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Sample records for hybridus antigonon leptopus

  1. Population genetics of the Chilean frog Batrachyla Leptopus (Leptodactylidae

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    J.R. Formas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic variation of proteins encoded by 14 loci was analyzed in eight (five continental and three insular populations of the Chilean leptodactylid frog Batrachyla leptopus. The overall proportion of polymorphic loci was estimated to be 18.7% and the average number of alleles per locus, 1.2, while observed and expected heterozygosities were 1.7 and 5.1%, respectively. The estimated coefficient of genetic identity was 0.940; the corresponding figure for genetic distance was 0.063. F-statistics analysis showed a total inbreeding coefficient (Fit of 0.855 and high levels of genetic subdivision (Fst = 0.596 as well as of inbreeding within populations (Fis = 0.640. However, there was only a moderate level of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.181 between the insular group of populations and the continental group.A variação eletroforética de proteínas codificadas por 14 loci foi analisada em oito populações (5 continentais e 3 insulares da rã leptodactilídea chilena Batrachyla leptopus. A proporção geral de loci polimórficos foi estimada como sendo de 18,7% e o número médio de alelos por loco, 1,2, enquanto que as heterozigosidades observada e esperada foram 1,7 e 5,1%, respectivamente. O coeficiente esperado de identidade genética foi 0,940; o número correspondente para a distância genética foi 0,063. A análise estatística F mostrou um coeficiente de endogamia total (Fit de 0,855 e altos níveis de subdivisão genética (Fst = 0,596, assim como de endogamia dentro das populações (Fis = 0,640. Contudo, houve apenas um nível moderado de diferenciação genética (Fst = 0,181 entre o grupo insular de populações e o grupo continental.

  2. Nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus were investigated using standard analytical methods in order to assess the numerous potential of the plant leaves. The Proximate analysis showed the percentage moisture content, ash content, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate of the leaves ...

  3. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaochuan; Zhang Shirong; Xu Xiaoxun; Li Ting; Gong Guoshu; Jia Yongxia; Li Yun; Deng Liangji

    2010-01-01

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg -1 ) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L -1 ) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations ≤ 90 mg kg -1 and ≤ 20 mg L -1 in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg -1 and 1006.95 μg pot -1 in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg -1 and 668.42 μg pot -1 in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  4. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaochuan [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Zhang Shirong, E-mail: rsz01@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Xu Xiaoxun; Li Ting [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Gong Guoshu [Agricultural College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Jia Yongxia; Li Yun; Deng Liangji [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg{sup -1}) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L{sup -1}) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations {<=} 90 mg kg{sup -1} and {<=} 20 mg L{sup -1} in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 1006.95 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 668.42 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  5. Gynoecium morphology and vascular anatomy in Gladiolus ×hybridus C. Morren hort. (Iridaceae Juss.

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    Christyna I. Skrypec

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gynoecium of Gladiolus ×hybridusC. Morren hort. is eusyncarpous, with synascidiate, symlicate, hemisymlicate and asymplicate vertical zones. Ovules lie in the symlicate and hemisymlicate zones, style and stigma composed of asymplicate zone. Septal nectary is placed in the upper part of symlicate zone and in the hemisymlicate zone. Carpel trace is three-bundled. Dorsal carpel bundles are integrated with the vascular strands of perianth and androecium.

  6. Cytogenetic characterization of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus hybridus subsp. cruentus (L.) Thell.

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    Prajitha, V; Thoppil, J E

    2018-02-01

    The present study is aimed to identify genetic variability between two species of Amaranthus viz., A. caudatus and A. hybridus subsp. cruentus, two economically important species, cultivated mainly for grain production. Karyomorphological studies in Amaranthus are scarce, probably due to higher number of small sized chromosomes. Karyomorphological studies were conducted using mitotic squash preparation of young healthy root tips. Karyological parameters and karyotypic formula were established using various software programs and tabulated the karyomorphometric and asymmetry indices viz., Disparity index, Variation coefficient, Total forma percentage, Karyotype asymmetry index, Syi index, Rec index, Interchromosomal and Intrachromosomal asymmetry index and Degree of asymmetry of karyotypes. The mitotic chromosome number observed for A. caudatus was 2n = 32 with a gametic number n = 16 and A. hybridus subsp. cruentus was 2n = 34 with a gametic number n = 17. In A. caudatus the chromosome length during somatic metaphase ranged from 0.8698 to 1.7722 μm with a total length of 39.1412 μm. In A. hybridus subsp. cruentus the length of chromosome ranged from 0.7756 to 1.9421 μm with a total length of 44.9922 μm. Various karyomorphometry and asymmetry indices analyzed revealed the extend of interspecific variation and their evolutionary status.

