WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydatid control programmes

  1. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  2. A pilot study for control of hyperendemic cystic hydatid disease in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbao Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic hydatid disease (CHD is a global parasitic zoonosis caused by the dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. The disease is hyperendemic in western China because of poor economic development; limited community knowledge of CHD; widespread, small-scale household animal production; home killing of livestock; and the feeding of dogs with uncooked offal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A control program focusing on monthly praziquantel (PZQ treatment of all registered dogs and culling unwanted and stray dogs has been designed to control CHD in hyperendemic areas in China. A pilot field control project in two counties (Hutubi and Wensu in Xinjiang, China showed that after 4 years of treatment, the prevalence of dogs with E. granulosus was reduced from 14.7% and 18.6%, respectively, to 0%, and this caused a 90%-100% decrease of CHD in sheep born after commencement of the control program. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The strategy aimed at preventing eggs being released from dogs into the environment by treating animals before adult tapeworms are patent can decrease E. granulosus transmission and considerably reduce hyperendemic CHD. Monthly treatment of dogs with PZQ and culling unwanted and stray dogs have been shown to be an efficient, highly cost-effective and practicable measure for implementation in rural communities. As a result, the Chinese Ministry of Health has launched an extensive CHD control program in 117 counties in western China using this control strategy.

  3. Norwegian mastitis control programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterås, O; Sølverød, L

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  4. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  5. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to

  6. Veterinary public health activities at FAO: echinococcosis/hydatid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddi, C; de Balogh, K; Lubroth, J; Amanfu, W; Speedy, A; Battaglia, D

    2004-12-01

    Cystic hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease that remain as a significant cause of human morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. The disease has veterinary public health implications. FAO is involved with some activities in the control of echinococcosis/hydatid disease: within the Animal Production and Health Division the Veterinary Public Health (VHP) Programme is constituted by members of the different Services (Animal Health, Animal Production, and Livestock Policy) within the Division. FAO regular programme has also established a global network of professionals directly involved in VPH. Furthermore FAO's Technical Cooperation Projects (TCP) is a tool to assist member countries in responding to urgent and unforeseen demands.

  7. Programmable data communications controller requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

  8. National Tuberculosis Control Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uke, B T

    1995-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major public health problem in India, since there are an estimated 2.5-3 million sputum positive cases and 5-6 million noninfectious cases in the country. The National Tuberculosis Program was established in 1962 with the main objective of reducing the disability and death from TB by effective treatment. Under the District Tuberculosis Program, district TB centers (DTCs) were set up for referral diagnosis, treatment, and community control of TB. Nationally, there are 390 districts with fully equipped DTCs staffed by a team of medical and paramedical personnel. Another 330 TB clinics are mostly located in big cities, caring for the local populace. In addition, 17 tuberculosis training and demonstration centers provide basic training to paramedical personnel, including general practitioners. There are a total of about 47,000 beds available nationwide for TB patients. The majority of patients are treated at home, thus only serious cases or those requiring surgical treatment are admitted. The NTP also stresses health education aimed at the community and general practitioners. Booklets, pamphlets, radio, TV, and newspaper advertisements are utilized for this purpose. International assistance has been provided by UNICEF, WHO, and the Swedish International Development Agency since the 1950s. The National Tuberculosis Institute was established in 1959 in Bangalore and it has engaged in research on epidemiological, sociological, and operations aspects, along with monitoring of the program. Other TB research institutes are the TB Research Center in Madras and the LRS Institute of TB and Allied Diseases in Delhi. BCG vaccination of children up to the age of 1 year continues, although a study showed that vaccination did not protect from adult TB. Evaluation of the NTP comprises quarterly reports for DTCs and countrywide assessment. NTP achievements include 85% coverage of districts, diagnosis of 1,500,000 new cases a year, and short

  9. Octenidine hydrochloride in hydatid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindis, Mustafa; Arikan, Yuksel; Cetinkaya, Zafer; Polat, Coskun; Yilmaz, Sezgin; Akbulut, Gökhan; Dilek, Osman Nuri; Gokce, Ozcan

    2004-01-01

    Hydatid disease is still endemic in many devoloping countries and continues to be an important cause of morbidity. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro scolicidal effects of octenidine hydrochloride in different concentrations using different exposure times. After hydatid cyst liquid was left to precipitate for 1 h to obtain cystic sand, various concentrations of octenidine (undiluted, 1% and 0.1% diluted) were added to concentrated hydatid cyst sediments for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 min, and scolicidal effects of octenidine were compared with 20% saline and control group for the same times. It was found that undiluted octenidine had a strong scolicidal effect at 15 min compared to saline at 20%. One percent octenidine had a scolicidal effect at 30 min. However, 0.1% octenidine did not have enough scolicidal effect in 1 h. It was concluded that undiluted and 1% diluted octenidine might be used for scolicidal purpose in the treatment of hydatid disease.

  10. Fibular hydatid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Hamidreza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus. Genus Echinococcus has different species including Echinococcus vogeli, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilucularis . Echinococcus granulosus is the most common cause of hydatid disease in humans. This disease occurs either through direct ingestion of parasite eggs from contact with infected dogs or indirectly from the ingestion of contaminated water or food. Infestation of hydatid disease in humans most commonly occurs in the liver (55-70%, followed by the lungs (18-35%. Bone hydatidosis however is very rare (3%. We present herein a case of hydatid cyst of the fibula, which is an uncommon site for the occurrence of this disease.

  11. Primary intradural extramedullary hydatid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahilogullari, Gokmen; Tuna, Hakan; Aydin, Zafer; Colpan, Efkan; Egemen, Nihat

    2005-04-01

    Spinal hydatid cysts account for 1% of all cases of hydatid disease; primary intradural hydatid cysts are uncommon. We present a case of pathologically confirmed intradural spinal cyst hydatid in an otherwise healthy patient who showed no other evidence of systemic hydatid cyst disease. The patient presented with back pain, paraparesis, and weakness. An intradural extramedullary cystic lesion was identified with magnetic resonance imaging and was shown to be a hydatid cyst by histopathologic examination after surgical removal. To our knowledge, this is the 25th case of hydatid cyst at an intradural extramedullary location reported in the literature.

  12. Power optimized programmable embedded controller

    CERN Document Server

    Kamaraju, M; Tilak, A V N; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2409

    2010-01-01

    Now a days, power has become a primary consideration in hardware design, and is critical in computer systems especially for portable devices with high performance and more functionality. Clock-gating is the most common technique used for reducing processor's power. In this work clock gating technique is applied to optimize the power of fully programmable Embedded Controller (PEC) employing RISC architecture. The CPU designed supports i) smart instruction set, ii) I/O port, UART iii) on-chip clocking to provide a range of frequencies , iv) RISC as well as controller concepts. The whole design is captured using VHDL and is implemented on FPGA chip using Xilinx .The architecture and clock gating technique together is found to reduce the power consumption by 33.33% of total power consumed by this chip.

  13. Isolated Splenic Hydatid Disease

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    Alper Dilli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease (HD continues to be a significant health problem in areas where animal husbandry is common but no proper veterinary control exists. The involvement of the spleen in HD is rare, and isolated splenic involvement is even less common. In this case report, we present isolated splenic HD in a 26-year-old female with complaint of abdominal pain, and we discuss some of the clinical aspects of HD. Evaluation of the patient with ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of an isolated splenic HD as a multivesicular cystic mass located near splenic hilus, measuring 12×11 cm. No other organ or system involvement could be demonstrated.

  14. Infected cardiac hydatid cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Ceviz, M; Becit, N; Kocak, H.

    2001-01-01

    A 24 year old woman presented with chest pain and palpitation. The presence of a semisolid mass—an echinococcal cyst or tumour—in the left ventricular apex was diagnosed by echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The infected cyst was seen at surgery. The cyst was removed successfully by using cardiopulmonary bypass with cross clamp.


Keywords: cardiac hydatid cyst; infected cardiac hydatid cyst

  15. Evidence that a hydatid cyst is seldom "as old as the patient".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, T C

    1978-07-01

    Human hydatid disease caused by the strain of Echinococcus granulosus endemic in Australia and New Zeland has been regarded as a very lonstanding condition, and most cysts diagnosed in adults were believed to have resulted from infection in childhood. A significant drop in the number of new cases among people and 25 and over (P less than 0.05) in two hydatid-control programmes makes it necessary to revise this view. In both Tasmania (P greater than 0.50) and New Zealand (0.50 greater than P greater than 0.10) the incidence was halved without significantly altering the age-distribution. These findings indicate that adults are relatively susceptible and that the latent period between infection and diagnosis in many cases is only a few years.

  16. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Irabedra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  17. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  18. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; Santos, Estela Dos; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-05-24

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community's participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  19. Programme documentation to control programme for Solar-tracker; Programdokumentation til styringsprogram til Solar-tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudbeck, C.

    1995-07-01

    The report contains the programme documentation partly for a programme to control of a tracking system and partly a programme, which uses this programme to make measurements of transmittance for covering layer. Both the transmittance measurement programme and the programme is built in Borland Pascal v7.0, and is compiled in Real mode for the use on a processor of the 80X86-family. The source code for the programme for transmittance measurements and the programmes (the positioning routines) are described in Appendix B. (EHS)

  20. A Rare Primary Pelvic Hydatid Cyst Presenting as Sciatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen S Rathod

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary hydatid cyst in the pelvis is rare, and usually presents with pressure symptoms affecting the adjacent abdominal organs. We describe a rare hydatid cyst which was eroding the sacral hallow, protruding into the right sciatic foramen and presenting as a radiating pain and weakness of right lower limb due to compression of the lumbosacral nerve roots. Laparotomy with removal of cyst and postoperative treatment with albendazole is effective in controlling the disease and preventing recurrence.

  1. Use programmable controllers on crude trunklines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J. (Square D Co. (US))

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on the use of programmable controllers on a 530-mi. 10-in., bidirectional crude oil trunkline linking Midland and Port Arthur, Texas. It has 14 pump stations and one control center. Amdel, constructed in 1926, allows injection/exit points at Port Arthur, Hearne, Bronte, Forsan, big Spring and Midland, Texas. A 6 MHz analog microwave backbone supplies the communications between the remote pump stations and the control center.

  2. Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzo, J.; Pina, J.I.; Abos, M.D.; Rios, G.; Garcia, D.; Marin, F.; Diaz, F.J.

    1984-12-01

    A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with headaches, vomiting, psychic impairment and diplopia. Three hydatid cysts of the lung had been previously removed. An avascular mass in the left hemisphere with left-to-right displacement of the anterior cerebral arteries was noted during a brain angioscintigraphy. A cerebralthrombosis (CT) brain scan showed two cystic lesions situated in the left-frontal and occipital regions. A CT abdominal scan showed multiple cysts in the liver, spleen and both kidneys. At operation, two brain cysts were totally extirpated without rupture. The definite pathological diagnosis was secondry hydatid cysts. The headaches, vomiting and diplopia were persistent in the post-operative period. Seven days after the operation, a CT brain scan showed an infratenrorial cyst. The patient rejected any surgical intervention.

  3. Hydatid cyst of mediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehgal S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of hydatid cyst of the mediastinum in a 32-year-old female patient who was admitted with chest pain. CT scan reported posterior mediastinal mass towards the right side. Surgical exploration revealed a loculated cyst in posterior mediastinum on the right side, adherent to the overlying lung and underlying bone. Posterolateral thoracotomy was performed for cyst aspiration and excision. The patient was discharged on albendazole.

  4. Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Iuzzolino, H.J. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-05-01

    CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

  5. Vertebral hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasaoglu, E.; Boyacigil, S.; Damgaci, L.; Tokoglu, F.; Soydinc, P.; Yuksel, E.

    1997-05-01

    Hydatid disease (caused by Echinococcus granulosus) affecting the bones is a rare condition, its incidence ranging from 0.5-2% of all cases of hydatidosis. The bones most often involved are the vertebrae (44%). A 22-year-old man presented to the hospital with low back pain. A computed tomography scan was performed showing bone destruction and cord compression as well as soft-tissue involvement. It revealed intracanal and paravertebral cystic lesions at the level of L5-S1 with destruction of the corpus and lamina, and sacral foramen invasion. An operation was performed and histopathological findings confirmed the diagnosis. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  6. United Nations International Drug Control Programme responds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Platzer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] We would like to reply to the article written by Axel Klein entitled, "Between the Death Penalty and Decriminalization: New Directions for Drug Control in the Commonwealth Caribbean" published in NWIG 75 (3&4 2001. We have noted a number of factual inaccuracies as well as hostile comments which portray the United Nations International Drug Control Programme in a negative light. This reply is not intended to be a critique of the article, which we find unbalanced and polemical, but rather an alert to the tendentious statements about UNDCP, which we feel should be corrected.

  7. SINGLE CHAMBER (HYDATID ECHINOCOCCOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Polyakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unilocular echinococcosis (hydatid diseaseis the severe chronic parasitic disease, helminthiasis caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, characterized by the development of parasitic cysts in the liver, rarely in the lungs and in other organs and tissues. The etiology of the disease, characterized by the pathogen and its development cycle, final and intermediate hosts, structure and morphology of the hydatid cyst. They describe the geographic distribution of helminth infections, pathogenesis, immunity, clinical picture, echinococcosis of the liver (asymptomatic, uncomplicated stage and stage of complications, echinococcosis of the lungs (the initial stage and the stage of developed clinical picture, other bodies. Clinical observation of unilocular echinococcosis in a 10 year old girl and a 9 year old boy. Diagnosis includes epidemiological, anamnestic and clinical data, changes in laboratory parameters, instrumental methods, diagnostic methods, immunodiagnostics, parasitological diagnosis. The surgery remains the main method of treatment. They described pharmacological therapy with albendazole in combination with a surgical method and as an involuntary self-treatment. A detailed clinical examination of patients after treatment, epidemiology of helminth infections and the major modern preventive measures.

  8. Imaging in pulmonary hydatid cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mandeep K Garg; Madhurima Sharma; Ajay Gulati; Ujjwal Gorsi; Ashutosh N Aggarwal; Ritesh Agarwal; Niranjan Khandelwal

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonosis that can involve almost any organ in the human body. After the liver, the lungs are the most common site for hydatid disease in adults. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of the disease, as clinical features are often nonspecific. Classical radiological signs of pulmonary hydatid cysts have been described in the literature, aiding in the diagnosis of the disease. However, complicated hydatid cysts can prove to be a diagnostic challenge at times due to their atypical imaging features. Radiography is the initial imaging modality. Computed tomography can provide a specific diagnosis in complicated cases. Ultrasound is particularly useful in peripheral lung lesions. The role of magnetic resonance imaging largely remains unexplored.

  9. Effect of two hydatid cyst antigens on the growth of melanoma cancer in C57/black mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chookami, Milad Badri; Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Sefiddashti, Raheleh Rafiei; Jafari, Rasool; Bahadoran, Mehran; Pestechian, Nader; Yousofi Darani, Hossein

    2016-12-01

    Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. In previous studies inhibitory effect of this parasite on cancer cell growth in culture medium has been shown. In this study effect of hydatid cyst antigens on tumor growth in experimental animals has been investigated. Two antigens of hydatid cyst including protoscolices excretory secretory antigen and hydatid fluid absorbed on alum as adjuvant were injected to two groups of C57/black mice as case groups. Control groups were injected with only saline and alum. All mice then were injected with melanoma cells. Both antigens reduced the tumor size in mice in case groups. The difference of tumor size in mice in case groups and control group was statistically significant. In conclusion, anti-tumor effect of hydatid cyst antigens may be related to antigenic similarities which exist between hydatid cyst and cancer cells.

  10. Hydatid cyst of the tibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiwale C

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available A case of hydatid cyst of the tibia, which manifested as a pathologic fracture is being reported. Pain and swelling of left lower limb with inability to bear the weight were the main features. Tender swelling was also noted at the upper and middle third of tibia. Open biopsy revealed the hydatid cyst wall and scolices of Echinococcus granulosus. Albendazole treatment was followed by curettage and bone grafting.

  11. Study on Position Control System with Programmable Logic Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐海燕; 卢仁军; 郝云鹏

    2003-01-01

    To solve the problems of mechanical cam, tracking in an automatic welding machine, a new method of programmable logic controller ( PLC) tracking is presented. Based on analyzing the forming of welding tracking, a mathematical model of position control is set up. The experiments show that using a modified machine, PLC makes little welding positional error and can meet the product requirements.

  12. Efficient control structures for digital programmable retinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Thierry M.

    2001-05-01

    A digital programmable artificial retina (PAR) is a functional extension of a CMOS imager, in which every pixel is fitted with a local ADC and a tiny digital programmable processor. From an architectural viewpoint, a PAR is an SIMD array processor with local optical input. A PAR is aimed at processing images on-site until they can be output from the array under concentrated form. The overall goal is to get compact, fast and inexpensive vision systems, in particular for robotics applications. A 256 by 256 PAR with up to a few tens bits of local memory per pixel is now within reach at reasonable cost. However, whereas the local memory size benefits quadratically from the feature size decrease, wiring density improvement can only be linear, at best. So control should become more complex with the danger of a growing proportion of the digital pixel area being devoted to instruction or address decoding. We propose efficient scalable solutions to this problem at the architectural, circuit and topological levels, which attempt to minimize both silicon area and power consumption.

  13. Perforated Hepatic Hydatid Cyst into the Peritoneum with Mild Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dirican

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rupture into the abdominal cavity is a rare but serious complication of hydatid disease that necessitates emergency surgical intervention. We present herein a case with mild abdominal symptoms due to hydatid cyst rupture into the peritoneum after trauma. A 24-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with mild abdominal pain. His symptoms had started after a fall four days earlier. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed cystic lesions in the liver and peritoneum with intraabdominal free fluid. He was treated surgically with partial cystectomy and falciformoplasty. Postoperative albendazole therapy was given for two months. There was not recurrence four months postoperatively at control computed tomography.

  14. The Epidemic and Control Situation of Hydatid Disease in Xinjiang%新疆包虫病流行现状与防控对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓军; 刘志强; 努尔; 古努尔; 米晓云; 张壮志; 王文明; 赵莉; 石保新; 张文宝; 闫昊; 王光雷; 张兰江; 张旭

    2012-01-01

    包虫病是一种严重危害人畜健康的寄生虫病。新疆是包虫病高发区,本文就该病目前在新疆的流行现状和防控情况进行了综述。我国主要流行囊型包虫病和泡型包虫病。石渠棘球绦虫仅在我国青藏高原的藏狐体内找到。本文简述了我国现流行的包虫病病原体的分类和形态等;同时,还阐述了国内包虫病的流行和防控现状,指出了包虫病防控工作面临的挑战,强调了包虫病控制应注意的关键环节。归纳和总结了该病的防控具体实施措施。%Hydatid Disease (HD) is the most common parasitic diseases in people and domestic animals. The disease is hyperendemic in Xinjiang. The present review summarizes the recent epidemic situation and control of HD in Xinjiang. There are prevalent Cystic HD and Alveolar HD in China. Echinococcus shiquicus has been isolated only from Tibetan foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) in the Tibetan Plateau region of China. The taxonomy and morphology of echinococcus are described briefly. At the same time, the epidemic and control situation of HD in China are reviewed. The paper stressed the key point and challenge to control HD. The control strategy of HD are also introduced and summarized.

  15. Programmable temperature control system for biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Harrison, R. G.; Rinfret, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    A system was constructed which allows programmable temperature-time control for a 5 cu cm sample volume of arbitrary biological material. The system also measures the parameters necessary for the determination of the sample volume specific heat and thermal conductivity as a function of temperature, and provides a detailed measurement of the temperature during phase change and a means of calculating the heat of the phase change. Steady-state and dynamic temperature control is obtained by supplying heat to the sample volume through resistive elements constructed as an integral part of the sample container. For cooling purposes, this container is totally immersed into a cold heat sink. Using a mixture of dry ice and alcohol at 79 C, the sample volume can be controlled from +40 to -60 C at rates from steady state to + or - 65 C/min. Steady-state temperature precision is better than 0.2 C, while the dynamic capability depends on the temperature rate of change as well as the mass of both the sample and the container.

  16. Recurrent Primary Spinal Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Turk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary hydatid disease of spine is rare and spinal hydatitosis constitute only 1% of all hydatitosis. We report a case of recurrent primary intraspinal extradural hydatid cyst of the thoracic region causing progressive paraparesis. The patient was operated 16 years ago for primary spinal hydatid disease involvement and was instrumented dorsally for stabilization. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of thoracic spine showed a cystic lesion at T11-12 level and compressed spinal cord posterolaterally. Intraspinal cyst was excised through T11-12 laminectomy which made formerly. The early postoperative period showed a progressive improvement of his neurological deficit and he was discharged with antihelmintic treatment consisting of albendazole and amoxicillin-sulbactam combination. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 84-89

  17. Distributed solid state programmable thermostat/power controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jane C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A self-contained power controller having a power driver switch, programmable controller, communication port, and environmental parameter measuring device coupled to a controllable device. The self-contained power controller needs only a single voltage source to power discrete devices, analog devices, and the controlled device. The programmable controller has a run mode which, when selected, upon the occurrence of a trigger event changes the state of a power driver switch and wherein the power driver switch is maintained by the programmable controller at the same state until the occurrence of a second event.

  18. [Isolated giant hydatid in kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgör, Faruk; Erbin, Akif; Berberoğlu, Ahmet Yalçın; Binbay, Murat; Sarılar, Omer; Müslümanoğlu, Ahmet Yaser

    2014-06-01

    Cyst hydatid of the kidney is parasitic condition caused by Echinococcus granulosus and identified in many countries, especially associated with sheep farming. Echinococcal larvae enter the bloodstream using the digestive system and invade any organs in the human body. The urinary system is the third most common area affected by parasitic infection after liver and lungs, but isolated renal involvement is a very rare situation, even in endemic areas. İn our case, we aimed to report a 57-year-old female patient with an 18-centimeter isolated renal cyst hydatid treated by retroperitoneal nephrectomy. The diagnosis was based on imaging findings and confirmed by histopathologically.

  19. Treatment of intracranial hydatid cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sailike Duishanbai; WEN Hao; GENG Dangmurenjiafu; LIU Chen; GUO Huai-rong; HAO Yu-jun; LIU Bo; WANG Yong-xin; LUO Kun; ZHOU Kai

    2011-01-01

    Background Echinococcosis is still endemic in many countries, including China, where it is especially prevalent in the northwest. The aim of this study was to enrich the international literature about the treatment of intracranial hydatid cysts.Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features, radiological manifestations, and surgical outcome of 97 patients with intracranial hydatid cysts, who received surgical treatment at the Neurosurgical Department of First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from 1985 to 2010 and followed up the patient via sending a questionnaire or telephone contact. Clinical outcome was evaluated using the Karnofsky Performance Scale Index.Results Headache and vomiting were the most common initial symptoms in our patients. Neurological deficits caused by the mass effect of the cysts were seen in 82 cases. On the X-ray, significant bone erosion was seen in only two cases with epidural hydatid cysts. Round-shaped and thin-walled homogeneous low-density cystic lesions without surrounding edema and enhancement were the main findings on computerized tomography (CT) in 95 patients with intraparenchymal hydatid cysts, while two cases with epidural hydatid cysts presented as a heterodensity lesions. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hydatid cyst presented as a round-shaped low signal lesion in T1-weighted images and high signal lesion in T2-weighted images, without enhancement after contrast media injection, while the two cases with epidural cysts presented as mixed signal masses. Surgical removal of cyst was performed in all cases. Total removal was achieved in 93 cases without rupturing the cyst wall. Only two cysts ruptured during the dissection, resulting in two surgery-related mortalities. There was no other additional neurological deficit caused directly by surgery. In 97.2% of the patients, the Karnofsky Performance Scale score was 80 to 90 at the last follow-up.Conclusions Intracranial hydatid cyst is still a

  20. Splenic Hydatid Cysts: 17 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Bunyami; Kisaoglu, Abdullah; Atamanalp, Sabri Selcuk; Ozturk, Gurkan; Aydinli, Bulent; Yıldırgan, Mehmet İlhan; Kantarcı, A Mecit

    2015-12-01

    Hydatid cyst disease, which is endemically observed and an important health problem in our country, involves the spleen at a frequency ranking third following the liver and the lungs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and results of management in splenic hydatid cysts. The demographic data, localization, diagnosis, treatment methods, and the length of postoperative hospital stay of patients with splenic hydatid cysts in a 12-year period were evaluated retrospectively. Seventeen cases were evaluated. Among these, 13 were females and four were males. Seven had solitary splenic involvement, eight had involvement of both the spleen and the liver, and two had multiple organ involvement. Ten had undergone splenectomy, one had undergone distal splenectomy, and the remaining cases had undergone different surgical procedures. The patients had received albendazole treatment in the pre- and postoperative period. One patient had died secondary to hypernatremia on the first postoperative day. The clinical picture in splenic hydatid cysts, which is seen rarely, is usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis is established by ultrasonography and abdominal CT. Although splenectomy is the standard mode of treatment, spleen-preserving methods may be used.

  1. Introducing new diagnostics into STI control programmes: the importance of programme science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Mabey, David; Ballard, Ronald C

    2013-03-01

    Many innovative diagnostic technologies will become commercially available over the next 5-10 years. These tests can potentially transform the diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections but their introduction into control programmes can be hampered by health system constraints, and political, cultural, socioeconomic and behavioural factors. We used the introduction of syphilis rapid tests to illustrate the importance of programme science to address the gap between accruing evidence of acceptable test performance and the complexity of programme design, implementation and evaluation of test deployment to address public health needs and improve patient-important outcomes.

  2. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in livestock animals in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingling, Meng; Guanglei, Wang; Jun, Qiao; Xinquan, Zhu; Tianli, Liu; Xuemei, Song; Jinsheng, Zhang; Huisheng, Wang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2014-06-01

    Hydatid worms, hosted by humans and animals, impose serious human health risk and cause significant livestock production loss. To better understand the disease infection status in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the disease epidemics in 4 livestock animals, i.e., cattle, sheep (both sheep and goat), camels, and horses, slaughtered at the abattoirs in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, and Altay areas. The results showed that the animals were infected at different rates, in the order of sheep (9.8%), cattle (8.4%), camels (6.8%), and horses (4.3%). The infection rates were found to be different between the abattoirs in various regions even for the same animals. For sheep, the rates increased significantly as the animals grew older. It was 1.9% before 1 year of age and increased to 8.2% in the age of 1-2 years, and further increased to 12.3% when the animals were 3-4 years old, and reached 17.2% when they were 5-6 year old. Sheep older than 6 years had an infection rate of 19.5%. This study demonstrates that the 4 livestock animals in the pastoral areas in Xinjiang were infected by the parasites to various extend. This study is the first systematic investigation of the hydatid worms in various livestock animals in Xinjiang, China, which provides epidemiological information about the infection of hydatid worms in livestock, and is valuable in developing strategies for prevention and control of the hydatid disease.

  3. The occurrence of Helicobacter pylori in hydatid liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adil Edan Alsaimary; Hayder M Abdulnbi; Abdulhadi Laibi; Ahmed Rasheed Jwad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To detect the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in hydatid liver disease. Methods: A total of 58 patients with hydatid liver disease attending AL-Sadder Teaching Hospital in Al-Najaf and Al-Basrah governorate from February to August, 2008 were included in the study and served as group A. One hundred and twenty 1st degree relative patients (group B) and 20 normal persons including 10 male and 10 female (group C) as control were detected for the presence of H. pylori infection in general population. Chest X-ray was done for the above groups to exclude lung hydrated cyst. The patients were screened by ultrasound to obtain intra abdominal hydrated cyst and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) test was utilized to detect the H. pylori infection. Results: Fifty eight patients from group A with hydatid liver disease, 30 male (51.7%) and 28 female (48.3%) were screened for the presence of H. pylori infection by using ELISA test. We found that 28 patients from group A had positive ELISA test including 19 male (32.8%) and 9 female (15.5%) (P<0.01). However, there were no positive results of H. pylori infection in group B and C by chest X-ray, ultrasound and ELISA test. Conclusions: It can be concluded that there is a strong relationship between hydatid liver disease and presence of H. pylori.

  4. Surgery or radiotherapy for the treatment of bone hydatid disease: a retrospective case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengru Xie

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: This retrospective case series describes, for the first time, the clinical outcomes in a series of patients treated with radiotherapy for bone hydatid disease. Although no direct comparison between the treatment groups could be made due to methodological limitations of the study design, this study indicates that well-designed prospective randomized controlled clinical trials assessing radiotherapy may be warranted in patients with inoperable hydatid disease of the bones.

  5. Lone, Mobile Left Atrial Hydatid Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Mehmet; Baktir, Ahmet Oguz; Tekin, Ali Ihsan; Tok, Ahmet; Yagmur, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcosis is endemic in various regions of Turkey. Cardiac involvement in echinococcosis is rare, and lone cardiac hydatid cysts are even more unusual. Because cardiac hydatid disease can be fatal, even asymptomatic patients are optimally referred for surgical treatment. We present a rare case of a lone, primary, mobile hydatid cyst in the left atrium of a 62-year-old woman. The cyst caused dyspnea from left ventricular inflow obstruction. In addition to reporting the patient's fatal case, we discuss cardiac hydatid cysts in terms of the scant medical literature. PMID:27303247

  6. Common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Daneshpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different research groups reported a negative correlation between cancers and parasitical infections. As an example, the prevalence of a hydatid cyst among patients with cancer was significantly lower than its prevalence among normal population. Tn antigens exist both in cancer and hydatid cyst. This common antigen may be involved in the effect of parasite on cancer growth. So in this work, common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Different hydatid cyst antigens including hydatid fluid, laminated and germinal layer antigens, and excretory secretory antigens of protoscolices were run in SDS PAGE and transferred to NCP paper. In western immunoblotting, those antigens were probed with sera of patients with different cancer and also sera of non-cancer patients. Also, cross reaction among excretory secretory products of cancer cells and antisera raised against different hydatid cyst antigen was investigated. Results: In western immunoblotting, antisera raised against laminated and germinal layers of hydatid cyst reacted with excretory secretory products of cancer cells. Also, a reaction was detected between hydatid cyst antigens and sera of patients with some cancers. Conclusion: Results of this work emphasize existence of common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers. More investigation about these common antigens is recommended.

  7. Common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshpour, Shima; Bahadoran, Mehran; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Eskandarian, Abas Ali; Mahmoudzadeh, Mehdi; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different research groups reported a negative correlation between cancers and parasitical infections. As an example, the prevalence of a hydatid cyst among patients with cancer was significantly lower than its prevalence among normal population. Tn antigens exist both in cancer and hydatid cyst. This common antigen may be involved in the effect of parasite on cancer growth. So in this work, common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Different hydatid cyst antigens including hydatid fluid, laminated and germinal layer antigens, and excretory secretory antigens of protoscolices were run in SDS PAGE and transferred to NCP paper. In western immunoblotting, those antigens were probed with sera of patients with different cancer and also sera of non-cancer patients. Also, cross reaction among excretory secretory products of cancer cells and antisera raised against different hydatid cyst antigen was investigated. Results: In western immunoblotting, antisera raised against laminated and germinal layers of hydatid cyst reacted with excretory secretory products of cancer cells. Also, a reaction was detected between hydatid cyst antigens and sera of patients with some cancers. Conclusion: Results of this work emphasize existence of common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers. More investigation about these common antigens is recommended. PMID:26962511

  8. Interface control procedures for university satellite programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Lebbink, L.; Hamann, R.J.; Bouwmeester, J.; Brouwer, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Now that more and more universities have joined the CubeSat community and have their own satellite in Earth orbit, it is expected that the planned successors will be of higher complexity. These successors within a university satellite programme will often house more technically ad-vanced subsystems

  9. Interface control procedures for university satellite programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Lebbink, L.; Hamann, R.J.; Bouwmeester, J.; Brouwer, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Now that more and more universities have joined the CubeSat community and have their own satellite in Earth orbit, it is expected that the planned successors will be of higher complexity. These successors within a university satellite programme will often house more technically ad-vanced subsystems

  10. Application framework for programmable network control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.; Cristea, M.; de Laat, C.; Meijer, R.; Clemm, A.; Wolter, R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a framework that enables application developers to create complex and application specific network services. The essence of our approach is to utilize programmable network elements to create a software representation of network elements in the application. We show that the typical pattern

  11. Progress in control of hydatidosis using vaccination--a review of formulation and delivery of the vaccine and recommendations for practical use in control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D D; Jensen, O; Lightowlers, M W

    2003-02-01

    A vaccine to protect sheep, goats, and bovines against hydatid disease caused by the cysts of Echinococcus granulosus is prepared as a recombinant fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Solubilised inclusion bodies are injected, together with Quil A, subcutaneously on two occasions 1 month or more apart, and induce protection against infection which lasts for at least 12 months. A third injection given 6-12 months after the second injection induces a high and long-lasting protection against artificial or natural challenge infections. This review describes work carried out on the formulation, safety and efficacy of the vaccine under laboratory and field conditions, using artificial or natural challenges with E. granulosus eggs, followed by necropsy. Hydatid control programmes based on regular treatment of all dogs with the correct dose of a highly-efficient anthelmintic have sometimes not been successful in Continental environments. Access to dogs is difficult in summer because of the distances to summer pastures, and is often impossible in winter because of snow. A control program using strategic twice-yearly anthelmintic treatment of dogs is likely to be successful provided grazing animals are vaccinated as well. Vaccination as a control tool only requires the veterinarians to visit two times a year, and while the veterinarian is present, the dogs can be treated with anthelmintic for little additional cost. One visit should take place after the autumn kill of animals for winter consumption, and this is a good time to vaccinate animals born in the summer, and also all other animals while they are healthy and immunologically responsive. The other visit should take place in the spring, at which time animals born during winter can be vaccinated. Although a single immunization has been shown to induce a useful degree of protection, where possible it is best to give two initial injections, 1 month apart. If it is possible for veterinarians to stay in the field

  12. IL-4 gene expression in adventitial layer (fibrous layer) of hepatic ovine and bovine hydatid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosti, Zahra; Tolouei, Sepideh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Jafari, Rasool; Jafaee, Fereshteh; Sharafi, Seyedeh Marayam; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-09-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with cosmopolitan distribution caused by the tape worm Echinococcus granulosus. Fibrous layer is developed around the cyst as a host immune response reaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of IL-4 gene expression in fibrous layer of bovine and ovine hepatic hydatid cysts using quantitative technique of Real-Time PCR. In this descriptive study the samples of hydatid cyst fibrous layer were taken from 6 bovine and 6 ovine hepatic hydatid cysts. Samples of normal liver tissue close to the cyst were also taken as controls. Total RNA from each sample was extracted and then converted to cDNA. Afterward, the rate of IL-4 gene expression for each sample was evaluated using real-time PCR technique. Data were analyzed by REST software (version 2.0.13, 2009). In sheep the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 1.98 times more than the rate of IL4 gene expression in control samples, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.561). In cattle the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 9.84 times more than that of control samples which was statistically significant (P layer of bovine hydatid cyst, it can be concluded that this interleukin may play an important role in host parasite relationship.

  13. A Con A- purified hydatid glycoprotein fraction effectively diagnoses human hydatidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Manal M; Maher, Kesmat M; Rabia, Ibrahim; Helmy, Ahmed H; El-Adawi, Azza I; Mousa, Mousa A; Mahgoub, Abeer M

    2006-12-01

    Diagnosis and quantification of Echinococcus granulosus infection in man and animal hosts are centralized to feasible control. This study included 93 serum samples, 25 sure positive hydatid cases confirmed surgically, 7 suspected cases diagnosed by indirect haemagglutination IHA and 41 cases other parasitic infections (15 S. mansoni, 8 Fasciola, 7 Ascaris, 5 H. nana & 6 Ancylostoma) diagnosed by microscopic examination and were negative by ELISA and/or IHA for anti-hydatid antibody. Twenty negative serum samples served as healthy controls. Six types of hydatid fluid antigens (crude, host-free & Con-A purified) of human and camel origin were subjected to electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting (EITB). The anti-hydatid IgG was detected in sera of the different groups for evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of each type of antigens. Detection of circulating hydatid antigen (CAg) was performed using anti rabbit hyperimmune sera raised against Con-A purified either human or camel hydatid antigen. SDS-PAGE revealed several bands ranging from 55-185 kDa with 10 kDa band shared by all antigens. The specific bands revealed by EITB for Con-A purified camel and human antigens were at 80, 110 & 55, 110 kDa respectively. ELISA highest sensitivity (96.9%) was by using host-free Con-A purified glycoprotein fraction of human hydatid antigen. Highest specificity (98.4%) was recorded upon use of either Con-A purified camel or human antigen with 94.5% & 97.7% diagnostic efficacy respectively. Detection of circulating antigen by polyclonal antibodies against Con-A purified human hydatid antigen revealed 91.8% specificity.

  14. Agricultural pest control programmes, food security and safety | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural pest control programmes, food security and safety. ... of some of the pests to the chemical pesticides, coupled with potential health hazards on the ... or post harvest treatments and basic information regarding the individual farmer or ...

  15. Automated explosive pellet manufacturing using a PDP-14 programmable controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.O.

    1976-10-29

    A Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-14 Industrial Programmable Controller was employed to provide automatic, closed-loop control for an explosive pellet manufacturing system at Mound Laboratory. Programmable controllers allow the application of sophisticated and flexible control, through programming. Advantages of the PDP-14 controller are ease of installation and maintenance, capability for modular expansion, and immunity to electrical noise. Safety requirements were met by using new techniques for adapting electrical equipment to a hazardous environment and by locating the PDP-14 remotely outside the explosive area. Another advantage of the new explosion proofing (EP) methods/equipment was that they produced a minimum of clutter on the controlled explosive pellet manufacturing system.

  16. Hydatid Cyst of Ovary: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khosravi Maharlooei

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus is considered the major cause of humanhydatid cysts. Usually the duration of cyst formation is 10-20 years. This period shortens significantly upon rupture of aprimary cyst. The literature describes low incidence of primaryinvolvement of ovary as a site of hydatid cyst formation. Ourcase is the first report on ovarian hydatid cyst in Iran. A 60-year-old woman was presented with abdominal pain in the leftlower quadrant area. Paraclinical data were suggestive of neoplasiaand preoperative diagnosis was ovarian tumor. Duringlaparotomy, multiple cysts resembling hydatid cysts were observedin the left ovary. Pathological examination confirmed thediagnosis of hydatid cyst. Although there is a small possibilityof secondary ovarian echinococcal disease, it is more probablefor this case to be primary infection, as the patient had developedovarian hydatid cysts 15 years after hepatic involvementand recurrence after 30 months is very uncommon.

  17. A national programme for mastitis control in Australia: Countdown Downunder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brightling PB

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1998, Countdown Downunder, Australia's national mastitis and cell count control programme, was created. With funding from the country's leading dairy organisation, Dairy Australia, this programme was originally intended to run for three years but is now in its tenth year. As it was the first time Australia had attempted a national approach to mastitis control on the farm, the first three years of the programme were largely concerned with the development of resources to be used by farmers and service providers. The second three years were devoted to training with both groups. Since that time, Countdown Downunder has entered into a second resource development phase. The goal of the programme was to achieve a reduction in the bulk milk somatic cell count from the Australian dairy herd. To achieve this, the programme had to develop resources with clear and consistent messages around mastitis and somatic cell count control on farms. It was determined that progress toward the goals would be made more rapidly if service providers were trained in the use of these resources prior to farmers. This paper reviews the Countdown Downunder programme from 1998 to 2007.

  18. National infection prevention and control programmes: Endorsing quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempliuk, Valeska; Ramon-Pardo, Pilar; Holder, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    Core components Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition to pain and suffering, HAIs increase the cost of health care and generates indirect costs from loss of productivity for patients and society as a whole. Since 2005, the Pan American Health Organization has provided support to countries for the assessment of their capacities in infection prevention and control (IPC). More than 130 hospitals in 18 countries were found to have poor IPC programmes. However, in the midst of many competing health priorities, IPC programmes are not high on the agenda of ministries of health, and the sustainability of national programmes is not viewed as a key point in making health care systems more consistent and trustworthy. Comprehensive IPC programmes will enable countries to reduce the mobility, mortality and cost of HAIs and improve quality of care. This paper addresses the relevance of national infection prevention and control (NIPC) programmes in promoting, supporting and reinforcing IPC interventions at the level of hospitals. A strong commitment from national health authorities in support of national IPC programmes is crucial to obtaining a steady decrease of HAIs, lowering health costs due to HAIs and ensuring safer care.

  19. Programming Programmable Logic Controller. High-Technology Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Kevin

    This training module on programming programmable logic controllers (PLC) is part of the memory structure and programming unit used in a packaging systems equipment control course. In the course, students assemble, install, maintain, and repair industrial machinery used in industry. The module contains description, objectives, content outline,…

  20. An Unusual Case of Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Mirhoseini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis is a parasitic disease in all over the world which is caused by a Cestode (tape worm. Liver, lung, and brain are the most Common involved organs and involvement of muscles and bones is unusual. We report a 32years old man who had low back and radicular leg pain. He had a paravertebral mass with involvement of Spinal column. This patient was operated with differential diagnosis of tumor or hydatid cyst. The final diagnosis was hydatidosis of paravertebral muscles and vertebral column. Keywords: hydatidosis, p aravertebral muscle hydatid cyst, spinal column hydatid cyst

  1. Isolated Hydatid Cyst of Ankle: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuna Demirdal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst is a zoonotic infection usually caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatid cysts are most often localized in the liver and lungs. Isolated cases of hydatid cyst in soft tissue is very rare. The incidance of isolated soft tissue hydatid cyst is 2.3% in endemic areas. Medical treatment is successful in 30-40% of cases. The first choice of treatment is surgery, especially in atypical localization of hydatid cyst. We aimed to present our patient with ankle hydatid cyst, a rare case in the literature.

  2. PROGRAMME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MEASUREMENT OF SURVIVAL IN A PRIVATE. SECTOR HIV/AIDS DISEASE ... during the first 4 years of the programme was published in 2003.' The purpose of this ... that their scheme offers a Dl\\/IP, and must be willing to disclose their HlV ...

  3. Firmware Modification Analysis in Programmable Logic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University...controller ( PLC ). The Stuxnet worm, which became increasingly apparent in the summer of 2010, has shown that modifications to a SCADA system can be discovered

  4. Automatic Configuration of Programmable Logic Controller Emulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    PLCs ), which are used to control much of the world’s critical infrastructures, are highly vulnerable and exposed to the Internet. Many efforts have...scalable solution is needed in order to automatically configure PLC emula- tors. The ScriptGenE Framework presented in this thesis leverages several...techniques used in reverse engineering protocols in order to automatically configure PLC emula- tors using network traces. The accuracy, flexibility, and

  5. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described.

  6. Intraoral hydatid cyst: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kiran Alaparthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Hydatid" is a Greek word which means "a drop of water." Hydatid cysts occur in hydatid disease or echinococcosis, which is one of the most geographically prevalent zoonosis. This zoonotic infection in humans is mainly caused by infection by the larval stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. This tapeworm infestation is widespread in sheep, goats, cattle, and dogs. This chronic disease is present worldwide among herding populations who live in close proximity to dogs and herd animals. It is a serious and potentially fatal condition and symptoms may occur a long time after the early infection. The most frequently affected organs are liver, lungs, followed by bones and brain, and extremely unusual occurrence has been found in the oral cavity, which was noticed in the present case. So hereby, we reveal a very rare case of intraoral hydatid cyst in a 20-year-old female patient.

  7. Percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa N

    1999-10-01

    Hydatic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus is an endemic disease and an important public health problem in some countries of the world. The results of surgical treatment are associated with a high rate of mortality, morbidity, postoperative recurrence and a long period of hospital stay and the medical treatment results are still controversial. Although the percutaneous aspiration and treatment of liver hydatid cysts were considered to be contraindicated due to risks of anaphylactic shock and dissemination of clear-crystal fluid into the abdomen, several reports of successful percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts have been published in the literature. Today, percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts is the most effective and reliable treatment procedure in the selected cases. In this review, indications, contraindications, method and techniques, healing criteria, complications, results and importance of the percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts are discussed.

  8. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt blockage by hydatid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar A Wani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventriculoperitoneal (VP shunt is one of the commonest procedures done in neurosurgical practice throughout the world. One of the commonest problems after putting the VP shunt is the shunt obstruction, which can be due to varied causes. Shunt obstruction secondary to the parasitic infections is rarely seen. We are presenting a 15-year-old child, a case of operated cerebral hydatid cyst with hydrocephalus. She presented with shunt malfunction after 1 year of surgical excision of the hydatid cyst. Revision of the VP shunt was done and peroperatively, it was found that the shunt tubing was obstructed due to small hydatid cysts. This is the first reported case of VP shunt obstruction by hydatid cyst.

  9. Microprocessor-controlled, programmable ramp voltage generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopwood, J.

    1978-11-01

    A special-purpose voltage generator has been developed for driving the quadrupole mass filter of a residual gas analyzer. The generator is microprocessor-controlled with desired ramping parameters programmed by setting front-panel digital thumb switches. The start voltage, stop voltage, and time of each excursion are selectable. A maximum of five start-stop levels may be pre-selected for each program. The ramp voltage is 0 to 10 volts with sweep times from 0.1 to 999.99 seconds.

  10. Laparoscopic treatment for renal hydatid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, Redouane; Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; Essaki, Hicham; Fekak, Hamid; Joual, Abdenbi; Meziane, Fethi

    2006-03-01

    A multivesicular hydatid cyst was removed from the left kidney of a 26-year-old woman by retroperitoneal laparoscopy to avoid contamination of the abdominal cavity. A scolicidal agent (20% hypertonic saline) was injected around the kidney initially and then instilled into the cyst after the contents had been evacuated. There were no complications and no anaphylactic shock. This appears to be the first reported case of treatment of renal hydatid cyst by laparoscopy.

  11. Unusual imaging characteristics of complicated hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: ahmettuncayturgut@yahoo.com; Altin, Levent [Department of Radiology, Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Topcu, Salih [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey); Kilicoglu, Buelent [Department of 4th General Surgery, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Altinok, Tamer [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Kaptanoglu, Erkan [Department of Neurosurgery, Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Karademir, Alp [Department of Radiology, Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Kosar, Ugur [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-07-15

    Hydatid disease, a worldwide zoonosis, is caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. Although the liver and the lungs are the most frequently involved organs in the body, hydatid cysts of other organs are unusual. Radiologically, they usually demonstrate typical imaging findings, but unusual imaging characteristics of complicated cyst of hydatid disease, associated with high morbidity and mortality, are rarely described in the literature. The purpose of this study is to review the general features of hydatidosis and to discuss atypical imaging characteristics of the complicated hydatid disease in the human, with an emphasis on structure and rupture of the cystic lesion as well as ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the disease. In our study, the available literature and images of the cases with complicated hydatidosis involving liver, lung, brain, spine and orbit were reviewed retrospectively. In hydatid disease, there are many potential local and systemic complications due to secondary involvement in almost any anatomic location in humans. Radiologically, in addition to the presence of atypical findings such as perifocal edema, non-homogenous contrast enhancement, multiplicity or septations and calcification, various unusual manifestations due to rupture or infection of the cyst have been observed in our cases with complicated hydatid disease. To prevent subsequent acute catastrophic results and the development of recurrences in various organs, it should be kept in mind that complicated hydatid cysts can cause unusual USG, CT, and MRI findings, in addition to typical ones, in endemic areas. Therefore, familiarity with atypical radiological appearances of complicated hydatid disease may be valuable in making a correct diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Hydatid Disease Located in the Cerebellomedullary Cistern

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    Özgür Kızılca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is an endemic zoonotic disease in many areas of the world. Liver, followed by lung, is the most commonly affected organ and involvement of other organs is rare. When brain is involved, lesions are typically supratentorial, and infratentorial localisation is even rarer. We present a 45-year-old woman with hydatid disease located in premedullary location compressing the brain stem, an exceedingly rare location for cerebral echinococcosis. Relevant literature regarding typical properties of cerebral disease was reviewed.

  13. Radiation therapy for resistant sternal hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulger, S.; Barut, H.; Tunc, M.; Aydinkarahaliloglu, E. [Ataturk Chest Disease and Thorasic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Aydin, E.; Karaoglanoglu, N. [Ataturk Chest Disease and Thorasic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Thorasic Surgery; Gokcek, A. [Ataturk Chest Disease and Thorasic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2013-06-15

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infectious disease for which there are known treatment procedures and effective antibiotics; however, there are resistant cases that do not respond to medication or surgery. We report a case diagnosed as hydatid disease of the chest wall and treated with radiation therapy (RT) after medical and surgical therapy had failed. In conclusion, RT represents an alternative treatment modality in resistant cases. (orig.)

  14. Malaria and National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajni; Dutta, Ashok Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Malaria is a major vector borne disease in India with significant morbidity and mortality. The official figure of 1.5 million cases annually is a gross under-estimation of the true incidence and the actual figures are estimated to be 10-100 times higher. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) directorate is the main body responsible for malaria control in India. Newer strategies including insecticide treated bednets, longlasting insecticidal bednets and rapid diagnostic tests have been used for malaria control in the last decade. Global assistance has come from the World Bank and Global fund in the form of Enhanced Malaria Control Programme(EMCP) and Intensified Malaria Control Programme(IMCP) respectively. Despite years of concerted global and national efforts, control of malaria continues to be a challenge. The emergence of drug resistance to anti-malarial drugs has been a major hurdle in its control. The NVBDCP has formulated new treatment guidelines for malaria in 2010 which recommend artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line drugs for P. falciparum malaria in the country. The article discusses the recent national drug policy for malaria and the rationale for its use.

  15. Boiling sheep liver or lung for 30 minutes is necessary and sufficient to kill Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper disposal of carcasses and offal after home slaughter is difficult in poor and remote communities and therefore dogs readily have access to hydatid cysts containing offal from livestock, thus completing the parasite cycle of Echinococcus granulosus and putting communities at risk of cystic echinococcosis. Boiling livers and lungs which contain hydatid cysts could be a simple, efficient and energy- and time-saving way to kill the infectious protoscoleces. The aim of this study was to provide precise practical recommendations to livestock owners. Our results show that boiling the whole sheep liver and/or lung, with single or multiple hydatid cysts, for 30 min is necessary and sufficient to kill E. granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts. Advertising on this simple rule in at-risk communities would be an efficient and cheap complement to other veterinary public health operations to control cystic echinococcosis.

  16. [Pulmonary hydatid cyst: unusual double apical location. About a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajiai, Hafsa; Rachidi, Mariam; Aitbatahar, Salma; Serhane, Hind; Amro, Lamyae

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst (KH) is still endemic in several areas of Morocco. Pulmonary involvement is a consequence of liver disease. Hydatid cyst is characterized by diverse anatomical and clinical presentations and by the possibility of multiple locations within the lung parenchyma, predominantly involving pulmonary bases. We report the case of Mr J. M, 54 years old, admitted with suspected pulmonary hydatid cyst based on chest pain lasting for six months and an episode of hydatidoptysis. Chest x-ray objectified a double apical location suggesting different stages of evolution for pulmonary hydatid cyst. The diagnosis was confirmed by thoracic CTscan and hydatid serology. Multiple pulmonary hydatid cyst is not rare in areas in which hydatid disease is highly endemic. Our study reports an unusual double apical location of hydatid cyst at various stages of evolution.

  17. Power consumption of programmable controllers; Energieverbrauch von Prozesssteuerungen (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalcher, M.; Battaglia, U.; Busch, E.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy addresses the field of programmable logic controllers and thus investigates a topic that has been neglected up to now - the energy consumption of such controllers. The results of measurements made on programmable logic controllers in use both in operational industrial plants and in the Automation Laboratory at the University of Applied Science in Chur, Switzerland are presented, where a detailed analysis was made on a demonstration plant. Also, technical documentation (catalogues) were evaluated and discussed with experts who had practical experience at their disposal. The results of the study are discussed: these show that the power consumption of any particular programmable logic controller is low in comparison to the energy consumption of the processes that are being controlled. Additionally, it was found that the optimisation of newer devices has to a great extent already been realised and that standard solutions for energy optimisation are not easy to put into practice. It is suggested that savings can possibly be made in the controllers by improving the efficiency of their power supply units and by choosing power ratings to better suit the actual power needed.

  18. Echinococcus granulosus pig strain (G7 genotype) protoscoleces did not develop secondary hydatid cysts in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucher, M; Mourglia-Ettlin, G; Prada, L; Costa, H; Kamenetzky, L; Poncini, C; Dematteis, S; Rosenzvit, M C

    2013-03-31

    Echinococcus granulosus, the aetiological agent of cystic hydatid disease, exists as a series of strains or genotypes which differ in biological features. Pig strain (G7 genotype) has been shown to differ from sheep strain (G1 genotype) in phenotypical characters such as intermediate host range, geographical distribution and rate of development of the adult worm. Since in vivo studies of different parasite genotypes can provide insights into host-parasite relationship we analysed for the first time the behaviour of E. granulosus G7 genotype protoscoleces in the murine experimental model. Our results show that G7 protoscoleces were unable to establish a regular infection in mice in contrast to G1 protoscoleces which developed intraperitoneal hydatid cysts. This inability was observed in co-infection experiments, i.e. even in the presence of a controlled immune response that allows G1 genotype protoscoleces establishment. In addition, the implantation of in vitro obtained E. granulosus G7 genotype microcysts resulted in a low percentage of hydatid cysts establishment. These results show a difference in the biological ability of both E. granulosus strains to develop secondary hydatid cysts in mice. We suggest that the comparison of infective and non infective genotypes of E. granulosus in the experimental host can be regarded as a new model to study the mechanisms of infection of Echinococcus spp. This knowledge could provide helpful information for the development of therapies, drugs and/or vaccines against cystic hydatid disease.

  19. PRIMARY OMENTAL HYDATID CYST – A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst is caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus ( L arval form in humans with lesions most frequently encountered in the liver and lungs. It can rarely involve extra - hepatic organs. Primary omental hydatid cyst is rare entity. This report presents the interesting case of a very large primary omental hydatid cyst.

  20. Programmable Logic Controller Modification Attacks for use in Detection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    come to be known as the Stuxnet worm [15, 31]. This worm did not attack the PLC directly, but rather targeted the controlling HMI. Stuxnet was designed...programmable devices can be updated to close potential security holes , but also provide an attacker the means to upload malicious firmware to the device. The...that caused the worm to remain dormant if it was installed on a system that was not the intended target. Long et al. demonstrate the effects of network

  1. Fault tolerant programmable digital attitude control electronics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    The attitude control electronics mechanization study to develop a fault tolerant autonomous concept for a three axis system is reported. Programmable digital electronics are compared to general purpose digital computers. The requirements, constraints, and tradeoffs are discussed. It is concluded that: (1) general fault tolerance can be achieved relatively economically, (2) recovery times of less than one second can be obtained, (3) the number of faulty behavior patterns must be limited, and (4) adjoined processes are the best indicators of faulty operation.

