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Sample records for hybridus antigonon leptopus

  1. New steroidal saponin from Antigonon leptopus Hook. and Arn.

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    Maria Karmella L Apaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antigonon leptopus Hook. and Arn., Polygonaceae (cadena de amor, is a herbal remedy for pain and gout-like symptoms in the Philippines. The methanol extract of A. leptopus have shown strong inhibitory action against xanthine oxidase. Objective: To isolate and identify the compound responsible for the xanthine oxidase inhibitory action. Materials and Methods: A bioassay-guided isolation scheme using an in vitro assay for the inhibition of xanthine oxidase was employed. The structure was established using spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Results: The isolated compound was determined to be a noncompetitive inhibitor of xanthine with an IC50 of 1.79 μg/mL. Conclusion: The isolated compound may represent a new class of xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

  2. Health-Beneficial Phenolic Aldehyde in Antigonon leptopus Tea

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    Vanisree Mulabagal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea prepared from the aerial parts of Antigonon leptopus is used as a remedy for cold and pain relief in many countries. In this study, A. leptopus tea, prepared from the dried aerial parts, was evaluated for lipid peroxidation (LPO and cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme inhibitory activities. The tea as a dried extract inhibited LPO, COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes by 78%, 38% and 89%, respectively, at 100 g/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract yielded a selective COX-2 enzyme inhibitory phenolic aldehyde, 2,3,4-trihydroxy benzaldehyde. Also, it showed LPO inhibitory activity by 68.3% at 6.25 g/mL. Therefore, we have studied other hydroxy benzaldehydes and their methoxy analogs for LPO, COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes inhibitory activities and found that compound 1 gave the highest COX-2 enzyme inhibitory activity as indicated by a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 at 9.7 g/mL. The analogs showed only marginal LPO activity at 6.25 g/mL. The hydroxy analogs 6, 7 and 9 showed 55%, 61% and 43% of COX-2 inhibition at 100 g/mL. However, hydroxy benzaldehydes 3 and 12 showed selective COX-1 inhibition while compounds 4 and 10 gave little or no COX-2 enzyme inhibition at 100 g/mL. At the same concentration, compounds 14, 21 and 22 inhibited COX-1 by 83, 85 and 70%, respectively. Similarly, compounds 18, 19 and 23 inhibited COX-2 by 68%, 72% and 70%, at 100 g/mL. This is the first report on the isolation of compound 1 from A. leptopus tea with selective COX-2 enzyme and LPO inhibitory activities.

  3. Structural characterization, antioxidant and anticancer properties of gold nanoparticles synthesized from leaf extract(decoction)of Antigonon leptopus Hook. &Arn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Krishnaveni, Narayanaswamy; Pazhanimuthu, Annamalai; Natarajan, Thillainathan; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2015-04-01

    Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring boiling water over alleviated leaves of the tea plant. Tea prepared from the aerial parts of Antigonon leptopus has been traditionally used as remedy for cold, diabetes and pain in many countries. The gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) synthesized from powdered leaf extract (decoction) of A. leptopus were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses to define the formation of Au NPs. Further, the synthesized Au NPs were well characterized based on their strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR), crystalline nature, functional groups, size and dispersed shapes, purity and Bragg's reflections of face centered cubic (fcc) structure of metallic gold. The Au NPs showed higher free radical scavenging property when compared to the effect of leaf extract. Cytotoxicity study of synthesized Au NPs exhibited the growth inhibitory property at the concentration (GI50) of 257.8 μg/mL in human adenocarcinoma breast cancer (MCF-7) cells after 48 h. Thus, the Au NPs synthesized from the Mexican creeper, A. leptopus revealed the important biological properties: as a free radical as well as anticancer agent. We conclude that the A. leptopus derived biological materials have promising potential as a source for the development of anticancer drug in future.

  4. Population genetics of the Chilean frog Batrachyla Leptopus (Leptodactylidae

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    J.R. Formas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic variation of proteins encoded by 14 loci was analyzed in eight (five continental and three insular populations of the Chilean leptodactylid frog Batrachyla leptopus. The overall proportion of polymorphic loci was estimated to be 18.7% and the average number of alleles per locus, 1.2, while observed and expected heterozygosities were 1.7 and 5.1%, respectively. The estimated coefficient of genetic identity was 0.940; the corresponding figure for genetic distance was 0.063. F-statistics analysis showed a total inbreeding coefficient (Fit of 0.855 and high levels of genetic subdivision (Fst = 0.596 as well as of inbreeding within populations (Fis = 0.640. However, there was only a moderate level of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.181 between the insular group of populations and the continental group.A variação eletroforética de proteínas codificadas por 14 loci foi analisada em oito populações (5 continentais e 3 insulares da rã leptodactilídea chilena Batrachyla leptopus. A proporção geral de loci polimórficos foi estimada como sendo de 18,7% e o número médio de alelos por loco, 1,2, enquanto que as heterozigosidades observada e esperada foram 1,7 e 5,1%, respectivamente. O coeficiente esperado de identidade genética foi 0,940; o número correspondente para a distância genética foi 0,063. A análise estatística F mostrou um coeficiente de endogamia total (Fit de 0,855 e altos níveis de subdivisão genética (Fst = 0,596, assim como de endogamia dentro das populações (Fis = 0,640. Contudo, houve apenas um nível moderado de diferenciação genética (Fst = 0,181 entre o grupo insular de populações e o grupo continental.

  5. Ultrastructure of Gladiolus x hybridus root endodermis

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    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gladiolus.x hybridus Van Houtte roots had primary, secondary and tertiary endodermis depending on the distance from the root apex. Free calcium ions were localized with the method of Slocum and Roux (1982. Electron microscopic observations revealed that electron dense calcium antimonite deposits were localized in some endodermis cells. Endodermis cells situated above xylem elements were rich in calcium antimonate deposits in contrary to those situated above the phloem elements and passage cells. The cells rich in calcium ions were present both in endodermis 11 and III stage of development. Localization of calcium deposits was on plasma membrane and tonoplast. There were also numerous calcium antimonate deposits in vacuoles. Dictiosome's cisterns and Golgi derived vesicles show presence of calcium ions. Calcium rich endodermis cells had plastids with antimonate deposits present in their tylacoids lumen. Plasmode-smata looked the same in all endodermis cells, but those from calcium rich endodermis cells had calcium antimonate deposits in the lumen of plasmodesmata.

  6. Spinach Effects (Amaranthus hybridus on Spatial Memory

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    Intan Leonita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spatial memory reduction in elderly is predicted to increase up to twice every 20 years. Spinach (Amaranthus hybridus is widely consumed by Indonesian people and is believed to prevent declined spatial memory function. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of spinach on spatial memory in wistar rat induced by diazepam Methods: An experimental study was conducted during the period of October to November 2012 in Pharmacology and Therapy Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Twenty five wistar rats were divided into 5 groups; two groups as controls, and 3 groups were given 100, 200, and 400mg/kg BW ethanolic extract of spinach (EESL, respectively. On day 7, group 3, 4, and 5 were given 1 mg/kg BW diazepam injection. Morris water maze tests and calculations of escape latency time (ELT were performed on day 7 and 8. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and least significance difference (LSD test. Results: On day 7, group 2 experienced acceleration in ELT compared to group 4 and group 5. On day 8, group 2 experienced acceleration in ELT compared to group 3 and group 4. There was no significant increase in spatial memory in group 5 (EESL 400mg/kg BW that due to the use of higher dosage does not always show better results. Conclusions: EESL can prevent impairment of spatial memory with an effective dose of 200 mg/kg BW.

  7. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

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    Zhang Xiaochuan [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Zhang Shirong, E-mail: rsz01@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Xu Xiaoxun; Li Ting [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Gong Guoshu [Agricultural College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Jia Yongxia; Li Yun; Deng Liangji [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg{sup -1}) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L{sup -1}) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations {<=} 90 mg kg{sup -1} and {<=} 20 mg L{sup -1} in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 1006.95 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 668.42 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  8. Interferência interespecífica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Interspecific interference between Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L.

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    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a interferência interespecífica entre duas espécies de Amaranthus -- A. viridis e A. hybridus ¾, esta última com dois biótipos distintos (verde e roxo; ambas ocorriam associadas em dois locais. Nas populações de cada local foram feitos ensaios de substituição independentes, em vasos, nos quais observou-se que as populações que germinam mais prontamente são as que vencem em competição, ou seja, se estabelecem e produzem maior número de sementes. Houve tendência de A. hybridus (tipo verde dominar tanto A. hybridus (tipo roxo como A. viridis, e de A. hybridus (tipo roxo dominar A. viridis. Em cultivo misto, houve casos em que as espécies estavam competindo pelos mesmos recursos, ou explorando recursos diferentes do ambiente, ou mesmo com antagonismo mútuo.The objective of this paper was to study the interspecific interference between two Amaranthus species -- A. viridis and A. hybridus --, the latter with two distinct biotypes (green and purple; both species ocurred in two localities. In the populations of each of the locations, some independent substitution trials were made in pots, and it could be concluded that the populations that germinate more readily are those which are superior in competition i.e., those that establish themselves and produce the largest number of seeds. There was a tendency for A. hybridus (green biotype to dominate both A. hybridus (purple biotype and A. viridis, and for A. hybridus (purple biotype to dominate A. viridis. In mixed stands, there were cases where the species were competing for the same resources, cases where they were exploiting different environmental resources, and even cases of mutual antagonism.

  9. Plasticidade fenotípica em Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae Phenotypic plasticity in Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae

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    Angela Maria Maluf

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um ensaio em casa de vegetação, no inverno, com seis populações de Amaranthus hybridus (cinco de biótipo verde e uma de biótipo roxo com o objetivo de estudar a influência da qualidade e da quantidade de luz no desenvolvimento das plantas. As plantas que receberam insolação direta no período da manhã, comparadas com as que receberam insolação direta no período da tarde, tiveram um aumento do ciclo de vida e redução na altura (cerca de 50%, número de folhas (cerca de 25%, quantidade de biomassa vegetativa-K (67 a 90%, biomassa reprodutiva-r (42 a 82% e produção total (51 a 83%. No entanto, a redução da relação r/K foi de no máximo 50%, sendo que em algumas populações não houve redução e sim acréscimo desta relação, indicando que plantas estrategistas-r, como o caso de Amaranthus hybridus que é uma invasora de culturas e possui uma grande plasticidade fenotípica, em condições de estresse sacrifica muito mais a produção de estruturas vegetativas que a produção de estruturas reprodutivas.During winter, a greenhouse trial was made in order to study the influence of light quality and quantity in the development of six Amaranthus hybridus populations (five green and one purple biotypes. Comparing plants that received direct insolation in the morning with those that were exposed to direct insolation in the afternoon, an increasing in the life cycle and a reduction in the height of the plants (around 50%, in leaf number (around 25%, in vegetative-K (67 to 90% and reproductive biomassr (42 to 82 and in total production (51 to 83% were observed in the first group of plants. However, reduction of the r/K relation reached the maximum of 50%, althougt some populations did not show this reduction but an increasing in this relation. Amaranthus hybridus, as a weed r-strategist plant, showed a high phenotypic plasticity and under stress conditions the plant metabolism seems to be deviated towards reproductive

  10. ISSR Analysis of M_1 Generation of Gladiolus hybridus Hort Treated by EMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Gladiolus hybridus Hort is one of famous cutting flowers,being famous of big size,bright color,various shapes and long bloom period.New species should be cultivated in order to meet consumers' needs.Mutagenic breeding is a shortcut to cultivate new species of flowers.In this study,corm bud of G.hybridus Hort was treated with different concentrations of EMS.Then M 1 generation was analyzed by ISSR.Results showed that EMS was a very effective mutagenic agent for the corm bud of G.hybridus Hort.With the increa...

  11. RAPD Analysis of M1 Generation of Gladiolus hybridus Hort Treated by EMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jingang; GUO Ying; CHE Daidi; LIU Shenkui; YANG Chuanpin

    2009-01-01

    Gladiolus hybridus Hort is one of the world's famous cutting flowers. It is very popular because of the big size, bright color, various shape, and long period of bloom. New species should be cultivated in order to meet the consumers' need of asking for the new. Among the technologies of cultivating new species of flowers, mutagenic breeding is a shortcut. This study treated corm bud of G. hybridus Hort with EMS of different consistency. Then M1 after treated was analyzed by RAPD. The result showed that EMS was a very effective mutagenic agent for the corm bud of G. hybridus Hort. With the increase of consistency, the mutagenic range increased first, then decreased, among which 0.6% EMS treatment had the biggest influence. However, with the same EMS consistency, there was not close relevancy between the amount of mutagenic agent and the divergence of plant's genomes, which offered a molecular basis for selecting plants with good mutation.

  12. Acetolactate synthase mutation conferring imidazolinone-specific herbicide resistance in Amaranthus hybridus.

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    Trucco, Federico; Hager, Aaron G; Tranel, Patrick J

    2006-03-01

    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids in plants and is the target of several herbicides. ALS inhibitors have enjoyed popularity as herbicides due to numerous attributes, although their current adequacy in weed control programs is hampered by herbicide resistance. Most cases of ALS-inhibitor resistance have resulted from selection of an altered target site. The study herein reports on an alanine by threonine amino acid substitution at position 122 of ALS as the basis for imidazolinone-specific resistance in an A. hybridus population from Illinois. In vitro inhibition of enzymatic activity (I(50)) required 1000-fold greater concentration of imazethapyr in the resistant population compared with a susceptible control. This mutation represents the second ALS alteration associated with herbicide resistance in a natural A. hybridus population.

  13. Prosystemin identification in Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus x hybridus based on data mining and sequence alignment

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    Žiarovska Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatic tool have became an inevitable part of molecular genetic research in many applications. In the present study, an in silico based approach was used to find conservative region of currently known prosystemin gene sequences and its PCR identification was performed in Amaranthus cruentus and Amaranthus hypochondriacus x hybridus. Identification results were veryfied by direct sequencing of obtained amplicons. For both of analysed species, the prosystemin sequence specifity was confirmed by sequencing. For a hybrid A. hypochondriacus x hybridus no differences were returned in bioinformatic alighment for known prosystemin sequence. For A. cruentus, two bases were found as to be different in the DNA sequence of prosystemin.

  14. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Extracts.

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    Nana, Fernand W; Hilou, Adama; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2012-06-15

    This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentus) and Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus), two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE), methanolic (ME), and aqueous extracts (AE) from the aerial parts were screened for in vitro antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE) /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight) in A. cruentus and A. hybridus, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method) and iron reducing power (FRAP method) ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of A. cruentus and A. hybridus were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively. The A. hybridus extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  15. The potential of Zea mays, Commelina bengelensis, Helianthus annuus and Amaranthus hybridus for phytoremediation of waste water

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    Chacha Joseph Sarima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste-water from domestic use and from industrial effluent burden the water systems with high levels of heavy metal hence there is need to remove these heavy metals so that the waste water can be recycled for use for household or irrigation. The present study has screened Zea mays (maize, Commelina bengelensis (wondering jew, Helianthus annuus (sunflower and Amaranthus hybridus (amaranthus for their ability to bioaccumulate Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn metals. The results obtained show that the H. annuus and C. bengelensis plant have promising potential for removal of Pb, Cu and Cd from wastewater though their ability to remove Zn from contaminated solutions is not much different from that of Z. mays and A. hybridus.

  16. UPLC TOF MS for sensitive quantification of naturally occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Petasites hybridus extract (Ze 339).

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    Schenk, Alexander; Siewert, Beate; Toff, Stephan; Drewe, Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    Due to increasing regulatory awareness of their hepatotoxic, genotoxic and possibly carcinogenic potential, pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) content has to be thoroughly monitored in herbal medicinal preparations. Recently, new very low PA regulatory threshold concentrations have been requested by the authorities. Therefore, a highly sensitive and reproducible UPLC TOF MS method for the quantification of the PAs senkirkine, senecionine, seneciphylline, senecionine-N-oxide and seneciphylline-N-oxide in a CO2-extract of Petasites hybridus leaves (Ze 339) has been developed. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 2ppb for all PAs. Recovery at the LOQ was between 88.9 and 141.9%, the repeatability precision between 3.5 and 13.6%. Linearity of the five PAs showed correlation coefficients between 0.9995 and 0.9998 and coefficients of variation between 7.44 and 8.56%. A working range between 2 ppb and 200 ppb could be fixed. In the tested batches of the P. hybridus extract Ze 339, the absence of PAs could be demonstrated. In conclusion, this assay allows to determine trace PA concentrations in P. hybridus extract Ze 339, making it suitable for analytical PA monitoring in accordance with regulatory requirements.

  17. Simultaneous determination of sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from the rhizomes of petasites hybridus (L.) G.M. et Sch. and dietary supplements using UPLC-UV and LC-TOF methods

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    Common Butterbur (Petasites hybridus) is a herbaceous perennial plant in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe and northern Asia. Petasites hybridus exists in two chemo-varieties: those containing petasins and those with furano-petasins which have been reported to be effective in reducing the occ...

  18. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Verloove, F

    2013-01-01

    Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides), Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta,...

  19. FITOEXTRACCIÓN DE PLOMO Y CADMIO EN SUELOS CONTAMINADOS USANDO QUELITE (Amaranthus hybridus L.) Y MICORRIZAS

    OpenAIRE

    H. G. Ortiz-Cano; R. Trejo-Calzada; R. D. Valdez-Cepeda; J. G. Arreola-Ávila; A. Flores-Hernández; B. López-Ariza

    2009-01-01

    Las actividades mineras y metalúrgicas practicadas en la Comarca Lagunera, México han contaminado el suelo, el aire y el agua. El uso de plantas es una de las estrategias para la remediación de suelos contaminados con metales pesados. Sin embargo, son pocos los estudios sobre remediación con plantas de zonas áridas y su asociación con micorrizas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la capacidad extractora de Plomo (Pb) y Cadmio (Cd) del quelite (Amaranthus hybridus L.) al adicionar una me...

