute to an ever increasing need for compute time. Computational grids are therefore becoming a critically important tool for modern drug discovery, but can be expensive to deploy and maintain. Here, we describe the low cost implementation of a 165 node, computational grid at Anadys Pharmaceuticals. The grid makes use of the excess computing capacity of desktop computers deployed throughout the company and of outdated desktop computers which populate a central computing grid. The performance of the grid grows automatically with the size of the company and with advances in computer technology. To ensure the uniformity of the nodes in the grid, all computers are running the Linux operating system. The desktop computers run Linux inside MS Windows using coLinux as virtualization software. HYDRA has been used to optimize computational models, for virtual screening and for lead optimization.

  16. Expulsion of Symbiotic Algae during Feeding by the Green Hydra – a Mechanism for Regulating Symbiont Density?

    OpenAIRE

    Yelena Fishman; Eliahu Zlotkin; Daniel Sher

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Algal-cnidarian symbiosis is one of the main factors contributing to the success of cnidarians, and is crucial for the maintenance of coral reefs. While loss of the symbionts (such as in coral bleaching) may cause the death of the cnidarian host, over-proliferation of the algae may also harm the host. Thus, there is a need for the host to regulate the population density of its symbionts. In the green hydra, Chlorohydra viridissima, the density of symbiotic algae may be controlled ...

  17. Immagine della crisi / Crisi dell'immagine. Critica all'egemonia culturale del realismo e diritto all'opacità in Hydra Decapita (2011, un film saggio di The Otolith Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Ferrara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the ways in which the relation between crisis and imaginary is articulated in Hydra Decapita, a 2011 essay-film by the British art collective The Otolith Group. Hydra Decapita is an imaged-based reflection arguing for the biopolitical character of the global economic crisis erupted in 2008 and of its representations in the media. By deploying a Cultural Studies-oriented interdisciplinary approach to the artwork – drawing its methodology from visual studies, critical theory and post-colonial studies – the article interrogates the limits and potentialities of Hydra Decapita’s conceptual kernel and aesthetic language.

  18. A Multi-Year Plan for Enhancing Turbulence Modeling in Hydra-TH Revised and Updated Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Thomas M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berndt, Markus [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Magolan, Ben [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to document a multi-year plan for enhancing turbulence modeling in Hydra-TH for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) program. Hydra-TH is being developed to the meet the high- fidelity, high-Reynolds number CFD based thermal hydraulic simulation needs of the program. This work is being conducted within the thermal hydraulics methods (THM) focus area. This report is an extension of THM CASL milestone L3:THM.CFD.P10.02 [33] (March, 2015) and picks up where it left off. It will also serve to meet the requirements of CASL THM level three milestone, L3:THM.CFD.P11.04, scheduled for completion September 30, 2015. The objectives of this plan will be met by: maturation of recently added turbulence models, strategic design/development of new models and systematic and rigorous testing of existing and new models and model extensions. While multi-phase turbulent flow simulations are important to the program, only single-phase modeling will be considered in this report. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is also an important modeling methodology. However, at least in the first year, the focus is on steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence modeling.

  19. MyD88-deficient Hydra reveal an ancient function of TLR signaling in sensing bacterial colonizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzenburg, Sören; Fraune, Sebastian; Künzel, Sven; Baines, John F; Domazet-Loso, Tomislav; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2012-11-20

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is one of the most important signaling cascades of the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies in invertebrates have focused on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and there is little information regarding the evolutionary origin and ancestral function of TLR signaling. In Drosophila, members of the Toll-like receptor family are involved in both embryonic development and innate immunity. In C. elegans, a clear immune function of the TLR homolog TOL-1 is controversial and central components of vertebrate TLR signaling including the key adapter protein myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and the transcription factor NF-κB are not present. In basal metazoans such as the cnidarians Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis, all components of the vertebrate TLR signaling cascade are present, but their role in immunity is unknown. Here, we use a MyD88 loss-of-function approach in Hydra to demonstrate that recognition of bacteria is an ancestral function of TLR signaling and that this process contributes to both host-mediated recolonization by commensal bacteria as well as to defense against bacterial pathogens.

  20. DNA repair enzyme APE1 from evolutionarily ancient Hydra reveals redox activity exclusively found in mammalian APE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekhale, Komal; Haval, Gauri; Perween, Nusrat; Antoniali, Giulia; Tell, Gianluca; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Ghaskadbi, Saroj

    2017-11-01

    Only mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1) has been reported to possess both DNA repair and redox activities. C terminal of the protein is required for base excision repair, while the redox activity resides in the N terminal due to cysteine residues at specific positions. APE1s from other organisms studied so far lack the redox activity in spite of having the N terminal domain. We find that APE1 from the Cnidarian Hydra exhibits both endonuclease and redox activities similar to mammalian APE1. We further show the presence of the three indispensable cysteines in Hydra APE1 for redox activity by site directed mutagenesis. Importance of redox domain but not the repair domain of APE1 in regeneration has been demonstrated by using domain-specific inhibitors. Our findings clearly demonstrate that the redox function of APE1 evolved very early in metazoan evolution and is not a recent acquisition in mammalian APE1 as believed so far. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Transitioning from microbiome composition to microbial community interactions: the potential of the metaorganism Hydra as an experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Deines

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Animals are home to complex microbial communities, which are shaped through interactions within the community, interactions with the host, and through environmental factors. The advent of high-throughput sequencing methods has led to novel insights in changing patterns of community composition and structure. However, deciphering the different types of interactions among community members, with their hosts and their interplay with their environment is still a challenge of major proportion. The emerging fields of synthetic microbial ecology and community systems biology have the potential to decrypt these complex relationships. Studying host-associated microbiota across multiple spatial and temporal scales will bridge the gap between individual microorganism studies and large-scale whole community surveys. Here, we discuss the unique potential of Hydra as an emerging experimental model in microbiome research. Through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico approaches the interaction structure of host-associated microbial communities and the effects of the host on the microbiota and its interactions can be disentangled. Research in the model system Hydra can unify disciplines from molecular genetics to ecology, opening up the opportunity to discover fundamental rules that govern microbiome community stability.

  2. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, prokaryotic expression, and function prediction of foot-specific peroxidase in Hydra magnipapillata Chinese strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H C; Yang, H Q; Zhao, F X; Qian, X C

    2014-08-28

    The cDNA sequence of foot-specific peroxidase PPOD1 from the Chinese strain of Hydra magnipapillata was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cDNA sequence contained a coding region with an 873-bp open reading frame, a 31-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 36-bp 3'-untranslated region. The structure prediction results showed that PPOD1 contains 10.34% of α-helix, 38.62% of extended strand, 12.41% of β-turn, and 38.62% of random coil. The structural core was α-helix at the N terminus. The GenBank protein blast server showed that PPOD1 contains 2 fascin-like domains. In addition, high-level PPOD1 activity was only present in the ectodermal epithelial cells located on the edge of the adhesive face of the basal disc, and that these cells extended lamellipodia and filopodia when the basal disc was tightly attached to a glass slide. The fascin-like domains of Hydra PPOD1 might contribute to the bundling of the actin filament of these cells, and hence, the formation of filopodia. In conclusion, these cells might play an important role in strengthening the adsorbability of the basal disc to substrates.

  3. Novel snail1 target proteins in human colon cancer identified by proteomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Larriba

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Snail1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a process responsible for the acquisition of invasiveness during tumorigenesis. Several transcriptomic studies have reported Snail1-regulated genes in different cell types, many of them involved in cell adhesion. However, only a few studies have used proteomics as a tool for the characterization of proteins mediating EMT.We identified by proteomic analysis using 2D-DIGE electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-TOF and ESI-linear ion trap mass spectrometry a number of proteins with variable functions whose expression is modulated by Snail1 in SW480-ADH human colon cancer cells. Validation was performed by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Snail1 repressed several members of the 14-3-3 family of phosphoserine/phosphothreonine binding proteins and also the expression of the Proliferation-associated protein 2G4 (PA2G4 that was mainly localized at the nuclear Cajal bodies. In contrast, the expression of two proteins involved in RNA processing, the Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 6 (CPSF6 and the Splicing factor proline/glutamine-rich (SFPQ, was higher in Snail1-expressing cells than in controls. The regulation of 14-3-3epsilon, 14-3-3tau, 14-3-3zeta and PA2G4 by Snail1 was reproduced in HT29 colon cancer cells. In addition, we found an inverse correlation between 14-3-3sigma and Snail1 expression in human colorectal tumors.We have identified a set of novel Snail1 target proteins in colon cancer that expand the cellular processes affected by Snail1 and thus its relevance for cell function and phenotype.

  4. Somatostatin signaling system as an ancestral mechanism: Myoregulatory activity of an Allatostatin-C peptide in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzugaray, María Eugenia; Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Ronderos, Jorge Rafael

    2016-08-01

    The coordination of physiological processes requires precise communication between cells. Cellular interactions allow cells to be functionally related, facilitating the maintaining of homeostasis. Neuropeptides functioning as intercellular signals are widely distributed in Metazoa. It is assumed that neuropeptides were the first intercellular transmitters, appearing early during the evolution. In Cnidarians, neuropeptides are mainly involved in neurotransmission, acting directly or indirectly on epithelial muscle cells, and thereby controlling coordinated movements. Allatostatins are a group of chemically unrelated neuropeptides that were originally characterized based on their ability to inhibit juvenil hormone synthesis in insects. Allatostatin-C has pleiotropic functions, acting as myoregulator in several insects. In these studies, we analyzed the myoregulatory effect of Aedes aegypti Allatostatin-C in Hydra sp., a member of the phylum Cnidaria. Allatostatin-C peptide conjugated with Qdots revealed specifically distributed cell populations that respond to the peptide in different regions of hydroids. In vivo physiological assays using Allatostatin-C showed that the peptide induced changes in shape and length in tentacles, peduncle and gastrovascular cavity. The observed changes were dose and time dependent suggesting the physiological nature of the response. Furthermore, at highest doses, Allatostatin-C induced peristaltic movements of the gastrovascular cavity resembling those that occur during feeding. In silico search of putative Allatostatin-C receptors in Cnidaria showed that genomes predict the existence of proteins of the somatostatin/Allatostatin-C receptors family. Altogether, these results suggest that Allatostatin-C has myoregulatory activity in Hydra sp, playing a role in the control of coordinated movements during feeding, indicating that Allatostatin-C/Somatostatin based signaling might be an ancestral mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  5. Modified hydra bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of multiple mycotoxins and predict the detoxification efficacy of a clay-based sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K A; Mays, T; Romoser, A; Marroquin-Cardona, A; Mitchell, N J; Elmore, S E; Phillips, T D