  7. The potential of Zea mays, Commelina bengelensis, Helianthus annuus and Amaranthus hybridus for phytoremediation of waste water

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    Chacha Joseph Sarima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste-water from domestic use and from industrial effluent burden the water systems with high levels of heavy metal hence there is need to remove these heavy metals so that the waste water can be recycled for use for household or irrigation. The present study has screened Zea mays (maize, Commelina bengelensis (wondering jew, Helianthus annuus (sunflower and Amaranthus hybridus (amaranthus for their ability to bioaccumulate Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn metals. The results obtained show that the H. annuus and C. bengelensis plant have promising potential for removal of Pb, Cu and Cd from wastewater though their ability to remove Zn from contaminated solutions is not much different from that of Z. mays and A. hybridus.

  8. UPLC TOF MS for sensitive quantification of naturally occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Petasites hybridus extract (Ze 339).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Alexander; Siewert, Beate; Toff, Stephan; Drewe, Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    Due to increasing regulatory awareness of their hepatotoxic, genotoxic and possibly carcinogenic potential, pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) content has to be thoroughly monitored in herbal medicinal preparations. Recently, new very low PA regulatory threshold concentrations have been requested by the authorities. Therefore, a highly sensitive and reproducible UPLC TOF MS method for the quantification of the PAs senkirkine, senecionine, seneciphylline, senecionine-N-oxide and seneciphylline-N-oxide in a CO2-extract of Petasites hybridus leaves (Ze 339) has been developed. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 2ppb for all PAs. Recovery at the LOQ was between 88.9 and 141.9%, the repeatability precision between 3.5 and 13.6%. Linearity of the five PAs showed correlation coefficients between 0.9995 and 0.9998 and coefficients of variation between 7.44 and 8.56%. A working range between 2 ppb and 200 ppb could be fixed. In the tested batches of the P. hybridus extract Ze 339, the absence of PAs could be demonstrated. In conclusion, this assay allows to determine trace PA concentrations in P. hybridus extract Ze 339, making it suitable for analytical PA monitoring in accordance with regulatory requirements. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous determination of sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from the rhizomes of petasites hybridus (L.) G.M. et Sch. and dietary supplements using UPLC-UV and LC-TOF methods

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    Common Butterbur (Petasites hybridus) is a herbaceous perennial plant in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe and northern Asia. Petasites hybridus exists in two chemo-varieties: those containing petasins and those with furano-petasins which have been reported to be effective in reducing the occ...

  10. Geophagy in brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a lowland tropical rainforest in Colombia.

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    Link, Andres; de Luna, Ana Gabriela; Arango, Ricardo; Diaz, Maria Clara

    2011-01-01

    Spider monkeys and howler monkeys are the only Neotropical primates that eat soil from mineral licks. Not all species within these genera visit mineral licks, and geophagy has been restricted to populations of Ateles belzebuth belzebuth,Ateles belzebuth chamek and Alouatta seniculus in western Amazonian rainforests. With the aid of a camera trap we studied the visitation patterns of a group of brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) to a mineral lick at Serrania de Las Quinchas, in Colombia. Spider monkeys visited the lick frequently throughout the year, with a monthly average of 21.7 ± 7.2 visits per 100 days of camera trapping (n = 14 months). Spider monkeys visited the mineral lick almost always on days with no rain, or very little (<3 mm) rain, suggesting that proximate environmental variables might determine spider monkeys' decisions to come to the ground at the licks. This study expands the geographical occurrence of mineral lick use by spider monkeys providing additional data for future assessments on the biogeographical correlates of mineral lick use by platyrrhines. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Nuevos aportes a la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Mammalia, Dasypodidae

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    Agustín M. Abba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Desmarest, 1804 (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae. Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de cuatro establecimientos agropecuarios de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante tres años se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y liberación. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 71 capturas. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue material vegetal, seguido por hormigas e insectos coleópteros; no se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios. La actividad de las mulitas se concentra durante el día, existió una baja en la frecuencia de observación durante las estaciones frías (otoño e invierno. La mulita pampeana prefiere suelos húmicos, terrenos altos y pastizales densos y altos; asimismo seleccionan los montes para refugiarse. Son individuos asociales. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan parcialmente con lo observado para otras especies del género, destacando las tendencias observadas en los hábitos alimentarios y en la estrategia termorregulatoria. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos de una especie poco estudiada en una zona bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat.