  2. A Programmable Controller for Unified Management of Virtualized Network Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Yassin, Mohamad; GUILLOUARD, Karine; Ouzzif, Meryem; Picard, Roland; Aluze, Denis

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We are currently witnessing an evolution towards network virtualization and Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm. SDN permits the decoupling of the control and data planes of traditional networks, and offers flexible and programmable networks. Besides, the need for dynamic provisioning and composition of networking services leads to the deployment of software components on virtualized network infrastructures. In this paper, we propose a unified management of netw...

  3. Primary hydatid cyst in gastrocnemius muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswata Bharati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis, which is caused by the larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus, results from the presence of one or more massive cysts or hydatids, and can involve any organ, including the liver, lungs, heart, brain, kidneys, and long bones. Muscle hydatidosis is usually secondary in nature, resulting from spread of larval tissue from a primary site after spontaneous or trauma-induced cyst rupture or after release of viable parasite material during invasive treatment procedures. Primary muscle hydatidosis is extremely uncommon, because implantation at this site would require passage through the filters of the liver and lung. Intramuscular hydatid cyst can cause a variety of diagnostic problems, especially in the absence of typical radiologic findings. We present an unusual case of a primary hydatid cyst found in the popliteal fossa of the right knee of a 52-year-old woman, presenting as an enlarging soft-tissue tumor for 6 months associated with pain. The mass initially was diagnosed to be Backer′s cyst by ultrasonography, but later it was confirmed postoperatively through histopathological studies to be due to hydatid disease. In regions where hydatidosis is endemic, hydatid cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis of any unusual muscular mass.

  4. Renal injury due to hepatic hydatid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Mustafa; Unverdi, Selman; Altay, Fatma Aybala; Ceri, Mevlüt; Akay, Hatice; Ozer, Hüseyin; Kiraç, Halil; Denizli, Nazim; Yilmaz, Bilal; Güvence, Necmettin; Duranay, Murat

    2010-08-01

    Many studies on renal hydatid disease have been reported in the literature, and the disease process appears to be well defined. However, renal injury without direct renal invasion remains poorly understood. The present study aims to define the frequency and the property of the renal involvement in hydatid disease. Eighty patients older than 18 years and diagnosed with liver echinococcosis were included in the study. The echinococcosis was diagnosed by the haemagglutination test and abdominal ultrasonography. Twenty-four-hour protein excretion was measured for patients who had elevated serum creatinine levels or whose urinalyses were positive for haematuria or proteinuria. Subsequently, renal biopsy was performed, and the specimens were examined by light microscopy and immunofluorescence staining. Haematuria was detected in 11 patients (13.75%), and proteinuria was detected in nine patients (11.25%). Percutaneous renal biopsy was applied to nine patients who gave signed consents to undergo the test. We detected four immunoglobulin A nephritis (together with tubulointerstitial nephritis in one patient), one membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, one immunoglobulin M nephritis together with mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis, one membranous glomerulonephritis, one amyloidosis and one tubulointerstitial nephritis. Renal hydatid cyst was detected only in four patients (5%). Hydatid disease, which affects the kidney, is not rare, and we suggest that urinalysis and, if indicated, renal biopsy should be performed for hepatic hydatid disease diagnosis.

  5. Primary left ventricular hydatid cyst in a child: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkvatan, A. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Yelgec, N.S. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey); Calikoglu, U.; Olcer, T. [Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-12-01

    The most common cause of echinococcosis in humans is Echinococcus granulosus. Although hydatid cyst is most frequently localized in liver (more than 65% of cases) and lung (25%) by means of portal and systemic circulation, it may involve other tissues and organs. Cardiac hydatid cysts account for only 0.5%-2% of all hydatid cysts, even in endemic areas. Of all cardiac hydatid cysts, the left ventricle accounts for 60%, right ventricle 10%, pericardium 7%, pulmonary artery 6%, left atrial appendage 6%, and interventricular septum 4%. We report the case of a myocardial hydatid cyst of the left ventricle in a 9-year-old boy. (author)

  6. Hepatic hydatid cyst, laparoscopic management. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert William Campos-Guzmán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of male patient of 32 years old; with a history of thoracic surgery for hydatid cyst at 9 years of age; admission was at the general surgery Service of the Hospital II Lima Norte Callao Luis Negreiros Vega, with a history of illness of 1 year, referring abdominal pain oppressive predominance of the upper abdomen, especially on right upper quadrant. Refers concomitantly history of previous surgery in thoracic region and positive epidemiological history. After clinical evaluation by the staff of surgery, outpatient clinic and the observation and reporting of CT in which well-defined lesions in segment IV and V multicystic appearance and lesser sac showing peripheral enhancement it is observed after administration contrast; associated with positive Western Blot, surgical treatment is decided. Laparoscopic Surgery was performed consisting of cyst aspiration drainage and washing the interior with hipersodio (20% ClNa and placement of laminar drain was done. Presented a postoperative biliary fistula that was resolved in five weeks, beginning of oral tolerance on the first postoperative day and liver function controls within normal ranges discharge was performed four days after surgery.

  7. Primary hydatid disease in adductor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin; Memisoglu, Kaya; Tamer, Gulden Sonmez; Sarlak, Ahmet Yilmaz

    2008-10-01

    Primary muscular Echinococcus infection is very rare without involvement of thoracic and abdominal organs. In this case a 31-year-old man who had a growing mass in the postero-medial part of his right thigh was examined. The mass was diagnosed as hydatid cyst using ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and serological tests. It was removed surgically and there has been no recurrence one year after the surgery. The MRI imaging characteristics may differ depending on the life cycle stage of the parasite. In this case report, we discuss the imaging characteristics of the muscular hydatid cyst with special emphasis on the MRI findings. In regions where hydatidosis is endemic, a mass found in body muscles should be considered as a muscular hydatid cyst.

  8. Intraprostatic Hydatid Cyst: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Nouira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of intraprostatic cyst is reported. The patient presented with a completely evacuated hydatid cyst of the prostate. The intraprostatic cystic cavity that was communicating with the urethra developed urinary stones. The patient had transurethral resection of the prostate, the stones in the cyst were pushed into the bladder and fragmented using a ballistic lithotripter. Pathological examination concluded to a prostatic hydatid cyst that had evacuated through the urethra and was complicated by stone formation within the residual cavity. Postoperative course was uneventful and follow-up did not show evidence of recurrence. This is the first case of hydatid cyst of the prostate to present as an intraprostatic stone pouch.

  9. Platelet Parameters in Hepatic Hydatid Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic hydatid cyst infection is caused by microorganisms named Echinococcus which belong to family Taeniidae. Platelets are considered as a mediator in inflammation and infectious diseases because of the various proinflammatory substances that they contain. Design and Methods. Thirty-three patients who were admitted to Doğubayazıt State Hospital’s General Surgery Clinic with a diagnosis of hepatic cyst hydatid were enrolled in this retrospective study. Laboratory data of the patients in pre- and postoperative periods were obtained from computerized medical records database of the hospital. Results. Preoperative mean platelet volume (MPV of the patients was significantly increased compared to postoperative MPV values. Conclusion. We claim that MPV is a useful follow-up marker after surgery in patients with hydatid cyst.

  10. HYDATID CYST IN LUNG AND LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst is especially prevalent in parts of Eurasia, north and east Africa, Australia, South America. Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infection caused by adult or larval stages of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus and affects both humans and mammals. The infection is transmitted to dogs when they are fed on infected viscera of sheep or other ruminant during the home slaughter of animals. In the present case series four cases of hydatid cyst occurring at the lung and liver sites are discussed. The symptoms and signs may be caused by a toxic reaction to the parasite or by local and mechanical effects, depending on the location and nature of the cysts and the presence of complications. Early diagnosis and proper treatment will help to reduce the complication rate and prevent recurrence.

  11. A case of pulmonary hydatid cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Yong; Choi, Young Chill; Park, Cheol Min; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Chung, Kyu Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm genus Echinococcus. In man, the two main forms are due to E. granulosus and, lee frequently, E. multilocularis. Man becomes infected by contact with a definite host or by consuming contaminated water or vegetable. Hydatid disease is prevalent throughout much of the world such as the middle east, eastern Australia, central Europe, south America, Alaska, but it is very rare in Korea. We experienced one case of pulmonary hydatid disease. Chest films revealed ovoid mass in the left lower lobe and seen as unilocular water-density cystic lesion on chest CT, which was removed surgically, and then the pathology confirmed the diagnosis.

  12. Primary Cerebral Hydatid Cyst: Two Cases Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Nejat

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cerebral hydatid disease (CHD is a rare manifestation of echinococcosis but it constitutes a significant fraction of all intracranial mass lesions. In this paper we have reported two children with primary CHD without associated extracranial lesions.Case Presentation: Two cases of isolated cerebral hydatid disease are described. They were 7- and 10-year old children referred with focal neurological deficits and intracranial hypertension. Extensive extracranial investigations were negative. The literature concerning isolated cerebral hydatid disease is reviewed, and possible mechanisms by which the disease can be limited to brain, are discussed.Conclusion: Isolated CHD can occur with different mechanisms. Lack of effective immune system in the brain, the special architecture of brain tissue permitting rapid growth of cyst, patent ductus arteriosus, and patent foramen ovale, have been the proposed factors, but none of them has been proved yet.

  13. A programmable metasurface with dynamic polarization, scattering and focusing control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanhuan; Cao, Xiangyu; Yang, Fan; Gao, Jun; Xu, Shenheng; Li, Maokun; Chen, Xibi; Zhao, Yi; Zheng, Yuejun; Li, Sijia

    2016-10-01

    Diverse electromagnetic (EM) responses of a programmable metasurface with a relatively large scale have been investigated, where multiple functionalities are obtained on the same surface. The unit cell in the metasurface is integrated with one PIN diode, and thus a binary coded phase is realized for a single polarization. Exploiting this anisotropic characteristic, reconfigurable polarization conversion is presented first. Then the dynamic scattering performance for two kinds of sources, i.e. a plane wave and a point source, is carefully elaborated. To tailor the scattering properties, genetic algorithm, normally based on binary coding, is coupled with the scattering pattern analysis to optimize the coding matrix. Besides, inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) technique is also introduced to expedite the optimization process of a large metasurface. Since the coding control of each unit cell allows a local and direct modulation of EM wave, various EM phenomena including anomalous reflection, diffusion, beam steering and beam forming are successfully demonstrated by both simulations and experiments. It is worthwhile to point out that a real-time switch among these functionalities is also achieved by using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). All the results suggest that the proposed programmable metasurface has great potentials for future applications.

  14. Spillage-free laparoscopic management of hepatic hydatid disease using the hydatid trocar canula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpesh Jani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was undertaken to demonstrate the efficacy of the Hydatid Trocar Canula system for safe and effective treatment of hepatic hydatid cysts. Materials And Methods: All cases presenting to our centre for treatment of hydatid cyst of the liver with certain exceptions were considered for laparoscopic management using the specifi cally designed Hydatid Trocar Canula system. The technique of surgery and the step wise sequence of deployment of the device are described. Results: Since January 2007, 16 patients compromising six males and 10 females underwent this procedure at our centre. The average age of the patients was 37.6 years and all of them had a single cyst. The average duration of surgery was 86 minutes. None of the cases suffered intraoperative mishap like spillage or anaphylaxis. Till date, follow-up has been maintained in 81.3% of the patients and no recurrence has been detected. Conclusion: The correct use of the Hydatid Trocar Canula system allows for spillage-free and complete evacuation of hepatic hydatid cysts.

  15. Management of Industrial Processes with Programmable Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Tufoi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In a modern economy, automation (the control is primarily to raise the competitiveness of a product, either directly through price or quality, or indirectly through the improvement of working conditions of staff productive. The control of industrial processes involves the management of dynamic systems that have continuous states. These systems are described by differential equations and, in general, analog inputs and outputs. Management of these systems is achieved, in general, with classical automation, by automation or with analog computers which contains modules with input / output analog performance. If states, inputs and outputs of a system can be modeled using binary variables, then these systems can be driven with Programmable Logic Controller.

  16. Implementation of Adaptive Digital Controllers on Programmable Logic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; King, Kenneth D.; Smith, Keary J.; Monenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much has been made of the capabilities of FPGA's (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the hardware implementation of fast digital signal processing. Such capability also makes an FPGA a suitable platform for the digital implementation of closed loop controllers. Other researchers have implemented a variety of closed-loop digital controllers on FPGA's. Some of these controllers include the widely used proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, state space controllers, neural network and fuzzy logic based controllers. There are myriad advantages to utilizing an FPGA for discrete-time control functions which include the capability for reconfiguration when SRAM-based FPGA's are employed, fast parallel implementation of multiple control loops and implementations that can meet space level radiation tolerance requirements in a compact form-factor. Generally, a software implementation on a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) or microcontroller is used to implement digital controllers. At Marshall Space Flight Center, the Control Electronics Group has been studying adaptive discrete-time control of motor driven actuator systems using digital signal processor (DSP) devices. While small form factor, commercial DSP devices are now available with event capture, data conversion, pulse width modulated (PWM) outputs and communication peripherals, these devices are not currently available in designs and packages which meet space level radiation requirements. In general, very few DSP devices are produced that are designed to meet any level of radiation tolerance or hardness. The goal of this effort is to create a fully digital, flight ready controller design that utilizes an FPGA for implementation of signal conditioning for control feedback signals, generation of commands to the controlled system, and hardware insertion of adaptive control algorithm approaches. An alternative is required for compact implementation of such functionality to withstand the harsh environment

  17. Implementation of motor speed control using PID control in programmable logic controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samin, R. E.; Azmi, N. A.; Ahmad, M. A.; Ghazali, M. R.; Zawawi, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the implementation of motor speed control using Proportional Integral Derrivative (PID) controller using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). Proportional Integral Derrivative (PID) controller is the technique used to actively control the speed of the motor. An AC motor is used in the research together with the PLC, encoder and Proface touch screen. The model of the PLC that has been used in this project is OMRON CJIG-CPU42P where this PLC has a build in loop control that can be made the ladder diagram quite simple using function block in CX-process tools. A complete experimental analysis of the technique in terms of system response is presented. Comparative assessment of the impact of Proportional, Integral and Derivative in the controller on the system performance is presented and discussed.

  18. Methods to sustain drug efficacy in helminth control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albonico, M

    2003-05-01

    Assessment of the efficacy of anthelminthic treatment in public health is a broad concept, which goes beyond parasitological methods and should be clearly defined according to several indicators of morbidity. Several factors may influence the efficacy of anthelminthic drugs. The quality of drug is an issue of great importance, especially when produced locally as a generic product and used in large-scale chemotherapy-based control programmes. Other factors include the drug-patient interaction, the host-parasite relationship, the diagnostic method used, genetic variations between parasite strains and induced drug resistance. Veterinary scientists have warned that drug resistance can be selected through frequent mass treatment of sheep and goats and have developed a body of knowledge on evaluation of efficacy and detection of resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. In soil-transmitted nematodes infections of humans, the egg reduction rate (ERR), the egg hatch assay (EHA) and novel molecular biological techniques may be used to monitor drug efficacy in helminth control programmes and to detect early occurrence of resistance. Evidence of reduced drug efficacy of some anthelminthics has been suggested by recent studies and strategies to prevent or delay the emergence of drug resistance in human soil-transmitted nematodes.

  19. Isolated Retroperitoneal Hydatid Cyst Invading Splenic Hilum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hydatid disease (HD is an infestation that is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. The liver is affected in approximately two-thirds of patients, the lungs in 25%, and other organs in a small proportion. Primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst is extremely rare. The most common complaint is abdominal pain; however, the clinical features of HD may be generally dependent on the location of the cyst. Case Presentation. A 43-year-old female was admitted with the complaint of abdominal pain. Her physical examination was normal. Computed tomography (CT revealed a 17 × 11 cm cystic lesion, with a thick and smooth wall that is located among the left liver lobe, diaphragm, spleen, tail of the pancreas, and transverse colon and invading the splenic hilum. Total cystectomy and splenectomy were performed. Pathological examination was reported as cyst hydatid. Discussion. Cysts in the peritoneal cavity are mainly the result of the spontaneous or traumatic rupture of concomitant hepatic cysts or surgical inoculation of a hepatic cyst. Serological tests contribute to diagnosis. In symptomatic and large hydatid peritoneal cysts, surgical resection is the only curative treatment. Total cystectomy is the gold standard. Albendazole or praziquantel is indicated for inoperable and disseminated cases. Percutaneous aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR technique is another nonsurgical option.

  20. Penetration of albendazole sulphoxide into hydatid cysts.

    OpenAIRE

    D. L. Morris; Chinnery, J B; Georgiou, G.; Stamatakis, G; Golematis, B.

    1987-01-01

    The penetration of albendazole sulphoxide, the principal metabolite of albendazole into hydatid cysts (E granulosus) was measured by means of in vitro animal and clinical studies. The drug freely diffuses across the parasitic membranes. Cyst/serum concentrations of 22% were achieved in patients, longer pre-operative therapy produced higher concentrations.

  1. [Health locus of control of patients in disease management programmes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, M; Grikscheit, F

    2013-06-01

    Health locus of control beliefs plays a major role in improving self-management skills of the chronically ill - a main goal in disease management programmes (DMP). This study aims at characterising participants in disease management regarding their health locus of control. Data are based on 4 cross-sectional postal surveys between spring and autumn of 2006 and 2007 within the Health Care Monitor of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Among the 6 285 respondents, 1 266 are chronically ill and not enrolled in a DMP and 327 are participating in a DMP. A high internal locus of control (HLC) occurs significantly less often in DMP patients than in normal chronically ill patients (and healthy people) controlling for age, gender and social class. With increasing age, a high internal locus of control is also significantly less likely. When comparing healthy people, the chronically ill and the DMP participants a social gradient of a high internal locus of control belief can be observed. The weaker internal and higher doctor-related external locus of control of DMP participants should be carefully observed by the physician when trying to strengthen the patients' self-management skills. Evaluators of DMP should take into account the different baselines of DMP patients and relevant control groups and incorporate these differences into the evaluation.

  2. Programmable logic controller based synchronous motor excitation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janda Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a 3.5 MW synchronous motor excitation system reconstruction. In the proposed solution programmable logic controller is used to control motor, which drives the turbo compressor. Comparing to some other solutions that are used in similar situations, the proposed solution is superior due to its flexibility and usage of mass-production hardware. Moreover, the implementation of PLC enables easy integration of the excitation system with the other technological processes in the plant as well as in the voltage regulation of 'smart grid' system. Also, implementation of various optimization algorithms can be done comfortably and it does not require additional investment in hardware. Some experimental results that depict excitation current during motor start-up, as well as, measured static characteristics of the motor, were presented.

  3. Evaluation of tuberculosis control programme in Khartoum State for the year 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed Suleiman, M M; Aro, Arja R.; Sodemann, M

    2009-01-01

    , however, the programme has never been adequately assessed. AIM: To evaluate and describe the tuberculosis control programme in Khartoum State, Sudan in 2006; to find out if the programme achieved its global targeted goals; and to identify the challenges and needs for performing a good standard...

  4. Hydatid Cyst Protoscolices Induce Cell Death in WEHI-164 Fibrosarcoma Cells and Inhibit the Proliferation of Baby Hamster Kidney Fibroblasts In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Yousofi Darani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Both in vitro and in vivo models have demonstrated that some parasites can interfere with tumor cell growth. The present study investigates the anticancer activity of hydatid cyst protoscolices on WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells and baby hamster kidney (BHK fibroblast cells in vitro. Those above two cell types were treated with live hydatid cyst protoscolices or left untreated for control groups. After 48 h, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and cell counts were assayed for both treated cells and control groups. Following treatment with hydatid cyst protoscolices, cell proliferation of both cell types was inhibited, and lysis of fibrosarcoma cells increased. Based on these results, it appears that hydatid cyst protoscolices have strong anticancer activity, and additional studies are needed to further clarify the mechanisms of this activity.

  5. Cerebral hydatid disease: Is it primary or secondary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onteddu Joji Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is a serious medical problem in Mediterranean and particularly among sheep farming countries, caused by larval stages of dog tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus. Hydatid cysts may affect every organ in the human body; however, multiple organ involvement (spleen, adrenal gland, heart, pericardium, intravascular growth of hydatids and brain without affecting the two major filters in the body liver and the lung was very rare. In this case, myocardial hydatid cyst is considered as primary and involvement of other organs such as brain, spleen, adrenal glands, and vascular involvement are considered as secondary involvement due to the rupture of hydatid in heart. Rarity of this atypical presentation of hydatid disease leads to this case report.

  6. Cost effectiveness of Aedes aegypti control programmes: participatory versus vertical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baly, A; Toledo, M E; Boelaert, M; Reyes, A; Vanlerberghe, V; Ceballos, E; Carvajal, M; Maso, R; La Rosa, M; Denis, O; Van der Stuyft, P

    2007-06-01

    We conducted an economic appraisal of two strategies for Aedes aegypti control: a vertical versus a community-based approach. Costs were calculated for the period 2000-2002 in three pilot areas of Santiago de Cuba where a community intervention was implemented and compared with three control areas with routine vertical programme activities. Reduction in A. aegypti foci was chosen as the measure of effectiveness. The pre-intervention number of foci (614 vs. 632) and economical costs for vector control (US$243746 vs. US$263486) were comparable in the intervention and control areas. During the intervention period (2001-2002), a 13% decrease in recurrent costs for the health system was observed. Within the control areas, these recurrent relative costs remained stable. The number of A. aegypti foci in the pilot areas and the control areas fell by 459 and 467, respectively. The community-based approach was more cost effective from a health system perspective (US$964 vs. US$1406 per focus) as well as from society perspective (US$1508 vs. US$1767 per focus).

  7. Hydatid cyst-colonic fistula: an exceptional complication

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a worldwide zoonosis and is localized in the liver in most cases. Its complications are numerous and include those related to the compression of adjacent viscera, infection of the cysts contents or perforation of the cyst. Spontaneous rupture of the hepatic hydatid cyst into colon is an extremely rare complication. The communication is, typically, not discovered until surgery. We present a case of a liver hydatid cyst communicating with the hepatic flexure of colon. The sur...

  8. Primary Hydatid Cyst of The Breast: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Farrokh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Cystic hydatid disease is caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. The breast is a rare primary site of hydatid disease that accounts for only 0.27% of all cases. The cyst is usually asymptomatic and should be included under differential diagnosis of a breast lump, especially in endemic areas of this disease. Herein, we described the biopsy-proven case of a 46-year-old woman with primary hydatid disease of left breast.

  9. Ultrasound, CT and MRI of ruptured and disseminated hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Department of Radiology)

    Three cases of echinococcus granulosus with rupture of hydatid cysts and widespread abdominal, pelvic of pleural dissemination are described. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed recognition of ruptured hydatid cysts. This assisted to come to an appropriate therapy and exclusion or confirmation of hydatid cysts elsewhere in the body. Ultrasound, CT and MRI are also important for follow-up, evaluation of therapeutic response and/or early diagnosis of recurrence. (author). 22 refs.; 3 figs.

  10. A case of primary osseous pelvic hydatid disease (echinococcus granulosus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-07-01

    Primary bone involvement in hydatid disease (HD) is rare. Sporadic reports estimate its prevalence to 1%. Only a few cases have been reported where CT has been used. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of primary pelvic skeletal hydatid disease has, to my best knowledge, previously not been published. This report deals with a case of primary hydatid disease of the right ilium and the sacrum examined by plain film radiography. CT and MRI confirmed by pathology. (orig.).

  11. Predisposing factors and surgical outcome of complicated liver hydatid cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alper; Akcan; Erdogan; Sozuer; Hizir; Akyildiz; Zeki; Yilmaz; Ahmet; Ozturk; Altay; Atalay

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the predisposing factors for peritoneal perforation and intrabiliary rupture and the effects of these complications on surgical outcome in liver hydatid disease.METHODS: A total of 372 patients with liver hydatid cysts who had undergone surgical treatment were evaluated retrospectively. Twenty eight patients with peritoneal perforation, 93 patients with spontaneous intrabiliary perforation, and 251 patients with noncomplicated hydatid cysts were treated in our clinics.RESULTS: When the pred...

  12. “Primary Omental Hydatid Cyst”: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Sable

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst is caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus commonly seen in temperate regions. Primary omental hydatid cyst is rare entity. Diagnosis can be achieved with contrast-enhanced computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis along with serology. Eosinophilia is a strong pointer to hydatid cyst as a differential diagnosis. Open or laparoscopic excision of the cyst along with medical therapy remains the treatment of choice.

  13. Toward Automating Web Protocol Configuration for a Programmable Logic Controller Emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    programmable logic controller RTU remote terminal unit SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition SUT system under test TTL time to live VM virtual...Date 29 May 2014 Date AFIT-ENG-T-14-J-4 Abstract Industrial Control Systems (ICS) remain vulnerable through attack vectors that exist within programmable...5 2.2 Industrial Control Systems

  14. Isolated renal hydatid cyst managed by laparoscopic transperitoneal nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik J Shah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is a cyclozoonotic parasitic infestation caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Isolated renal involvement is extremely rare. A 45-year-old female, working as a farmer, presented with vague abdominal pain and hydatiduria. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed hydatid cyst arising from the right kidney. Computerized tomography scan of the abdomen confirmed the findings. Laparoscopic transperitoneal nephrectomy was performed. Isolated right renal hydatid cyst was removed in toto. Microscopic examination confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. Transperitoneal laparoscopic approach gives a better working space which helped us to remain outside Gerota′s fascia and prevent subsequent cyst rupture.

  15. Cardiac Hydatid Cyst: An Unusual Cause of Chest Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esref Tuncer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by larvae of Echinococcus granulosus. Cardiac involvement in hydatid disease is uncommon, constituting only 0.5 - 2% of all cases of hydatidosis. Most patients with cardiac echinococcosis are asymptomatic, and the disease is often latent because a hydatid cyst in the heart grows very slowly. Only approximately 10 % of patients, especially those with large hydatid cysts, have clinical manifestations. Precordial pain is the one of the common symptoms and is most often vague and does not resemble angina pectoris.

  16. Hydatid Cyst of Right Atrium: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maral Mokhtari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatid cyst is rare and usually occurs in the setting of disseminated disease. Herein, we reported a case of isolated right atrial hydatid cyst misdiagnosed clinically as a tumor. A 65-year-old woman diagnosed as having large right atrial mass suspected of malignancy underwent resection of the cardiac mass. Histopathological examination showed laminated membrane and protoscolices of Echinococcus Granulosus. However, all other work-ups failed to document systemic diseases. Therefore, isolated cardiac hydatid cyst was diagnosed. Hydatid cysts should be considered in differential diagnosis of any cardiac mass, especially in endemic areas.

  17. The programmable (logic) controller: Adapting in an environment of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, P.S. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    Reports of the imminent death of the PLC (programmable logic controller) were greatly exaggerated, to paraphrase Mark Twain. In fact, the PLC is not only alive and working worldwide in thousands of applications, but it is also integrating well with related technologies. Long-term survival is a larger question - probably unanswerable given the pace of technological change. However, a few questions arise about the PLC today and in the immediate future: (1) What`s happening with programming languages? (2) Will there continue to be a {open_quotes}blurring of the lines{close_quotes} between the PLC and other technologies, and what role will software play in this integration? (3) How will the PLC`s cost and size affect the market?

  18. Remote Control Laboratory Using EJS Applets and TwinCAT Programmable Logic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada-Portas, E.; Lopez-Orozco, J. A.; de la Torre, L.; de la Cruz, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology to develop remote laboratories for systems engineering and automation control courses, based on the combined use of TwinCAT, a laboratory Java server application, and Easy Java Simulations (EJS). The TwinCAT system is used to close the control loop for the selected plants by means of programmable logic…

  19. Development and testing of the Junkeeper Control Corporation integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronics package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Additional developmental work on the existing programmable electronic controller and hydronic package for use with solar heating and cooling systems is summarized. The controller/hydronics subsystems passed all acceptance tests and performance criteria. The subsystems were shown marketable for public use.

  20. Programmable logic controller optical fibre sensor interface module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Gary; Wild, Graham; Hinckley, Steven

    2011-12-01

    Most automated industrial processes use Distributed Control Systems (DCSs) or Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for automated control. PLCs tend to be more common as they have much of the functionality of DCSs, although they are generally cheaper to install and maintain. PLCs in conjunction with a human machine interface form the basis of Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, combined with communication infrastructure and Remote Terminal Units (RTUs). RTU's basically convert different sensor measurands in to digital data that is sent back to the PLC or supervisory system. Optical fibre sensors are becoming more common in industrial processes because of their many advantageous properties. Being small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and immune to electromagnetic interference, means they are an ideal solution for a variety of diverse sensing applications. Here, we have developed a PLC Optical Fibre Sensor Interface Module (OFSIM), in which an optical fibre is connected directly to the OFSIM located next to the PLC. The embedded fibre Bragg grating sensors, are highly sensitive and can detect a number of different measurands such as temperature, pressure and strain without the need for a power supply.

  1. A 10-year retrospective study on hydatid disease in Jordan with emphasis on the role of imaging in its diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Radaideh Ali M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the burden of hydatid disease (HD on Jordanian population during the past 10 years and highlight the most commonly used imaging modalities for its diagnosis. Materials and methods: Information of 217 HD patients including age, gender, address, organ involved, number and size of hydatid cysts, radiological and histopathological results were recorded from registry offices of four main Jordanian hospitals after receiving the required approvals. Results: The highest number of HD cases was recorded from the central provinces of Jordan; however, most cases were reported from Al-Mafraq governorate. Ultrasound (US was the most widely used diagnostic tool for HD. The liver was the most affected organ with HD and the age of most of the inspected patients was in the 3rd, 4th, and 5th decades. Single cyst per organ was recorded in 138 of the cases and large hydatid cysts (>5 cm were observed in 48 cases. Conclusions: Besides the awareness and control measures which are implemented by the Ministry of Health in Jordan to eradicate HD, results of the present study indicated that HD is still regarded as an important public health problem in the country. Imaging plays an essential role in the initial diagnosis of HD but not the classification of the disease. However, the definitive diagnosis is achieved after the surgical removal of hydatid cysts and the confirmation of the presence of the hydatid cyst layers is tested by histopathological techniques. Currently, surgery remains the only available treatment approach for HD in Jordan.

  2. Prosthetic arm monitoring system using a programmable interface controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaro, B A; Schoenberg, J S; Self, B P; Bagley, A

    2001-01-01

    Children with upper extremity limb deficiency are often prescribed a prosthetic arm to assist with daily function. Three types of prostheses are available: passive, active body-powered, and active myoelectric; costs range from $3,000 to $15,000. Clinicians rely on parent and child feedback regarding the usefulness of the prosthesis, and may assess the child's skill in using the device in a controlled setting. However, these methods do not provide an objective quantification of the wear and use of the device during daily activities. The purpose of this project is to develop a sensor to record the amount of time per day the prosthetic arm is worn, and to count the number of times per day the child activates (closes) the prosthetic hand (or terminal device). The system that has been developed can be integrated unobtrusively into a child's prosthetic arm. A programmable interface controller (PIC) with interface circuitry and memory was developed to record the daily wear pattern and hand usage of the prosthesis at 15-minute intervals. Memory and battery capacities are sufficient to record data over a three-month period. A personal computer interface downloads the collected data and may be used to reprogram the device for different time periods of data collection. All components, including the battery, have a mass of 87 grams and fit inside the forearm cavity of a 9-year old's prosthesis. Controlled trials are underway at Shriners Hospital for Children, Northern California, to determine system reliability.

  3. Unexplainable development of a hydatid cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio Di Cataldo; Rosalia Latino; Aldo Cocuzza; Giovanni Li Destri

    2009-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a cyclozoonosis characterized by cystic lesions usually situated inside or outside the liver. We discuss the case of a 77-year-old woman with a recurrent hydatidosis with a cyst arising from the liver, growing through the lateral right abdomen wall, and reaching the subcutaneous tissue of the lumbar region. In the literature, rare subcutaneous or muscular localizations of hydatid cysts are described, however, there is no mention of a cyst growing over the abdominal wall muscles, shaped like an hourglass, partially in the liver and partially in the subcutaneous tissue, as in our case.We have not found any pathogenetic explanation for this growth pattern which is not typical of the biological behaviour of a hydatid cyst.

  4. Unexplainable development of a hydatid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cataldo, Antonio; Latino, Rosalia; Cocuzza, Aldo; Li Destri, Giovanni

    2009-07-14

    Echinococcosis is a cyclozoonosis characterized by cystic lesions usually situated inside or outside the liver. We discuss the case of a 77-year-old woman with a recurrent hydatidosis with a cyst arising from the liver, growing through the lateral right abdomen wall, and reaching the subcutaneous tissue of the lumbar region. In the literature, rare subcutaneous or muscular localizations of hydatid cysts are described, however, there is no mention of a cyst growing over the abdominal wall muscles, shaped like an hourglass, partially in the liver and partially in the subcutaneous tissue, as in our case. We have not found any pathogenetic explanation for this growth pattern which is not typical of the biological behaviour of a hydatid cyst.

  5. Intraventricular hydatid cyst in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath Sulata

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by the infestation of the larvae of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The definitive hosts of Echinococcus are various carnivores, the common being the dog. All mammals (more often sheep and cattle are intermediate hosts. Humans get infected through the feco-oral route by ingestion of food or milk contaminated by dog feces containing ova of the parasite or by direct contact with dogs. The most common sites of infestation are the liver (75% and lungs (15%. Various authors state a frequency of hydatidosis of the brain ranging between only 0.2-4% of cases. [1],[2],[3] The prognosis following surgical intervention is good, especially in pediatric age. [2],[3] Hence early diagnosis of this condition is crucial. We report a rare case of a child with a large intraventricular hydatid cyst that had an excellent recovery following surgery.

  6. Surgical management of hepatic hydatid disease

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Hydatidosis is strictly a zoonosis. Humans are an accidental host. The disease is endemic in rural agricultural areas. However if acquired by humans, it can cause extensive spread affecting a wide range of organs with predilection for the liver. Managing such cases requires a sound fundamental knowledge of the parasite and its pathogenicity. It is essential that surgeons who deal with such cases have a good working knowledge of the disease. The approaches to hepatic hydatids with respect to t...

  7. Cutaneous fistulization of the hydatid disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahce, Zeynep Sener; Akbulut, Sami; Aday, Ulas; Demircan, Firat; Senol, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To provide an overview of the medical literature on cutaneous fistulization in patients with hydatid disease (HD). Methods: According to PRISMA guidelines a literature search was made in PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Google databases were searched using keywords to identify articles related to cutaneous fistulization of the HD. Keywords used were hydatid disease, hydatid cyst, cutaneous fistulization, cysto-cutaneous fistulization, external rupture, and external fistulization. The literature search included case reports, review articles, original articles, and meeting presentations published until July 2016 without restrictions on language, journal, or country. Articles and abstracts containing adequate information, such as age, sex, cyst size, cyst location, clinical presentation, fistula opening location, and management, were included in the study, whereas articles with insufficient clinical and demographic data were excluded. We also present a new case of cysto-cutaneous fistulization of a liver hydatid cyst. Results: The literature review included 38 articles (32 full text, 2 abstracts, and 4 unavailable) on cutaneous fistulization in patients with HD. Among the 38 articles included in the study, 22 were written in English, 13 in French, 1 in German, 1 in Italian, and 1 in Spanish. Forty patients (21 males and 19 females; mean age ± standard deviation, 54.0 ± 21.5 years; range, 7–93 years) were involved in the study. Twenty-four patients had cysto-cutaneous fistulization (Echinococcus granulosus); 10 had cutaneous fistulization (E multilocularis), 3 had cysto-cutaneo-bronchio-biliary fistulization, 2 had cysto-cutaneo-bronchial fistulization; and 1 had cutaneo-bronchial fistulization (E multilocularis). Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed with E granulosis and 11 had E multilocularis detected by clinical, radiological, and/or histopathological examinations. Conclusion: Cutaneous fistulization is a rare complication of HD

  8. Case report of lung hydatid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Emami ardestani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hydatid cyst caused by the larval stage of echinococus parasit manifests in a variety of features from asymptomatic to symptoms including chronic cough,pleuritis,chest pain and hemoptysis due to cyst rupture into bronchus.some radiologic paterns has been described for it.the case we present it here is an unusual case regarding its patern of pulmonary involvement radiologically.

  9. Subdural hydatid cyst presenting as recurrent subdural hygroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Abrar A.; Ramzan, Altaf U.; Nizami, Furqan A.; Malik, Nayil K.; Dar, Bashir; Kumar, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial hydatid disease is an uncommon entity that usually is parenchymal in location. Presence of hydatid cyst in subdural location is being reported for the first time in the literature. A 13-year-old female child with the diagnosis of hydatid disease of brain was operated. She was advised to take albendazole which she did not take. In postoperative period she developed recurrent subdural hygroma for which multiple surgical interventions were done and finally cause of recurrent subdural hygroma was found to be hydatid cyst in the subdural space. The patient had initially undergone craniotomy for the excision of hydatid cyst. Later on she developed subdural hygroma for which the burr hole drainage was done twice. At time of third recurrence subduro-peritoneal (SDP) shunt was done. When she had recurrence again along with hydrocephalus, than VP shunt and revision of the SDP shunt was planned. While doing revision of SDP shunt, hydatid cyst was seen emerging from the burr hole site. A craniotomy was done to remove the hydatid cyst from the subdural space. Since then there has been no recurrent collection. Complete surgical excision is the best treatment modality to treat hydatid cyst of brain. Accidental spillage of the contents can have lead to recurrence, so every effort must be taken to prevent spillage of contents. Postoperatively all the patients must be put on antihelminthics. PMID:27366285

  10. Spontaneous rupture of hydatid cyst due to strain-defecation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koray Daş; Selim Sözen; Abdurrahman Selçuk Uzun; Ebru Menekşe; Faruk Karateke; Ilhan Bali

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of strain-induced spontaneous rupture of hydatid cyst. Hydatid cyst rupture was diagnosed in a 19-year-old girl who presented with swelling and pain in the the right upper quadrant of sudden onset after straining for defecation.

  11. Primary intramuscular hydatid cyst: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankappa P Sinhasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease has a worldwide distribution and causes health problems in endemic countries. The prevalence of primary muscular hydatid disease is reported to be only 0.5% because muscle is an unfavorable site for infestation as a result of its high levels of lactic acid. Primary intramuscular hydatid cyst presents a diagnostic problem not only because of the unusual location and low prevalence, but also because complicated cysts may imitate solid or complex lesions. We report an unusual case of primary hydatidosis of the calf muscles, in which a wide excision was performed without causing any damage to the cyst wall. Injudicious approach in the management of these rare presentations may be the root cause of severe anaphylactic shock and systemic dissemination. Intramuscular hydatid cysts grow gradually and may mimic a soft tissue tumor; thus, the diagnosis of soft-tissue hydatid cysts needs a high index of suspicion.

  12. Local complications of hydatid disease involving thoracic cavity: Imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut, A.T. [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ahmettuncayturgut@yahoo.com; Altinok, T. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Topcu, S. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey); Kosar, U. [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    Hydatid disease, a worldwide zoonosis, is caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. Although it can involve almost every organ of the body, lung involvement follows in frequency the hepatic infestation in adults and is the predominating site in children. Radiologically, hydatidosis usually demonstrates typical findings, but many patients are at risk of developing various complications of hydatid disease with atypical imaging findings and these are rarely described in the literature. In this pictorial review, the imaging features of local complications of hydatid disease involving the thorax including intrapulmonary or pleural rupture, infection of the ruptured cysts, reactions of the adjacent tissues, thoracic wall invasion and iatrogenic involvement of pleura are described. Additionally, imaging characteristics of transdiaphragmatic thoracic involvement of hepatic hydatid disease are presented. To prevent the development of subsequent catastrophic results, all radiologists need to be aware of the atypical imaging appearances of complications of pulmonary hydatid disease.

  13. Polyarthritis associated with hydatid disease of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawdha Tekaya

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical presentation of hydatid disease is depending on immunological background of the patient. Articular site of the parasite can give rise either to a veritable echinococcal arthritis or to a synovial affection that do not depend on living larva. A 77-year old man who had hydatid disease of the liver since two years, presented with progressive onset arthritis. Laboratory studies showed inflammatory changes but no evidence of immunological disorders was noticed. Abdominal imaging revealed multiple hydatid cysts of the liver. Ankle synovial fluid evaluation was positive of antibodies for hydatid antigen and negative of echinococcal larva. Excision of the hydatid cyst was accompanied by full remission of the arthritis with no recurrence. A reactive immune mechanism triggered by a parasite located at a distant side appears to be responsible for this type of arthritis. This data support the potential of echinococcosis granulosus in inducing a veritable aseptic arthritis as a response to intense immunological disorders.

  14. Hydatid cyst and fungal infection: a case report

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    Haji Nasrollah E

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Hydatid cyst is a zoonosis rarely occurred except in endemic areas that capable of making pulmonary cavities fascilating fungus growth within it. Aspergillo-ma is a glob formed by hyphae from saprophyte growth of aspergillous specious in previously performed cavities within pulmonary parenchyma. "nCase report: A 28 years old male patient without any comorbidity presented in emergency department with progressive two month dyspnea. Tube thoracostomy is done because of respiratory distress and massive hydropneumothorax. Thoracotomy and lobectomy is performed due to complicated hydatid cyst. Histopathologic investigation reveals hydatid cyst layers with fungal hyphae within it on granulomatous background. "nConclusion: Hydatid cyst with fungal contamination must be mentioned in differentials of dyspnea with lower segment lung cavities, especially in endemic areas. Thoracic CT scan with IV contrast can reveal fungus ball. Surgery is a treatment of choice and capitonage can be a prophylactic measure from secondary fungal infection in hydatid cyst surgery.

  15. Immunological diagnosis of human hydatid cyst using Western immunoblotting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadipour, Mahboubeh; Nazari, Mohammad; Sanei, Behnam; Ghayour, Zahra; Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Yazdani, Hajar; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with worldwide distribution which is caused by the tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus. Diagnosis of the disease relies on imaging techniques, but the techniques are not able to differentiate the cyst from benign or malignant tumors; hence, appropriate serologic methods are required for the differential diagnosis of the infection. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, different sheep hydatid cyst antigens probed with thirty sera of patients with hydatid cyst and also thirty human normal sera using Western immunoblotting technique. Considering results of surgery as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of Western blotting was estimated. Results: Sera of 29, 26, and 16 patients with hydatid cyst reacted with specific bands of hydatid cyst fluid (HCF), protoscolex crude antigen, and cyst wall crude antigen, respectively. However, none of the normal human sera reacted with those specific bands. Conclusion: A 20 kDa band of sheep HCF is an appropriate antigen for serodiagnosis of hydatid cyst infection. PMID:28331516

  16. Liver Hydatid Cyst and Acute Cholangitis: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati Honar, Behzad; Hayatollah, Gholamhossein; Nikshoar, Mohammadreza; Forootan, Mojgan; Feizi, Ali Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Amongst the cause of cystic hepatic disease, hydatid cyst is common in the Asia, South America, and Africa. The definitive therapy for hepatic hydatid disease is surgical resection. Rupture of the hydatid cyst into the biliary tree can lead to serious cholangitis. In this report, a 22-year-old man is presented with the signs and symptoms of obstructive jaundice and cholangitis. Ultrasonography reported dilated common bile duct (CBD) with sludge and stones, a hydatid cyst adjacent to the gall bladder and mild thickening of gallbladder wall without a stone. MRCP revealed dilated CBD with a cyst in segment fifth of liver. Due to signs and symptoms of obstructive jaundice in addition to lab data and imaging modalities, the ruptured hydatid cyst into a biliary tree was considered, and surgical intervention was performed to extract daughter vesicles from the CBD. Post intervention, signs and symptoms and cholestasis enzymes were subsided.

  17. Immunological diagnosis of human hydatid cyst using Western immunoblotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Hadipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with worldwide distribution which is caused by the tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus. Diagnosis of the disease relies on imaging techniques, but the techniques are not able to differentiate the cyst from benign or malignant tumors; hence, appropriate serologic methods are required for the differential diagnosis of the infection. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, different sheep hydatid cyst antigens probed with thirty sera of patients with hydatid cyst and also thirty human normal sera using Western immunoblotting technique. Considering results of surgery as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of Western blotting was estimated. Results: Sera of 29, 26, and 16 patients with hydatid cyst reacted with specific bands of hydatid cyst fluid (HCF, protoscolex crude antigen, and cyst wall crude antigen, respectively. However, none of the normal human sera reacted with those specific bands. Conclusion: A 20 kDa band of sheep HCF is an appropriate antigen for serodiagnosis of hydatid cyst infection.

  18. Supervision Architecture Design for Programmer Logical Controller Including Crash Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennani fatima zohra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a contribution for development of a high level of security for the Programmer Logic Controller (PLC. Many industrial adopt the redundant PLC architecture (or Standby PLC designed to replace the failed (out of order PLC without stopping associated automated equipments. We propose a formal method to choose a Standby PLC based on probability study, by comparing normal functioning to misbehavior one leading to residue generation process. Any generated difference reveals a presence of anomaly. The proposed method begins by listing all PLC components failures leading to their stopping according to failures criticalities. Two models; functional and dysfunctional are obtained by using formal specifications. Probability’s calculus of dysfunction of each Standby PLC is obtained by the sum of the probabilities of dysfunction of its critical components. These probabilities are allocated each transition which leads to the dysfunction in the dysfunctional model. The dysfunctional model is obtained by using the FMECA method (Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis. We shall see that this global vision of functioning of the whole PLC leads to a higher level of security where the chosen Standby PLC works continuously.

  19. PRIMARY GIANT HYDATID DISEASE OF THE SPLEEN: A RARE CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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    Subramanyam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The most common organ involved in hydatid disease is the liver, followed by the lungs. Hydatid disease of spleen is a rare clinical condition, as even in the endemic region the frequency is reported to be 0.5 – 4% of abdominal hydatid diseases. Most commonly splenic involvement is secondary i.e., along with other organs. Primary hydatid diseases in s pleen is rare, here we are reporting a rare case of primary splenic hydatid disease

  20. Hydatid cyst of testis: An unusual presentation of hydatid disease - case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldev Singh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hvdatid disease is a parasitic disease usually caused by Echinococcus granulosus. It usually presents with liver involvement and uncommonly lungs and rarely other organs are involved. A rare case of hydatid testis is reported that was provisionally diagnosed as testicular tumor.

  1. Could Slackline Training Complement the FIFA 11+ Programme Regarding Training of Neuromuscular Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Tobias; Kiefer, Julian; Werner, Inge; Federolf, Peter A

    2017-09-01

    The current study compared changes in neuromuscular control between slackline training and the stabilization training elements of the FIFA 11+ programme. Twenty-five students in 2 groups performed a 12-unit training programme. The slackline training group (n = 13) exclusively trained with a slackline. The stabilization training group (n = 12) practised exercises as described in the second part of the FIFA 11+ programme. Improvements in balance were assessed using three tests for dynamic, quasi-static, and perturbed postural control: the star excursion balance test (SEBT), the closed-eye single-leg stance, and the MFT S3-Check. Both groups significantly improved the stability and sensorimotor index of the MFT S3-Check (p control as the FIFA 11+ warm-up programme. If compliance with the FIFA 11+ programme is declining, then slacklining might offer an alternative approach to reach the training goals of improved sensorimotor control.

  2. Surgical management of hepatic hydatid disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Vagholkar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis is strictly a zoonosis. Humans are an accidental host. The disease is endemic in rural agricultural areas. However if acquired by humans, it can cause extensive spread affecting a wide range of organs with predilection for the liver. Managing such cases requires a sound fundamental knowledge of the parasite and its pathogenicity. It is essential that surgeons who deal with such cases have a good working knowledge of the disease. The approaches to hepatic hydatids with respect to the principles of surgical treatment are presented in this article. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 1834-1837

  3. Multiple, primary spinal-paraspinal hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, R.N.; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yalman, O. [Dept. of Radiology, Ege University Hospital, Izmir (Turkey)

    2001-11-01

    A patient is presented with widespread primary hydatid cysts in spinal-paraspinal locations, secondary to Echinococcus granulosus. An alternative mechanism to explain how the embryos gained access to the body is proposed: The embryos penetrated the intestinal muscle and may have directly entered into the inferior vena cava system through small venous connections between this system and portal circulation. Various conditions in daily life associated with Valsalva maneuver might have caused such an atypical passage of the embryos to the inferior caval system toward the retroperitoneum and spinal-paraspinal structures via lumber epidural venous plexuses. (orig.)

  4. Spatial differences in occurrence of paratuberculosis in Danish dairy herds and in control programme participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihrmann, Kristine; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of economic importance to the cattle industry and a voluntary control programme is offered to Danish dairy farmers. Our objective was to evaluate spatial differences in both control programme participation and paratuberculosis prevalence in Denmark. The study...... included 4414 dairy herds: 1249 were participating in the control programme, and 1503 were tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Spatial differences were evaluated by kernel smoothing, kriging, and cluster analysis. Participation was lowest among herds on the island...

  5. An Unusual Localization of Hydatid Cyst in A Patient With

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    Afsaneh Tehranian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is a widespread parasitic infection caused by tapewormEchinococcus and it affects mainly the liver, but other organs such as pelvic organscould be involved very rare. Here we report a case of hydatid cyst with involvementof oviduct in a woman with endometrial cancer.It was misdiagnosed as a multicysticright ovarian mass before surgery and by microscopic study it was shown as a primarydegenerated hydatid cyst which was also unusual.Although pelvic echinococcalcysts rarely occur, the gynecologists should be consider, and the possibility of ahydatid cyst when they find a pelvic cystic mass,especially in areas where the diseaseis endemic.

  6. Primary spinal extradural hydatid cyst associated with acute bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Zhu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To report a case of unilocular primary spinal extradural hydatid cyst which manifested as acute bleeding. Methods: The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and surgical treatment of this rare case are discussed. Published cases of primary extradural hydatid cysts are reviewed. Results: Complete recovery was achieved. Repeated clinical, radiological, and serological examinations did not show any evidence of local recurrence or systemic hydatidosis during the follow-up period of 50 months. Conclusions: Primary spinal extradural hydatid cyst may present as acute bleeding.

  7. Primary spinal extradural hydatid cyst associated with acute bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this article is to report a case of unilocular primary spinal extradural hydatid cyst which manifested as acute bleeding. Methods: The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and surgical treatment of this rare case are discussed and published cases of primary extradural hydatid cysts are reviewed. Results: Complete recovery was achieved. Repeated clinical, radiological, and serological examinations did not show any evidence of local recurrence or systemic hydatidosis during the follow-up period of 50 months. Conclusions: Primary spinal extradural hydatid cyst may present as acute bleeding. (Wang Y, Geng D, Zhu G, Du G.

  8. MRI evaluation of soft tissue hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Diez, A.I.; Ros Mendoza, L.H.; Villacampa, V.M.; Cozar, M.; Fuertes, M.I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Miguel Servet, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2000-03-01

    Infestation in soft tissue by Echinococcus granulosus is not a common disease, and its diagnosis is based on clinical, laboratory data and radiological findings. The aim of our retrospective study is to give an overview of the different signs and patterns shown by MRI that can be useful in characterizing soft tissue hydatid disease. The MRI images obtained in seven patients with soft tissue and subcutaneous hydatidosis were reviewed. Typical signs of hydatidosis were multivesicular lesions with or without hypointense peripheral ring (''rim sign''). Related to the presence and absence, respectively, of viable scolices in the microscopic exam, daughter cysts were presented either as high signal intensity or low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Low-intensity detached layers within the cyst and peripheral enhancement with gadolinium-DTPA were also presented. Atypical signs were presented in an infected muscular cyst, a subcutaneous unilocular cyst and several unilocular cysts. Knowledge of the different patterns in MRI of soft tissue hydatid disease can be useful in diagnosing this entity. We observed that the ''rim sign'' is not as common as in other locations, and in addition, MRI seems to be of assistance when evaluating the vitality of the cysts. (orig.)

  9. Scolicidal Agents in Hydatid Cyst Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Besim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Injecting scolicidal solutions into the hydatid cyst and packing the operative field with sponges soaked in scolicidal agents have been used to avoid dissemination of the parasite during surgery. In the first part of this invitro study, we tried to determine the scolicidal property of various agents in different concentrations and exposure times. In the second part, we tested whether sponges soaked in different type and concentrations of scolicidal agents have any role beyond being a mechanical barrier. 20% saline, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 1.5% cetrimide-0.15% chlorhexidine (10% Savlon®, 95% ethyl alcohol, 10% polyvinylpirrolidone-iodine (Betadine® and their further dilutions were used in this study. Protoscoleces were obtained from the cyst containing livers of the sheep and viability was determined with dye-uptake (0.1% Eosin and flame cell activity. Savlon® was found to be the least concentration dependent scolicidal agent among those studied. Scoleces sprayed on sponges soaked in 20% saline, 95% ethyl alcohol, Betadine® and 3% hydrogen peroxide were killed after 15 minutes. 3% and 10% saline and normal saline were ineffective. Sponges work not only as a mechanical barrier but also as a chemical one if the agent is chosen correctly. In purely cystic hydatid liver disease, the risk of dissemination of the cyst contents can be avoided by injection of a potent scolicidal agent such as Savlon®.

  10. A Modular Programmable CMOS Analog Fuzzy Controller Chip

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We present a highly modular fuzzy inference analog CMOS chip architecture with on-chip digital programmability. This chip consists of the interconnection of parameterized instances of two different kind of blocks, namely label blocks and rule blocks. The architecture realizes a lattice partition of the universe of discourse, which at the hardware level means that the fuzzy labels associated to every input (realized by the label blocks) are shared among the rule blocks. This reduces the area a...

  11. Control of malaria: the rapid fever surveillance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premanath, M

    1997-11-01

    Eighty-five villages out of nearly 300 villages of Tiptur taluka covering a population of 47,271 where the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum (PF) malaria was very high, were selected for a programme during Aug 93 which lasted for 29 months until the end of Dec 95. Ten days of fever radical treatment (FRT) and 54 weekly and 29 fortnightly rapid fever surveillance (RFS) programmes were conducted. 64,142 blood smears were examined out of which 21,542 were positive for malaria and 14,291 were of PF type. There were 9858 PF cases during the last 5 months of 1993, which came down to 349 by the end of 1995. Fever morbidity which was nearly 1000 new cases per day during FRT came down to 120, 78, and 30 new cases per day during 1993, 1994 and 1995, respectively. Parasite index (PI) for PF Malaria was 140-321 during 1993, came down to 0.6-15 at the end of the study. Four rounds of DDT, two rounds of Ikon and one round of Delta-methrin were sprayed in four and two PHC areas, respectively during this period. Asymptomatic carriers for PF malaria were detected in the children under 14 years of age (3.1%). This programme did prove very effective in bringing down morbidity and mortality due to PF Malaria in the community.