    2014-01-01

    Food shortages and a lack of food supply regulation in developing countries often leads to chronic exposure of vulnerable populations to hazardous mixtures of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)). A refined calcium montmorillonite clay [i.e. uniform particle size NovaSil (UPSN)] has been reported to tightly bind these toxins, thereby decreasing bioavailability in humans and animals. Hence, our objectives in the present study were to examine the ability of UPSN to bind mixtures of AFB(1) and FB(1) at gastrointestinally relevant pH in vitro, and to utilize a rapid in vivo bioassay to evaluate AFB(1) and FB(1) toxicity and UPSN efficacy. Isothermal sorption data indicated tight AFB(1) binding to UPSN surfaces at both pH 2.0 and 6.5, but substantially more FB(1) bound at pH 2.0 than 6.5. Site-specific competition occurred between the toxins when exposed to UPSN in combination. Importantly, treatment with UPSN resulted in significant protection to mycotoxin-exposed hydra maintained at pH 6.9-7.0. Hydra were exposed to FB(1), AFB(1) and FB(1) /AFB(1) combinations with and without UPSN. A toxic response over 92 h was rated based on morphology and mortality. Hydra assay results indicated a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 20 µg ml(-1) for AFB(1), whereas the MEC for FB(1) was not reached. The MEC for co-exposure was 400 µg ml(-1) FB(1) + 10 µg ml(-1) AFB(1). This study demonstrates that UPSN sorbs both mycotoxins tightly at physiologically relevant pH levels, resulting in decreased bioavailability, and that a modified hydra bioassay can be used as an initial screen in vivo to predict efficacy of toxin-binding agents. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. HYDRA-I: a three-dimensional finite difference code for calculating the thermohydraulic performance of a fuel assembly contained within a canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    A finite difference computer code, named HYDRA-I, has been developed to simulate the three-dimensional performance of a spent fuel assembly contained within a cylindrical canister. The code accounts for the coupled heat transfer modes of conduction, convection, and radiation and permits spatially varying boundary conditions, thermophysical properties, and power generation rates. This document is intended as a manual for potential users of HYDRA-I. A brief discussion of the governing equations, the solution technique, and a detailed description of how to set up and execute a problem are presented. HYDRA-I is designed for operation on a CDC 7600 computer. An appendix is included that summarizes approximately two dozen different cases that have been examined. The cases encompass variations in fuel assembly and canister configurations, power generation rates, filler materials, and gases. The results presented show maximum and various local temperatures and heat fluxes illustrating the changing importance of the three heat transfer modes. Finally, the need for comparison with experimental data is emphasized as an aid in code verification although the limited data available indicate excellent agreement.

  7. Ecotoxicological assessment of cobalt using Hydra model: ROS, oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis as mechanisms of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Mohammed; Murugadas, Anbazhagan; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2017-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying cobalt toxicity in aquatic species in general and cnidarians in particular remain poorly understood. Herein we investigated cobalt toxicity in a Hydra model from morphological, histological, developmental, and molecular biological perspectives. Hydra, exposed to cobalt (0-60 mg/L), were altered in morphology, histology, and regeneration. Exposure to standardized sublethal doses of cobalt impaired feeding by affecting nematocytes, which in turn affected reproduction. At the cellular level, excessive ROS generation, as the principal mechanism of action, primarily occurred in the lysosomes, which was accompanied by the upregulation of expression of the antioxidant genes SOD, GST, GPx, and G6PD. The number of Hsp70 and FoxO transcripts also increased. Interestingly, the upregulations were higher in the 24-h than in the 48-h time-point group, indicating that ROS overwhelmed the cellular defense mechanisms at the latter time-point. Comet assay revealed DNA damage. Cell cycle analysis indicated the induction of apoptosis accompanied or not by cell cycle arrest. Immunoblot analyses revealed that cobalt treatment triggered mitochondria-mediated apoptosis as inferred from the modulation of the key proteins Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3. From this data, we suggest the use of Hydra as a model organism for the risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Abscisic acid and 14-3-3 proteins control K+ channel activity in barley embryonic root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Wijngaard, P.W.J.; Sinnige, M.P.; Roobeek, I.; Reumer, C.G.; Mol, J.N.M.; Wang, M.; de Boer, A.H.; Schoonheim, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Germination of seeds proceeds in general in two phases, an initial imbibition phase and a subsequent growth phase. In grasses like barley, the latter phase is evident as the emergence of the embryonic root (radicle). The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits germination because it prevents the embryo

  9. Plant 14-3-3 proteins assist ion channels and pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    Turgor pressure is a cellular parameter, important for a range of physiological processes in plants, like cell elongation, gas exchange and gravitropic/ phototropic bending. Regulation of turgor pressure involves ion and water transport at the expense of metabolic energy (ATP). The primary pump in

  10. Expulsion of symbiotic algae during feeding by the green hydra--a mechanism for regulating symbiont density?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Fishman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Algal-cnidarian symbiosis is one of the main factors contributing to the success of cnidarians, and is crucial for the maintenance of coral reefs. While loss of the symbionts (such as in coral bleaching may cause the death of the cnidarian host, over-proliferation of the algae may also harm the host. Thus, there is a need for the host to regulate the population density of its symbionts. In the green hydra, Chlorohydra viridissima, the density of symbiotic algae may be controlled through host modulation of the algal cell cycle. Alternatively, Chlorohydra may actively expel their endosymbionts, although this phenomenon has only been observed under experimentally contrived stress conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show, using light and electron microscopy, that Chlorohydra actively expel endosymbiotic algal cells during predatory feeding on Artemia. This expulsion occurs as part of the apocrine mode of secretion from the endodermal digestive cells, but may also occur via an independent exocytotic mechanism. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate, for the first time, active expulsion of endosymbiotic algae from cnidarians under natural conditions. We suggest this phenomenon may represent a mechanism whereby cnidarians can expel excess symbiotic algae when an alternative form of nutrition is available in the form of prey.

  11. Expulsion of symbiotic algae during feeding by the green hydra--a mechanism for regulating symbiont density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Yelena; Zlotkin, Eliahu; Sher, Daniel

    2008-07-02

    Algal-cnidarian symbiosis is one of the main factors contributing to the success of cnidarians, and is crucial for the maintenance of coral reefs. While loss of the symbionts (such as in coral bleaching) may cause the death of the cnidarian host, over-proliferation of the algae may also harm the host. Thus, there is a need for the host to regulate the population density of its symbionts. In the green hydra, Chlorohydra viridissima, the density of symbiotic algae may be controlled through host modulation of the algal cell cycle. Alternatively, Chlorohydra may actively expel their endosymbionts, although this phenomenon has only been observed under experimentally contrived stress conditions. We show, using light and electron microscopy, that Chlorohydra actively expel endosymbiotic algal cells during predatory feeding on Artemia. This expulsion occurs as part of the apocrine mode of secretion from the endodermal digestive cells, but may also occur via an independent exocytotic mechanism. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, active expulsion of endosymbiotic algae from cnidarians under natural conditions. We suggest this phenomenon may represent a mechanism whereby cnidarians can expel excess symbiotic algae when an alternative form of nutrition is available in the form of prey.

  12. The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mtDNA evolution and cnidarian phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, Ehsan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2008-02-29

    The 16,314-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)--the first from the class Hydrozoa--has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, as is typical for cnidarians. All genes have the same transcriptional orientation and their arrangement in the genome is similar to that of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita. In addition, a partial copy of cox1 is present at one end of the molecule in a transcriptional orientation opposite to the rest of the genes, forming a part of inverted terminal repeat characteristic of linear mtDNA and linear mitochondrial plasmids. The sequence close to at least one end of the molecule contains several homonucleotide runs as well as small inverted repeats that are able to form strong secondary structures and may be involved in mtDNA maintenance and expression. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genes of H. oligactis and other cnidarians supports the Medusozoa hypothesis but also suggests that Anthozoa may be paraphyletic, with octocorallians more closely related to the Medusozoa than to the Hexacorallia. The latter inference implies that Anthozoa is paraphyletic and that the polyp (rather than a medusa) is the ancestral body type in Cnidaria.

  13. A Radiation-Hydrodynamics Code Comparison for Laser-Produced Plasmas: FLASH versus HYDRA and the Results of Validation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Orban, Chris; Chawla, Sugreev; Wilks, Scott C; Lamb, Donald Q

    2013-01-01

    The potential for laser-produced plasmas to yield fundamental insights into high energy density physics (HEDP) and deliver other useful applications can sometimes be frustrated by uncertainties in modeling the properties and expansion of these plasmas using radiation-hydrodynamics codes. In an effort to overcome this and to corroborate the accuracy of the HEDP capabilities recently added to the publicly available FLASH radiation-hydrodynamics code, we present detailed comparisons of FLASH results to new and previously published results from the HYDRA code used extensively at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We focus on two very different problems of interest: (1) an Aluminum slab irradiated by 15.3 and 76.7 mJ of "pre-pulse" laser energy and (2) a mm-long triangular groove cut in an Aluminum target irradiated by a rectangular laser beam. Because this latter problem bears a resemblance to astrophysical jets, Grava et al., Phys. Rev. E, 78, (2008) performed this experiment and compared detailed x-ray int...