  12. Influence ofAmaranthus hybridus L. allelochemics on oviposition behavior ofSpodoptera exigua andS. eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

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    Mitchell, E R; Heath, R R

    1985-05-01

    Common pigweed,Amaranthus hybridus L., is a favorite host of the beet army worm (BAW),Spodoptera exigua L. Chemicals extracted from homogenized pigweed with distilled water, ethanol, or dichloromethane and sprayed back on pigweed deterred oviposition by the BAW. Similarly, water extracts of frass from conspecific larvae or southern armyworm (SAW) larvae,S. eridania (Cramer), fed pigweed leaves and sprayed back on pigweed plants also deterred BAW oviposition, thus confirming that deterrence was due to plant allelochemics rather than specific compounds associated with the metabolic or excretory products of the larvae. Confirmation of the presence of oviposition-deterring chemicals in pigweed was used to explain a previously observed seasonal displacement of BAW by SAW on pigweed in the field.

  13. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Extracts

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    Jeanne F. Millogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentus and Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus, two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE, methanolic (ME, and aqueous extracts (AE from the aerial parts were screened for in vitro antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight in A. cruentus and A. hybridus, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method and iron reducing power (FRAP method ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of A. cruentus and A. hybridus were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively. The A. hybridus extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  14. FITOEXTRACCIÓN DE PLOMO Y CADMIO EN SUELOS CONTAMINADOS USANDO QUELITE (Amaranthus hybridus L. Y MICORRIZAS

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    H. G. Ortiz-Cano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las actividades mineras y metalúrgicas practicadas en la Comarca Lagunera, México han contaminado el suelo, el aire y el agua. El uso de plantas es una de las estrategias para la remediación de suelos contaminados con metales pesados. Sin embargo, son pocos los estudios sobre remediación con plantas de zonas áridas y su asociación con micorrizas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la capacidad extractora de Plomo (Pb y Cadmio (Cd del quelite (Amaranthus hybridus L. al adicionar una mezcla de micorrizas arbusculares (Entrophospora columbiana, Glomus intraradices, G. etunicatum, G clarum al sustrato contaminado con Pb o Cd. Dos experimentos, uno por cada metal, con diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones fueron desarrollados. En el primero se adicionaron tres cantidades de micorrizas (0, 2.5 y 5.0 g·kg-1 en suelos con 300 mg·kg-1 de Pb. En el segundo experimento, las mismas cantidades de micorrizas fueron probadas en suelos contaminados con 15 mg·kg-1 de Cd. Las concentraciones de Pb y Cd en raíz, hoja y tallo a los 65, 95 y 125 días de edad de la planta se determinaron con un espectrofotómetro de absorción atómica. Los resultados indican que la adición de micorrizas incrementó significativamente (P<0.05 la concentración de Pb y Cd en raíz, tallo y hoja de quelite. Las concentraciones de estos metales se incrementaron significativamente conforme la edad de la planta.

  15. Simultaneous determination of sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from the rhizomes of Petasites hybridus (L.) G.M. et Sch. and dietary supplements using UPLC-UV and HPLC-TOF-MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2012-11-01

    UPLC-UV and HPLC-TOF-MS methods have been developed for the analysis of major sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from rhizomes of Petasites hybridus (L.) G.M. et Sch. (Family, Asteracea) and dietary supplements claiming to contain P. hybridus. The best results were obtained with Acquity UPLC™ HSS T3 (100 mm × 2.1 mm, I.D., 1.8 μm) column system using a gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium formate (50mM) and acetonitrile (0.05% formic acid) at a constant flow rate of 0.25 mL/min via UPLC-UV. The newly developed method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision. The limits of detection were found to be 5 μg/mL and 0.1 μg/mL for pyrrolizidine alkaloids and sesquiterpenes, respectively by UPLC-UV and 0.001 and 0.01 μg/mL, respectively using HPLC-TOF-MS. The methods were successfully used to analyze different P. hybridus market products, as well as to distinguish between two other Petasites species. The total content of petasins was found to be in the range of 0.02-11.6 mg/dosage form for 15 dietary supplements and no petasins were detected in an additional six dietary supplements. Additionally, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are considered to be toxic for the liver, were detected in seven dietary supplements. The amount of petasin in seven dietary supplements was found to be within limits of label claim and no pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected. HPLC-mass spectrometry coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) interface method is described for the identification and confirmation of sesquiterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from plant extracts and dietary supplements that claim to contain P. hybridus as well as different species of Petasites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diferenças morfológicas entre Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, e as plantas daninhas A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus Morphological differences between Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, and the weed species A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis and A. spinosus