  12. Detection of Antibodies against Hydatid Cyst Fluid Antigens Using Immunoblot Technique

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    F Jalosian

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Immunoblot is recognized as a sensitive and specific serological method for diagnosis of human hydatidosis. To analyze the reactivity of hydatid patients sera with the subunits of 2 major hydatid cyst fluid antigens, ( 5 and B immunoblot method was used. Material & Methods:In this regard, 100 sera ,of which 40 sera from patients with surgically diagnosed hydatidosis, 20 sera from patients with parasitic disease other than hydatidosis, 20 sera from patients other than parasitic disease, and 20 sera from healthy controls were examined. Results: For 3 subunits of Ag B (12, 16, 20 kD the sensitivities were 92.5%, 84.5% and 87.5% respectively and their specificity for all of the 3 subunits was 100%. For 2 subunits of Ag 5, (55, 65 kD the sensitivity was 100% and the specificities were 100% and 90% respectively . Conclusion: The results indicated that the best subunit for hydatidosis diagnosis is the 55 kD subunit of Ag 5. Meanwhile, a lower reactivity (84.5% of all hydatid sera was observed with 16 kD subunits of Ag B.

  13. Nephrotic presentation in hydatid cyst disease with predominant tubulointerstital disease

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    Feroz Aziz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Feroz Aziz1, Tanmay Pandya1, Himanshu V Patel1, Paladugu Ramakrishna1, Kamal R Goplani1, Manoj Gumber1, Aruna V Vanikar2,  Kamal Kanodia2, Pankaj R Shah1, Hargovind L Trivedi11Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine; 2Department of Pathology, Lab Medicine, Transfusion Services and Immunohematology, G.R. Doshi and K.M. Mehta Institute of Kidney Diseases and Research Centre (IKDRC, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, IndiaAbstract: Renal involvement, which can rarely occur in echinococcosis, more commonly manifests as hydatid cyst of the kidney. Scattered case reports of nephrotic syndrome secondary to hydatid cyst in the liver or lung have been reported for over two decades. The glomerular picture varied from minimal change lesion to mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis. We report a case of predominantly tubulointerstitial nephritis with mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis in a patient with hepatic hydatid cyst which responded to cyst resection alone. Keywords: echinococcosis, hydatid cyst, kidney, nephrotic syndrome, tubulointerstitial nephritis

  14. Prevalence of Hydatid Disease in Cattle and Camel Slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Hydatid Disease in Cattle and Camel Slaughtered at Damaturu ... Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences ... No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between the organs inspected including the lungs (0.15%) the liver ...

  15. Left retroperitoneal hydatid cyst disease and the treatment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Avcı

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is one of the oldest diseases known to mankind. In 85-95% of the cases, the liver and/or the lung are involved and in only 5-15% the cyst occurs at the other sites. Echinococcal cysts are mostly found in the liver (60%-70% of cases, followed by the lungs (10%-25%, spleen, ovaries, kidneys, brain, bones and heart, but rarely elsewhere in the body. 1-3 Retroperitoneal location of hydatid cyst is encountered rarely and only occasional case reports have appeared since Lockhart and Sapinza first reported this entity in 1958. 4-6 Primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst is extremely rare. Hydatid disease in extrahepatic locations usually remains asymptomatic unless the cyst grows and produces.

  16. Imaging Spectrum of Hydatid Disease: Usual and Unusual Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Maskal Revanna; Deepashri, Basavalingu; Lakshmeesha, Mogenahalli Thimmaiah

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. It is common in endemic regions and can demonstrate a variety of imaging features that differ according to the affected organ and the stage of the disease. Liver and lungs are the most commonly affected organs. The classic features of hepatic hydatid disease are well known. However, diagnosing hydatid disease at unusual locations may be challenging because of myriad imaging features in each of these locations. Knowledge of the imaging spectrum in systemic hydatidoses in various organs is very valuable in improving the accuracy of radiological interpretation. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of hydatid disease at its varied locations. PMID:27231490

  17. Anaphylaxis from intravascular rupture of Hydatid disease following liver trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Marriott

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cystic Echinococcosis also known as cystic hydatid disease is a parasitic infection endemic in many parts of the world. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts with cysts most commonly developing in the liver. This case describes a rare presentation of hydatid disease following trauma to the liver. Intraparenchymal cyst rupture led to haemodynamic instability with release of the parasites protoscolices into hepatic venules producing severe life threatening anaphylaxis.

  18. Biliary peritonitis due to "fallen" hydatid cyst after abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Melih; Tihan, Deniz; Fersahoglu, Tuba; Cavda, Faruk; Titiz, Izzet

    2008-01-01

    Hepatic hydatid cysts may cause serious complications. Intraperitoneal rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst is rarely seen and the prognosis can be fatal. By experience, we know that it might be difficult to diagnose an unruptured cyst expulsed into the peritoneal cavity. In this report, we present the case of a 54-year-old man with an intraperitoneal cystic mass of 10 cm of diameter which had extruded out from the liver due to a blunt abdominal trauma.

  19. HYDATID DISEASE INVOLVING CERVICAL SOFT TISSUES: CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Aladin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neck cysts are rather commonly encountered in the practice of a surgeon, including an oncologist, who treats diseases of the head and neck. At the same time there are rare involvements of the organs and soft tissues of the neck. In particular, echinococcosis of neck soft tissues is an unusual site for hydatid cyst. Accounts of this involvement are found only as single communications in the literature. The presented case of hydatid cyst illustrates a variety of neck abnormalities.

  20. Unusual Presentation of Interventricular Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Echinococcus infection typically affects liver and lungs while rarely occur through heart. Cardiac hydatidosis can be fatal or lead to major complications if it is not treated. The majority of patients with cardiac hydatid cysts complain from cardiac problems as their first presentation. However, this article reports an unusual case suffers from an interventricular hydatid cyst presented by abdominal pain on 2013. After the patient transferred to Tehran Heart Center, surgical cyst ex...

  1. Unusual localization of hydatidosis: Hydatid cyst of gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rabbani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 38-year-old man suffering from hydatid cyst located in the gallbladder is presented. Although Morocco remains an endemic area for echinococcosis, this presentation of the disease is rare. Pericyst was tightly attached to the liver. Complete pericystectomy followed by cholecystectomy was done. Histopathology confirmed the presence of calcified hydatid cyst of the gallbladder. Perioperative adjuvant medical therapy with albendazole was administered. In a 2-year follow-up, no recurrence has occurred.

  2. Serodiagnosis of human hydatidosis with an ELISA developed based on antigens derived from sheep hydatid cysts and comparison with a commercial human ELISA kit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fotoohi S; Hashemi Tabar G.R; Borji H

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the serodiagnosis of hydatid cyst in human using different antigens of sheep (hydatid fluid, Somatic and Excretory/secretory antigens of protoscolex) by ELISA and compares this result with commercial human ELISA kit. Methods: One hundred blood samples from patients with history of severe abdominal pain and eosinophilia were obtained. Ten serum samples were obtained from surgically and pathologically confirmed cystic echinococcosis patients from Mashhad university hospital as positive control and 5 serum samples from infant under one year old as negative control. Blood samples were centrifuged at 3 000íg at 20 ℃ for 15 min and sera were stored at -20 ℃. First, these samples were tested for the presence of antibody by commercial human ELISA. Then, ELISA was developed on microplates coated with hydatid fluid, Somatic and Excretory/secretory antigens of protoscolex of sheep. Results: The results of this study as analyzed by Kappa test showed that, hydatid fluid antigen could be used as a precise source of detection in indirect ELISA test. Conclusions: Hydatid fluid in comparison with Excretory-secretory and somatic antigens showed more compatibility agreement in kappa test which can be used for further studies in development of any ELISA test for diagnosis of human hydatidosis.

  3. Uncommon locations of hydatid disease: CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossios, K.J.; Kontoyiannis, D.S. [Department of Radiology, General Hospital of Ioannina, GR-450 01 Ioannina (Greece); Dascalogiannaki, M.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.C. [Department of Radiology, University of Crete Medical School, GR-711 10 Iraklion (Greece)

    1997-10-01

    Hydatid disease (HD), already known by Hippocrates, is prevalent and widespread in most sheep-raising countries in Asia, Australia, South America, Near East, and southern Europe. The disease is most commonly due to Echinococcus granulosus and may occur in any organ or tissue. The location is mostly hepatic (75%) and pulmonary (15%), and only 10% occur in the rest of the body. Imaging modalities such as US, CT, and MR imaging are helpful in diagnosing the disease. The reliability of each method depends on the cyst`s location in the body. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the use of CT in depicting some unusual locations of HD besides the liver and lung. (orig.). With 18 figs.

  4. Primary calcified hydatid cyst of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra K Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral hydatid disease is very rare, and in non-endemic areas like India, the occurrence is as low as 0.2% of all intracranial space occupying lesions. Calcification of the cyst wall indicates an even rarer subvariety, i.e., alveolar echinococcosis (AE. AE has hitherto been unreported in the Indian subcontinent. We report such a case in a 25-year-old male, a shepherd by occupation, who presented to us with intractable seizures and headache. He had no gross lesion in the liver. Craniotomy with total excision of the lesion was performed, followed by antiparasitic treatment. The radiological presentation, differential diagnosis and treatment modalities are discussed in relation to our case.

  5. Pseudotumoral Hydatid Cyst: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis E. Petrakis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis due to Echinococcus granulosus is an endemic parasitic zoonosis characterized by worldwide distribution particularly in Mediterranean countries. The most commonly involved anatomical locations are the liver and lung. Occasionally the cyst may progressively increase in size, mimicking gross ascites or intrabdominal tumor. Herein, are reported a case of a 40-year-old patient with a giant exophytically expanded hepatic echinococcus cyst, misdiagnosed as an abdominal malignancy during formal investigation. The patient was admitted to the hospital complaining for mild diffuse abdominal tenderness, moderate abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhoea, and vomiting. A CT scan revealed the presence of a giant abdominal mass 25×21×14 cm, resembling a tumor, adherent to the liver edges and parietal peritoneum, displacing intestinal loops. During the ensuing days the patient’s clinical condition worsened, and he became febrile. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and an exophytically grown giant liver hydatid cyst was removed, despite the radiological findings and the preoperative clinical suspicion.

  6. Giant hepatic hydatid cyst: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Ezer; Tank Zafer Nursal; Turgut Noyan; G(o)khan Moray

    2007-01-01

    Large type 1 cysts are prone to perforation. Furthermore, insufficient drainage with subsequent abscess is a frequent problem of large cysts. We report here a case of a 19-year old man who was admitted to the hospital with pain in the right upper quadrant and epigastric region. An asymmetrical right upper quadrant enlargement was detected on physical examination. Ultrasonography and computerized tomography revealed a type 1 giant hydatid cyst in the right hepatic lobe, measuring 16 cm in diameter. During operation, partial cystectomy and drainage were done. The large dead space was obliterated by the 'sandwich' method. Omentum and gelatin sponges were used to fill the cavity. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the 5th postoperative day.

  7. TRUS, CT and MRI findings of hydatid disease of seminal vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saglam, M.; Tasar, M.; Bulakbasi, N.; Tayfun, C.; Somuncu, I. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Guelhane Military Medical Academy and Medical School, Ankara (Turkey)

    1998-07-01

    Hydatid disease of the urogenital system, especially seminal vesicles and prostate, or retroperitoneum is a very rare condition. Secondary dissemination of seminal vesicles has not been described before. We describe the transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), CT and MRI findings of a secondary solitary hydatid cyst of the left seminal vesicle, in a patient with disseminated hydatid disease involving all abdominal organs except for right kidney. We obtained typical findings of hydatid cyst at all modalities. (orig.) With 3 figs., 11 refs.

  8. GIANT HYDATID CYST OF LIVER: A CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metta Raja Gopal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Giant hydatid cysts (HCs, especially those that are superficial and those in vital anatomic locations, are prone to abdominal trauma and rupture. Surgery has been the mainstay of therapy for large Hydatid cysts. We report a case of giant hydatid cyst who presented with an abdominal mass originating from the right lobe of the liver

  9. Disseminated hydatid disease presenting as fever of unknown origin: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human hydatid disease occurs due to infection with larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. The disseminated hydatid disease is a very rare finding. Disseminated hydatid disease presenting as a cause of fever of unknown origin is a rare phenomenon. We present to you such a rare case.

  10. A Critical Analysis of the National Goitre Control Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Khan

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The two most prominent goitre ende­mic areas in the world are the mountainous belts of the Andes in South America and the Himalayas in South East Asia of which the latter is undoubtedly the largest and worst affected area in the world.In India loday, we have all the possible weapons of hope against this large scale nutritional problem but even then it conti­nues to not only occur but also expose and affect a major chunk of our population.Some of our hopes are related to the follo­wing facts :The problem is preventable. We laun­ched the National Programme in 1962, meaning thereby that it has already cele­brated its Silver Jubilee. A potent and affective weapon iodised salt exists. Salt is a commodity which is consumed universally without wide variations. The cost of pre­vention through the use of iodised salt is only Rs. 0-50 or 005 Dollars/Year (WHO- 1985. Government has now given every possible facility for the manufacture of iodi­sed salt.

  11. Design package for programmable controller and hydronic subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information used in the evaluation of design of Sunkeeper Control's electronic controllers and hydronic packages is discussed. This information includes system performance specifications, a design data brochure, drawings, and qualification and acceptance test procedures.

  12. Active surveillance and control programme for Salmonella Dublin in Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Rattenborg, Erik

    2011-01-01

    -positive. This suggests that there might be synergistic benefits from running control programmes for both infections simultaneously. We did not find the risk of becoming test-positive significantly different between organic and conventional herds, nor between analysing laboratories. Even when controlling for other risk...

  13. Development of a model of the tobacco industry's interference with tobacco control programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Trochim, W; Stillman, F; Clark, P; Schmitt, C.(Institut für Physik, Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany)

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To construct a conceptual model of tobacco industry tactics to undermine tobacco control programmes for the purposes of: (1) developing measures to evaluate industry tactics, (2) improving tobacco control planning, and (3) supplementing current or future frameworks used to classify and analyse tobacco industry documents.

  14. The use of bacterial larvicides in mosquito and black fly control programmes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Lêda

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus spp. based larvides are increasingly replacing, with numerous advantages, chemical insecticides in programmes for controlling black fly and mosquito populations. Brazil was among the pioneers in adopting Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i to control black flies. However, the major current mosquito control programme in Brazil, the Programme for Eradication of Aedes aegypti launched in 1997, only recently decided to replace temephos by B.t.i based larvicides, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. In the last decade, works developed by research groups in Brazilian institutions have generated a significant contribution to this subject through the isolation of B. sphaericus new strains, the development of new products and the implementation of field trials of Bacillus efficacy against mosquito species under different environmental conditions.

  15. [Primary heterotopic pleural hydatid cyst presenting as a pneumothorax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghli, A; Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Ouerghi, S; Boudaya, M S; Zairi, S; Smati, B; Mestiri, T; Kilani, T

    2011-03-01

    Hydatid cyst is a parasitic disease that is endemic in many countries. Pneumothorax may be a presentation of this disease that presents urgent problems of diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman, amenorrheic for 22 weeks, who presented with chest pain and dyspnoea. Chest x-ray revealed a right-sided tension pneumothorax. A check x-ray after drainage showed a homogeneous opacity of water density occupying the lower 2/3 of the right hemithorax. Thoracic ultrasound suggested an uncomplicated hydatid cyst at the right base. Surgical exploration revealed a hydatid cyst 14cm in diameter in the pleural space, and a cavity in the right lower lobe with two bronchial fistulae. Treatment consisted of removal of the cyst intact, closure of the bronchial fistulae and capitonnage of the residual cavity. The postoperative course was uncomplicated. Primary heterotopic pleural hydatid cyst is an exceptional cause of pneumothorax that should considered in countries where hydatid disease is endemic. Treatment is surgical following drainage of the pneumothorax. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Pelvic Hydatid Disease: CT and MRI Findings Causing Sciatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Kocaoglu, Murat; Bulakbasi, Nail; Yildirim, Duzgun [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Radiology, 06018, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2007-12-15

    Pelvic masses, especially hydatid disease, rarely present with sciatica. We present the computed tomography (CT) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 49-year-old female patient with presacral hydatid disease, who was evaluated for her sciatica. We also want to emphasize the importance of assessing the pelvis of patients with symptoms and clinical findings that are inconsistent and that cannot be satisfactorily explained by the spinal imaging findings. isc herniation in the lumbar spine is a well-known etiology of back pains and sciatica, but whenever disc herniation of the lumbar spine is excluded by the employed imaging modalities, then the pelvis should be examined for other possible etiologies of nerve compression. We describe here a patient, who was complaining of sciatica, with no abnormal findings in her lumbar spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The cause of her sciatica was found to be associated with a pelvic hydatid cyst compressing the lumbosacral nerve plexus. In conclusion, if no pathology is evident for the lumbar discal structures, in connection with the cause of sciatica and lumbar back pains, then the pelvis should also be examined for the possible etiologies of compression of the lumbosacral nerve plexus. Whenever a multiseptated cyst is come across in a patient of an endemic origin with a positive history for hydatid disease like surgery, indicating recurrence, hydatid cyst is the most likely diagnosis.

  17. REINTEGRATION OF PATIENTS WITH HYDATID CYST OPERATED USING KINESIOLOGY MEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Ș.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the many diseases in humans caused by parasites, hydatid disease, Echinococcosis or hydatid cyst is mostly part of those who have the most severe and varied implications both pathology and among public health problems. Physical therapy as a means of recovery adjuvant drug therapy and psychological diagnoses of hydatid cyst, positive influence symptom relief with effects: objective, demonstrable by clinical examination and subjective characterized by a state of "good "expressed by patients.Material and methodsResearch type case study was conducted over 12 months in 2011 through the practical application of the requirements of the general state of the patient at the time of initial evaluation.ResultsThe patient, aged 52 years presented with a prescription for physical therapy with a diagnosis of bilateral pulmonary hydatid cyst surgery.Kinetic recovery is to minimize the functional disability, as well as facilitation of socio-professional enrollment. Medical history: debut 12 months ago predominant occurrence in environments with high concentrations of dust and post virus.ConclusionsBilateral hydatid cyst is indicated median sternotomy with solving both cysts in one surgical session. For kinetic program to have the best results, patients should be cooperative, to follow the directions and tasks received, be conscientious and not least will have an undeniable. Because results are reflected in the very quality of their lives, their kinetic abilities and skills.

  18. Long Term Control of Scabies Fifteen Years after an Intensive Treatment Programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a major public health problem in the Pacific and is associated with an increased risk of bacterial skin infections, glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Mass drug administration with ivermectin is a promising strategy for the control of scabies. Mass treatment with ivermectin followed by active case finding was conducted in five communities in the Solomon Islands between 1997 and 2000 and resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of both scabies and bacterial skin infections.We conducted a prospective follow-up study of the communities where the original scabies control programme had been undertaken. All residents underwent a standardised examination for the detection of scabies and impetigo.Three hundred and thirty eight residents were examined, representing 69% of the total population of the five communities. Only 1 case of scabies was found, in an adult who had recently returned from the mainland. The prevalence of active impetigo was 8.8% overall and 12.4% in children aged 12 years or less.We found an extremely low prevalence of scabies 15 years after the cessation of a scabies control programme. The prevalence of impetigo had also declined further since the end of the control programme. Our results suggest that a combination of mass treatment with ivermectin and intensive active case finding may result in long term control of scabies. Larger scale studies and integration with other neglected tropical disease control programmes should be priorities for scabies control efforts.

  19. Long Term Control of Scabies Fifteen Years after an Intensive Treatment Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Taotao-Wini, Betty; Satorara, Lorraine; Engelman, Daniel; Nasi, Titus; Mabey, David C.; Steer, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Scabies is a major public health problem in the Pacific and is associated with an increased risk of bacterial skin infections, glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Mass drug administration with ivermectin is a promising strategy for the control of scabies. Mass treatment with ivermectin followed by active case finding was conducted in five communities in the Solomon Islands between 1997 and 2000 and resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of both scabies and bacterial skin infections. Methods We conducted a prospective follow-up study of the communities where the original scabies control programme had been undertaken. All residents underwent a standardised examination for the detection of scabies and impetigo. Results Three hundred and thirty eight residents were examined, representing 69% of the total population of the five communities. Only 1 case of scabies was found, in an adult who had recently returned from the mainland. The prevalence of active impetigo was 8.8% overall and 12.4% in children aged 12 years or less. Discussion We found an extremely low prevalence of scabies 15 years after the cessation of a scabies control programme. The prevalence of impetigo had also declined further since the end of the control programme. Our results suggest that a combination of mass treatment with ivermectin and intensive active case finding may result in long term control of scabies. Larger scale studies and integration with other neglected tropical disease control programmes should be priorities for scabies control efforts. PMID:26624616

  20. Communicable disease control programmes and health systems: an analytical approach to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigayeva, Altynay; Coker, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    There is renewed concern over the sustainability of disease control programmes, and re-emergence of policy recommendations to integrate programmes with general health systems. However, the conceptualization of this issue has remarkably received little critical attention. Additionally, the study of programmatic sustainability presents methodological challenges. In this article, we propose a conceptual framework to support analyses of sustainability of communicable disease programmes. Through this work, we also aim to clarify a link between notions of integration and sustainability. As a part of development of the conceptual framework, we conducted a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed literature on concepts, definitions, analytical approaches and empirical studies on sustainability in health systems. Identified conceptual proposals for analysis of sustainability in health systems lack an explicit conceptualization of what a health system is. Drawing upon theoretical concepts originating in sustainability sciences and our review here, we conceptualize a communicable disease programme as a component of a health system which is viewed as a complex adaptive system. We propose five programmatic characteristics that may explain a potential for sustainability: leadership, capacity, interactions (notions of integration), flexibility/adaptability and performance. Though integration of elements of a programme with other system components is important, its role in sustainability is context specific and difficult to predict. The proposed framework might serve as a basis for further empirical evaluations in understanding complex interplay between programmes and broader health systems in the development of sustainable responses to communicable diseases.

  1. The efficacy of a movement control exercise programme to reduce injuries in youth rugby: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, M D; Stokes, K A; Williams, S; McKay, C D; England, M; Kemp, S P T

    2016-01-01

    Background Injuries to youth rugby players have become an increasingly prominent health concern, highlighting the importance of developing and implementing appropriate preventive strategies. A growing body of evidence from other youth sports has demonstrated the efficacy of targeted exercise regimens to reduce injury risk. However, studies have yet to investigate the effect of such interventions in youth contact sport populations like rugby union. Objective To determine the efficacy of an evidence-based movement control exercise programme compared with a sham exercise programme to reduce injury risk in youth rugby players. Exercise programme compliance between trial arms and the effect of coach attitudes on compliance will also be evaluated. Setting School rugby coaches in England will be the target of the researcher intervention, with the effects of the injury prevention programmes being measured in male youth players aged 14–18 years in school rugby programmes over the 2015–2016 school winter term. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial with schools randomly allocated to either a movement control exercise programme or a sham exercise programme, both of which are coach-delivered. Injury measures will derive from field-based injury surveillance, with match and training exposure and compliance recorded. A questionnaire will be used to evaluate coach attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviours both prior to and on the conclusion of the study period. Outcome measures Summary injury measures (incidence, severity and burden) will be compared between trial arms, as will the influence of coach attitudes on compliance and injury burden. Additionally, changes in these outcomes through using the exercise programmes will be evaluated. Trial registration number ISRTCNN13422001. PMID:27900148

  2. Control and eradication programme of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) from selected dairy herds in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgu, I; Alkan, F; Karaoglu, T; Bilge-Dagalp, S; Can-Sahna, K; Güngör, B; Demir, B

    2005-07-01

    Serum samples of 15,909 cattle from 31 dairy herds located in various regions of Turkey were tested for the presence of antibodies against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) using Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion technique (AGID). 48.3% (15/31) of the herds had seropositive animals and positivity rates were detected from 0.5-34.4% in these herds. In an EBL control/eradication programme all seropositive animals were culled in the infected herds. Thereafter, a total of 74,347 sera were tested for the presence of BLV specific antibodies. The serological results and detail of EBL control/eradication programme were shown in this paper.

  3. DIATEST, A System for Programme Control of Multiple Choice Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Christer

    The DIATEST responder system is a control system for fully programed running of diagnostic tests of multiple-choice type. The system makes use of the control unit earlier developed at the Institute of Technology for programed four-screen slide projection and the electronic response analyser (ESAU). Presentation of a question is done audiovisually,…

  4. Overview of Hydatid Disease in Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimzad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Hydatid disease (HD is still an important health hazard in the world. This disease is a parasitic infestation endemic in many sheep- and cattle-raising areas such as Iran. Objectives This study aimed to review the clinical manifestations, laboratory aspects, imaging findings, and management of HD. Patients and Methods Data were collected from the medical records of patients diagnosed with HD in eight referral hospitals in different provinces of Iran from 2001 to 2014. Results Overall, 161 children at a mean age of 9.25 ± 3.37 years (age range = 1 - 15 years old hospitalized with a definite diagnosis of the hydatid cyst between 2001 and 2014 were studied. The male-to-female ratio was 1.6:1. The most commonly involved organ was the lung (67.1%, followed by the liver (44.1% and a combined liver and lung involvement was found in 15.5% of the patients. The cysts were found more frequently in the right lobe of the liver and lung than in the left lobe. The most frequent complaints were fever (35.4% and abdominal pain (31.7%, and the most frequent sign was an abdominal mass in the liver involvement and cough in the lung involvement. There was a high eosinophil count (> 500/micL in 41% of our cases. A high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (> 30 or positive C-reactive protein (based on the qualitative method was found in 18.6% of the patients and leukocytosis > 15000/micL in 29.2% of the children. Ultrasonography was the main imaging test, with an accuracy rate of 96%, and chest X-ray was helpful in 88.6% of the cases. Surgery was performed in 89% of the patients, and selective patients underwent percutaneous aspiration-injection-reaspiration drainage or medical treatment. Conclusions The lung was the most commonly involved organ in the children recruited in the present study. Given the high probability of multiple organ involvement, we recommend that patients with HD be assessed via ultrasonography and chest X-ray. In endemic regions

  5. Seronegative, complicated hydatid cyst of the lung: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Eva Letty Susanne; Salih, Goran Nadir; Wiese, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important helminthic zoonotic disease that commonly affects the liver and lungs. Imaging methods and serology establish the diagnosis in most cases. Chest x-ray can diagnose uncomplicated pulmonary hydatid cysts, whereas superinfection and/or rupture of the hydatid cyst (complicated cysts) may change the radiographic appearance and lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a patient with hemoptysis and chest pain, where computer tomography scan of the lung suggested a large, ruptured hydatid cyst. However, serological tests with indirect hemagglutination (IHA)for Echinococcus granulosus antibodies were negative, and there was massive growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae in sputum. Based on this, we concluded that the patient had a bacterial lung abscess. The diagnosis of CE was only made after surgical removal of the cyst followed by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction.

  6. Clinical image: Hydatid disease of the chest wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.J.; Berlin, J.W.; Ghahremani, G.G. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Hydatid disease is rarely encountered among the population of the United States, but it affects several million people in sheep-raising regions of the world. Human infestation with Echinococcus granulosus begins following ingestion of its ova, which are excreted into the contaminated water during the usual dog-sheep cycle. Hydatid cysts will then develop most frequently in the liver (75% of cases) and lungs (15%) of the human host. Skeletal involvement has been reported to occur in only 0.5-4.0% of patients in the endemic areas. Because of the rarity and perplexing imaging features of hydatid disease involving the chest wall, we wish herein to present a case evaluated recently at our institution. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Intracranial hydatid cyst: imaging findings of a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslakian, Bedros; Darwish, Houssein

    2016-09-12

    Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is a worldwide zoonosis produced by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world, particularly in the Middle East, Australia, New Zealand, South America and central and south Europe. Intracranial hydatid disease is considered a rare disease and may be sometimes very difficult to diagnose based on the clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the condition and the imaging findings even in the non-endemic parts of the world. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with headache and vomiting for a few months. The mass was totally excised, with no postoperative complications. We present MR spectroscopy (MRS) findings in this operatively proven case of hydatid cyst of the brain. We discuss imaging findings, in particular the findings on MRS, which is rarely reported in the literature.

  8. Parietal wall hydatid cyst presenting as a primary lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gharde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst is the disease of liver and lungs and is common in some regions especially sheep rearing countries of the world, but this disease may occur in any part of world and anywhere in the body. This report presents primary hydatid cysts located in intramuscular region of left side of the abdomen. A 54-year-old female patient from central India, farmer by occupation, non vegetarian by diet came with chief complaints of a painless mass in the left iliac fossa, gradually increasing in size over a period of 6 months. Superficial ultrasound revealed a lesion resembling a hydatid cyst. Surgical excision was done without injuring the cyst. Diagnosis was confirmed on histo-pathological examination and was compatible with a hydatidcyst. Ahydatid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneouscystic lesions, it should be excised totally, with an intact wall and postoperative albendazole should be given to avoid recurrence.

  9. Programmable energy landscapes for kinetic control of DNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machinek, Robert R F; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Haley, Natalie E C; Bath, Jonathan; Turberfield, Andrew J

    2014-11-10

    DNA is used to construct synthetic systems that sense, actuate, move and compute. The operation of many dynamic DNA devices depends on toehold-mediated strand displacement, by which one DNA strand displaces another from a duplex. Kinetic control of strand displacement is particularly important in autonomous molecular machinery and molecular computation, in which non-equilibrium systems are controlled through rates of competing processes. Here, we introduce a new method based on the creation of mismatched base pairs as kinetic barriers to strand displacement. Reaction rate constants can be tuned across three orders of magnitude by altering the position of such a defect without significantly changing the stabilities of reactants or products. By modelling reaction free-energy landscapes, we explore the mechanistic basis of this control mechanism. We also demonstrate that oxDNA, a coarse-grained model of DNA, is capable of accurately predicting and explaining the impact of mismatches on displacement kinetics.

  10. Effects of a Worksite Weight-Control Programme in Obese Male Workers: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Yae; Murayama, Nobuko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled crossover trial to evaluate the effects of a new worksite weight-control programme designed for men with or at risk of obesity using a combination of nutrition education and nutrition environmental interventions. Subjects and methods: Male workers with or at risk of obesity were recruited for this…

  11. Programmable Logic Controllers for Systems of Automatic of the Level Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Kornaszewski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The railway crossings are vulnerable to incidence of high number of accidents often deadly. In order to face this problem, the modern systems of automatic of the level crossing have been introduced. These systems are based on Programmable Logic Controllers, which allow the designers to exploit self-control mechanisms, events acquiring, technical diagnostic which in turn enable remote control and acquisition of faults.

  12. Unusual Presentation of Interventricular Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Hanif; Ahmadi Tafti, Hossein; Ameri, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus infection typically affects liver and lungs while rarely occur through heart. Cardiac hydatidosis can be fatal or lead to major complications if it is not treated. The majority of patients with cardiac hydatid cysts complain from cardiac problems as their first presentation. However, this article reports an unusual case suffers from an interventricular hydatid cyst presented by abdominal pain on 2013. After the patient transferred to Tehran Heart Center, surgical cyst excision with removing germinal layer and concurrent albendazole therapy was prescribed for the management of this Iranian 15 year old female.

  13. Unusual Presentation of Interventricular Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Tabesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus infection typically affects liver and lungs while rarely occur through heart. Cardiac hydatidosis can be fatal or lead to major complications if it is not treated. The majority of patients with cardiac hydatid cysts complain from cardiac problems as their first presentation. However, this article reports an unusual case suffers from an interventricular hydatid cyst presented by abdominal pain on 2013. After the patient transferred to Tehran Heart Center, surgical cyst excision with removing germinal layer and concurrent albendazole therapy was prescribed for the management of this Iranian 15 year old female.

  14. Evaluation of sputum smear microscopy in the National Tuberculosis Control Programme in the north of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. Huong; B.D. Duong; N.N. Linh; L.N. Van; N.V. Co; J.F. Broekmans; F.G.J. Cobelens; M.W. Borgdorff

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the yield of sputum smear microscopy and sex differences in the National Tuberculosis Control Programme in the north of Vietnam. METHODS: Review of registers of 30 randomly selected laboratories (26 district, 4 provincial level). RESULTS: The average daily workload per technicia

  15. Interactive control over a programmable computer network using a multi-touch surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Muller, L.; Cristea, M.; Belleman, R.; Laat, C. de; Sloot, P.; Meijer, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the Interactive Network concept and describes the design and implementation of the first prototype. In an Interactive Network humans become an integral part of the control system to manage programmable networks and grid networks. The implementation consists of a multi-touch t

  16. A new Salmonella surveillance and control programme in Danish pig herds and slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.; Alban, L.; Stege, H.;

    2001-01-01

    The Danish Salmonella Surveillance and Control Programme for pigs operates at all stages of the production chain and has been applied nationally since 1995. Due to the program the level of Salmonella in Danish pork has declined from 3.5 % in 1993 to 0.7 % in the year 2000. Simultaneously, the num......-treated or decontaminated with hot water....

  17. African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: Model-Estimated Health Impact and Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Coffeng (Luc); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); H.G.M. Zouré (Honorat G.); J.L. Veerman (Lennert); K.B. Agblewonu (Koffi); M.E. Murdoch (Michele); M. Noma (Mounkaila); G. Fobi (Grace); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); D.A.P. Bundy (Donald A.); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); U.V. Amazigo (Uche)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health

  18. Multi-vesicular pulmonary hydatid cyst, the potent underestimated factor in the formation of daughter cysts of pulmonary hydatid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokouti, Mohsen; Sokouti, Babak; Shokouhi, Behrooz; Rahimi-Rad, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary multi-vesicular hydatid disease (HD) with Echinococcus granulosus is rare. A 28-year-old woman presented to our center with cough and respiratory distress. Chest x-ray and computerized tomography scan revealed bilateral giant cysts with water-lily sign (ruptured hydatid cysts). The left cyst was in vicinity of heart. With thoracotomy cysts of both lungs were removed. Thousands of translucent, homogenized small daughter cysts were discovered from the left side cyst. Pathologic examinations revealed the ruptured hydatid cysts of both lungs with daughter cysts on the left lung cyst. To best of our knowledge probably this is the first report of multi-vesicular HD in lung. We suppose that the heart pulsation was effective in the formation of daughter cysts.

  19. Comparison of Diagnostic Value of Antigen B and Protoscoleces Antigen in Diagnosis of Hydatid Cyst by Blotting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Oreizi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : Hydatidosis, a disease caused by the cestod helminth echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most important parasitic zoonosis in man and a variety of animals. Sensitive and reliable serologic methods are necessary to confirm the diagnosis. In this study, Ag B and Psc Ag were purified as two specific parasitic antigens and evaluated by Dot blotting used on the serum of hydatidosis patients and control group in order to identify the most sensitive and specific subunits.Materials and Methods: In an analytic and comparative study, serum samples collected from 22 patients under operation of hydatid cyst. As a control group, 4 patients with acute toxoplasmosis, 4 patients with leishmaniasis, 4 patients infected by non-hydatid cestods(Tenia saginata and H.nana and 4 normal subjects were included in this investigation. Infected sheep’s liver and lung were used for the preparation of antigen. Cyst fluid containing protoscoleces was extracted and then partially purified with a protein A column. AgB and Psc Ags were interacted with hydatid and control sera, with Dot blot method and sensitivity and specificity of these antigens were evaluated. Results: Sensitivity and specificity were estimated 95.9% and 81% respectively, for AgB and 100% and 63% respectively, for Psc Ag in Dot blot Method. Conclusion: Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of AgB and Psc Ag using Dot blotting revealed that AgB has high value for diagnosis of hydatidosis. and presumably can help physicians to diagnose hydatid cyst easier than other routine tests.

  20. Treatment coverage surveys as part of a trachoma control programme

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    Paul Emerson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the pillars of the SAFE strategy for trachoma control is the use of mass drug administration (MDA using azithromycin (Zithromax® donated by Pfizer Inc. Azithromycin is very effective for curing infections with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis with a single oral dose. Unusually for the administration of antibiotics, MDA is offered to all members of a defined population without first making an individual diagnosis for each recipient. This is done, in part, because the clinical signs of trachoma do not always mean that C. trachomatis is present and an accurate test for infection is costly and time-consuming to conduct. As a result, members of a defined population (the ‘target population’ are offered treatment whether they have a confirmed current infection or not.

  1. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN MEKATRONIKA BERBASIS KOMPUTER POKOK BAHASAN PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER BERORIENTASI PADA PEMBELAJARAN LANGSUNG

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyu Dwi Kurniawan; Agung Prijo Budijono

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Program Logic Controller is subject that many complaints by students of Department of Mechanical Engineering FT-Unesa. This is due to the lack of learning devices are used so that learning becomes less favorable and become passive. This study aims to develop computer-based learning device mechatronics subject-oriented programmable logic controller directly on student learning Mechanical Engineering Department Unesa FT. This study was conducted in two phases. Phase I, the developme...

  2. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2011; Programme de recherche Fusion thermonucleaire controlee. Rapport de synthese 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaucher, C. [Secretariat d' Etat a l' education et a la recherche, Berne (Switzerland); Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET), which started operation again in 2011. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the last step before DEMO, a prototype fusion reactor able to deliver electricity and demonstrate the economic viability of fusion energy. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL went on with its participation to the scientific and technological programme of EURATOM. Researches are carried out essentially on 2 sites: (i) at EPFL, where topics dealt with include the physics of magnetic confinement studied using the Variable Configuration Tokamak (TCV), the basic experiment TORPEX, theory and numerical modelling, and the technology of plasma heating and current generation by hyper-frequency waves; (ii) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), where activities are devoted to superconductivity and structure materials. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. In the TCV it could be demonstrated for the first time that the injection of Electronic Cyclotronic Heating (ECH) waves is able to double the frequency of so-called 'Edge Localized Modes' (ELM), reducing by a factor of 2 the energy expelled by each ELM. In particular, it was possible to considerably reduce the statistical dispersion of the repetition frequency of ELM, and to avoid the appearance of gigantic ELM that are particularly harmful for reactor operation. The effect of plasma

  3. The Toxic Effect of Magnetic Field on Protoscoleces of Hydatid Cyst in Vitro

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    Hossein Sarmadian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydatidosis it is a zoonotic disease which is caused by the larval stages of different species of the tapeworms (Cestoda of genus Echinococcus. Currently, the surgery is most definitive method of treatment for Hydatid Cyst, but always there is the risk of leakage or rupture during the surgery, therefore it is considered unreliable method.Methods: Protoscoleces of hydatid cysts were placed at the center of 1.5 Tesla magnetic fields in 3 different intervals of 15, 30, and 60 minutes. In each stage, they were exposed to the magnetic field four times and the viability rate of protoscoleces was measured after each exposure period. Results: The results showed a significant difference between viability rates for protoscoleces in case and control groups (P=0.004.In the first stage, when protoscoleces were exposed to the 1.5 Tesla magnetic field for 15 minutes between 1 and 4 times, it did not reveal any significant differences between case and control groups (P=0.793. In the second and third stages, protoscoleces were exposed to the magnetic field for 30 to 60 minutes respectively, it showed significant differences between case and control groups (P<0.05.Conclusion: The findings of this study showed a decrease in the viability rate of protoscoleces exposed to the 1.5 Tesla magnetic fields for 30 and 60 minutes.

  4. Primary Hydatid Cyst of Umbilicus, Mimicking an Umbilical Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarahomi, Mohammadreza; Alizadeh Otaghvar, Hamidreza; Ghavifekr, Nazila Hasanzadeh; Shojaei, Daryanaz; Goravanchi, Farhood; Molaei, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst caused by Echinococcus granulosus demonstrates an endemic infection in several countries such as Middle Eastern countries. Liver is the most frequently involved organ, followed by the lung. The case we present is solitary primary localization of cyst in abdominal wall which is extremely rare. A 57-year-old woman presented with an abdominal wall lesion in umbilical area that had been evolving for about 2 years with recent complaint of pain and discomfort. We detected a midline abdominal mass 12⁎13 centimeters in diameter which was bulged out in umbilicus. Preoperative clinical diagnosis of incarcerated umbilical hernia was made due to its physical examination while surgical exploration disproved the primary diagnosis and we found cystic mass adherent to superficial fascia without any communication to peritoneal space. The cyst was excised completely without any injury or perforation of containing capsule. The diagnosis of hydatid cyst was confirmed by histopathological examination of specimen. The retrograde evaluation showed no involvement of other organs. The patient was followed for two years and no recurrence of hydatid disease has been observed. Hydatid cyst should be considered as a differential diagnosis of abdominal wall and umbilical lesions especially in endemic regions.

  5. Primary Hydatid Cyst of Umbilicus, Mimicking an Umbilical Hernia

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    Mohammadreza Tarahomi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst caused by Echinococcus granulosus demonstrates an endemic infection in several countries such as Middle Eastern countries. Liver is the most frequently involved organ, followed by the lung. The case we present is solitary primary localization of cyst in abdominal wall which is extremely rare. A 57-year-old woman presented with an abdominal wall lesion in umbilical area that had been evolving for about 2 years with recent complaint of pain and discomfort. We detected a midline abdominal mass 12⁎13 centimeters in diameter which was bulged out in umbilicus. Preoperative clinical diagnosis of incarcerated umbilical hernia was made due to its physical examination while surgical exploration disproved the primary diagnosis and we found cystic mass adherent to superficial fascia without any communication to peritoneal space. The cyst was excised completely without any injury or perforation of containing capsule. The diagnosis of hydatid cyst was confirmed by histopathological examination of specimen. The retrograde evaluation showed no involvement of other organs. The patient was followed for two years and no recurrence of hydatid disease has been observed. Hydatid cyst should be considered as a differential diagnosis of abdominal wall and umbilical lesions especially in endemic regions.

  6. Atypical localizations of hydatid disease: Experience from a single institute

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    Majid Mushtaque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The hydatid disease most often involves the liver and the lungs. The disease can involve any part of the body except the hair, teeth and nails. Primary extrahepatico-pulmonary hydatid cysts are rare and only a few sporadic cases have been reported. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty-four patients with hydatid cysts managed surgically from January 2005 to December 2009 were evaluated retrospectively. Fourteen (5.7% patients had isolated involvement of the atypical sites, while six (2.4% also had a primary involvement of liver. Results: The cysts were present in gall bladder (0.4%, peritoneum (1.6%, spleen (1.6%, ovary (0.4%, subcutaneous (0.8%, seminal vesicle (0.4%, spinal (0.4%, pancreas (0.4%, kidney (0.4%, mediastinal (0.4%, muscle (0.4%, and brain (0.8%. Discussion and Conclusions: Involvement of sites other than liver and lungs by hydatid disease is rare. Symptoms are related to size, location or possible complication of the cyst. It should be strongly suspected in differential diagnosis of all abdominal cysts especially in an endemic area. Proper surgical and medical management to avoid any recurrences, and a regular follow-up, are of utmost importance to detect any late complications such as local recurrence of the disease and development of hydatidosis at the primary sites.

  7. Giant isolated renal cyst hydatid: From diagnosis to treatment

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    Senol Adanur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst disease is a parasitic infestation caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Renal involvement is rarely seen as 2-4% of all cases. Rarely renal involvement is isolated whereas commonly it accompanies involvement of other organs. We aimed to present a 30-year-old male patient with renal involvement reaching a giant size and undiagnosed in another center.

  8. INTRAMUSCULAR HYDATID CYST OF PARASPINAL MUSCLE: A RARE LOCATION

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    Bhargava Vardhana Reddy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hydatid disease has a worldwide distribution and causes health problems in endemic countries. The parasite has a "dog - sheep" cycle with man as an intermediate accidental host. When humans ingest the eggs of the tapeworm, the embryos that emer ge penetrate the intestinal mucosa and are transported via the circulation to various organs. Most commonly they reach the liver, lungs and the other organs are rarely affected. Primary hydatid cyst of skeletal muscle is rare, occurring in 1 - 3% of all case s. (1,2 The prevalence of intramuscular hydatid disease is reported to be less than 0.5% , because muscle is an unfavourable site for infestation because of high levels of lactic acid in muscle. (3 The diagnosis is difficult because of the unusual location, low prevalence and complicated cysts may mimic solid or complex lesions. (4 The differential diagnosis in these cases must include malignant soft - tissue tumors such as myxoid liposarcoma, soft tissue abscesses and chronic hematoma. (5 Hydatid disease of h umans caused by Echinococcus granulosus has been recognized as a major public health problem. It is found in all sheep - raising countries of the world. In India, the highest prevalence is reported from Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. (6 Injudicious approach in the management of these rare presentations may be the root cause of severe anaphylactic shock and systemic dissemination. We report an unusual case of primary hydatidosis of the paraspinal muscles

  9. PRIMARY MULTILOCULAR HYDATID CYST OF NECK : A RARE CASE REPORT

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    Deepak Ramraj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease, also known as echinococcosis or hydatidosis , is an infectious disease caused by Echinococcus. Echinococcus granulosus is the most common Echinococcus species affecting human beings. It may affect any organ and tissue in the body, in particular the liver and lung. Musculoskeletal or soft tissue hyda tidosis accounts for about 0.5% 5% of all echinococcal infections in endemic areas, and is almost always secondary to the hepatic or pulmonary disease. Even in regions where echinococcosis is endemic, hydatidosis of cervicofacial region is extremely rare. Herein, we present exceptionally rare case in a 55 year old female with an unusual localization of primary multilocular hydatid cyst in the right supraclavicular region of the neck. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose hydatid cyst in rare loc ations like this. Hydatid cyst should be considered in differential diagnosis of benign swellings of head and neck region, so that it can be managed during surgery to prevent acute anaphylaxis

  10. Association of Hepatic Hydatid Cyst Disease and Liver Tuberculosis

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    Songul Ozyurt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst and tuberculosis are common infectious diseases in our country. However, co-incidence of these two diseases is a rare case. This refers to spontaneous emergence of cyst hydatid and tuberculosis lesion in liver which is presented in this paper. Liver tuberculosis can be detected either as a component of miliary tuberculosis or isolated liver tuberculosis. Herein we report a case of 46 year-old male. He applied to the emergency due to the severe right-side pain which coupled with breathing and movement. This was reported to last for 10 days. Lesion compatible to cyst hydatid with a size of 151 x 144 x 128 mm was detected in the right lobe anterior in his abdomen ultrasonography. Echinococcus indirect hemagglutination test resulted in 1/640 positive. The patient had liver cystectomy by general surgery clinic. After microscopic examination of excision material, chronic granulomatous inflamation with caseous necrosis was detected in parenchyma to which cyst hydatid and lesion were attached. PPD result was 16 mm. The patient, whose lungs were normal, received antituberculosis treatment due to primary liver tuberculosis.

  11. Immunological follow-up of hydatid cyst cases

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    Bulut Vedat

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by Echinococcus granulosus. In this study, we aimed to investigate the benefit of monitoring cases with hydatid cyst by means of immune components in patients in a long-term follow-up after surgery. Eighty-four preoperative and postoperative serum samples from 14 cases undergoing surgery for hydatid disease were evaluated in terms of immune parameters, such as total and specific IgE, IgG, IgM, IgA and complement. Total and specific IgE were determined by ELISA. Specific IgG levels were measured by indirect hemaglutination.Total IgG, IgM, IgA and complement (C3 and C4 were detected by nephelometry. Imaging studies were also carried out during the follow-up. In none of the patients hydatid cysts were detected during the follow-up. Total IgE levels in the sera of the patients decreased to normal six months after surgery. Although specific IgE against echinococcal antigens decreased one year after operation, levels were still significantly high. There were no changes in the levels of anti-Echinococcus IgG and total IgG in follow-up period. Additionally, other parameters, such as IgA, IgM, C3 and C4, were not affected.

  12. A Case Report of Hydatid Disease in Long Bone

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    H Fanian

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst, caused by echinococcus granulosa, can produce tissue cyst everywhere in body. Skeletal cystic lesion is rare especially in long bones like tibia and because of its unusual presentation, its diagnosis may easily be missed, unless be kept in mind.

  13. CEREBRAL HYDATID DISEASE: CT AND MR IMAGING FINDINGS

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    Ajay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cerebral hydatid disease is very rare, representing only 2% of all cerebral space occupying lesions even in the countries where the disease is endemic. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristic features of cerebral hydatid disease in computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: Here is a case 25yr/m who presented to neurosurgery OPD with complaints of headache, vomiting, right sided weakness and seizures for 2 weeks. CT and MRI were the imaging modalities to reach the diagnosis which was pathologically confirmed postoperatively as hydatid disease. RESULTS: CT and MR imaging findings of E. granulosus lesions were well defined, smooth thin-walled, spherical, homogeneous cystic lesions with no contrast enhancement, no calcification, and no surrounding oedema. CONCLUSION: Although cystic cerebral hydatid disease is well demonstrated by CT and MR examinations, CT is superior in detecting calcification in the cyst, when present, MR is better in demonstrating cyst capsule, detecting multiplicity and defining the anatomic relationship of the lesion with the adjacent structures, and it is more helpful in surgical planning.

  14. MRI in primary intraspinal extradural hydatid disease: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, C. [Department of Neurosurgery, Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Avicenna Medical Centre, Ankara (Turkey); Ciftci, E. [Camlik Sitesi, Ankara (Turkey); Erdogan, A. [Department of Radiology, Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Avicenna Medical Centre, Ankara (Turkey)

    1998-06-01

    A rare case of pathologically proven primary intraspinal extradural hydatid disease of the thoracic region with spinal cord compression is reported. The diagnosis was established preoperatively on the basis of the MRI findings. The patient underwent surgery and recovered completely. (orig.) With 2 figs., 12 refs.

  15. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN HYDATID CYST OF THE ORBIT

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    K. Abbassioun

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of hydatid cysts of the orbit causing unilateral exophthalmos are reported. Diagnosis were suspected by means of computed tomography (CT and confirmed at Operation. CT changes are described and its value in diagnosis of this lesion particularly in the endemic areas is stressed.

  16. Hydatid disease of the spleen; Ultrasonography, CT and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von; Stridbeck, H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital, and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) Lund Univ. Hospital (Sweden))

    1992-09-01

    Seven patients with hydatid disease of the spleen were examined by radiography, ultrasound, CT, and in one case MR imaging. The observations were confirmed by patho-anatomic findings except in 2 patients where high indirect hemagglutination tests confirmed the diagnosis. (orig./MG).

  17. A different approach for sterilization of liver hydatid cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet Tekin; Tevfik Kücükkartallar; Adil Kartal

    2007-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Many different methods have been used in surgical treatment of liver hydatid cysts[1].However, two methods have been frequently used reccently:one is used to radically remove the cyst and the other is used to shrink the cyst cavity after treated with scolocidal agents.

  18. HYDATID CYST PRESENTING AS OVARIAN CYST : A CASE REPORT

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    Helen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease which may present as potential health hazard to human. In developing country like India , it is a significant health problem. Surgery is the treatment of choice for hydatid cyst. Recurrence may be avoided by antihelminthic supplements post - surgery

  19. Efficacy of an infection control programme in reducing nosocomial bloodstream infections in a Senegalese neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landre-Peigne, C; Ka, A S; Peigne, V; Bougere, J; Seye, M N; Imbert, P

    2011-10-01

    Neonatal nosocomial infections are public health threats in the developing world, and successful interventions are rarely reported. A before-and-after study was conducted in the neonatal unit of the Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal to assess the efficacy of a multi-faceted hospital infection control programme implemented from March to May 2005. The interventions included clustering of nursing care, a simple algorithm for empirical therapy of suspected early-onset sepsis, minimal invasive care and promotion of early discharge of neonates. Data on nosocomial bloodstream infections, mortality, bacterial resistance and antibiotic use were collected before and after implementation of the infection control programme. One hundred and twenty-five infants were admitted immediately before the programme (Period 1, January-February 2005) and 148 infants were admitted immediately after the programme (Period 2, June-July 2005). The two groups of infants were comparable in terms of reason for admission and birth weight. After implementation of the infection control programme, the overall rate of nosocomial bloodstream infections decreased from 8.8% to 2.0% (P=0.01), and the rate of nosocomial bloodstream infections/patient-day decreased from 10.9 to 2.9/1000 patient-days (P=0.03). Overall mortality rates did not differ significantly. The proportion of neonates who received antimicrobial therapy for suspected early-onset sepsis decreased significantly from 100% to 51% of at-risk infants (Pnosocomial bloodstream infections, and the efficacy of these interventions was long-lasting. Such interventions could be extended to other low-income countries.

  20. Back School programme for nurses has reduced low back pain levels: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Járomi, M; Kukla, A; Szilágyi, B; Ugron, Á; Kovácsné Bobály, V; Makai, A; Linek, P; Ács, P; Leidecker, E

    2017-08-03

    Millions of nurses around the world suffer from occupational-related chronic non-specific low back pain (cnsLBP). Generally, LBP in nurses is a result of increased pressure on the spine, and can be associated with improperly conducted patient lifting techniques. The purposes of the study were:1) to examine patient lifting techniques used by nurses; and 2) to evaluate an effectiveness of the Spine Care for Nurses programme in cnsLBP reduction and the execution of proper patient lifting techniques. A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 137 nurses with cnsLBP. Participants were randomized into an experimental and control group (experimental group n=67, control group n=70). Nurses in the experimental group attended the Spine Care for Nurses programme for three months. The programme consisted of didactic education, spine-strengthening exercises, and education on safe patient handling techniques. The control group only received a brief written lifestyle guidance. The Zebris WinSpine Triple Lumbar examination was utilised to analyse nurses' patient lifting techniques (horizontal and vertical lifting). The lumbar pain intensity was measured with a 0-100 Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The pre-intervention average cnsLBP intensity score on VAS decreased from 49.3, to the post-intervention score of 7.5. The correct execution of vertical lifting techniques in the experimental group increased from 8.91% to 97.01% (control group: 8.57% pre and post 11.42%). The horizontal patient lifting technique pre-intervention increased from 10.44% to 100% correct execution in the experimental group (control group: pre 10.00% and post 11.42%). The Spine Care for Nurses programme significantly reduced cnsLBP and increased the number of properly executed horizontal and vertical patient lifting techniques in nurses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Pelvic hydatid cyst with uncommon sciatalgia manifestation: a case report

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    Ghodratolah Maddah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydatid disease or echinococcosis is a common parasitic disease of human and bovine, caused by infection with larva of the cestode echinococcus. Liver is the most common organ that is involved in this disease. Pelvic involvement and neurological symptoms, due to mass effect of pelvic involvement, in lower extremities are very uncommon manifestations of the disease.Case presentation: A forty six year old man was referred to clinic of surgery at Ghaem Hospital, Medical University of Mashhad, Iran. The patient complained about weakness and motor impairment in right lower extremity accompanied by numbness and radicular pain over past two months. Physical examination demonstrated muscular atrophy and reduced muscular strength in right lower extremity. Computed tomography and ultrasonographic studies showed a cystic mass in right side of the pelvic cavity with extention to the sciatic notch and another cystic mass in right gluteal region. Surgical operation revealed a cystic mass deep in pelvic cavity with the extention to the right sciatic notch with compression of nerve roots. The cystic mass was contained of daughter cysts which confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst disease. This diagnosis was confirmed by pathologic assessment.Conclusion: Although uncommon, but hydatid disease can involve the pelvic cavity and make a pelvic, usually cystic, mass; that can make compression on nerve roots and so making neurologic symptoms in lower extremities. So in endemic areas for hydatid disease, such as Iran, pelvic hydatid cysts should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in patients presenting with the sciatic pain and neurological manifestations in whom a pelvic mass has been found too.