  14. Multi-scale biomarker evaluation of the toxicity of a commercial azo dye (Disperse Red 1) in an animal model, the freshwater cnidarian Hydra attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Laetitia; Pech, Nicolas; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Moreau, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    Acute (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) and chronic (7 days) tests have been performed to evaluate the effects of the commercial azo dye Disperse Red 1 (DR1) using various biomarkers in the freshwater invertebrate Hydra attenuata. Morphological changes have been selected to calculate ecotoxicological thresholds for sublethal and lethal DR1 concentrations. A multinomial logistic model showed that the probability of each morphological stage occurrence was function of concentration, time and interaction between both. Results of oxidative balance parameter measurements (72 h and 7 days) suggest that polyps set up defense mechanisms to limit lipid peroxidation caused by DR1. DR1 exposure at hormetic concentrations induces increase of asexual reproductive rates. This result suggests (1) an impact on the fitness-related phenotypical traits and (2) trade-offs between reproduction and maintenance to allow the population to survive harsher conditions. Changes in serotonin immuno-labeling in polyps showing alterations in feeding behavior suggest that chronic DR1 exposure impaired neuronal processes related to ingesting behavior in H. attenuata. This ecotoxicity study sheds light on the possible serotonin function in Hydra model and reports for the first time that serotonin could play a significant role in feeding behavior. This study used a multi-scale biomarker approach investigating biochemical, morphological, reproductive and behavioral endpoints in Hydra attenuata. This organism is proposed for a pertinent animal model to assess ecotoxicological impact of pollutant mixtures in freshwater environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in the normal and regenerating rat liver by various doses of the peptide morphogen of Hydra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarygin, K.N.; Kazimirskii, A.N.; Kositskii, G.I.; Rubina, A.Yu.; Vinogradov, V.A.; Pylaev, A.S.

    1986-11-01

    In this investigation, changes in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity were studied in the normal and regenerating liver of rats receiving injections of various doses of Hydra peptide morphogen (HPM). Activity of ODC was determined by a radioisotope method based on liberation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(1-/sup 14/C)-ornithine. The results indicate in the author's opinion that HPM may have a role in the regulation of anabolic processes and, in particular, of regenerative processes in mammals.

  16. Evolution of Hox-like genes in Cnidaria: Study of Hydra Hox repertoire reveals tailor-made Hox-code for Cnidarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Unni, Manu K; Gungi, Akhila; Agarwal, Pallavi; Galande, Sanjeev

    2015-11-01

    Hox and ParaHox genes play decisive roles in patterning the anterior-posterior body axis in Bilateria. Evolutionary origin of Hox genes and primary body axis predate the divergence of Bilateria and Cnidaria. However, function of Cnidarian Hox-like genes and their regulation in axis determination is obscure due to studies limited to a few representative model systems. Present investigation is conducted using Hydra, a Hydrozoan member of phylum Cnidaria, to gain insights into the roles of Cnidarian Hox-like genes in primary axis formation. Here, we report identification of six Hox-like genes from our in-house transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes shows bilaterian counterparts of Hox1, Gsx and Mox. Additionally, we report CnoxB_HVUL, CnoxC2_HVUL and CnoxC3_HVUL belonging to two Cnidarian specific groups. In situ hybridization analysis of Hydra homologues provided important clues about their possible roles in pattern formation of polyps and bud development. Specifically, Hox1_HVUL is regulated by Wnt signaling and plays critical role in head formation. Collating information about expression patterns of different Hox-like genes from previous reports and this study reveals no conformity within Cnidaria. Indicating that unlike in Bilateria, there is no consolidated Hox-code determining primary body axis in Cnidaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Resilience, tipping, and hydra effects in public health: emergent collective behavior in two agent-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Christopher Robert

    2016-03-15

    from negative feedback, supporting diversity and resisting change. Above certain threshold conditions, the dynamic balance is tipped towards uniformity of behavior. Under a certain range of conditions we see "hydra effects" in which interventions to lower attack rate or infectivity are self-defeating. Simple models of collective behavior can explain these seemingly disparate dynamics.

  18. Resilience, tipping, and hydra effects in public health: emergent collective behavior in two agent-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Robert Keane

    2016-03-01

    .” Conclusions Collective behavior often shows a dynamic balance, resulting from negative feedback, supporting diversity and resisting change. Above certain threshold conditions, the dynamic balance is tipped towards uniformity of behavior. Under a certain range of conditions we see “hydra effects” in which interventions to lower attack rate or infectivity are self-defeating. Simple models of collective behavior can explain these seemingly disparate dynamics.

  19. Experimental investigation of the impulse gas injection into liquid and the use of experimental data for verification of the HYDRA-IBRAE/LM thermohydraulic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, P. D.; Usov, E. V.; Butov, A. A.; Pribaturin, N. A.; Mosunova, N. A.; Strizhov, V. F.; Chukhno, V. I.; Kutlimetov, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments with impulse gas injection into model coolants, such as water or the Rose alloy, performed at the Novosibirsk Branch of the Nuclear Safety Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, are described. The test facility and the experimental conditions are presented in details. The dependence of coolant pressure on the injected gas flow and the time of injection was determined. The purpose of these experiments was to verify the physical models of thermohydraulic codes for calculation of the processes that could occur during the rupture of tubes of a steam generator with heavy liquid metal coolant or during fuel rod failure in water-cooled reactors. The experimental results were used for verification of the HYDRA-IBRAE/LM system thermohydraulic code developed at the Nuclear Safety Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences. The models of gas bubble transportation in a vertical channel that are used in the code are described in detail. A two-phase flow pattern diagram and correlations for prediction of friction of bubbles and slugs as they float up in a vertical channel and of two-phase flow friction factor are presented. Based on the results of simulation of these experiments using the HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code, the arithmetic mean error in predicted pressures was calculated, and the predictions were analyzed considering the uncertainty in the input data, geometry of the test facility, and the error of the empirical correlation. The analysis revealed major factors having a considerable effect on the predictions. The recommendations are given on updating of the experimental results and improvement of the models used in the thermohydraulic code.

  20. Role of 14-3-3 regulated K+ channels in ABA and FC controlled embryonic root growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Wijngaard, P.W.J.; Roobeek, I.; Reumer, G.A.; Mol, J.N.M.; Wang, M.; de Boer, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Germination of seeds proceeds in general in two phases, an initial imbibition phase and a subsequent growth phase. In grasses like barley, the latter phase is evident as the emergence of the embryonic root (radicle). The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits germination because it prevents the embryo

  1. 14-3-3 σ expression effects G2/M response to oxygen and correlates with ovarian cancer metastasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ravi, Dashnamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    In vitro cell culture experiments with primary cells have reported that cell proliferation is retarded in the presence of ambient compared to physiological O₂ levels. Cancer is primarily a disease of aberrant cell proliferation, therefore, studying cancer cells grown under ambient O₂ may be undesirable. To understand better the impact of O₂ on the propagation of cancer cells in vitro, we compared the growth potential of a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines under ambient (21%) or physiological (3%) O₂.

  2. Interaction of 14-3-3 proteins with the Estrogen Receptor Alpha F domain provides a drug target interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries-van Leeuwen, Ingrid J; da Costa Pereira, Daniel; Flach, Koen D; Piersma, Sander R; Haase, Christian; Bier, David; Yalcin, Zeliha; Michalides, Rob; Feenstra, K Anton; Jiménez, Connie R; de Greef, Tom F A; Brunsveld, Luc; Ottmann, Christian; Zwart, Wilbert; de Boer, Albertus H

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes, including breast cancer. Breast cancer therapy is therefore currently directed at inhibiting the transcriptional potency of ERα, either by blocking estrogen production through aromatase inhibitors or

  3. Die Rolle der 14-3-3-Proteine beim Vorwärtstransport von Kaliumkanälen

    OpenAIRE

    Heusser, Katja

    2006-01-01

    Kaliumkanäle, die wie andere Ionenkanäle und Membrantransportproteine ein wichtiges Bindeglied zwischen dem extrazellulären bzw. luminalen Raum und dem Zellinneren darstellen, spielen eine Rolle in diversen zellulären Prozessen wie Aufrechterhaltung des Membranpotentials, Frequenz und Verlauf von Aktionspotentialen, Sekretion und Signaltransduktion. Sie bilden temporär Poren in der Membran, durch die hochselektiv Kaliumionen entlang eines elektrochemischen Gradienten transportiert werden könn...

  4. Flexible nets: disorder and induced fit in the associations of p53 and 14-3-3 with their partners

    OpenAIRE

    Uversky Vladimir N; Yang Mary Qu; Yang Jack Y; Meng Jingwei; Oldfield Christopher J; Dunker A Keith

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Proteins are involved in many interactions with other proteins leading to networks that regulate and control a wide variety of physiological processes. Some of these proteins, called hub proteins or hubs, bind to many different protein partners. Protein intrinsic disorder, via diversity arising from structural plasticity or flexibility, provide a means for hubs to associate with many partners (Dunker AK, Cortese MS, Romero P, Iakoucheva LM, Uversky VN: Flexible Nets: The r...

  5. Phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding of Arabidopsis trehalose-phosphate synthase 5 in response to 2-deoxyglucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harthill, Jean E; Meek, Sarah E M; Morrice, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate is a 'sugar signal' that regulates plant metabolism and development. The Arabidopsis genome encodes trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and trehalose-6-phosphatase (TPP) enzymes. It also encodes class II proteins (TPS isoforms 5-11) that contain both TPS-like and TPP...

  6. Fundamentals, current state of the development of, and prospects for further improvement of the new-generation thermal-hydraulic computational HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code for simulation of fast reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipchenkov, V. M.; Anfimov, A. M.; Afremov, D. A.; Gorbunov, V. S.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.; Osipov, S. L.; Mosunova, N. A.; Strizhov, V. F.; Usov, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The conceptual fundamentals of the development of the new-generation system thermal-hydraulic computational HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code are presented. The code is intended to simulate the thermalhydraulic processes that take place in the loops and the heat-exchange equipment of liquid-metal cooled fast reactor systems under normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences and during accidents. The paper provides a brief overview of Russian and foreign system thermal-hydraulic codes for modeling liquid-metal coolants and gives grounds for the necessity of development of a new-generation HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code. Considering the specific engineering features of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) equipped with the BN-1200 and the BREST-OD-300 reactors, the processes and the phenomena are singled out that require a detailed analysis and development of the models to be correctly described by the system thermal-hydraulic code in question. Information on the functionality of the computational code is provided, viz., the thermalhydraulic two-phase model, the properties of the sodium and the lead coolants, the closing equations for simulation of the heat-mass exchange processes, the models to describe the processes that take place during the steam-generator tube rupture, etc. The article gives a brief overview of the usability of the computational code, including a description of the support documentation and the supply package, as well as possibilities of taking advantages of the modern computer technologies, such as parallel computations. The paper shows the current state of verification and validation of the computational code; it also presents information on the principles of constructing of and populating the verification matrices for the BREST-OD-300 and the BN-1200 reactor systems. The prospects are outlined for further development of the HYDRA-IBRAE/LM code, introduction of new models into it, and enhancement of its usability. It is shown that the program of development and

  7. Thoughts on identifiers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    As business processes and information transactions have become an inextricably intertwined with the Web, the importance of assignment, registration, discovery, and maintenance of identifiers has increased. In spite of this, integrated frameworks for managing identifiers have been slow to emerge. Instead, identification systems arise (quite naturally) from immediate business needs without consideration for how they fit into larger information architectures. In addition, many legacy identifier systems further complicate the landscape, making it difficult for content managers to select and deploy identifier systems that meet both the business case and long term information management objectives. This presentation will outline a model for evaluating identifier applications and the functional requirements of the systems necessary to support them. The model is based on a layered analysis of the characteristics of identifier systems, including: * Functional characteristics * Technology * Policy * Business * Social T...