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    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O pseudocereal amaranto, com as espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticado pelas populações indígenas antes que a América fosse descoberta, tem se adaptado aos sistemas produtivos dos cerrados. A planta apresenta panículas apicais, divididas em pequenos ramos com frutos do tipo pixídio, com uma semente cada. Estas germinam rapidamente em presença de umidade, após atingirem a maturação fisiológica. No início da fase vegetativa, o amaranto cultivado pode confundir-se com espécies de plantas daninhas do mesmo gênero (A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus, as quais estão associadas à expansão agrícola. As diferenças morfológicas tornam-se mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificações com flores axilares e terminais, em contraste com o amaranto, no qual a inflorescência (panícula é apical; as sementes claras das espécies cultivadas contrastam com as das invasoras, que são escuras. BRS Alegria (A. cruentus, cultivar pioneiro no Brasil, apresenta plantas com 180 cm, das quais a panícula ocupa 48 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 90 dias; resistência ao acamamento; e 0,68 g por 1.000 sementes, com produção de 2,3 t ha¹ (sementes e 5,6 t ha-1 (biomassa total. As sementes nas plantas daninhas são menores, germinam gradativamente e podem permanecer no solo por muitos anos, infestando as áreas. As diferenças morfológicas detectadas na experimentação demonstram que as espécies são distinguíveis; elas contribuem para orientar a produção de sementes e o cultivo comercial de amaranto, enfatizando as características de adaptação, em contraste com as das invasoras do mesmo gênero botânico.The pseudocereal grain amaranth, with the species Amaranthus caudatus, A. ruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticated by indigenous populations before America was discovered, has shown adaptability to production systems in the Brazilian savannah. The plants present apical

  17. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

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    Verloove, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum

  18. Plants and pollinating bees in Maringá, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Toledo Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to survey the bees as visitors to melliferous flora in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. A total of 331 insects were captured, and the fauna comprised 39.88% Trigona spinipes, 38.37% Apis mellifera, 8.16% Tetragonisca angustula, 3.93% Halictidae, 1.21% Megachilidae, 2.42% Anthophoridae, and 3.32% other Hymenoptera. Eleven plant species from nine families were observed. The four families most frequently visited by A. mellifera were Pontederiaceae (93.53%, Sterculiaceae and Polygoniaceae (47.22%, Apocynaceae and Apiaceae (42.86%. The families most visited by T. spinipes were Lamiaceae (64.70%, Apocynaceae (57.14%, Sterculiaceae (51.85% and Anacardiaceae (48.39%, and the families most visited by T. angustula were (28.57%, Asteraceae (22.22% and Labiatae (16.47%. Three species predominated in number of bee visits Dombeya wallichii (32.63%, Ocimum americanum (15.5% and Antigonon leptopus (15.2%. T. angustula was the most frequent visitor of O. gratissimum flowers (60.87%.

  19. Assessment of Air Pollution Tolerance Index of some plants to develop vertical gardens near street canyons of a polluted tropical city.

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    Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pandey, Mayank; Tripathi, B D

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of some climber plant species to develop vertical gardens in Varanasi city which has characteristics of tall building and narrow roads. This condition results in street canyon like structure and hinders the vertical dispersal of air pollutants. We have selected 24 climber plant species which are commonly found in of Varanasi city. Chosen plants can be easily grown either in planter boxes or directly in the ground, with a vertical support they can climb on walls to form green walls or vertical garden. Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of the selected plant species was calculated and plants with higher APTI are recommended for the development of Vertical garden. Highest APTI was noted for Ipomoea palmata (25.39) followed by Aristolochia elegans (23.28), Thunbergia grandiflora (23.14), Quisqualis indica (22.42), and Clerodendrum splendens (22.36). However, lowest APTI value (8.75) was recorded for the species Hemidesmus indicus. Moreover, the linear regression analysis has revealed a high positive correlation between APTI and ascorbic acid content (R 2 =0.8837) and positive correlation between APTI and Chlorophyll content (R 2 =0.6687). On the basis of higher APTI values (greater than 17), nine species of climber plants viz. I. palmata, T. grandiflora, C. splendens, A. elegans, Q. indica, Petria volubilis, Antigonon leptopus, Cryptolepis buchuanni and Tinospora cordifolia have been recommended to develop vertical greenery systems in a compact tropical city. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae Isolates, a Potential Bioherbicide for Amaranthus hybridus L. in Maize Culture