  20. Nuevos aportes a la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae

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    Agustín M. Abba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Desmarest, 1804 (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae. Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de cuatro establecimientos agropecuarios de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante tres años se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y liberación. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 71 capturas. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue material vegetal, seguido por hormigas e insectos coleópteros; no se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios. La actividad de las mulitas se concentra durante el día, existió una baja en la frecuencia de observación durante las estaciones frías (otoño e invierno. La mulita pampeana prefiere suelos húmicos, terrenos altos y pastizales densos y altos; asimismo seleccionan los montes para refugiarse. Son individuos asociales. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan parcialmente con lo observado para otras especies del género, destacando las tendencias observadas en los hábitos alimentarios y en la estrategia termorregulatoria. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos de una especie poco estudiada en una zona bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat.

  1. Teores de água no solo e eficácia do herbicida fomesafen no controle de Amaranthus hybridus Soil water contents and fomesafen efficacy in controlling Amaranthus hybridus

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    J.F. Zanatta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Com os objetivos de avaliar a eficácia do herbicida fomesafen no controle de plantas de Amaranthus hybridus se desenvolvendo em solo com diferentes teores de água e determinar qual o menor teor de água do solo que não prejudica a ação desse herbicida no controle dessa espécie, foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, envolvendo cinco intervalos entre a última irrigação e a aplicação do herbicida (0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas e cinco doses de fomesafen (0,0, 62,5, 125,0, 250,0 e 375,0 g ha-1. Quando as plantas atingiram estádio de quatro pares de folhas, foram aplicados 10 mm de chuva simulada, conforme tratamento previsto. Ao término do período de simulação de chuva, aplicou-se o herbicida utilizando pulverizador costal pressurizado com CO2, com volume de calda de 120 L ha-1. Aos 5, 22, 29 e 43 dias após a aplicação (DAA do herbicida, foi avaliado o controle (por escala visual de A. hybridus e, aos 43 DAA, foram avaliadas também a massa seca das raízes e a da parte aérea. A aplicação de 375,0 g ha-1 de fomesafen proporcionou controle satisfatório de A. hybridus, independentemente do intervalo entre a última irrigação e a aplicação do herbicida ou do teor de umidade do solo, dentro da faixa avaliada. Pulverizações de 250,0 g ha-1 de fomesafen a intervalos menores que 24 horas entre a última irrigação e sua aplicação e/ou em solo com teor de água maior que 0,12 cm³ cm-3 não afetaram a eficácia do herbicida sobre A. hybridus. Aplicações de 125,0 g ha-1 de fomesafen a intervalos menores que 12 horas entre a última irrigação e sua aplicação e/ou em solo com teor de água maior que 0,15 cm³ cm-3 não afetaram a eficácia do herbicida sobre A. hybridus.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of fomesafen in controlling Amaranthus hybridus grown under different soil humidity levels

  2. Diet of the critically endangered brown spider monkey (Ateles hybridus) in an inter-Andean lowland rainforest in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Andrés; Galvis, Nelson; Marquez, Mateo; Guerrero, Jane; Solano, Camila; Stevenson, Pablo R

    2012-12-01

    Brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) are one of the least known and more threatened primates in the Neotropics. Recognized as a species about a decade ago, field studies on these endangered primates have mainly focused on estimating local population densities. Since 2006, we habituated a group of wild brown spider monkeys at Serranía de Las Quinchas, Colombia, and studied their feeding ecology during 2.5 years using focal "subgroup" sampling, and conducted phenological surveys in order to estimate habitat-wide fruit availability. Based on 847 hr of behavioral follows, brown spider monkeys spent approximately 25% of their time in feeding activities, and fed from fruits and leaves on at least 123 plant species. Ripe fruits were the most important item in the diet of A. hybridus at Las Quinchas comprising 92% of their feeding time. Probably due to the minor variation in the monthly proportion of fruits in brown spider monkey's diet throughout this study, there was no relation between habitat-wide fruit availability and the proportion of fruit included in their monthly diet. The diet of brown spider monkeys at Las Quinchas is toward the high end of fruit intake, even within other wild spider monkeys' populations, suggesting that these endangered primates might also be facing the challenges of being a large bodied fruit specialist under a regional scenario of habitat loss and fragmentation.

  3. An outbreak of perirenal oedema syndrome in cattle associated with ingestion of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L. : clinical communication

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    R.D. Last

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty seven of 150, 15-month-old long weaners died of an acute renal disease syndrome following introduction into an old maize field with a heavy stand of Amaranthus spp. The clinical syndrome was characterised by sudden onset neurological disease with ataxia and recumbency. Subcutaneous oedema, ascites and perirenal oedema with urine odour were the major gross necropsy findings. Renal histopathology revealed marked coagulative renal tubular necrosis of the proximal and distal straight tubules with intertubular haemorrhage. Acute renal failure and perirenal oedema has been described in cattle, pigs, horses and sheep associated with the ingestion of A. hybridus L. and A. retroflexus L. This perirenal oedema syndrome has been widely reported in the Americas, while in South Africa intoxication with the amaranths has only previously been associated with nitrate and possibly oxalate poisoning in cattle.

  4. Efecto antibacteriano “in vitro” del extracto hidroalcohólico de Amaranthus hybridus L “Sangorache” sobre la cepa de Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 435

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Haro, Henry Paúl

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the plants has been evaluated and know since the antiquity, taking as a reference some medicines originated for plans that are used currently inside dentistry, that is why there was the possibility of introducing a study in vitro using a proper Andean plant of our region and continent, through the elaboration of the hidroalcoholic extracts made of leaves and flowers of Amaranthus hybridus L, that were obtained through a maceration process the same ones were tast...

  5. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Extracts

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    Jeanne F. Millogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentus and Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus, two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE, methanolic (ME, and aqueous extracts (AE from the aerial parts were screened for in vitro antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight in A. cruentus and A. hybridus, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method and iron reducing power (FRAP method ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of A. cruentus and A. hybridus were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively. The A. hybridus extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  6. Interspecific infanticide and infant-directed aggression by spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a fragmented forest in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Pardo-Martinez, Alejandra; Montes-Rojas, Andres; Di Fiore, Anthony; Link, Andres

    2012-11-01

    Interspecific aggression amongst nonhuman primates is rarely observed and has been mostly related to scenarios of resource competition. Interspecific infanticide is even rarer, and both the ultimate and proximate socio-ecological factors explaining this behavior are still unclear. We report two cases of interspecific infanticide and five cases of interspecific infant-directed aggression occurring in a well-habituated primate community living in a fragmented landscape in Colombia. All cases were initiated by male brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) and were directed toward infants of either red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus: n = 6 cases) or white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons: n = 1 case). One individual, a subadult spider monkey male, was involved in all but one case of interspecific infanticide or aggression. Other adult spider monkeys participated in interspecific aggression that did not escalate into potentially lethal encounters. We suggest that competition for food resources and space in a primate community living in high population densities and restricted to a forest fragment of ca. 65 ha might partly be driving the observed patterns of interspecific aggression. On the other hand, the fact that all but one case of interspecific infanticide and aggression involved the only subadult male spider monkey suggests this behavior might either be pathological or constitute a particular case of redirected aggression. Even if the underlying principles behind interspecific aggression and infanticide are poorly understood, they represent an important factor influencing the demographic trends of the primate community at this study site. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Changes of ultrastructure and cytoplasmic free calcium in Gladiolus x hybridus Van Houtte roots infected by aster yellows phytoplasma

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    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Roots of Gladiolus x hybridus Van Houtte plants infected with aster yellows phytoplasma were examined. The infected plants had a reduced root system in comparison to control plants. Their roots were thinner and the stele organisation was changed. Phytoplasmas were present in sieve tubes, companion cells and phloem parenchyma cells of the infected plant roots. Free calcium ions were localized in the cells of infected plants. Cells of the stele of infected roots, especially these infected with phytoplasmas, showed an increase of calcium antimonite deposits in theirs protoplasts. Also the number of calcium antimonite deposits increased in sieve tubes of infected roots. The deposits were present on plasma membrane, around the sieve tube plate and also in the lumen of the sieve tube. The increase of free calcium ions in sieve tubes did not cause the occlusion of sieve tube pores. Companion cells and some parenchyma cells with phytoplasmas did not react to phytoplasma infection with an increase of Ca2+ ions in protoplast. The parenchyma cells showing signs of degeneration reacted with high increase of calcium ions. The Ca2+ ions were present mainly in cytoplasm of infected parenchyma cells. There were calcium antimonite deposits in infected plant roots xylem elements and in intracellular spaces of cortex parenchyma. Such deposits were not present in control plants.

  8. Effects of Fragment and Vegetation Structure on the Population Abundance of Ateles hybridus, Alouatta seniculus and Cebus albifrons in Magdalena Valley, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Christopher; Link, Andres; King-Bailey, Gillian; Donati, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Many primate species currently subsist in fragmented and anthropogenically disturbed habitats. Different threats arise depending on the species' life history strategy, dietary requirements and habitat preference. Additionally, anthropogenic disturbance is far from uniform and may affect individual forest fragments in a single landscape in differing ways. We studied the effects of fragmentation on three species of diurnal primate, Cebus albifrons, Alouatta seniculus and Ateles hybridus, in Magdalena Valley, Colombia. We tested the assumption that generalist species are more resilient than specialist species to habitat degradation by examining the fragments' vegetation and spatial structure and how these affected primate presence and abundance patterns. We found C. albifrons, a generalist, to be the most abundant species in 9 of 10 forest fragments, regardless of the level of habitat disturbance. A. hybridus, a large-bodied primate with a specialist diet, was either absent or low in abundance in fragments that had experienced recent disturbances and was found only in higher-quality fragments, regardless of the fragment size. A. seniculus, a species considered to have a highly flexible diet and the ability to survive in degraded habitat, was found in intermediate abundances between those of Cebus spp. and Ateles spp., and was more frequently found in high-quality fragments. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Simultaneous determination of sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from the rhizomes of Petasites hybridus (L.) G.M. et Sch. and dietary supplements using UPLC-UV and HPLC-TOF-MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2012-11-01

    UPLC-UV and HPLC-TOF-MS methods have been developed for the analysis of major sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from rhizomes of Petasites hybridus (L.) G.M. et Sch. (Family, Asteracea) and dietary supplements claiming to contain P. hybridus. The best results were obtained with Acquity UPLC™ HSS T3 (100 mm × 2.1 mm, I.D., 1.8 μm) column system using a gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium formate (50mM) and acetonitrile (0.05% formic acid) at a constant flow rate of 0.25 mL/min via UPLC-UV. The newly developed method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision. The limits of detection were found to be 5 μg/mL and 0.1 μg/mL for pyrrolizidine alkaloids and sesquiterpenes, respectively by UPLC-UV and 0.001 and 0.01 μg/mL, respectively using HPLC-TOF-MS. The methods were successfully used to analyze different P. hybridus market products, as well as to distinguish between two other Petasites species. The total content of petasins was found to be in the range of 0.02-11.6 mg/dosage form for 15 dietary supplements and no petasins were detected in an additional six dietary supplements. Additionally, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are considered to be toxic for the liver, were detected in seven dietary supplements. The amount of petasin in seven dietary supplements was found to be within limits of label claim and no pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected. HPLC-mass spectrometry coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) interface method is described for the identification and confirmation of sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from plant extracts and dietary supplements that claim to contain P. hybridus as well as different species of Petasites.

  10. Diferenças morfológicas entre Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, e as plantas daninhas A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus Morphological differences between Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, and the weed species A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis and A. spinosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O pseudocereal amaranto, com as espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticado pelas populações indígenas antes que a América fosse descoberta, tem se adaptado aos sistemas produtivos dos cerrados. A planta apresenta panículas apicais, divididas em pequenos ramos com frutos do tipo pixídio, com uma semente cada. Estas germinam rapidamente em presença de umidade, após atingirem a maturação fisiológica. No início da fase vegetativa, o amaranto cultivado pode confundir-se com espécies de plantas daninhas do mesmo gênero (A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus, as quais estão associadas à expansão agrícola. As diferenças morfológicas tornam-se mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificações com flores axilares e terminais, em contraste com o amaranto, no qual a inflorescência (panícula é apical; as sementes claras das espécies cultivadas contrastam com as das invasoras, que são escuras. BRS Alegria (A. cruentus, cultivar pioneiro no Brasil, apresenta plantas com 180 cm, das quais a panícula ocupa 48 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 90 dias; resistência ao acamamento; e 0,68 g por 1.000 sementes, com produção de 2,3 t ha¹ (sementes e 5,6 t ha-1 (biomassa total. As sementes nas plantas daninhas são menores, germinam gradativamente e podem permanecer no solo por muitos anos, infestando as áreas. As diferenças morfológicas detectadas na experimentação demonstram que as espécies são distinguíveis; elas contribuem para orientar a produção de sementes e o cultivo comercial de amaranto, enfatizando as características de adaptação, em contraste com as das invasoras do mesmo gênero botânico.The pseudocereal grain amaranth, with the species Amaranthus caudatus, A. ruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticated by indigenous populations before America was discovered, has shown adaptability to production systems in the Brazilian savannah. The plants present apical

  11. 不同镉浓度下绿穗苋根际环境特征与镉形态分布%Characteristics and Cd fractions of rhizospheric soil of Amaranthus hybridus L. under different cadmium concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玉兰; 徐小逊; 张世熔; 蒲玉琳; 张驰强; 霍庆霖; 董袁媛

    2016-01-01

    为了解镉(Cd)富集植物根际环境对镉的活化和耐受作用,通过土壤盆栽试验,研究了Cd胁迫下绿穗苋根际环境特征变化和镉形态分布。研究表明:绿穗苋根际pH低于非根际,并随Cd浓度升高总体呈下降趋势;根际DOC含量高于非根际,且随着Cd浓度的增加呈逐渐上升趋势。随着Cd浓度的升高,绿穗苋根际土壤交换态Cd所占比例上升,铁锰氧化物结合态Cd所占比例先升高后降低,碳酸盐结合态Cd、有机结合态Cd和残渣态Cd所占比例均逐渐降低。各处理根际土壤过氧化氢酶、脲酶和磷酸酶活性均高于非根际,根际土壤脲酶和磷酸酶活性均随处理浓度升高呈先升高后降低的趋势,过氧化氢酶活性随处理浓度升高持续下降。结果表明,Cd胁迫下绿穗苋根际pH和DOC的变化对Cd活化具有重要作用,根际土壤酶活性特征表明其对Cd毒性有一定的缓解作用。%Amaranthus hybridus L. is Cd-tolerant plant. Here a pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of cadmium(Cd) stresses on the characteristics and Cd fractions of A . hybridus rhizospheric soil. Results showed that pH in the rhizospheric soil was lower than that in non-rhizospheric soil, while dissolved organic carbon(DOC)concentrations and catalase, urease and phosphatase activities were just opposite. Increasing Cd concentrations reduced pH and catalase activity, but increased DOC concentrations. With Cd concentra-tions increasing, exchangeable Cd fraction was increased, while iron and manganese oxides bound Cd fraction was decreased initially but in-creased later. Carbonates bound, organic matter bound and residual Cd fractions were all decreased. These results suggest that pH and DOC in rhizospheric soil of A . hybridus could be an important factor influencing the distribution of Cd fractions, and enzymatic activities in the rhizospheric soil could play a role in mitigating Cd toxicity.

  12. Simultaneous investigation of sesquiterpenes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids and N-oxides in Butterbur (Petasites hybridus) with an offline 2D-combination of HPLC-UV and LC-MMI-ToF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Ahmet Alper; Letzel, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    With the worldwide rapid increasing interest in the use of natural products as dietary supplements, medical remedies and functional foods, it has been accepted that omitting the plant constituents with potential adverse effects was a huge fault of the past. Several countries developed regulations to limit the consumption of such products in the markets. Among these natural products, butterbur (Petasites) has been used for years as herbal supplement for its anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its hepatotoxic alkaloid content limits the direct usage. In this study, investigation of sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) together with their N-oxide forms has been conducted with an offline 2D-combination using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV) and liquid chromatography - multi mode ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-MMI-ToF-MS) for plant screening. The content has been qualitatively investigated to provide information on the constituents of the plant rhizomes extracted using ethanol. Besides the reported hepatotoxic and medically bio-active plant constituents, a strategy has been suggested for estimating the retention order and retention times with respect to calculated logD (distribution coefficient) and hydrophobicity distributions on C18 reversed-phase column when all standard compounds are not available in laboratory. In this sense, the influence of calculated logD and hydrophobicity distributions on retention time has been clarified via available PA and PA-N-oxide standards. The ethanolic extract of Petasites hybridus has been used for examination of the strategy in a real-sample model. Additionally, the advantages of the developed HPLC-UV and LC-MMI-ToF-MS combination have been discussed with respect to the presented results.