  8. Identifiability in stochastic models

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The problem of identifiability is basic to all statistical methods and data analysis, occurring in such diverse areas as Reliability Theory, Survival Analysis, and Econometrics, where stochastic modeling is widely used. Mathematics dealing with identifiability per se is closely related to the so-called branch of ""characterization problems"" in Probability Theory. This book brings together relevant material on identifiability as it occurs in these diverse fields.

  9. Identifiability of nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunali, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    The parameter identifiability problem of deterministic, nonlinear dynamical control systems is studied in the framework of differential geometric systems theory. The relations between nonlinear observability, nonlinear functional expansions and identifiability are investigated and necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for a class of nonlinear systems. In a different approach, by using the uniqueness theorem of nonlinear system realization theory, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for another class of nonlinear systems. These results provide an insight to the identifiability problem of nonlinear systems. The results are illustrated by examples that also show the effectiveness of the conditions obtained. Finally, some possible research topics in this area are suggested.

  10. Identifying Knowledge and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coutinho Lourenço de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961, and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964 turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with Russell’s Principle (Evans 1982, as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions (Donnellan 1970, I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication (Grice 1975 and reference (Clark andWilkes-Gibbs 1986 holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved.

  11. Identifying learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Grace

    2016-12-14

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article explored different learning styles and outlined some of the models that can be used to identify them. It discussed the limitations of these models, indicating that although they can be helpful in identifying a student's preferred learning style, this is not 'fixed' and might change over time. Learning is also influenced by other factors, such as culture and age.

  12. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  13. System of closing relations of a two-fluid model for the HYDRA-IBRAE/LM/V1 code for calculation of sodium boiling in channels of power equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, E. V.; Butov, A. A.; Dugarov, G. A.; Kudasov, I. G.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Mosunova, N. A.; Pribaturin, N. A.

    2017-07-01

    The system of equations from a two-fluid model is widely used in modeling thermohydraulic processes during accidents in nuclear reactors. The model includes conservation equations governing the balance of mass, momentum, and energy in each phase of the coolant. The features of heat and mass transfer, as well as of mechanical interaction between phases or with the channel wall, are described by a system of closing relations. Properly verified foreign and Russian codes with a comprehensive system of closing relations are available to predict processes in water coolant. As to the sodium coolant, only a few open publications on this subject are known. A complete system of closing relations used in the HYDRA-IBRAE/LM/V1 thermohydraulic code for calculation of sodium boiling in channels of power equipment is presented. The selection of these relations is corroborated on the basis of results of analysis of available publications with an account taken of the processes occurring in liquid sodium. A comparison with approaches outlined in foreign publications is presented. Particular attention has been given to the calculation of the sodium two-phase flow boiling. The flow regime map and a procedure for the calculation of interfacial friction and heat transfer in a sodium flow with account taken of high conductivity of sodium are described in sufficient detail. Correlations are presented for calculation of heat transfer for a single-phase sodium flow, sodium flow boiling, and sodium flow boiling crisis. A method is proposed for prediction of flow boiling crisis initiation.

  14. Random Cell Identifiers Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bestak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite integration of advanced functions that enable Femto Access Points (FAPs to be deployed in a plug-and-play manner, the femtocell concept still cause several opened issues to be resolved. One of them represents an assignment of Physical Cell Identifiers (PCIs to FAPs. This paper analyses a random based assignment algorithm in LTE systems operating in diverse femtocell scenarios. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by comparing the number of confusions for various femtocell densities, PCI ranges and knowledge of vicinity. Simulation results show that better knowledge of vicinity can significantly reduce the number of confusions events.

  15. Genetic disruption of AMPK signaling abolishes both contraction- and insulin-stimulated TBC1D1 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding in mouse skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Pehmøller, Christian; Treebak, Jonas T.; Birk, Jesper B.; Chen, Shuai; MacKintosh, Carol; Hardie, D. Grahame; Richter, Erik A.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F.P.

    2009-01-01

    TBC1D1 is a Rab-GTPase-activating protein (GAP) known to be phosphorylated in response to insulin, growth factors, pharmacological agonists that activate 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and muscle contraction. Silencing TBC1D1 in L6 muscle cells by siRNA increases insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, and overexpression of TBC1D1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with low endogenous TBC1D1 expression inhibits insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, suggesting a role of TBC1D1 in regulating GLUT4...

  16. Global Microbial Identifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    Human and animal populations are increasingly confronted with emerging and re-emerging infections and often such infections are exchanged between these populations, e.g. through food. A more effective and uniform approach to the prevention of these microbial threats is essential. The technological......-source systems. There is therefore an obvious need to develop a global system of whole microbial genome databases to aggregate, share, mine and use microbiological genomic data, to address global public health and clinical challenges, and most importantly to identify and diagnose infectious diseases. The global...... of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect outbreaks and emerging pathogens. To harness the full potential of WGS, a shared global database of genomes linked to relevant metadata and the necessary software tools needs to be generated, hence the global...

  17. Actionable Persistent Identifier Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Weigel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Identifiers (PIDs have lately received a lot of attention from scientific infrastructure projects and communities that aim to employ them for management of massive amounts of research data and metadata objects. Such usage scenarios, however, require additional facilities to enable automated data management with PIDs. In this article, we present a conceptual framework that is based on the idea of using common abstract data types (ADTs in combination with PIDs. This provides a well-defined interface layer that abstracts from both underlying PID systems and higher-level applications. Our practical implementation is based on the Handle System, yet the fundamental concept of PID-based ADTs is transferable to other infrastructures, and it is well suited to achieve interoperability between them.

  18. Identifying potential academic leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Krueger, Paul; Meaney, Christopher; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles among academic family medicine faculty. Design Web-based survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles. Setting Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants A total of 687 faculty members. Main outcome measures Variables related to respondents’ willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Results Of all 1029 faculty members invited to participate in the survey, 687 (66.8%) members responded. Of the respondents, 596 (86.8%) indicated their level of willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Multivariable analysis revealed that the predictors associated with willingness to take on leadership roles were as follows: pursuit of professional development opportunities (odds ratio [OR] 3.79, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.27); currently holding at least 1 leadership role (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.38 to 8.53); a history of leadership training (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.78); the perception that mentorship is important for one’s current role (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.60); and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Conclusion Willingness to undertake new or additional leadership roles was associated with 2 variables related to leadership experiences, 2 variables related to perceptions of mentorship and professional development, and 1 demographic variable (younger age). Interventions that support opportunities in these areas might expand the pool and strengthen the academic leadership potential of faculty members. PMID:27331226

  19. Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; χ2 = 17.46, padolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, pAdolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

  20. Digital Identifier Systems: Comparative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khedmatgozar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifier is one of the main elements in identifying an object in digital environment. Digital identifier systems were developed followed by a lot of problems such as violation of persistency and uniqueness of physical identifiers and URL in digital environment. These identifiers try to guarantee uniqueness and persistency of hostnames by using indirect names for Domain Name System (DNS. The main objective of this research is to identify qualified digital identifier system among other systems. To achieve the research objective, researchers have considered two major steps: first, identifying main criteria for distinguishing digital identifier based on literature review and focus group interview; and second, performing a comparative evaluation on common identifier systems in the world. Findings of first step demonstrated seven main criteria in three domains for distinguishing digital identifier systems: identifier uniqueness and persistency in the identifier features domain, digital identification, digital uniqueness, digital persistency and digital actionability in the digital coverage domain, and globality in the comprehensiveness of scope domain. In the second step, results of the comparative evaluation on common identifier systems indicated that six identifier systems, included, DOI, Handle, UCI, URN, ARK and PURL, are appropriate choices for using as a digital identifier system. Also, according to these results, three identification systems Including NBN, MARIAM and ISNI were identified as suitable choices for digital identification in certain specialized fields. According to many benefits of using these identifiers in important applied fields, such as, digital content chains and networks integration, digital right management, cross referencing, digital libraries and citation analysis, results of this study can help digital environment experts to diagnose digital identifier and their effective use in applied fields.

  1. New criteria to identify spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne; Krishna, M.

    In this paper we give some new criteria for identifying the components of a probability measure, in its Lebesgue decomposition. This enables us to give new criteria to identify spectral types of self adjoint operators on Hilbert spaces, especially those of interest....

  2. New criteria to identify spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne; Krishna, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we give some new criteria for identifying the components of a probability measure, in its Lebesgue decomposition. This enables us to give new criteria to identify spectral types of self-adjoint operators on Hilbert spaces, especially those of interest....

  3. Author Identifiers in Scholarly Repositories

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Simeon

    2010-01-01

    Bibliometric and usage-based analyses and tools highlight the value of information about scholarship contained within the network of authors, articles and usage data. Less progress has been made on populating and using the author side of this network than the article side, in part because of the difficulty of unambiguously identifying authors. I briefly review a sample of author identifier schemes, and consider use in scholarly repositories. I then describe preliminary work at arXiv to implement public author identifiers, services based on them, and plans to make this information useful beyond the boundaries of arXiv.