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    Charles Oluwaseun ADETUNJI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of phytopathogenic fungi in biological control of weeds may represent a promising alternative to the use of chemicals and may lead to the sustainability of agro-ecosystems. In the current study, strain C1136 was developed into various formulations and their activities were compared with a chemical herbicides using glyphosate in a screen house, applying standard procedure. All the bioherbicide treatments gave significantly higher yield component on the following parameters: tasselling, number of cobs, day of silking, number of ears, number of grain/cob, weight of 100 grains, number of cob, weight of cob, and length of cob from maize when compared to the chemical-treated herbicides and weedy cheek. Moreover, the bioherbicidal formulation coded BH4 (32 g of semolina + 6 g kaolin + 20 mL of glycerol + mutant strain of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae + glucose+ sucrose + fructose + dextrose + lactose sugar + peptone showed the highest activities when compared to other formulations. Conclusively, this study revealed that Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae C1136 strain has bioherbicidal activity and could therefore be exploited for large scale production of bioherbicides for weed control in conventional farming, to improve yield and enhance food security.

  1. Prospective varieties of Narcissus hybridus hort. suitable for mass growing in piedmont Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Repetskaya Anna Igorevna

    2016-12-01

    The evaluation determined six (6 unpromising, thirteen (13 average promising and eleven (11 highly promising varieties. The highly promising varieties are 'Ice Follies', 'Kissрroof', 'Pink Charm', 'Salome', 'Serola', (Large-cupped Daffodils, 'Curlew', 'Pipit' (Jonquilla Daffodils, 'Tahiti' (Double Daffodils, 'Mount Hood' (Trumpet Daffodils, 'Jetfire' (Cyclamineus Daffodils and 'Lemon Beauty' (Split Corona Daffodils. They are recommended for use in landscaping practice within the piedmont Crimea.

  2. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  3. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a

  4. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-10-13

    This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996-2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but

  5. Cloning and characterization of a novel Gladiolus hybridus AFP family gene (GhAFP-like) related to corm dormancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Carianopol, Carina [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sui, Juanjuan [College of Biology, Fuyang Normal College, Fuyang, Anhui (China); Yang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Fengqin; Jiang, Huiru [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); He, Junna, E-mail: hejunna@cau.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Yi, Mingfang, E-mail: ymfang@cau.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2016-02-26

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone controlling seed dormancy. AFPs (ABA INSENSITIVE FIVE BINDING PROTEINS) are reported to be negative regulators of the ABA signaling pathway. The involvement of AFPs in dormant vegetative organs remains poorly understood. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel AFP family member from Gladiolus dormant cormels, GhAFP-like, containing three conserved domains of the AFP family. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that GhAFP-like was expressed in dormant organs and its expression was down-regulated along with corm storage. GhAFP-like was verified to be a nuclear-localized protein. Overexpressing GhAFP-like in Arabidopsis thaliana not only showed weaker seed dormancy with insensitivity to ABA, but also changed the expression of some ABA related genes. In addition, a primary root elongation assay showed GhAFP-like may involve in auxin signaling response. The results in this study indicate that GhAFP-like acts as a negative regulator in ABA signaling and is related to dormancy. - Highlights: • GhAFP-like is expessed in dormant corm. • Overexpressing GhAFP-like showed early germination and insensitivity to ABA. • Overexpressing GhAFP-like changed ABI5 downstream genes expression.

  6. Cloning and characterization of a novel Gladiolus hybridus AFP family gene (GhAFP-like) related to corm dormancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Carianopol, Carina; Sui, Juanjuan; Yang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Fengqin; Jiang, Huiru; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone controlling seed dormancy. AFPs (ABA INSENSITIVE FIVE BINDING PROTEINS) are reported to be negative regulators of the ABA signaling pathway. The involvement of AFPs in dormant vegetative organs remains poorly understood. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel AFP family member from Gladiolus dormant cormels, GhAFP-like, containing three conserved domains of the AFP family. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that GhAFP-like was expressed in dormant organs and its expression was down-regulated along with corm storage. GhAFP-like was verified to be a nuclear-localized protein. Overexpressing GhAFP-like in Arabidopsis thaliana not only showed weaker seed dormancy with insensitivity to ABA, but also changed the expression of some ABA related genes. In addition, a primary root elongation assay showed GhAFP-like may involve in auxin signaling response. The results in this study indicate that GhAFP-like acts as a negative regulator in ABA signaling and is related to dormancy. - Highlights: • GhAFP-like is expessed in dormant corm. • Overexpressing GhAFP-like showed early germination and insensitivity to ABA. • Overexpressing GhAFP-like changed ABI5 downstream genes expression.