  13. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum

  14. Correlation Study between Bud Length and Gametophyte Development Stage in Daylily (Hemerocallis hybridus cv. 'Stella de oro')%大花萱草'金娃娃'雌雄蕊发育进程及其与花蕾长度的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔贵梅; 杨丽莉; 孙毅; 张彦芹

    2008-01-01

    采用石蜡切片法对大花萱草'金娃娃'(Hemerocallis hybridus cv.'Stella de oro')不同花蕾长度时雌雄蕊的形态及其发育时期进行观察,以探讨花营长度与雌雄蕊发育进程的相关性.结果显示:(1)'金娃娃'雄蕊发育正常,小孢子发生及雄配子体的发育过程与常见单子叶植物类似,成熟花粉属二胞型;雌蕊子房具多胚珠,但各胚珠中雌配子体发育进程不同步,出现大量无胚囊或胚囊内核发育紊乱、解体的现象而导致雌配子体发育不正常,大田结实率不到5%且种子干瘪不能发芽.(2)'金娃娃'花蕾长度与花粉发育时期具有相关性,为花蕾长度作为组织培养外植体取材外形标准提供丁植物胚胎学依据.

  15. Effect of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae Isolates, a Potential Bioherbicide for Amaranthus hybridus L. in Maize Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oluwaseun ADETUNJI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of phytopathogenic fungi in biological control of weeds may represent a promising alternative to the use of chemicals and may lead to the sustainability of agro-ecosystems. In the current study, strain C1136 was developed into various formulations and their activities were compared with a chemical herbicides using glyphosate in a screen house, applying standard procedure. All the bioherbicide treatments gave significantly higher yield component on the following parameters: tasselling, number of cobs, day of silking, number of ears, number of grain/cob, weight of 100 grains, number of cob, weight of cob, and length of cob from maize when compared to the chemical-treated herbicides and weedy cheek. Moreover, the bioherbicidal formulation coded BH4 (32 g of semolina + 6 g kaolin + 20 mL of glycerol + mutant strain of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae + glucose+ sucrose + fructose + dextrose + lactose sugar + peptone showed the highest activities when compared to other formulations. Conclusively, this study revealed that Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae C1136 strain has bioherbicidal activity and could therefore be exploited for large scale production of bioherbicides for weed control in conventional farming, to improve yield and enhance food security.

  16. Use rockwool as a substrate for Peperomia obtusifolia, Streptocarpus hybridus and Spathiphyllum floribundum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Strojny

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted, in which the granulated rockwool 'Grodan', utilised rockwool 'Flormin', used before as slabs and remained after 2-year carnation culture (UR - shredded and steamed and two kinds of insulation rockwool of domestic production: from Gliwice (RG and from Nidzica (RN were used as a substrate or its ingredient for mentioned in title plants. Particular plant species expressed somewhat diversified reaction, but generally rockwool showed full usability as a substrate or its component. The best kind appeared to be UR. RG was good in the mix, where it was in 25% of the volume, but RN was unsuitable.

  17. Prospective varieties of Narcissus hybridus hort. suitable for mass growing in piedmont Crimea

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    Repetskaya Anna Igorevna

    2016-12-01

    The evaluation determined six (6 unpromising, thirteen (13 average promising and eleven (11 highly promising varieties. The highly promising varieties are 'Ice Follies', 'Kissрroof', 'Pink Charm', 'Salome', 'Serola', (Large-cupped Daffodils, 'Curlew', 'Pipit' (Jonquilla Daffodils, 'Tahiti' (Double Daffodils, 'Mount Hood' (Trumpet Daffodils, 'Jetfire' (Cyclamineus Daffodils and 'Lemon Beauty' (Split Corona Daffodils. They are recommended for use in landscaping practice within the piedmont Crimea.

  18. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

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    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  19. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-10-13

    This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996-2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but

  20. Cloning and characterization of a novel Gladiolus hybridus AFP family gene (GhAFP-like) related to corm dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Carianopol, Carina; Sui, Juanjuan; Yang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Fengqin; Jiang, Huiru; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2016-02-26

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone controlling seed dormancy. AFPs (ABA INSENSITIVE FIVE BINDING PROTEINS) are reported to be negative regulators of the ABA signaling pathway. The involvement of AFPs in dormant vegetative organs remains poorly understood. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel AFP family member from Gladiolus dormant cormels, GhAFP-like, containing three conserved domains of the AFP family. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that GhAFP-like was expressed in dormant organs and its expression was down-regulated along with corm storage. GhAFP-like was verified to be a nuclear-localized protein. Overexpressing GhAFP-like in Arabidopsis thaliana not only showed weaker seed dormancy with insensitivity to ABA, but also changed the expression of some ABA related genes. In addition, a primary root elongation assay showed GhAFP-like may involve in auxin signaling response. The results in this study indicate that GhAFP-like acts as a negative regulator in ABA signaling and is related to dormancy.

  1. Cloning and characterization of a novel Gladiolus hybridus AFP family gene (GhAFP-like) related to corm dormancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Carianopol, Carina [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sui, Juanjuan [College of Biology, Fuyang Normal College, Fuyang, Anhui (China); Yang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Fengqin; Jiang, Huiru [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); He, Junna, E-mail: hejunna@cau.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Yi, Mingfang, E-mail: ymfang@cau.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2016-02-26

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone controlling seed dormancy. AFPs (ABA INSENSITIVE FIVE BINDING PROTEINS) are reported to be negative regulators of the ABA signaling pathway. The involvement of AFPs in dormant vegetative organs remains poorly understood. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel AFP family member from Gladiolus dormant cormels, GhAFP-like, containing three conserved domains of the AFP family. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that GhAFP-like was expressed in dormant organs and its expression was down-regulated along with corm storage. GhAFP-like was verified to be a nuclear-localized protein. Overexpressing GhAFP-like in Arabidopsis thaliana not only showed weaker seed dormancy with insensitivity to ABA, but also changed the expression of some ABA related genes. In addition, a primary root elongation assay showed GhAFP-like may involve in auxin signaling response. The results in this study indicate that GhAFP-like acts as a negative regulator in ABA signaling and is related to dormancy. - Highlights: • GhAFP-like is expessed in dormant corm. • Overexpressing GhAFP-like showed early germination and insensitivity to ABA. • Overexpressing GhAFP-like changed ABI5 downstream genes expression.

  2. The effect of different levels and stages of low irrigation on some morphological traits of amaranth cv. Koniz (Amaranthus hypochindriacus L.× Amaranthus hybridus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Farajzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most stressful environmental factors that strongly influence the growth and yield of crops. However, the plant’s response to this stress differs depending on the stage of its growth. The present study set out to investigate the effect of different levels of low irrigation regimes (irrigation after 50, 80, 110, 140 and 170 mm evaporation from pan A in different growth stages (plant establishment, branching, flowering and grain filling. The results of the study showed that irrigation after 170 mm evaporation of pan following the plant establishment, branching, flowering and grain filling, caused biomass reduction by 8%, 27%, 43% and 53%, respectively. Irrigation levels after 80, 110, 140 and 170 mm evaporation from pan led to the reduction of yield by 12%, 22%, 33% and 45% compared to the irrigation after 50 mm evaporation from the pan. In case of stress per delay time of irrigation based on evaporation from the evaporation pan, the grain yield decreased by 3.03 units. Results showed that applying low levels of irrigation before pollination leads to further reduction of the yield; so that the stress in the stages of plant establishment, branching, and flowering reduced the yield by 34, 27 and 22% compared to the irrigation after 50 mm evaporation from pan.

  3. Effect of drying and cooking on nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of morogo (Amaranthus hybridus) a traditional leafy vegetable grown in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoua, Gabriel Nama; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H

    2014-04-01

    Morogo (vegetables in Tswana) is a green leafy vegetable from the Amaranthaceae family that can be harvested from wild growing or cultivated. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional value, the total antioxidant capacity and selected bioactive compounds present in morogo leaves, and evaluate the effect of drying and cooking. Results showed that morogo contained a significant amount of protein (3.6 ± 0.1 g/100 g FW) and minerals which the level exceed 1% of fresh weight. The total antioxidant capacity (μmole TE/ 100 g FW) determined by DPPH and FRAP assays were 118.3 ± 15.3 and 128.4 ± 11.9 respectively. Total polyphenols (109.4 ± 7.5 mg GAE/100 g FW), vitamin C (36.6 ± 1.0 mg /100 g FW) and carotenoids represented by β carotene (25.3 ± 1.3 mg /100 g FW) and xanthophylls (7.48 ± 0.31 mg /100 g FW) formed a significant part of bioactive compounds content of morogo leaves. Since the boiling can cause significant losses of compounds in the boiling water, it can be recommended to avoid cooking methods that can include a boiling step with discard of boiling water.

  4. Phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of three Amaranthus plant species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Z C Maiyo; R M Ngure; J C Matasyoh; R Chepkorir

    2010-01-01

      This study investigated the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and methanol leave extracts of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus spinosus...

  5. Growth of Jasminum sambac, Calendula officinalis, Matthiola incana, and Senecio hybridus Influenced by High-Voltage Electrostatic Field%高压静电场对茉莉等四种花卉的调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋耀庭; 潘丽娜

    2003-01-01

    采用本部研制的直流高压脉冲器定时对茉莉花、金盏菊、紫罗兰和瓜叶菊进行处理.结果表明.花的开花时间均得到延长。除茉莉花的开花量有所减少外.其余三种花的开花量均有所增加。

  6. Domestic wastewater treatment with a vertical completely drained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-11-07

    Nov 7, 2007 ... A pilot scale constructed wetland planted with Amaranthus hybridus was developed for domestic ... emergent aquatic vegetation such as cattails (Typha), .... mined according to USEPA 410.4 and 8 153 methods (EPA, 1979,.

  7. Transmission of herbicide resistance from a monoecious to a dioecious weedy Amaranthus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranel, J.; Wassom, J.; Jeschke, R.; Rayburn, L.

    2002-10-01

    The genus Amaranthus includes several important monoecious and dioecious weed species, and several populations of these species have developed resistance to herbicides. These species are closely related and two or more species often coexist in agricultural settings. Collectively, these attributes raise the concern that herbicide resistance might transfer from one weedy Amaranthus species to another. We performed research to determine if a dominant allele encoding a herbicide-insensitive form of acetolactate synthase (ALS) could be transferred from a monoecious species, A. hybridus, to a dioecious species, A. rudis. Numerous F(1) hybrids were obtained from controlled crosses in a greenhouse between A. rudis and herbicide-resistant A. hybridus, and most (85%) of these hybrids were herbicide-resistant. Molecular analysis of the ALS gene was used to verify that herbicide-resistant hybrids contained both an A. rudis and an A. hybridus ALS allele. Although hybrids had greatly reduced fertility, 42 BC(1) plants were obtained by backcrossing 33 hybrids with male A. rudis. Fertility was greatly restored in BC(1) progeny, and numerous BC(2) progeny were obtained from a second backcross to A. rudis. The herbicide-resistance allele from A. hybridus was transmitted to 50% of the BC(1) progeny. The resistance allele was subsequently transmitted to and conferred herbicide resistance in 39 of 110 plants analyzed from four BC(2) families. Parental species, hybrids, and BC(2) progeny were compared for 2C nuclear DNA contents. The mean hybrid 2C nuclear DNA content, 1.27 pg, was equal to the average between A. rudis and A. hybridus, which had 2C DNA contents of 1.42 and 1.12 pg, respectively. The mean 2C DNA content of BC(2) plants, 1.40 pg, was significantly (alpha herbicide resistance can be acquired by A. rudis through a hybridization event with A. hybridus.

  8. Influence of Processing Methods on Proximate Composition and Dieting of Two Amaranthus Species from West Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffo Kamela, Arnaud Landry; Mouokeu, Raymond Simplice; Ashish, Rawson; Maffo Tazoho, Ghislain; Glory Moh, Lamye; Pamo Tedonkeng, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various processing methods on the proximate composition and dieting of Amaranthus hybridus and Amaranthus cruentus from West Cameroon were investigated in this study. Both amaranths leaves were subjected to same treatments (sun-dried and unsliced, sliced and cooked), milled, and analysed for their mineral and proximate composition. Thirty-Six Wistar albino rats of 21 to 24 days old were distributed in six groups and fed for 14 days with 10% protein based diets named D0 (protein-free diet), DI (egg white as reference protein), DII (sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus), DIII (cooked and sliced A. hybridus), DIV (sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus), and DV (cooked and sliced A. cruentus). The protein bioavailability and haematological and biochemical parameters were assessed in rats. The results showed that K, P, Mg, Zn, and Fe had the higher content in both samples regardless of processing method. The sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus contained the highest value of crude protein 32.22 g/100 g DM (dry matter) while the highest crude lipid, 3.80 and 2.58%, was observed, respectively, in sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus and cooked and sliced A. cruentus. Cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus contained high crude fiber of 14 and 12.18%, respectively. Rats fed with diet DIII revealed the best protein bioavailability and haematological parameters whereas 100% mortality rate was recorded with group fed with diet DIV. From this study, it is evident that cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus could play a role in weight reduction regimes. PMID:28078277

  9. Notas e descrições em Bisaltes Thomson, 1868 e Ptericoptus Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville, 1830 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini Notes and descriptions in Bisaltes Thomson, 1868 and Ptericoptus Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville, 1830 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The following new species are described in the subgenus Bisaltes (Bisaltes: B. (B. picticornis sp. nov. from Bolivia; B.(B. taua sp. nov. from Brazil (Paraná and Santa Catarina and B. (B. unicolor sp. nov. from Ecuador. Bisaltes (B. pictus Breuning, 1940 is transferred to the subgenus Craspedocerus. In Ptericoptus, P. hybridus hybridus Breuning, 1939 is considered a synonym of P. acuminatus (Fabricius, 1801; P. dorsalis Audinet-Serville, 1835 previously in the synonymy of P. acuminatus is revalidated and Saperda vitta Newman, 1838 is considered its synonym; P. corumbaensis sp. nov. is described from Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul.

  10. Una nueva especie de Batrachyla (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Telmatobiinae de Argentina. Relaciones filogenéticas interespecíficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basso, Néstor Guillermo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of telmatobiinae leptodactylid frog genus Batrachyla is described from the Nothofagus forest of Chubut province, Southern Argentina. Batrachyla fitzroya sp. nov. is more closely related to B. antartandica than to any other species of the genus. A cladistic analysis of the genus Batrachyla applying parsimony is presented using morphological and osteological characters. Polarity was based on the outgroup comparison method. The data were analysed using Farris's phylogenetic program Hennig86, using the implicit enumeration option. In the preferred phylogeny B. taeniata is the sister species of the clade B. leptopus-(B. antartandica-B. fitzroya.

  11. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca oleracea, and Rumex acetosella were moderate hosts. Taraxacum officinale, Ipomoea hederacea, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactyIon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  12. Nutritive and Antioxidant properties of Shade Dried Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Dehegnan Oulaï; Lessoy Yves Thierry Zoue; Sébastien Lamine Niamké

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are highly perishable and often subjected to post-harvest wastes. Among the various methods of preservation, the effect of shadow drying on the nutritive value and antioxidant properties of five (5) leafy vegetables species widely consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire was investigated. These species were Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata. Experiment was conducted as follow: portions of washed and drained fresh leaf...

  13. Comparative value of wild and domestic plants in home gardens of a South African rural village

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    High, C

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available and used morogos in home gardens in Dingleydale B were nkus Corchorus tridens), thepe (Amaranthus hybridus), nkaka (Momordica balsamina), and lerote (Cleome gynandra), along with pumpkin leaves and mositsa (Bidens bipinnata and B. pilosa) (Table 3). Mositsa... (based on group meetings). The two species available most of the year, nkaka (Momordica balsamina) and mositsa (Bidens spp.), are not generally favoured. Some people don?t like their taste, and several people stated that mositsa caused bad body odour...

  14. Interspecific hybridization transfers a previously unknown glyphosate resistance mechanism in Amaranthus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Todd A; Ward, Sarah M; Bukun, Bekir; Preston, Christopher; Leach, Jan E; Westra, Philip

    2012-01-01

    A previously unknown glyphosate resistance mechanism, amplification of the 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene, was recently reported in Amaranthus palmeri. This evolved mechanism could introgress to other weedy Amaranthus species through interspecific hybridization, representing an avenue for acquisition of a novel adaptive trait. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for this glyphosate resistance trait to transfer via pollen from A. palmeri to five other weedy Amaranthus species (Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus powellii, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, and Amaranthus tuberculatus). Field and greenhouse crosses were conducted using glyphosate-resistant male A. palmeri as pollen donors and the other Amaranthus species as pollen recipients. Hybridization between A. palmeri and A. spinosus occurred with frequencies in the field studies ranging from <0.01% to 0.4%, and 1.4% in greenhouse crosses. A majority of the A. spinosus × A. palmeri hybrids grown to flowering were monoecious and produced viable seed. Hybridization occurred in the field study between A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus (<0.2%), and between A. palmeri and A. hybridus (<0.01%). This is the first documentation of hybridization between A. palmeri and both A. spinosus and A. hybridus.