  2. Liver Hydatid Cyst in Children (A 14-year Review

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    Mohsen Rouzrokh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Hydatid disease is still an important health hazard in the world. This disease is a parasitic infestation which is endemic in many sheep and cattle raising areas such as in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical appearance, diagnosis, and treatment of liver hydatid cyst in children. Methods:This retrospective study evaluated 100 patients who were referred to Mofid Childrens Hospital with liver hydatid cyst from March 1996 to March 2010. Medical records of 1 to 14 year old patients who had definitive liver hydatid cyst were included and analysis of variables such as age, gender, symptoms, diagnostic investigation, operative technique, hospital stay, mortality, morbidity and outcome of treatment were evaluated. Findings:The patients consisted of 54 boys (54% and 46 (46% girls with an age range of 1-14 years (mean 11.8±4.6. The incidence rate increased by age. The patients had totally 110 cysts, right pulmonary lobe 81 (73% cysts and left side had 29 (27%. Abdominal mass was the most common (50% symptom. Abdominal sonography gave correct diagnosis in 94 (94% patients. Conservative surgical treatment was carried out in 98 children. Two patients were treated medically as the cysts were small and calcified. The most common complication was wound infection in 3 cases. Mean length of hospitalization was 9 days. In 100% of our patients the type of parasite was Echinoccocus granulosus. The morbidity rate was 12%   (prolonging external catheter drainage in 12 patients. There was only one (1% mortality and 2 (2% recurrences. Conclusion:Due to the less invasive and high accuracy of liver sonography in diagnosis of hydatid cyst, we recommend it as the method of choice for the diagnosis in endemic regions. Surgery is the method of choice for treatment.

  3. Disease Control in Wildlife: Evaluating a Test and Cull Programme for Bovine Tuberculosis in African Buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roex, N; Cooper, D; van Helden, P D; Hoal, E G; Jolles, A E

    2016-12-01

    Providing an evidence base for wildlife population management is difficult, due to limited opportunities for experimentation and study replication at the population level. We utilized an opportunity to assess the outcome of a test and cull programme aimed at limiting the spread of Mycobacterium bovis in African buffalo. Buffalo act as reservoirs of M. bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), which can have major economic, ecological and public health impacts through the risk of infection to other wildlife species, livestock and surrounding communities. BTB prevalence data were collected in conjunction with disease control operations in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, from 1999 to 2006. A total of 4733 buffalo (250-950 per year) were tested for BTB using the single comparative intradermal tuberculin (SCIT) test, with BTB-positive animals culled, and negative animals released. BTB prevalence was spatially and temporally variable, ranging from 2.3% to 54.7%. Geographic area was a strong predictor of BTB transmission in HiP, owing to relatively stable herds and home ranges. Herds experiencing more intensive and frequent captures showed reduced per capita disease transmission risk and less increase in herd prevalence over time. Disease hot spots did not expand spatially over time, and BTB prevalence in all but the hot spot areas was maintained between 10% and 15% throughout the study period. Our data suggest that HiP's test and cull programme was effective at reducing BTB transmission in buffalo, with capture effort and interval found to be the crucial components of the programme. The programme was thus successful with respect to the original goals; however, there are additional factors that should be considered in future cost/benefit analyses and decision-making. These findings may be utilized and expanded in future collaborative work between wildlife managers, veterinarians and scientists, to optimize wildlife disease control programmes and

  4. Private Practitioners’ Perspectives on Their Involvement With the Tuberculosis Control Programme in a Southern Indian State

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    Solomon Salve

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Public and private health sectors both play a crucial role in the health systems of low- and middleincome countries (LMICs. The tuberculosis (TB control strategy in India encourages the public sector to actively partner with private practitioners (PPs to improve the quality of front line service delivery. However, ensuring effective and sustainable involvement of PPs constitutes a major challenge. This paper reports the findings from an empirical study focusing on the perspectives and experiences of PPs towards their involvement in TB control programme in India. Methods The study was carried out between November 2010 and December 2011 in a district of a Southern Indian State and utilised qualitative methodologies, combining observations and in-depth interviews with 21 PPs from different medical systems. The collected data was coded and analysed using thematic analysis. Results PPs perceived themselves to be crucial healthcare providers, with different roles within the public-private mix (PPM TB policy. Despite this, PPs felt neglected and undervalued in the actual process of implementation of the PPM-TB policy. The entire process was considered to be government driven and their professional skills and knowledge of different medical systems remained unrecognised at the policy level, and weakened their relationship and bond with the policy and with the programme. PPs had contrasting perceptions about the different components of the TB programme that demonstrated the public sector’s dominance in the overall implementation of the DOTS strategy. Although PPs felt responsible for their TB patients, they found it difficult to perceive themselves as ‘partners with the TB programme.’ Conclusion Public-private partnerships (PPPs are increasingly utilized as a public health strategy to strengthen health systems. These policies will fail if the concerns of the PPs are neglected. To ensure their long-term involvement in the programme the

  5. Primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagga, Permeet Kaur; Bhargava, Satish Kumar; Aggarwal, Neema; Chander, Yogesh

    2014-08-01

    Hydatid disease or human cystic echinococcosis, recognized by ancient scholars such as Hippocrates, Galen and Rhazes, is one of the oldest diseases known to man. Though hydatid cyst may develop in almost any part of the body, a solitary primary subcutaneous localization is an extremely rare entity. We herein report a case of primary subcutaneous inguinal hydatid cyst which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Radiological examination done subsequently corroborated with the cytodiagnosis of Hydatid cyst and did not show involvement of any other organ or site. Histopathological examination of surgically removed cyst confirmed the diagnosis of Hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all unusual swellings in soft tissues, especially in regions where the disease is endemic.

  6. LAPAROSCOPIC MANAGEMENT OF A LARGE HYDATID CYST OF LIVER (CASE REPORT

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    B. P. Padhy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydatid disease in humans is endemic in sheep rearing regions. However, a worldwide distribution is encountered. This is a parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulossus, which is a cestode. Liver is the most affected organ. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment in hydatid cyst of liver. Since the popularization of laparoscopic surgery, hydatid cyst of liver is being treated laparoscopically in few of the centers. Spillage and anaphylactic reactions are the main pitfalls of laparoscopic management of the hydatid cyst of the liver. We present a case of hydatid cyst of liver, which was managed laparoscopically using Palanivelu Hydatid System (PHS without any   spillage or anaphylactic reaction.

  7. System Design and Installation for RS600 Programmable Control System for Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This document contains the installation, operation and maintenance manual, the system design drawings, installation drawings and the system design data brochure. It provides detailed information necessary for the building/ purchase and installation of the RS600 Programmable Control System for solar heating, combined heating and cooling and/ or hot water systems. Included are such item as general specifications, user configuration and options, displays, theory of operation, trouble-shooting procedures, parts lists, drawings, diagrams, wiring lists and warranty assistance.

  8. A community empowerment strategy embedded in a routine dengue vector control programme: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marta; Sánchez, Lizet; Pérez, Dennis; Carbonell, Nestor; Lefèvre, Pierre; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2012-05-01

    The non-sustainability of vertically organised dengue vector control programmes led to pleas for changing the emphasis towards community-based strategies. We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial with 16 intervention and 16 control clusters to test the effectiveness of a community empowerment strategy intertwined with the routine dengue vector control programme in La Lisa, Havana City, Cuba. The intervention included four components on top of routine control: organisation and management; entomological risk surveillance; capacity building; and community work for vector control. In the control clusters, routine activities continued without interference. The community participation score increased from 1.4 to 3.4. Good knowledge of breeding sites increased by 52.8% and 27.5% in the intervention and control clusters, respectively. There were no changes in adequate Aedes aegypti control practices at household level in the control clusters, but in the intervention clusters adequacy increased by 36.2%. At baseline, the Breteau indices (BI) were approximately 0.1 and were comparable; they fluctuated over time but became different with the launch of the community-based dengue control activities in the intervention clusters. Over the intervention period, the BI remained 53% (95% CI 22-92%) lower in these clusters than in the control clusters. The empowerment strategy increased community involvement and added effectiveness to routine A. aegypti control.

  9. MANUFACTURING NON-CIRCULAR PARTS USING PROGRAMMABLE MULTIPLE-AXIS CONTROLLER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Successful attempt is made to solve the problem of manufacturing non-circular parts with the aid of programmable multiple-axis controller(PMAC) integrated with high-speed electrical spindle. Principles of PMAC are introduced, and an NC-grinder system is integrated based on PMAC with proper software included. Control method and integration principle are discussed. Using PMAC's online measuring and time-based controlling, high-speed and high-precision manufacture of non-circular parts is accomplished, yielding satisfactory result, which sets an important foundation for development of high-speed and high-precision NC grinder aiming at machining of non-circular parts.

  10. Implementation of an HACCP model in foot and mouth disease control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, C J; Durrieu, M; Schudel, A A

    2015-12-01

    The organisation and structure of the official Veterinary Services (OVS) are designed to meet a specific aim--the health certification of animal health, welfare and food safety in the production and processing stage. Disease prevention and control calls for programmes and projects that, depending on the characteristics of each disease, may involve any branch of the OVS, from the laboratory to field activities. For the purpose of this work, the model used is that of a country that is 'free from foot and mouth disease with vaccination' in accordance with the conditions stipulated in Chapter 8.8. of the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code. These conditions state that, to maintain this health status, a programme of monitoring and continuous control of the relevant variables must be implemented. This is achieved by applying good practice and identifying the critical control points in all processes, using a checklist that simplifies the task. The system that is developed can also serve as a guide for internal or external programme audits.

  11. Hydatid Disease in Yemeni Patients attending Public and Private Hospitals in Sana’a City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbasit Alghoury

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hydatid disease is endemic and represents a major health problem in Yemen. The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of the problem of hydatidosis in patients attending Public and Private Hospitals at Sana’a city, Yemen.Methods:66 patients with hydatid disease were identified during the period from August 2006 to February 2007. Complete medical history for all CE patients were collected and analyzed.Results: Among the 66 CE patients, 67% were females and 33% males. Liver was the most common involved organ. Single cyst was more frequently detected than multiple cysts and approximately 94% of the cysts were ≥5 cm. Moreover, Public hospitals were the main source of patients with CE disease.Conclusion: Hydatidosis is still an endemic disease and an important health problem in Yemen which needs to be studied further. Therefore, accurate information on the distribution of the disease is the first step for the control and prevention of the disease. Moreover, it is crucial to investigate the role of different intermediate hosts and genotypes of E. granulosus in humans and animals.

  12. Unusual presentation of an infected primary hydatid cyst of biceps femoris muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarhan, N.C.; Agildere, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Fevzi Cakmak cad. 10. sok No:45, Bahcelievler 06490, Ankara (Turkey); Tuncay, I.C.; Demirors, H. [Department of Orthopedics, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Barutcu, O. [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana Teaching and Research Center, Adana (Turkey)

    2002-10-01

    Hydatid cysts of the musculoskeletal system are rare. Unusual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of an infected primary hydatid cyst of the biceps femoris muscle are presented in a 40-year-old man on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure. No daughter cysts were present within the mother cyst cavity, but there was a fatty nodule which has not previously been described in a muscular hydatid cyst. Although the cyst was infected secondarily, no surrounding soft tissue inflammatory reaction was noted. Hydatid cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of unusual soft-tissue masses in regions where the disease is endemic. (orig.)

  13. Use of a programmable desk-top calculator for the statistical quality control of radioimmunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernosek, S F; Gutierrez-Cernosek, R M

    1978-07-01

    We have developed an interactive statistical quality-control system for the small- to medium-sized radioimmunoassay laboratory, which can be used in a programmable desk-top calculator instead of the medium- or large-scale computer systems usually required. The design of this quality-control system is modeled after the suggestions of Rodbard and has three components. The first component evaluates the relationship between the measured response variable of the radioimmunoassay and the precision (or variance) of these measurements. This derived relationship is then used in the second component of the system as the basis for the weighting function used to calculate an interative, weighted, least squares regression of the logit-log transformation of the dose-response curve. The third component uses the quality-control parameters statistically calculated from the linearized dose-response curve to monitor whether the assay is "in-control". The calculator tabulates the means and confidence limits for the various parameters and can plot the statistical quality-control charts. The major benefit of this statistical quality-control system is that it allows the real-time computation and plotting of quality-control data with a programmable desk-top calculator.

  14. [Implementation of mastitis prevention and control programmes on Flemish dairy farms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepers, S; Van Brempt, H; Supré, K; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

    2010-01-15

    Mastitis prevention and control programmes were developed in the 1960s and have since been adopted with considerable success. Our data for a convenience sample of 45 Flemish dairy farms demonstrate that the well-known "five-point prevention and control programme" is still not, or not adequately, implemented. For example, only 18% of the dairy farmers prestripped their cows and wiped the teats using single-use dry towels before attaching the milking units. Although about 70% of the farms practised post-milking teat disinfection (dipping or spraying), 40% of the farmers did this inadequately. On only one farm were cows with clinical mastitis treated both locally and parenterally for at least 3 days, and on only 7% of the dairy farms was the udder health status of the herd systematically monitored. According to the dairy farmers, the extra labour and stress caused by udder health problems were the most troublesome aspects of mastitis. On the basis of this study, it can be concluded that bovine practitioners in the Flemish region should critically evaluate the mastitis management of their clients (farmers) and motivate them to implement an efficient mastitis prevention programme.

  15. Active surveillance and control programme for Salmonella Dublin in Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Rattenborg, Erik

    2011-01-01

    surveillance systems. Register data might be useful for design of effective surveillance programmes for Salmonella Dublin in cattle in the future. Statistical analysis of register-based variables confirmed previously known risk factors for becoming test-positive (i.e. purchase of animals from test......This study illustrates how prevalence and incidence of Salmonella Dublin in cattle has been markedly reduced in dairy herds during active surveillance and a control programme targeting infected herds in Denmark from 2002 to 2010. The results suggest that this might by a good alternative to passive......-positive herds, number of cattle in test-positive neighbouring herds, herd size and season), but also pointed out additional factors affecting the risk of dairy herds changing status from test-negative to test-positive (indicative of new or recurrent infection). Increasing geometric cell count measured through...

  16. Improvement of photovoltaic pumping systems based on standard frequency converters by means of programmable logic controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ramos, Jose [Departamento de Electronica, Universidad de Malaga, Complejo Tecnologico de Teatinos (2.2.39), 29071 Malaga (Spain); Narvarte-Fernandez, Luis; Poza-Saura, Fernando [Instituto de Energia Solar, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (IES-UPM), Avenida Complutense s/n (204), 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS) based on standard frequency converters (SFCs) are currently experiencing a growing interest in pumping programmes implemented in remote areas because of their high performance in terms of component reliability, low cost, high power range and good availability of components virtually anywhere in the world. However, in practical applications there have appeared a number of problems related to the adaptation of the SFCs to the requirements of the photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS). Another disadvantage of dedicated PVPS is the difficulty in implementing maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper shows that these problems can be solved through the addition of a basic industrial programmable logic controller (PLC) to the system. This PLC does not increase the cost and complexity of the system, but improves the adaptation of the SFC to the photovoltaic pumping system, and increases the overall performance of the system. (author)

  17. Programmable Thermostats for MPLM Shell Heater Control ULF1. 1; Thermal Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Shaun; Clark, Dallas; Trichilo, Michele; Trichilo, Michele

    2007-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) is the primary carrier for "pressurized" logistics to and from the International Space Station (ISS). The MPLM is transported in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle and is docked to the ISS for unloading, and reloading, of contents within the ISS shirt sleeve environment. Foil heaters, controlled originally with bi-metallic thermostats, are distributed across the outside of the MPLM structure and are utilized to provide energy to the structure to avoid exposure to cold temperatures and prevent condensation. The existing bi-metallic, fixed temperature set point thermostats have been replaced with Programmable Thermostats Modules (PTMs) in the Passive Thermal Control Subsystem (PTCS) 28Vdc shell heater circuits. The goal of using the PTM thermostat is to improve operational efficiency of the MPLM on-orbit shell heaters by providing better shell temperature control via feedback control capability. Each heater circuit contains a programmable thermostat connected to an external temperature sensor, a Resistive Temperature Device (RTD), which is used to provide continuous temperature monitoring capability. Each thermostat has programmable temperature set points and control spans. The data acquisition system uses a standard RS-485 serial interface communications cable to provide digital control capability. The PTM system was designed by MSFC, relying upon ALTEC support for their integration within the MPLM system design, while KSC performed the installation and ground checkout testing of the thermostat and RS-485 communication cable on the MPLM FM1 flight module. The PTMs were used for the first time during the STS-121/ULF1.1 mission. This paper will describe the design, development and verification of the PTM system, as well as the PTM flight performance and comparisons with SINDA thermal model predictions.

  18. Field Programmable Gate Array for Implementation of Redundant Advanced Digital Feedback Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K. D.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this effort was to develop a digital motor controller using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This is a more rugged approach than a conventional microprocessor digital controller. FPGAs typically have higher radiation (rad) tolerance than both the microprocessor and memory required for a conventional digital controller. Furthermore, FPGAs can typically operate at higher speeds. (While speed is usually not an issue for motor controllers, it can be for other system controllers.) Other than motor power, only a 3.3-V digital power supply was used in the controller; no analog bias supplies were used. Since most of the circuit was implemented in the FPGA, no additional parts were needed other than the power transistors to drive the motor. The benefits that FPGAs provide over conventional designs-lower power and fewer parts-allow for smaller packaging and reduced weight and cost.

  19. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion - Synthesis report 2010; Programme de recherche Fusion thermonucleaire controlee. Rapport de synthese 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaucher, C. [Secretariat d' Etat a l' education et a la recherche, Berne (Switzerland); Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET). The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is being built; the first plasma is expected in 2019. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL participates to EURATOM scientific and technological projects in magnetic confinement physics, through an experimental contribution (the Variable Configuration Tokamak, TCV) and theoretical studies. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. A configuration of type 'snowflakes' could be created, reducing the power deposition at the edge of the plasma. Theoretical studies on turbulence have improved the plasma stability in the TCV. For the first time in the world, TCV could reach a stable plasma, the plasma current being generated using the so-called 'bootstrap' phenomenon. Besides turbulence, studies were focused on heat and particle transport in tokamaks, on an analysis of the equilibrium and magneto-hydrodynamic stability of tokamaks and stellarators, on the application of radiofrequency waves and on the optimization of new confinement configurations. Experiments in the JET facility confirmed the numerical results of theoretical simulations. The TORPEX facility, which is simpler than TCV, allows high space-temporal resolution measurements for the study of turbulences and plasma threads ('blobs'). At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research topics include

  20. Buruli Ulcer in Cameroon: The Development and Impact of the National Control Programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earnest Njih Tabah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon is endemic for Buruli ulcer (BU and organised institutional BU control began in 2002. The objective was to describe the evolution, achievements and challenges of the national BU control programme (NBUCP and to make suggestions for scaling up the programme.We analysed collated data on BU from 2001 to 2014 and reviewed activity reports NBUCP in Cameroon. Case-detection rates and key BU control indicators were calculated and plotted on a time scale to determine trends in performance. A linear regression analysis of BU detection rate from 2005-2014 was done. The regression coefficient was tested statistically for the significance in variation of BU detection rate.In 14 years of BU control, 3700 cases were notified. The BU detection rate dropped significantly from 3.89 to 1.45 per 100 000 inhabitants. The number of BU endemic health districts rose from two to 64. Five BU diagnostic and treatment centres are functional and two more are planned for 2015. The health system has been strengthened and BU research and education has gained more interest in Cameroon.Although institutional BU control Cameroon only began 30 years after the first cases were reported in 1969, a number of milestones have been attained. These would serve as stepping stones for charting the way forward and improving upon control activities in the country if the major challenge of resource allocation is dealt with.

  1. Evaluation of a nurse-led dementia education and knowledge translation programme in primary care: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Ullah, Shahid; He, Guo-Ping; De Bellis, Anita

    2017-02-01

    The lack of dementia education programmes for health professionals in primary care is one of the major factors contributing to the unmet demand for dementia care services. To determine the effectiveness of a nurse-led dementia education and knowledge translation programme for health professionals in primary care; participants' satisfaction with the programme; and to understand participants' perceptions of and experiences in the programme. A cluster randomized controlled trial was used as the main methodology to evaluate health professionals' knowledge, attitudes and care approach. Focus groups were used at the end of the project to understand health professionals' perceptions of and experiences in the programme. Fourteen community health service centres in a province in China participated in the study. Seven centres were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group respectively and 85 health professionals in each group completed the programme. A train-the-trainer model was used to implement a dementia education and knowledge translation programme. Outcome variables were measured at baseline, on the completion of the programme and at 3-month follow-up. A mixed effect linear regression model was applied to compare the significant differences of outcome measures over time between the two groups. Focus groups were guided by four semi-structured questions and analysed using content analysis. Findings revealed significant effects of the education and knowledge translation programme on participants' knowledge, attitudes and a person-centred care approach. Focus groups confirmed that the programme had a positive impact on dementia care practice. A dementia education and knowledge translation programme for health professionals in primary care has positive effects on their knowledge, attitudes, care approach and care practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preoperative therapeutic programme for elderly patients scheduled for elective abdominal oncological surgery: A randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dronkers, J.J.; Lamberts, H.; Reutelingsperger, I.M.M.D.; Naber, R.H.; Dronkers-Landman, C.M.; Veldman, A.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Investigation of the feasibility and preliminary effect of a short-term intensive preoperative exercise programme for elderly patients scheduled for elective abdominal oncological surgery. Design: Single-blind randomized controlled pilot study. Setting: Ordinary hospital in the Netherland

  3. Development and evaluation of two root caries controlling programmes for home-based frail people older than 75 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Martignon, Stefania; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    (i) Initially, to devise and examine the validity of a system for determining lesion activity on root surfaces, and (ii) compare the effectiveness of two preventive programmes in controlling root caries in elderly people using the devised system....

  4. Pleuropulmonary hydatid disease treated with thoracoscopic instillation of hypertonic saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmanan P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by the larval stage of the cestode, Echinococcus granulo-sus. Man is the intermediate host in its life cycle. The most common organ involved is liver followed by lung. Although surgery remains the definitive treatment for symptomatic lesions, it is associated with considerable morbidity. Other less inva-sive treatment strategies as an adjunct to medical treatment that have been tried in various case series include percutaneous aspiration, instillation and re-aspiration of scolicidal agents (PAIR, and thoracoscopic removal of cysts located subpleurally. Here we report the case of a 58 year old gentleman with hepatic and pleuropulmo-nary hydatid disease who was subjected to medical thoracoscopy and instillation of hypertonic saline (3%, followed by medical management with albendazole with which complete resolution of the pulmonary cysts was achieved.

  5. Percutaneous CT-guided treatment of recurrent spinal cyst hydatid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ozgur; Calisaneller, Tarkan; Yildirim, Erkan; Altinors, Nur

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of spinal column in cyst hydatid disease is rare and hard to treat. The gold standard treatment is total removal of the cysts without rupture. However, recurrence after surgery is almost inevitable and reoperations carries technical difficulties and higher morbidity. We present a 69-year-old woman with two cystic masses at the T12 level, which compress the spinal cord causing severe paresis in her left leg. Under local anestesia, the cysts were aspirated and irrigated with 20% hypertonic saline solution via bilateral T12 transpedicular route. We aimed to report that percutaneous CT guided treatment should be considered as an alternative therapeutic option in case of recurrent spinal cyst hydatid.

  6. Thoracobiliary Fistula of Calcified Hydatid Cyst of the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Fackrju

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Thoracobiliary fistula is a rare complication of hydatid cystdisease of the liver especially in calcified form. Given the rarityand high mortality of such fistula, it is not surprising thatthere is no consensus about surgical treatment of this condition.In the present paper we report two cases of thoracobiliaryfistula of complicated calcified hydatid cyst of the liver. A 64-year-old man with cough and biliary sputum and a 66-year-oldman with cough and right biliary pleural effusion (pleurobiliaryfistula. The patients underwent left hepatectomy withcholecystectomy and T-tube choledochal drainage in one patientand successful decortication of the lung, and cystectomywith excision of calcified pericystectomy of the liver in anotherpatient. Pathologic examinations revealed calcified hydatidcysts of the liver. Because of poor prognosis of thoracobiliaryfistula, radical surgical intervention is recommended.

  7. Hydatid disease: the threat within Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alto, W A; Nettleton, L B

    1989-06-01

    Hydatid disease is a problem in those countries where man, grazing animals and dogs live in close association. The adult tapeworm of Echinococcus granulosus causes few, if any, symptoms in the dog and so its presence may be unsuspected. Transmission to man is by ingestion of eggs, which resist desiccation and may be viable for up to one year. Food or water may be directly contaminated or infection acquired by close contact with dogs carrying eggs in their saliva or hair. Though quarantine regulations exist, the introduction of the disease as the tapeworm in dogs or as the hydatid cyst in imported sheep from New Zealand has occurred and its spread is a possibility. The life cycle, clinical manifestations and significance if introduced to rural communities are discussed.

  8. Recommendations for the Use of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, D; Heinze, W; Maugain, J M; Rausch, R; Van der Vossen, O; Waeffler, S

    1998-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) have been increasingly used at CERN for several years. In future control solutions, PLCs will initially be considered for the rejuvenation of old and obsolete systems, and then for the control of new equipment to be installed in technical services, accelerators and experiments. Many industrial systems will be installed for the control of equipment during the next 5 to 10 years, particularly for the construction of the LHC project. In order to increase efficiency, to reduce the initial investment and to minimise the long term maintenance costs in terms of money and human resources the Working Group recommends that all CERN equipment control projects, based on PLCs, select or specify PLCs from the product lines of the recommended PLC manufacturers.

  9. [Isolated retrovesical hydatid cyst. Apropos of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Moussaoui, A; Aboutaieb, R; Joual, A; el Mrini, M; Meziane, F; Benjelloun, S

    1994-01-01

    Isolated retrovesical location of hydatid cyst is a very uncommon condition. Clinical patterns appear after a long course of the cyst. They are represented by hypogastric mass associated with compressive manifestations. Ultrasonography is essential for diagnosis and identification of other sites. When diagnosis is unclear, then CT scan plays a role. Cystectomy and pericystic resection, as extensive as possible, is the adequate treatment that gives successful results in most cases.

  10. Back bugged: A case of sacral hydatid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst of bone constitutes only 0.5 - 2% of all hydatidoses. The thoracic spine is the most common site of spinal hydatidoses. Primary hydatid cyst of the sacral spinal canal is rare. A 23-year-old gentleman had back pain five years ago. At that time he was evaluated and found to have a small cyst in S1 spinal canal, which was presumed to be a benign Tarlov′s cyst; and no treatment was offered. He continued to have back pain and also developed sciatica on the right side. Neurological examination presently revealed right S1 radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a large multiloculated cystic lesion extending from L5 to S2 spinal canal with bone erosion, both anteriorly and posteriorly. He underwent L5 to S2 laminectomy and excision of multiple cysts. The whole cyst was excised and cavity irrigated with sterilized formalin. A laparoscope was introduced in the cavity to look for extension into the pelvis and to confirm complete excision. Postoperatively, the patient received albendazole for two months. At 16 months follow-up the patient was asymptomatic. Hydatid cyst of sacrum is rare and can be missed at initial presentation. If the patient with a cystic lesion of sacral continues to have symptoms the diagnosis should be revaluated and prompt treatment should be offered.

  11. Role of albendazole in the management of hydatid cyst liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams-Ul-Bari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Hydatidosis has a worldwide distribution and the liver is the most common organ involved. Hydatid cysts of the liver can be managed either by nonoperative or operative methods. Nonoperative methods include chemotherapy and percutaneous treatment. The study aimed at understanding the effect of albendazole therapy on the viability of protoscoleces and recurrence rate of hydatid disease of the liver. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar, Kashmir, India, over a period of 2 years from January 2002 to December 2003, with further follow-up of 5 years. The study included 72 cases in the age group of 17-66 years, comprising 39 males and 33 females. The patients were randomized into two groups of 36 patients each. In group A, patients were directly subjected to surgery, while in group B, patients were administered albendazole for 12 weeks preoperatively, followed by a further postoperative course for 12 weeks. Results: Of patients who received albendazole therapy, no patient had viable cysts at the time of surgery, as compared to 94.45% of the patients who did not receive any preoperative albendazole (P<0.01. In patients who did not receive any albendazole therapy, recurrence rate was 16.66%, while no recurrence was seen in patients who received albendazole therapy ( P≤0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that albendazole is an effective adjuvant therapy in the treatment of hydatid liver disease.

  12. Hydatid cyst of the pancreas:Report of an undiagnosed case of pancreatic hydatid cyst and brief literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami; Akbulut; Ridvan; Yavuz; Nilgun; Sogutcu; Bulent; Kaya; Sinan; Hatipoglu; Ayhan; Senol; Firat; Demircan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To overview the literature on pancreatic hydatid cyst(PHC) disease, a disease frequently misdiagnosed during preoperative radiologic investigation.METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Google databases were searched to identify articles related to PHC using the following keywords: hydatid cyst, hydatid disease, unusual location of hydatid cyst, hydatid cyst and pancreas, pancreatic hydatid cyst, and pancreatic echinococcosis. The search included let-ters to the editor, case reports, review articles, original articles, meeting presentations and abstracts that had been published between January 2010 and April 2014 without any restrictions on language, journal, or country. All articles identified and retrieved which contained adequate information on the study population(including patient age and sex) and disease and treatment related data(such as cyst size, cyst location, and clinical man-agement) were included in the study; articles with in-sufficient demographic and clinical data were excluded. In addition, we evaluated a case of a 48-year-old fe-male patient with PHC who was treated in our clinic.RESULTS: A total of 58 patients, including our one new case,(age range: 4 to 70 years, mean ± SD: 31.4 ± 15.9 years) were included in the analysis. Twenty-nine of the patients were female, and 29 were male. The information about cyst location was available from studies involving 54 patients and indicated the follow-ing distribution of locations: pancreatic head(n = 21), pancreatic tail(n = 18), pancreatic body and tail(n = 8), pancreatic body(n = 5), pancreatic head and body(n = 1), and pancreatic neck(n = 1). Extra-pancreatic locations of hydatid cysts were reported in the studies involving 44 of the patients. Among these, no other focus than pancreas was detected in 32 of the patients(isolated cases) while 12 of the patients had hydatid cysts in extra-pancreatic sites(liver: n = 6, liver + spleen + peritoneum: n = 2, kidney: n = 1, liver + kidney: n = 1

  13. A conceptual and analytical approach to comparative analysis of country case studies: HIV and TB control programmes and health systems integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coker, Richard; Balen, Julie; Mounier-Jack, Sandra;

    2010-01-01

    Attempts to comparatively analyse large-scale communicable disease control programmes have, for the most part, neglected the wider health system contexts within which the programmes lie. In addition, many evaluations of the integration of vertical disease control programmes into health systems ha...

  14. Hydatid lung cyst in a 5-year-old boy presenting with prolonged fever

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    present a case of isolated hydatid cyst of the lung in a 5-year-old boy from a nomadic ... Hydatid disease is prevalent and widespread in sheep- and cattle- .... Deplazes P, Eckert J. Veterinary aspects of alveolar echinococcosis – a zoonosis of ...

  15. Coexistence of borderline ovarian epithelial tumor, primary pelvic hydatid cyst, and lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Gungor

    2011-06-01

    Discussion: Hydatid cyst should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominopelvic masses in endemic regions of the world. Preoperative diagnosis of primary pelvic hydatid disease is difficult and awareness of its possibility is very important especially in patients residing in or coming from endemic areas.

  16. Mesangioproliferative Glomerulonephritis Due to Hepatic Hydatid Disease: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Uğur USLU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst (CH, which is quite common in the world, mostly transmitted by dog faeces, is a parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. CH often infects the liver and lungs. During the clinical course, renal involvement is rarely seen. In this article; due to liver hydatid disease, mezengioproliferatif glomerulonephritis case is presented.

  17. Effect of immunization with protoscolices antigens of hydatid cysts on growth of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Aljawady

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the immune response of puppies, injected by different protein fractions extracted from protoscolieces, obtained from ovine hydatid cyst. Indirect heamagglutination revealed a remarkable increase in the antibody titers for the immunized groups (A1.5, A3, B1.5, and B3 before and after challenge when compared with the control. Biological variations showed decline in numbers of adult Echinococcus granulosus in the immunized groups when compared with the control. Other variations proved dropping in numbers of the worms within the same immunized groups. Subsequent reductions of cestodes were reported which were 83.8%, 81.3%, 78.2% and 74.6% for the groups A3, A1.5, B3, and B1.5, respectively.

  18. Programmable Control of the Pulse Repetition Rate in the Multiwave Strontium Vapor Laser System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatov Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was the development of laser systems for ablation of biological tissues with a programmable control over the lasing pulse repetition rate in a wide range. A two-stage laser system consisting of a master oscillator and a power amplifier based on strontium vapor laser has been developed. The operation of the laser system in a single-pulse mode operation, multipulse mode operation, and with a pulse repetition rate up to 20 kHz has been technically implemented. The possibility of a bone tissue ablation with no visible thermal damage is shown.

  19. Data acquisition and control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) for a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haijun; Li, Guofu; Duo, Liping; Jin, Yuqi; Wang, Jian; Sang, Fengting; Kang, Yuanfu; Li, Liucheng; Wang, Yuanhu; Tang, Shukai; Yu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    A user-friendly data acquisition and control system (DACS) for a pulsed chemical oxygen -iodine laser (PCOIL) has been developed. It is implemented by an industrial control computer,a PLC, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the valve and transmitter. The system is capable of handling 200 analogue/digital channels for performing various operations such as on-line acquisition, display, safety measures and control of various valves. These operations are controlled either by control switches configured on a PC while not running or by a pre-determined sequence or timings during the run. The system is capable of real-time acquisition and on-line estimation of important diagnostic parameters for optimization of a PCOIL. The DACS system has been programmed using software programmable logic controller (PLC). Using this DACS, more than 200 runs were given performed successfully.

  20. The Programmable Logic Controller and its application in nuclear reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomar, J.; Wyman, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to guide reviewers in the application of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCS) to the control, monitoring and protection of nuclear reactors. The first topics addressed are system-level design issues, specifically including safety. The document then discusses concerns about the PLC manufacturing organization and the protection system engineering organization. Supplementing this document are two appendices. Appendix A summarizes PLC characteristics. Specifically addressed are those characteristics that make the PLC more suitable for emergency shutdown systems than other electrical/electronic-based systems, as well as characteristics that improve reliability of a system. Also covered are PLC characteristics that may create an unsafe operating environment. Appendix B provides an overview of the use of programmable logic controllers in emergency shutdown systems. The intent is to familiarize the reader with the design, development, test, and maintenance phases of applying a PLC to an ESD system. Each phase is described in detail and information pertinent to the application of a PLC is pointed out.

  1. Unsustainable funding of high-burden tuberculosis control programmes: who is responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, Verena; Baltussen, Rob; van der Velden, Koos

    2012-08-01

    The literature suggests that crowding-out effects of government funding for health happen in low-income countries with a high HIV burden. In a survey, we investigated the hypothesis that domestic funding for TB control has fallen in 11 low-income, high-TB-burden countries in the context of changes in gross domestic product (GDP), development assistance inflows and national health expenditures. We found that despite rises in GDP per capita between 2003 and 2009, health expenditure as per cent of GDP fell or stayed the same for the majority of these countries. Although TB control budgets increased for all 11 countries in absolute terms, 6 countries reduced government contribution to TB control. For health programmes to become sustainable in the long run, we suggest increases in donor funding for health to be accompanied by requirements to increase domestic funding for health. We thereby attribute responsibility to avoid crowding-out effects to donors and governments alike. Moreover, it is the responsibility of both to ensure essential items to be funded by government sources to avoid a collapse of programmes once aid is withdrawn.

  2. Global eradication of lymphatic filariasis: the value of chronic disease control in parasite elimination programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Michael

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of the global programme against lymphatic filariasis is eradication through irrevocable cessation of transmission using 4 to 6 years of annual single dose mass drug administration. The costs of eradication, managerial impediments to executing national control programmes, and scientific uncertainty about transmission endpoints, are challenges to the success of this effort, especially in areas of high endemicity where financial resources are limited. We used a combined analysis of empirical community data describing the association between infection and chronic disease prevalence, mathematical modelling, and economic analyses to identify and evaluate the feasibility of setting an infection target level at which the chronic pathology attributable to lymphatic filariasis--lymphoedema of the extremities and hydroceles--becomes negligible in the face of continuing transmission as a first stage option in achieving the elimination of this parasitic disease. The results show that microfilaria prevalences below a threshold of 3.55% at a blood sampling volume of 1 ml could constitute readily achievable and sustainable targets to control lymphatic filarial disease. They also show that as a result of the high marginal cost of curing the last few individuals to achieve elimination, maximal benefits can occur at this threshold. Indeed, a key finding from our coupled economic and epidemiological analysis is that when initial uncertainty regarding eradication occurs and prospects for resolving this uncertainty over time exist, it is economically beneficial to adopt a flexible, sequential, eradication strategy based on controlling chronic disease initially.

  3. Global eradication of lymphatic filariasis: the value of chronic disease control in parasite elimination programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela, Mwele N; Zervos, Mihail; Kazura, James W

    2008-08-13

    The ultimate goal of the global programme against lymphatic filariasis is eradication through irrevocable cessation of transmission using 4 to 6 years of annual single dose mass drug administration. The costs of eradication, managerial impediments to executing national control programmes, and scientific uncertainty about transmission endpoints, are challenges to the success of this effort, especially in areas of high endemicity where financial resources are limited. We used a combined analysis of empirical community data describing the association between infection and chronic disease prevalence, mathematical modelling, and economic analyses to identify and evaluate the feasibility of setting an infection target level at which the chronic pathology attributable to lymphatic filariasis--lymphoedema of the extremities and hydroceles--becomes negligible in the face of continuing transmission as a first stage option in achieving the elimination of this parasitic disease. The results show that microfilaria prevalences below a threshold of 3.55% at a blood sampling volume of 1 ml could constitute readily achievable and sustainable targets to control lymphatic filarial disease. They also show that as a result of the high marginal cost of curing the last few individuals to achieve elimination, maximal benefits can occur at this threshold. Indeed, a key finding from our coupled economic and epidemiological analysis is that when initial uncertainty regarding eradication occurs and prospects for resolving this uncertainty over time exist, it is economically beneficial to adopt a flexible, sequential, eradication strategy based on controlling chronic disease initially.

  4. Are TB control programmes in South Asia ignoring children with disease? A situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sadia; Qamar, Farah Naz; Mir, Fatima; Zaidi, Anita; Hasan, Rumina

    2015-02-01

    Paediatric tuberculosis (TB) has long been an evasive entity for public health practitioners striving to control the disease. Owing to difficulty in diagnosis of paediatric TB, incidence estimates based on current case detection fall short of actual rates. The four high-burden countries in South Asia (SA-HBC)-Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh-alone account for >75% of missed TB cases worldwide. It follows that these countries are also responsible for a large although unmeasured proportion of missed paediatric cases. In view of current Millennium Development Goals recommending a scale-up of paediatric TB detection and management globally, there is a dire need to improve paediatric TB programmes in these high-burden countries. Inherent problems with diagnosis of paediatric TB are compounded by programmatic and social barriers in SA-HBC. We have reviewed the current situation of TB control programmes in SA-HBC countries based on published statistics and performed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats situational analysis with a view towards identifying critical issues operant in the region posing barriers to improving paediatric TB control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Isolated hydatid cyst of the breast that developed after breast feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni-Bistgani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A hydatid cyst of the breast is extremely rare, even in endemic areas. There are few reports of breast hydatid cysts. We report a case of an isolated hydatid cyst of the breast that was identified as a painless breast lump that had increased in size just after completion of breast feeding and was present with a painful breast mass after 25 years. This may indicate the possibility of retrograde passage of an Echinococcus granulosus egg through lactating ducts during breast feeding, liberation of an embryo that penetrates ductal mucus and enters the breast tissue and then develops into a hydatid cyst. When a patient comes from an area with little healthcare and where hydatid cysts are epidemic, and if this disease was indicated by radiologic or serologic examination, total mass excision without spillage is the best diagnostic and treatment. PMID:27194680

  6. Late Onset Anaphylaxis in a Hydatid Cyst Case Presenting with Chronic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insu Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst is still endemic in various regions of the world. It is the most frequent cause of liver cysts worldwide. Urticaria is sometimes the first manifestation of the disease. However anaphylactic reaction and urticaria have been very rarely reported in the literature. Traditionally, surgery has been the only accepted mode of treatment; however, percutaneous treatment has recently been proposed as an alternative. Cases of anaphylaxis have been reported after percutaneous drainage of hydatid cyst. However, anaphylaxis usually develops within a few hours. Herein, we describe the case of a patient who presented with hydatid cyst causing chronic urticaria and late anaphylactic reaction following percutaneous aspiration of a liver hydatid cyst. We emphasize that physicians should be aware of hydatid cyst as a possible etiology for seemingly chronic spontaneous urticaria, especially in endemic regions. Patients should be kept under observation for at least one day due to the risk of early and late anaphylaxis after percutaneous aspiration treatment.

  7. Fast and robust control of nanopositioning systems: Performance limits enabled by field programmable analog arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, Mayank; Gorugantu, Ram S.; Salapaka, Srinivasa M.

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims at control design and its implementation for robust high-bandwidth precision (nanoscale) positioning systems. Even though modern model-based control theoretic designs for robust broadband high-resolution positioning have enabled orders of magnitude improvement in performance over existing model independent designs, their scope is severely limited by the inefficacies of digital implementation of the control designs. High-order control laws that result from model-based designs typically have to be approximated with reduced-order systems to facilitate digital implementation. Digital systems, even those that have very high sampling frequencies, provide low effective control bandwidth when implementing high-order systems. In this context, field programmable analog arrays (FPAAs) provide a good alternative to the use of digital-logic based processors since they enable very high implementation speeds, moreover with cheaper resources. The superior flexibility of digital systems in terms of the implementable mathematical and logical functions does not give significant edge over FPAAs when implementing linear dynamic control laws. In this paper, we pose the control design objectives for positioning systems in different configurations as optimal control problems and demonstrate significant improvements in performance when the resulting control laws are applied using FPAAs as opposed to their digital counterparts. An improvement of over 200% in positioning bandwidth is achieved over an earlier digital signal processor (DSP) based implementation for the same system and same control design, even when for the DSP-based system, the sampling frequency is about 100 times the desired positioning bandwidth.

  8. Quality assurance and quality control programme in the Personal Dosimetry Department of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenopoulou, V; Drikos, G; Carinou, E; Papadomarkaki, E; Askounis, P; Kyrgiakou, H; Kefalonitis, N

    2002-01-01

    A quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) programme was applied to the personal monitoring department (TLD based) of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). This programme was designed according to the recommendations of international bodies such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission (CEC). This paper deals with the presentation of the QA/QC programme which includes administrative data and information, technical checking of the equipment, acceptance tests of new equipment and dosemeters, issuing and processing of the dosemeters, dose evaluation, record keeping and reporting, traceability and reproducibility, handling of complaints, internal reviews and external audits.

  9. Programmable immersive peripheral environmental system (PIPES): a prototype control system for environmental feedback devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frend, Chauncey; Boyles, Michael

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an environmental feedback device (EFD) control system aimed at simplifying the VR development cycle. Programmable Immersive Peripheral Environmental System (PIPES) affords VR developers a custom approach to programming and controlling EFD behaviors while relaxing the required knowledge and expertise of electronic systems. PIPES has been implemented for the Unity engine and features EFD control using the Arduino integrated development environment. PIPES was installed and tested on two VR systems, a large format CAVE system and an Oculus Rift HMD system. A photocell based end-to-end latency experiment was conducted to measure latency within the system. This work extends previously unpublished prototypes of a similar design. Development and experiments described in this paper are part of the VR community goal to understand and apply environment effects to VEs that ultimately add to users' perceived presence.

  10. Mobile phone short message service messaging for behaviour modification in a community-based weight control programme in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Bom-Taeck

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a community-based anti-obesity programme using mobile phone short message service (SMS) messaging. A total of 927 participants were recruited and visited a public health centre for initial assessment. Mobile phones were used to deliver short messages about diet, exercise and behaviour modification once a week. After a 12-week anti-obesity programme they visited the public health centre again. Four hundred and thirty-three subjects (47%) successfully completed their weight control programme. There were mean reductions of weight, waist circumference and body mass index of 1.6 kg (P behaviour modification in weight control and anti-obesity health education programmes when promoted by community health centres.

  11. Index of tobacco control sustainability (ITCS): a tool to measure the sustainability of national tobacco control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Morris, Angela; Latif, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    To produce a tool to assess and guide sustainability of national tobacco control programmes. A two-stage process adapting the Delphi and Nominal group techniques. A series of indicators of tobacco control sustainability were identified in grantee/country advisor reports to The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease under the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Control (2007-2015). Focus groups and key informant interviews in seven low and middle-income countries (52 government and civil society participants) provided consensus ratings of the indicators' relative importance. Data were reviewed and the indicators were accorded relative weightings to produce the 'Index of Tobacco Control Sustainability' (ITCS). All 31 indicators were considered 'Critical' or 'Important' by the great majority of participants. There was consensus that a tool to measure progress towards tobacco control sustainability was important. The most critical indicators related to financial policies and allocations, a national law, a dedicated national tobacco control unit and civil society tobacco control network, a national policy against tobacco industry 'Corporate Social Responsibility' (CSR), national mortality and morbidity data, and national policy evaluation mechanisms. The 31 indicators were agreed to be 'critical' or 'important' factors for tobacco control sustainability. The Index comprises the weighted indicators as a tool to identify aspects of national tobacco control programmes requiring further development to augment their sustainability and to measure and compare progress over time. The next step is to apply the ITCS and produce tobacco control sustainability assessments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Chemical Biology Approaches to Genome Editing: Understanding, Controlling, and Delivering Programmable Nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Johnny H; Davis, Kevin M; Liu, David R

    2016-01-21

    Programmable DNA nucleases have provided scientists with the unprecedented ability to probe, regulate, and manipulate the human genome. Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas9 system (CRISPR-Cas9) represent a powerful array of tools that can bind to and cleave a specified DNA sequence. In their canonical forms, these nucleases induce double-strand breaks at a DNA locus of interest that can trigger cellular DNA repair processes that disrupt or replace genes. The fusion of these programmable nucleases with a variety of other protein domains has led to a rapidly growing suite of tools for activating, repressing, visualizing, and modifying loci of interest. Maximizing the usefulness and therapeutic relevance of these tools, however, requires precisely controlling their activity and specificity to minimize potentially toxic side effects arising from off-target activities. This need has motivated the application of chemical biology principles and methods to genome-editing proteins, including the engineering of variants of these proteins with improved or altered specificities, and the development of genetic, chemical, optical, and protein delivery methods that control the activity of these agents in cells. Advancing the capabilities, safety, effectiveness, and therapeutic relevance of genome-engineering proteins will continue to rely on chemical biology strategies that manipulate their activity, specificity, and localization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Field-programmable beam reconfiguring based on digitally-controlled coding metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiang; Qi, Mei Qing; Chen, Tian Yi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Digital phase shifters have been applied in traditional phased array antennas to realize beam steering. However, the phase shifter deals with the phase of the induced current; hence, it has to be in the path of each element of the antenna array, making the phased array antennas very expensive. Metamaterials and/or metasurfaces enable the direct modulation of electromagnetic waves by designing subwavelength structures, which opens a new way to control the beam scanning. Here, we present a direct digital mechanism to control the scattered electromagnetic waves using coding metasurface, in which each unit cell loads a pin diode to produce binary coding states of “1” and “0”. Through data lines, the instant communications are established between the coding metasurface and the internal memory of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Thus, we realize the digital modulation of electromagnetic waves, from which we present the field-programmable reflective antenna with good measurement performance. The proposed mechanism and functional device have great application potential in new-concept radar and communication systems. PMID:26861110

  14. Microwave metamaterials—from passive to digital and programmable controls of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-08-01

    Since 2004, my group at Southeast University has been carrying out research into microwave metamaterials, which are classified into three catagories: metamaterials based on the effective medium model, plasmonic metamaterials for spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), and coding and programmable metamaterials. For effective-medium metamaterials, we have developed a general theory to accurately describe effective permittivity and permeability in semi-analytical forms, from which we have designed and realized a three dimensional (3D) wideband ground-plane invisibility cloak, a free-space electrostatic invisibility cloak, an electromagnetic black hole, optical/radar illusions, and radially anisotropic zero-index metamaterial for omni-directional radiation and a nearly perfect power combination of source array, etc. We have also considered the engineering applications of microwave metamaterials, such as a broadband and low-loss 3D transformation-optics lens for wide-angle scanning, a 3D planar gradient-index lens for high-gain radiations, and a random metasurface for reducing radar cross sections. In the area of plasmonic metamaterials, we proposed an ultrathin, narrow, and flexible corrugated metallic strip to guide SPPs with a small bending loss and radiation loss, from which we designed and realized a series of SPP passive devices (e.g. power divider, coupler, filter, and resonator) and active devices (e.g. amplifier and duplexer). We also showed a significant feature of the ultrathin SPP waveguide in overcoming the challenge of signal integrity in traditional integrated circuits, which will help build a high-performance SPP wireless communication system. In the area of coding and programmable metamaterials, we proposed a new measure to describe a metamaterial from the viewpoint of information theory. We have illustrated theoretically and experimentally that coding metamaterials composed of digital units can be controlled by coding sequences, leading to different

  15. Disruptive Technology for Vector Control: the Innovative Vector Control Consortium and the US Military Join Forces to Explore Transformative Insecticide Application Technology for Mosquito Control Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-26

    Control Consortium and the US Military join forces to explore transformative insecticide application technology for  mosquito control programmes...opment of new insecticides to fight growing mosquito resistance to the current chemicals [6]. However, it is essential to match the next generation of...technological advancements made in recent decades to modernize the tools used to target, control, and monitor mosquito populations. This paper summarizes the

  16. Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WHITE, K.A.

    2000-11-28

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell Leak Detector Stations as required by HNF-PRO-309, Rev. 1, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.4, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell Leak Detector Station PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis.

  17. Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-11-16

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell PIC Skids as required by LMH-PRO-309, Rev. 0, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.6, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell PIC Skid PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis.

  18. Sistem Otomasi Mesin Tempat Parkir Mobil Bawah Tanah dengan Menggunakan Programmable Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiang Thiang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, number of cars increases more and more. This causes increase in the need of park area for the cars meanwhile there is limited area that can be used as park area for cars. Therefore, this paper describes about design of automatic car parking system, which places underground. This automatic car parking miniature model has 3 levels and each level can store 24 cars. This automatic car parking model is designed by using several actuators like AC motor, stepper motor, pneumatic system and several sensors like photoelectric and limit switch. Programmable logic Controller (PLC is used as the controller, which controls all hardware. Experiment is done by running the automatic car parking system and experimental results show that the system can run well. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Dewasa ini jumlah mobil semakin meningkat, akibatnya, semakin banyak lahan tanah yang dibutuhkan untuk tempat parkir mobil. Permasalahannya kebutuhan lahan tanah untuk keperluan lain juga meningkat dan ketersediaan lahan tanah kosong juga semakin sedikit. Karena itu pada makalah ini dipaparkan tentang perancangan yang telah dilakukan yaitu pembuatan sebuah contoh mesin model tempat parkir mobil otomatis yang berada di bawah tanah. Contoh model parkir otomatis ini berupa miniatur setinggi 3 tingkat dan dapat menampung mobil sebanyak 24 buah. Pembuatan miniatur mesin tempat parkir mobil otomatis ini menggunakan berbagai jenis aktuator seperti motor AC, motor stepper, penumatic dan beberapa sensor photoelectric, limit switch. Programmable Logic Control (PLC digunakan sebagai kontroler yang mengontrol semua perangkat keras. Hasil pengujian dilakukan dengan menjalankan sistem parkir mobil otomatis dan sistem dapat berfungsi dengan baik. Kata kunci: Parkir otomatis, PLC, sistem kontrol, aktuator, pneumatic.

  19. Motor imaginary-based brain-machine interface design using programmable logic controllers for the disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyabalan, Vickneswaran; Samraj, Andrews; Loo, Chu Kiong

    2010-10-01

    Aiming at the implementation of brain-machine interfaces (BMI) for the aid of disabled people, this paper presents a system design for real-time communication between the BMI and programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to control an electrical actuator that could be used in devices to help the disabled. Motor imaginary signals extracted from the brain’s motor cortex using an electroencephalogram (EEG) were used as a control signal. The EEG signals were pre-processed by means of adaptive recursive band-pass filtrations (ARBF) and classified using simplified fuzzy adaptive resonance theory mapping (ARTMAP) in which the classified signals are then translated into control signals used for machine control via the PLC. A real-time test system was designed using MATLAB for signal processing, KEP-Ware V4 OLE for process control (OPC), a wireless local area network router, an Omron Sysmac CPM1 PLC and a 5 V/0.3A motor. This paper explains the signal processing techniques, the PLC's hardware configuration, OPC configuration and real-time data exchange between MATLAB and PLC using the MATLAB OPC toolbox. The test results indicate that the function of exchanging real-time data can be attained between the BMI and PLC through OPC server and proves that it is an effective and feasible method to be applied to devices such as wheelchairs or electronic equipment.

  20. Acute Pancreatitis due to Rupture of the Hydatid Cyst into the Biliary Tract: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfu Bayhan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is still endemic in our country and in many parts of the world. Liver is the most common site of hydatid disease. Rupture of hydatid cysts of liver into the biliary ducts can be seen as a complication. Obstructive jaundice, acute cholangitis and much more rarely acute pancreatitis may occur due to rupture of hydatid cysts into the biliary ducts. In this case report, a 38-year-old male patient with findings of acute pancreatitis and obstructive jaundice due to rupture of hydatid cyst into the biliary tract were presented . In our case, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP was performed to the patient with diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Parts of germinative membrane located within the common bile duct and causing the obstruction of papillary orifice was seen in ERCP. Germinative membrane components were removed during the process. Endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed to the patient. After the procedure, the clinical findings and laboratory findings of the patient returned to normal rapidly. As a result, it should be noted that rupture of hepatic hydatid cysts into the bile ducts might be a rare cause of biliary pancreatitis. It must be kept in mind that endoscopic sphincterotomy and endoscopic removal of cyst membranes is a very important method for the diagnosis and treatment of the acute pancreatitis and obstructive jaundice due to rupture of hydatid cyst into the biliary tract. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 92-94

  1. Value of medical imaging in the complications of hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsot-Dupuch, K.; Noblinski, B.; Tubiana, J.M.; Hannoun, L.