  7. Long-distance signaling within Coleus x hybridus leaves; mediated by changes in intra-leaf CO2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlberg, R.; Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    Rapid long-distance signaling in plants can occur via several mechanisms, including symplastic electric coupling and pressure waves. We show here in variegated Coleus leaves a rapid propagation of electrical signals that appears to be caused by changes in intra-leaf CO2 concentrations. Green leaf cells, when illuminated, undergo a rapid depolarization of their membrane potential (Vm) and an increase in their apoplastic pH (pHa) by a process that requires photosynthesis. This is followed by a slower hyperpolarization of Vm and apoplastic acidification, which do not require photosynthesis. White (chlorophyll-lacking) leaf cells, when in isolated white leaf segments, show only the slow response, but when in mixed (i.e. green and white) segments, the rapid Vm depolarization and increase in pHa propagate over more than 10 mm from the green to the white cells. Similarly, these responses propagate 12-20 mm from illuminated to unilluminated green cells. The fact that the propagation of these responses is eliminated when the leaf air spaces are infiltrated with solution indicates that the signal moves in the apoplast rather than the symplast. A depolarization of the mesophyll cells is induced in the dark by a decrease in apoplastic CO2 but not by an increase in pHa. These results support the hypothesis that the propagating signal for the depolarization of the white mesophyll cells is a photosynthetically induced decrease in the CO2 level of the air spaces throughout the leaf.

  8. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ).

  9. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5 is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eWu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5, which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF. GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel and stolon as well as in reproductive organs (stamen, and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6 and RD29B. Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via Virus Induced Gene Silence (VIGS promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B. The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ.

  10. Extraction, chemical composition and nutrional characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amaranthus hybridus is a vegetable which is eaten in Congo Brazzaville and in other countries. Two varieties of A. hybridus seeds (var 1 and 2) were selected for this study. Average oil content varies between 11 and 14%. A. hybridus seeds are also rich in proteins (17%) and minerals. Red oils obtained have a high ...

  11. Long-term effects on food choice of land snail .I.Arianta arbustorum./I. mediated by petasin and furanopetasin, two sesquiterpenes from .I.Petasites hybridus./I..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hägele, B. F.; Wildi, E.; Harmatha, Juraj; Pavlík, Milan; Rowell-Rahier, M.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 11 (1998), s. 1733-1743 ISSN 0098-0331 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA455404 Grant - others:Schweizer Nationalfonds(CH) 70TP-033021 Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.041, year: 1998

  12. Cameroun

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2014 ... yohimbe, Rauvolfia vomitoria, Solanum lycopersicum,. Solanum nigrum, Solanum tuberosum, Voacanga africana, Voacanga thouarsii, Zingiber officinale. Les espèces exotiques sont : Acanthus montanus,. Ageratum conyzoides, Aloe vera, Allium sativum,. Apium graveolens, Amaranthus hybridus, Ananas.

  13. Effects of different NaCl Concentrations on germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Salinity refers to the salt content of any given system. By nature, arid .... Effect of varying concentrations of NaCl on seed germination of Amaranthus hybridus in percentages. .... Osmotic differences could explain this phenomenon where by ...

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-10-22

    Oct 22, 2015 ... carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrocarbons (CxHy)] were either below or ... vehicle exhaust are dangerous to plants as .... The highest concentration of .... the consumption of Amaranthus hybridus.

  15. Notas e descrições em Bisaltes Thomson, 1868 e Ptericoptus Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville, 1830 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini Notes and descriptions in Bisaltes Thomson, 1868 and Ptericoptus Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville, 1830 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The following new species are described in the subgenus Bisaltes (Bisaltes: B. (B. picticornis sp. nov. from Bolivia; B.(B. taua sp. nov. from Brazil (Paraná and Santa Catarina and B. (B. unicolor sp. nov. from Ecuador. Bisaltes (B. pictus Breuning, 1940 is transferred to the subgenus Craspedocerus. In Ptericoptus, P. hybridus hybridus Breuning, 1939 is considered a synonym of P. acuminatus (Fabricius, 1801; P. dorsalis Audinet-Serville, 1835 previously in the synonymy of P. acuminatus is revalidated and Saperda vitta Newman, 1838 is considered its synonym; P. corumbaensis sp. nov. is described from Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul.