  15. Phytotoxicity Assessment of Certain Phytochemical Products Containing Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Șeremet Oana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot, Petasites hybridus (common butterbur, Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel and Symphytum officinale (comfrey are species traditionally used in phytotherapy that besides the therapeutic compounds contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. The aim of the paper is to determine the total PAs content and the phytotoxicity of the above species. Material and methods: The quantitative determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is based on the stoichiometric reaction of protonated alkaloids with methyl orange. In acidic conditions the dye is released from the complex and its color is assessed spectrophotometrically using a linear regression curve of senecionine as a standard. The phytotoxicity was assessed by Triticum bioassay that studies the effect of the extracts (0.001-5.00%, w/v upon root elongation (inhibitory concentration - IC50 and on the karyokinetic film. Results: The highest amount of total PAs was found in Senecio vernalis (654.8 ± 35.96 μg/g dry plant and the lowest in Petasites hybridus. The lowest IC50 was found for Tussilago farfara followed by Petasites hybridus, Senecio vernalis, and Symphytum officinale. The results were supported by microscopic examination. Conclusions: The results of the spectrophotometric assay are consistent with the ones found in the literature. All extracts inhibited the elongation of the main root of wheat caryopses, however, no correlation between phytotoxicity and the PAs concentration could be emphasized

  16. Diel Patterns of Activity for Insect Pollinators of Two Oil Palm Species (Arecales : Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffray, Thomas; Frérot, Brigitte; Poveda, Roberto; Louise, Claude; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The pollination of two oil palm species, Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and Elaeis oleifera Cortés (Arecales: Arecaceae), depends on a mutualistic relation with insects, which use male inflorescences as a brood site, and visits female inflorescences lured by the emitted odor, which is similar to that of males. Although the activity of visiting the inflorescences by these insects is critical for the adequate natural pollination of the host plant, their activity is poorly documented. In the present study, we determine the diel activity of two specialized pollinator weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on inflorescences of their respective host-palm: Elaeidobius kamerunicus Faust specialized on E. guineensis, and Grasidius hybridus O'Brien and Beserra specialized on E. oleifera. The average timing of activity was studied by using passive interception traps. Then the pattern and the duration were refined by using aspiration trapping within the active period for each insect species at the male and female inflorescences. All the experiments were conducted in an Ecuadorian oil palm plantation, located close to Amazonian forest. El. kamerunicus and G. hybridus were found to be the pollinators of E. guineensis and E. oleifera, respectively. The two species differed in their diel pattern of activity: E. kamerunicus was active in the morning and G. hybridus during a short period at dusk. For both palm species, insect visits were synchronous on both male and female inflorescences. The synchronicity is discussed as a strategy to maintain the relation mutualistic between partners. These findings increase our understanding of the oil palm pollination system.

  17. Distribución geográfica de las especies cultivadas de Amaranthus y de sus parientes silvestres en México Geographical distribution of cultivated species of Amaranthus and their wild relatives in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Espitia-Rangel

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo obtener los patrones de distribución de Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus y sus parientes silvestres, mediante el uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica, además de realizar un patrón de variación geográfica de las zonas donde se localizan. El género Amaranthus está distribuido a lo largo de México. A. cruentus y A. hypochondriacus se distribuyen en la parte centro sur del país, mientras que A. powellii está distribuido del centro al norte de México. Por otro lado, A. hybridus se puede cultivar prácticamente en todo México, por lo que fue la especie que presentó la mayor adaptación en comparación a las otras tres especies que mostraron una distribución más limitada. De acuerdo con la hipótesis que A. hybridus puede ser el ancestro más probable de A. cruentus y según los resultados obtenidos en este estudio, esta hipótesis podría ser cierta debido que en toda la distribución de A. cruentus está presente A. hybridus. Cabe mencionar, sobre la hipótesis que A. hypochondriacus puede ser un híbrido entre A. cruentus y A. powellii, se puede concluir que es cierta ya que A. hypochondriacus presentó un patrón de variación latitudinal parecido a A. powellii y un patrón de variación altitudinal similar a A. cruentus; además que todas ellas convergen en el Valle de México.The aim of this work was to obtain the distribution patterns of Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus and its wild relatives using Gorgraphic Information Systems, as well as creating a geographic variation pattern of the areas in which they are found. The genus Amaranthus is distributed throughout Mexico. A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus are distributed in the south-central area of the country, whereas A. powellii is found in the center and north of Mexico. On the other hand, A. hybridus can be cultivated in practically any part of the country, making it the species with the

  18. Field evaluation of Amaranthus species for seed and biomass yields in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Pizza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Amaranth is a crop with a potentially increasing cultivation area. Little information is available on amaranth cultivation in Mediterranean environments and in southern Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic traits and assess the grain and biomass yield responses of 11 genotypes belonging to 5 Amaranthus species, provided from the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System. There was wide diversity in agronomic traits among Amaranthus species and among genotypes within the same species. The accessions belonging to A. cruentus had the shortest growing cycle followed by A. hybridus, A. hypochondriacus, A. caudatus and, finally, A. hybrid that had the longest growing season. The A. cruentus accessions reached maturity more quickly than the other species. The total above-ground dry matter ranged from 15 to 23 t ha-1 with A. cruentus, A. hypochondriacus, and A. hybridus being the most productive. The stem plus branches dry matter was well correlated to the plant height (r2 = 0.75**. The tested amaranth genotypes showed appreciable biomass production that can thus be regarded as an interesting secondary product after seed harvesting. Grain yield and components varied among species and accessions. A. hypochondriacus showed the highest yield per plant (55.4 g followed by five accessions belonging to A. cruentus and A. hybridus (26.4 g on average. Considering together their shorter growing season and their higher grain production, the five accessions belonging to A. cruentus species appear to be better adapted to Mediterranean environments and southern Italy as compared to the other species.

  19. Effect of Fermentation on Nutritional Composition of Selected Commonly Consumed Green Leafy Vegetables in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O.T. Ifesan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fresh leafy vegetables which include Amarathus hybridus (Bush green, Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted pumpkin leaf, Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf and Pterocarpus mildbraedii (White campwood leaf were subjected to spontaneous fermentation for 5 days at room temperature. Physicochemical properties (pH, temperature, and total titratable acidity were monitored during the fermentation. It was observed that the pH (6.8 to 3.78 of all the vegetables decreased steadily as fermentation progressed. However, the temperature (27°C to 34°C and total titratable acidity expressed as lactic acid equivalent (0.014-0.147 for all the vegetables increased as fermentation progressed. The percentage of occurrence of bacteria isolated from the fermenting mass include Bacillus spp. (39.1%, Lactobacillus spp. (26.1%, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. (8.7%, Proteus spp., Serratia spp., Citrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp (4.3% respectively. The proximate composition and mineral contents of fermented and unfermented leaves were investigated. Significant increase in ash content was noticed for unfermented (8.07%-15.72% and for fermented vegetables (12.50%-23.28%. The protein contents of T. occidentalis (24.29%-25.65%, and A. hybridus (14.27%-16.96% increased significantly after fermentation. A decrease in fiber content was noticed for all fermented vegetables except for V. amygdalina where significant increase was noticed (10.97%-14.55%. Increase in both thiamine (1.37-1.52mg/ml and niacin (1.32-1.62mg/ml contents were observed in T. occidentalis after fermentation while significant reductions were recorded for A. hybridus and V. amygdalina. Generally, vitamin C content of the vegetables decreased during fermentation while some increases were recorded in the mineral content of fermented vegetables.

  20. STREPTOCARPUS - FLOWERING POT PLANT - PROPAGATION AND CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CANTOR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last years in Romania and throughout the world we assist at diversification of floral plants assortment by introducing new species and cultivars. For this goal, at the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Floriculture Department we diversified and enriched the collection for indoor plants with a pot species, which decorates by flowers, Streptocarpus x hybridus. In this work are presented the main morphological and biological characteristics, propagation by seeds and vegetative propagation, growth requirements, the main diseases and pests of this species, in order to recommend it for indoor culture.

  1. Comparative study of trace element levels in some local vegetable varieties and irrigation waters from different locations in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Dosumu

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The level of heavy metals in two varieties of vegetables harvested during the dry and wet seasons from seven different locations in Ilorin, Nigeria, were determined. The correlation between the level of metals in the vegetables and the irrigation water was also studied. Vegetables harvested during the dry season were found to contain higher level of toxic metals. Low water quality, accumulation of particulate after rainless period and nearness of some vegetable gardens to major and well travelled roads appeared to be the major contributory factors. Amaranthus hybridus seemed to have higher metal accumulation capacity compared to Corchorus olitorius mannii.

  2. Evolución cromosómica en Simiiformes: homologías, reorganizaciones y heterocromatina

    OpenAIRE

    García Haro, Francisca

    2001-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada En este trabajo se han analizado las siguientes características cariotípicas de diferentes especies de primates Simiiformes: 1) HOMOLOGIAS Y REORGANIZACIONES CROMOSÓMICAS. Mediante la comparación de su patrón de bandas G, se han determinado las homologías cromosómicas de dos especies del género Cebus (C. apella y C. capucinus) y de diferentes especies del género Ateles (A. belzebuth hybridus, A. b. marginatus, A. paniscu...

  3. A Preliminary Study on Microbial Contamination of Leafy Vegetables in Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasimu Shehu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five leafy vegetables commonly consumed in Sokoto metropolis were evaluated for microbiological quality using standard procedures involving standard plate count (SPC. The vegetables investigated included Lactuaca sativa (Lettuce, Amaranthus hybridus (Spinach, Vernonia amagdalina (Bitter leaf, Brassica oleracea (Cabbage and Moringa oleifera Lam (Horse radish. Ten fungal species which include Alternaria alternata, Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium oxysporium, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor racemoses, Rhizopus stolonifer and Trichoderma harzianum and four species of bacteria: Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocystogens and Staphyllococus aureus were isolated from the leafy vegetables. The total colony counts of fungi ranged from 1.8 x 106 – 6.28 x 105 (cfu/g of the vegetables while that of bacteria ranged from 1.0 x 106 to 2.94 x 106 cfu/g of the vegetables. The highest counts of microbial organisms were found on A. hybridus while M. oleifera and B. olerarea had the lowest fungal and bacterial counts respectively. There is a need to reduce the levels of  microbial contamination on leafy vegetables through appropriate production practices, careful handling by the vendors and appropriate processing  with a view to minimize  the risk of human exposure to fungal and bacterial pathogens associated with the vegetables.

  4. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Oyedeji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized soil of Ilorin, Nigeria. Viable seeds of the Amaranths raised in nursery for two weeks were transplanted (one plant per pot into unfertilized soil (control and soils fertilized with either NPK or poultry manure (PM at 30 Kg ha−1 rate arranged in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Data were collected on plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, and number of branches from 1 week after transplanting (1 WAT. Fresh weight, dry weight, and proximate composition were determined at 6 WAT. Except for the length, breadth, and number of leaves, the order of growth parameters and yield in the three Amaranthus species was NPK > PM > control. NPK grown Amaranthus species had the highest protein while PM-grown vegetables had the highest ash content. Crude fibre in A. cruentus grown with PM was significantly higher than NPK and the control. The NPK treatment of A. hybridus and A. deflexus had the highest crude fibre content. NPK and PM favoured growth and yield of the Amaranthus species but influenced proximate composition differently.

  5. Herbicidal Activity of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii Essential Oils from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Blázquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil composition of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii was analyzed by means of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. More than 96% of the total oil components (43 and 54 compounds, respectively were identified, with ascaridole (51.17 ± 9.51, p-cymene (16.31 ± 2.52 and 1,8-cineole (14.45 ± 2.99 as the main compounds in P. boldus and g-eudesmol (21.65 ± 0.41, followed of elemol (12.03 ± 0.34 and terpinen-4-ol (11.56 ± 1.06 in D. winterii. The herbicidal activity was tested against Amaranthus hybridus and Portulaca oleracea. P. boldus essential oil was the most phytotoxic against both weeds, inhibiting seed germination and seedling growth at all concentrations assayed (0.125–1 µL/mL. D. winterii essential oil did not show any effect on A. hybridus germination and only affected P. oleracea germination at the highest concentration. The results suggest the possible use of the essential oil from P. boldus as a natural herbicide.

  6. Herbicidal activity of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii essential oils from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeguer, Mercedes; García-Rellán, David; Boira, Herminio; Pérez, Eduardo; Gandolfo, Sandra; Blázquez, María Amparo

    2011-01-10

    The essential oil composition of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii was analyzed by means of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. More than 96% of the total oil components (43 and 54 compounds, respectively) were identified, with ascaridole (51.17 ± 9.51), p-cymene (16.31 ± 2.52) and 1,8-cineole (14.45 ± 2.99) as the main compounds in P. boldus and g-eudesmol (21.65 ± 0.41), followed of elemol (12.03 ± 0.34) and terpinen-4-ol (11.56 ± 1.06) in D. winterii. The herbicidal activity was tested against Amaranthus hybridus and Portulaca oleracea. P. boldus essential oil was the most phytotoxic against both weeds, inhibiting seed germination and seedling growth at all concentrations assayed (0.125-1 µL/mL). D. winterii essential oil did not show any effect on A. hybridus germination and only affected P. oleracea germination at the highest concentration. The results suggest the possible use of the essential oil from P. boldus as a natural herbicide.

  7. Chemical composition and herbicidal activity of the essential oil from a Cistus ladanifer L. population from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeguer, Mercedes; Blázquez, M Amparo; Boira, Herminio

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil composition of Cistus ladanifer grown in central Spain was analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, revealing it to be rich in oxygenated compounds, with trans-pinocarveol (20.00%), bornyl acetate (7.03%) and terpinen-4-ol (6.37%) as the main monoterpene compounds. Viridiflorol (13.59%) and ledol (4.36%) were the main constituents of the oxygenated sesquiterpene fraction. Large amounts of α-pinene (4.70%) were found in the hydrocarbonated fractions. To study its possible use as a natural herbicide, the oil was tested in vitro against Amaranthus hybridus, Portulaca oleracea, Chenopodium album, Conyza canadensis and Parietaria judaica, completely inhibiting A. hybridus germination, and nearly blocking C. canadensis and P. judaica germination at all concentrations assayed. In P. oleracea, the oil showed less effect, inhibiting its germination at the higher doses studied. It did not control C. album germination. Regarding seedling length, the oil had strong phytotoxic activity, being effective at all concentrations tested.

  8. Evaluation of reproductive barriers and realisation of interspecific hybridisations depending on genetic distances between species in the genus Helleborus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, J; Winkelmann, T

    2012-07-01

    The genus Helleborus comprises 22 species, which are allocated to six sections. H. x hybridus and H. niger, which belong to different Helleborus sections, are economically important ornamentals. Several other species with minor impact exhibit interesting features, e.g. flower size, flower colour, foliage, scent and disease resistance, which should be introgressed into H. x hybridus or H. niger through interspecific hybridisation. The aims of this study were to investigate whether and which kind of hybridisation barriers occur in crosses between Helleborus species and if they differ in their manifestations, depending on the genetic distance of the respective partners. In order to obtain interspecific hybrids despite crossing barriers, a method to overcome these barriers should be developed. Crossing barriers in Helleborus were localised as predominantly post-zygotic according to in situ pollen tube staining with aniline blue. For certain crosses, pre-zygotic barriers could also be assumed, but pollen tube growth was not totally inhibited. Therefore, embryo rescue techniques via ovule culture were established to overcome the post-zygotic barriers. Ovules were isolated from maternal plants 5-7 weeks after pollination in most cases and then cultured in vitro. Overall, 219 hybrids were successfully obtained, of which 16 were derived from inter-sectional crosses. Hybrids were verified by flow cytometry and/or by molecular DNA markers. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Alarm Photosynthesis: Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Internal CO2 Source in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooulakou, Georgia; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Orkoula, Malvina G; Kontoyannis, Christos G; Fasseas, Costas; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Klapa, Maria I; Karabourniotis, George

    2016-08-01

    Calcium oxalate crystals are widespread among animals and plants. In land plants, crystals often reach high amounts, up to 80% of dry biomass. They are formed within specific cells, and their accumulation constitutes a normal activity rather than a pathological symptom, as occurs in animals. Despite their ubiquity, our knowledge on the formation and the possible role(s) of these crystals remains limited. We show that the mesophyll crystals of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) exhibit diurnal volume changes with a gradual decrease during daytime and a total recovery during the night. Moreover, stable carbon isotope composition indicated that crystals are of nonatmospheric origin. Stomatal closure (under drought conditions or exogenous application of abscisic acid) was accompanied by crystal decomposition and by increased activity of oxalate oxidase that converts oxalate into CO2 Similar results were also observed under drought stress in Dianthus chinensis, Pelargonium peltatum, and Portulacaria afra Moreover, in A. hybridus, despite closed stomata, the leaf metabolic profiles combined with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements indicated active photosynthetic metabolism. In combination, calcium oxalate crystals in leaves can act as a biochemical reservoir that collects nonatmospheric carbon, mainly during the night. During the day, crystal degradation provides subsidiary carbon for photosynthetic assimilation, especially under drought conditions. This new photosynthetic path, with the suggested name "alarm photosynthesis," seems to provide a number of adaptive advantages, such as water economy, limitation of carbon losses to the atmosphere, and a lower risk of photoinhibition, roles that justify its vast presence in plants.

  10. WHITE BLISTER SPECIES (Albuginaceae ON WEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The obligate fungi inside the family Albuginaceae are widespread world wide and cause white rust or white blister disease. Mycopopulation of weeds has been researched within the project „The role of weeds in epidemiology of row-crop diseases“. The aim of this research was to identify white blister species occurring on weeds in Eastern Croatia. Weed plants with disease symptoms characteristic for white blister species have been collected since 2001 on location Slavonia and Baranja country. Determination of white blister species was based on morphological characters of pathogen and the host. Wilsoniana bliti was determined on Amaranthus retroflexus and Amaranthus hybridus leaves. Capsella bursa pastoris is a host for Albugo candida. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a host for Pustula sp. and Cirsium arvense was found to be host for Pustula spinulosa. Wilsoniana portulaceae was determined on Portulaca oleracea.