  4. Methods for Identifying Translational Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary K.; Johnson, Timothy; Welch, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no generally accepted method for identifying the community of translational researchers when evaluating Clinical and Translational Science Centers. We use data from the multiyear evaluation of the University of Illinois at Chicago Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) to investigate the complexities of reliably identifying translational researchers. We use three methods to identify translational researchers: (1) participating in CCTS services and programs; (2) self-identifying as a translational researcher; and (3) engaging in activities that are characteristic of translational science. We find little overlap of these differently defined research groups. We conclude with a discussion of how the findings suggest challenges for evaluating translational science programs and the need for better definition, communication, and demonstration of translational science for scientists and evaluators. PMID:24064431

  5. Identifying parameter regions for multistationarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradi, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda; Mincheva, Maya

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical modelling has become an established tool for studying the dynamics of biological systems. Current applications range from building models that reproduce quantitative data to identifying systems with predefined qualitative features, such as switching behaviour, bistability or oscillat...

  6. Identifying Clients Predisposed To Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Studies are reviewed that report the prediction of rehabilitation failure from personality measures. Related research is discussed that suggest the dynamics underlying a key concept, the "hypochondriacally organized personality" which is identifiable from the Rorschach anatomy response percentage. (Author)

  7. phic Determination of Rifampin Quinone and Hydra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Department of Analytical Research and Development, Micro Labs Ltd, 67/68-A, Third Phase, Peenya Industrial Area,. Bangalore 560 058, India. ... Methods: The International Pharmacopoeial (IP) method for the estimation of rifampin quinone in FDC was modified. ... grade) and methanol (HPLC grade, Merck,. India).

  8. Hospital closure: Phoenix, Hydra or Titanic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, T; Davis, S

    1996-01-01

    Very little has been published about the effects of hospital closure in terms of the service, financial or management issues of the process. Attempts through a case-study format to redress the balance and as such represents the reflections of practitioners who have recently undergone the experience of hospital closure and the often neglected issues arising both during and after the process.

  9. Al Qaeda: A Modern Day Lernaean Hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    jihad has two objectives. The first objective is to remove US and Jewish presence from Muslim lands. The second is to overthrow local apostate...killed 60 people and injured 115. The bomb at the Radisson SAS exploded where a wedding hosting hundreds of guests was taking place. Most U.S

  10. Football refereeing: Identifying innovative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MohammadKazemi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the potentials innovation in football industry. Data were collected from 10 national and international referees, assistant referees and referees’ supervisors in Iran. In this study, technological innovations are identified that assist better refereeing performances. The analysis revealed a significant relationship between using new technologies and referees ‘performance. The results indicate that elite referees, assistant referees and supervisors agreed to use new technological innovations during the game. According to their comments, this kind of technology causes the referees’ performance development.

  11. Identifying high-risk medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sædder, Eva; Brock, Birgitte; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2014-01-01

    salicylic acid, and beta-blockers; 30 drugs or drug classes caused 82 % of all serious MEs. The top ten drugs involved in fatal events accounted for 73 % of all drugs identified. CONCLUSION: Increasing focus on seven drugs/drug classes can potentially reduce hospitalizations, extended hospitalizations...

  12. Identifying Two-Sided Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Geradin, D.A.A.G.; van Damme, E.E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We review the burgeoning literature on two-sided markets focusing on the different definitions that have been proposed. In particular, we show that the well-known definition given by Evans is a particular case of the more general definition proposed by Rochet and Tirole. We then identify

  13. Identifying Innovative Agricultural Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayfield, John; Murphy, Tim; Briers, Gary; Lewis, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Researchers identified innovative agricultural education programs across the United States. A Delphi study was conducted with the teachers in innovative programs. According to the teachers, innovative programs in 2020 will use hands-on activities and will be run by highly motivated teachers. The purpose of innovative programs in the future will be…

  14. Methods of Identifying Marketing Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lucy C.; Ertel, Kenneth A.

    1970-01-01

    The competency pattern and the task analysis are two approaches used to identify content that affects the distributive education curriculum. These and other research tools provide essential information about capabilities required for entrance into and persistence in careers at prescribed levels of distributive jobs. (Author)

  15. Metadata, Identifiers, and Physical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arctur, D. K.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Hills, D. J.; Jenkyns, R.; Stroker, K. J.; Todd, N. S.; Dassie, E. P.; Bowring, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Physical samples are integral to much of the research conducted by geoscientists. The samples used in this research are often obtained at significant cost and represent an important investment for future research. However, making information about samples - whether considered data or metadata - available for researchers to enable discovery is difficult: a number of key elements related to samples are difficult to characterize in common ways, such as classification, location, sample type, sampling method, repository information, subsample distribution, and instrumentation, because these differ from one domain to the next. Unifying these elements or developing metadata crosswalks is needed. The iSamples (Internet of Samples) NSF-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is investigating ways to develop these types of interoperability and crosswalks. Within the iSamples RCN, one of its working groups, WG1, has focused on the metadata related to physical samples. This includes identifying existing metadata standards and systems, and how they might interoperate with the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) schema (schema.igsn.org) in order to help inform leading practices for metadata. For example, we are examining lifecycle metadata beyond the IGSN `birth certificate.' As a first step, this working group is developing a list of relevant standards and comparing their various attributes. In addition, the working group is looking toward technical solutions to facilitate developing a linked set of registries to build the web of samples. Finally, the group is also developing a comparison of sample identifiers and locators. This paper will provide an overview and comparison of the standards identified thus far, as well as an update on the technical solutions examined for integration. We will discuss how various sample identifiers might work in complementary fashion with the IGSN to more completely describe samples, facilitate retrieval of contextual information, and

  16. Distributed Persistent Identifiers System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Golodoniuc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to identify both digital and physical objects is ubiquitous in our society. Past and present persistent identifier (PID systems, of which there is a great variety in terms of technical and social implementation, have evolved with the advent of the Internet, which has allowed for globally unique and globally resolvable identifiers. PID systems have, by in large, catered for identifier uniqueness, integrity, and persistence, regardless of the identifier’s application domain. Trustworthiness of these systems has been measured by the criteria first defined by Bütikofer (2009 and further elaborated by Golodoniuc 'et al'. (2016 and Car 'et al'. (2017. Since many PID systems have been largely conceived and developed by a single organisation they faced challenges for widespread adoption and, most importantly, the ability to survive change of technology. We believe that a cause of PID systems that were once successful fading away is the centralisation of support infrastructure – both organisational and computing and data storage systems. In this paper, we propose a PID system design that implements the pillars of a trustworthy system – ensuring identifiers’ independence of any particular technology or organisation, implementation of core PID system functions, separation from data delivery, and enabling the system to adapt for future change. We propose decentralisation at all levels — persistent identifiers and information objects registration, resolution, and data delivery — using Distributed Hash Tables and traditional peer-to-peer networks with information replication and caching mechanisms, thus eliminating the need for a central PID data store. This will increase overall system fault tolerance thus ensuring its trustworthiness. We also discuss important aspects of the distributed system’s governance, such as the notion of the authoritative source and data integrity

  17. Identifying patient risks during hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Ferreira Lima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the risks reported at a public institution andto know the main patient risks from the nursing staff point of view.Methods: A retrospective, descriptive and exploratory study. Thesurvey was developed at a hospital in the city of Taboão da Serra, SãoPaulo, Brazil. The study included all nurses working in care areas whoagreed to participate in the study. At the same time, sentinel eventsoccurring in the period from July 2006 to July 2007 were identified.Results: There were 440 sentinel events reported, and the main risksincluded patient falls, medication errors and pressure ulcers. Sixty-fivenurses were interviewed. They also reported patient falls, medicationerrors and pressure ulcers as the main risks. Conclusions: Riskassessment and implementation of effective preventive actions arenecessary to ensure patient’s safety. Involvement of a multidisciplinaryteam is one of the steps for a successful process.

  18. [Identifying victims of a disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hans H; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Bruijn, Arie G; Maat, George J R

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the victims of a disaster is important for the next of kin, to issue a death certificate and, if necessary, for forensic investigations. In the Netherlands victims are identified by the Dutch disaster victim identification team, which is part of the national forensic investigation team ('Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing'). Ante-mortem data are collected during the identification process; these include the victim's specific medical characteristics and the DNA profile of the victim and their family members. The victim's own doctor can play an important role in the ante-mortem investigation because of his or her knowledge of their personal medical details, and of the possible availability of samples for establishing a DNA profile. The ante-mortem data are then compared with post-mortem data. For a definitive identification at least 1 primary identification characteristic has to be established from the physical remains - dermatoglyphics, the DNA profile or the dental status.

  19. Reacquire Identify and Localize Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    Reacquire Identify and Localize Swimmers Rick Vosburgh Nekton Research LLC 4625 Industry Lane Durham, NC 27707 phone: 919-405-3993...are benched tested and integrated for higher level system bench testing, followed thereafter by in water testing. WORK COMPLETED Work at Nekton ...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Nekton Research LLC,4625 Industry Lane,Durham,NC,27707 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  20. Identifiability of Compound Poisson Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Xekalaki, Evdokia; Panaretos, John

    1983-01-01

    Compound Poisson distributions (CPD's) are frequently used as alternatives in studying situations where a simple Poisson model is found inadequate to describe. In this paper an attempt is made to identify compound Poisson distributions when it is known that the conditional distribution of two random variables (r.v.'s) is compound binomial. Some interesting special cases and their application to accident theory are discussed.

  1. New criteria to identify spectrum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This enables us to give new criteria to identify spectral types of self-adjoint operators on Hilbert spaces, especially those of ... of a self-adjoint operator H on a (separable) Hilbert space H. Associated with H is the spectral measure E(·). ..... Now the spaces Lp((c, d)), 0 < p < 1, are metric spaces with the metric d(f, g) = f − g p p.

  2. Identifying vertex covers in graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders

    2012-01-01

    An identifying vertex cover in a graph G is a subset T of vertices in G that has a nonempty intersection with every edge of G such that T distinguishes the edges, that is, e∩T ≠ 0 for every edge e in G and e∩T ≠ f∩T for every two distinct edges e and f in G. The identifying vertex cover number TD......(G) of G is the minimum size of an identifying vertex cover in G. We observe that TD(G)+ρ(G) = |V (G)|, where ρ(G) denotes the packing number of G. We conjecture that if G is a graph of order n and size m with maximum degree Δ, then TD(G) ≤(Δ(Δ-1)/ Δ2+1)n + (2/Δ2+1) m. If the conjecture is true......, then the bound is best possible for all Δ ≥ 1. We prove this conjecture when Δ ≥ 1 and G is a Δ-regular graph. The three known Moore graphs of diameter 2, namely the 5-cycle, the Petersen graph and the Hoffman-Singleton graph, are examples of regular graphs that achieves equality in the upper bound. We also...