    1987-12-03

    The aim of this study is to analyse the experience of Hopital St-Antoine in the field of abdominal hydatid disease due to Echinococcus granulosus over the last seven years. 9 cases of rare complications of this disease, revealed by this retrospective study, are analysed and presented. The authors discuss the value of ultrasonography and computed tomography in this serious disease. The importance of routine ultrasonographic detection of these complications has been recently emphasized. The authors also present a review of the literature.

  2. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in slaughtered animals in Sirte, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Hamed H; Abdel-Kader, Abdel-Kader M; Nass, Sedigh Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was studied among the livestock slaughtered in abattoir of Sirte, Libya during the period July 2004 to May 2005. The overall infection rate of 4.9% in sheep, 2.4% in goats, 2.7% in camels and 15% in cattle were observed. The increase in prevalence with age of the animals was statistically significant in the four species. In female goats, examined infection was higher in the male. Liver had higher hydatid cysts than lungs in sheep, goat while infected lungs had higher in camel.

  3. Field programmable gate array–based servo control integrated chip for a six-axis articulated robot manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Shieh Kung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to build a field programmable gate array–based six-axis servo control integrated chip which can integrate the function of a motion trajectory planning and the function of six position/speed/current servo controllers into one integrated chip. In the work, first, a mathematical modeling of a robot manipulator with the actuator using permanent magnet synchronous motor is derived. Second, the proportional controller in the position loop, a proportional–integral controller in the speed loop and a vector controller in the current loop for each axis are applied. Third, a system on a programmable chip technology which comprises an Altera field programmable gate array chip and an embedded soft-core Nios-II processor is considered to develop the proposed servo control integrated chip. However, in the servo control integrated chip, it has two modules. The first module is an embedded soft-core Nios-II processor which is used to generate the motion trajectory planning by software. The second module presents a six-axis servo controller intellectual property by hardware which is applied to execute six position/speed/current controllers. Therefore, the function of a motion trajectory command and the function of six position/speed/current servo controllers for a six-axis robot manipulator can be integrated into one field programmable gate array. Finally, to verify the effectiveness and correctness of the proposed field programmable gate array–based servo control integrated chip, a six-axis robot manipulator is applied and some experimental results are demonstrated.

  4. Programmable System on Chip Distributed Communication and Control Approach for Human Adaptive Mechanical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A.M. Faudzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Communication and control are two main components in any Mechatronics system. They can be designed either by centralized or decentralized approach. Both approaches can be chosen based on application designed and specific requirements of the designer. In this study, decentralized or normally called distributed approach was selected to solved communication and control of a human adaptive mechanical system namely Intelligent Chair Tools (ICT. The ICT seating system is powered by thirty six intelligent pneumatic actuators to facilitate investigation of chair shapes from spring and damping effect of seating and backrest surface. Three studies are proposed from the sitting experiments namely chair shapes, chair spring and chair damping properties. Approach: PSoC microcontroller was selected based on its features of having configurable analog and digital blocks. Its flexible modules and programmable peripherals ease designer in designing the communication and control of ICT in improved and faster way. Three protocols of USB, SPI and I2C were used for the communication system of ICT using PSoC. Flow charts of each communication protocols algorithms were discussed. On the other hand, the control system used PSoC’s ADC and counter modules to read inputs of pressure and encoder respectively. PWM module is used to control the valve and data communication was achieved using I2C module. Block diagram of unified control was discussed for further understandings of the control algorithms. Results: The PSoC specification, development design and experimental evaluation of ICT system are presented and discussed. Three studies of chair shapes, chair spring property and chair damping property from sitting experiment were shown. Conclusion/Recommendations: The PSoC microcontroller selection was discussed and application of its distributed communication and control was successfully applied to ICT. This distributed approach can be applied to other

  5. Incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Sami

    2016-09-16

    Hydatid cysts are a zoonotic disease that can involve many organs and tissues in the human body but primarily involve the liver and lungs. Of the main organs, adrenal glands are those seldom affected by hydatid cysts. The purpose of this study was to present a case with an incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the right adrenal gland on computed tomography, and a positive echincoccus IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test on top of a toxic multinodular thyroid goiter for which thyroidectomy was indicated.

  6. Incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cysts are a zoonotic disease that can involve many organs and tissues in the human body but primarily involve the liver and lungs. Of the main organs, adrenal glands are those seldom affected by hydatid cysts. The purpose of this study was to present a case with an incidentally detected hydatid cyst of the right adrenal gland on computed tomography, and a positive echincoccus IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test on top of a toxic multinodular thyroid goiter for which thyroidecto...

  7. Simultaneous Operation of Hydatid Cyst of the Heart and Liver:A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezayat Parvizi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary echinococcosis of the heart is exceptionally uncommon and is reported 0.5% to 2% of all hydatid cyst sites in comparison with liver (70% or lung (20% involvement. Hydatid disease of the heart is caused by the cestode tapeworm echinococcosis granulosis or alveolaris. We present a 29-year-old female with hydatid disease of the liver and heart. She only complained of abdominal pain and palpitation. Echocardiography and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT showed a 120×101 mm cyst in the liver and 64 mm in the right ventricular free wall. Both cysts were excised within one procedure successfully.

  8. Unusual Presentation of Hydatid Cyst: Case Reports for Neurosurgery (Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasras

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hydatid disease is caused most common by Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. The former is the most common and is endemic in areas such as Australia, New Zealand, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and South America. Typical presentations of hydatid disease have been frequently described in the literature; however, uncommon presentations have not been thoroughly documented. Case Presentation Here, we report three rare but well-documented cases of central nervous system hydatid cysts that occurred in patients in Iran. Conclusions We also provide a brief review of the literature examining similar occurrences. This article intends to provide thorough information about the disease for readers.

  9. Radiographic, CT and MRI spectrum of hydatid disease of the chest: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von [Dept. of Radiology MBC28, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1993-01-01

    Thirty patients with thoracic hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus) were studied. The hydatid cysts were located in the lung parenchyma (70%), mediastinum (6.7%), inside the heart (10%), the pleurae (10%) and the chest wall (3.3%). Complications of thoracic hydatid cysts, such as rupture, infection, pleural involvement, spread and calcifications are presented. Computed tomography (CT) without and/or with contrast enhancement was performed in all patients (30). Findings from conventional chest radiographs were compared with CT and confirmed by pathology (30). In 10 cases (33.3%), magnetic resonance imaging was also performed. The diagnostic spectrum of hydatid cysts, including variations and developmental stages, is presented in this pictorial essay. (orig.)

  10. Hydatid Cyst in a 10-Year-Old Boy: An Unusual Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Hekmat

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease, caused by echinococcus granulosus, is a common infectious disease in endemic areas such as Southern Europe and the Middle East. The incidence of this disease, however, is on the increase in Northern Europe due to the migration of labor and also tourism. We report a case of the hydatid cyst of the mediastinum, the diagnosis of which was established by the hemagglutinin test and echocardiography and confirmed by histological examinations. The cyst was totally removed during surgery on beating heart. The patient presented herein demonstrates that the mediastinal and cardiac involvement in hydatid disease could manifest in children with fast growth and rupture.

  11. Echinococcus granulosus: DNA extraction from germinal layers allows strain determination in fertile and nonfertile hydatid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetzky, L; Canova, S G; Guarnera, E A; Rosenzvit, M C

    2000-06-01

    A method for the isolation of Echinococcus granulosus DNA from germinal layers of hydatid cysts is described. The method includes a hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide/chloroform extraction and an adsorption to diatomaceous earth suspension. DNA suitable for polymerase chain reaction was obtained and used for parasite strain determination by mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing. Fertile and nonfertile cyst isolates from sheep, cattle, pigs, and humans were characterized. Hitherto, no direct parasite strain characterization has been made on nonfertile hydatid cysts, whereas here we report that nonfertile hydatid cysts were produced by sheep strain (G1 genotype) in sheep, cattle, and humans and by pig strain (G7 genotype) in pigs.

  12. In vivo inhibition of the regenerative capacity of hydatid material after treatment with netobimin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Llamazares, J L; Alvarez-de-Felipe, A I; Redondo-Cardeña, P; Voces-Alonso, J A; Prieto-Fernández, J G

    1997-01-01

    The effect of netobimin and netobimin plus fenbendazole administration on secondary hydatid disease was studied. Secondary hydatid disease in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was produced by intraperitoneal inoculation of protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus. The experimental animals received doses of 20 and 50 mg/kg of netobimin or a mixture of netobimin and 1.7 mg/kg of fenbendazole. The results showed that after a single dose of netobimin at the studied concentrations, the cystic material transplanted into the mouse produced a significant recurrence of the disease, but the most remarkable finding was that the hydatid-cyst recurrence never took place when netobimin was given together with fenbendazole.

  13. Design of programmable logic controller auto power reset circuit for FM transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Pattanajakr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mono-stereo controller using audio mute clock is used at the International Broadcasting Bureau (IBB FM 106.6 MHz transmitter in Ulaan Baatar, Mongolia since 2010. The major problem of the FM broadcast station was from the frozen Programmable Logic Controller, PLC, which must be manually reset and the report by the VOA listeners. Then, the PLC auto power reset circuit is proposed and built in mono-stereo controller to monitor the operation of the PLC. The circuit is also used to restart the PLC whenever, it is frozen. The cloud router and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP to Recommended Standard number 232 (RS-232 converter are used to synchronize the PLC time. From the results, this circuit can improve the transmitter availability and quality of the 24 hours/day broadcast program without affection to the listeners. The reliability of the cloud router is acceptable with low delay of data transfer via the internet connection between Thailand to Mongolia. The cloud router which the IBB leases cloud service from the provider that offers high speed internet up to 1000 Mb/s, via the remote terminal is used for the schedule program and the time synchronization of the PLC correctly. The proposed system is very stable and there is no problem of the frozen PLC whether it connects to the internet or not. Hence, the designed PLC auto power reset circuit can be used to eliminate the frozen PLC problem.

  14. PLC/PC monitoring, control systems a boon for smaller NGL plants. [Programmable Logic Controllers and Personal Computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, M.R.; Sisk, L.B.; Warren, W.F. (Texaco Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Simpson, T.W. (Texaco U.S.A., Velma, OK (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Experience of two plants operated by Texaco U.S.A. indicates that installing monitoring and control systems based on programmable-logic controllers and personal computers (PLC/PC) at smaller NGL plants can improve plant economics and processing of customers' gas and increase personnel safety. Such a system gives management a means to track the performance of a plant while making significant steps to enhance employee motivation, morale, and safety. The operator has access to a large amount of information that he or she can use to analyze alarms as well as optimize plant operation in terms of safety, income, and maintenance costs. In fact, because of his advanced awareness of the state of the plant, he generally functions more in an active than a reactive mode. With a significant amount of data available on which to base decisions, the operator can quickly see the results of his actions on the entire plant without leaving his station.

  15. Assessment and simulation of the implementation of brucellosis control programme in an endemic area of the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Y M; Ridler, A L; Guitian, F J

    2009-10-01

    Brucellosis is an important zoonosis in Middle Eastern countries. In this study we assessed the extent of the application of planned official brucellosis control programmes in Kafr El Sheikh governorate, Egypt and we used a stochastic simulation model to assess the probable impact of changes to the official control strategy on the dynamics of small-ruminant brucellosis. Our results show that brucellosis. Given our assumptions, the intensity with which infected animals are removed under the actual levels of implementation of test-and-slaughter programmes would permit brucellosis to remain endemic at a level >8% of the sheep and goat population.

  16. Recurrent hydatid cyst of liver with asymptomatic concomitant hydatid cyst of lung: an unusual presentation-case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Ranjan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old male patient presented to us with complaints of pain in abdomen for the past 2 weeks and fever for 3 days. The patient gave history of being previously operated for hydatid cyst of liver 15 years back. His chest radiograph and computed tomography scan revealed a cystic lesion in the right lobe of liver and a cyst in left lung. The patient was managed surgically. Aspirate from the cyst fluid showed plenty of hooklets and scolices of Echinococcus granulosus. An intact brood capsule was also seen. Diagnosis of hydatidosis was further confirmed by histopathological examination. Post-operative the patient had a good recovery.

  17. Effectiveness of a peer-led self-management programme for people with schizophrenia: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sally Wai Chi; Li, Ziqiang; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Ting, Steven; Chan, Moon Fai; Eu, Pui-Wai

    2014-06-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a peer-led self-management programme for people with schizophrenia in reducing psychotic symptom severity, hospital readmission and psychiatric consultation and in enhancing cognition, empowerment, functioning level, medication adherence, perceived recovery, quality of life and social support. Several self-management programmes have been developed to empower patients with severe mental illness in achieving recovery. Research suggests that peer-led self-management programmes have positive effects on patient recovery. However, the existing evidence is inconclusive, due to a lack of credible evidence and long-term follow-up evaluations. A stratified randomized controlled trial will be conducted at six community mental health rehabilitation centres A sample of 242 adults with schizophrenia will be recruited. A peer-led self-management programme, comprising six 2-hour sessions, will be implemented in the intervention group and a standard rehabilitation programme in the control group. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, postintervention and at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. The measures will include cognition, empowerment, functioning level, medication adherence, perceived recovery, quality of life, social support, symptom severity, hospital readmission and psychiatric consultation. A mixed effects model will be used to analyse the results. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted to explore the peer-trainers' and participants' perspectives on the programme. Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained in December 2011 and funding was obtained in January 2012. This study will provide evidence on the effectiveness of a peer-led self-management programme for patient recovery. It will identify a clinically useful and potentially effective intervention that incorporates empowerment concept. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An assessment of oral cancer curricula in dental hygiene programmes: implications for cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, K K; Kaste, L M; Homsi, K D; LeHew, C W

    2016-11-01

    To assess oral cancer prevention and early detection curricula in Illinois associate-degree dental hygiene programmes and highlight global health applications. An email invitation was sent to each Illinois associate-degree granting dental hygiene programme's oral cancer contact to participate in a survey via a SurveyMonkey™ link to a 21-item questionnaire. Questions elicited background information on each programme and inquired about curriculum and methods used for teaching oral cancer prevention and early detection. Eight of the 12 (67%) programmes responded. Three (37.5%) reported having a specific oral cancer curriculum. Five (62.5%) require students to perform examinations for signs and symptoms of oral cancer at each clinic visit. Variations exist across the programmes in the number of patients each student sees annually and the number of oral cancer examinations each student performs before graduation. Seven programmes (87.5%) conduct early detection screening in community settings. All programmes included risk assessment associated with tobacco. All other risk factors measured were treated inconsistently. Significant differences in training and experience were reported across Illinois dental hygiene programmes. Training is neither standardized nor uniformly comprehensive. Students' preparation for delivering prevention and early detection services to their patients could be strengthened to ensure competence including reflection of risk factors and behaviours in a global context. Regular review of curricular guidelines and programme content would help dental hygienists meet the expectations of the Crete Declaration on Oral Cancer Prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ghost in the PLC: Designing an Undetectable Programmable Logic Controller Rootkit via Pin Control Attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Hashemi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Input/Output is the mechanisms through which embedded systems interact and control the outside world. Particularly when employed in mission critical systems, the I/O of embedded systems has to be both reliable and secure. Embedded system’s I/O is controlled by a pin based approach. In this paper, we

  20. Hydatid cyst in children: A 10-year experience from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Aslanabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydatid disease is one of the major world-wide health problems especially in endemic countries. Due to lack of statistics about this disease, various aspects of hydatidosis in children in North-West of Iran have been studied in this study. Materials and Methods: We studied 59 children with hydatidosis referring Tabriz Children Hospital, Tabriz, Iran from 2001 up to 2011. We surveyed chief complaint of patients, number, size and location of cysts in children and also we studied cysts as if they are infected or ruptured or not. Results: Average age of 59 patients (32 [54.2%] males and 27 [45.8%] females was 7.93 ± 3.0. The most common chief complaints were cough and pain. Number of cysts was higher in females (2.00 ± 2.8 vs. 1.52 ± 1.0. The most common locations of cysts are lung and liver (52 patients; however, other organs had been also affected. Conclusions: Lung hydatidosis is more common than hepatic hydatidosis in children than adults and it is more frequent in males. Hydatid disease should be considered in differential diagnoses of liver and lung cystic lesions in children.

  1. Green chemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles by using Penicillium aculeatum and their scolicidal activity against hydatid cyst protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabadi, Hamed; Honary, Soheila; Ali Mohammadi, Milad; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; Alizadeh, Ahad; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Saravanan, Muthupandian

    2017-02-01

    Hydatid disease is a helminth infection with various clinical complications caused by the larval stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The scolicidal agents have been broadly applied for inactivation of the fertile cysts up to now, but these scolicidal agents have several side effects on patients. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the scolicidal activity of green synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) utilizing mycelia-free culture filtrate of Penicillium aculeatum against hydatid cyst protoscolices of E. granulosus. The size and morphology of AuNPs were affirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis of AuNPs showed the presence of possible functional groups responsible for the bioreduction and capping. The AuNPs were formed relatively uniform with spherical shape and superior monodispersity with the average diameter of 60 nm. Consequently, various concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/mL) of green synthesized AuNPs and different exposure times (10, 30, 60, and 120 min) were used against hydatid cyst protoscolices. Statistically, the difference between the scolicidal effects of AuNPs were seen extremely significant for all four concentrations and at various exposure times in comparison to the control group (P < 0.0001). The most mean protoscolex elimination ratio was 94% (0.3 mg/mL AuNPs and 120-min exposure time). The current investigation indicated that applying biogenic AuNPs may be considered as a potential scolicidal agent for cystic hydatid disease. However, further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of AuNPs in vivo.

  2. [Bone hydatid cyst: a rare localization at the level of the hip bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhamoucha, Yassine; Alaoui, Othmane; Doumbia, Aliou; Oukhoya, Mohammed; Abdellaoui, Hicham; Tazi, Mohammed; Chater, Lamyae; Atarraf, Karima; Arroud, Mounir; Afifi, Abderahman

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic disease caused by the development in humans of the larval form of a tapeworm, namely a very small tænia called Echinococcus Granulosus. This anthropozoonosis is characterized by the presence of different types of anatomo-radiologic variants associated with various topographic and evolutionary aspects of the cysts. Bone hydatid disease is a rare condition, it accounts for only 0.9-2.5% of all locations. We report the case of a 9 year old child, who was admitted with febrile lameness and with a mass in the right iliac fossa, revealing a hydatid cyst at the level of the hip bone. Lesion assessment objectified a hydatid cyst of the hip bone with extension into adjacent soft tissues. An infected cyst was detected during surgery, hence the performance of a surgical excision of the cyst with drainage. Hydatic osteopathy is infiltrating, diffuse, slow and gradual, causing delays in diagnosis and compromising the quality of care.

  3. Hydatid cyst of the neck. A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Khalifa

    2016-07-01

    We will present our experience in treating a case of hydatid cyst located in the neck area, which is considered one of the few cases published due to the relative rarity of the disease in the fore mentioned anatomical location.

  4. Immunodiagnostic confirmation of hydatid disease in patients with a presumptive diagnosis of injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela-Diaz, V.M.; Coltorti, E.A.

    Information obtained from the routine application of hydatid immunodiagnostic techniques in different clinical situations over a seven-year period is presented. The immunoelectrophoresis test was used and was replaced by the arc 5 double diffusion (DD5) test. Examination of sera from 1.888 patients with signs and/or symptoms comparatible with hydatid disease revealed that the presurgical confirmation of Echinococcus granulosus infection is only obtained by detection of anti-antigen 5 antibodies. In all patients whose preoperative serum showed three or more uncharacteristic bands in the absence of anti-antigen 5 antibodies, hydatid cysts were found surgically. DD5 testing of a fluid sample collected by puncture estabilished its hydatid etiology. Post-operative monitoring of hydatidosis patients demonstrated that persistence of DD5-positivity two years after surgery established the presence of ther cysts.

  5. Primary hydatid cyst in the soft tissue of the face: An exceptional occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To emphasize that solitary hydatid cyst can be localized in the soft tissue and present as a soft tissue mass even in an unusual site like face, we report the case of a 42-year-old male patient presenting with a slowly growing mass in right temporal region. Computed tomography (CT scan showed an encapsulated mass with multiple cysts. Histopathological examination revealed the characteristic findings, which were consistent with soft-tissue hydatid disease. In the absence of visceral organ involvement, this is the first reported case of a primary subcutaneous hydatid cyst in the skin of face in India. In the English literature, only one case of this kind has been reported till date. When imaging methods confirm cystic nature of a swelling, even in unusual sites, one should always keep a possibility of hydatid cyst and manage accordingly during surgery to avoid precipitation of acute anaphylaxis.

  6. Isolated hydatid cyst of adrenal gland with hypertension mimicking Conn's syndrome: a very rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Chaudhary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland is one of the rare conditions caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. The incidence of adrenal gland involvement is less than 1% of all hydatid disease in humans and isolated adrenal involvement is extremely rare. Hydatid disease is frequent in endemic regions and sheep farming areas with equal sex distribution. Here, a case of 23 year old female with isolated adrenal gland hydatid cyst is presented, that was evaluated clinically, investigated radiographicaly and by blood investigations and finally histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. No complications occurred at peri and postoperative period. The patient was given 6 cycles of albendazole (10 mg/kg in two divided doses, each for a period of four weeks followed by a week's rest. The patient is on regular follow-up without recurrence in last 1 year. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3071-3073

  7. Hydatid cyst of parotid: Report of unusual cytological findings extending the cytomorphological spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vinod Kumar; Chopra, Neha; Singh, Poorva; Venugopal, Vasantha Kumar; Narang, Salil

    2016-09-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infestation caused by larval cestode of genus Echinococcus. Cystic form of this infection mostly involves liver and lung. Hydatid disease of the parotid gland is very rare even in endemic areas and is often clinically mistaken for parotid tumors or cysts. The presence of protoscolices, laminated membranes, and isolated hooklets are characteristic cytological features observed on fine-needle aspirate from hydatid cysts. We report unusual cytological features from a hydatid cyst of parotid in a 13-year-old girl. She presented with a slowly enlarging hard mass in left parotid. Fine-needle aspiration yielded slightly turbid fluid. Smears from the sediment revealed naked parasitic micronuclei, fragments of germinative layer (endocyst), and abortive brood capsules (buds from endocyst) seen as spherical structures with multiple parasitic nuclei. Some of these spherical structures were degenerated with recognizable nuclei and others were completely necrotic. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:770-773. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Do the Hydatid Cysts Have Unusual Localization and Dissemination Ways in the Chest Cavity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel Akkas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We wanted to report our two cases of intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cyst in pleural cavity due to its rarity. Our first case is a 24-year-old male patient who was admitted with a cystic mass lesion consistent with hydatid cyst which was incidentally detected in inferior lobe of the right lung neighboring to thoracic wall and diaphragm. Our second case is a 32-year-old male patient who was admitted with chest pain and a cystic lesion in apex of the right hemithorax and intercostal field in basal after he had been medically treated due to hydatid cyst of the dome of the liver for two years. The cysts were removed with thoracotomy. Extrapulmonary intrathoracic hydatid cysts were evaluated with regard to invasion ways and treatment indications and methods.

  9. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of a stress management programme during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragea, Christina; Chrousos, George P; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Darviri, Christina

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal maternal stress is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Relaxation techniques might be effective in reducing stress during that period. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of applied relaxation in reducing anxiety and stress in pregnant women in their second trimester, as well as raising their sense of control. Also we expected to see a difference in some lifestyle factors associated with stress. A randomized control trial with a prospective pretest-posttest experimental design was used. Sixty primigravida women in their second trimester were assigned randomly to receive a 6-week stress management programme (N=31) (relaxation breathing and progressive muscle relaxation, RB-PMR, twice a day) or not (N=29). Self-reported validated measures were used to evaluate perceived stress, health locus of control and anxiety at baseline and at the end of the 6-weeks follow-up. The results of the study demonstrated significant benefits from the use of the techniques in the psychological state of the pregnant women. The systematic implementation of the proposed relaxation techniques contributed in the reduction of perceived stress (mean change -3.23, 95% CI: -4.29 to -0.29) and increased the sense of control (mean change 1.99, 95% CI: 0.02-3.7). The findings suggest beneficial effects of relaxation on reducing perceived stress as well as increment of sense of control in pregnant women. The results of this study support the claim that training in the proposed relaxation techniques may constitute an ideal, non-pharmaceutical, intervention that can promote well-being, at least during pregnancy. Longer studies will be necessary in the future, in order to examine the long-term effects of relaxation techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Short- and long-term effects of a physical activity counselling programme in COPD : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, Wytske A.; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Bossenbroek, Linda; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; de Greef, Mathieu H.G.; Wempe, Johan B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We were interested in the effects of a physical activity (PA) counselling programme in three groups of COPD patients from general practice (primary care), outpatient clinic (secondary care) and pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Methods: In this randomized controlled trial 155 COPD patients,

  11. Value for money: economic evaluation of two different caries prevention programmes compared with standard care in a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Vermaire; C. van Loveren; W.B.F. Brouwer; M. Krol

    2014-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted during a 3-year randomized controlled clinical trial in a general dental practice in the Netherlands in which 230 6-year-old children (± 3 months) were assigned to either regular dental care, an increased professional fluoride application (IPFA) programme

  12. Value for Money: Economic Evaluation of Two Different Caries Prevention Programmes Compared with standard Care in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaire, J.H.; Loveren, C. van; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Krol, M.

    2014-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted during a 3-year randomized controlled clinical trial in a general dental practice in the Netherlands in which 230 6-year-old children (± 3 months) were assigned to either regular dental care, an increased professional fluoride application (IPFA) programme

  13. Linking between Learner Control and Self-Efficacy of Online Learners in a New Zealand Postgraduate Online Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipjutorus, Widchaporn; Hansen, Sally; Brown, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a research-in-progress study on the link between "learner control" and "self-efficacy" of postgraduate students in an online programme at a New Zealand university. Even though students are familiar with computers and Internet usage, learning online may still pose a challenge, especially for inexperienced…

  14. Value for Money: Economic Evaluation of Two Different Caries Prevention Programmes Compared with standard Care in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaire, J.H.; Loveren, C. van; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Krol, M.

    2014-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted during a 3-year randomized controlled clinical trial in a general dental practice in the Netherlands in which 230 6-year-old children (± 3 months) were assigned to either regular dental care, an increased professional fluoride application (IPFA) programme

  15. Value for money: economic evaluation of two different caries prevention programmes compared with standard care in a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaire, J.H.; van Loveren, C.; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Krol, M.

    2014-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted during a 3-year randomized controlled clinical trial in a general dental practice in the Netherlands in which 230 6-year-old children (± 3 months) were assigned to either regular dental care, an increased professional fluoride application (IPFA) programme

  16. Interventricular septal hydatid cyst: Transesophageal echocardiography as a therapeutic tool during bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (hydatid disease arising from infestation with a larval or adult form of the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm is endemic in certain states of India, but affecting interventricular septum (IVS solitarily is a scarce phenomenon. We present a rare case of transesophageal echocardiography guided management of IVS hydatid cyst even during cardiopulmonary bypass, which presented with a rather unusual complaint of repeated syncope.

  17. Giant intracranial hydatid cyst: A report of two cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevesh Mallik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is a zoonosis caused by Taenia echinococcus. The three main varieties Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis and E. vogeli are primarily found in dogs and are transmitted to man by fecal-oral route. Commonly affected organs are liver, lungs and spleen. Brain is involved only in 2-5% cases. The authors herein present two cases of giant intracranial hydatid cysts managed at department of neurosurgery, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, India.

  18. Radical vs conservative surgery for hydatid liver cysts:Experience from single center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami; Akbulut; Ayhan; Senol; Arsenal; Sezgin; Bahri; Cakabay; Mehmet; Dursun; Omer; Satici

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To compare the efficacy and safety of radical and conservative surgical interventions for liver hydatid disease.METHODS:The study comprised 59 patients in two groups who had undergone radical and conservative surgical procedures for liver hydatid disease in our department between 2004 and 2009. Preoperative diagnostic tools,medical treatments,demographic and clinical characteristics,postoperative follow-up,and recurrence were compared in both groups. RESULTS:This non-randomized retrospective studyinclud...

  19. Macroscopic Hydatiduria: An Uncommon Pathognomonic Pres-enta¬tion of Renal Hydatid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali HAMIDI MADANI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolated renal hydatid disease is a rare endemic infestation caused by larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatiduria is an uncommon presentation of renal hydatid disease. In 2012 a 34-year-old female referred to Razi Hospital, Rasht, Iran with complaints of right flank pain and grape-like material in urine. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and CT scan. The patient was treated surgically with nephrectomy in combination with perioperative chemotherapy with albendazol.  

  20. A HUGE SILENT INTRACRANIA L HYDATID CYST IN AN ADULT MALE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease of the brain is a rare parasitic infestation caused by larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. It has an insidious onset with a slow rate of growth resulting in late diagnosis. Its occurence is rare in India, being endemic in Mediterranean countries and Middle East. We report a case of a huge, slow - growing, silent intracranial left parieto - temporo - occipital hydatid cyst in an 18 year old male presenting as a large cystic space occupying lesion.

  1. Path-programmable water droplet manipulations on an adhesion controlled superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jungmok; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Lee, Jaehong; Seung Lee, Jung; Kwon, Hyukho; Cho, Seung-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Taeyoon

    2015-01-01

    Here, we developed a novel and facile method to control the local water adhesion force of a thin and stretchable superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate with micro-pillar arrays that allows the individual manipulation of droplet motions including moving, merging and mixing. When a vacuum pressure was applied below the PDMS substrate, a local dimple structure was formed and the water adhesion force of structure was significantly changed owing to the dynamically varied pillar density. With the help of the lowered water adhesion force and the slope angle of the formed dimple structure, the motion of individual water droplets could be precisely controlled, which facilitated the creation of a droplet-based microfluidic platform capable of a programmable manipulation of droplets. We showed that the platform could be used in newer and emerging microfluidic operations such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with extremely high sensing capability (10−15 M) and in vitro small interfering RNA transfection with enhanced transfection efficiency of ~80%. PMID:26202206

  2. A Multi-core Heterogeneous Programmable Automation Controller System of Construction Machine

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    WANG Guoqing

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two main issues, high cost and interrupt response delay for current PACs (programmable automation controllers which are using high frequency single-chip microprocessors and commercial RTOS (real-time operating system working by switching the tasks and interrupts. To solve these problems, a new low-cost multi-core heterogeneous PAC structure was proposed. Based on the traditional front-end of interrupt service without interrupt switching delay and the division & deployment of multi real-time tasks. We implemented a new programming language Engineer C including its syntax, compiler and an integrated development environment, which can dynamically divide the multi tasks and deploy the division to single low-cost microcontroller, then built the hardware prototype, which consists of a digital signal board, an analog signal board and a motion control board, every board has its microcontroller and communicates each other by an enhanced SPI bus. Testing results show the hardware prototype and IDE can be provided as a low-cost PAC solution for construction machine.

  3. Analysis and Implementation of an Open Programmable Router Based on Forwarding and Control Element Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Ming Wang; Li-Gang Dong; Bin Zhuge

    2008-01-01

    A router architecture based upon ForCES (Forwarding and Control Element Separation), which is being standardized by IETF ForCES working group, gains its competitive advantage over traditional router architectures in flexibility, programmability, and cost-effectiveness. In this paper, design and implementation of a ForCES-based router (ForTER) is illustrated. Firstly, the implementation architecture of ForTER is discussed. Then, a layered software model,which well illustrates ForCES features, is proposed. Based on the model, design and implementation of Control Element (CE) and Forwarding Element (FE) in ForTER are introduced in detail. Moreover, security for ForTER is considered and an algorithm to prevent DoS attacks is presented. Lastly, experiments of ForTER are illustrated for routing and running routing protocols, network management, DoS attack prevention, etc. The experimental results show the feasibility of the ForTER design. Consequently, the ForTER implementation basically testifies the feasibility of ForCES architecture and some IETF ForCES specifications.

  4. Tuberculosis in UK cities: workload and effectiveness of tuberculosis control programmes

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    Bothamley Graham H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB has increased within the UK and, in response, targets for TB control have been set and interventions recommended. The question was whether these had been implemented and, if so, had they been effective in reducing TB cases. Methods Epidemiological data were obtained from enhanced surveillance and clinics. Primary care trusts or TB clinics with an average of > 100 TB cases per year were identified and provided reflections on the reasons for any change in their local incidence, which was compared to an audit against the national TB plan. Results Access to data for planning varied (0-22 months. Sputum smear status was usually well recorded within the clinics. All cities had TB networks, a key worker for each case, free treatment and arrangements to treat HIV co-infection. Achievement of targets in the national plan correlated well with change in workload figures for the commissioning organizations (Spearman's rank correlation R = 0.8, P 6% (χ2 = 4.2, P Conclusion TB control programmes depend on adequate numbers of specialist TB nurses for early detection and case-holding. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/9/127

  5. Software Architecture and Framework for Programmable Logic Controllers: A Case Study and Suggestions for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. George Walters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs are widely used for control and automation of machines and processes, so the quality of PLC software has a direct impact on production efficiency. This paper describes a PLC program for a food production line that was completely rewritten using a different software architecture and framework. The PLC hardware and the production line equipment were not changed, so this project provides an opportunity to quantify the impact of different PLC software architecture on production efficiency. The average number of cases of products produced per production hour during the first ten months with the new program was 6.1% higher than the average during the previous ten months with the old program. PLC software, unlike most other software, is often used by the end-user for troubleshooting. In this case, a relatively simple architecture and framework that favors the end-user significantly improved production efficiency over a more sophisticated architecture and framework that favors the software developer. Suggestions for further research on software architecture and framework are given.

  6. Accessibility to tuberculosis control services and tuberculosis programme performance in southern Ethiopia

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    Mesay Hailu Dangisso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the expansion of health services and community-based interventions in Ethiopia, limited evidence exists about the distribution of and access to health facilities and their relationship with the performance of tuberculosis (TB control programmes. We aim to assess the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to TB control services and their relationship with TB case notification rates (CNRs and treatment outcome in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. Design: We carried out an ecological study to assess physical accessibility to TB control facilities and the association of physical accessibility with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. We collected smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB cases treated during 2003–2012 from unit TB registers and TB service data such as availability of basic supplies for TB control and geographic locations of health services. We used ArcGIS 10.2 to measure the distance from each enumeration location to the nearest TB control facilities. A linear regression analysis was employed to assess factors associated with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. Results: Over a decade the health service coverage (the health facility–to-population ratio increased by 36% and the accessibility to TB control facilities also improved. Thus, the mean distance from TB control services was 7.6 km in 2003 (ranging from 1.8 to 25.5 km between kebeles (the smallest administrative units and had decreased to 3.2 km in 2012 (ranging from 1.5 to 12.4 km. In multivariate linear regression, as distance from TB diagnostic facilities (b-estimate=−0.25, p<0.001 and altitude (b-estimate=−0.31, p<0.001 increased, the CNRs of TB decreased, whereas a higher population density was associated with increased TB CNRs. Similarly, distance to TB control facilities (b-estimate=−0.27, p<0.001 and altitude (b-estimate=−0.30, p<0.001 were inversely associated with treatment success (proportion of treatment completed or cured cases

  7. Costs analysis of a population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish; Rogawski, Elizabeth Tacket

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million) and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million), respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million), $23 million (Rs 1,230 million) and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million), respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme.

  8. Costs analysis of a population level rabies control programme in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Abbas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine costs to the state government of implementing different interventions for controlling rabies among the entire human and animal populations of Tamil Nadu. This built upon an earlier assessment of Tamil Nadu's efforts to control rabies. Anti-rabies vaccines were made available at all health facilities. Costs were estimated for five different combinations of animal and human interventions using an activity-based costing approach from the provider perspective. Disease and population data were sourced from the state surveillance data, human census and livestock census. Program costs were extrapolated from official documents. All capital costs were depreciated to estimate annualized costs. All costs were inflated to 2012 Rupees. Sensitivity analysis was conducted across all major cost centres to assess their relative impact on program costs. It was found that the annual costs of providing Anti-rabies vaccine alone and in combination with Immunoglobulins was $0.7 million (Rs 36 million and $2.2 million (Rs 119 million, respectively. For animal sector interventions, the annualised costs of rolling out surgical sterilisation-immunization, injectable immunization and oral immunizations were estimated to be $ 44 million (Rs 2,350 million, $23 million (Rs 1,230 million and $ 11 million (Rs 590 million, respectively. Dog bite incidence, health systems coverage and cost of rabies biologicals were found to be important drivers of costs for human interventions. For the animal sector interventions, the size of dog catching team, dog population and vaccine costs were found to be driving the costs. Rabies control in Tamil Nadu seems a costly proposition the way it is currently structured. Policy makers in Tamil Nadu and other similar settings should consider the long-term financial sustainability before embarking upon a state or nation-wide rabies control programme.

  9. Design and Simulation of Automatic Ballast System on Catamaran Ship Based on Programmable Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Ranu Kusuma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of catamaran ship which has deficiency to ship stability during maneuvering. to that end, this paper concerns about ballast system design in support of the safety and comfort of passengers on the catamaran boat. the discussion is done by creating a mathematical model of each component in the block diagram of the ballast system. then determine the pid value of the system and add the compensator for the system to run stable. further analyzed with the help of matlab software to get transient system response. with the automation system on the ballast system, it is expected that the motion of the ship can work automatically and provide a better response in the stability of the catamaran type ship. the ballast system begins to work against the tilt of the ship at 6.7 seconds at a certain angle, and will continue to work during the vessel maneuvering. judging from the 6.7 second system response time, the convenience of the passengers is not disturbed (the system response is not too fast. one way to reduce the rolling that occurs on the ship is to optimize the performance of the ballast system. performance optimization is done by using programmable logic controller (plc. plc used is omron cpm1a-30cdr-a-v1. the process is done by making the installation plant model of the ballast system as a control medium. followed by creating a control circuit consisting of wiring i / o, limit switch circuits, power supplies and programming languages associated with plcs. the result of the control is expected to regulate fluid flow in the ballast system automatically resulting in a rapid response to the stability of the ship.

  10. COMPUTER-ASSISTED CONTROL OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN ENGINEERING GRAPHICS WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF DISTANCE LEARNING PROGRAMMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tel'noy Viktor Ivanovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Development of computer-assisted computer technologies and their integration into the academic activity with a view to the control of the academic performance within the framework of distance learning programmes represent the subject matter of the article. The article is a brief overview of the software programme designated for the monitoring of the academic performance of students enrolled in distance learning programmes. The software is developed on Delphi 7.0 for Windows operating system. The strength of the proposed software consists in the availability of the two modes of its operation that differ in the principle of the problem selection and timing parameters. Interim academic performance assessment is to be performed through the employment of computerized testing procedures that contemplate the use of a data base of testing assignments implemented in the eLearning Server media. Identification of students is to be performed through the installation of video cameras at workplaces of students.

  11. Hydatid cyst disease of the thyroid gland: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Sami; Demircan, Firat; Sogutcu, Nilgun

    2015-04-01

    Hydatid cyst disease may develop in any organ of the body, most frequently in the liver and lung, but occasionally can affect other organs such as the thyroid gland. Although the prevalence of thyroidal cyst disease varies by region, literature data suggest that it ranges between 0% and 3.4%. The aim of this report was to share 2 cases with thyroid hydatid cyst. Two female patients aged 26 and 57 years were admitted to our outpatient clinic with different complaints. While the first case presented with front of the neck swelling and pain, the second case presented with hoarseness, sore throat, and neck swelling. Both patients were living in a rural area in the southeastern region of Turkey and had had a long history of animal contact. Both patients had undergone previous surgeries for hydatid cyst disease. Both patients presented with a clinical picture consistent with typical multinodular goiter, and both underwent total thyroidectomy after detailed examinations and tests. The exact diagnosis was made after histopathologic examination in both patients. They both had a negative indirect hemagglutination test studied from blood samples. They both have had no recurrences during a 4-year follow-up. In conclusion, although thyroid gland is rarely affected, hydatid cyst disease should not be overlooked in differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of thyroid gland in patients who live in regions where hydatid cyst disease is endemic and who had hydatid cysts in other regions of their body.

  12. Extragenitourinary retroperitoneal primary hydatid cyst: a rare cause of bilateral lower ureteric obstruction and unilateral limb edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst is an endemic disease in our country. Most commonly, it occurs in the liver and lungs. Bilateral hydroureteronephrosis is one of the rare presentations of hydatid disease. Herein, we are reporting an unusual case of hydatid disease where the primary mode of presentation was external iliac vein compression with chronic renal failure because of bilateral ureteric involvement. The patient was treated with bilateral double-J stenting to improve the renal function and operated later for removal of hydatid cyst under albendazole drug treatment.

  13. Severe anaphylactic choc revealing vascular rupture of a liver hydatid cyst observed in an emergency unit in Tunis (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldoul, S

    2014-12-01

    Anaphylactic shock is an exceptional mode of revelation of a liver hydatid cyst and it is in almost all cases secondary to an intraperitoneal rupture. The spread of hydatid cyst content into the bloodstream is even more exceptional. We report the case of a 36 years-an old woman who presented a severe anaphylactic shock preceded by abdominal pain. Abdominal CT showed a liver hydatid cyst with a vascular communication. Operative findings confirmed the imaging data. The spread of hydatid cyst content into the bloodstream poses a double challenge as regards the management of the anaphylactic shock, and for the perioperative precautions.

  14. The clinical effectiveness of different parenting programmes for children with conduct problems: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

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    Taylor Rod S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conduct problems are common, disabling and costly. The prognosis for children with conduct problems is poor, with outcomes in adulthood including criminal behaviour, alcoholism, drug abuse, domestic violence, child abuse and a range of psychiatric disorders. There has been a rapid expansion of group based parent-training programmes for the treatment of children with conduct problems in a number of countries over the past 10 years. Existing reviews of parent training have methodological limitations such as inclusion of non-randomised studies, the absence of investigation for heterogeneity prior to meta-analysis or failure to report confidence intervals. The objective of the current study was to systematically review randomised controlled trials of parenting programmes for the treatment of children with conduct problems. Methods Standard systematic review methods were followed including duplicate inclusion decisions, data extraction and quality assessment. Twenty electronic databases from the fields of medicine, psychology, social science and education were comprehensively searched for RCTs and systematic reviews to February 2006. Inclusion criteria were: randomised controlled trial; of structured, repeatable parenting programmes; for parents/carers of children up to the age of 18 with a conduct problem; and at least one measure of child behaviour. Meta-analysis and qualitative synthesis were used to summarise included studies. Results 57 RCTs were included. Studies were small with an average group size of 21. Meta-analyses using both parent (SMD -0.67; 95% CI: -0.91, -0.42 and independent (SMD -0.44; 95% CI: -0.66, -0.23 reports of outcome showed significant differences favouring the intervention group. There was insufficient evidence to determine the relative effectiveness of different approaches to delivering parenting programmes. Conclusion Parenting programmes are an effective treatment for children with conduct problems

  15. Effectiveness of brief suicide management training programme for medical residents in Japan: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Kato, T A; Sato, R; Fujisawa, D; Aoyama-Uehara, K; Hashimoto, N; Yonemoto, N; Fukasawa, M; Otsuka, K

    2014-06-01

    Aims. To evaluate the effectiveness of a brief suicide management training programme for Japanese medical residents compared with the usual lecture on suicidality. Methods. In this multi-center, clustered randomized controlled trial, the intervention group attended a structured suicide management programme and the control group, the usual lecture on depression and suicidality. The primary outcome was the difference in residents' cumulative competency score to manage suicidal persons from baseline (T0) to 1 month after the intervention (T2), determined using the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-1) score, at individual level. Results. Analysis of 114 residents (intervention group n = 65, control group n = 49) assigned to two clusters in each group revealed no change in SIRI-1 score from T0 to T2 or immediately after the intervention (T1) between the two groups. As a secondary analysis, discrepancy in judgement between the participants and Japanese suicidologists was examined immediately after the intervention in the adjusted model, with a mean difference in score of 9.98 (95% confidence interval: 4.39-15.56; p = 0.001). Conclusions. The structured programme was not proven to improve competency in suicide management when measured by the SIRI-1 score. Further elaboration of the programme and valid measurement of its outcome would be needed to show the program's effectiveness.

  16. Development of control system for multi-converter High voltage Power supply using programmable SoC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Rasesh; Dharangutti, Jagruti; Singh, N. P.; Thakar, Aruna; Dhola, Hitesh; Gajjar, Sandip; Parmar, Darshan; Zaveri, Tanish; Baruah, Ujjwal

    2017-04-01

    Multi-converter based High Voltage Power Supplies (HVPSs) find application in multi-megawatt accelerators, RF systems. Control system for HVPS must be a combination of superior parallel processing, real time performance, fast computation and versatile connectivity. The hardware platform is expected to be robust, easily scalable for future developments with minimal overheads. This paper describes development of control system on Zynq All Programmable SoC (System on Chip) for HVPS. Typical HVPS control mechanism involves communication, generation of precise control signals/pulses for few hundred numbers of chopper and closed loop control in microsecond range for regulated output. Such kind of requirements can be met with Zynq All Programmable SoC, which is a combination of Dual core ARM Cortex A-9 Processing System (PS) and Xilinx 7 series FPGA based Programmable Logic (PL). Deterministic functions of power supply control system such as generation of control signals with precise inter-channel delay of nanosecond range and communication with individual chopper at 100kbps can be implemented on PL. PS should implement corrective tasks based on field feedback received from individual chopper, user interface and OS management that allows to take full advantage of system capabilities. PS and PL are connected with on-chip AXI-4 interface with low latency and higher bandwidth through 9 AXI ports. Typically PS boots first, this ensures secure booting and prevents external environment from tampering PL.

  17. An educational programme on dengue fever prevention and control for females in Jeddah high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N K; Abalkhail, B; Rady, M; Al-Bar, H

    2009-01-01

    A mass communication campaign was conducted at 20 randomly selected female high schools and 2 school supervision centres in Jeddah to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices of students, teachers and supervisors about dengue fever. A total of 5977 pre- and post-intervention questionnaires were completed and the intervention was conducted using lectures and audiovisual aids. A marked improvement in all areas of knowledge, attitudes and practices was observed after the programme in all groups. Students obtained the highest improvement in mean knowledge scores after the programme compared to the other 2 groups. There is a need to expand such programmes to all Jeddah schools.

  18. Control of zoonoses in emergency situations: lessons learned during recent outbreaks (gaps and weaknesses of current zoonoses control programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darem Tabbaa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In emergency situations, domestic animals and wildlife are, like people, exposed to infectious diseases and environmental contaminants in the air, soil, water and food. They can suffer from acute and/or chronic diseases from such exposure. Often animals serve as disease reservoirs or early warning systems for the community in regard to the spread of zoonotic diseases. Over 100 years of experience have shown that animal and human health are closely related. During the past few years, emergent disease episodes have increased; nearly all have involved zoonotic agents. As there is no way to predict when or where the next important new zoonotic pathogen will emerge or what its ultimate importance might be, investigation at the first sign of emergence of a new zoonotic disease is particularly important. Today, in many emerging situations, different activities involving zoonotic disease control are at risk because of failed investigative infrastructures or financial constraints. Considering that zoonotic diseases have their own characteristics, their prevention and control require unique strategies, based more on fundamental and applied research than on traditional approaches. Such strategies require cooperation and coordination between animal and public health sectors and the involvement of other disciplines and experts such as epidemiologists, entomologists, environmentalists and climatologists. Lessons learned from the avian influenza pandemic threat, the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and rabies outbreaks are presented and the gaps and weakness of current control programmes are discussed.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF TREATMENT OUTCOME OF TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS UNDER REVISED NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL PROGRAMME IN NANDED, MAHARASHTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varthi Mahendra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB remains a world-wide public health problem despite the fact that the causative organism was discovered more than 100 years ago and highly effective drugs and vaccine are available making TB a preventable and curable disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients under Revised National Tuberculosis control Programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present record based study was conducted during July 2013-September 2013. The treatment outcome of all tuberculosis patients were assessed from the RNTCP treatment cards that were on DOTS during 1st Jan 2011 to 30th June 2012 at City Tuberculosis Center, Nanded-Waghala Municipal Corporation, Jangamwadi, Nanded. Before starting the study, the ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee of the college. The data was directly entered on the Microsoft Excel regarding epidemiological variables and outcome of tuberculosis patients. The data was tabulated and analyzed by using statistical software Open Epi Version 2.3 by maintaining confidentiality. RESULTS: Thus we had included 442 TB patients. The findings of treatment outcome of TB patients were Cured 104 (23.53%, treatment completed 289 (65.38%, defaulters 20 (4.52%, treatment failures 1 (0.23%, deaths 25 (5.66% and transferred out 3 (0.68%. CONCLUSION: Our study showed the treatment outcome rates as per the expected norms RNTCP.

  20. Image Processing and control of a programmable spatial light modulator for optic damage protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, A; Leach, R; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Matone, J; Heebner, J

    2010-12-06

    The heart of the National Ignition Facility is a megajoule-class laser system consisting of 192 beams used to drive inertial confinement fusion reactions. A recently installed system of programmable, liquid-crystal-based spatial light modulators adds the capability of arbitrarily shaping the spatial beam profiles in order to enhance operational flexibility. Its primary intended use is for introducing 'blocker' obscurations shadowing isolated flaws on downstream optical elements that would otherwise be damaged by high fluence laser illumination. Because an improperly shaped blocker pattern can lead to equipment damage, both the position and shape of the obscurations must be carefully verified prior to high-fluence operations. An automatic alignment algorithm is used to perform detection and estimation of the imposed blocker centroid positions compared to their intended locations. Furthermore, in order to minimize the spatially-varying nonlinear response of the device, a calibration of the local magnification is performed at multiple sub-image locations. In this paper, we describe the control and associated image processing of this device that helps to enhance the safety and longevity of the overall system.

  1. New vision for Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP): Universal access - "reaching the un-reached".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Kumar, Ashok; Dewan, Puneet; Kumar, Ajay; Satyanarayana, Srinath

    2012-05-01

    The Phase II (2006-2012) of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) has been successful in achieving its objectives. Tuberculosis (TB) disease burden (prevalence and mortality) in India has reduced significantly when compared to 1990 levels, and India is on track to achieve the TB related millennium development goals. Despite significant progress, TB still continues to be one of the major public health problems in the country, and intensified efforts are required to reduce TB transmission and accelerate reductions in TB incidence, particularly in urban areas and difficult terrains. Achieving 'Universal access' is possible and necessary for the country. RNTCP during the 12 th Five Year Plan (2012-2017) aims to achieve 'Universal access' to quality assured TB diagnosis and treatment and elaborate plans are being made. This requires broad and concerted efforts and support from all stakeholders with substantial enhancement of commitment and financing at all levels. This paper describes the new vision of RNTCP and an overview of how this will be achieved.

  2. Core components for effective infection prevention and control programmes: new WHO evidence-based recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Julie; Twyman, Anthony; Zingg, Walter; Damani, Nizam; Kilpatrick, Claire; Reilly, Jacqui; Price, Lesley; Egger, Matthias; Grayson, M Lindsay; Kelley, Edward; Allegranzi, Benedetta

    2017-01-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAI) are a major public health problem with a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. They represent also an important economic burden to health systems worldwide. However, a large proportion of HAI are preventable through effective infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. Improvements in IPC at the national and facility level are critical for the successful containment of antimicrobial resistance and the prevention of HAI, including outbreaks of highly transmissible diseases through high quality care within the context of universal health coverage. Given the limited availability of IPC evidence-based guidance and standards, the World Health Organization (WHO) decided to prioritize the development of global recommendations on the core components of effective IPC programmes both at the national and acute health care facility level, based on systematic literature reviews and expert consensus. The aim of the guideline development process was to identify the evidence and evaluate its quality, consider patient values and preferences, resource implications, and the feasibility and acceptability of the recommendations. As a result, 11 recommendations and three good practice statements are presented here, including a summary of the supporting evidence, and form the substance of a new WHO IPC guideline.

  3. Core components for effective infection prevention and control programmes: new WHO evidence-based recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Storr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health care-associated infections (HAI are a major public health problem with a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. They represent also an important economic burden to health systems worldwide. However, a large proportion of HAI are preventable through effective infection prevention and control (IPC measures. Improvements in IPC at the national and facility level are critical for the successful containment of antimicrobial resistance and the prevention of HAI, including outbreaks of highly transmissible diseases through high quality care within the context of universal health coverage. Given the limited availability of IPC evidence-based guidance and standards, the World Health Organization (WHO decided to prioritize the development of global recommendations on the core components of effective IPC programmes both at the national and acute health care facility level, based on systematic literature reviews and expert consensus. The aim of the guideline development process was to identify the evidence and evaluate its quality, consider patient values and preferences, resource implications, and the feasibility and acceptability of the recommendations. As a result, 11 recommendations and three good practice statements are presented here, including a summary of the supporting evidence, and form the substance of a new WHO IPC guideline.

  4. Programmable control of bacterial gene expression with the combined CRISPR and antisense RNA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Je; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Leong, Matthew C; Moon, Tae Seok

    2016-03-18

    A central goal of synthetic biology is to implement diverse cellular functions by predictably controlling gene expression. Though research has focused more on protein regulators than RNA regulators, recent advances in our understanding of RNA folding and functions have motivated the use of RNA regulators. RNA regulators provide an advantage because they are easier to design and engineer than protein regulators, potentially have a lower burden on the cell and are highly orthogonal. Here, we combine the CRISPR system from Streptococcus pyogenes and synthetic antisense RNAs (asRNAs) in Escherichia coli strains to repress or derepress a target gene in a programmable manner. Specifically, we demonstrate for the first time that the gene target repressed by the CRISPR system can be derepressed by expressing an asRNA that sequesters a small guide RNA (sgRNA). Furthermore, we demonstrate that tunable levels of derepression can be achieved (up to 95%) by designing asRNAs that target different regions of a sgRNA and by altering the hybridization free energy of the sgRNA-asRNA complex. This new system, which we call the combined CRISPR and asRNA system, can be used to reversibly repress or derepress multiple target genes simultaneously, allowing for rational reprogramming of cellular functions.