  11. Novel isocyanide-based three-component synthesis of substituted 9Hfuro[ 2,3-f]chromene-8,9-dicarboxylates in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Hossaini, Zinatossadat; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad A

    2012-06-01

    Three-component reaction of 1-(6-hydroxy-2-isopropenyl-1-benzofuran-yl)-1-ethanone, dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylates and isocyanides in water was described as efficient and green synthetic procedure for preparation of 9Hfuro[ 2,3-f]chromene-8,9-dicarboxylates in excellent yield. In these reactions, 1-(6-hydroxy-2-isopropenyl-1-benzofuranyl)- 1-ethanone was extracted from rhizomes of Petasites hybridus from northern Iran. The structure of this compound was determined by 1H, 13C-NMR and IR spectroscopy and confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. This procedure provides rapid access to novel and diversely substituted 9H-furo[2,3-f]chromene-8,9-dicarboxylate derivatives.

  12. Identification of traditional foods with public health potential for complementary feeding in Western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinyuru, John N,; Konyole, Silvenus O.; Kenji, Glaston M.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of traditional foods in Kisumu West District of Western Kenya was assessed with an aim to identify the foods with a potential for complementary feeding. Leaves were the most consumed plant part amongst vegetables, while a few fruits were consumed together with their seeds. Amaranthus...... cruentus L. was found to be consumed as a leafy vegetable while another variety, Amaranthus hybridus L. was found to be consumed as a grain. Four species of winged termites, a grasshopper, black ant and dagaa fish were also identified. Twelve of the traditional foods were found to be associated...... with nutritional and health benefits as perceived by the locals. Traditional food processing methods such as boiling, fermentation and sun drying were identified. Thus exploitation of the species possessing nutrient, health and processing benefits needs to be explored in complementary feeding....

  13. Accumulation of Aluminium and Physiological Status of Tree Foliage in the Vicinity of a Large Aluminium Smelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Wannaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina. Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al and sulphur (S as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  14. Accumulation of Aluminium and Physiological Status of Tree Foliage in the Vicinity of a Large Aluminium Smelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannaz, E. D.; Rodriguez, J. H.; Wolfsberger, T.; Carreras, H. A.; Pignata, M. L.; Fangmeier, A.; Franzaring, J.

    2012-01-01

    A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina). Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al) and sulphur (S) as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products) were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health. PMID:22654642

  15. Identification of traditional foods with public health potential for complementary feeding in Western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinyuru, John N,; Konyole, Silvenus O.; Kenji, Glaston M.

    2012-01-01

    with nutritional and health benefits as perceived by the locals. Traditional food processing methods such as boiling, fermentation and sun drying were identified. Thus exploitation of the species possessing nutrient, health and processing benefits needs to be explored in complementary feeding.......The diversity of traditional foods in Kisumu West District of Western Kenya was assessed with an aim to identify the foods with a potential for complementary feeding. Leaves were the most consumed plant part amongst vegetables, while a few fruits were consumed together with their seeds. Amaranthus...... cruentus L. was found to be consumed as a leafy vegetable while another variety, Amaranthus hybridus L. was found to be consumed as a grain. Four species of winged termites, a grasshopper, black ant and dagaa fish were also identified. Twelve of the traditional foods were found to be associated...

  16. Glyphosate em mistura com herbicidas alternativos para o manejo de plantas daninhas Glyphosate combined with alternative herbicides for vegetation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Monquero

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de glyphosate como herbicida não-seletivo tem selecionado espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes. Dessa forma, é importante que sejam estudadas misturas de tanque com herbicidas de mecanismos de ação alternativos e que apresentem efeitos sinergísticos ou aditivos. Por essa razão, foi instalado um experimento inteiramente casualizado, composto por 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em casa de vegetação da Universidade de São Paulo - ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba-SP, com as plantas daninhas Richardia brasiliensis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus hybridus, Galinsoga parviflora e Ipomoea grandifolia em misturas de tanque dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl, sulfentrazone, carfentrazone, bentazon ou flumioxazin com glyphosate. As interações foram aditivas para as plantas daninhas I. grandifolia e C. benghalensis, e os herbicidas flumioxazin, sulfentrazone e carfentrazone aplicados isoladamente e em mistura com glyphosate foram os que proporcionaram os melhores níveis de controle. A interação de glyphosate com sulfentrazone foi antagônica em R. brasiliensis; a mistura de glyphosate com os demais herbicidas estudados foi aditiva, sendo os tratamentos com mistura de glyphosate e chlorimuron-ethyl ou flumioxazin os mais eficazes. Em A. hybridus, os tratamentos que apresentaram melhores níveis de controle foram o glyphosate e carfentrazone, aplicados isoladamente, e a mistura de glyphosate com flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl e bentazon, sendo estes interações aditivas. No caso de G. parviflora, os tratamentos com flumioxazin e sulfentrazone apresentaram controle total, o mesmo acontecendo com as misturas de glyphosate com carfentrazone, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl ou bentazon.The intensive use of glyphosate as a non-selective herbicide for weed vegetation management has selected some tolerant weed species. Thus, it is important to study the synergistic or antagonic or additive effects of tank

  17. Characterastics of Surface Sediments Diatom Distribution in Zhenzhu Bay of Guangxi%广西珍珠湾表层沉积硅藻分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玥; 黄元辉

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen surface sediments diatoms were studied from Zhenzhu Bay of Guangxi.A total of 131 species belonging to 44 genera was identified of which Cocconeis disculus got the highest abundance.The results of mutianalysis indicated that the diatom assemblage was mainly affected by sea-surface salinity. Achnanthes spp.(mainly consists of A.delicatula ,A.fugei ,A.hauckiana and A.levanderi),Amphora spp.(mainly includes A.delicatissima ,A.exigua ,A.eximia ,A.holsatica and A.normanii )and Nitzschia ovalis were being the good indicators of low sea-surface salinity,Cocconeis disculus was always found in the brackish areas,while Cyclotella striata/C.stylorum,Thalassiosira spp.(mainly consists of T .eccentrica ,T .leptopus and T .oestrupii )and Thalassionema nitzschioides could be used as index for high sea-surface salinity.The surface diatom assemblage was rarely influenced by the fresh water on land. Whereas,the abundance of fresh water diatoms along the shore was mainly affected by the human activi-ties.Sixteen surface sediments diatoms could be divided into three diatom zones,corresponding to the dif-ferent sea-surface salinity which closely mapped to their actual regional distribution.%在广西珍珠湾16个表层沉积物站位取样并对其中硅藻进行分析,鉴定出硅藻131种,分属44属。其中Cocconeis disculus 是研究区域内数量最多的硅藻种类。多元分析结果表明,珍珠湾沉积硅藻分布主要受到海水盐度的控制,其中 Achnanthes spp.(主要包括 A.delicatula,A.fugei,A.hauckiana 和 A .levanderi),Amphora spp.(主要包括 A.delicatissima,A.exigua,A.eximia,A.holsatica 和A .normanii)和 Nitzschia ovalis 可以作为低盐度海水环境的指示种;Cocconeis disculus 多集中分布于海水盐度适中的海域;Cyclotella striata/C.stylorum, Thalassiosira spp.(主要包括 T.eccentrica,T.leptopus 和 T .oestrupii)和 Thalassionema nitzschioides 则可以很好地指示高盐度环境。陆上淡水河流对珍珠湾表层

  18. Novelties on taxonomy and nomenclature of Spanish vascular hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo, Manuel B.

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available The nomenclature of some Iberian hybrids is revised and several new combinations are proposed: Centaurea X subdecurrens var. segobricensis, C. X subdecurrens notbosubsp. albuferae, Cistus X hybridus nothosubsp. grandiflorus var. secallianus. C. X ledon var. recognitus, C. X nigricans var. longifolius, C. X nigricans nothosubsp. grosii and Onopordum X humile var. turolensis. Besides, a new nothosubspecies: Sideritis x paui nothosubsp. enguerana (S. hirsuta X S. incana subsp. virgata, is described for the mountains of Valencia Province (E of Spain.

    Se revisa la nomenclatura de algunos híbridos vasculares ibéricos, proponiéndose algunas nuevas combinaciones: Centaurea X subdecurrens var. segobricensis, C. X subdecurrens notbosubsp. albuferae, Cistus X hybridus nothosubsp. grandiflorus var. secallianus. C. X ledon var. recognitus, C. X nigricans var. longifolius, C. X nigricans nothosubsp. grosii y Onopordum X humile var. turolensis. Además, se describe una nueva notosubespecie de las montañas de la provincia de Valencia: Sideritis X paui nothosubsp. enguerana (S. hirsuta X S. incana subsp. virgata.

  19. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships and genome size evolution of the Amaranthus genus using GBS indicates the ancestors of an ancient crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Markus G; Schmid, Karl J

    2017-04-01

    The genus Amaranthus consists of 50-70 species and harbors several cultivated and weedy species of great economic importance. A small number of suitable traits, phenotypic plasticity, gene flow and hybridization made it difficult to establish the taxonomy and phylogeny of the whole genus despite various studies using molecular markers. We inferred the phylogeny of the Amaranthus genus using genotyping by sequencing (GBS) of 94 genebank accessions representing 35 Amaranthus species and measured their genome sizes. SNPs were called by de novo and reference-based methods, for which we used the distant sugarbeet Beta vulgaris and the closely related Amaranthus hypochondriacus as references. SNP counts and proportions of missing data differed between methods, but the resulting phylogenetic trees were highly similar. A distance-based neighbor joining tree of individual accessions and a species tree calculated with the multispecies coalescent supported a previous taxonomic classification into three subgenera although the subgenus A. Acnida consists of two highly differentiated clades. The analysis of the Hybridus complex within the A. Amaranthus subgenus revealed insights on the history of cultivated grain amaranths. The complex includes the three cultivated grain amaranths and their wild relatives and was well separated from other species in the subgenus. Wild and cultivated amaranth accessions did not differentiate according to the species assignment but clustered by their geographic origin from South and Central America. Different geographically separated populations of Amaranthus hybridus appear to be the common ancestors of the three cultivated grain species and A. quitensis might be additionally be involved in the evolution of South American grain amaranth (A. caudatus). We also measured genome sizes of the species and observed little variation with the exception of two lineages that showed evidence for a recent polyploidization. With the exception of two lineages

  20. Comportamento de diversas plantas daninhas, de ocorrência comum no estado de São Paulo, em relação a duas espécies de nematóides das galhas: primeira parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.C.B. Ferraz

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de 10 espécies de plantas daninhas, comuns no Estado de São Paulo, quando o solo em que vegetavam foi inoculado com os nematóides das galhas Meloidogyne incognita raça 4 ou M. javanica. As avaliações foram feitas 50 dias após a inoculação dos parasitos, baseando-se nos números de galha s e ootec as pre sentes nas raízes e nos valores de altura e de pesos secos da parte aérea e sistemas radiculares das plantas. Em relação as duas espécies de nematóides, comportaram-se como alta mente suscetíveis Alternaria ficoidea (apaga -fogo e Ipomoea acuminata (cordade -viola , como olerantes Amaranthus hybridus var. patulus (caruru e Commelina virgunica (trapoeraba, como pouco suscetível Euphorbia heterophylla (amendoim bravo e como altamente resistentes Blainvillea rhomboidea (erva - palha, Crotonn glandulosus (gervãobranco, Emilia sonchifolia (serralha e Tagetes minuta (cravo-de-defunto. O carrapicho-de-carneiro, Acant horpermum hispidum, mostrou-se altamente resis tente a M. incognita raça 4 e moderadamente suscetível a M. javanica.The behaviour of ten different weed species belonging to Amaranthaceae, Commelinaceae, Compositae, Convolvulaceae and Euphorbiaceae in relation to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 4 and M. javanica was studied under greenhouse conditions. Evaluations were carried out 50 days after the nematode inoculations, by means of gall and egg masses indexes observed in the root systems and through the determination of height and/or top dry weight of the plants. Alternanthera ficoidea and Ipomoea acuminate were considered highly suscetible to both nematode species; Amaranthus hybridus var. patul us and Commelina virgunica were tolerant to the arasites whereas Euphorbia heterophylla showed low susceptibility; Acanthospernum hispidum was conside red moderately suscetible to M. javanica and highly resistant to M. incognita race 4; all other weeds - Blainvillea rhomboidea

  1. Seletividade e eficácia da aplicação sequencial de oxyfluorfen e de ioxynil-octanoato, em semeadura direta de cebola Selectivity and efficacy of the sequential application of oxyfluorfen and ioxynyl-octanoate in direct sowing of onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino R. Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando avaliar os efeitos do parcelamento da dose de oxyfluorfen e ioxyniloctanoato sobre a tolerância de plantas de cebola 'Granex 33' e a eficiência no controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, instalada por semeadura direta, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um na presença de plantas daninhas e o outro na ausência das mesmas. Ioxynil-octanoato, quando aplicado em doses acima de 0,125 kg/ha, aos 19 DAS, foi menos seletivo para o cultivar Granex 33 do que o oxyfluorfen. O parcelamento da dose, em até três aplicações, aumentou a tolerância das plantas de cebola ao oxyfluorfen e ao ioxynil-octanoato. Oxyfluorfen, nas doses avaliadas, controlou Galinsoga parviflora e Amaranthus hybridus, porém não controlou Lepidium virginicum e Coronopus didymus. Ioxynil-octanoato a 0,125 kg/ha, aos 19 DAS, mais duas aplicações de 0,25 kg/ha aos 34 e 65 DAS, controlou as espécies daninhas presentes, com produção de bulbos semelhantes à testemunha capinada. Nenhum dos herbicidas influenciou a conservação pós-colheita dos bulbos até 120 dias de armazenamento.With the purpose of evaluating the splitting of the dose of oxyfluorfen and ioxynyloctanoato on the tolerance of the 'Granex 33' onion plants and the efficiency on the weed control at crop, installed by direct sowing, two experiment were carried out, one in the presence and the other in the absence of weeds. Ioxynyloctanoato, when applied in doses higher than 0.125 kg/ha, at 19 DAS, was less selective for the 'Granex 33' cultivar than oxyfluorfen. Splitting of the doses, up to three applications, increased the tolerance of onion plants toward both oxyfluorfen and ioxynyl-octanoato. Oxyfluorfen, at the evaluated doses, controlled Galinsoga parviflora and Amaranthus hybridus; however it did not control Lepidium virginicum and Coronopus didymus. Ioxynyl-octanoato at 0.125 kg/ha, at 19 DAS, plus two applications of 0.25 kg/ha at 34 and 65 DAS, controlled the existing weeds, with

  2. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura de cebola (Allium cepa transplantada Periods of weed interference with transplanted onion crop (Allium cepa

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    D.J. Soares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de períodos de convivência (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias após o transplantio de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade de quatro cultivares de cebola (Mercedes, Granex 33, Superex e Serrana, em sistema de transplantio de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em Jaboticabal-SP, de abril a outubro de 2000, utilizando delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 8. As principais populações de plantas daninhas no final dos períodos de convivência foram de Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus e Cyperus rotundus. Os cultivares Mercedes (2,90 kgm-2 e Granex 33 (2,64 kgm-2 foram os mais produtivos, independentemente da interferência das plantas daninhas. A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante os primeiros 98 dias reduziu a produtividade da cebola em 95% e o peso médio de bulbos em 91%. O período anterior à interferência (PAI foi de 42 dias, não havendo diferença entre os cultivares de cebola.This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of weed coexistence periods (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting on the productivity of four onion cultivars (Mercedez, Granex 33, Superex and Serrana. The experiment was installed in Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil, from April to October 2000, arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications, in a factorial design 4 x 8. The main weed populations at the end of the coexistence periods were Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus and Cyperus rotundus. The cultivars Mercedez (2.90 kg m-2 and Granex-33 (2.64 kg m-2 were the most productive, under the conditions of weed interference.Weed interference during the first 98 days reduced production weight around 95% and the average weight of bulbs was reduced by 91%. For all the cultivars, weed coexistence the during the first 42 days after transplanting did not reduce the total

  3. Amaranto BRS Alegria: alternativa para diversificar os sistemas de produção Amaranth BRS Alegria: alternative for diversification of cropping systems

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    Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação do sistema produtivo depende de espécies com rápido crescimento, tolerância ao déficit hídrico, produção de biomassa, ciclagem de nutrientes e utilização humana e animal. As espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus apresentam essas características e sementes claras, sem dormência. Distinguem-se das invasoras A. spinosus, A. hybridus, A. blitum e A. viridis, com sementes escuras e dormentes. Os grãos, com excelente qualidade protéica, atendem à demanda por dietas especiais, livres de glúten e podem ser usados na alimentação animal. O A. cruentus BRS Alegria, primeira recomendação ao cultivo granífero no Brasil, originou-se da variedade AM 5189, dos Estados Unidos, na qual realizou-se seleção massal. Em sucessão à soja, apresentou produção média de 2.359 kg ha-1 de grãos e 5.650 kg ha-1 de biomassa total em apenas 90 dias de ciclo.Diversification of production systems depends on rapid growth, tolerance to hydric stress, biomass production, nutrient cycling and human and animal utilization. The grain amaranth species Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus, with light seed colour and no dormancy, present these characteristics. They are distinguishable from the weeds A. spinosus, A. hybridus, A. blitum and A. viridis, with dark and dormant seeds. Their grains, with excellent protein quality, can be used in gluten-free special diets and livestock feed. The A. cruentus BRS Alegria, the first recommendation for grain production systems in Brazil, originated from mass selection in the variety AM 5189 of the United States. In double-cropping, after soybeans, it showed average yield of 2,359 kg ha-1 for grain and of 5,650 kg ha-1 for total biomass, in 90 days from emergence to maturity.