  3. Identifying flares in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bykerk, Vivian P; Bingham, Clifton O; Choy, Ernest H

    2016-01-01

    to flare, with escalation planned in 61%. CONCLUSIONS: Flares are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are often preceded by treatment reductions. Patient/MD/DAS agreement of flare status is highest in patients worsening from R/LDA. OMERACT RA flare questions can discriminate between patients with...... Set. METHODS: Candidate flare questions and legacy measures were administered at consecutive visits to Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) patients between November 2011 and November 2014. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) core set indicators were recorded. Concordance to identify flares...

  4. Identifiable piezoelectric security system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-10-01

    Directing at the disadvantages of low environmental suitability, inferior anti-interference ability and being easy to be found and destroyed in existing security product, a kind of identifiable piezoelectric security system based on piezoelectric cable is designed. The present system gathers vibration signals of different moving bodies, such as human, vehicles, animals and so on, with piezoelectric cable buried under -ground and distinguishes the different moving bodies through recognition algorithm and thus giving an alarm. As is shown in experiments, the present system has the features of good concealment and high accuracy in distinguishing moving bodies.

  5. Identifying teaching in wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Alex; Raihani, Nichola J

    2010-08-01

    After a long period of neglect, the study of teaching in nonhuman animals is beginning to take a more prominent role in research on social learning. Unlike other forms of social learning, teaching requires knowledgeable individuals to play an active role in facilitating learning by the naive. Casting aside anthropocentric requirements for cognitive mechanisms assumed to underpin teaching in our own species, researchers are now beginning to discover evidence for teaching across a wide range of taxa. Nevertheless, unequivocal evidence for teaching remains scarce, with convincing experimental data limited to meerkats, pied babblers, and tandem-running ants. In this review, our aim is to stimulate further research in different species and contexts by providing conceptual and methodological guidelines for identifying teaching, with a focus on natural populations. We begin by highlighting the fact that teaching is a form of cooperative behavior that functions to promote learning in others and show that consideration of these key characteristics is critical in helping to identify suitable targets for future research. We then go on to discuss potential observational, experimental, and statistical techniques that may assist researchers in providing evidence that the criteria that make up the accepted operational definition of teaching have been met. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://lb.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  6. Featured Image: Identifying Weird Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    Hoags Object, an example of a ring galaxy. [NASA/Hubble Heritage Team/Ray A. Lucas (STScI/AURA)]The above image (click for the full view) shows PanSTARRSobservationsof some of the 185 galaxies identified in a recent study as ring galaxies bizarre and rare irregular galaxies that exhibit stars and gas in a ring around a central nucleus. Ring galaxies could be formed in a number of ways; one theory is that some might form in a galaxy collision when a smaller galaxy punches through the center of a larger one, triggering star formation around the center. In a recent study, Ian Timmis and Lior Shamir of Lawrence Technological University in Michigan explore ways that we may be able to identify ring galaxies in the overwhelming number of images expected from large upcoming surveys. They develop a computer analysis method that automatically finds ring galaxy candidates based on their visual appearance, and they test their approach on the 3 million galaxy images from the first PanSTARRS data release. To see more of the remarkable galaxies the authors found and to learn more about their identification method, check out the paper below.CitationIan Timmis and Lior Shamir 2017 ApJS 231 2. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aa78a3

  7. Identifying infection hotspots early on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabha, Ghasson

    2012-04-01

    According to many published studies, 'ducting in ventilation and air-conditioning are largely overlooked and ignored, as they are out of sight and out of mind', despite mounting evidence indicating a higher risk in spreading airborne infections'. So says Ghasson Shabha BSc (Arch) MSc, PhD (Arch), MBIFM, Associate CIBSE, PG Cert Ed, of the Faculty of Technology, Engineering and the Environment (TEE), at the Birmingham School of the Built Environment (BSBE) at Birmingham City University, who adds that CIBSE estimates that fewer than 5% of buildings with air-conditioning systems above 12 kW have been inspected so far. Here he argues that incorporating 3D building information modelling software into existing computer-aided facilities management software systems will enable hospitals' 'infection hotspots' to be far more quickly identified, and subsequently monitored, to prevent future problems.

  8. Identifying Causality from Alarm Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhübel, Denis; Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten

    on an abstracted model of the mass and energy flows in the system. The application of MFM for root cause analysis based alarm grouping has been demonstrated and can be extended to reason about the direction of causality considering the entirety of the alarms present in the system for more comprehensive decision...... and consequences. This extended analysis results in causal paths from likely root causes to tentative consequences, providing the operator with a comprehensive tool to not only identify but also rank the criticality of a large number of concurrent alarms in the system....... support. This contribution presents the foundation for combining the cause and consequence propagation of multiple observations from the system based on an MFM model. The proposed logical reasoning matches actually observed alarms to the propagation analysis in MFM to distinguish plausible causes...

  9. Identifying methamphetamine exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Barnes, Allan J; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-12-01

    Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution, and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social, and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing. The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Ninety-one children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA, and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine, and hair were 6.9%, 22.1%, and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n = 5), and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP, and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children.

  10. RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

    2013-01-01

    Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

  11. Gene expression profiling identifies FYN as an important molecule in tamoxifen resistance and a predictor of early recurrence in patients treated with endocrine therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, D; (Hansen) Vever, Henriette; Lænkholm, A-V

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer, we performed gene array analyses and identified 366 genes with altered expression in four unique tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) cell lines vs the parental tamoxifen-sensitive MCF-7/S0.5 cell line. Most of these genes were...... an important role in tamoxifen resistance, and its subcellular localization in breast tumor cells may be an important novel biomarker of response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer.Oncogene advance online publication, 2 June 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.138.......-promoting function of FYN in MCF-7 cells. FYN knockdown in TamR cells led to reduced phosphorylation of 14-3-3 and Cdc25A, suggesting that FYN, by activation of important cell cycle-associated proteins, may overcome the anti-proliferative effects of tamoxifen. Evaluation of the subcellular localization of FYN...... in primary breast tumors from two cohorts of endocrine-treated ER+ breast cancer patients, one with advanced disease (N=47) and the other with early disease (N=76), showed that in the former, plasma membrane-associated FYN expression strongly correlated with longer progression-free survival (P

  12. Convergent actions of I kappa B kinase beta and protein kinase C delta modulate mRNA stability through phosphorylation of 14-3-3 beta complexed with tristetraprolin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gringhuis, Sonja I.; García-Vallejo, Juan Jesús; van het Hof, Bert; van Dijk, Willem

    2005-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression at the level of mRNA stability is a major topic of research; however, knowledge about the regulatory mechanisms affecting the binding and function of AU-rich element (ARE)-binding proteins (AUBPs) in response to extracellular signals is minimal. The

  13. NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... and Alcoholism (NIAAA) have identified a previously unknown gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive- ...

  14. Congenital Heart Diseases associated with Identified Syndromes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Congenital heart diseases are commonly associated with other extra cardiac congenital malformations. OBJECTIVE: To identify congenital heart diseases associated with identified syndromes and other extra cardiac congenital malformations in children in our hospital. METHODS: A prospective descriptive ...

  15. Psychosocial counselling of identifiable sperm donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Mochtar, M.H.; de Melker, A.A.; van der Veen, F.; Repping, S.; Gerrits, T.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER: Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial

  16. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  17. On Vertex Identifying Codes For Infinite Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, Brendon

    2011-01-01

    PhD Thesis--A compilation of the papers: "Lower Bounds for Identifying Codes in Some Infinite Grids", "Improved Bounds for r-identifying Codes of the Hex Grid", and "Vertex Identifying Codes for the n-dimensional Lattics" along with some other results

  18. De-identifying an EHR Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Søren; Pantazos, Kostas; Lippert, Søren

    2011-01-01

    -identified a Danish EHR database with 437,164 patients. The goal was to generate a version with real medical records, but related to artificial persons. We developed a de-identification algorithm that uses lists of named entities, simple language analysis, and special rules. Our algorithm consists of 3 steps: collect...... lists of identifiers from the database and external resources, define a replacement for each identifier, and replace identifiers in structured data and free text. Some patient records could not be safely de-identified, so the de-identified database has 323,122 patient records with an acceptable degree...... of anonymity, readability and correctness (F-measure of 95%). The algorithm has to be adjusted for each culture, language and database....

  19. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  20. Identifying Needs and Opportunities for Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, policy and legislation fall short of identifying the range of a priori competences required by local government officials and environmental managers before well intended policy can be translated into effective practice. This paper reports on recent research into identifying the underlying competences required for ...

  1. EZID: Long term identifiers made easy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J.

    2013-12-01

    Scholarly research is producing ever increasing amounts of digital research data, and this data should be managed throughout the research life cycle both as part of good scientific practice, but also to comply with funder mandates, such as the 2013 OSTP Public Access Memo (http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ostp_public_access_memo_2013.pdf). By assigning unique and persistent identifiers to data objects, data managers can gain control and flexibility over what can be a daunting task. This is due to the fact that the objects can be moved to new locations without disruption to links, as long as the identifier target is maintained. EZID is a tool that makes assigning and maintaining unique, persistent identifiers easy. It was designed and built by California Digital Library (CDL) and has both a user interface and a RESTful API. EZID currently offers services for two globally unique, persistent identifier schemes: Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and Archival Resource Keys (ARKs). DOIs are identifiers originating from the publishing world and are in widespread use for journal articles. CDL is able to offer DOIs because of being a founding member of DataCite (http://www.datacite.org/), an international consortium established to provide easier access to scientific research data on the Internet. ARKs are identifiers originating from the library, archive and museum community. Like DOIs, they become persistent when the objects and identifier forwarding information is maintained. DOIs and ARKs have a key role in data management and, therefore, in data management plans. DOIs are the recommended identifier for use in data citation, and ARKs provide the maximum flexibility needed for data documentation and management throughout the early phases of a project. The two identifier schemes are able to be used together, and EZID is made to work with both. EZID clients, coming from education, research, government, and the private sector, are utilizing the

  2. Structural Identifiability of Dynamic Systems Biology Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Alejandro F; Barreiro, Antonio; Papachristodoulou, Antonis

    2016-10-01

    A powerful way of gaining insight into biological systems is by creating a nonlinear differential equation model, which usually contains many unknown parameters. Such a model is called structurally identifiable if it is possible to determine the values of its parameters from measurements of the model outputs. Structural identifiability is a prerequisite for parameter estimation, and should be assessed before exploiting a model. However, this analysis is seldom performed due to the high computational cost involved in the necessary symbolic calculations, which quickly becomes prohibitive as the problem size increases. In this paper we show how to analyse the structural identifiability of a very general class of nonlinear models by extending methods originally developed for studying observability. We present results about models whose identifiability had not been previously determined, report unidentifiabilities that had not been found before, and show how to modify those unidentifiable models to make them identifiable. This method helps prevent problems caused by lack of identifiability analysis, which can compromise the success of tasks such as experiment design, parameter estimation, and model-based optimization. The procedure is called STRIKE-GOLDD (STRuctural Identifiability taKen as Extended-Generalized Observability with Lie Derivatives and Decomposition), and it is implemented in a MATLAB toolbox which is available as open source software. The broad applicability of this approach facilitates the analysis of the increasingly complex models used in systems biology and other areas.