  5. Simulasi Pengendalian Multiproses Industri dengan Programmable Logic Controller sebagai Sarana dan Bahan Ajar Praktik Instalasi Listrik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukir Sukir

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan unjuk kerja yang baik tentang simulasi pengendalian multiproses industri menggunakan Programmable Logic Controller (PLC sebagai sarana dan bahan ajar Praktik Instalasi Listrik. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian dan pengembangan yang terdiri atas analisis kebutuhan, perancangan, pembuatan atau implementasi, pengujian unjuk kerja dan perbaikan serta finishing. Pengumpulan data dengan cara observasi. Instrumen yang digunakan antara lain multimeter Sanwa, ceklist deskripsi kerja sarana praktik, angket validasi ahli media, ahli materi dan mahasiswa terhadap kelayakan sarana praktik serta labsheet. Data yang terkumpul dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa diperoleh simulasi pengendalian multiproses industri menggunakan PLC sebagai sarana praktik dan bahan ajar (labsheet pada Praktik Instalasi Listrik yang mempunyai unjuk yang baik diantaranya: (1 simulasi pengendalian multiproses industri menggunakan PLC sebagai sebagai sarana praktik mempunyai deskripsi kerja yang sesuai dengan perencanaan; (2 Hasil pengamatan kelayakan simulasi pengendalian multiproses industri menggunakan PLC sebagai sarana praktik oleh ahli materi, ahli media dan mahasiswa diperoleh hasil rata-rata total sebesar 2,89 atau 72,25% dalam kategori baik serta (3 Hasil pengamatan kelayakan simulasi pengendalian multiproses industri menggunakan PLC sebagai bahan ajar (labsheet oleh ahli materi, ahli media dan mahasiswa diperoleh skor rata-rata total sebesar 2,85 atau 71,25% yang masuk dalam kategori baik.

  6. Human behavioural research applied to the leprosy control programme of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P C

    1986-09-01

    In 1984, in Sarawak, there were a total of 1,099 recorded cases of leprosy for a population of 1.3 million. However, for each case recorded, it is estimated that two others remain undiagnosed as a consequence of the stigmatization associated with leprosy. For the five year period, 1979-1983, an average of 29 new cases were detected each year of which 8.6 (30%) were deformed due to the late stages at which it was being reported. To increase the case-finding rate, human behavioural research was applied to the leprosy control programme so as to develop culture-specific health education packages aimed at self diagnosis and self referral in order to detect the large pool of undiagnosed cases hidden behind the veil of aversion, fear and ignorance. This was achieved through anthropological studies to identify how the various major ethnic groups perceived leprosy and their attitudes towards leprosy. Taking into account these findings, health education packages aimed at adults as well as children were developed for the Chinese as well as the non-Chinese, and consisted of newspaper articles, cartoon tape-slides, cartoon story books and posters.

  7. Antimalarial Drug Resistance: Surveillance and Molecular Methods for National Malaria Control Programmes

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    Umberto D'Alessandro

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available National malaria control programmes have the responsibility to develop a policy for malaria disease management based on a set of defined criteria as efficacy, side effects, costs and compliance. These will fluctuate over time and national guidelines will require periodic re-assessment and revision. Changing a drug policy is a major undertaking that can take several years before being fully operational. The standard methods on which a decision can be taken are the in vivo and the in vitro tests. The latter allow a quantitative measurement of the drug response and the assessment of several drugs at once. However, in terms of drug policy change its results might be difficult to interpret although they may be used as an early warning system for 2nd or 3rd line drugs. The new WHO 14-days in vivo test addresses mainly the problem of treatment failure and of haematological parameters changes in sick children. It gives valuable information on whether a drug still `works'. None of these methods are well suited for large-scale studies. Molecular methods based on detection of mutations in parasite molecules targeted by antimalarial drugs could be attractive tools for surveillance. However, their relationship with in vivo test results needs to be established

  8. Enabling technologies to improve area-wide integrated pest management programmes for the control of screwworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A S; Vreysen, M J B; Hendrichs, J; Feldmann, U

    2009-06-01

    The economic devastation caused in the past by the New World screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to the livestock industry in the U.S.A., Mexico and the rest of Central America was staggering. The eradication of this major livestock pest from North and Central America using the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme was a phenomenal technical and managerial accomplishment with enormous economic implications. The area is maintained screwworm-free by the weekly release of 40 million sterile flies in the Darien Gap in Panama, which prevents migration from screwworm-infested areas in Columbia. However, the species is still a major pest in many areas of the Caribbean and South America and there is considerable interest in extending the eradication programme to these countries. Understanding New World screwworm fly populations in the Caribbean and South America, which represent a continuous threat to the screwworm-free areas of Central America and the U.S.A., is a prerequisite to any future eradication campaigns. The Old World screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has a very wide distribution ranging from Southern Africa to Papua New Guinea and, although its economic importance is assumed to be less than that of its New World counterpart, it is a serious pest in extensive livestock production and a constant threat to pest-free areas such as Australia. In the 1980s repeated introductions and an expansion of Old World screwworm populations were reported in the Middle East; in the 1990s it invaded Iraq and since late 2007 it has been reported in Yemen, where a severe outbreak of myiasis occurred in 2008. Small-scale field trials have shown the potential of integrating the SIT in the control of this pest and various international organizations are considering using the release of sterile insects as part of an AW-IPM approach on a much wider scale

  9. Canadian-Acquired Hydatid Disease: A Case Report

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    Mohammed Al Saghier

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcal cysts are unusual in Canada, and most cases seen are in immigrants. In northern Canadian communities, Echinococcus granulosis infection occasionally is acquired from dogs that feed on the entrails of caribou or moose. Seventeen patients with Canadian-acquired hydatid cysts were seen over an 11-year period. One challenging case is described in detail. An 18-year-old aboriginal woman presented with jaundice, pain, lower extremity edema and coagulopathy from a 26 cm echinococcal hepatic cyst. She was successfully treated with a combination of oral albendazole, percutaneous drainage and surgery. One-year follow-up showed no recurrence of disease. The management options for echinococcal cysts are extensively reviewed.

  10. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN MEKATRONIKA BERBASIS KOMPUTER POKOK BAHASAN PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER BERORIENTASI PADA PEMBELAJARAN LANGSUNG

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    Wahyu Dwi Kurniawan

    2015-02-01

    Program Logic Controller is subject that many complaints by students of Department of Mechanical Engineering FT-Unesa. This is due to the lack of learning devices are used so that learning becomes less favorable and become passive. This study aims to develop computer-based learning device mechatronics subject-oriented programmable logic controller directly on student learning Mechanical Engineering Department Unesa FT. This study was conducted in two phases. Phase I, the development of the learning refers to the design of the Model 4D Thiagarajan (1974, Phase II, trial learning in the classroom using a design of one group pretest-posttest design. The findings of the study: (1 an average score of 3.32 learning assessment tools (pretty good, (2 average scores on tests of learning implementation I of 3.59 (good and trials II of 3.70 (both , (3 student learning outcomes of cognitive and psychomotor aspects have achieved individually and classical mastery, (4 students showed a positive response to the stated learning tehadap interested, excited, and motivated to attend lectures mechatronics; activity of the most dominant college students are discussin /practices relevant to teaching and learning that is on trial I is 36.46% and trials II 38.19%. Based on the analysis of data, it can be concluded that the developed learning feasible for use in lectures mechatronics. Implementation of the computer-based learning mechatronics subjects PLC can improve the quality of teaching and learning, as students showed a positive response, implementation category learning and learning outcomes both cognitive and psychomotor aspects of students have achieved mastery individually and classical. Keywords: development, learning, mechatronics, computer, plc

  11. Using the SaTScan method to detect local malaria clusters for guiding malaria control programmes

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    Kok Gerdalize

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mpumalanga Province, South Africa is a low malaria transmission area that is subject to malaria epidemics. SaTScan methodology was used by the malaria control programme to detect local malaria clusters to assist disease control planning. The third season for case cluster identification overlapped with the first season of implementing an outbreak identification and response system in the area. Methods SaTScan™ software using the Kulldorf method of retrospective space-time permutation and the Bernoulli purely spatial model was used to identify malaria clusters using definitively confirmed individual cases in seven towns over three malaria seasons. Following passive case reporting at health facilities during the 2002 to 2005 seasons, active case detection was carried out in the communities, this assisted with determining the probable source of infection. The distribution and statistical significance of the clusters were explored by means of Monte Carlo replication of data sets under the null hypothesis with replications greater than 999 to ensure adequate power for defining clusters. Results and discussion SaTScan detected five space-clusters and two space-time clusters during the study period. There was strong concordance between recognized local clustering of cases and outbreak declaration in specific towns. Both Albertsnek and Thambokulu reported malaria outbreaks in the same season as space-time clusters. This synergy may allow mutual validation of the two systems in confirming outbreaks demanding additional resources and cluster identification at local level to better target resources. Conclusion Exploring the clustering of cases assisted with the planning of public health activities, including mobilizing health workers and resources. Where appropriate additional indoor residual spraying, focal larviciding and health promotion activities, were all also carried out.

  12. African Programme For Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: model-estimated health impact and cost.

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    Luc E Coffeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. METHODS AND FINDINGS: With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. CONCLUSIONS: Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future.

  13. Restoring State Control Over Forest Resources Through Administrative Procedures: Evidence From a Community Forestry Programme in Central Java, Indonesia

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    Ahmad Maryudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, community forestry has emerged as a means to reform power constellations with regard to forest governance. Through community forestry, the central state promised to devolve several forest rights to local communities and encouraged them to get involved in decision making processes and the implementation of forest activities. However, experience in some countries indicates that the implementation of community forestry programmes is rarely followed by genuine power devolution to local forest users. Instead, these programmes may even serve as a means to retain or restore the central state’s control over forests. Using a case study of a community forestry programme implemented in Java, Indonesia, by a state forest company, this paper argues that the implementation of community forestry is also driven by the state’s interests to regain control over the forests. Research in eight villages in Central Java province reveals that the community forestry programmes are carefully structured according to numerous administrative procedures and estab- lish a mode of control through a bureaucratic design. ----- In den letzten Jahren hat sich community forestry als Mittel zur Reform von Machtkonstellationen in Bezug auf die Verwaltung von Wäldern herausgebildet. Der Zentralstaat versprach durch community forestry bestimmte Waldrechte an lokale Communities abzugeben und ermutigte sie, sich an Entscheidungsprozessen und der Implementierung von Forstaktivitäten zu beteiligen. Erfahrungen in einigen Ländern zeigen jedoch, dass die Implementierung von community forestry-Programmen selten mit einem tatsächlichen Machttransfer an lokale ForstnutzerInnen einhergeht, sondern diese Programme sogar als Mittel zur Rückgewinnung von zentralstaatlicher Kontrolle über Wälder dienen können. Anhand eines Fallbeispiels eines community forestry-Programms, das in Java, Indonesien, von einem staatlichen Forstunternehmen implementiert wird, argumentiere ich

  14. A rare case: Spontaneous cutaneous fistula of infected splenic hydatid cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kemal Kismet; Ali Haldun Ozcan; Mehmet Zafer Sabuncuoglu; Cem Gencay; Bulent Kilicoglu; Ceyda Turan; Mehmet Ali Akkus

    2006-01-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by the larval stage of the genus Echinococcus. Live hydatid cysts can rupture into physiologic channels, free body cavities or adjacent organs. Although hydatid disease can develop anywhere in the human body, the liver is the most frequently involved organ, followed by the lungs. Cysts of the spleen are unusual. There are only five case reports of spontaneous cutaneous fistulization of liver hydatid cysts in the literature. But there isn't any report about cutaneous fistula caused by splenic hydatid cyst. We report a first case of spontaneous cutaneous fistula of infected splenic hydatid cyst.A 43-year-old man was admitted to our Emergency Service with abdominal pain and fluid drainage from the abdominal wall. He has been suffering from a reddish swelling on the abdominal wall skin for four months.After a white membrane had been protruded out from his abdominal wall, he was admitted to our Emergency Service. On physical examination, a white membrane was seen to protrude out from the 2cm× 1cm skin defect on the left superolateral site of the umblicus. Large,complex, cystic and solid mass of 9.5 cm-diameter was located in the spleen on ultrasonographic examination.At operation, partial cystectomy and drainage was performed. After the operation, he was given a dosage of 10 mg/kg per day of albendazole, divided into three doses. He was discharged on the postoperative 10th d.It should be kept in mind that splenic hydatid cysts can cause such a rare complication.

  15. Epidemiological Studies on Echinococcosis and Characterization of Human and Livestock Hydatid Cysts in Mauritania

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    CB Ould Ahmed Salem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is considered endemic in Mauritania. The aim of this study is to present an epidemiological study on the echinococcosis in man and animals in the Nouakchott region. Methods: The internal organs from livestock carcasses were inspected for research of hydatid cysts. The hydatid fluid was examined for research of the protoscoleces. Dogs were necropsied for the collect of Echinococcus granulosus.Results: In the Nouakchott Hospital, 24 surgical operation of human hydatid cysts have been per­formed, out of which 50% were localised in the lung, 33% in the liver and 17% elsewhere. Then, the incidence rate would be of 1.2% per 100 000 inhabitants in Mauritania. In the dog, the prevalence rate is 14%. The average number of E. granulosus on the whole dogs is 172 and 1227 on the positive dogs. Concerning the livestock, hydatid cysts found in 30.1% of the dromedary, 5.5% of the cattle and 6.5 of the sheep. The fertility rate of hydatid cysts in humans (75% and camels (76% was significantly higher than that of sheep (24% and cattle (23% (P<0.0001. Hydatid infestation is characterized globally by the dominance of pulmonary localiza­tions in hu­mans (50% and camels (72.7% and in the liver in sheep (76.1% and cattle (82.3%.Conclusion: The differences between prevalence rates, the fertility of hydatid cysts and diversity sites localization observed in humans and camels of one hand and the sheep and cattle on the other hand, depends possibly the strain(s diversity of E. granulosus.

  16. DNA damage, RAD9 and fertility/infertility of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Gonzalo; Cabrejos, María Eugenia; Morassutti, Alessandra Loureiro; Cabezón, Carolina; Orellana, Juana; Hellman, Ulf; Zaha, Arnaldo; Galanti, Norbel

    2008-08-01

    Hydatidosis, caused by the larval stage of the platyhelminth parasite Echinococcus granulosus, affects human and animal health. Hydatid fertile cysts are formed in intermediate hosts (human and herbivores) producing protoscoleces, the infective form to canines, at their germinal layers. Infertile cysts are also formed, but they are unable to produce protoscoleces. The molecular mechanisms involved in hydatid cysts fertility/infertility are unknown. Nevertheless, previous work from our laboratory has suggested that apoptosis is involved in hydatid cyst infertility and death. On the other hand, fertile hydatid cysts can resist oxidative damage due to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. On these foundations, we have postulated that when oxidative damage of DNA in the germinal layers exceeds the capability of DNA repair mechanisms, apoptosis is triggered and hydatid cysts infertility occurs. We describe a much higher percentage of nuclei with oxidative DNA damage in dead protoscoleces and in the germinal layer of infertile cysts than in fertile cysts, suggesting that DNA repair mechanisms are active in fertile cysts. rad9, a conserved gene, plays a key role in cell cycle checkpoint modulation and DNA repair. We found that RAD9 of E. granulosus (EgRAD9) is expressed at the mRNA and protein levels. As it was found in other eukaryotes, EgRAD9 is hyperphosphorylated in response to DNA damage. Our results suggest that molecules involved in DNA repair in the germinal layer of fertile hydatid cysts and in protoscoleces, such as EgRAD9, may allow preserving the fertility of hydatid cysts in the presence of ROS and RNS.

  17. Effects of infectious young stock on results of certification, surveillance and control programmes for paratuberculosis in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M F; Groenendaal, H

    2012-01-27

    In many epidemiological models for paratuberculosis, it is assumed that infected young stock (stock from adult cattle (≥ 2 years) would largely prevent postnatal infections, provided that uninfected adult cattle are highly resistant to infection. However, this assumption is in contrast with observed faecal shedding of MAP in young stock. Consequently, this assumption may have resulted in an underestimation of the effects of MAP transmission in herds participating in certification-, surveillance-, and control programmes for paratuberculosis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term effects of transmission of MAP amongst young stock on key output parameters of certification-, surveillance-, and control programmes for paratuberculosis in simulated closed dairy herds. Closed Dutch dairy herds participating in a paratuberculosis programme were simulated with a stochastic model, JohneSSim. Various test schemes, preventive management measures, distributions of age at onset of faecal shedding and rates of effective contacts between young stock were simulated. The results indicate that transmission of MAP amongst young stock has no relevant effects on the animal-level prevalence and milk quality of herds that are certified in a paratuberculosis programme. However, transmission of MAP amongst young stock increased the economic losses due to paratuberculosis and costs of participation in a programme. Moreover, it substantially decreased the beneficial effect of the separation of young stock from adult cattle on the probability of being certified. However, even in the presence of transmission of MAP amongst young stock, preventive management measures to separate young stock from adult cattle remain important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Disruptive technology for vector control: the Innovative Vector Control Consortium and the US Military join forces to explore transformative insecticide application technology for mosquito control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jennifer; Macdonald, Michael; Malone, David; Hamon, Nicholas; Richardson, Jason H

    2015-09-26

    Malaria vector control technology has remained largely static for decades and there is a pressing need for innovative control tools and methodology to radically improve the quality and efficiency of current vector control practices. This report summarizes a workshop jointly organized by the Innovative Vector Control Consortium (IVCC) and the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (AFPMB) focused on public health pesticide application technology. Three main topics were discussed: the limitations with current tools and techniques used for indoor residual spraying (IRS), technology innovation to improve efficacy of IRS programmes, and truly disruptive application technology beyond IRS. The group identified several opportunities to improve application technology to include: insuring all IRS programmes are using constant flow valves and erosion resistant tips; introducing compression sprayer improvements that help minimize pesticide waste and human error; and moving beyond IRS by embracing the potential for new larval source management techniques and next generation technology such as unmanned "smart" spray systems. The meeting served to lay the foundation for broader collaboration between the IVCC and AFPMB and partners in industry, the World Health Organization, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others.

  19. A primary school active break programme (ACTI-BREAK): study protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Timperio, Anna; Brown, Helen; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2017-09-19

    Levels of overall physical activity have been shown to decline across childhood. Schools are considered ideal settings to promote physical activity as children spend a large amount of their waking hours at school. Time-efficient physical activity strategies that demonstrate a positive impact on academic-related outcomes are needed to enable physical activity to be prioritised in the school day. The ACTI-BREAK programme requires classroom teachers to integrate active breaks; 5-min bursts of moderate-intensity physical activity into their classroom routine. Active breaks have been shown to be effective in improving academic-related outcomes, a potentially appealing aspect for teachers and schools. The primary aim of this study is to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of the ACTI-BREAK programme on children's academic achievement. Secondary aims are to explore the impact of ACTI-BREAK on children's on-task behaviour and objectively measured physical activity levels. ACTI-BREAK is a 6-week, classroom-based, physical activity intervention. This pilot trial of the programme will be evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled design. Government primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia will be invited to participate in the programme in 2017. Randomisation will occur at the school level, with the aim to recruit six schools (three intervention and three control). The ACTI-BREAK programme is theoretically grounded, and was developed with input and guidance from current primary school teachers. Teachers from the intervention schools will receive a 45-min training session and be asked to incorporate ACTI-BREAKS into their classroom routine three times per day for 6 weeks. Intervention support will be provided via assisted delivery. The primary outcomes will be children's academic achievement in mathematics and reading. Children's on-task behaviour and school-day physical activity will be assessed as secondary outcomes. Process evaluation will also be

  20. Prevalence and associated factors of Schistosomiasis among children in Yemen: implications for an effective control programme.

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    Hany Sady

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, is a life-threatening public health problem in Yemen especially in rural communities. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among children in rural Yemen. METHODS/FINDINGS: Urine and faecal samples were collected from 400 children. Urine samples were examined using filtration technique for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs while faecal samples were examined using formalin-ether concentration and Kato Katz techniques for the presence of S. mansoni. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information were collected via a validated questionnaire. Overall, 31.8% of the participants were found to be positive for schistosomiasis; 23.8% were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, 39.5% of the participants were anaemic whereas 9.5% had hepatosplenomegaly. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher among children aged >10 years compared to those aged ≤ 10 years (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis confirmed that presence of other infected family member (P<0.001, low household monthly income (P = 0.003, using unsafe sources for drinking water (P = 0.003, living nearby stream/spring (P = 0.006 and living nearby pool/pond (P = 0.002 were the key factors significantly associated with schistosomiasis among these children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals that schistosomiasis is still highly prevalent in Yemen. These findings support an urgent need to start an integrated, targeted and effective schistosomiasis control programme with a mission to move towards the elimination phase. Besides periodic drug distribution, health education and community mobilisation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, introduction of proper sanitation are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused

  1. Anopheline larval habitats seasonality and species distribution: a prerequisite for effective targeted larval habitats control programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya J Kweka

    control programme should be targeted with larval habitats succession information when larval habitats are fewer and manageable. Crop cycles and distance from habitats to household should be considered as effective information in planning larval control.

  2. Design and Implementation of Embedded Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Network Based on System-on-programmable Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yong; HAN Xiao-jun

    2008-01-01

    A scheme of transmission control protocol/Internet protocol(TCP/IP) network system based on system-on-programmable chip(SOPC) is proposed for the embedded network communication. In this system, Nios processor, Ethernet controller and other peripheral logic circuits are all integrated on a Stratix Ⅱ field programmable gate array(FPGA) chip by using SOPC builder design software. And the network communication is realized by transplanting MicroC/OS Ⅱ(μC/OS Ⅱ) operation system and light weight Internet protocol(LwIP). The design idea, key points and the structures of both software and hardware of the system are presented and ran with a telecommunication example. The experiment shows that the embedded TCP/IP network system has high reliability and real-time performance.

  3. Significant reduction of endemic MRSA acquisition and infection in cardiothoracic patients by means of an enhanced targeted infection control programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelenz, S; Tucker, D; Georgeu, C; Daly, S; Hill, M; Roxburgh, J; French, G L

    2005-06-01

    Due to increasing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in cardiothoracic patients at St Thomas' Hospital, an enhanced infection control programme was introduced in September 2000. It was based on UK national guidelines on the control of MRSA and targeted additional identified risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI). It included recognition of the problem by senior staff and their taking responsibility for it; intensive support, education and advice from the infection control team; improved ward and theatre hygiene; pre-admission, admission and weekly MRSA screening; isolation and clearance treatment; nursing care pathways for MRSA colonized patients; and teicoplanin plus gentamicin surgical prophylaxis. The effectiveness of the programme was assessed by retrospective analysis of computerized patient data for the 16 months before and after the introduction of the programme. There was no significant change in the number of operations or the proportion of patients admitted with MRSA, although nine patients were cleared of carriage before admission. However, there were significant falls in the proportion of patients acquiring MRSA on the ward [38/1036 to 14/921, P=0.003, RR 2.4 (95%CI 1.32-4.42)] and in the rate of bloodstream MRSA infections [12/1075 to 2/956, P=0.014, RR 5.34 (95%CI 1.20-23.78)]. Sternal and leg wound infections both halved (from 28/1075 to 13/956 and 16/1075 to 7/956, respectively) but this did not reach statistical significance. These results demonstrate that an enhanced, targeted infection control programme based on the UK national guidelines, SSI prevention guidelines and local risk assessment can reduce the incidence of nosocomial MRSA acquisition and invasive infection in cardiothoracic patients in the face of continuing endemic risk.

  4. A randomised trial into the effect of an isolated hip abductor strengthening programme and a functional motor control programme on knee kinematics and hip muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kathryn; Hebron, Clair; Williams, Jonathan M

    2015-05-03

    Dynamic knee valgus and internal femoral rotation are proposed to be contributory risk factors for patellofemoral pain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Multimodal interventions including hip abductor strengthening or functional motor control programmes have a positive impact of pain, however their effect on knee kinematics and muscle strength is less clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of isolated hip abductor strengthening and a functional motor control exercise on knee kinematics and hip abductor strength. This prospective, randomised, repeated measures design included 29 asymptomatic volunteers presenting with increase knee valgus and femoral internal rotation. Participants completed either isolated hip abductor strengthening or a functional motor control exercise for 5 weeks. Knee kinematics were measured using inertial sensors during 2 functional activities and hip abductor strength measured using a load cell during isometric hip abduction. There were no significant differences in dynamic knee valgus and internal rotation following the isolated hip abductor or functional motor control intervention, and no significant differences between the groups for knee angles. Despite this, the actual magnitude of reduction in valgus was 10° and 5° for the functional motor control group and strengthening group respectively. The actual magnitude of reduction in internal rotation was 9° and 18° for the functional motor control group and strengthening group respectively. Therefore there was a tendency towards clinically significant improvements in knee kinematics in both exercise groups. A statistically significant improvement in hip abductor strength was evident for the functional motor control group (27% increase; p = 0.008) and strengthening group (35% increase; p = 0.009) with no significant difference between the groups being identified (p = 0.475). Isolated hip strengthening and functional motor control exercises resulted in

  5. COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HYDATID DISEASE OF LIVER AND MANAGEMENT AT PERIPHERAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Karunaharan Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hydatid Disease (HD is a zoonotic disease caused by the larvae of Echinococcosis granulosus, now become a rare clinical entity in teaching medical college hospitals. This is due to the public education about the disease, mode of spread and treatment available. The aim of the study is to review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic methods available, organs affected and treatment available in the tertiary hospitals and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data Collection- Patients with upper right abdominal pain with radiological and ultrasound findings are included in the study. About twenty patients are taken for this study. Medical managements, surgical procedure done and outcomes are recorded, tabulated and analysed. Research Design- Prospective Study, Research Setting- KAPV Govt. Medical College and Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Govt. Hospital, Trichy, Tamilnadu. Duration- 7 yrs. (2009 to 2016 Sample Size- Twenty. Inclusion CriteriaPatients between 12 to 70 years of age of both sexes. Patient having right upper abdomen or epigastric pain with positive radiological and ultrasound findings. Patient willing to participate in the study. Exclusion Criteria- Patients more than 70 years not willing to participate in the study patients absconded in between the management. RESULTS Liver is a commonest solid organ affected by the hydatid disease. Most of the diagnosis are made accidentally when the patients are investigated for some other diseases. The commonest clinical presentation is right abdominal or epigastric pain with hepatomegaly. The average age group is 45 years. X-ray abdomen, ultrasound abdomen are the most useful investigations. Asymptomatic uncomplicated small cyst less than 5 cms are managed with medical treatment. Symptomatic large cysts are submitted for surgical intervention. CONCLUSION The main source of income in majority of rural population is agriculture and sheep and cattle grazing. WHO is working towards the

  6. Description of extended pre-harvest pig Salmonella surveillance-and-control programme and its estimated effect on food safety related to pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, L; Barfod, K; Petersen, J V; Dahl, J; Ajufo, J C; Sandø, G; Krog, H H; Aabo, S

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe an extended surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs, which, to establish equivalence to the Swedish control programme, is intended for implementation on the Danish island, Bornholm. The effect of the programme on food safety was estimated by analysing Salmonella data from pig carcasses originating from herds that would have qualified for the programme during 2006-2008. Food safety was interpreted as prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses as well as the estimated number of human cases of salmonellosis related to pork produced within the programme. Data from the Danish Salmonella programme were obtained from Bornholm. We used a simulation model developed to estimate the number of human cases based on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcass swabs. Herds are only accepted in the programme if they have one or less seropositive sample within the previous 6 months. In this way, the Salmonella load is kept to a minimum. The programme is not yet in operation and pigs that qualify for the programme are currently mixed at slaughter with those that do not qualify. Therefore, we had to assess the impact on the carcass prevalence indirectly. The prevalence of Salmonella in carcass swabs among qualifying herds was 0.46% for the 3 years as a whole, with 2006 as the year with highest prevalence. According to the simulation the expected number of human cases relating to pork produced within the programme was below 10. When the programme is in operation, an extra effect of separating pigs within the programme from those outside is expected to lower the prevalence of Salmonella even further.

  7. Bayesian estimation of prevalence of paratuberculosis in dairy herds enrolled in a voluntary Johne's Disease Control Programme in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAloon, Conor G; Doherty, Michael L; Whyte, Paul; O'Grady, Luke; More, Simon J; Messam, Locksley L McV; Good, Margaret; Mullowney, Peter; Strain, Sam; Green, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    Bovine paratuberculosis is a disease characterised by chronic granulomatous enteritis which manifests clinically as a protein-losing enteropathy causing diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, emaciation and, eventually death. Some evidence exists to suggest a possible zoonotic link and a national voluntary Johne's Disease Control Programme was initiated by Animal Health Ireland in 2013. The objective of this study was to estimate herd-level true prevalence (HTP) and animal-level true prevalence (ATP) of paratuberculosis in Irish herds enrolled in the national voluntary JD control programme during 2013-14. Two datasets were used in this study. The first dataset had been collected in Ireland during 2005 (5822 animals from 119 herds), and was used to construct model priors. Model priors were updated with a primary (2013-14) dataset which included test records from 99,101 animals in 1039 dairy herds and was generated as part of the national voluntary JD control programme. The posterior estimate of HTP from the final Bayesian model was 0.23-0.34 with a 95% probability. Across all herds, the median ATP was found to be 0.032 (0.009, 0.145). This study represents the first use of Bayesian methodology to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in Irish dairy herds. The HTP estimate was higher than previous Irish estimates but still lower than estimates from other major dairy producing countries.

  8. Reducing musculoskeletal injury and concussion risk in schoolboy rugby players with a pre-activity movement control exercise programme: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, Michael D; Stokes, Keith A; Williams, Sean; McKay, Carly D; England, Mike E; Kemp, Simon P T; Trewartha, Grant

    2017-08-01

    Injury risk in youth rugby has received much attention, highlighting the importance of establishing evidence-based injury reduction strategies. To determine the efficacy of a movement control exercise programme in reducing injuries in youth rugby players and to investigate the effect of programme dose on injury measures. In a cluster-randomised controlled trial, 40 independent schools (118 teams, 3188 players aged 14-18 years) were allocated to receive either the intervention or a reference programme, both of which were to be delivered by school coaches. The intervention comprised balance training, whole-body resistance training, plyometric training, and controlled rehearsal of landing and cutting manoeuvres. Time-loss (>24 hours) injuries arising from school rugby matches were recorded by coaches and medical staff. 441 time-loss match injuries (intervention, 233; control, 208) were reported across 15 938 match exposure-hours (intervention, 9083; control, 6855). Intention-to-treat results indicated unclear effects of trial arm on overall match injury incidence (rate ratio (RR)=0.85, 90% confidence limits 0.61 to 1.17), although clear reductions were evident in the intervention arm for concussion incidence (RR=0.71, 0.48 to 1.05). When trial arm comparisons were limited to teams who had completed three or more weekly programme sessions on average, clear reductions in overall match injury incidence (RR=0.28, 0.14 to 0.51) and concussion incidence (RR=0.41, 0.17 to 0.99) were noted in the intervention group. A preventive movement control exercise programme can reduce match injury outcomes, including concussion, in schoolboy rugby players when compared with a standardised control exercise programme, although to realise the greatest effects players should complete the programme at least three times per week. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  9. Treatment progress of Hydatid disease%包虫病的治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翰林; 张生彬

    2015-01-01

    包虫病是棘球绦虫的幼虫寄生于人体内所致的一种人兽共患寄生虫病。既往对于包虫病的治疗主要依赖于外科手术,但仅对于囊型包虫病有较为确切的疗效。近年来,医学界对于包虫病的治疗有了新的研究及认识。本文就包虫病的治疗作综述。%Hydatid disease is a zoonotic parasitic diseases caused by a parasitic larval echinococcus in the human body . Previous treatment for hydatid disease depends on the surgery, but it has more precise effect only for cystic hydatid disease . in recent years, the medical profession have had researches and a new understanding for the treatment of hydatid disease . in this paper, we review the treatment of hydatid disease.

  10. Bovine IgG subclasses and fertility of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesle, Silke; García, María Pía; Hidalgo, Christian; Galanti, Norbel; Saenz, Leonardo; Paredes, Rodolfo

    2014-09-15

    Hydatidosis is an important zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution, causing important health problems to humans and major economical losses in infected livestock. Echinococcus granulosus, the etiological agent of hydatid disease, induces a humoral immune response in the intermediate host (human and herbivorous) against hydatid cyst antigens. Specifically, IgGs are found in the laminar and germinal layers and inside the lumen of fertile and infertile hydatid cysts. In the germinal layer of infertile cysts IgGs are found in an order of magnitude greater than in the germinal layer of fertile cysts; a fraction of those IgGs are associated with high affinity to germinal layer proteins, suggesting their binding to specific parasite antigens. We have previously shown that those immunoglobulins, bound with high affinity to the germinal layer of hydatid cysts, induce apoptosis leading to cyst infertility. In the present work the presence of IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses in the germinal layer of both fertile and infertile hydatid cysts is reported. IgG1 is the most relevant immunoglobulin subclass present in the germinal layer of infertile cysts and bound with high affinity to that parasite structure. Contrarily, though the IgG2 subclass was also found in the germinal and adventitial layers, those immunoglobulins show low affinity to parasite antigens. We propose that the binding of an IgG1 subclass to parasite antigens present in the germinal layer is involved in the mechanism of cyst infertility.

  11. Spontaneous Intraperitoneal Rupture of a Hepatic Hydatid Cyst with Subsequent Anaphylaxis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Tinsley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst rupture into the abdomen is a serious complication of cystic hydatid disease of the liver (Cystic Echinococcosis with an incidence of up to 16% in some series and can result in anaphylaxis or anaphylactoid reactions in up to 12.5% of cases. At presentation, 36–40% of hydatid cysts have ruptured or become secondarily infected. Rupture can be microscopic or macroscopic and can be fatal without surgery. Hydatid disease of the liver is primarily caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus and occurs worldwide, with incidence of up to 200 per 100,000 in endemic areas. Our case describes a 24-year-old Bulgarian woman presenting with epigastric pain and evidence of anaphylaxis. Abdominal CT demonstrated a ruptured hydatid cyst in the left lobe of the liver. A partial left lobe hepatectomy, cholecystectomy, and peritoneal washout was performed with good effect. She was treated for anaphylaxis and received antihelminthic treatment with Albendazole and Praziquantel. She made a good recovery following surgery and medical treatment and was well on follow-up. Intraperitoneal rupture with anaphylaxis is a rare occurrence, and there do not seem to be any reported cases from UK centres prior to this.

  12. Cytodiagnosis of isolated primary hydatid cyst of breast masquerading as a breast neoplasm: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvej Mujawar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst in the breast is very rare and unusual for its location. Reported incidence of hydatid cyst in the breast is 0.27% in the literature. Herein, we report a case of hydatid cyst of breast in a 65-year-old female who presented with painless, slowly growing lump in the breast mimicking breast neoplasm clinically. Radiological investigations such as ultrasonography and mammography may be helpful but not conclusive. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC diagnosis was consistent with hydatid cyst of breast and was without any complications. Histopathological examination of lumpectomy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst of breast. High suspicion of this entity should be there in the differential diagnosis in the evaluation of breast lump in endemic as well as in migrant population in nonendemic areas.

  13. Comparison of programmable legend keyboard and dedicated keyboard for control of the flight management computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Jean M.; Boucek, George P., Jr.; Smith, Wayne D.

    1986-01-01

    A study is described which compares two types of input devices used to operate a flight management computer: a programmable legend (multifunction) keyboard and a conventional (dedicated) keyboard. Pilot performance measures, subjective responses, and a timeline analysis were used in evaluating the two keyboard concepts. A discussion of the factors to be considered in the implementation of a multifunction keyboard is included.

  14. Description of Extended Pre-Harvest Pig Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme and its Estimated Effect on Food Safety Related to Pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Barfod, Kristen; Petersen, J. V.;

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe...... an extended surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs, which, to establish equivalence to the Swedish control programme, is intended for implementation on the Danish island, Bornholm. The effect of the programme on food safety was estimated by analysing Salmonella data from pig...... programme were obtained from Bornholm. We used a simulation model developed to estimate the number of human cases based on the prevalence of Salmonella on carcass swabs. Herds are only accepted in the programme if they have one or less seropositive sample within the previous 6 months. In this way...

  15. Evaluation of Random Blinded Re-Checking of AFB Slides under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in Solapur District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Vishnu Lale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the important components of revised national tuberculosis control programme is ‘Good quality diagnosis, primarily by sputum smear microscopy’. All efforts are made to ensure that the designated microscopy centers function at optimal level. The process of ‘Random Blinded Re-Checking’ (RBRCof Acid Fast Bacillus slides is built in the programme. Objectives: To study the relationship of different types of errors detected in RBRC with respect to time, place and cost. To study the stability and capability of the process of RBRC. Methods: Analysis of secondary data of external quality assessment of Solapur district since January 2006 is supplemented by direct implementation of the programme since April 2011 till date. Data analysis is done using statistical software Minitab version 16.Results: Since January 2006 to May 2012;42191 slides were re-checked in 77 RBRC sessions at District Tuberculosis Center, Solapur.Different types of 69 errors were detected. Onsite evaluation and panel testing did not show any discordance. Barshi and Mangalwedha Tuberculosis Units (TU showed significantly higher number of errors as compared to Karmala TU. (P<0.002 Weighted Pareto Chart revealed that the costliest form of errors is high false negatives and low false negatives. Conclusion:Detection of errors in RBRC sessions follows Poisson distribution. The process of RBRC is found to be in control and capable of achieving the desired target of detection of errors.

  16. A home-based training programme improves family caregivers' oral care practices with stroke survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Y-W; Yen, M; Fetzer, S; Chiang, L-C; Shyu, Y-Il; Lee, T-H; Ma, H-I

    2016-05-01

    Stroke survivors experience poor oral health when discharged from the hospital to the community. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based oral care training programme on knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and practice behaviour of family caregivers. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. The experimental group consisted of 48 family caregivers who received the home-based oral care training programme, and the control group consisted of 46 family caregivers who received routine oral care education. The outcomes were measured by the Knowledge of Oral Care, Attitude towards Oral Care, Self-Efficacy of Oral Care and Behaviour of Oral Care before the training programme, and at one and two months afterwards. The data were analysed using mixed model anova to determine differences in the outcomes between the two groups. The findings demonstrated that the intervention group had more knowledge (t = 8.80, P caregivers' behaviour of oral care at one and two months of the intervention for both groups. Our individualized home-based oral care education can achieve significant improvements in oral care knowledge and self-efficacy among family caregivers of stroke survivors, and it can sufficiently empower them to modify their oral care practices in a home-based healthcare environment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparing Two Exercise Programmes for the Management of Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy (Tennis Elbow/Lateral Epicondylitis—A Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Stasinopoulos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effectiveness of supervised exercise programme as proposed by Stasinopoulos and colleagues with home exercise programme as proposed by Pienimaki and his coworkers in the treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy. Design: Controlled clinical trial. Setting: Physiotherapy and rehabilitation centre. Participants: This trial was carried out with 60 patients, who had lateral elbow tendinopathy. Intervention: Group A (n = 30 had received supervised exercise programme, once per day for 4 weeks. Group B (n = 30 was treated with home exercise programme four to six times daily for 8 weeks. Outcome measures: pain, using a visual analogue scale, function, using a visual analogue scale for elbow function and the pain-free grip strength. Patients were evaluated at baseline, at the end of treatment (week 12, and 3 months (week 24 after the end of treatment. Results: Both the supervised and home exercise programme were found to be significantly effective in the reduction of pain and in the improvement of functional status. The supervised exercise programme resulted in significantly different improvement in comparison to those who received home exercise programme. Conclusion: A specific supervised exercise programme is superior to a specific home exercise programme in reducing pain and improving function in patients with LET at the end of the treatment and at the 3 month follow-up. Further research is needed to confirm our results.

  18. Efficacy of infant simulator programmes to prevent teenage pregnancy: a school-based cluster randomised controlled trial in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Sally A; Johnson, Sarah E; Codde, James P; Hart, Michael B; Straton, Judith A; Mittinty, Murthy N; Silburn, Sven R

    2016-11-05

    Infant simulator-based programmes, which aim to prevent teenage pregnancy, are used in high-income as well as low-income and middle-income countries but, despite growing popularity, no published evidence exists of their long-term effect. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of such a programme, the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) programme, on pregnancy outcomes of birth and induced abortion in Australia. In this school-based pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, eligible schools in Perth, Western Australia, were enrolled and randomised 1:1 to the intervention and control groups. Randomisation using a table of random numbers without blocking, stratification, or matching was done by a researcher who was masked to the identity of the schools. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP programme was administered to girls aged 13-15 years in the intervention schools, while girls of the same age in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Participants were followed until they reached 20 years of age via data linkage to hospital medical and abortion clinic records. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of pregnancy during the teenage years. Binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for differences in pregnancy rates between study groups. This study is registered as an international randomised controlled trial, number ISRCTN24952438. 57 (86%) of 66 eligible schools were enrolled into the trial and randomly assigned 1:1 to the intervention (28 schools) or the control group (29 schools). Then, between Feb 1, 2003, and May 31, 2006, 1267 girls in the intervention schools received the VIP programme while 1567 girls in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Compared with girls in the control group, a higher proportion of girls in the intervention group recorded at least one birth (97 [8%] of 1267 in the intervention group vs 67 [4%] of 1567 in the control group) or at least one

  19. [Hydatid disease of the first rib treated surgically by the Roos approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghli, A; Smati, B; Abdelmalek, M; Attia, S; Djilani, H; Kilani, T

    2008-12-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection due to Echinococcus granulosus. Since involvement of the ribs and in particular the first rib is rare, diagnosis and treatment in these locations can pose special problems. The purpose of this report is to describe the case of a 27-year-old man in whom an apical left opacity was discovered by chance. Clinical examination was normal. Thoracic ultrasound demonstrated multilocular cyst in the left apical region of the thorax. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a hydatid cyst originating from the first rib. The patient was operated using the technique known as the Roos approach. The procedure consisted of cystectomy with resection of the first rib. The multiloculated appearance of the lesion and erosion at the first rib was consistent with hydatid cyst. The Roos approach is the technique of choice for the treatment of the first rib.

  20. A case of disseminated hydatid disease by surgery involving multiple organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Tanrivermis Sayit

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is the most common parasitic infection in the world, and is caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. The most common site of this disease is the liver (75%, followed by the lungs, kidney, bones, and brain. Multiple abdominal organ and peritoneal involvement can also be seen in some cases. The dissemination of hydatid cyst disease can develop spontaneously or secondary to trauma or surgery. Here, we present the case of a 69-year-old man with multiple cyst hydatidosis, who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis approximately 20 years previously. Computed tomography of the abdomen shows the multiple active and inactive cystic lesions in the liver, spleen, right kidney, and mesentery. This patient required surgery several times, as well as medical treatment, after the rupture of a mesenteric hydatid cyst during the appendectomy. Combined anthelmintic treatment was recommended to the patient who refused further surgical treatment.

  1. Isolated renal hydatid presenting as a complex renal lesion followed by spontaneous hydatiduria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anil; Bhaya; Archana; P; Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease. Liver is the most common site of involvement. Renal involvement is seen in 2% to 3% of patients. Computed tomography findings in renal hydatid typically include: a cyst with thick or calcified wall, unilocular cyst with detached membrane, a multiloculated cyst with mixed internal density and daughter cysts with lower density than maternal matrix. Rarely type Ⅳ hydatid cysts may mimic hypovascular renal cell carcinoma. We report a case of previously asymptomatic middle aged female who presented with mild intermittent pain and a complex renal lesion on imaging which was considered to be a hypovascular renal carcinoma or urothelial neoplasm. However, by serendipity, the patient had spontaneous hydatiduria and later was definitively diagnosed and stented. Hydatid disease should always be considered amongst the top differential diagnosis of an isolated "complex" renal lesion which remains indeterminate on imaging.

  2. Evaluating a selective prevention programme for binge drinking among young adolescents: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiers Reinout

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to other Europe countries, Dutch adolescents are at the top in drinking frequency and binge drinking. A total of 75% of the Dutch 12 to 16 year olds who drink alcohol also engage in binge drinking. A prevention programme called Preventure was developed in Canada to prevent adolescents from binge drinking. This article describes a study that aims to assess the effects of this selective school-based prevention programme in the Netherlands. Methods A randomized controlled trial is being conducted among 13 to 15-year-old adolescents in secondary schools. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. The intervention condition consisted of two 90 minute group sessions, carried out at the participants' schools and provided by a qualified counsellor and a co-facilitator. The intervention targeted young adolescents who demonstrated personality risk for alcohol abuse. The group sessions were adapted to four personality profiles. The control condition received no further intervention above the standard substance use education sessions provided in the Dutch national curriculum. The primary outcomes will be the percentage reduction in binge drinking, weekly drinking and drinking-related problems after three specified time periods. A screening survey collected data by means of an Internet questionnaire. Students have completed, or will complete, a post-treatment survey after 2, 6, and 12 months, also by means of an online questionnaire. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention programme. We expect that a significantly lower number of adolescents will binge drink, drink weekly, and have drinking-related problems in the intervention condition compared to the control condition, as a result of this intervention. Trial registration This trial is registered in the Dutch

  3. Evaluation of Cases with Hydatid Cyst Who Presented with Pulmonary Symptoms

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    Özgül Yiğit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus. The lungs are the most common affected organs in children. Hydatid disease can appear with nonspecific symptoms such as cough, chest pain and hemoptysis. Radiological findings are important in the diagnosis of the disease. In this article, we report ten patients who presented with nonspecific pulmonary symptoms. Methods: We included 10 patients (age range: 4-15 years who attended our pediatrics outpatient clinic with the diagnosis of hydatid disease between May 2011 and May 2012. We analyzed the data on age, gender, primary complaint, clinical features, diameter and location of the cysts, and history of contact with animals. Hydatid cysts were diagnosed by imaging techniques and serologic tests. Results: The most common symptoms were coughing, chest pain, weakness, dyspnea, fever, and hemoptysis. In five patients, the cysts were located in the right lung; in four patients, the cysts were located in the left lung, and in the remaining patient, the cysts were bilateral. The diameters of the lung cysts were between 5 and 13 cm. Five of ten patients had both lung and liver cysts. Complications were observed in five patients. In eight patients, serologic tests results were positive. Five patients had a history of previous contact with animals. The patients were operated in the pediatric surgery unit. Conclusion: Hydatid disease is endemic in Turkey. Disease awareness and knowledge in children and their families is of great importance for the prevention of hydatid disease. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53: 147-52

  4. In vitro Evaluation of the Effct of Bacterial Extract, Isolated From Infected Hydatid Cysts, on Protoscolex

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    Sardari M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To date, surgery has been the treatment of choice for hydatid cyst, with regard to danger of leakage of hydatid cyst contents into viscera and production of secondary cysts, aftr spread of protoscolices. Diffrent scolicidal agents get injected into cyst for preventing the secondary cyst production, which may cause diffrent side effcts in host, especially in the surrounding tissues. In this research, the scolicidal effcts of bacterial extract isolated from infected hydatid cyst was evaluated. Methods: In this experimental-laboratorial study, at fist, isolation and identifiation of the infecting bacteria of hydatid cyst were performed at the level of species. Thn, total the bacterial extract was prepared by sonication method, and serial dilutions 1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.8, 1.16, 1.32 and 1.64( were prepared using sterile saline as the solvent. Th obtained alive larvae at the times of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 minutes were placed in those dilutions and mean of dead protoscoleces were determined using eosin exclusive staining method. Results: Th identifid bacteria isolated from the infected hydatid cysts were as follows: E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, S. saprophyticus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Th extract of isolated bacteria at the mentioned times had no considerable scolicidal effcts. For example, the whole extract of P. aeruginosa aftr 60 minutes of exposure showed a maximum of 13.17%. scolicidal effct. Conclusion: Th results of this study showed low scolicidal effct of bacterial extracts isolated from hydatid cyst. Degeneration of scolices in infected cysts can be due to other reasons than bacterial extract.

  5. West End Walkers 65+: using programme theory to enhance outcome assessment in a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Adam; Fitzsimons, Claire; Rowe, David; Grealy, Madeleine; Granat, Malcolm; Grant, Margaret; McConnachie, Alex; Shaw, Bekki; Macdonald, Hazel; Skelton, Dawn; Blamey, Avril; Mutrie, Nanette

    2009-01-01

    Background: Walking has great potential to engage people in physical activity (PA), and could address health problems associated with sedentary living. Previous research showed increasing walking behaviour in inactive adults aged 18-65 years is feasible 1. However, a systematic review showed that evidence on how to encourage older adults to increase walking is lacking 2. This study aims to test a pedometer-based walking programme in combination with a PA consultation with adults aged 65 years...

  6. Multi Channels PWM Controller for Thermoelectric Cooler Using a Programmable Logic Device and Lab-Windows CVI

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    Eli FLAXER

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a complete design of a multi channels PID controller for Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC using a pulse width modulation (PWM technique implemented by a dedicated programmable logic device (PLD programmed by VHDL. The PID control loop is implemented by software written by National Instrument Lab-Windows CVI. Due to the fact that the implementation is by a VHDL and PLD the design is modular, as a result, the circuit is very compact in size and very low cost as compared to any commercial product. In addition, since the control loop is implemented by software running on a personal computer (PC using a C language, it is easy to adjust the controller to various environmental conditions and for a width range of sensors like: a thermo couple (TC, thermistor, resistance temperature detectors (RTD etc. We demonstrate the performance of this circuit as a controller for a small incubator using thermistor as the temperature sensor.

  7. Hydatid Cyst Disease of the Thyroid Gland: Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Sami; Demircan, Firat; Sogutcu, Nilgun

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cyst disease may develop in any organ of the body, most frequently in the liver and lung, but occasionally can affect other organs such as the thyroid gland. Although the prevalence of thyroidal cyst disease varies by region, literature data suggest that it ranges between 0% and 3.4%. The aim of this report was to share 2 cases with thyroid hydatid cyst. Two female patients aged 26 and 57 years were admitted to our outpatient clinic with different complaints. While the first case pres...

  8. Multi Vesicular Osseous Hydatid Disease of the Mandible- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nematollahi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "nHydatid disease is a common and major public health issue caused by parasite Echinococcus granulosus. The highest prevalence of the parasite can be found in different parts of world like Africa, Australia, and South America. This infection can occurs in almost any part of the body. Here we present clinical, radiological, histological features and treatment of a multi ve­sicular osseous hydatid disease of the mandible in an Afghan 5 year old boy with a firm swelling in the right side of mandible.

  9. An Unusual Radiological Presentation of a Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst in a Child

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    Servet Kayhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant pulmonary hydatid cyst is usually encountered in adolescents and children who are older than 10 years. A relatively higher elasticity of the lung tissue allows rapid growth of cysts. We present a case of a 15-year-old male who was admitted with complaint of frequent and persistent dry cough for over a month. Computed tomographic scan revealed a giant cyst with thick enhancing rim and an "air bubble" sign. Diagnosis of giant hydatid cyst was confirmed by surgery and histopathological examination.

  10. Primary Musculoskeletal Hydatid Cyst of the Thigh: Diagnostic and Curative Challenge for an Unusual Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Argy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary muscular echinococcosis is an uncommon localization of hydatid cysts. The nonspecific clinical presentation and possible post-therapeutic complications lead to problems for the diagnosis of this infection and the support of the patient. The authors describe an unusual case of double hydatid cyst of the vastus intermedius muscle. After a precise preoperative evaluation based on clinical, radiological and biological examinations, a surgical excision by pericystectomy combined with perioperative chemotherapy enabled the authors to treat the patient and to prevent postoperative complications. The diagnostic tools and the treatment of this particular type of echinococcosis are discussed.

  11. Pulmonary hydatid cyst in a pregnant patient causing acute respiratory failure

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    Hijazi Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old primigravida, at 32 weeks of gestation, presented with acute onset of respiratory failure and circulatory shock. Chest imaging showed findings suggestive of ruptured hydatid cyst, which was confirmed by histology post-thoracotomy. Tissue cultures from the removed cyst grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis also. She was successfully managed in the intensive care unit and was then discharged home on antituberculosis medications in addition to albendazole after prolonged hospitalization and a need for chest tube for bronchopleural fistula. Acute respiratory failure and anaphylactic shock secondary to ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst and superimposed pulmonary tuberculosis in a pregnant lady should be considered in patients living in endemic areas.

  12. Therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and related modalities have many roles in hepatobiliary hydatid disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ersan (O)zaslan

    2006-01-01

    The authors report their experience about 8 cases of intrabiliary rupture of hepatobiliary hydatid disease, and add an algorithm for treatment. To our opinion, the use of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the management of hepatobiliary hydatid disease was not stated properly in their proposed algorithm. According to the algorithm, the use of ERCP and related modalities was only stated in the case of postoperative biliary fistulae. We think that postoperative persistant fistula is not a sole indication, there are many indications for ERCP and related techniques namely sphincterotomy, extraction, nasobiliary drainage and stenting, in the treatment algorithm before or after surgery.

  13. Sudden death due to an unrecognized cardiac hydatid cyst: three medicolegal autopsy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakis, Isil; Akyildiz, Elif Ulker; Karayel, Ferah; Turan, Arzu Akcay; Senel, Berna; Ozbay, Mehmet; Cetin, Gursel

    2006-03-01

    Echinococcosis is a human infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcocus granulosus. The most common sites of infection are the liver and the lungs. Cardiac hydatid cysts are very rare, even in regions where hydatic cysts are endemic (the Mediterranean, South America, Africa, and Australia). It has been reported that cardiac involvement is seen in about 0.5-3% of human echinococcosis cases. Three cases of cardiac hydatid disease that caused sudden death and which were histopathologically diagnosed are reported. Cardiac echinococcosis is rare, but due to its insidious presentation and affinity to cause sudden death, it is important that it be identified in the histopathological examination.

  14. Effectiveness and efficiency of integrated mental health care programmes in Germany: study protocol of an observational controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierlin, Annabel Sandra; Herder, Katrin; Helmbrecht, Marina Julia; Prinz, Stefanie; Walendzik, Julia; Holzmann, Marco; Becker, Thomas; Schützwohl, Matthias; Kilian, Reinhold

    2014-06-04

    Since 2009 some German health insurance companies have implemented integrated mental health care services along the principles of assertive community treatment in collaboration with local mental health service providers across Germany. Focus of this study is the analysis of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this integrated care programme compared to care as usual in routine care surroundings in five regions in Germany. In this 18-month multi-centre observational trial 250 patients enrolled in an integrated mental health care programme and 250 patients who receive treatment as usual from five catchment areas will be included. In addition, in each group about 125 relatives of the participating patients will be included. The primary outcome criterion is the improvement of empowerment; secondary outcomes are subjective quality of life, functional impairment and costs of illness. Data will be collected at baseline and three follow-ups after 6, 12 and 18 months. Data will be analysed by means of mixed effects regression models. Propensity score methods are used for selection bias control. Study results are expected to provide information about how integrated care programmes in their present form contribute to the improvement of mental health care. In addition, the study will provide hints to weaknesses of the current integrated care programme and options to overcome them. The major strengths of this study are the real-world character of the study intervention with a simultaneous high level of academic rigour. However, the fact that patients are not randomised to study groups and that there is no blinding might limit the study. German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00005111.