  4. Extraction purification and characterization of trypsin inhibitors from Andean seeds

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    Patricio Castillo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work established the conditions of covalent immobilization of trypsin on a Sepharose matrix, which could be applied for the purification of trypsin inhibitors. The higher values of retention of enzymatic activity and immobilized enzymatic activity were obtained with a Sepharose 6B-CL matrix, at room temperature, a pH value of 10.5, an enzymatic load of 25 mg/mL, and a minimum immobilization time of 12 hours, in order to obtain a stable immobilization. The most active trypsin inhibitors were selected through the comparison of, extracts obtained from the seeds of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L., pea (Pisum sativum, lupine or “chocho” (Lupinus mutabilis, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and “sangorache” (Amaranthus hybridus L.. The inhibitors were partially purified using centrifugal ultrafiltration, heat treatment, and TCA precipitation. The permeated and retained fractions of “sangorache” were selected as the most active trypsin inhibitors, and they were selectively purified using affinity chromatography in a Trypsin - Glyoxyl - Sepharose 6B-CL matrix. The kinetic characterization showed the presence of two inhibitors; the first one corresponded to a competitive inhibitor, while the second one behaved as a mixed inhibitor.

  5. The complete chloroplast genome sequences for four Amaranthus species (Amaranthaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Lindsay; Mangelson, Ryan; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Jellen, Eric N.; Maughan, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: The amaranth genus contains many important grain and weedy species. We further our understanding of the genus through the development of a complete reference chloroplast genome. Methods and Results: A high-quality Amaranthus hypochondriacus (Amaranthaceae) chloroplast genome assembly was developed using long-read technology. This reference genome was used to reconstruct the chloroplast genomes for two closely related grain species (A. cruentus and A. caudatus) and their putative progenitor (A. hybridus). The reference genome was 150,518 bp and possesses a circular structure of two inverted repeats (24,352 bp) separated by small (17,941 bp) and large (83,873 bp) single-copy regions; it encodes 111 genes, 72 for proteins. Relative to the reference chloroplast genome, an average of 210 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 122 insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indels) were identified across the analyzed genomes. Conclusions: This reference chloroplast genome, along with the reported simple sequence repeats, SNPs, and indels, is an invaluable genetic resource for studying the phylogeny and genetic diversity within the amaranth genus. PMID:27672525

  6. Yield and Quality of Forage Sorghum and Different Amaranth Species (Amaranthus spp. Biomass

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    Ana Pospišil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigations carried out on the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, Zagreb, in 2002, 2003 and 2004 was to compare green mass and dry matter yields of forage sorghum and amaranth, and the nutritional value of these two crops at several development stages. Investigations included two amaranth cultivars: ‘1008’ (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and ‘Koniz’ (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. x Amaranthus hybridus L., and forage sorghum, hybrid Grazer N (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense. In all three trial years, forage sorghum gave the highest green mass and dry matter yield at the tasselling stage. In 2003, also amaranth, cultivar 1008, gave a high green mass yield at the flowering, which was in the same rank as forage sorghum. Decline of biomass quality was observed at later development stages due to a decrease in the concentration of crude and digestible proteins and an increase in NDF (neutral detergent fibre and ADF (acid detergent fibre concentrations. High quality of amaranth biomass was determined. Higher concentrations of crude and digestible proteins were found in amaranth aboveground biomass compared to forage sorghum while sorghum had a higher NDF concentration.

  7. Perspectives on allelopathy in mexican traditional agroecosystems: A case study in tlaxcala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, A L; Ramos, L; Cruz, R; Hernández, J G; Nava, V

    1987-11-01

    Agroecosystems in Tlaxcala, Mexico, are surrounded by trees and water channels and have a great variety of cultivated and noncultivated plants. The main results of a study carried out on a traditional agroecosystem in Santa Inés, Tlaxcala are presented. Some ecological aspects of polycultures, plant covers (dry leaves ofAlnus firmifolia, Berula erecta, andJuncus sp.), and the allelopathic potential of crops and noncultivated plants (fresh and dry material) were analyzed. The main plants (trees, shrubs, and herbs) present in the agroecosystem were identified. The total number of weeds in plots where plant covers were added was reduced. The number of nodules ofRhizobium phaseoli and the production of bean and squash increased with plant covers. Corn, beans, and squash showed a clear allelopathic effect, as well asChenopodium murale, Tradescantia crassifolia, Melilotus indicus, andAmaranthus hybridus, among other weeds. The contribution of allelopathy in studies of traditional agroecosystems is of great importance for the management of species in space and time. Allelopathy can be the basis of biological control of pests and weeds and of the discovery of new useful substances.

  8. Absorção, translocação e metabolismo do glyphosate por plantas tolerantes e suscetíveis a este herbicida Absorption, translocation and metabolism of glyphosate by plants tolerant and susceptible to this herbicide

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    P.A. Monquero

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a absorção foliar, a translocação e o metabolismo do 14C-glyphosate pelas plantas daninhas Commelina benghalensis, Ipomoea grandifolia e Amaranthus hybridus. O glyphosate foi aplicado através de quatro gotas de 0,5 µL de uma solução contendo o produto comercial, na dose de campo de 720 g e.a. ha-1 em mistura com 14C-glyphosate, na face adaxial da segunda folha verdadeira das plantas estudadas. As avaliações foram feitas a 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 e 72 horas após o tratamento com o herbicida (HAT para os estudos de absorção e translocação e 72 HAT para os estudos de metabolismo. Os resultados de absorção e translocação demonstraram que mais de 90% do glyphosate aplicado foi absorvido por A. hybridus até 72 HAT. A maior parte do herbicida permaneceu na folha tratada, com uma taxa de translocação em torno de 25% do glyphosate aplicado. Em I. grandifolia, 80% do herbicida foi absorvido até 72 HAT, porém houve menor translocação-somente 2,2; 3,5; e 4,6% de 14C glyphosate absorvido estava presente na parte aérea, no caule e na raiz. C. benghalensis apresentou uma taxa de absorção de 66% até 72 HAT, sendo, portanto, a penetração diferencial do herbicida glyphosate um provável mecanismo de tolerância desta planta daninha. Nessa avaliação, 39% do glyphosate estava presente na folha tratada e 15,2 e 11,6% na parte aérea e raiz, respectivamente. Nos estudos de metabolismo foi detectado o metabólito ácido aminometilfosfônico (AMPA apenas em C. benghalensis, sendo, portanto, o metabolismo diferencial um possível mecanismo de tolerância desta planta daninha. Os resultados obtidos nesta pesquisa permitem concluir que os mecanismos de tolerância de C. benghalensis ao glyphosate são a absorção diferencial e o metabolismo do herbicida pela planta daninha. Em I. grandifolia a tolerância ocorre devido a uma menor translocação do herbicida, não havendo evidências de metabolismo

  9. Phytosociological survey of weeds in banana plantations in the Gorutuba River Valley, northern Minas Gerais = Levantamento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas em áreas de bananicultura no Vale do Rio Gorutuba, norte de Minas Gerais

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    Hercules Gustavo dos Santos Sarmento

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological surveys are very important when identifying an invasive community in order to carry out more suitable weed management. The aim of this study therefore, was to identify the main species of weeds in banana plantations, both newly-planted and under production, in the northern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For the phytosociological study and characterisation of the weed community, two areas of ‘Prata’ bananas, both of 10 hectares, were evaluated using the method of inventory squares, which were randomly thrown along a zigzag path. The following phytosociological variables were evaluated: frequency, relative frequency, density, relative density, abundance, relative abundance, importance value index, relativeimportance value index and similarity index. In the newly-planted area, 17 species were found, divided into 15 genera and ten families, with the Fabaceae and Poaceae families being prominent. The species with the highest importance indices were: Sida spp. (62.38, Galinsoga parviflora (32.36, Amaranthus hybridus (24.93 and Ipomoea hederifolia (19.61. In the area under production, 12 species, 12 genera and ten families were found, with the Asteraceae family being prominent. The species with the highest relative-importance value indices were: Commelina benghalensis (39.19, Emilia fosbergii (34.42 and Amaranthus hybridus (32.96. Between the two areas, there was a difference in the mean values for density, and for the number of plants with C4 metabolism; five in the newly-planted area, and three in the area under production. The Similarity Index between the two areas was 48.27%, with seven species common to both areas. = O levantamento fitossociológico é muito importante para conhecer a comunidade infestante e, com isso, realizar de forma mais adequada o manejo das plantas daninhas. Objetiva-se com este trabalho identificar as principais espécies de plantas daninhas em áreas de bananicultura recém-implantadas e

  10. Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction

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    R.C. Werlang

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%, Desmodium tortuosum (100%, Bidens pilosa (99%, Eleusine indica (96%, Digitaria horizontalis (100% e Commelina benghalensis (93% aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamente controlou eficazmente C. benghalensis. As misturas de glyphosate nas doses de 252 e 720 g ha-1 com carfentrazone-ethyl nas doses de 15 e 30 g ha¹ demonstraram efeito aditivo no controle de A. hybridus, D. tortuosum e Bidens pilosa, à exceção das misturas de glyphosate na dose de 252 g ha-1 com as doses de 15 e 30 g ha-1 de carfentrazone-ethyl, que proporcionam efeito sinergístico no controle de D. tortuosum. A adição das duas doses de carfentrazone-ethyl antagonizou o efeito de glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 no controle de E. indica, apresentando, no entanto, efeito aditivo com o glyphosate na maior dose (720 g ha-1. Já para D. horizontalis, as misturas de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 apresentaram efeito sinergístico no controle dessa espécie, demonstrando, ainda, efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1. A mistura de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate proporcionou efeito aditivo no controle de C. benghalensis, independentemente das combinações de doses avaliadas. Os resultados deste experimento indicam que carfentrazone-ethyl apresenta comportamento diferenciado quanto à interação com glyphosate, dependendo da espécie de planta daninha e da dose dos herbicidas utilizados na mistura em tanque, sendo complementar na mistura em tanque com glyphosate, pois demonstrou efeito antagônico em poucas das combinações estudadas, prevalecendo seu efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate, no

  11. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects.

  12. Update on the efficacy and safety of Petadolex®, a butterbur extract for migraine prophylaxis

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    Prieto JM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jose M Prieto Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry, UCL School of Pharmacy, London, UK Abstract: Migraine has a heavy socioeconomic impact in terms of lost productivity and burden on the health care system. The efficacy of current drug regimens in migraine prophylaxis is limited, and therapeutic alternatives are needed. These include a range of herbal medicines based on butterbur, feverfew, St John's wort, and Ginkgo. Of these, Petadolex®, an extract of the butterbur root, is the most promising. Petadolex® has been investigated in four studies, including one good quality clinical trial involving 202 patients, two randomized controlled trials with smaller cohorts including adults and children, and a large observational, open-label study. However, post-marketing surveillance only supports its safety at lower doses and over treatment durations shorter than those used in the clinical trials. Moreover, the long-term safety of the product has been called into question, leading to withdrawal in some European countries. This review draws an overall picture of this complex set of data. The safety and efficacy of Petadolex® remains a matter of debate by a number of clinical, regulatory, and professional bodies. Keywords: Petasites hybridus, migraine, herbal medicine, clinical evidence, safety

  13. Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem

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    SRI WIDAWATI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Widawati S (2011 Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem. Biodiversitas 12: 17-21. Soil, water, sand, and plant rhizosphere samples collected from coastal ecosystem of Laki Island-Jakarta were screened for phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB. While the population was dependent on the cultivation media and the sample type, the highest bacterial population was observed in the rhizosphere of Ipomea aquatica. The PSB strains isolated from the sample registered 18.59 g-1L-1, 18.31 g-1L-1, and 5.68 g-1L-1 of calcium phosphate (Ca-P, Al-P and rock phosphate solubilization after 7-days. Phosphate solubilizing capacity was the highest in the Ca-P medium. Two strains, 13 and 14, registered highest Phosphomonoesterase activities (2.01 µgNP.g-1.h-1 and 1.85NP µg.g-1.h-1 were identified as Serattia marcescens, and Pseudomonas fluorescense, respectively. Both strains were isolated from the crops of Amaranthus hybridus and I. aquatica, respectively, which are commonly observed in coastal ecosystems. The presence of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and their ability to solubilize various types of phosphate species are indicative of the important role of both species of bacteria in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus and the plant growth in coastal ecosystems.

  14. Optimizing the use of biological indicators for detection of significant pollutant types. Optimierung verschiedener Bioindikationsverfahren zur Erfassung wichtiger Immissionstypen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.D.

    1982-04-14

    Bioindication methods to determine the different pollutant types have been compared using the accumulation indicators Halian ryegrass (cloned material) and pine (Picea abies) and the sensitive indicator species tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), gladiolus (G. hybridus), tulip (T. gesneriana), leek (A. porrum), clover (T. pratense), alfalfa (M. sativa), spinach (S. oleracea), petunia (P. hybrida), pelargonium (P. zonale), French marigold (T. patula), salvia (S. splendens) and ipomoea (I. purpurea). Field tests were carried out on 15 different sites in Bavaria. By means of the accumulation indicators, inorganic pollutants (S, F, Cl, Pb, Cd, Zn) were to be determined by analyses of the plant material. In the sensitive indicator plants, growth and flowering were studied with regard to external damage. In tobacco plants, also the physiological parameters and the total nitrogen concentration were determined. The following recommendations can be made for region with unknown pollutant levels: Accumulation indicators can be used in large areas; they yield valid information in case of high pollutant levels and react in a highly differentiated manner to site-specific pollutant levels already within the normal concentration range. Sensitive indicators are of use only in the direct vicinity of large-scale pollution sources. They have a signal function and may warn of high air pollution levels.

  15. Effect of Processing on the Vitamin C Content of Seven Nigerian Green Leafy Vegetables

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    Olubukola Babalola

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effect of processing on the Vitamin C content of seven Nigerian green leafy vegetables, Telfaria occidentalis (ugu, Talinum triangulare (waterleaf, Basella alba (indian spinach, Celosia argentea (soko, Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf, Amaranthus hybridus (tete and Crassephalum crepidioees (rorowo. Processing methods employed are, blanching, boiling, sundrying, squeezewashing, squeeze-washing with salt and squeeze-washing with boiling. Raw ugu had highest Vitamin C content of 62.50 mg/100g while raw waterleaf had the lowest value of 9.30 mg/100g. Blanching and boiling reduced the Vitamin C content of soko and tete tremendously with a value of 91.50% reduction for boiled tete. The percentage loss for sundried vegetables was the lowest when compared with other processing methods with a reduction of 6.50 and 12.40% in indian spinach and rorowo, respectively. Squeeze washing reduced the Vitamin C content of ugu from 62.50 mg/100g to 6.47 mg/100g (89.65% and bitter leaf from 42.40 mg/100g to 4.28 mg/100g (89.90%. Squeeze-washing followed by boiling of bitter leaf reduced the Vitamin C content from 42.40 mg/100g to 2.18 mg/100g recording the highest loss of 94.90% when compared with other processing methods.

  16. Screening of traditional South African leafy vegetables for specific anti-nutritional factors before and after processing

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    Humaira ESSACK

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effect of processing on anti-nutritional factors of thirteen traditional leafy vegetables collected in Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa. The aim was to determine whether processing reduced anti-nutrient levels of leafy vegetables. The vegetables were boiled in a plant-to-distilled water ratio of 1:4 (w/v at 97 °C for a time period of 5 and 15 min. The vegetables studied were: Amaranthus dubius, Amaranthus hybridus, Asystasia gangetica, Bidens pilosa, Ceratotheca triloba, Chenopodium album, Emex australis, Galinsoga parviflora, Guilleminea densa, Momordica balsamina, Oxygonum sinuatum, Physalis viscosa and Solanum nigrum. From this study, it was determined that non processed samples contained anti-nutrients such as tannins, phytic acid, alkaloids, oxalic acid, and cyanogenic glycoside. Both boiling parameters were effective in reducing the tannin, phytic acid, alkaloid, oxalic acid and cyanogenic glycoside contents of all 13 traditional leafy vegetables. The results of this study provide evidence that the local traditional leafy vegetables which the population is so reliant upon, are important contributors to micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries and can be minimized through common boiling methods for a minimum of 5 and maximum of 15 minutes.