  16. Domestic wastewater treatment with a vertical completely drained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two beds planted with yang A. hybridus plants (high density: 40 plants/m²; low density: 10 plants/m²) and one control (unplanted bed) were used to perform the experiment. The pH of the overall filtrates decreased from 7 to around 8. Planted beds gave best COD removal (high density = 70%, low density = 66%) than the ...

  17. 2018-04-28T19:44:25Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanically transmissible viruses were isolated from Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, Cucurbita moschata, Telfairia occidentalis and Brassica oleracea, while virus-like symptoms (causal agents not sap-transmissible), were observed on Solanum macrocarpon. Two previously uncharacterized viruses, one each ...

  18. 1061-IJBCS-Article-Lenifere Chantal Soro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    La composition nutritionnelle de cinq légumes feuilles (Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea,. Corchorus ... valeur nutritionnelle des légumes feuilles bord champ et post récolte ..... Tableau 3: Teneur en protéine des legumes feuilles en %.

  19. Biosorptive removal of cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solution by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using Amaranthus hybridus L. stalk as an alternative to high cost commercial adsorbent materials for the removal of Co (II) from aqueous solution. The experiment was carried out by batch method at 33°C. The influence of pH, contact time and initial metal ion ...

  20. Effect of composting of palm oil mill wastes and cow dung or poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of shelter and different type of manure on degradation of palm oil mills wastes during composting and on growth and yield of African spinach (Amaranthus hybridus) grown on acrisol . Methodology and results: Palm oil mills wastes were composted, with poultry manure or cow dung with and ...

  1. 4847 Volume 11 No. 3 May 2011 ISOLATION AND TESTING THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-05-03

    May 3, 2011 ... Alfred Mugambi Mariga, Department of Nutrition, Egerton University, PO. Box ... The specific objectives were to: isolate L. lactis bacteria from A. hybridus ... water, CO2, atmospheric nitrogen and sunlight [2]. ... and be non-pathogenic. ... removal from laboratory media by Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria [15].

  2. Classics revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2018-01-01

    hybridus). He was able to get early stages before twinning occurred and show it was preceded by inversion of the germ layers. By the primitive streak stage there were separate embryonic shields and partition of the amnion. There was, however, a single exocoelom and all embryos were enclosed in a common set...

  3. Allelopathy in pigweed (a review)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves; Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho; Marcelo Claro de Souza; Paulo Roberto Fidelis Giancotti

    2011-01-01

    Amaranthus spp. are plants with proven allelopathic potential. The release of allelochemicals from Amaranthus spp. in the environment can influence seed germination, photosynthesis rate, reduce growth and, consequently, the productivity of various plant species. Among the species with allelopathic potential are Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus gracilis, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis, with A. retroflexus being the mo...

  4. Isolation and characterization of beneficial indigenous endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-associated bacteria that live inside plant tissues without causing any damage to plants are defined as endophytic bacteria. The present study was carried out to analyze the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of endophytic bacteria associated with Amaranthus hybridus, Solanum lycopersicum and Cucurbita maxima.

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and testing the cholesteral reduction ability (in-vitro) of lactococcus lactis from fermented smooth pigweed (amaranthus hybridus) leaves. Abstract PDF · Vol 12, No 6 (2012) - Articles Effect of dietary intakes on pregnancy outcomes: a comparative study among HIV-infected and uninfected women at Nyanza ...

  6. Weed management: a case study from north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwat, K.B.; Hashim, S.; Ali, H.

    2010-01-01

    Alien and exotic plant invasions are threatening the floral diversity around the globe and affect ecological processes. Weed invasion has been documented in North-West Pakistan. A total of 16 weeds were reported as invasive. These were Xanthium strumarium, Ipomoea eriocarpa, Alternanthera pungens, Trianthema portulacastrum, Tagetes minuta, Imperata cylindrica, Amaranthus hybridus subsp. hybridus, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ailanthus altissima, Pistia stratiotes, Phragmites australis, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Galium aparine and Emex spinosus. Among these Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera and Ailanthus altissima are trees and were purposely introduced as they later became invasive. They were aggressive in nature and replaced or suppressed the local vegetation. Their distribution, history of invasion and management has been discussed here. The behaviour and association of the 36 problem weeds with different crops has also been outlined as they perspired from the farmers. (author)