  3. Communicating identifiability risks to biobank donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, T. J.; Gjerris, Mickey; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2018-01-01

    can track individuals across multiple databases. This article focuses on the communication of identifiability risks in the process of obtaining consent for donation and research. Most ethical discussions of identifiability risks have focused on the severity of the risk and how it might be mitigated......, and what precisely is at stake in pervasive data sharing. However, there has been little discussion of whether and how to communicate the risk to potential donors. We review the ethical arguments behind favoring different types of risk communication in the consent process, and outline how identifiability...... concerns can be incorporated into either a detailed or a simplified method of communicating risks during the consent process....

  4. Identifying Codes on Directed De Bruijn Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    JOURNAL ARTICLE (POST PRINT) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2013 – AUG 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IDENTIFYING CODES ON DIRECTED DE BRUIJN GRAPHS 5a...owner. 14. ABSTRACT For a directed graph G, a t-identifying code is a subset S ⊆ V (G) with the property that for each vertex v ∈ V (G) the set of...vertices of S reachable from v by a directed path of length at most t is both non-empty and unique. A graph is called t- identifiable if there exists a

  5. Discrimination of SM-identified individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The belief that sadomasochism (SM) is violence or abusive behavior has resulted in harassment, physical attacks, and discrimination against SM-identified individuals. Historically, they were often opposed by self-identified feminists. One reason the women who practiced SM were targeted was the official opposition to sadomasochistic practices promulgated by the National Organization for Women (NOW). Current statistics of incidents of discrimination, harassment and physical attacks against SM-identified individuals and SM groups are compiled by the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom (NCSF).

  6. Identifying Polarity in Different Text Types

    OpenAIRE

    Hille Pajupuu; Rene Altrov; Jaan Pajupuu

    2016-01-01

    While Sentiment Analysis aims to identify the writer’s attitude toward individuals, events or topics, our aim is to predict the possible effect of a written text on the reader. For this purpose, we created an automatic identifier of the polarity of Estonian texts, which is independent of domain and of text type. Depending on the approach chosen – lexicon-based or machine learning – the identifier uses either a lexicon of words with a positive or negative connotation, or a text corpus where or...

  7. Identifying structural damage with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in an urban environment in an attempt to identify the cause of severe structural damage to a historically significant residential property...

  8. Identifying regional opportunities for accelerated timber managemnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Gansner; Joseph E. Barnard; Samuel F. Gingrich; Samuel F. Gingrich

    1973-01-01

    Describes a procedure for identifying regional opportunities for accelerated timber management and demonstrates its application. Results provide a basis for rational choices among alternative management strategies and permit meaningful micro- and macro-evaluations of treatment response.

  9. Identifying knowledge in decision-making processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    Managing knowledge reflects the innovation capability of a company. Mapping decision processes and links to knowledge is a way to learn more in structuring knowledge in innovation processes. Through an empirical study the paper aims to identify knowledge...

  10. Identifying Early Diagnosis Markers of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Shuang

    2004-01-01

    .... We reasoned that the success and accuracy in early diagnosis of prostate cancer may be significantly improved if a panel of prostate cancer-specific markers can be identified and used in combination...

  11. Study Identifies New Lymphoma Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI researchers have identified new therapeutic targets for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Drugs that hit these targets are under clinical development and the researchers hope to begin testing them in clinical trials of patients with DLBCL.

  12. Identifiable Data Files - Health Outcomes Survey (HOS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) identifiable data files are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  13. Identifiable reparametrizations of linear compartment models

    OpenAIRE

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Sullivant, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Identifiability concerns finding which unknown parameters of a model can be quantified from given input-output data. Many linear ODE models, used in systems biology and pharmacokinetics, are unidentifiable, which means that parameters can take on an infinite number of values and yet yield the same input-output data. We use commutative algebra and graph theory to study a particular class of unidentifiable models and find conditions to obtain identifiable scaling reparametrizations of these mod...

  14. ORCID Author Identifiers: A Primer for Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Katherine G; Sarkozy, Alexandra; Wu, Wendy; Slyman, Alison

    2016-01-01

    The ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) registry helps disambiguate authors and streamline research workflows by assigning unique 16-digit author identifiers that enable automatic linkages between researchers and their scholarly activities. This article describes how ORCID works, the benefits of using ORCID, and how librarians can promote ORCID at their institutions by raising awareness of ORCID, helping researchers create and populate ORCID profiles, and integrating ORCID identifiers into institutional repositories and other university research information systems.

  15. Identifying Motivational Factors within a Multinational Company

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Bradutanu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the main motivational factors within a multinational company. The first objective is to identify work functions, formulated on Abraham Maslow’s pyramid, following the identification of the key characteristics that motivate an employee at the work place and last, but not least, the type of motivation that employees focus, intrinsic or extrinsic. The research method targeted a questionnaire based survey, including various company employees and an interv...

  16. Connecting Research and Researchers: ORCID Identifiers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, L.; Bryant, R.

    2013-12-01

    Lack of standards for identification of researchers is a major challenge for the research community. It is difficult not only to unambiguously associate researchers with their own work, but also to track use and re-use of those works. The goal of ORCID (orcid.org) is to connect research with researchers, ultimately saving researchers time in entering data, improving discoverability, and facilitating the flow of research information and data re-use. ORCID is a community-driven non-profit organization that provides an open registry of unique persistent identifiers for researchers. We work collaboratively with the research community to embed these identifiers in research workflows, including manuscript submission, grant application, and data set deposit. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of ORCID, an in particular how it is being used as a switchboard to connect existing but fragmented researcher identifiers. ORCID also provides researchers search and link tools to link their ORCID identifier to their existing datasets, grants, other research works, and an automated method to link new works to their identifier. ORCID is fundamental to solving the name ambiguity problem for researchers and scholars. Together with unique and persistent identifiers for publications, data sets, and research samples, ORCID is an essential underpinning needed to support interoperability between research systems.

  17. Distributed design approach in persistent identifiers systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golodoniuc, Pavel; Car, Nicholas; Klump, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The need to identify both digital and physical objects is ubiquitous in our society. Past and present persistent identifier (PID) systems, of which there is a great variety in terms of technical and social implementations, have evolved with the advent of the Internet, which has allowed for globally unique and globally resolvable identifiers. PID systems have catered for identifier uniqueness, integrity, persistence, and trustworthiness, regardless of the identifier's application domain, the scope of which has expanded significantly in the past two decades. Since many PID systems have been largely conceived and developed by small communities, or even a single organisation, they have faced challenges in gaining widespread adoption and, most importantly, the ability to survive change of technology. This has left a legacy of identifiers that still exist and are being used but which have lost their resolution service. We believe that one of the causes of once successful PID systems fading is their reliance on a centralised technical infrastructure or a governing authority. Golodoniuc et al. (2016) proposed an approach to the development of PID systems that combines the use of (a) the Handle system, as a distributed system for the registration and first-degree resolution of persistent identifiers, and (b) the PID Service (Golodoniuc et al., 2015), to enable fine-grained resolution to different information object representations. The proposed approach solved the problem of guaranteed first-degree resolution of identifiers, but left fine-grained resolution and information delivery under the control of a single authoritative source, posing risk to the long-term availability of information resources. Herein, we develop these approaches further and explore the potential of large-scale decentralisation at all levels: (i) persistent identifiers and information resources registration; (ii) identifier resolution; and (iii) data delivery. To achieve large-scale decentralisation

  18. Scalable persistent identifier systems for dynamic datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golodoniuc, P.; Cox, S. J. D.; Klump, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Reliable and persistent identification of objects, whether tangible or not, is essential in information management. Many Internet-based systems have been developed to identify digital data objects, e.g., PURL, LSID, Handle, ARK. These were largely designed for identification of static digital objects. The amount of data made available online has grown exponentially over the last two decades and fine-grained identification of dynamically generated data objects within large datasets using conventional systems (e.g., PURL) has become impractical. We have compared capabilities of various technological solutions to enable resolvability of data objects in dynamic datasets, and developed a dataset-centric approach to resolution of identifiers. This is particularly important in Semantic Linked Data environments where dynamic frequently changing data is delivered live via web services, so registration of individual data objects to obtain identifiers is impractical. We use identifier patterns and pattern hierarchies for identification of data objects, which allows relationships between identifiers to be expressed, and also provides means for resolving a single identifier into multiple forms (i.e. views or representations of an object). The latter can be implemented through (a) HTTP content negotiation, or (b) use of URI querystring parameters. The pattern and hierarchy approach has been implemented in the Linked Data API supporting the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure (UNSDI) initiative and later in the implementation of geoscientific data delivery for the Capricorn Distal Footprints project using International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSN). This enables flexible resolution of multi-view persistent identifiers and provides a scalable solution for large heterogeneous datasets.