  17. EL ÁCIDO ABSCÍSICO ACELERA EL DESARROLLO FLORAL DE SOLIDAGO EN DÍAS CORTOS ABSCISIC ACID SPEED UP FLORAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOLIDAGO UNDER SHORT DAYS

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    Víctor Julio Flórez Roncancio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Solidago x luteus (M. L. Greene Broulliet y Semple (= x Solidaster hybridus, x S. luteus es una planta que responde a días cortos (DC para el desarrollo floral. En este proceso se ha establecido la participación de varias fitohormonas, entre éstas, la presencia del ácido abscísico (ABA en zonas y periodos específicos durante el desarrollo de la flor lo cual sugiere su acción promotora en la velocidad de antesis floral de esta especie en DC. En este trabajo se buscaron nuevos indicios de la participación de fitohormonas presentes en la fracción ácida con el proceso de floración. En una primera etapa, extractos foliares provenientes de hojas de plantas en días largos (caracterizadas por menor velocidad de antesis floral se aplicaron en botones florales de plantas en días cortos (caracterizadas por una mayor velocidad de antesis floral. Se realizaron ocho aplicaciones con diferentes frecuencias totalizando un periodo de tratamiento de 25 días. Los resultados mostraron que las sustancias presentes en los extractos de la fracción ácida, no alteran la velocidad promedio de antesis floral en los botones florales de plantas en DC. En la segunda etapa del experimento, la cuantificación de los extractos por ELISA, permitió establecer una mayor concentración de ABA en los extractos de hojas y de botones florales de plantas en DC y de botones florales en el inicio del tratamiento. Estos resultados confirman la relación del ABA con la mayor velocidad de antesis floral en plantas de Solidago x luteus en condiciones de DC.Solidago x luteus (M.L. Greene Broulliet & Semple (= x Solidaster hybridus, x S. luteus is a plant that respond to short days (SD for flower development. In this process, there has been established the involvement of many phytohormones, between these, the presence of the abscisic acid (ABA in zones and specific periods during flower development, suggests its promoter roll on the floral anthesis period of this species under

  18. Seleção de plantas com potencial para fitorremediação de tebuthiuron Plant selection with potential for tebuthiuron phytodecontamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. Pires

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar espécies tolerantes ao tebuthiuron, visando utilizá-las em programas de fitorremediação de solos contaminados com esse herbicida. Foram avaliadas: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, Chamaesyce hyssopifolia, C. hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus annus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium aterrimum, Raphanus raphanistrum e Crotalaria incana. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos contendo 3 dm³ de solo de textura argilo-arenosa com 2,18 dag kg¹ de matéria orgânica. O experimento foi delineado em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições de tratamentos em fatorial 10 x 4 x 4, os quais foram constituídos por 10 espécies, quatro doses de tebuthiuron (0,0; 5,0; 1,0; e 2,0 kg ha-1, aplicadas em pré-emergência, e quatro épocas de avaliação (15, 30, 45 e 60 dias após a semeadura. Foram avaliadas a fitotoxicidade do herbicida, a altura de plantas e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta. Canavalia ensiformes e Pennisetum typhoides foram tolerantes ao tebuthiuron na dose de 0,5 kg ha-1. Estizolobium aterrimum tolerou tebuthiuron até a dose de 1,0 kg ha¹, apresentando fitotoxicidade menos acentuada e menor redução de altura de plantas e da massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta em relação ao tratamento testemunha.This study aimed to select tebuthiuron- tolerant plants to use them in phytoremediation programs in contaminated soils. The evaluated species were: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, C. hyssopifolia, Chamaesyce hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus annus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium aterrimum, Raphanus raphanistrum and Crotalaria incana. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with a sandy-clay soil with 2.18 dag kg-1 of organic matter, in pots of 3 dm³ capacity. The experiment was arranged in a 10 x 4 x 4 factorial scheme in a randomized block design with three

  19. Controle de plantas daninhas através da palha de cana-de-açúcar associada à mistura dos herbicidas trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametrina Weed control through green cane harvesting residue combined with the herbicide mixture trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryne

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    R. Gravena

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da palha de cana-de-açúcar resultante da colheita sem queima e da mistura comercial dos herbicidas trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametrina, na emergência e no acúmulo de biomassa seca de nove espécies de plantas daninhas. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em esquema fatorial 3 x 3, sendo três quantidades de palha resultantes da colheita da cana-de-açúcar sem queima (0, 10 e 15 t ha-1, e três doses da mistura formulada dos herbicidas trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametrina (0, 1,75 e 2,00 kg ha-1, aplicados em condições de pós-emergência das plantas daninhas. As densidades das plantas daninhas foram avaliadas aos 15, 60 e 90 dias após a aplicação (DAA da mistura dos herbicidas, e a biomassa seca das plantas daninhas, aos 90 DAA. A presença de palha sobre o solo suprimiu as densidades das populações de Brachiaria plantaginea, Digitaria horizontalis, Panicum maximum, Sida glaziovii e Amaranthus hybridus a níveis de infestação considerados satisfatórios de controle. A palhada também reduziu as populações de Senna obtusifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia, I. grandifolia e I. nil, porém em níveis insatisfatórios de controle. A mistura de herbicidas nas doses estudadas controlou todas as espécies de plantas daninhas avaliadas. Na presença da palha, o controle das plantas de S. obtusifolia, I. nil, I. hederifolia e I. grandifolia somente foi satisfatório quando foi aplicada a mistura de herbicidas. Para o controle de P. maximum, houve vantagem na integração dos dois métodos de controle, em relação à aplicação isolada da menor quantidade de palha estudada ou à aplicação da mistura de herbicidas.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of green cane harvesting residue and of the herbicide mixture trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryne on the emergence and dry biomass accumulation of nine weed species. The treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial design, with three green cane

  20. Effects of logging, hunting, and forest fragment size on physiological stress levels of two sympatric ateline primates in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Link, Andrés; Heistermann, Michael; Gómez-Posada, Carolina; Galvis, Nelson; Heymann, Eckhard W.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbances are of major concern to the conservation of endangered species because of their potentially negative impact on animal populations. Both processes can impose physiological stress (i.e. increased glucocorticoid output) on animals, and chronically elevated stress levels can have detrimental effects on the long-term viability of animal populations. Here, we investigated the effect of fragment size and human impact (logging and hunting pressure) on glucocorticoid levels of two sympatric Neotropical primates, the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) and the critically endangered brown spider monkey (Ateles hybridus). These two species have been reported to contrast strongly in their ability to cope with anthropogenic disturbances. We collected faecal samples from eight spider monkey groups and 31 howler monkey groups, living in seven and 10 different forest fragments in Colombia, respectively. We measured faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGCM) levels in both species using previously validated methods. Surprisingly, fragment size did not influence FGCM levels in either species. Spider monkeys showed elevated FGCMs in fragments with the highest level of human impact, whereas we did not find this effect in howler monkeys. This suggests that the two species differ in their physiological responsiveness to anthropogenic changes, further emphasizing why brown spider monkeys are at higher extinction risk than red howler monkeys. If these anthropogenic disturbances persist in the long term, elevated FGCM levels can potentially lead to a state of chronic stress, which might limit the future viability of populations. We propose that FGCM measurements should be used as a tool to monitor populations living in disturbed areas and to assess the success of conservation strategies, such as corridors connecting forest fragments. PMID:27293615

  1. Evaluation of Nutritive and Antioxidant Properties of Blanched Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

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    Oulai Patricia D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of steam blanching processing on the nutritive value and the antioxidant properties of five leafy vegetable species (Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata that are used for sauce preparation in Northern CÔte d'Ivoire. The selected leafy vegetables were subjected to blanching in pressure cooker for 15, 25 and 45 min and the physicochemical properties were determined using AOAC methods. The result of the study revealed that longer time of blanching (higher than 15 min caused negative impact by reducing nutritive value but positive impact by reducing anti-nutrients and increasing polyphenols. The registered losses (p0.05 at 15 min were as follow: ash (0.08-10.01%, proteins (0.36-12.03%, vitamin C (19.56-68.67%, carotenoids (18.91-55.48% oxalates (3.58-21.39% and phytates (10.51-68.02%. The average increase of polyphenols contents at 15 min of blanching was 1.61 to 30.72%. In addition, a slight increase (0.35-4.16% of fibres content was observed in the studied blanched leafy vegetables. Furthermore, after 15 min of blanching time the residual contents (p0.05 of minerals were: calcium (264.88-844.92 mg/100 g, magnesium (49.45-435.43 mg/100 g, potassium (675-1895.41 mg/100 g, iron (14.54-70.89 mg/100 g and zinc (9.48-36.46 mg/100 g. All these results suggest that the recommended time of domestic blanching must be less than 15 min for the studied leafy vegetables in order to contribute efficiently to the nutritional requirement and to the food security of Ivorian population

  2. The differential effects of CO{sub 2} on relative growth rates of a C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grise, D.J.; Sage, R.F. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-09-01

    We examined growth and allocation in Chenopodium album (C{sub 3}) and Amaranthus hybridus (C{sub 4}) at three CO{sub 2} levels (350, 750 and 1000 {mu}bar CO{sub 2}), at 34{degrees}C. Although net assimilation rate increased at higher than current ambient CO{sub 2} treatments for Chenopodium, relative growth rates for this species were significantly lower (P<0.001) than for Amaranthus at all CO{sub 2} treatments. However, the nature of the difference in relative growth rate changed across CO{sub 2} treatments. At 350 and 750 {mu}bar CO{sub 2}, differences in relative growth rates between species were not linearly maintained throughout the course of the experiment, the difference in relative growth rates between species was larger at the start of the experiment than at the end of the experiment. At 1000 {mu}bar CO{sub 2}, the difference in relative growth rate between species was linearly maintained throughout the course of the experiment. In this treatment, the pattern of relative growth rate for the C{sub 3} plant is the same as that of the C{sub 4} plant. On the basis of this experiment, we predict, at 34{degrees}C, the C{sub 3} plant will not successfully compete with the C{sub 4} plant at 350 or 750 {mu}bar CO{sub 2}, but might be able to compete successfully at 1000 {mu}bar CO{sub 2}.

  3. Responses of two summer annuals to interactions of atmospheric carbon dioxide and soil nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The competitive relationship between Chenopodium album L. (C{sub 3}) and Amaranthus hybridus L. (C{sub 4}) was investigated in two atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels and tow soil nitrogen levels. Biomass and leaf surface area of Amaranthus plants did not respond to CO{sub 2} enrichment. Only in high nitrogen did Chenopodium plants respond to increased CO{sub 2} with greater biomass and leaf surface area. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) was higher in Amaranthus than in Chenopodium in all treatments except for the high-nitrogen high-CO{sub 2} treatment. Under conditions of high nitrogen and low CO{sub 2}, Chenopodium was a poor competitor, but competition favored Chenopodium in high nitrogen and high CO{sub 2}. In low nitrogen and high CO{sub 2}, competition favored Chenopodium on a dry weight basis, but favored Amaranthus on a seed weight basis, reflecting early senescence of Chenopodium. In low nitrogen and high CO{sub 2}, competition favored Amaranthus on a dry weight basis, but favored Chenopodium on a seed weight basis. Physiological aspects of the growth of Chenopodium and Amaranthus were studied. Acclimation to elevated CO{sub 2} occurred at the enzyme level in Chenopodium. Under conditions of high nitrogen and no competition, individual Chenopodium plants responded to elevated CO{sub 2} with greater biomass, leaf surface area, and maximum net photosynthetic rates. In high nitrogen, leaf nitrogen, soluble protein, and RuBP carboxylase activity of Chenopodium decreased and NUE increased when grown in elevated CO{sub 2}. In low nitrogen without competition, Chenopodium showed no significant response to CO{sub 2} enrichment. Amarantus grown in high and low nitrogen without competition showed no significant changes in leaf nitrogen, soluble protein, carboxylase activity, chlorophyll, or NUE of in response to CO{sub 2} enrichment.

  4. Nutritive and Antioxidant properties of Shade Dried Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

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    Patricia Dehegnan Oulaï

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables are highly perishable and often subjected to post-harvest wastes. Among the various methods of preservation, the effect of shadow drying on the nutritive value and antioxidant properties of five (5 leafy vegetables species widely consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire was investigated. These species were Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata. Experiment was conducted as follow: portions of washed and drained fresh leafy vegetables (500 g were spread on clean filter paper and kept in a well-ventilated room of the laboratory at 25°C for 5, 10 and 15 days. The results of proximate composition after 15 days of shadow drying were: moisture (15.19 – 20.36%, ash (9.14 -19.54%, crude fiber (11.04 – 27.40%, proteins (11.14 - 17.94%, lipids (2.41 – 5.86% and carbohydrates (16.59 – 45.14%. The concentration of minerals increased with respective values after 15 days of shadow drying: calcium (68.14-408.09 mg/100 g, magnesium (50.62-317.23 mg/100 g, iron (27.52-92.03 mg/100 g and zinc (10.17-16.73 mg/100 g. During shadow drying, vitamin C and carotenoids were subjected to losses estimated to 35.52 – 70.50% and 22.82 – 45.63%, respectively. Contrary to these losses, antioxidant activity increased and ranged from 57.45 to 75.55 % after 15 days of shadow drying. All these results suggest that the considerable nutrient contents of shade dried leafy vegetables make them good source of food supplements in order to meet the nutritional requirements of Ivorian population.

  5. TAXONOMY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ISOLATED FROM CULTIVATED PLANTS, WEEDS AND THEIR PATHOGENICITY FOR WHEAT

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    Jasenka Ćosić

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species are wide-spread and known to be pathogenic agents to cultivated plants in various agroclimatic areas. During a four year investigation 10 Fusarium species and Microdochium nivale were isolated from wheat, barley, maize and soybean as well as from 10 weeds collected from 10 locations in Slavonia and Baranya. Fusarium graminearum was dominant on wheat and barley, F. moniliforme on maize and F. oxysporum on soybean. Regarding weeds, the presence of the following Fusarium species was established: F. graminearum on Amaranthus hybridus, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Lamium purpureum, Sorghum halepense and Urtica dioica, F. moniliforme on Abutilon theophrasti, F. subglutinans on Polygonum aviculare, F. avenaceum on Capsella bursa-pastoris, Rumex crispus and Matricaria sp., F. culmorum on Abutilon theophrasti, F. sporotrichioides on Polygonum aviculare, F. proliferatum and F. poae on Artemisia vulgaris. Pathogenicity test to wheat seedlings was done in our laboratory on winter wheat cultivars Slavonija and Demetra (totally 146 isolates. The most pathogenic species to wheat seedilings were F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides and the least pathogenic F. moniliforme, F. solani, F. oxysporum and F. poae. Pathogenicity test for wheat ears was done on genotypes Osk.8c9/3-94 and Osk.6.11/2 (totally 25 isolates. The results obtained by our investigation showed that there were no significant differences in pathogenicity of Fusarium species isolated from both cultivated plants and weeds. Weeds represent a constant source of inoculum of F. species for cultivated plants and they serve as epidemiologic bridges among vegetations.

  6. Selenium Accumulating Leafy Vegetables Are a Potential Source of Functional Foods

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    Petro E. Mabeyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium deficiency in humans has been associated with various diseases, the risks of which can be reduced through dietary supplementation. Selenium accumulating plants may provide a beneficial nutrient for avoiding such illnesses. Thus, leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus sp., Cucurbita maxima, Ipomoea batatas, Solanum villosum, Solanum scabrum, and Vigna unguiculata were explored for their capabilities to accumulate selenium when grown on selenium enriched soil and for use as a potential source of selenium enriched functional foods. Their selenium contents were determined by spectrophotometry using the complex of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine hydrochloride (DABH as a chromogen. The mean concentrations in the leaves were found to range from 7.90±0.40 to 1.95±0.12 μg/g dry weight (DW, with C. maxima accumulating the most selenium. In stems, the accumulated selenium content ranged from 1.12±0.10 μg/g in Amaranthus sp. to 5.35±0.78 μg/g DW in C. maxima and was hence significantly different (P<0.01. The cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used in cytotoxicity assays to determine the anticancer potential of these extracts. With exception of S. scabrum and S. villosum, no cytotoxicity was detected for the selenium enriched vegetable extracts up to 100 μg/mL concentration. Hence, following careful evaluation the studied vegetables may be considered as selenium enriched functional foods.

  7. Heavy metals in five leafy vegetables from urban and periurban sites in Ngaoundere, Cameroon

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    R. Adjia1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal concentrations were estimated in five leafy vegetables (Solanum nigrum, Brassica oleraceae, Lactuca sativa, Amaranthus hybridus and Corchorus olitorius from urban and periurban sites in Ngaoundere (Cameroon using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. Vegetable samples were collected at the two stages of maturity: stage I (60 days and stage II (90 days for analysis. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in all vegetables were greater in urban site than in periurban site. The highest concentrations of Fe (673.92 mg/kg DW, Cu (10.42 mg/kg, Cd (1.70 mg/kg DW, and Pb (31.75 mg/kg DW were recorded in Lactuca sativa, Zn (94.60 mg/kg DW in Solanum nigrum, and Ni (16.91 mg/kg DW in Corchorus olitorius. The concentrations of Cu, and Pb were greater in roots than in aerial parts, while Fe, Cd, Ni and Zn concentrations were greater in aerial parts than in roots. Some of the concentrations of Ni, Zn and Pb in crops reached the critical level for plant growth. In general, the results indicated that the consumption of leafy vegetables harvested at the stage II potentially provides the greatest amount of heavy metals. The transportation index (Ti decreased in vegetables harvested at the stage II for Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn but slightly increased for Ni and Pb, suggesting that heavy metal transportation from roots to aerial parts depends on the plant phenology and metal species. In all farms and at the two stages of maturity, the lead concentrations in all vegetables were more than the FAO/WHO maximum recommended level in leafy vegetable for human consumption. Moreover, all vegetables had some Cd concentrations that were higher than limits set by FAO/WHO. So, they are not suitable for human consumption.