  15. Examining intersectoral integration for malaria control programmes in an urban and a rural district in Ghana: a multinomial multilevel analysis

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    Nicodemus Osei Owusu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intersectoral integration is acknowledged to be essential for improving provision of health care and outcomes, yet it remains one of the main primary health care strategic challenges. Although this is well articulated in the literature, the factors that explain differentials in levels of intersectoral integration have not been systematically studied, particularly in low and middle-income countries. In this study, we examine the levels and determinants of intersectoral integration amongst institutions engaged in malaria control programmes in an urban (Kumasi Metropolitan district and a rural (Ahafo Ano South district in Ghana. Methods: Interviews were conducted with representatives of 32 institutions engaged in promoting malaria prevention and control. The averaging technique proposed by Brown et al. and a two-level multinomial multilevel ordinal logistic regression were used to examine the levels of integration and the factors that explain the differentials. Results: The results show high disparity in levels of integration amongst institutions in the two districts. Integration was higher in the rural district compared to the urban district. The multivariate analysis revealed that the district effect explained 25% of the variations in integration. The type of institution, level of focus on malaria and source of funding are important predictors of intersectoral integration. Conclusion: Although not causal, integrated malaria control programmes could be important for improving malaria-related health outcomes in less developed regions as evident from the rapid decline in malaria fatality rates observed in the Ahafo Ano South district. Harmonisation of programmes should be encouraged amongst institutions and the public and private sectors should be motivated to work in partnership.

  16. Examining intersectoral integration for malaria control programmes in an urban and a rural district in Ghana: a multinomial multilevel analysis

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    Nicodemus Osei Owusu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intersectoral integration is acknowledged to be essential for improving provision of health care and outcomes, yet it remains one of the main primary health care strategic challenges. Although this is well articulated in the literature, the factors that explain differentials in levels of intersectoral integration have not been systematically studied, particularly in low and middle-income countries. In this study, we examine the levels and determinants of intersectoral integration amongst institutions engaged in malaria control programmes in an urban (Kumasi Metropolitan district and a rural (Ahafo Ano South district in Ghana.Methods: Interviews were conducted with representatives of 32 institutions engaged in promoting malaria prevention and control. The averaging technique proposed by Brown et al. and a two-level multinomial multilevel ordinal logistic regression were used to examine the levels of integration and the factors that explain the differentials.Results: The results show high disparity in levels of integration amongst institutions in the two districts. Integration was higher in the rural district compared to the urban district. The multivariate analysis revealed that the district effect explained 25% of the variations in integration. The type of institution, level of focus on malaria and source of funding are important predictors of intersectoral integration.Conclusion: Although not causal, integrated malaria control programmes could be important for improving malaria-related health outcomes in less developed regions as evident from the rapid decline in malaria fatality rates observed in the Ahafo Ano South district. Harmonisation of programmes should be encouraged amongst institutions and the public and private sectors should be motivated to work in partnership.

  17. The emergence of insecticide resistance in central Mozambique and potential threat to the successful indoor residual spraying malaria control programme

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    Wilding Craig S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector control by indoor residual spraying was reinitiated in 2006 with DDT in Zambézia province, Mozambique. In 2007, these efforts were strengthened by the President's Malaria Initiative. This manuscript reports on the monitoring and evaluation of this programme as carried out by the Malaria Decision Support Project. Methods Mosquitoes were captured daily through a series of 114 window exit traps located at 19 sentinel sites, identified to species and analysed for sporozoites. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected resting indoors and tested for insecticide resistance following the standard WHO protocol. Annual cross sectional household parasite surveys were carried out to monitor the impact of the control programme on prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in children aged 1 to 15 years. Results A total of 3,769 and 2,853 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus, respectively, were captured from window exit traps throughout the period. In 2010 resistance to the pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin and the carbamate, bendiocarb was detected in An. funestus. In 2006, the sporozoite rate in An. gambiae s.s. was 4% and this reduced to 1% over 4 rounds of spraying. The sporozoite rate for An. funestus was also reduced from 2% to 0 by 2008. Of the 437 Anopheles arabiensis identified, none were infectious. Overall prevalence of P. falciparum in the sentinel sites fell from 60% to 32% between October 2006 and October 2008. Conclusion Both An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus were controlled effectively with the DDT-based IRS programme in Zambézia, reducing disease transmission and burden. However, the discovery of pyrethroid resistance in the province and Mozambique's policy change away from DDT to pyrethroids for IRS threatens the gains made here.

  18. Genotyping of Hydatid Cyst Isolated from Human and Domestic Animals in Ilam Province, Western Iran Using PCR-RFLP

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    M Dousti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydatidosis or cystic hydatid disease is one of the most important diseases in human and animals. Identification of strains is important for improvement of control and prevention of dis­ease. The aim of this study was to determine the strains isolated from human and domestic animals in Ilam Province, Iran, using PCR-RFLP method.Methods: Respectively, 30 and 4 animal and human hydatid cysts were collected from different slaughter­houses and hospitals of the province. Protoscolices were separated and their DNA genome was extracted by extraction kit. rDNA-ITS1 of each isolated samples was duplicated by BD1(Forward and 4s (Reverse Primers. PCR products were studied by electrophoresis and then were digested using TaqI, HpaII, RsaI and AluI restriction enzymes. RFLP products were studied using electrophoresis on 1% agar gel.Result: A fragment of 1000bp was produced from amplification of rDNA-ITS1 of protoscolices using PCR method. After digestion of PCR product by AluI enzyme, 200bp and 800bp, by RsaI, 655bp and 345bp and by HpaII 700bp and 300bp sizes were obtained. TaqI enzyme had no change in fragment size and it remained 1000bp. Considering the method, Ilam strains was specified as E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3.Conclusions: Although sheep strain (G1 is dominated in human and different animal in Iran and the world, but more efforts should be done to clarify the true genotype of Ilam strains specified as E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3.

  19. Trial baseline characteristics of a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school-located obesity prevention programme; the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jenny; Creanor, Siobhan; Price, Lisa; Abraham, Charles; Dean, Sarah; Green, Colin; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Pearson, Virginia; Taylor, Rod S; Tomlinson, Richard; Logan, Stuart; Hurst, Alison; Ryan, Emma; Daurge, Wendy; Wyatt, Katrina

    2017-04-04

    We have developed a healthy lifestyles programme (HeLP) for primary school aged children (9-10 years), currently being evaluated in a definitive cluster randomised controlled trial. This paper descriptively presents the baseline characteristics of trial children (BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, diet and physical activity) by gender, cluster level socio-economic status, school size and time of recruitment into the trial. Schools were recruited from across the South West of England and allocated 1:1 to either intervention (HeLP) or control (usual practice) stratified by the proportion of children eligible for free school meals (FSM, 1 Year 5 class). The primary outcome is change in body mass index standard deviation score (BMI sds) at 24 months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes are BMI sds at 18 months, waist circumference and percentage body fat sds at 18 and 24 months, proportion of children classified as underweight, overweight and obese at 18 and 24 months, physical activity (for a sub-sample) and food intake at 18 months. At baseline 11.4% and 13.6% of children were categorised as overweight or obese respectively. A higher percentage of girls than boys (25.3% vs 24.8%) and children from schools in FSM category 2 (28.2% vs 23.2%) were overweight or obese. Children were consuming a mean (range) of 4.15 (0-13) energy dense snacks (EDS) and 3.23 (0-9) healthy snacks (HS) per day with children from schools in FSM category 2 consuming more EDS and negative food markers and less HS and positive food markers. Children spent an average 53.6 min per day (11.9 to 124.8) in MVPA and thirteen hours (779.3 min) per day (11 h to 15 h) doing less than 'light' intensity activity. Less than 5% of children achieved the Departments of Health's recommendation of 60 min of MVPA every day. We have excellent completeness of baseline data for all measures and have achieved compliance to accelerometry not seen before in other large scale studies. Our anthropometric

  20. Percutaneous drainage of hydatid cyst in the liver as a primary treatment: Review of 52 consecutive cases with long-term follow-up

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    Bosanac, Zeljko B.; Lisanin, Ljubomir

    2000-11-01

    AIM: To evaluate the suitability of percutaneous drainage as a primary and definitive treatment of hydatid disease of the liver. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between October 1989 and April 1992, percutaneous drainage was performed on 52 consecutive patients (27 women and 25 men aged 13 to 84 years) with 55 hydatid cysts in the liver. Twenty-five (45%) cysts were type I, 10 (18%) were type II, 14 (25%) were type III, 5 (10%) were type IV and 1 (2%) was type V. All procedures were performed under light sedation and local anaesthetic at the puncture site. The standard Seldinger technique was used. Initial puncture was performed under ultrasound (US) guidance through the liver parenchyma. The rest of the procedure was conducted under fluoroscopic control. Pigtail drainage catheters (size 12-20 Fr) were used, with Betadine (10% povidone iodine; 1% free iodine) being allowed to act within the cyst for 30 min, as a scolicidal agent. RESULTS: All the patients were successfully treated and 6-9 year follow-up involving US, computed tomography (CT) and serology tests showed no local recurrence or spread of the disease. No major (death, cyst rupture, anaphylactic shock) and very few minor complications arose. Two patients had mild skin reaction with nausea requiring no treatment and three patients developed a secondary infection of the cyst, due to prolonged drainage time. These liver abscesses responded successfully to further catheter drainage. Subsequent patients were treated with large bore (18-20 Fr) catheters and none developed secondary infection. Overall drainage time varied from 7-118 days (7-28 days, if we exclude three initial cases who had prolonged drainage). CONCLUSION: It is our strong belief that percutaneous drainage using the above method should be considered a first-line treatment for hydatid disease of the liver. Bosanac, Z.B., Lisanin, L. (2000)

  1. Methods for estimating population coverage of mass distribution programmes: a review of practices in relation to trachoma control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Elizabeth A; Ngondi, Jeremiah; McFarland, Deborah; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M

    2012-10-01

    In the context of trachoma control, population coverage with mass drug administration (MDA) using antibiotics is measured using routine data. Due to the limitations of administrative records as well as the potential for bias from incomplete or incorrect records, a literature review of coverage survey methods applied in neglected tropical disease control programmes and immunisation outreach was conducted to inform the design of coverage surveys for trachoma control. Several methods were identified, including the '30 × 7' survey method for the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI 30×7), other cluster random sampling (CRS) methods, lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS), purposive sampling and routine data. When compared against one another, the EPI and other CRS methods produced similar population coverage estimates, whilst LQAS, purposive sampling and use of administrative data did not generate estimates consistent with CRS. In conclusion, CRS methods present a consistent approach for MDA coverage surveys despite different methods of household selection. They merit use until standard guidelines are available. CRS methods should be used to verify population coverage derived from LQAS, purposive sampling methods and administrative reports.

  2. Effectiveness of multifaceted educational programme to reduce antibiotic dispensing in primary care: practice based randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Sharon A; Dunstan, Frank; Rollnick, Stephen; Cohen, David; Gillespie, David; Evans, Meirion R; health, senior lecturer in epidemiology and public; Alam, M Fasihul; Bekkers, Marie-Jet; Evans, John; Moore, Laurence; Howe, Robin; Hayes, Jamie; Hare, Monika; Hood, Kerenza

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and costs of a multifaceted flexible educational programme aimed at reducing antibiotic dispensing at the practice level in primary care. Design Randomised controlled trial with general practices as the unit of randomisation and analysis. Clinicians and researchers were blinded to group allocation until after randomisation. Setting 68 general practices with about 480 000 patients in Wales, United Kingdom. Participants 34 practices were randomised to receive the educational programme and 34 practices to be controls. 139 clinicians from the intervention practices and 124 from control practices had agreed to participate before randomisation. Practice level data covering all the clinicians in the 68 practices were analysed. Interventions Intervention practices followed the Stemming the Tide of Antibiotic Resistance (STAR) educational programme, which included a practice based seminar reflecting on the practices’ own dispensing and resistance data, online educational elements, and practising consulting skills in routine care. Control practices provided usual care. Main outcome measures Total numbers of oral antibiotic items dispensed for all causes per 1000 practice patients in the year after the intervention, adjusted for the previous year’s dispensing. Secondary outcomes included reconsultations, admissions to hospital for selected causes, and costs. Results The rate of oral antibiotic dispensing (items per 1000 registered patients) decreased by 14.1 in the intervention group but increased by 12.1 in the control group, a net difference of 26.1. After adjustment for baseline dispensing rate, this amounted to a 4.2% (95% confidence interval 0.6% to 7.7%) reduction in total oral antibiotic dispensing for the year in the intervention group relative to the control group (P=0.02). Reductions were found for all classes of antibiotics other than penicillinase-resistant penicillins but were largest and significant individually for

  3. Mobile phones to support adherence to antiretroviral therapy: what would it cost the Indian National AIDS Control Programme?

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    Rashmi Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART is critical to maintaining health and good clinical outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS. To address poor treatment adherence, low-cost interventions using mobile communication technology are being studied. While there are some studies that show an effect of mobile phone reminders on adherence to ART, none has reported on the costs of such reminders for national AIDS programmes. This paper aims to study the costs of mobile phone reminder strategies (mHealth interventions to support adherence in the context of India's National AIDS Control Program (NACP. Methods: The study was undertaken at two tertiary level teaching hospitals that implement the NACP in Karnataka state, South India. Costs for a mobile phone reminder application to support adherence, implemented at these sites (i.e. weekly calls, messages or both were studied. Costs were collected based on the concept of avoidable costs specific to the application. The costs that were assessed were one-time costs and recurrent costs that included fixed and variable costs. A sequential procedure for costing was used. Costs were calculated at national-programme level, individual ART-centre level and individual patient level from the NACP's perspective. The assessed costs were pooled to obtain an annual cost per patient. The type of application, number of ART centres and number of patients on ART were varied in a sensitivity analysis of costs. Results: The Indian NACP would incur a cost of between 79 and 110 INR (USD 1.27–1.77 per patient per year, based on the type of reminder, the number of patients on ART and the number of functioning ART centres. The total programme costs for a scale-up of the mHealth intervention to reach the one million patients expected to be on treatment by 2017 is estimated to be 0.36% of the total five-year national-programme budget. Conclusions: The cost of the mHealth intervention for ART-adherence support in

  4. Mobile phones to support adherence to antiretroviral therapy: what would it cost the Indian National AIDS Control Programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rashmi; Bogg, Lennart; Shet, Anita; Kumar, Dodderi Sunil; De Costa, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is critical to maintaining health and good clinical outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS. To address poor treatment adherence, low-cost interventions using mobile communication technology are being studied. While there are some studies that show an effect of mobile phone reminders on adherence to ART, none has reported on the costs of such reminders for national AIDS programmes. This paper aims to study the costs of mobile phone reminder strategies (mHealth interventions) to support adherence in the context of India's National AIDS Control Program (NACP). Methods The study was undertaken at two tertiary level teaching hospitals that implement the NACP in Karnataka state, South India. Costs for a mobile phone reminder application to support adherence, implemented at these sites (i.e. weekly calls, messages or both) were studied. Costs were collected based on the concept of avoidable costs specific to the application. The costs that were assessed were one-time costs and recurrent costs that included fixed and variable costs. A sequential procedure for costing was used. Costs were calculated at national-programme level, individual ART-centre level and individual patient level from the NACP's perspective. The assessed costs were pooled to obtain an annual cost per patient. The type of application, number of ART centres and number of patients on ART were varied in a sensitivity analysis of costs. Results The Indian NACP would incur a cost of between 79 and 110 INR (USD 1.27–1.77) per patient per year, based on the type of reminder, the number of patients on ART and the number of functioning ART centres. The total programme costs for a scale-up of the mHealth intervention to reach the one million patients expected to be on treatment by 2017 is estimated to be 0.36% of the total five-year national-programme budget. Conclusions The cost of the mHealth intervention for ART-adherence support in the context of the

  5. Complications of extrahepatic echinococcosis:Fistulization of an adrenal hydatid cyst into the intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Francisco Ruiz-Rabelo; Manuel Gomez-Alvarez; Joaquin Sanchez-Rodriguez; Sebastian Rufian Pe(n)a

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcal cysts are usually found in liver and lungs,but any other organ can potentially be involved.Extrahepatic disease due to hydatid cyst may develop in the abdominal and pelvic cavity,aside from in other less common locations,which may make both diagnosis and treatment more complex.We present a rare case of extrahepatic echinococcosis in a 70-year old patient with a 4-d history of dull abdominal pain,anemia within the transfusion range and fever.She underwent surgery for left renal hydatid cysts 30 years ago.After non operative treatment,imaging studies showed a calcified hydatid cyst in a retrogastric location communicating with a proximal jejunal loop.En-block resection of the mass together with the adrenal gland was performed including closure of the enteric fistula.Anatomic pathology confirmed the diagnosis of a calcified hydatid cyst of left adrenal origin.Surgery is the treatment of choice and most authorsrecommend removal of cyst and adrenal gland.

  6. In vitro lethal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seed on hydatid cyst protoscoleces

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    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that N. sativa may be a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be required to evaluate scolicidal effects of N. sativa in the in vivo model.

  7. Assessment of in vivo complement activation on the Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A M; Diaz, A; Fernandez, C; Sim, R B

    2001-12-01

    The larval stage of the parasite Echinococcus granulosus causes hydatid disease. The hydatid cyst is potentially capable of activating host complement, since it is a large, persistent, carbohydrate-rich structure, coated with host immunoglobulins, and localized in the host's internal organs. Nonetheless, in vitro studies have suggested that the cyst surface, the hydatid cyst wall (HCW), is a poor complement activator. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of in vivo complement activation on the hydatid cyst by measuring the levels of two complement activation products, C3d and complexes bearing a C9 activation neoepitope (TCC/MAC), in extracts from HCW of human origin. Low amounts of C3d and TCC/MAC were found in HCW in comparison with their levels in normal human plasma and activated human sera, suggesting that in vivo complement activation on HCW is efficiently down-regulated. This regulation may contribute to limit host inflammation which has been observed to correlate with parasite degeneration and death.

  8. Spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica in a female: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonkar, Yeshwant; Amale, Amar; Acharya, Sourya; Banode, Pankaj; Yeola, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    Meralgia paresthetica presents as tingling sensation in the antero-lateral aspect of thigh. It occurs due to compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh. Proximal spinal lesions may present as meralgia paresthetica due to radiculopathy. We present a rare case of spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica.

  9. Spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica in a female: A rare case report

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    Yeshwant Lonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Meralgia paresthetica presents as tingling sensation in the antero-lateral aspect of thigh. It occurs due to compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh. Proximal spinal lesions may present as meralgia paresthetica due to radiculopathy. We present a rare case of spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica.

  10. Pleural Complications of Hydatid Cyst: Cases Presenting with Pneumothorax and Empyema

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    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study discussed cases of pulmonary hydatid cysts with pleural complications presenting with pneumothorax and empyema, which were retrospectively reviewed in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and for which the authors%u2019 clinical experience was presented. Material and Method: A total of 23 cases of pulmonary hydatid cysts with pleural complications that were treated at our clinic between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The pleural complications in these patients included pneumothorax (34.78%, pyothorax (17.39%, pyopneumothorax (26.08%, hydropneumothorax (21.75%, and severe pleural thickening (17.39%. Results: At the initial step, 19 patients (82.61% underwent tube thoracostomy and drainage, and 4 cases (17.39% underwent thoracentesis. The cystotomy and capitonnage were the most commonly performed procedures in open surgery (89.95%. The prolonged air leakage was the most common (30.43% postoperative complication, and cases that developed massive air leakage and broncho-pleural fistula were re-operated, and of these cases, three (10.5% underwent lobectomy and one patient (4.34% underwent segmentectomy. None of the cases in our series developed mortality. Discussion: A clinical picture involving empyema, pneumothorax, or both will constitute a diagnostic conundrum for hydatid cyst. Early recognition of the hydatid cysts will prevent the development of complications and reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality.

  11. Hydatid cyst of the gallbaldder: A systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Roberto; Allaoua, Yousef; Colmenares, Rafael; Gil, Sergio; Roquero, Pilar; Ramia, José M

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate all the references about primary gallbladder hidatidosis looking for best treatment evidence. METHODS Search: 1966-2015 in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, SciELO, and Tripdatabase. Key words: “gallabladder hydatid disease” and “gallbladder hydatid cyst”. We found 124 papers in our searches but only 14 papers including 16 cases were about hydatid cyst of the gallbladder (GBHC). RESULTS Eight cases of GBHC were women and seven men. One not mentioned. Median age was 48.3 years. The most frequent clinical symptom was abdominal pain (94%) usually in the right upper quadrant. Ultrasound was performed in ten patients (62.5%) but in most cases a combination of several techniques was performed. The location of the cysts was intravesicular in five patients. Five patients presented GBHC and liver hydatid cysts. Two patients presented cholelithiasis and one choledocholithiasis. The most frequent surgical technique was cholecystectomy by laparotomy (81.25%). Simultaneous surgery of liver cysts was carried out in five cases. Eleven patients did not present postoperative complications, but one died. The mean hospital stay was seven days. No recurrence of GBHC was recorded. CONCLUSION In GBHC, the most frequent symptom is right hypocondrium pain (evidence level V). Best diagnostic methods are ultrasound and computed tomography (level V, grade D). Suggested treatment is open cholecystectomy and postoperative albendazole (level V, grade D) obtaining good clinical results and none relapses. PMID:27660675

  12. Albendazole treatment of cerebral hydatid disease: evaluation of results with CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaitzoglou, I.; Drevelengas, A.; Petridis, A.; Palladas, P. [Department of Radiology, ``G. Papanikolaou`` General Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of cerebral hydatid disease demonstrated by CT and MRI, treated with albendazole. Follow-up showed complete dissapearance of the cysts with residual focal calcification on CT and presumed gliosis on MRI. (orig.) With 3 figs., 17 refs.

  13. Growth rate of multiple intracranial hydatid cysts assessed by CT from the time of embolisation

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    Evliyaoglu, C.; Yuksel, M.; Gul, B.; Kaptanoglu, E.; Yaman, M. [Ankara Numune Hastanesi, Beyin Cerrahisi Klinigi, Ankara (Turkey)

    1998-06-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old man with multiple bilateral hydatid cysts of the brain in whom we were able to assess the growth rate of the cysts on repeated examination. On average, the cysts increased in diameter by 1 cm per month. (orig.) With 5 figs., 6 refs.

  14. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of renal hydatid disease: a retrospective analysis of 30 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulati Rexiati

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis (CE is an infection which is caused by the larval stage of a tapeworm and is endemic in stockbreeding regions of developing countries. The kidney is the most commonly affected organ in the urinary tract. However, reports on renal hydatid disease are limited in the literature, and usually there are no specific clinical characteristics and promising operative methods. The purpose of this study is to assess the most appropriate surgical technique for the patient with urinary tract CE. We retrospectively analyzed thirty patients with renal hydatid cysts who received different surgical treatments in the urology department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from February 1985 to April 2010. Twenty patients were males and ten were females. The diagnostic accuracy was 74%, 87.5%, and 66.6% respectively by using of ultrasound, CT, and laboratory tests. Thirty patients were followed up for 1-15 years after surgery. One patient experienced a recurrence of renal CE. The ultrasound, CT, and immunological tests are an important means of diagnosis. The surgical treatment principle of renal hydatid should be based on residual renal function, hydatid cyst size, number, location, and surgical techniques to determine the surgical plan to retain the renal function.

  15. Unusual site of recurrent musculoskeletal hydatid cyst: Case report and brief review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panagiotis G Drimousis; Konstantinos M Stamou; Athanasios Koutras; Dimitrios Konstantinos Tsekouras; George Zografos

    2006-01-01

    A case of a large multiplex recurrent hydatid cyst involving the left gluteal muscle and the left iliopsoas,accompanied with degeneration of the musculature of the left upper leg is presented along with a review of the relevant literature. Very few such cases have been reported worldwide. The presented case is also distinguished by the involvement of muscles of distant anatomic areas.

  16. Swollen eyelid reveals multiple intracranial hydatid cysts associated with a palpebral cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzili, N; Ahbeddou, S; Ahmimech, J; Abboud, H; Boutarbouch, M; El Hassan, A; Berraho, A

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of a hydatid cyst of the eyelid in a 12-year-old boy associated with cerebral involvement. The patient was initially treated by neurosurgeons for brain cysts. The course after an interval of two months was marked by regression of the palpebral cyst on albendazole.

  17. A Case of Giant Hepatic Hydatid Cyst Infected with Morganella morganii and the Literature Review

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    Ismail Necati Hakyemez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst disease is a common worldwide zoonosis. Most of the cysts are located in the liver. Abscess formation due to infection of the cyst is an important complication. M. morganii, a Gram-negative Bacillus, is a quite rare cause of liver abscess. A 77-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with complaints of fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain located in the right-upper quadrant. Her history was positive for hepatic hydatid cyst disease ten years ago. Physical examination revealed a painful mass filling the right-upper quadrant and extending down to umbilicus. Indirect hemagglutinin test for hydatid cyst was positive at a titer of 1/320. Giant liver abscess due to infected hydatid cyst was found in computed tomography scan. Surgeons performed cystectomy and cholecystectomy. Cefazoline, cefuroxime, and metronidazole were administered empirically, but all the three agents were replaced with intravenous ceftriaxone after M. morganii was isolated from the cultures of the abscess material. Clinical signs of the patient resolved at the second week of treatment, and she was discharged.

  18. A Case of Giant Hepatic Hydatid Cyst Infected with Morganella morganii and the Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, Ismail Necati; Sit, Mustafa; Aktas, Gulali; Tas, Tekin; Mengeloglu, Fırat Zafer; Kucukbayrak, Abdulkadir

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid cyst disease is a common worldwide zoonosis. Most of the cysts are located in the liver. Abscess formation due to infection of the cyst is an important complication. M. morganii, a Gram-negative Bacillus, is a quite rare cause of liver abscess. A 77-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with complaints of fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain located in the right-upper quadrant. Her history was positive for hepatic hydatid cyst disease ten years ago. Physical examination revealed a painful mass filling the right-upper quadrant and extending down to umbilicus. Indirect hemagglutinin test for hydatid cyst was positive at a titer of 1/320. Giant liver abscess due to infected hydatid cyst was found in computed tomography scan. Surgeons performed cystectomy and cholecystectomy. Cefazoline, cefuroxime, and metronidazole were administered empirically, but all the three agents were replaced with intravenous ceftriaxone after M. morganii was isolated from the cultures of the abscess material. Clinical signs of the patient resolved at the second week of treatment, and she was discharged.

  19. Preventing Australian football injuries with a targeted neuromuscular control exercise programme: comparative injury rates from a training intervention delivered in a clustered randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Twomey, Dara M; Fortington, Lauren V; Doyle, Tim L A; Elliott, Bruce C; Akram, Muhammad; Lloyd, David G

    2016-04-01

    Exercise-based training programmes are commonly used to prevent sports injuries but programme effectiveness within community men's team sport is largely unknown. To present the intention-to-treat analysis of injury outcomes from a clustered randomised controlled trial in community Australian football. Players from 18 male, non-elite, community Australian football clubs across two states were randomly allocated to either a neuromuscular control (NMC) (intervention n=679 players) or standard-practice (control n=885 players) exercise training programme delivered as part of regular team training sessions (2× weekly for 8-week preseason and 18-week regular-season). All game-related injuries and hours of game participation were recorded. Generalised estimating equations, adjusted for clustering (club unit), were used to compute injury incidence rates (IIRs) for all injuries, lower limb injuries (LLIs) and knee injuries sustained during games. The IIRs were compared across groups with cluster-adjusted Injury Rate Ratios (IRRs). Overall, 773 game injuries were recorded. The lower limb was the most frequent body region injured, accounting for 50% of injuries overall, 96 (12%) of which were knee injuries. The NMC players had a reduced LLI rate compared with control players (IRR: 0.78 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.08), p=0.14.) The knee IIR was also reduced for NMC compared with control players (IRR: 0.50 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.05), p=0.07). These intention-to-treat results indicate that positive outcomes can be achieved from targeted training programmes for reducing knee and LLI injury rates in men's community sport. While not statistically significant, reducing the knee injury rate by 50% and the LLI rate by 22% is still a clinically important outcome. Further injury reductions could be achieved with improved training attendance and participation in the programme. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  20. Equine infectious anaemia in equids of Southern Pantanal, Brazil: seroprevalence and evaluation of the adoption of a control programme

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    Márcia F. Nogueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The working equid population in Corumbá, Southern Pantanal, is very large and has a crucial role in the main economic activity of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, the beef cattle industry. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of equine infectious anaemia (EIA in working equids of ranches in the municipality of Corumbá, by the official agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test, and evaluate the adoption of the Programme for the Prevention and Control of Equine Infectious Anaemia proposed by Embrapa Pantanal and official entities in the 1990s. From September to November 2009, forty ranches distributed through the area of the municipality were visited, and serum samples were obtained from 721 equines and 232 mules. According to previous publications and the present data, it was concluded that the prevalence of EIA in this population has increased from 18.17% to 38.60%, which represents at this time approximately 13,000 infected animals. There was no significant difference between the apparent prevalence of equines and mules. It was also verified that the control programme was not known by the greater part of the interviewed ranch owners, managers and foremen and, in their perception, EIA is not a primary threat to address. Among the studied variables, the serologic testing practice significantly reduced the risk for the presence of EIA seropositivity, as well as the separation of riding equipment and segregation of seropositives.

  1. EVALUATION OF HISTORY OF CONTACTS, MODES OF PRESENTATION AND MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL OF ABDOMINAL HYDATID DISEASE

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    Krishna Mohan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease continues to be a common surgical condition in many rural parts of India, carrying a significant morbidity and mortality. Hydatid liver disease affects all age groups, both sexes equally, and no predisposing pathologic conditions are associated with infection . Echinococcosis, is a zoonosis that occurs primarily in sheep - grazing areas of the world Humans contract the disease from dogs, and there is no human - to - hum an transmission it is limited geographically to areas where close and continuous contact exists between domesticated carnivores such as the dog and ungulates such as cattle and sheep. AIM: This study aims to evaluate the incidence of important risk factors of contact history in the patients presented with abdominal hydatid disease and also treatment modalities followed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It is a prospective & analytic study was conducted by selection of patients admitted in the wards of the department o f general surgery of a tertiary care hospital. Over a period of 1 year from January 2013 to January 2014 and followed for a period of 1 year . The data in the study was collected by the use of a pretested proforma to collect relevant information from indivi dual patient, by a meticulous clinical examination and specific investigations of 12 cases for hydatid disease were studied. Majority of liver hydatid were treated by partial pericystectomy & enucleation with external tube drainage which is an optimum trea tment in our institute, and a follow up for a minimum of 1 year was conducted after the treatment during the study period . RESULTS: In our study we had patients in all age groups, history of contact with dog or sheep was present in 33.33% of patients which is comparable with a majority of our patients(66.66% as well as patients in the above compared study had the disease without contact with animals. Liver was the most common . The commonest symptom of hydatid cyst of liver was mass per abdomen, 7

  2. Efficacy of the FIFA 11+ Warm-Up Programme in Male Youth Football: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

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    Oluwatoyosi B. A. Owoeye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The FIFA 11+ is a structured warm-up programme specially designed to prevent injuries among football players from age 14 years and above. However, studies to prove its efficacy are generally few and it is yet to be tested in male youth footballers and among African players. The purpose of the study was to examine the efficacy of the FIFA 11+ programme in reducing the risk of injuries among male youth football players of the Lagos Junior League. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted. All the 20 teams (414 players aged 14 -19 years in the Premier League division were block-randomised into either an intervention (INT or a control (CON group. The INT group performed the FIFA 11+ exercises as warm-up during training sessions and the CON group performed usual warm-up. Participating teams were prospectively followed through an entire league season of 6 months in which they were visited every week to assess injured players for time-loss injuries in both groups. The primary outcomes were any injury to the players, injuries by type of exposure and injuries specific to the lower extremities. The secondary outcomes were injuries reported by body location, aetiology, mechanism and severity. In total, 130 injuries were recorded affecting 104 (25% of the 416 players. Team and player compliance with the INT was 60% and 74% respectively. Based on the primary outcome measures of the study, the FIFA 11+ programme significantly reduced the overall rate of injury in the INT group by 41% [RR = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.40 – 0.86; p = 0.006] and all lower extremity injuries by 48% [RR = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.34 – 0.82; p = 0.004]. However, the rate of injury reduction based on secondary outcomes mostly did not reach the level of statistical significance. The FIFA 11+ programme is effective in reducing the rates of injuries in male youth football players.

  3. A novel fuzzy logic direct torque controller for a permanent magnet synchronous motor with a field programmable gate array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-jun; HUANG Sheng-hua; WAN Shan-ming; WU Fang

    2008-01-01

    A high-performance digital servo system built on the platform of a field programmable gate array (FPGA), a fully digitized hardware design scheme of a direct torque control (DTC) and a low speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is proposed. The DTC strategy of PMSM is described with Verilog hardware description language and is employed on-chip FPGA in accordance with the electronic design automation design methodology. Due to large torque ripples in low speed PMSM, the hysteresis controller in a conventional PMSM DTC was replaced by a fuzzy controller. This FPGA scheme integrates the direct torque controller strategy, the time speed measurement algorithm, the fuzzy regulating technique and the space vector pulse width modulation principle. Experimental results indicate the fuzzy controller can provide a controllable speed at 20 r min-1 and torque at 330 N m with satisfactory dynamic and static performance. Furthermore, the results show that this new control strategy decreases the torque ripple drastically and enhances control performance.

  4. Atypical Radiological Findings in Patients with Hydatid Cysts of the Lung, Study of 1024 Cases

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    Saeed Mirsadraee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The objective of this study was to give a description of the most prominent atypical radiological presentations of lung hydatidosis. Materials and methods: All patients diagnosed with pulmonary hydatidosis by surgical exploration were included in this study. Standard chest roentgenogram and computed tomography CT were evaluated before surgery for lung cysts or unknown lesions. Radiological findings were divided into two categories: 1- Typical hydatid cysts that were previously presented by imaging as a hydatid cyst in the form of an intact cyst, water lily sign and crescent sign. 2- Atypical hydatid cysts that were not similar to typical previously mentioned hydatid cysts. Results: During a 26-year period, 1024 subjects with pulmonary hydatidosis were diagnosed and operated on. Chest X-rays (interpreted in 832 cases showed perforated cysts in 190 (23% and atypical findings such as mass, alveolar type infiltration, abscess and collapse in 113 (13% patients. Seventy-nine patients had a thoracic CT scan in which atypical cysts were detected in 32 subjects (40.5% such as: thick wall cavity in 9 patients (28%, solid masses in 7 (21%, abscesses in 6 (18%, consolidation in 3 (9%, fungus balls in 3 (9%, collapse (atelectasis in 2 (6% and round pneumonia in 2 (6%. Cavity was significantly more frequent in the right lung (90% and mass-like opacity was significantly more frequent in the lower lung field (100%. Conclusion: Hydatid cysts should be considered for most of localized radiological pictures of the lung without respect to localization, size and count of lesions.

  5. Pericyst may be a new pharmacological and therapeutic target for hydatid disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiang-wei; CHEN Xue-ling; ZHANG Shi-jie; ZHANG Xi; SUN Hong; PENG Xin-yu

    2011-01-01

    Background Most hydatid cysts with calcified walls are biologically and clinically silent and inactive. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) plays a critical role in the calcification process of cells. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of modulating TGF-β1 signaling on the calcification of hydatid cysts.Methods Pericyst cells isolated from hepatic hydatid cysts were cultured with osteogenic media. These cells were assessed for alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization capacity using Alizarin Red staining. Cells were also treated with recombinant human TGF-β1 and TGF-β inhibitor, and the expression profiles of osteoblast markers (RUNX2,osterix, and osteocalcin) were analyzed using Western blotting. The effects of inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling on calcification of pericyst walls were assessed using different doses of TGF-β inhibitor for 7 weeks in a preclinical disease model of liver cystic echinococcosis.Results Cells within the pericyst displayed high levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation, as induced by osteogenic media. These activities, as well as expression profiles of osteoblast markers (RUNX2, osterix, and osteocalcin) could be inhibited by addition of recombinant human TGF-β1 (rhTGF-β1) and enhanced by TGF-β inhibitor. In the animal model of cystic echinococcosis, inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling increased calcification of the pericyst wall, which was associated with decreased cyst load index and lower viability of protoscoleces.Conclusions Cells within the pericysts adopt an osteoblast-like phenotype and have osteogenic potential. Inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling increases hydatid cyst calcification. Pharmacological modulation of calcification in pericysts may be a new therapeutic target in the treatment of hydatid disease.

  6. [Hydatid fertility and protoscolex viability in humans: study of 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 and analyzed at the parasitology laboratory of the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, H; Boulahbel, M; Zait, F; Achir, I; Guerchani, M T; Chaouche, H; Ladjadje, Y; Hamrioui, B

    2013-05-01

    An analysis at the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers examined 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 to determine the fertility rate of metacestodes and the viability of protoscolices. The fertility rate of the hydatid cysts in humans was 88.4% and the protoscolex viability rate 74.5%. The fertility and viability rates found here are high, despite the use of scolicides.

  7. Primary sacral hydatid cyst mimicking a neurogenic tumor in chronic low back pain: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Segura-Trepichio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by infection of Echinococcus granulosus. Bone hydatid cyst presentation without hepatic affectation is infrequent and occurs in 0,5-2% of cases. This rare condition makes clinicians not always aware of the disease, and as a result, misdiagnosis of spinal echinococcosis is common. We present a case of a 48-year-old female patient with primary sacral hydatidosis. Chronic low back pain radiating to the left buttock was the only symptom. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI suggested a neurogenic tumor versus giant cell tumor. Biopsy and pathological study revealed a hydatid cyst. Anthelmintic and surgical treatment was performed. At 12 months after surgery, the patient is free of recurrence. In patients with chronic low back pain and a MR suggestive of neurogenic tumor, spinal hydatid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis. It is recommended the assistance of an anesthesiologist during biopsy to avoid an anaphylactic shock.

  8. Primary Sacral Hydatid Cyst Mimicking a Neurogenic Tumor in Chronic Low Back Pain: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Trepichio, Manuel; Montoza-Nuñez, Jose Manuel; Candela-Zaplana, David; Herrero-Santacruz, Josefa; Pla-Mingorance, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by infection of Echinococcus granulosus. Bone hydatid cyst presentation without hepatic affectation is infrequent and occurs in 0,5-2% of cases. This rare condition makes clinicians not always aware of the disease, and as a result, misdiagnosis of spinal echinococcosis is common. We present a case of a 48-year-old female patient with primary sacral hydatidosis. Chronic low back pain radiating to the left buttock was the only symptom. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a neurogenic tumor versus giant cell tumor. Biopsy and pathological study revealed a hydatid cyst. Anthelmintic and surgical treatment was performed. At 12 months after surgery, the patient is free of recurrence. In patients with chronic low back pain and a MR suggestive of neurogenic tumor, spinal hydatid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis. It is recommended the assistance of an anesthesiologist during biopsy to avoid an anaphylactic shock. PMID:28163523

  9. The effect of a clinical pharmacist-led training programme on intravenous medication errors: a controlled before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong-Thao; Pham, Hong-Tham; Vo, Dang-Khoa; Nguyen, Tuan-Dung; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; Taxis, Katja

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about interventions to reduce intravenous medication administration errors in hospitals, especially in low- and middle-income countries. To assess the effect of a clinical pharmacist-led training programme on clinically relevant errors during intravenous medication preparation and administration in a Vietnamese hospital. A controlled before and after study with baseline and follow-up measurements was conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU) and a post-surgical unit (PSU). The intervention comprised lectures, practical ward-based teaching sessions and protocols/guidelines, and was conducted by a clinical pharmacist and a nurse. Data on intravenous medication preparation and administration errors were collected by direct observation 12 h/day for seven consecutive days. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used to assess the effect of the intervention on the prevalence of clinically relevant erroneous doses, corrected for confounding factors. 1204 intravenous doses were included, 516 during the baseline period (236 on ICU and 280 on PSU) and 688 during the follow-up period (407 on ICU and 281 on PSU). The prevalence of clinically relevant erroneous doses decreased significantly on the intervention ward (ICU) from 64.0% to 48.9% (pclinically relevant errors (p=0.013). The pharmacist-led training programme was effective, but the error rate remained relatively high. Further quality improvement strategies are needed, including changes to the working environment and promotion of a safety culture.

  10. In vitro lethal effect of ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi L.) essential oil on hydatid cyst protoscoleces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Hosseini, Ali Akbar

    2012-06-01

    Various chemical scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of hydatid cyst protoscolices, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects. Since ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi) has been shown to have a number of medicinal properties, in this study the scolicidal effect of the essential oil (EO) from the fruits of this herbal plant was investigated. Ajowan EO was obtained by hydrodistillation method. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the EO. Protoscoleces were exposed to various concentrations of EO (3, 5 and 10mg/mL) for 10, 20, 30, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. A total of 18 compounds representing 99.54% of the total oil, were identified. Thymol (50.07%), γ-terpinene (23.92%), and p-cymene (22.9%) were found to be the major EO constituents. While the mortality rate of protoscolices in the control group was 6.67%, scolicidal power of ajowan EO at concentration of 3mg/mL was 31.34, 35.98, 45.17, and 51.58% after 10, 20, 30, and 60 min, respectively. The EO at concentration of 5mg/mL killed 51.89, 72.20, 88.64, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, 30, and 60 min, respectively. One hundred percent scolicidal activity was observed with ajowan EO at concentration of 10mg/mL after 10 min of exposure. The results of this study revealed that the EO of ajowan is rich in thymol, γ-terpinene and p-cymene, has high scolicidal power and it may be used as a natural scolicidal agent.

  11. Effects of a one week multidisciplinary inpatient self-management programme for patients with fibromyalgia: a randomised controlled trial

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    Hamnes Bente

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-management programmes (SMP are recommended for patients with fibromyalgia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of a one week multidisciplinary inpatient self-management programme on psychological distress, skills as a consumer of health services, self-efficacy, and functional and symptomatic consequences of fibromyalgia (FM. Methods A randomised controlled two-armed, assessor-blinded trial with three-week follow-up to evaluate SMP. Primary outcomes were the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20 and the Effective Musculoskeletal Consumer Scale (EC-17, while secondary outcomes included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and Self-efficacy scales for pain, function and symptoms (ASES. Results 150 patients with FM were randomised to one week one SMP (n = 75 or to a waiting list control group (n = 75. Of these, 58 participants in the treatment group and 60 in the control group completed the study. At three weeks’ follow up there was a significant difference in EC-17 (0-100 in favour of the treatment group (mean difference 4.26, 95 CI 0.8 to 7.7, p = 0.02. There were no differences between the groups for any of the other outcomes. Conclusion This study shows that in patients with FM the SMP had no effect on psychological distress, functional and symptomatic consequences and self-efficacy, except for a small short-term effect on skills and behaviour that are important for managing and participating in health care (EC-17. Clinical Trials.gov Id: NCT01035125. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Id: NCT01035125

  12. Muscles in motion : a randomized controlled trial on the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an exercise training programme in children and adolescents with juvenile dermatomyositis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habers, G. Esther A.; Bos, G. J. F. Joyce; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; Lelieveld, Otto T. H. M.; Armbrust, Wineke; Takken, Tim; van Brussel, Marco

    Objective. To study for the first time in a randomized controlled trial the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an exercise training programme in children and adolescents with JDM. Methods. Patients were randomly assigned to the Intervention Group (IG; n = 14) or Waiting Control Group (WCG; n = 12).

  13. Muscles in motion : a randomized controlled trial on the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an exercise training programme in children and adolescents with juvenile dermatomyositis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habers, G Esther A; Bos, G J F Joyce; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; Lelieveld, Otto T H M; Armbrust, Wineke; Takken, Tim; van Brussel, Marco

    OBJECTIVE: To study for the first time in a randomized controlled trial the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an exercise training programme in children and adolescents with JDM. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to the Intervention Group (IG; n = 14) or Waiting Control Group (WCG; n = 12).

  14. Muscles in motion : a randomized controlled trial on the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an exercise training programme in children and adolescents with juvenile dermatomyositis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habers, G Esther A; Bos, G J F Joyce; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; Lelieveld, Otto T H M; Armbrust, Wineke; Takken, Tim; van Brussel, Marco

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study for the first time in a randomized controlled trial the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an exercise training programme in children and adolescents with JDM. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to the Intervention Group (IG; n = 14) or Waiting Control Group (WCG; n = 12).

  15. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, Two blanket orders for the supply of programmable logic controllers and fieldbus equipment

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the supply of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and fieldbus equipment for the CERN accelerators, technical services and experiments. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of two blanket contracts with SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC INDUSTRIE (FR) and SIEMENS SUISSE S.A. (CH), without competitive tendering, for the supply of PLCs and fieldbus equipment for an estimated total annual amount covering both contracts not exceeding 2 000 000 Swiss francs for three years. SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC INDUSTRIE (FR) has declared the following origin of the equipment relating to this adjudication proposal: FR-100%. SIEMENS SUISSE S.A. (CH) has declared the following origin of the equipment relating to this adjudication proposal: DE-100%.

  16. A cluster-randomised controlled trial of a physical activity and nutrition programme in retirement villages: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Anne-Marie; Jancey, Jonine; Lee, Andy H; Kerr, Deborah A; Hills, Andrew P; Anderson, Annie S; Howat, Peter A

    2014-09-25

    Physical activity levels of Australia's ageing population are declining and coincidentally rates of overweight and obesity are increasing. Adequate levels of physical activity and a healthy diet are recognised as important lifestyle factors for the maintenance of a healthy weight and prevention of chronic diseases. Retirement village (RV) residents rarely engage in physical activity and nutrition programmes offered, with poor attendance and low use of existing facilities such as on-site fitness centres and classes and nutrition seminars. The RV provides a unique setting to access and engage with this older target group, to test the effectiveness of strategies to increase levels of physical activity, improve nutrition and maintain a healthy weight. This cluster-randomised controlled trial will evaluate a physical activity, nutrition and healthy weight management intervention for insufficiently active ('not achieving 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per week') adults aged 60-75 residing in RV's. A total of 400 participants will be recruited from 20 randomly selected RV's in Perth, Western Australia. Villages will be assigned to either the intervention group (n=10) or the control group (n=10) each containing 200 participants. The Retirement Village Physical Activity and Nutrition for Seniors (RVPANS) programme is a home-based physical activity and nutrition programme that includes educational resources, along with facilitators who will motivate and guide the participants during the 6-month intervention. Descriptive statistics and mixed regression models will be performed to assess the intervention effects. This trial will evaluate an intervention for the modification of health risk factors in the RV setting. Such research conducted in RV's has been limited. Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HR128/2012). Dissemination of the study results will occur through publications, reports, conference presentations and community

  17. An evaluation of the Sinan health information system as used by the Hansen's disease control programme, Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Paulo Roberto Silva; Ferreira, Andréa Torres; Maciel, Maria Das Graças Galvão; De Almeida, Rejane Pereira; Hinders, Duane; Schreuder, Pieter A M; Kerr-Pontes, Lígia Regina S

    2008-06-01

    Since the introduction of the national notifiable diseases information system (SINAN) in Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 1994, many problems have been encountered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the SINAN software, quality of data input, the transfer of the computerised data from the municipality to state levels, human resources and other factors associated with the health information system infrastructure (HIS). A cross-sectional study was carried out in Pernambuco state, North-eastern Brazil, in 2005. A sample of health regions and municipalities was chosen. SINAN forms from those municipalities were analysed and the flow of notifications followed from municipal level to the regional and finally to the state. Professionals from health units, district, municipal and regional Hansen's Disease Control Programme (HDCP) and Epidemiological Surveillance System (ESS) coordinators, health secretaries and managers of the municipalities and health regions selected were interviewed. SINAN software is functioning up to expectation. However, at all levels of the health system, serious weaknesses not related to the SINAN software were found, varying from lack of human resources (limited number of staff and staff development), lack of infrastructure (office space, computers, supplies, etc.) to an absence of effective coordination, management and supervision of the HIS. Lack of reliable, complete and timely information, and especially the lack of widespread analysis and use of available information in planning and management of health services were the main weaknesses found. Many areas need urgent attention: the quality of patient examination, recording and reporting, the timely processing of quality data, the coordination and management of disease control programmes, and the use of HIS reports by the health services and health managers. Regular feedback, supportive supervision visits and annual reviews are essential to monitor the system and make sure that essential

  18. The efficacy of a supervised and a home-based core strengthening programme in adults with poor core stability: a three-arm randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuter, V H; de Jonge, X A K Janse; Thompson, B M; Callister, R

    2015-03-01

    Poor core stability is linked to a range of musculoskeletal pathologies and core-strengthening programmes are widely used as treatment. Treatment outcomes, however, are highly variable, which may be related to the method of delivery of core strengthening programmes. We investigated the effect of identical 8 week core strengthening programmes delivered as either supervised or home-based on measures of core stability. Participants with poor core stability were randomised into three groups: supervised (n=26), home-based (n=26) or control (n=26). Primary outcomes were the Sahrmann test and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) for dynamic core stability and three endurance tests (side-bridge, flexor and Sorensen) for static core stability. The exercise programme was devised and supervised by an exercise physiologist. Analysis of covariance on the change from baseline over the 8 weeks showed that the supervised group performed significantly better on all core stability measures than both the home-based and control group. The home-based group produced significant improvements compared to the control group in all static core stability tests, but not in most of the dynamic core stability tests (Sahrmann test and two out of three directions of the SEBT). Our results support the use of a supervised core-strengthening programme over a home-based programme to maximise improvements in core stability, especially in its dynamic aspects. Based on our findings in healthy individuals with low core stability, further research is recommended on potential therapeutic benefits of supervised core-strengthening programmes for pathologies associated with low core stability. ACTRN12613000233729. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. ELECTRONIC CONTROL FOR FUEL SUPPLY OF DIESEL ENGINE ON THE BASIS OF PROGRAMMABLE PID-REGULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bakhanovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a schematic diagram of the Euro-3 diesel engine electronic control and describes hard- and software platform of the high pressure fuel pump pneumatic actuator control that allows to realize the concept of electronic fuel supply control of diesel engine KamAZ-740. The strategic dependence beetwen the angular position of fuel pump governor lever and the angular position of electronic accelerator pedal were put on the basis of electronic control concept. Implementation of this dependence was carried out by applying a modulated PWM signal with determined duty cycle by the controller to the coil proportional solenoid valve, which is responsible for the amount of air pressure in the working chamber of the power air cylinder, connected by articulated-type to the governor lever of the high pressure fuel pump. In this case, the feedback control by position of governor lever of the high pressure fuel pump was introduced in the control circuit, but engine crankshaft speed control was carried out using a software continuous PID governor. Developed strategy gives possibility to track the deflection  of control parameter from a predetermined value by real-time and almost instantly, to make a control action on actuators to eliminate this deflection, while providing a minimum time of transition. Governor’s setting (proportional, integral and differential component performed empirically using the classical Ziegler – Nichols method, based on the analysis of the safety factor of automatic control system. The results of calculating the coefficients of proportional integral-differential regulator and oscillograms HIL experiment on testing the proposed diesel engine throttle control strategies using visualization CoDeSys V2.3 are given in activity.

  20. Challenges of evaluating a computer-based educational programme for women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, F; Sawatzky, R; Öhlén, J; Karlsson, P; Koinberg, I

    2017-09-01

    In a two-group, multi-centre, randomised controlled 9 months trial, we (1) evaluated the impact of a computer-based educational programme compared to standard care and (2) examined whether different patterns of programme usage could be explained by demographic, medical and psychosocial factors. We involved 226 Swedish-speaking women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer and scheduled for surgery. Primary outcomes were health self-efficacy and health care participation measured by the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Supportive System instrument. Secondary outcomes were anxiety and depression levels measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast and Sense of Coherence scales measured psychosocial factors for the study's secondary aim. Multi-level modelling revealed no statistically significant impact of the computer-based educational programme over time on the outcomes. Subsequent exploratory regression analysis revealed that older women with axillary dissection and increased physical well-being were more likely to use the programme. Furthermore, receiving post-operative chemotherapy and increased meaningfulness decreased the likelihood of use. Providing reliable and evidence-based medical and rehabilitation information via a computer-based programme might not be enough to influence multi-dimensional outcomes in women diagnosed with breast cancer. The use of these programmes should be further explored to promote adherence to e-Health supportive interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effectiveness of a parenting programme in a public health setting: a randomised controlled trial of the positive parenting programme (Triple P level 3 versus care as usual provided by the preventive child healthcare (PCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Daniëlle EMC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the high burden of disease of psychosocial problems in children and adolescents, early intervention regarding problem behaviour of young children is very important. The Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH offers a good setting to detect such problem behaviour and to provide parenting support to the parents concerned. This paper aims to describe the design of an effectiveness study of a parenting programme for parents of children with mild psychosocial problems after an initial, evidence based screening in routine PCH. Methods/Design The effects of the intervention will be studied in a randomised controlled trial. Prior to a routine PCH health examination, parents complete a screening questionnaire on psychosocial problems. Parents of children with increased but still subclinical levels of psychosocial problems will be assigned at random to the experimental group (Triple P, level 3 or to the control group (care as usual. Outcome measures, such as problem behaviour in the child and parenting behaviour, will be assessed before, directly after and 6 and 12 months after the intervention. Discussion Parenting support may be an effective intervention to reduce psychosocial problems in children but evidence-based parenting programmes that fit the needs of the PCH are not available as yet. Although the Triple P programme seems promising and suitable for a universal population approach, evidence on its effectiveness in routine PCH still lacks. Trial registration NTR1338

  2. Design of Programmable LED Controller with a Variable Current Source for 3D Image Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ryang Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional fluorescent light sources, as well as incandescent light sources are gradually being replaced by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs for reducing power consumption in the image display area for multimedia application. An LED light source requires a controller with a low-power operation. In this paper, a low-power technique using adiabatic operation is applied for the implementation of LED controller with a stable constant-current, a low-power and low-heat function. From the simulation result, the power consumption of the proposed LED controller using adiabatic operation was reduced to about 87% in comparison with conventional operation with a constant VDD. The proposed circuit is expected to be an alternative LED controller which is sensitive to external conditions such as heat.

  3. Control difuso para un sistema de nivel implementado en un automata programmable

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutierrez Marroquin, William; Lopez Sotelo, Jesus Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    .... Se presenta la implementacion de un control difuso en un automata programable, definiendo rutinas especificas para la realizacion de la maquina de inferencia, lo cual representa economia de recursos...

  4. Programmable System on Chip Distributed Communication and Control Approach for Human Adaptive Mechanical System

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad A.M. Faudzi; Suzumori, K

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Communication and control are two main components in any Mechatronics system. They can be designed either by centralized or decentralized approach. Both approaches can be chosen based on application designed and specific requirements of the designer. In this study, decentralized or normally called distributed approach was selected to solved communication and control of a human adaptive mechanical system namely Intelligent Chair Tools (ICT). The ICT seating system is powered...