  19. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  20. Identifying Geographic Clusters: A Network Analytic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Catini, Roberto; Penner, Orion; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the role of networks and clusters in the global economy. Despite being a popular research topic in economics, sociology and urban studies, geographical clustering of human activity has often studied been by means of predetermined geographical units such as administrative divisions and metropolitan areas. This approach is intrinsically time invariant and it does not allow one to differentiate between different activities. Our goal in this paper is to present a new methodology for identifying clusters, that can be applied to different empirical settings. We use a graph approach based on k-shell decomposition to analyze world biomedical research clusters based on PubMed scientific publications. We identify research institutions and locate their activities in geographical clusters. Leading areas of scientific production and their top performing research institutions are consistently identified at different geographic scales.

  1. Identifying motivational factors within a multinational company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bradutanu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify the main motivational factors within a multinational company. The first objective is to identify work functions, formulated on Abraham Maslow’s pyramid, following the identification of the key characteristics that motivate an employee at the work place and last, but not least, the type of motivation that employees focus, intrinsic or extrinsic. The research method targeted a questionnaire based survey, including various company employees and an interview with the manager. The results confirmed that in Romania, employees put great emphasis on extrinsic motivation, a certain income and job security being primary. These results have implications for managers that in order to effectively motivate staff, first, must know their needs and expectations. To identify the main needs and motivational factors we had as a starting point Maslow's pyramid.

  2. Migraineurs were reliably identified using administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walraven, Carl; Colman, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Migraine is a common and important source of pain and disability in society. Accurately identifying such people using routinely collected health data would be beneficial for health services research. Externally validate a previously published method to identify migraineurs using health administrative data; and determine if a better model can be derived using data-mining techniques. Migraine status was determined for Ontarians participating in a population-based, cross-sectional survey. Consenting participants were linked to population-based health administrative data to identify age, sex, and coded diagnoses. Discrimination and calibration measures were used to appraise the models. A de novo technique we term "double threshold analysis" was used to determine optimal lower and upper expected probabilities to identify migraine status in the newly derived model. A total of 1,01,114 people (mean age 46 years, 46% male) were included in the study, of which 11,314 (11.2%) had migraines. Using data-driven parameter estimates, the previous model to identify migraineurs had adequate discrimination (c-statistic 0.707 [95% CI 0.701-0.712]) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow [H-L] statistic 20.8). A new model that included diagnostic code scores for physician visits, emergency visits, and hospitalizations with nonlinear terms for age and interactions significantly improved the model (c-statistic 0.724 [0.716-0.733], 16.4). Categorizing all people with a predicted migraine probability less than 10% or greater than 90% as without and having the disease, respectively, resulted in a sensitivity of 3.1%, a specificity of 99.96%, and a positive predictive value of 81.0% while capturing 57.0% of the cohort and 29.3% of migraineurs. A previously derived model to identify migraineurs was improved using data-mining techniques permitting accurate cohort identification using routinely collected health administrative data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying polymer states by machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qianshi; Melko, Roger G.; Chen, Jeff Z. Y.

    2017-03-01

    The ability of a feed-forward neural network to learn and classify different states of polymer configurations is systematically explored. Performing numerical experiments, we find that a simple network model can, after adequate training, recognize multiple structures, including gaslike coil, liquidlike globular, and crystalline anti-Mackay and Mackay structures. The network can be trained to identify the transition points between various states, which compare well with those identified by independent specific-heat calculations. Our study demonstrates that neural networks provide an unconventional tool to study the phase transitions in polymeric systems.

  4. Minimal covariant observables identifying all pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmeli, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.carmeli@gmail.com [D.I.M.E., Università di Genova, Via Cadorna 2, I-17100 Savona (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku (Finland); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    It has been recently shown by Heinosaari, Mazzarella and Wolf (2013) [1] that an observable that identifies all pure states of a d-dimensional quantum system has minimally 4d−4 outcomes or slightly less (the exact number depending on d). However, no simple construction of this type of minimal observable is known. We investigate covariant observables that identify all pure states and have minimal number of outcomes. It is shown that the existence of this kind of observables depends on the dimension of the Hilbert space.

  5. Psychosocial counselling of identifiable sperm donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, M; Mochtar, M H; de Melker, A A; van der Veen, F; Repping, S; Gerrits, T

    2016-05-01

    What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial counselling at the time that donor-offspring actually sought contact. Most studies on sperm donors are on anonymous donors and focus on recruitment, financial compensation, anonymity and motivations. There is limited knowledge on the value that identifiable sperm donors place on psychosocial counselling and what their needs are in this respect. We performed a qualitative study from March until June 2014 with 25 identifiable sperm donors, who were or had been a donor at the Centre for Reproductive Medicine of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam any time between 1989 and 2014. We held semi-structured in-depth interviews with identifiable sperm donors with an average age of 44 years. The interviews were fully transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. Twelve out of 15 donors (former donors ITALIC! n = 8, active donors ITALIC! n = 7) who had received a counselling session during their intake procedure found it important that they had been able to talk about issues such as the emotional consequences of donation, disclosure to their own children, family and friends, future contact with donor-offspring and rules and regulations. Of the 10 former donors who had received no counselling session, 8 had regretted the lack of intensive counselling. In the years following their donation, most donors simply wanted to know how many offspring had been born using their sperm and had no need for further counselling. Nevertheless, they frequently mentioned that they were concerned about the well-being of 'their' offspring. In addition, they would value the availability of psychosocial counselling in the event that donor-offspring actually sought contact. A limitation of our study is its

  6. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  7. Identifying Ethical Hypernorms for Accounting Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Philip H.; Mintz, Steven; Naser-Tavakolian, Mohsen; O'Shaughnessy, John

    2012-01-01

    Accounting educators have a unique role in academe because students learn about codes of ethics that will guide their actions as professionals. We identify hypernorms related to internal auditing educators that reflect unethical behaviors believed to be universally unacceptable by that community. We then compare the results to a prior survey of…

  8. Identifying motifs in folktales using topic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsdorp, F.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2013-01-01

    With the undertake of various folktale digitalization initiatives, the need for computational aids to explore these collections is increasing. In this paper we compare Labeled LDA (L-LDA) to a simple retrieval model on the task of identifying motifs in folktales. We show that both methods are well

  9. Identifiability and Equivalence of GLLIRM Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM) is a linearly constrained nominal categories model (NCM) that computes the scale and intercept parameters for categories as a weighted sum of basic parameters. This paper addresses the problems of the identifiability of the basic parameters and the equivalence between different GLLIRM…

  10. Some technological properties of phenotypically identified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... In this study, a total of 39 enterococci strains were isolated and identified as 17 Enterococcus faecium. (43.58%), 11 Enterococcus faecalis (28.21%) and 11 Enterococcus durans (28.21%) strains from 28. Tulum cheese samples from Isparta, Turkey. Three E. faecium (EYT6, EYT21 and EYT34) and 1 E.

  11. Identifying the Multiple Intelligences of Your Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Joyce A.; Conti, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    One way of addressing individual differences among adult learners is to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the learner. Multiple Intelligences refers to the concept developed by Howard Gardner that challenges the traditional view of intelligence and explains the presence of nine different Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study was…

  12. Identifying marker typing incompatibilities in linkage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringham, H.M.; Boehnke, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A common problem encountered in linkage analyses is that execution of the computer program is halted because of genotypes in the data that are inconsistent with Mendelian inheritance. Such inconsistencies may arise because of pedigree errors or errors in typing. In some cases, the source of the inconsistencies is easily identified by examining the pedigree. In others, the error is not obvious, and substantial time and effort are required to identify the responsible genotypes. We have developed two methods for automatically identifying those individuals whose genotypes are most likely the cause of the inconsistencies. First, we calculate the posterior probability of genotyping error for each member of the pedigree, given the marker data on all pedigree members and allowing anyone in the pedigree to have an error. Second, we identify those individuals whose genotypes could be solely responsible for the inconsistency in the pedigree. We illustrate these methods with two examples: one a pedigree error, the second a genotyping error. These methods have been implemented as a module of the pedigree analysis program package MENDEL. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Diagnostics Tools Identify Faults Prior to Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Through the SBIR program, Rochester, New York-based Impact Technologies LLC collaborated with Ames Research Center to commercialize the Center s Hybrid Diagnostic Engine, or HyDE, software. The fault detecting program is now incorporated into a software suite that identifies potential faults early in the design phase of systems ranging from printers to vehicles and robots, saving time and money.

  14. The external muon identifier (EMI) for BEBC

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This detector identifies muons produced in neutrino interactions in BEBC. Whereas hadrons are absorbed in the iron shield around BEBC, muons penetrate and are detected in a 150 m2 layer of proportional chambers, each equipped with three sensitive planes, i.e. two anode wire and one cathode plane.

  15. A Method to Identify Occupational Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Elizabeth W.

    1997-01-01

    Occupational stereotypes of automobile salespersons were identified through a review of media articles and cartoons and concept mapping by college students. Clothing and appearance cues and personal attributes were statistically analyzed. Content-, construct-, and criterion-related evidence supported the validity of the content of the stereotype…

  16. Identifying gastrooesophageal reflux disease in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Sara

    2012-11-01

    This article will look at the similarities between normal baby behaviours, and normal physiological gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and GORD, giving the practitioner evidence-based information to offer reassurance to parents. It will also look at conservative management of the common symptoms of GOR, and try to identify why this condition can cause confusion among health professionals and parents.

  17. Identifying Advanced Technologies for Education's Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gwendolyn B.; Yin, Robert K.

    A study to determine how three advanced technologies might be applied to the needs of special education students helped inspire the development of a new method for identifying such applications. This new method, named the "Hybrid Approach," combines features of the two traditional methods: technology-push and demand-pull. Technology-push involves…

  18. Identifying Foods causing Allergies/ Intolerances among Diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was designed to identify the foods that caused allergies / intolerances and symptoms of reaction experienced by diabetic patients attending State Specialist Hospital, Akure. Materials and Methods: Ninety-eight diabetics aged 30-80 years (30 males and 68 females) were included in the study.

  19. Teaching science students to identify entrepreneurial opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nab, J.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation describes a research project on teaching science students to identify entrepreneurial opportunities, which is a core competence for entrepreneurs that should be emphasized in education. This research consists of four studies. The first case study aims at finding design strategies

  20. Teachers' Ability to Accurately Identify Disordered Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine N.; Harris, Timothy B.

    1992-01-01

    This study, with 45 elementary school classroom teachers and 64 elementary education majors, found that the classroom teachers were able to consistently identify children with disordered voices. Students were somewhat inclined to underrefer children with possible voice disorders. (Author/DB)