  8. Potencial alelopático de Brassica campestris subsp. rapa y Lolium temulentum sobre tres especies de malezas de la Sabana de Bogotá

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    Carolina Zamorano

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron bioensayos con el objeto de evaluar el potencial alelopático de los extractos de hojas y residuos de nabo silvestre (Brassica campestris subsp. rapa [L.] Hook. f. y raigrás (Lolium temulentum L. sobre tres especies de malezas de la Sabana de Bogotá: cenizo (Chenopodium petiolare Kunth, malva blanca (Fuertesimalva limensis [L.] Fryxell y bledo (Amaranthus hybridus L.. Los bioensayos en el laboratorio se desarrollaron con la técnica de plántulas en solución nutritiva, bajo un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones y tres réplicas en el tiempo, y en invernadero, donde se usó mezcla de arena y turba (3:2 como sustrato y semillas pregerminadas. Los resultados obtenidos en laboratorio mostraron diferencias en los síntomas observados entre las diferentes especies, mientras que la variable peso fresco fue la que mejor describió el efecto de las concentración para los extractos de nabo, con una concentración que reduce la variable de respuesta en 50% (DC50 de 5,53 g· L-1 para bledo, 2,58 g· L-1 para cenizo y 7,72 g· L-1 para malva blanca. En el caso de raigrás, el peso fresco permitió el ajuste de una curva concentración-respuesta, con el fin de calcular la DC50. La respuesta entre las especies de malezas fue diferente respecto a la actividad de los extractos y de los residuos vegetales en suelo. En el caso del bledo, no se registraron diferencias entre los residuos en suelo y los extractos de nabo, mientras que con cenizo y malva blanca no hubo emergencia de plántulas bajo la condición de residuos en suelo de nabo. El peso fresco de plántulas de tomate disminuyó en cerca del 25% al crecer en residuos de nabo (6 ó 12 t· ha-1 de materia fresca y en cerca del 60% bajo residuos de raigrás (6 t· ha-1 de materia fresca.

  9. Evaluation of selected wild plants flowering season 1991 - 2009 (1991 - 2000 & 2001 - 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkova, L.; Nekovar, J.; Novak, M.; Richterova, D.

    2009-09-01

    The subsequent wild plants are observed by volunteer observers at CHMI phenological network: CALTHA palustris L., ANEMONE nemorosa L., HEPATICA nobilis Mill., RANUNCULUS acer L., FRAGARIA vesca L., TRIFOLIUM repens L., HYPERICUM perforatum L., CHAMAENERION angustifolium L. Holub, VACCINIUM myrtillus L., LAMIUM album L., CHRYSANTHEMUM leucanthemum L., TUSSILAGO farfara L., PETASITES albus (L.) Gaert., PETASITES hybridus (L.) G. M. Sch., CONVALLARIA majalis L., GALANTHUS nivalis L., DACTYLIS glomerata L., ALOPECURUS pratensis L. and others. Some of them start to blossom in early spring, some others in the summer. Part of them belong to very important allergens, part of them have medicinal effects. Phenophases first leaves (FL - BBCH11), inflorescence emergence (IE - BBCH 51), beginning and end of flowering (BF - BBCH 61, EF - BBCH 69) are observed by these species. Statistical parameters (average, median, lower quartile, upper quartile, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, variation range and variation coefficient) of phenophase onset are computed from all of phenological stations in Czechia for the period 1991 - 2009. The phenophase onset and phenophase duration depend not only on genetic base but also on external effects such as weather. We have compiled dynamics of temperature to phenophase onset according CHMI meteorological stations for the same period 1991 - 2009 (especially sums of active temperatures above biological minimum 5°C and progression of extreme temperatures). We have also compared results between two periods (1991 - 2000, 2001 - 2009). Phenological stations are at different altitude. At this case study were used results from 4 phenological stations at altitude ( 500 m asl). GALANTHUS nivalis L. Station: Lednice (165 m n. m.) Period: 1991 - 2000 Statistical parameter/phenophase BBCH 61 BBCH 69 Average 62 94 Median 60 97 Lower quartile 57 86 Upper quartile 66 101 Minimum 51 70 Maximum 79 116 Variation range 28 46 Standard deviation 8,6 12

  10. Use of weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2013-08-20

    Most agricultural weeds are usually regarded as undesirable and targeted for eradication. However, weeds are useful to human beings as food and traditional medicines. Few studies have been done to document the uses of weeds as traditional vegetables. This study was therefore, done to document indigenous knowledge related to the diversity and use of agricultural weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe, emphasizing their role in food security and livelihoods of the local people. Semi-structured interviews, observation and guided field walks with 147 participants were employed between December 2011 and January 2012 to obtain ethnobotanical data on the use of edible weeds as traditional vegetables. Based on ethnobotanical information provided by the participants, botanical specimens were collected, numbered, pressed and dried for identification. A total of 21 edible weeds belonging to 11 families and 15 genera, mostly from Amaranthaceae (19%), Asteraceae and Tiliaceae (14.3%), Capparaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae (9.5% each) were identified. Of the documented edible weeds, 52.4% are indigenous while 47.6% are exotic to Zimbabwe; either semi-cultivated or growing naturally as agricultural weeds in farmlands, fallow land and home gardens. Among the main uses of edible weeds were leafy vegetables (81%), followed by edible fruits (19%), edible corms (9.5%), edible flowers and seeds (4.8% each). The most important edible weeds were Cleome gynandra, cited by 93.9% of the participants, Cucumis metuliferus (90.5%), Cucumis anguria (87.8%), Corchorus tridens (50.3%) and Amaranthus hybridus (39.5%). All edible weeds were available during rainy and harvest period with Cleome gynandra, Corchorus tridens, Cucumis anguria, Cucumis metuliferus and Moringa oleifera also available during the dry season, enabling households to obtain food outputs in different times of the year. The importance of edible weeds for local livelihoods was ubiquitously perceived

  11. The hidden anatomy of paranasal sinuses reveals biogeographically distinct morphotypes in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus

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    Guillaume Billet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background With their Pan-American distribution, long-nosed armadillos (genus Dasypus constitute an understudied model for Neotropical biogeography. This genus currently comprises seven recognized species, the nine-banded armadillo (D. novemcinctus having the widest distribution ranging from Northern Argentina to the South-Eastern US. With their broad diversity of habitats, nine-banded armadillos provide a useful model to explore the effects of climatic and biogeographic events on morphological diversity at a continental scale. Methods Based on a sample of 136 skulls of Dasypus spp. belonging to six species, including 112 specimens identified as D. novemcinctus, we studied the diversity and pattern of variation of paranasal cavities, which were reconstructed virtually using µCT-scanning or observed through bone transparency. Results Our qualitative analyses of paranasal sinuses and recesses successfully retrieved a taxonomic differentiation between the traditional species D. kappleri, D. pilosus and D. novemcinctus but failed to recover diagnostic features between the disputed and morphologically similar D. septemcinctus and D. hybridus. Most interestingly, the high variation detected in our large sample of D. novemcinctus showed a clear geographical patterning, with the recognition of three well-separated morphotypes: one ranging from North and Central America and parts of northern South America west of the Andes, one distributed across the Amazonian Basin and central South America, and one restricted to the Guiana Shield. Discussion The question as to whether these paranasal morphotypes may represent previously unrecognized species is to be evaluated through a thorough revision of the Dasypus species complex integrating molecular and morphological data. Remarkably, our recognition of a distinct morphotype in the Guiana Shield area is congruent with the recent discovery of a divergent mitogenomic lineage in French Guiana. The inflation of the

  12. Determinação de espécie indicadora e comparação de genótipos de girassol quanto ao potencial alelopático Determination of indicative species and comparison of sunflower genotypes as to their allelopathic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Na agricultura atual, o método mais utilizado para o controle de plantas daninhas é o químico, em razão da facilidade de uso, elevada eficiência e baixa necessidade de mão de obra. No entanto, a utilização inadequada desses produtos provoca problemas ao ambiente e à saúde humana. Cresce, portanto, a busca por métodos alternativos de controle de plantas daninhas, menos demandadores de energia e menos tóxicos e agressivos ao ambiente. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito alelopático da cultura do girassol (Helianthus annuus sobre diferentes espécies de plantas daninhas e cultivadas, em dois experimentos realizados em delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, utilizando o método da semeadura em substituição. O primeiro experimento foi realizado com quatro repetições, em esquema bifatorial. O primeiro fator foi constituído por seis espécies indicadoras: picão-preto (Bidens pilosa, corda-de-viola (Ipomoea grandifolia, caruru (Amaranthus hybridus, alface (Lactuca sativa, cultivar Aurélia, tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, cultivar Santa Cruz, trigo (Triticum aestivum, cultivar BRS 208; e o segundo, pela presença ou não de plântulas de girassol. O segundo experimento foi composto por 24 tratamentos, representados por 23 genótipos de girassol e por uma testemunha sem girassol, utilizando-se quatro repetições. A espécie indicadora foi apenas o picão-preto. Em ambos os experimentos, no final do período de sete dias de convívio, foram avaliados o número de sementes germinadas e o comprimento radicular e da parte aérea das espécies indicadoras. Não foram observadas diferenças entre as porcentagens de germinação de quaisquer das espécies indicadoras avaliadas, em função da presença ou não das plântulas de girassol. A presença de plântulas de girassol estimulou o crescimento radicular das plântulas de tomate e trigo e inibiu o crescimento da parte aérea de picão-preto, trigo e corda

  13. Critical period for weed control in potatoes in the Huambo Province (Angola Período crítico do controle de infestantes na cultura da batateira na Província do Huambo (Angola

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    A. Monteiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different weed management periods on potatoes were studied in three areas (Bailundo, Chianga and Calenga of the central highlands of Angola and in three cropping seasons, from June 2005 to May 2007. Six weed-management treatments were used to identify critical periods of competition and to allow the development of more precise management recommendations. Total potato yield ranged from about 22 t ha-1 in weed-free plots to about 3 t ha-1 with no weed control a yield loss of 86%. Major weed species Galinsoga parviflora, Cyperus esculentus, Bidens biternata, Amaranthus hybridus, Nicandra physaloides, Portulaca oleracea and Datura stramonium differed from area to area. The species G. parviflora dominated the weed flora in all three areas 73, 97 and 72 plants m² 50 days after crop emergence in Bailundo, Chianga and Calenga respectively, in dry season trials; while C. esculentus was also present in Chianga and Calenga, with an average density of ca 30 plants m-2 in dry season trials. Gompertz and logistic equations were fitted to data representing increasing periods of weed-free growth and weed interference, respectively. Critical periods for weed control, with a 95% weed-free total yield, were estimated from 26 to 66 and from 20 to 61 days after emergence for the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Weed competition before or after these critical periods had negligible effects on crop yield.Com o objectivo de obter recomendações mais precisas para a gestão das infestantes na cultura da batata 'Romano' avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes períodos de controle e de convivência em três locais do Planalto Central de Angola e em três épocas de crescimento da cultura. O delineamento experimental, por local, consistiu em blocos casualizados com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis intervalos de controle nos quais a cultura foi mantida livre de infestantes e após cada período estas foram deixadas crescer livremente; e

  14. Influência do horário de aplicação no comportamento de atrazine e misturas aplicadas em pós-emergência na cultura do milho Influence of timing of application on the behavior of atrazine and mixtures applied in post-emergence in maize

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    Donizeti A. Fornarolli

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a influência do horário de aplicação de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas gramíneas e dicotiledôneas na cultura do milho. O experimento foi conduzido no ano de 1991/92, na área experimental da Milenia Agro Ciências S/A, em Londrina, PR. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições, utilizando atrazine a 2.400 g/ha + surfactante e as misturas formuladas de alachlor + atrazine (1.820 + 1.820, atrazine + óleo vegetal (2.400 + 1.800 g/ha aplicados as 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 e 22 horas. A gramínea presente era a Brachiaria plantagineano estádio de 1 a 5 folhas, e as dicotiledôneas Amaranthus hybridus, Euphorbia heterophylla, Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia e Sida rhombifolia todas no estádio de 2 a 6 folhas. A aplicação foi realizada no dia 12 de outubro de 1991, estando o dia sem nuvens. Às 4:00 horas a UR era 68%; às 14:00 horas, 35% e as 22:00h, 65%. O solo estava seco e nas aplicações das 4:00 e 6:00 horas havia a presença de orvalho nas folhagens. Utilizou-se um pulverizador de precisão a CO2, bicos leque Teejet 110.03 e volume de calda 300 l/ha. Os resultados mostraram que houve influência do horário de aplicação nos resultados para os herbicidas alachlor + atrazine e atrazine + óleo vegetal no controle de B. plantaginea. Para os tratamentos alachlor + atrazine e atrazine + óleo vegetal, quando a umidade relativa do ar esteve acima de 65%, ou seja entre 4:00 e 8:00 horas e a partir das 20:00 horas, o controle foi superior a 90%. Quando a umidade relativa do ar baixou para 35%, no período das 10:00 às 18:00 horas, o controle para o alachlor + atrazine foi de 80% e o de atrazine + óleo vegetal próximo a 60%. O controle de gramíneas no tratamento atrazine + surfactante foi inferior a 40% em todos os horários de aplicação. Ainda para B. plantaginea, o alachlor + atrazine aos 95 DAA ( dias após aplica

  15. Prospección de las combinaciones de herbicidas para prevenir malezas tolerantes y resistentes al glifosato Exploration of herbicide associations to prevent glyphosate tolerant and resistant weeds

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    R.A. VIDAL

    2010-01-01

    inhibitors were documented in Argentina with Amaranthus quitensis. Likewise, in Brazil, it has increased weed resistance to glyphosate in weeds such as Lolium multiflorum and Euphorbia heterophylla. The objective of this research was to assess antagonism or synergism to control of the mentioned weeds for all possible combinations between two of the following herbicides: glyphosate, imazethapyr, clomazone, and lactofen. Biotypes susceptible to all herbicides were used in the research. Seedlings of A. hybridus with two cm and of the others with seven cm, were treated with the herbicides glyphosate, imazethapyr, clomazone and lactofen at 108, 10, 160 y 30 g ha-1 a.i. respectively, applied alone. Six additional treatments were included in all possible combinations between two of the herbicides and doses as described above. An untreated control was also used. A non-ionic adjuvant at a ratio of 0.2% was added to all treatments, except for the treatment of glyphosate alone and the untreated. The effect of the herbicide mixtures depended on the species tested and also on the herbicides used. Synergism was obtained only in the mixture glyphosate + imazethapyr. Clomazone resulted predominantly in antagonism, and lactofen had a neutral effect in most of the evaluated herbicide mixtures. Herbicide combinations are considered potentially useful in controlling weeds resistant or tolerant to glyphosate.

  16. Salicylic Acid Protects Nitrate Reductase Activity, Growth and Proline in Amaranth and Tomato Plants during Water Deficit

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    C. E. Umebese

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Seedlings of Amaranthus hybridus cv. NHAC-3 (large green, amaranth and Lycopersicum esculentum cv. Roma (tomato were subjected to 7 days water stress at Early Vegetative (EV, Late Vegetative (LV, Early Flowering (EF and Late Flowering (LF stages of growth to study the impact on leaf water potential (ψw, Nitrate Reductase Activity (NRA, growth (plant height, shoot and root biomass and proline content of both plants. Approach: Two concentrations of salicylic acid (1 and 3 mM SA were applied to stressed plants to study the level of protection given by SA to the plants. Leaf ψw was significantly reduced (p = 0.05 during stress treatment at nearly all stages of growth in both plants. Leaf ψw was in the range -0.25 to -1.42 (unstressed and -1.45 to -2.02 (stressed in tomato plants while in amaranth it was -0.7 to -1.62 (unstressed and -1.62 to -2.68 (stressed. As 3 mM SA increased leaf ψw to values close to the control (unstressed plants. NRA was significantly (p = 0.05 reduced by stress treatment at the LV stage of amaranth, EF stage of tomato and LF stage of both plants. Results: Thus, the reduction of NRA was more pronounced at the reproductive stage of both plants. As 3 mM SA was effective in maintaining NRA at levels similar to the control in both plants. Stress treatment reduced plant height significantly (p = 0.05 at the vegetative stages of both plants and 3 mM was also effective in keeping plant height similar to the control. Though shoot biomass was affected by water stress, SA treatment was not very effective in preserving the biomass during stress. Root biomass of plants was reduced by stress treatment at the reproductive stage and only tomato plants responded positively to 3 mM SA. Proline content was only slightly increased at all stages of growth in stressed plants but 3 mM SA induced a two-fold increase in proline content at the vegetative stage of tomato (EV and LV and significant increases (p = 0.05 at almost

  17. Las citoquininas están asociadas al desarrollo floral de plantas de Solidago x luteus en días cortos

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    Flórez Víctor Julio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    En Solidago × luteus (M.L. Greene Brouillet y Semple (= × Solidaster hybridusS. luteus, planta comercializada principalmente para flor de corte, el proceso de inducción floral es dependiente de las condiciones fotoperiódicas ambientales. Con el objetivo de determinar la acción de las citoquininas en este proceso, se analizó su presencia en condiciones fotoperiódicas opuestas: días largos (DL de 18 h y días cortos (DC de 8 h. En la primera fase del ensayo, con el fin de analizar la respuesta de las plantas a fitohormonas con frecuencia semanal de aplicación, se realizaron los siguientes tratamientos: 1 ácido giberélico (GA3 10-4M, 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA 4x10-4 M y GA3 10-4 M más 6-BA 4x10-4 M; 2 GA3 10-4M, kinetina (KI 4x10-4 M y GA3 10-4 M más KI 4x10-4 M y 3 KI 4x10-4 M. Con el objeto de conocer la concentración endógena de hormonas, en la segunda fase los extractos vegetales se analizaron a través de cromatografía en capa fina y cuantificados por el ensayo inmunoenzimático de Elisa, previa separación por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Los resultados permitieron determinar la actividad citoquinínica en extractos provenientes de hojas y de botones florales de plantas en el inicio de los tratamientos, en DL y en DC. Se demostró que la aplicación de KI acelera la antesis floral, evidenciando la relación de citoquininas endógenas con el proceso de desarrollo floral. Por último, de los resultados obtenidos de los extractos sometidos a Elisa se sugiere la participación de las citoquininas en el proceso de antesis floral de S.× luteus, donde la iPA (isopentenil adenosina tendría una acción importante al ser transportada rápidamente de la hoja al botón floral en DC, posibilitando tal vez la mayor