  5. Epidemiological survey on hydatid disease in Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps in 2011%2011年新疆兵团人群包虫病流行病学现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽文; 李凡卡; 韩菲; 马芙蓉; 陈鹏

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the situation about infection of hydatid disease for people in Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, the scientific basis is going to provide measure for preventing and controling hydatid disease. According to the outline such as National prevention and control program of major parasitic diseases 2006-2015 , epidemic situation of hydatid disease in Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps was investigated. Results showed that in 2011, 128 people were diagnosed as hydatid disease by type-B ultrasonic in the Corps, with an infection rate of 1. 57 (128/81 500). Serological examination was conducted in 8 357 people, and the result indicated 382 samples of hydatid diseases specific IgG antibody were positive, with an average infection rate of 4. 47%. Among the 128 patients with hydatid disease, 77 were males and 51 were females, and the gender distinction ratio was 1. 51:1. The ethnic proportion was Han (81, 63. 28%) , Kazak (19, 14. 84%) , Uygur (15, 11. 72%) , Muslim (10, 7. 81%) , and other national minority (3, 2. 34%). The highest prevalence rate was in Division 13 (4. 02%) , and there was no patient in Division 1 or Division 14. The highest infection rate was in Division 9 (18. 37%) , and there was no infected person in Division 1 and Division 2. It's suggested that hydatid disease is still popular in most areas of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps.%目的 了解和掌握2011年新疆兵团人群包虫病疫情分布状况,为今后包虫病防治和评价工作提供参考依据.方法 依据国家和文件,结合的要求,对新疆兵团包虫病疫情进行调查.结果 本次调查兵团十三个师B超普查共计81 500人,查出包虫病患者共计128人,平均患病率为1.57‰;血清学检查8 537人,查出包虫病特异性IgG抗体阳性人数共计382人,平均感染率为4.47%.查出的128名患者中,男77人,女51人,性别比为:1.51:1;汉族81人、哈萨克族19人、维吾尔族15人、回族10人

  6. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy in a community-based pulmonary rehabilitation programme: A controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Edwin K; Gorelik, Alexandra; Irving, Louis; Khan, Fary

    2017-03-06

    To investigate whether the use of cognitive behavioural therapy in pulmonary rehabilitation addresses the depression and anxiety burden and thereby improves rehabilitation outcomes. Prospective controlled clinical trial. A total of 70 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were referred to a community centre for pulmonary rehabilitation. Patients were allocated to either the control group, consisting of pulmonary rehabilitation alone, or to the treatment group, receiving pulmonary rehabilitation and an additional 6 sessions of group-based cognitive behavioural therapy. Assessments consisting of questionnaires and walk tests were conducted pre- and post-pulmonary rehabilitation. A total of 28 patients were enrolled. The cognitive behavioural therapy group had significant improvements in exercise capacity following pulmonary rehabilitation (mean change 32.9 m, p = 0.043), which was maintained at 3 months post-pulmonary rehabilitation (mean change 23.4 m, p = 0.045). Patients in the cognitive behavioural therapy group showed significant short-term improvements in fatigue, stress and depression (mean change 2.4, p = 0.016, 3.9, p = 0.024 and 4.3, p = 0.047, respectively) and a 3-month post-pulmonary rehabilitation improvement in anxiety score (mean change 3.1, p = 0.01). No significant changes were seen in the control group. The addition of cognitive behavioural therapy improved patients' physical, psychological and quality of life results. Cognitive behavioural therapy should be considered for inclusion in a pulmonary rehabilitation programme to enhance outcomes.

  7. Treatment success in pragmatic randomised controlled trials: a review of trials funded by the UK Health Technology Assessment programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raftery James

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research reviewed treatment success and whether the collective uncertainty principle is met in RCTs in the US National Cancer Institute portfolio. This paper classifies clinical trials funded by the UK HTA programme by results using the method applied to the US Cancer Institute trials, and compares the two portfolios. Methods Data on all completed randomised controlled trials funded by the HTA programme 1993-2008 were extracted. Each trial's primary results was classified into six categories; 1 statistically significant in favour of the new treatment, 2 statistically significant in favour of the control treatment 3 true negative, 4 truly inconclusive, 5 inconclusive in favour of new treatment or 6 inconclusive in favour of control treatment. Trials were classified by comparing the 95% confidence interval for the difference in primary outcome to the difference specified in the sample size calculation. The results were compared with Djulbegovic's analysis of NCI trials. Results Data from 51 superiority trials were included, involving over 48,000 participants and a range of diseases and interventions. 85 primary comparisons were available because some trials had more than two randomised arms or had several primary outcomes. The new treatment had superior results (whether significant or not in 61% of the comparisons (52/85 95% CI 49.9% to 71.6%. The results were conclusive in 46% of the comparisons (19% statistically significant in favour of the new treatment, 5% statistically significant in favour of the control and 22% true negative. The results were classified as truly inconclusive (i.e. failed to answer the question asked for 24% of comparisons (20/85. HTA trials included fewer truly inconclusive and statistically significant results and more results rated as true negative than NCI trials. Conclusions The pattern of results in HTA trials is similar to that of the National Cancer Institute portfolio. Differences that

  8. Hydatid detection using the near-infrared transmission angular spectra of porous silicon microcavity biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jia, Zhenhong; Lü, Guodong

    2017-03-01

    Hydatid, which is a parasitic disease, occurs today in many regions worldwide. Because it can present a serious threat to people’s health, finding a fast, convenient, and economical means of detection is important. This paper proposes a label- and spectrophotometer-free apparatus that uses optical biological detection based on porous silicon microcavities. In this approach, the refractive index change induced by the biological reactions of a sample in a porous silicon microcavity is detected by measuring the change in the incidence angle corresponding to the maximum transmitted intensity of a near-infrared probe laser. This paper reports that the proposed method can achieve the label-free detection of 43 kDa molecular weight hydatid disease antigens with high sensitivity.

  9. HYDATID CYST LIVER EXCISION: THE TWIN PROBLEMS OF ANAPHYLAXIS AND HYPERNATREMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Rampure Vittal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst infestation is most commonly encountered in liver. Though several procedures have been described in the treatment of hepatic echinococcal cysts ranging from simple puncture to liver resection , radical surgery ( T otal pericystectomy or partial hepatectomy is indicated for liver cyst. Prevention of spillage into the peritoneal cavity and wound edges by injecting a scolicidal agent into the unopened cyst and walling off the operative field with sponges soaked in a scolicidal agent are the two most commonly employed measures. 20% hypertonic saline is one of the recommended scolicidal agent , but can be associated with hypernatremia. Anaphylaxis during hydatid cyst resection is one of the rare occurrences. We hereby de scribe the twin problem of Anaphylaxis intraoperatively and hypernatremia postoperatively and its management.

  10. Modified capitonage in partial cystectomy performed for liver hydatid disease: Report of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anemodouras Nikolaos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several techniques have been described in liver hydatid disease surgery, with most well known partial cystectomy, capitonage and introflexion. Methods We present a technical modification on open partial cystectomy for liver hydatid disease. We performed this operation in 2 patients with liver echinococcosis. The cyst is being unroofed and evacuated from the daughter cysts. The identified bile vessels ligated. The remnants of the anterior wall (capsule of the cyst are anchored with sutures in the posterior wall in a manner that the cavity of the cyst disappears. Results In both patients the disease eradicated. No postoperative complications were observed including bile leaking and/or abscess formation. Conclusions Our technique helps in the fast, and effective mobilization of the patient, as well as in the minimization of postoperative bile leaking.

  11. Hydatid detection using the near-infrared transmission angular spectra of porous silicon microcavity biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jia, Zhenhong; Lü, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Hydatid, which is a parasitic disease, occurs today in many regions worldwide. Because it can present a serious threat to people’s health, finding a fast, convenient, and economical means of detection is important. This paper proposes a label- and spectrophotometer-free apparatus that uses optical biological detection based on porous silicon microcavities. In this approach, the refractive index change induced by the biological reactions of a sample in a porous silicon microcavity is detected by measuring the change in the incidence angle corresponding to the maximum transmitted intensity of a near-infrared probe laser. This paper reports that the proposed method can achieve the label-free detection of 43 kDa molecular weight hydatid disease antigens with high sensitivity. PMID:28317861

  12. A community-based health education programme for bio-environmental control of malaria through folk theatre (Kalajatha in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Satyanarayan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health education is an important component in disease control programme. Kalajatha is a popular, traditional art form of folk theatre depicting various life processes of a local socio-cultural setting. It is an effective medium of mass communication in the Indian sub-continent especially in rural areas. Using this medium, an operational feasibility health education programme was carried out for malaria control. Methods In December 2001, the Kalajatha events were performed in the evening hours for two weeks in a malaria-affected district in Karnataka State, south India. Thirty local artists including ten governmental and non-governmental organizations actively participated. Impact of this programme was assessed after two months on exposed vs. non-exposed respondents. Results The exposed respondents had significant increase in knowledge and change in attitude about malaria and its control strategies, especially on bio-environmental measures (p Conclusion This study was carried out under the primary health care system involving the local community and various potential partners. Kalajatha conveyed the important messages on malaria control and prevention to the rural community. Similar methods of communication in the health education programme should be intensified with suitable modifications to reach all sectors, if malaria needs to be controlled.

  13. Cutaneous fistulization of the hydatid disease: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahce, Zeynep Sener; Akbulut, Sami; Aday, Ulas; Demircan, Firat; Senol, Ayhan

    2016-09-01

    To provide an overview of the medical literature on cutaneous fistulization in patients with hydatid disease (HD). According to PRISMA guidelines a literature search was made in PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Google databases were searched using keywords to identify articles related to cutaneous fistulization of the HD. Keywords used were hydatid disease, hydatid cyst, cutaneous fistulization, cysto-cutaneous fistulization, external rupture, and external fistulization. The literature search included case reports, review articles, original articles, and meeting presentations published until July 2016 without restrictions on language, journal, or country. Articles and abstracts containing adequate information, such as age, sex, cyst size, cyst location, clinical presentation, fistula opening location, and management, were included in the study, whereas articles with insufficient clinical and demographic data were excluded. We also present a new case of cysto-cutaneous fistulization of a liver hydatid cyst. The literature review included 38 articles (32 full text, 2 abstracts, and 4 unavailable) on cutaneous fistulization in patients with HD. Among the 38 articles included in the study, 22 were written in English, 13 in French, 1 in German, 1 in Italian, and 1 in Spanish. Forty patients (21 males and 19 females; mean age ± standard deviation, 54.0 ± 21.5 years; range, 7-93 years) were involved in the study. Twenty-four patients had cysto-cutaneous fistulization (Echinococcus granulosus); 10 had cutaneous fistulization (E multilocularis), 3 had cysto-cutaneo-bronchio-biliary fistulization, 2 had cysto-cutaneo-bronchial fistulization; and 1 had cutaneo-bronchial fistulization (E multilocularis). Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed with E granulosis and 11 had E multilocularis detected by clinical, radiological, and/or histopathological examinations. Cutaneous fistulization is a rare complication of HD. Complicated HD should be considered in the

  14. Characterization and optimization of sheep hydatid fluid antigen and its application in the latex test

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Flor; Centro Nacional de Productos Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Químico farmacéutico.; Incio, Nelly; Centro Nacional de Productos Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Químico farmacéutico.; Lévano, Juan; Centro Nacional de Productos Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico veterinario.; Torres, Yovanna; SAIS Tupac Amaru, EsSalud. Junín Perú. Médico.

    2009-01-01

    It was characterized and optimized sheep hydatid fluid antigen and applied in latex fixation tests as screening test for serological diagnosis of patients with Echinococcus granulosus cysts. We evaluated 40 sera, 15 sera positive by immunoblot from patients with E. granulosus infection, 10 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases and 15 sera from healthy subject. Three of the 15 hydatidosis sera were negative and 0 / 25 sera with hydatidosis were reactive. The sensitivity was 80% (95%...

  15. Isolated Primary Hydatid Disease of Omentum; Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghafouri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease, most commonly caused by the larval stage ofEchinococcus granulosus, affects mainly human liver andlung, and rarely other parts of the body. It is prevalent in mostsheep-raising Mediterranean Countries including Iran. Peritonealhydatid cyst, either primary or secondary, represents anuncommon but significant manifestation of the disease. Thepresent case report describes a case of primary isolated hydatiddisease of omentum, which to our knowledge constitutesthe first case of this kind in Iran.

  16. Alveolar hydatid disease of the liver: computed tomography and transabdominal ultrasound with histopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choji, K; Fujita, N; Chen, M; Spiers, A S; Morita, Y; Shinohara, M; Nojima, T; Irie, G

    1992-08-01

    The appearances of alveolar hydatid disease of the liver (AHDL) on computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) were retrospectively compared with histopathological appearances in 67 patients with 100 separate lesions. The radiological features were correlated directly with the pathological specimens obtained from each patient. We conclude that the CT appearances are more specific, but that US has a role to play in mass screening in endemic areas, and intraoperatively.

  17. Genotypic characteristics of hydatid cysts isolated from humans in East Azerbaijan Province (2011-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Vahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cystic echinococcosis (CE is one of the important helminthic diseases of human and animals, which causes by Echinococcus granulosus. Canids are its definite and grazers especially sheep, and cattle, and also wild herbivores are its intermediate hosts. Human can also be accidentally infected by a parasite. This study aimed to investigate genotypes of the hydatid cysts isolated from hydatidosis patients in order to confine the source of the infection, 2013. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 55 paraffin blocks of identified hydatid cysts have been undergone genotyping using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique. The ITS1 region of rDNA has been amplified using BD1 forward and 4s reverse primers. PCR products have been digested using HpaII and RsaI restriction endonucleases. RFLP products studied using gel electrophoresis. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows using the chi-square test. Results: About 29 (52.72%, 16 (29.1%, 3 (5.45%, 3 (5.45%, 1 (1.81%, 1 (1.81%, 1 (1.81% and 1 (1.81% out of 55 hydatid cysts were located in lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, pancreas, brain, and femore, respectively. The frequency of hydatidosis observed higher in patients from rural areas (P = 0.013; odds ratio = 0.599; 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 1.27. Based on RFLP results, the entire studied hydatid cysts identified as sheep strain (G1. Conclusion: According to the results of the present observation, it can be concluded that the majority of cases of human hydatidosis in East Azerbaijan Province are caused by sheep strain (G1 of E. granulosus, which indicates the sheep-doge cycle in the studied area.

  18. Study of Zoonotic Tissue Parasites (Hydatid Cyst, Fasciola, Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis in Hamadan Abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fallah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Zoonotic parasites are large groups of zoonoses among which the most important are hydatid cyst, liver trematodes and sarcocystis.These zoonoses are of considerable importance regarding both human health and economy. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of tissue zoonotic parasites and their epidemiologic status in Hamadan and to estimate the health and medical burden they impose on the society.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, viscera (including liver, lung, kidney, heart,… and muscles of 2590 sheep, 420 cattle, and 490 goats were macroscopically inspected for hydatid cysts, liver flukes, cysticercus , and microscopically (for Sarcocystis in the Hamadan abattoir. The data were presented by descriptive tables and analyzed by 2 statistical test. Results: The infection rate for hydatid cyst, Fasciola, Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis were found 12.3%, 4.9%, 6.5%, and 5.5% respectively. The high infection rates for hydatid cyst and Fasciola were found in cattle (16.2% and 9.5% and for Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis were found in sheep (6.9%. Infection rate of lungs was higher (41.2% than liver (36.6% and liver and lung simultaneously were 22.2% in the infected animals. Infection to Sarcocystis and Cysticercus were not found in the cattle. Conclusion: This study indicated that infection rate of tissue zoonotic parasites are relatively high in the domestic animals of Hamadan , however, the rate is lower in comparison to the previous studies. These parasites had imposed considerable economic burden on the society through reduction in the dairy production and increased the risk of infection in the population as well. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3: 5-12

  19. Scolicidal effects of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) essential oil on hydatid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Dezaki, Ebrahim Saedi; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2014-12-01

    Surgery remains the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis, CE). Various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscolices during surgery, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro scolicidal effect of Nigella sativa (Ranunculaceae) essential oil and also its active principle, thymoquinone, against protoscolices of hydatid cysts. Protoscolices were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (0.01-10 mg/ml) and thymoquinone (0.125-1.0 mg/ml) were used for 5 to 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Furthermore, the components of the N. sativa essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Our study revealed that the essential oil of N. sativa at the concentration of 10 mg/ml and its main component, thymoquinone, at the concentration of 1 mg/ml had potent scolicidal activities against protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus after 10 min exposure. Moreover, thymoquinone (42.4%), p-cymene (14.1%), carvacrol (10.3%), and longifolene (6.1%) were found to be the major components of N. sativa essential oil by GC/MS analysis. The results of this study indicated the potential of N. sativa as a natural source for production of a new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in in vivo models.

  20. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    George Korir; Manu Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external component...

  1. CNC Turning Center Operations and Prove Out. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-334.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronski, Steven D.

    This student guide provides materials for a course designed to instruct the student in the recommended procedures used when setting up tooling and verifying part programs for a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 discusses course content and reviews and demonstrates set-up procedures…

  2. CNC Turning Center Advanced Operations. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-332.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronski, Steven D.; Tatum, Kenneth

    This student guide provides materials for a course designed to introduce the student to the operations and functions of a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 presents course expectations and syllabus, covers safety precautions, and describes the CNC turning center components, CNC…

  3. Progress towards malaria control targets in relation to national malaria programme funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Korenromp (Eline); M. Hosseini (Mehran); R.D. Newman (Robert D); R.E. Cibulskis (Richard E)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Malaria control has been dramatically scaled up the past decade, mainly thanks to increasing international donor financing since 2003. This study assessed progress up to 2010 towards global malaria impact targets, in relation to Global Fund, other donor and domestic malaria

  4. CNC Turning Center Operations and Prove Out. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-334.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronski, Steven D.

    This student guide provides materials for a course designed to instruct the student in the recommended procedures used when setting up tooling and verifying part programs for a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 discusses course content and reviews and demonstrates set-up procedures…

  5. CNC Turning Center Advanced Operations. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-332.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronski, Steven D.; Tatum, Kenneth

    This student guide provides materials for a course designed to introduce the student to the operations and functions of a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 presents course expectations and syllabus, covers safety precautions, and describes the CNC turning center components, CNC…

  6. Progress towards malaria control targets in relation to national malaria programme funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Korenromp (Eline); M. Hosseini (Mehran); R.D. Newman (Robert D); R.E. Cibulskis (Richard E)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Malaria control has been dramatically scaled up the past decade, mainly thanks to increasing international donor financing since 2003. This study assessed progress up to 2010 towards global malaria impact targets, in relation to Global Fund, other donor and domestic malaria p

  7. Human factors requirements for telerobotic command and control: The European Space Agency experimental programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Space Telerobotics research, performed under contract to the European Space Agency (ESA), concerning the execution of human factors experiments, and ultimately leading to the development of a telerobotics test bed, has been carried out since 1985 by a British Consortium consisting of British Aerospace, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and, more recently, the UK National Advanced Robotics Research Centre. The principal aim of the first study of the series was to derive preliminary requirements for a teleoperation servicing system, with reference to two mission model scenarios. The first scenario introduced the problem of communications time delays, and their likely effect on the ground-based operator in control of a manipulator system on board an unmanned servicing vehicle in Low Earth Orbit. In the second scenario, the operator was located on the NASA Orbiter aft flight deck, supervising the control of a prototype manipulator in the 'servicing' of an experimental payload in the cargo bay area. Human factors analyses centered on defining the requirements for the teleoperator workstation, such as identifying basic ergonomic requirements for workstation and panel layouts, defining teleoperation strategies, developing alphanumeric and graphic screen formats for the supervision or direct control of the manipulator, and the potential applications of expert system technology. The second study for ESA involved an experimental appraisal of some of the important issues highlighted in the first study, for which relevant human factors data did not exist. Of central importance during the second study was the issue of communications time delays and their effect on the manual control of a teleoperated manipulator from a ground-based command and control station.

  8. An economic evaluation of the national schistosomiasis control programme in China from 1992 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Ming-Gang; Wang, Tian-Ping; Guo, Jia-Gang; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Jiang, Qing-Wu; Zheng, Jiang; Chen, Xian-Yi

    2005-01-01

    The World Bank Loan Project, by far the largest effort in China for schistosomiasis control since control activities were initiated in the mid 1950s, was carried out for a 9-year period commencing in 1992 in the 8 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum remained endemic when the project started. To evaluate its impact, a retrospective economic evaluation was done in 2001. Six representative counties, i.e. Huarong in Hunan province, Qianjiang in Hubei province, Yugan in Jiangxi province, Tongling in Anhui province, Xichang in Sichuan province and Dali in Yunnan province, were selected for the study. The total financial input in these counties from 1992 to 2000 was RMB Yuan 90.334 million with the World Bank loan accounting for 40.9%. Control efforts resulted in reduction of human prevalence rates in the six counties from 0.7-9.0% in 1992 to 0.1-2.7% in 2000. With regard to S. japonicum infection in bovines, a high reduction was observed in Qianjiang, and smaller decreases were noted in four counties, while there was an increase in Dali. In general, the areas infested by the intermediate host snail fluctuated around the initial level. The net benefit-cost ratio was 6.20, which means that this project gained US$ 6.20 for every dollar spent. The correlation coefficients of the net benefit-cost ratio to the human and bovine infection rates at the beginning of the project were 0.55 and 0.66, respectively. It is conceivable that further progress in schistosomiasis control is an important feature for sustained growth of the local economy, particularly in areas where control of the disease has been most challenging.

  9. Quality assurance and quality control programme in use at the individual monitoring service of ITN-DPRSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, J.G.; Novais, I.; Rangel, S.; Flores, E. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Dept. de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear Estrada Nacional, Sacavem (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    The Individual Monitoring Service (I.M.S.) of the Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear (D.P.R.S.N.) at the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (I.T.N.) in Portugal operates a thermoluminescence dosimetry system to monitor approximately 3,000 workers for external radiation exposure on a monthly basis. The workers come from nearly 230 facilities in the medical, research and conventional industry fields of activity and almost 85% of the people monitored in 2005 are from medical facilities. The TLD system in use is based on two Harshaw 6600 automatic readers and on the Harshaw 8814 T.L. card and holder containing two detector elements of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) for the evaluation of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07). All the workers are monitored on a monthly basis using whole body dosemeters. The I.M.S. has implemented a Quality Assurance and Quality Control (Q.A./Q.C.) programme that covers all the aspects of monitoring, from the monitoring request of a customer to the final issue of a dose report. The main aspects of the Q.A./Q.C. programme implemented at the I.M.S. will be presented in this paper using fluxograms and schemes. Several issues will be addressed, e.g., administrative procedures, technical procedures, dealing with complaints, training of staff, etc. The relationship of the I.M.S. with external entities like the customer, the regulatory authority, the central dose registry, the calibration facility, suppliers, maintenance providers, etc. will be mentioned on the administrative procedures described as well as on the technical procedures where applicable. The main technical procedures will be presented in this paper and references will be made to a TLD Quality Control database internally developed and designed for the storage of important Q.C. parameters like the element correction coefficients, reader calibration factors, electronic quality control data generated on a daily basis, and the study of their evolution with time. (author)

  10. Complicated hydatid cysts of the lung:surgical treatment in Kurdistan of Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdulqadir Maghded Zangana; Bashar Hanna Saqat

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To review the problems encountered in surgical treatment of complicated pulmonary hydatid cysts and to evaluate the functional results in the surgery of complicated hydatid cysts.Methods:The medical re-cords for 89 patients with complicated pulmonary hydatidosis were retrospectively investigated.The series con-sisted of 47 male and 42 female patients with a mean age of 32 ±8 years.Study performed during January 2000 to December 2007,all patients were treated surgically.Data related to surgical procedures performed,postop-erative morbidity,hospitalization time,and cyst recurrence were collected from each individual's records,and the group findings were compared.Results:Among these cysts,58 were perforated,23 were infected,and 13 were cysts with pleural complications.Cystotomy plus capitonnage was the most frequently performed operative technique (n =43),followed by cystotomy plus closure of bronchial openings (n =28),pericystectomy plus capitonnage (n =13),decortications (n =7),lobectomy and segmentectomy (n =3).The 11 cases with co-existing liver cysts were approached by right thoracophrenotomy.Postoperative complications developed in 12 patients (13.4%).Conclusion:Surgery is the primary mode of treatment for patients with pulmonary hydatid disease.Complicated cases have higher rates of preoperative and postoperative complications and require longer hospitalization time and more extensive surgical procedures than uncomplicated cases.This underlines the need for immediate surgery in any patient who is diagnosed with pulmonary hydatidosis when it is indicated.

  11. In vitro lethal effect of Zingiber officinale R. on protoscolices of hydatid cyst from sheep liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moazeni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (Hydatid disease is a zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. The aim of this study, was to evaluate the scolicidal activity of methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (Rosc. family Zingibe - raceae, against protoscolices of hydatid cyst. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst and were exposed to different concentrations of ginger extract for various exposure times. Scolicidal activity of Z. officinale extract at concentration of 25 mg/mL was 25.6%, 39.1%, 56.7%, 83.7%, 98.1% and 100% after 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min of exposure respectively. Scolicidal effect of this extract at concentration of 50 mg/mL was 52%, 85.8 %, 99.6% and 100% after 10, 20, 30 and 40 min of exposure respectively. Z. officinale extract at concentration of 100 mg/mL killed 76.5 %, 87% and 100 % of protoscolices after 10, 20 and 30 min respectivly. The results of this study showed that the methanolic extract of Z. officinale has high scolicidal activity and might be used as a natural scolicidal agent.

  12. What is the Current Concept for the Treatment of Liver Hydatid Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Kilbas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease of the liver caused by the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus still remains a common and challenging problem in Turkey. Operative treatment is the most common and well known option. Percutaneous aspiration, injection and reaspiration (PAIR has resulted as an alternative treatment to sur and not;gery and is becoming popular. Therefore, the treatment of hydatid cyst has been shifted from traditional surgical approach to less invasive PAIR. Large cysts with multiple daughter cysts, cysts communicating with the biliary tree, cysts exerting pressure on vital organs and single superficial hepatic cysts are indications for surgical treatment. While preoperative albendazol treatment is planned to decrease the cyst viability before surgery or percutanaeous drainage, postoperative chemotherapy is administered to reduce recurrence rates. PAIR is a promising treatment approach but randomised clinical trials with long follow-up are required to decide its efficiency. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and indications of different treatment modalities in the management of liver hydatid cyst. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(6.000: 487-490

  13. Surgical and Molecular Evaluation of Pediatric Hydatid Cyst Cases in Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakal, Unal; Simsek, Sami; Kazez, Ahmet

    2015-12-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus is a major public health problem worldwide, including Turkey. The aim of the current study was to identify the strains and to estimate the potential risk factors of E. granulosus in operated pediatric cases in eastern Turkey. Ten pediatric patients (7 boys and 3 girls) living in rural areas, with ages ranging from 3 to 15 years old and various clinical histories, were included in this study. Eight patients had only liver hydatid cyst, while 1 patient had liver and lung hydatid cyst and the other liver, lung, and spleen, together. There were 2 ruptured liver cysts. After surgery, during follow-up, no increase was observed in hemagglutination levels, there were no mortalities, and there was no evidence of recurrence at 2 years post operation in all patients. Molecular analysis was performed on hydatid cyst samples obtained from the 10 pediatric cases. According to mt-12S rRNA PCR results, all cases were found to be G1/G3 cluster of E. granulosus sensu stricto.

  14. EFFECT OF AIBENDAZOLE ON HUMAN HYDATID CYST: REPORT OF 10 CASES

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    A GHAFOURI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Operation is the most common treatment for hydatid cysts. However, operation would be useless in some patients with diffuse organ involvement, special anatomic spaces or poor general conditions. So, drug therapy is considered in some studies. Albendazole is a benzimidazole derivation can gain high plasma level. It absorbed quickly after oral intake and most of it metabolized to Sulfoxide. Methods: Ten randomly selected patients with 39 hydatid cysts in different organs were treated by albendazole. Patients received 10-15 mg/kg/day of albendazole in two different divided doses for 1-4 periods of 30 days duration. Periodic clinical and paraclinical examinations were done. The cysts were in the liver, lung, spleen, peritoneum, pelvis, pericardium and chest wall. Results: Except for one cyst in lung and two in abdomen which therapeutic results have not clarified, all of the cysts died. Drug systemic side effects were negligible. Patients had good tolerance to it. Local complication such as inflamation, tenderness and rupture of cyst were the main side effects. Discussion: It is recommende to pay more attention to drug therapy in management of hydatid cyst. It is helpful for complicated cases that we cant operate them.

  15. Analysis of the chemical components of hydatid fluid from Echinococcus granulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Juyi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to explore the environment of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus protoscolices and their relationship with their host. Methods Proteins from the hydatid-cyst fluid (HCF from E. granulosus were identified by proteomics. An inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES was used to determine the elements, an automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the types and levels of biochemical indices, and an automatic amino acid analyzer was used to detect the types and levels of amino acids in the E. granulosus HCF. Results I Approximately 30 protein spots and 21 peptide mass fingerprints (PMF were acquired in the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE pattern of hydatid fluid; II We detected 10 chemical elements in the cyst fluid, including sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc; III We measured 19 biochemical metabolites in the cyst fluid, and the amount of most of these metabolites was lower than that in normal human serum; IV We detected 17 free amino acids and measured some of these, including alanine, glycine, and valine. Conclusions We identified and measured many chemical components of the cyst fluid, providing a theoretical basis for developing new drugs to prevent and treat hydatid disease by inhibiting or blocking nutrition, metabolism, and other functions of the pathogen.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of a long-term Internet-delivered worksite health promotion programme on physical activity and nutrition: A cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); S. Polinder (Suzanne); F.J. Bredt (Folef); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a long-term workplace health promotion programme on physical activity (PA) and nutrition. In total, 924 participants enrolled in a 2-year cluster randomized controlled trial, with departments (n = 74) within companies (n = 6) as the u

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech Comparing Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This randomized controlled trial compared the experimental Rapid Syllable Transition (ReST) treatment to the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition (NDP3; Williams & Stephens, 2004), used widely in clinical practice in Australia and the United Kingdom. Both programs aim to improve speech motor planning/programming for children…

  18. How to (or not to) integrate vertical programmes for the control of major neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatereine, Narcis B; Malecela, Mwele; Lado, Mounir; Zaramba, Sam; Amiel, Olga; Kolaczinski, Jan H

    2010-06-29

    Combining the delivery of multiple health interventions has the potential to minimize costs and expand intervention coverage. Integration of mass drug administration is therefore being encouraged for delivery of preventive chemotherapy (PCT) to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, and trachoma in sub-Saharan Africa, as there is considerable geographical overlap of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). With only a handful of countries having embarked on integrated NTD control, experience on how to develop and implement an efficient integrated programme is limited. Historically, national and global programmes were focused on the control of only one disease, usually through a comprehensive approach that involved several interventions including PCT. Overcoming the resulting disease-specific structures and thinking, and ensuring that the integrated programme is embedded within the existing health structures, pose considerable challenges to policy makers and implementers wishing to embark on integrated NTD control. By sharing experiences from Uganda, Tanzania, Southern Sudan, and Mozambique, this symposium article aims to outlines key challenges and solutions to assist countries in establishing efficient integrated NTD programmes.

  19. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: Design of a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Krist, M.R.; Schmikli, S.L.; Stubbe, J.H.; Wit, G.A. de; Inklaar, H.; Port, I.G.L. van de; Backx, F.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Approximately 16% of all sports injuries in the Netherlands are caused by outdoor soccer. A cluster-randomised controlled trial has been designed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an injury prevention programme ('The11') for male amateur soccer players. T

  20. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: Design of a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Krist, M.R.; Schmikli, S.L.; Stubbe, J.H.; Wit, G.A. de; Inklaar, H.; Port, I.G.L. van de; Backx, F.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Approximately 16% of all sports injuries in the Netherlands are caused by outdoor soccer. A cluster-randomised controlled trial has been designed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an injury prevention programme ('The11') for male amateur soccer players. T

  1. How to (or not to integrate vertical programmes for the control of major neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis B Kabatereine

    Full Text Available Combining the delivery of multiple health interventions has the potential to minimize costs and expand intervention coverage. Integration of mass drug administration is therefore being encouraged for delivery of preventive chemotherapy (PCT to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, and trachoma in sub-Saharan Africa, as there is considerable geographical overlap of these neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. With only a handful of countries having embarked on integrated NTD control, experience on how to develop and implement an efficient integrated programme is limited. Historically, national and global programmes were focused on the control of only one disease, usually through a comprehensive approach that involved several interventions including PCT. Overcoming the resulting disease-specific structures and thinking, and ensuring that the integrated programme is embedded within the existing health structures, pose considerable challenges to policy makers and implementers wishing to embark on integrated NTD control. By sharing experiences from Uganda, Tanzania, Southern Sudan, and Mozambique, this symposium article aims to outlines key challenges and solutions to assist countries in establishing efficient integrated NTD programmes.

  2. Exploring the Effects of a Universal Classroom Management Training Programme on Teacher and Child Behaviour: A Group Randomised Controlled Trial and Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Grainne; McGilloway, Sinead; Hyland, Lynda; Leckey, Yvonne; Kelly, Paul; Bywater, Tracey; Comiskey, Catherine; Lodge, Anne; Donnelly, Michael; O'Neill, Donal

    2017-01-01

    Teachers frequently struggle to cope with conduct problems in the classroom. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training Programme for improving teacher competencies and child adjustment. The study involved a group randomised controlled trial which included 22 teachers and 217…

  3. Spatio-temporal dynamics of schistosomiasis in Rwanda between 2001 and 2012 : Impact of the national neglected tropical disease control programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyandwi, Elias; Veldkamp, Tom; Osei, Frank Badu; Amer, Sherif

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is recognised as a major public health problem in Rwanda. We aimed to identify the spatio-temporal dynamics of its distribution at a fine-scale spatial resolution and to explore the impact of control programme interventions. Incidence data of Schistosoma mansoni infection at 367

  4. Burden of NCDs, Policies and Programme for Prevention and Control of NCDs in India

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    R K Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncommunicable diseases and injuries account for 52% of deaths in India. Burden of noncommunicable diseases and resultant mortality is expected to increase unless massive efforts are made to prevent and control NCDs and their risk factors. Based on available evidence, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, mental disorders and trauma are the leading causes of morbidity, disability and mortality in India. Government of India had supported the States in prevention and control of NCDs through several vertical programs since 1980s. However, during the 11 th plan, there was considerable upsurge to prevent and control NCDs. New programs were started on a low scale in limited number of districts. However, there has not been any considerable change in the burden of NCDs. Based on experiences in the past, there is need to emphasize on health promotion and preventive measures to reduce exposure to risk factors. Facilities and capacity for screening, early diagnosis and effective management are required within the public health care system. Public awareness program, integrated management and strong monitoring system would be required for successful implementation of the program and making services universally accessible in the country.

  5. Data Communication between Programmable Logic Controllers in the Industrial Distribution Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bystricanova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of automation is visible in all areas of industry as well as in everyday life. Automation makes the process control more efficient, increases productivity of work, manufacturing quality, decreases manufacturing costs. Automation is still in development so that it could succeed in filling all requirements of today’s technical advance. For this reason we daily meet new questions about implementation of automation systems, their handling and expanding. One of these is the question of communication in industrial applications. In case of having more PLCs in one industrial network, it is necessary to solve their inter-communication. We should deal with this question in dependence on some facts, for example: used control system, used industrial network, transmission reliability requirements and so on. In this article we would like to present a solution for inter-communication between PLCs in one industrial network by S7 communication. S7 communication via Industrial Ethernet allows program-controlled communication using communication SFBs/FBs via configured S7 connections.

  6. The effectiveness of the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klima Gert

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease management programmes (DMPs are costly and impose additional work load on general practitioners (GPs. Data on their effectiveness are inconclusive. We therefore conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the Austrian DMP for diabetes mellitus type 2 on HbA1c and quality of care for adult patients in primary care. Methods All GPs of Salzburg-province were invited to participate. After cluster-randomisation by district, all patients with diabetes type 2 were recruited consecutively from 7-11/2007. The DMP, consisting mainly of physician and patient education, standardised documentation and agreement on therapeutic goals, was implemented in the intervention group while the control group received usual care. We aimed to show superiority of the intervention regarding metabolic control and process quality. The primary outcome measure was a change in HbA1c after one year. Secondary outcomes were days in the hospital, blood pressure, lipids, body mass index (BMI, enrolment in patient education and regular guideline-adherent examination. Blinding was not possible. Results 92 physicians recruited 1489 patients (649 intervention, 840 control. After 401 ± 47 days, 590 intervention-patients and 754 controls had complete data. In the intention to treat analysis (ITT of all 1489 patients, HbA1c decreased 0.41% in the intervention group and 0.28% in controls. The difference of -0.13% (95% CI -0.24; -0.02 was significant at p = 0.026. Significance was lost in mixed models adjusted for baseline value and cluster-effects (adjusted mean difference -0.03 (95% CI -0.15; 0.09, p = 0.607. Of the secondary outcome measures, BMI and cholesterol were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to controls in ITT after adjustments (-0.53 kg/m²; 95% CI -1.03;-0.02; p = 0.014 and -0.10 mmol/l; 95% CI -0.21; -0.003; p = 0.043. Additionally, more patients received patient education (49.5% vs. 20

  7. Evaluating different dimensions of programme effectiveness for private medicine retailer malaria control interventions in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Timothy O; Fegan, Greg; Amin, Abdinasir A; Akhwale, Willis S; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Marsh, Vicki

    2010-01-28

    Private medicine retailers (PMRs) are key partners in the home management of fevers in many settings. Current evidence on effectiveness for PMR interventions at scale is limited. This study presents evaluation findings of two different programs implemented at moderate scale targeting PMRs for malaria control in the Kisii and Kwale districts of Kenya. Key components of this evaluation were measurement of program performance, including coverage, PMR knowledge, practices, and utilization based on spatial analysis. The study utilized mixed quantitative methods including retail audits and surrogate client surveys based on post-intervention cross-sectional surveys in intervention and control areas and mapping of intervention outlets. There was a large and significant impact on PMR knowledge and practices of the program in Kisii, with 60.5% of trained PMRs selling amodiaquine medicines in adequate doses compared to 2.8% of untrained ones (OR; 53.5: 95% CI 6.7, 428.3), a program coverage of 69.7% targeted outlets, and a potential utilization of about 30,000 children under five. The evaluation in Kwale also indicates a significant impact with 18.8% and 2.3% intervention and control PMRs selling amodiaquine with correct advice, respectively (OR; 9.4: 95% CI 1.1, 83.7), a program coverage of 25.3% targeted outlets, and a potential utilization of about 48,000 children under five. A provisional benchmark of 7.5 km was a reasonable threshold distance for households to access PMR services. This evaluation show that PMR interventions operationalized in the district level settings are likely to impact PMR knowledge and practices and lead to increased coverage of appropriate treatment to target populations. There is value of evaluating different dimensions of public health programs, including quality, spatial access, and implementation practice. This approach strengthens the potential contribution of pragmatic study designs to evaluating public health programs in the real world.

  8. Recombinant S3Pvac-phage anticysticercosis vaccine: Simultaneous protection against cysticercosis and hydatid disease in rural pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julio; de Aluja, Aline S; Martínez, Jose Juan; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Beatriz; Blancas, Abel; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Díaz, Alicia; Fleury, Agnes; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2011-02-28

    This paper provides macroscopic and histological evidence on the statistically significant protective effects of S3Pvac-phage vaccination against porcine cysticercosis and hydatidosis. The study included 391 rustically bred pigs (187 vaccinated and 204 controls). Vaccination significantly reduced the prevalence of cysticercosis by 61.7%. Vaccination also significantly reduced by 56.1% the prevalence of hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus in pigs. The presence of the vaccine epitopes in both cestodes is probably involved in the cross-protection observed. Increased inflammation was found in 5% of cysticerci recovered from controls, versus 24% from vaccinated pigs (P<0.01). Hydatid cysts were non-inflammatory in either group. Vaccination was effective to prevent one single disease, but it failed to prevent the simultaneous infections with both parasites in a same pig. The widening of the S3Pvac-phage vaccine protective repertoire to include hydatidosis is a convenient feature that should reduce the prevalence of two frequent zoonoses that affect rustic porcine breading with a single action. Thus, the costs of two different vaccination programs would be reduced to a single one with significant reduction in both zoonoses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating different dimensions of programme effectiveness for private medicine retailer malaria control interventions in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy O Abuya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Private medicine retailers (PMRs are key partners in the home management of fevers in many settings. Current evidence on effectiveness for PMR interventions at scale is limited. This study presents evaluation findings of two different programs implemented at moderate scale targeting PMRs for malaria control in the Kisii and Kwale districts of Kenya. Key components of this evaluation were measurement of program performance, including coverage, PMR knowledge, practices, and utilization based on spatial analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study utilized mixed quantitative methods including retail audits and surrogate client surveys based on post-intervention cross-sectional surveys in intervention and control areas and mapping of intervention outlets. There was a large and significant impact on PMR knowledge and practices of the program in Kisii, with 60.5% of trained PMRs selling amodiaquine medicines in adequate doses compared to 2.8% of untrained ones (OR; 53.5: 95% CI 6.7, 428.3, a program coverage of 69.7% targeted outlets, and a potential utilization of about 30,000 children under five. The evaluation in Kwale also indicates a significant impact with 18.8% and 2.3% intervention and control PMRs selling amodiaquine with correct advice, respectively (OR; 9.4: 95% CI 1.1, 83.7, a program coverage of 25.3% targeted outlets, and a potential utilization of about 48,000 children under five. A provisional benchmark of 7.5 km was a reasonable threshold distance for households to access PMR services. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This evaluation show that PMR interventions operationalized in the district level settings are likely to impact PMR knowledge and practices and lead to increased coverage of appropriate treatment to target populations. There is value of evaluating different dimensions of public health programs, including quality, spatial access, and implementation practice. This approach strengthens the potential contribution

  10. Re-thinking global health sector efforts for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control: promoting integration of programme activities within a strengthened health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Dermot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global financial crisis threatens global health, particularly exacerbating diseases of inequality, e.g. HIV/AIDS, and diseases of poverty, e.g. tuberculosis. The aim of this paper is to reconsider established practices and policies for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, aiming at delivering better results and value for money. This may be achieved by promoting greater integration of HIV and tuberculosis control programme activities within a strengthened health system. Discussion HIV and tuberculosis share many similarities in terms of their disease burden and the recommended stratagems for their control. HIV and tuberculosis programmes implement similar sorts of control activities, e.g. case finding and treatment, which depend for success on generic health system issues, including vital registration, drug procurement and supply, laboratory network, human resources, and financing. However, the current health system approach to HIV and tuberculosis control often involves separate specialised services. Despite some recent progress, collaboration between the programmes remains inadequate, progress in obtaining synergies has been slow, and results remain far below those needed to achieve universal access to key interventions. A fundamental re-think of the current strategic approach involves promoting integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis programme activities as part of strengthened general health services: epidemiological surveillance, programme monitoring and evaluation, community awareness of health-seeking behavior, risk behaviour modification, infection control, treatment scale-up (first-line treatment regimens, drug-resistance surveillance, containing and countering drug-resistance (second-line treatment regimens, research and development, global advocacy and global partnership. Health agencies should review policies and progress in HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, learn mutual lessons for policy

  11. A CASE OF FRANK INTRABILIARY RUPTURE OF HEPATIC HYDATID CYST VIA FISTULA TO THE COMMON BILE DUCT

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    Rahele Mehraeen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease primarily affects the liver and typically demonstrates characteristic imaging findings.There are many potential local complications as intrahepatic complications, exophytic growth, transdiaphragmatic thoracic involvement, perforation into hollow viscera, peritoneal seeding, biliary communication, portal vein involvement and abdominal wall invasion. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tract is the most common complication of hepatic hydatid cyst. This is due to the incorporation of biliary radicles into the pericyst. Itmay occur in three routes; namely, contained,communicating and direct. When the cyst contents escape via biliary or bronchial radicles, the rupture is communicating. Cysto-biliary communications can either be occult or frank and the frank CBC accounts for only 5%-15% of the cases. It occurs in the right duct in 55-60% of cases, in the left duct in 25- 30%, and rarely in the confluence or gallbladder. Although communication with the intrahepatic bile ducts is common, its occurrence between a hepatic hydatid cyst and the common bile duct is rare. We present an unusual case of a fistulous communication between a hepatic hydatid cyst and CBD and frank cyst evacuation in a 42-year-old man. The sonographic, abdominal CT scan and MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP features have been discussed. The purpose of this report is to draw attention to this rare occurrence and to highlight the presentation and the imaging features of it.

  12. Primary hydatid cyst of the supraspinatus muscle: complete removal of the germinal layer and cytodiagnosis by fine-needle aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dilip K; El-Sharawy, Maha; Ayyash, Emad H; Al-Enezi, Nadia A; Iqbal, Jamshed R; Madda, John P

    2014-03-01

    Primary hydatid disease of the skeletal muscle without systemic involvement is rare. The purpose of this report is to document the novel clinical presentation and the interesting facets of fine-needle aspiration in a case of hydatid disease. It was a case of primary hydatid cyst of the left supraspinatus muscle in an Indian woman living in Kuwait, which was clinically diagnosed as a lipoma. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) yielded 2 ml of clear fluid with white particulate material. The cytocentrifuged smears prepared from the aspirated fluid showed many scolices, occasional laminated cyst wall fragments and numerous hooklets. The laminated cyst wall and scolices were PAS positive. Trichrome staining imparted a demon-head-like appearance to the scolices. The cytodiagnosis of hydatid cyst was corroborated by histopathological examination of an excised whitish membrane and an irregular cystic fragment, which showed parallel laminations without germinal layer, and skeletal muscle with granulomas and a dense eosinophilic infiltration, respectively. Quantitative serological (indirect hemagglutination) test on blood sample collected 9 days after the excision of the cyst showed insignificant antibody titer to Echinococcus sp. and after 6 weeks the antibodies were completely absent. CT scan of the chest and abdomen performed 7 weeks after removal of cyst showed no evidence of visceral hydatid cyst.

  13. A water pumping control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless modules for industrial plants--an experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayindir, Ramazan; Cetinceviz, Yucel

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a water pumping control system that is designed for production plants and implemented in an experimental setup in a laboratory. These plants contain harsh environments in which chemicals, vibrations or moving parts exist that could potentially damage the cabling or wires that are part of the control system. Furthermore, the data has to be transferred over paths that are accessible to the public. The control systems that it uses are a programmable logic controller (PLC) and industrial wireless local area network (IWLAN) technologies. It is implemented by a PLC, an communication processor (CP), two IWLAN modules, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the water pump and sensors. Our system communication is based on an Industrial Ethernet and uses the standard Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol for parameterisation, configuration and diagnostics. The main function of the PLC is to send a digital signal to the water pump to turn it on or off, based on the tank level, using a pressure transmitter and inputs from limit switches that indicate the level of the water in the tank. This paper aims to provide a convenient solution in process plants where cabling is not possible. It also has lower installation and maintenance cost, provides reliable operation, and robust and flexible construction, suitable for industrial applications.

  14. Advances in techniques of testing mycobacterial drug sensitivity, and the use of sensitivity tests in tuberculosis control programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, G.; Fox, Wallace; Khomenko, A.; Mahler, H. T.; Menon, N. K.; Mitchison, D. A.; Rist, N.; Šmelev, N. A.

    1969-01-01

    In a paper arising out of an informal international consultation of specialists in the bacteriology of tuberculosis held in 1961, an attempt was made to formulate criteria, and specify technical procedures, for reliable tests of sensitivity (the absolute-concentration method, the resistance-ratio method and the proportion method) to the 3 main antituberculosis drugs (isoniazid, streptomycin and p-aminosalicylic acid). Seven years later, a further consultation was held to review the latest developments in the field and to suggest how sensitivity tests might be put to practical use in tuberculosis control programmes. The participants reached agreement on how to define drug sensitivity and resistance, and stressed the importance of using a discrimination approach to the calibration of sensitivity tests. Their views are contained in the present paper, which also includes descriptions of the sensitivity tests used by the Medical Research Council of Great Britain for first- and second-line drugs (minimal inhibitory concentration and resistance-ratio methods), the two main variants of the proportion method developed by the Institut Pasteur, Paris, and a method for calibrating sensitivity tests. PMID:5309084

  15. An evaluation of a micro programmable logic controller for oxygen monitoring and control in tanks of a recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of dissolved gases, especially oxygen is an essential component of recirculating aquaculture systems. The use of pure oxygen in a recirculating aquaculture system creates supersaturated concentrations of dissolved oxygen and can reduce fish production costs by supporting greater fish and fee...

  16. [A case of hydatid cyst caused by Echinococcus granulosus in Puebla, Mexico, that resulted in successful surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orea-Martínez, J G; Pérez-Corro, M A; Contreras-Vera, R A; Bretón-Márquez, J H

    2013-01-01

    We present herein the case of a 16-year-old female from the southern portion of the State of Puebla, Mexico. When gathering her past medical history, it was revealed that she had grown up with pet dogs and that her family raised sheep. Because the patient presented with few symptoms, a benign lesion was suspected, and after laparoscopic exploration, the possibility of surgical management for a non-parasitic cyst was considered. A dull pain in the right hypochondrium persisted and open surgical exploration was performed in which a 6cm young, active, uncomplicated hydatid cyst was discovered. Its surgical removal was successful and the pathologist provided the definitive diagnosis. The three layers characteristic of a parasitic cyst were present and it was histologically consistent with Echinococcus granulosus. Postoperative progression was unremarkable and the control ultrasound study revealed complete restitution of the hepatic parenchyma. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding Heterogeneity in the Impact of National Neglected Tropical Disease Control Programmes: Evidence from School-Based Deworming in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Nikolay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of soil-transmitted helminth (STH treatment programmes occurs in varied environmental, social and economic contexts. Programme impact will be influenced by factors that affect the reduction in the prevalence and intensity of infections following treatment, as well as the subsequent rate of reinfection. To better understand the heterogeneity of programme impact and its underlying reasons, we investigated the influence of contextual factors on reduction in STH infection as part of the national school based deworming (SBD programme in Kenya.Data on the prevalence and intensity of infection were collected within the monitoring and evaluation component of the SBD programme at baseline and after delivery of two annual treatment rounds in 153 schools in western Kenya. Using a framework that considers STH epidemiology and transmission dynamics, capacity to deliver treatment, operational feasibility and financial capacity, data were assembled at both school and district (county levels. Geographic heterogeneity of programme impact was assessed by descriptive and spatial analyses. Factors associated with absolute reductions of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection prevalence and intensity were identified using mixed effects linear regression modelling adjusting for baseline infection levels.The reduction in prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides and hookworms varied significantly by county and within counties by school. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with programme impact showed that absolute A. lumbricoides reductions varied by environmental conditions and access to improved sanitation at schools or within the community. Larger reduction in prevalence and intensity of hookworms were found in schools located within areas with higher community level access to improved sanitation and within counties with higher economic and health service delivery indicator scores.The study identifies factors associated with the

  18. The effect of using high facilitation when implementing the Gold Standards Framework in Care Homes programme: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinley, Julie; Stone, Louisa; Dewey, Michael; Levy, Jean; Stewart, Robert; McCrone, Paul; Sykes, Nigel; Hansford, Penny; Begum, Aysha; Hockley, Jo

    2014-10-01

    The provision of quality end-of-life care is increasingly on the national agenda in many countries. In the United Kingdom, the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme has been promoted as a national framework for improving end-of-life care. While its implementation is recommended, there are no national guidelines for facilitators to follow to undertake this role. It was hypothesised that action learning alongside high facilitation when implementing the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme will result in a reduced proportion of hospital deaths for residents and improvement in the care home staff ability to facilitate good end-of-life care. A cluster randomised controlled trial where 24 nursing homes received high facilitation to enable them to implement the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme. The managers of 12 nursing homes additionally took part in action learning sets. A third group (14 nursing homes) received the 'standard' Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes facilitation available in their locality. In total, 38 nursing homes providing care for frail older people, their deceased residents and their nurse managers. A greater proportion of residents died in those nursing homes receiving high facilitation and action learning but not significantly so. There was a significant association between the level of facilitation and nursing homes completing the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme through to accreditation. Year-on-year change occurred across all outcome measures. There is a danger that without national guidelines, facilitation of the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme will vary and consequently so will its implementation. The nurse manager of a care home must be actively engaged when implementing the Gold Standards Framework for Care Homes programme. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Institutional evolution of a community-based programme for malaria control through larval source management in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Prosper P; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Tanner, Marcel; Mshinda, Hassan; Kelly, Ann H; Killeen, Gerry F

    2014-06-25

    Community-based service delivery is vital to the effectiveness, affordability and sustainability of vector control generally, and to labour-intensive larval source management (LSM) programmes in particular. The institutional evolution of a city-level, community-based LSM programme over 14 years in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, illustrates how operational research projects can contribute to public health governance and to the establishment of sustainable service delivery programmes. Implementation, management and governance of this LSM programme is framed within a nested set of spatially-defined relationships between mosquitoes, residents, government and research institutions that build upward from neighbourhood to city and national scales. The clear hierarchical structure associated with vertical, centralized management of decentralized, community-based service delivery, as well as increasingly clear differentiation of partner roles and responsibilities across several spatial scales, contributed to the evolution and subsequent growth of the programme. The UMCP was based on the principle of an integrated operational research project that evolved over time as the City Council gradually took more responsibility for management. The central role of Dar es Salaam's City Council in coordinating LSM implementation enabled that flexibility; the institutionalization of management and planning in local administrative structures enhanced community-mobilization and funding possibilities at national and international levels. Ultimately, the high degree of program ownership by the City Council and three municipalities, coupled with catalytic donor funding and technical support from expert overseas partners have enabled establishment of a sustainable, internally-funded programme implemented by the National Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and supported by national research and training institutes.

  20. Presence of an Isolated Hydatid Cyst in the Left Kidney: Report of a Case of This Rare Condition Managed Surgically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Vassileios; Michalopoulos, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Hydatid cyst disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus is rarely presented in the kidneys, whereas isolated renal occurrence is estimated to be about as low as 2–4% of all cases. We present a case of a female patient suffering from this condition that was treated successfully in our department. Case Presentation. A 44-year-old woman was incidentally diagnosed with a 14 cm left renal cystic mass through ultrasound imaging performed during upper abdominal pain investigation. Laboratory examinations were normal and CT imaging set the diagnosis of an isolated left renal hydatid cyst. The cyst was excised and the postoperative period was uneventful. Discussion. Isolated renal hydatid cyst is a very rare condition and could possibly be misdiagnosed with other renal masses. The clinical history, laboratory tests, and thorough radiologic imaging are crucial for the accurate preoperative diagnosis. PMID:27429832