  7. Weed management: a case study from north-west Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwat, K B; Hashim, S; Ali, H [KPK Agriculture University, Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Weed Science

    2010-12-15

    Alien and exotic plant invasions are threatening the floral diversity around the globe and affect ecological processes. Weed invasion has been documented in North-West Pakistan. A total of 16 weeds were reported as invasive. These were Xanthium strumarium, Ipomoea eriocarpa, Alternanthera pungens, Trianthema portulacastrum, Tagetes minuta, Imperata cylindrica, Amaranthus hybridus subsp. hybridus, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ailanthus altissima, Pistia stratiotes, Phragmites australis, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Galium aparine and Emex spinosus. Among these Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera and Ailanthus altissima are trees and were purposely introduced as they later became invasive. They were aggressive in nature and replaced or suppressed the local vegetation. Their distribution, history of invasion and management has been discussed here. The behaviour and association of the 36 problem weeds with different crops has also been outlined as they perspired from the farmers. (author)

  8. 1601-IJBCS-Article-Mohamed Soumanou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr GATSING

    L'influence du mode de cuisson sur la valeur nutritionnelle de Solanum macrocarpum, Amaranthus hybridus et Ocimum gratissimum a été investiguée. Les teneurs en matière sèche, cendres, protéines, lipides, fibres et minéraux des légumes-feuilles traités ont été analysées conformément aux méthodes standards. Les.

  9. 1601-IJBCS-Article-Mohamed Soumanou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr GATSING

    résultats montraient que la cuisson à l'eau bouillante augmentait les teneurs en protéines (35,71%) et en lipides. (97,26%) de Amaranthus hybridus, ... vitamines (surtout les vitamines A, B et C), de minéraux, d'oligo-éléments, de protéines, de ... constituants hydrosolubles dans l'eau de cuisson et soit par la destruction de ...

  10. Impacts de l'utilisation des Engrais chimiques sur les cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'analyse des résultats a montrée que Solanum macrocarpum et amarantus hybridus sont les légumes les plus cultivés respectivement 69% et 21% à cause de leurs préférences dans l'alimentation des consommateurs.Les proportions des maraîchers utilisant les engrais chimiques ou non ou encore les deux couplés sont ...

  11. Phytotoxicity Assessment of Certain Phytochemical Products Containing Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Șeremet Oana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot, Petasites hybridus (common butterbur, Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel and Symphytum officinale (comfrey are species traditionally used in phytotherapy that besides the therapeutic compounds contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. The aim of the paper is to determine the total PAs content and the phytotoxicity of the above species. Material and methods: The quantitative determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is based on the stoichiometric reaction of protonated alkaloids with methyl orange. In acidic conditions the dye is released from the complex and its color is assessed spectrophotometrically using a linear regression curve of senecionine as a standard. The phytotoxicity was assessed by Triticum bioassay that studies the effect of the extracts (0.001-5.00%, w/v upon root elongation (inhibitory concentration - IC50 and on the karyokinetic film. Results: The highest amount of total PAs was found in Senecio vernalis (654.8 ± 35.96 μg/g dry plant and the lowest in Petasites hybridus. The lowest IC50 was found for Tussilago farfara followed by Petasites hybridus, Senecio vernalis, and Symphytum officinale. The results were supported by microscopic examination. Conclusions: The results of the spectrophotometric assay are consistent with the ones found in the literature. All extracts inhibited the elongation of the main root of wheat caryopses, however, no correlation between phytotoxicity and the PAs concentration could be emphasized

  12. Atividade residual de herbicidas aplicados ao solo em relação ao controle de quatro espécies de Amaranthus Residual activity of herbicides applied to the soil in relation to control of four Amaranthus Species

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    M.A. Raimondi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência normalmente apresentam atividade residual no solo, controlando os primeiros fluxos germinativos das plantas daninhas e prevenindo a matocompetição inicial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o período de atividade residual proporcionado por doses de herbicidas suficientes para o controle pontual de 95% (C95 das espécies Amaranthus hybridus, A. lividus, A. spinosus e A. viridis, além de avaliar doses recomendadas desses herbicidas. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação, em solo de textura franco-argiloarenosa (20% de argila e 1,9 de matéria orgânica, e as doses dos herbicidas alachlor, diuron, oxyfluorfen, pendimethalin, prometryne, oxyfluorfen, S-metolachlor, trifluralin 450 e trifluralin 600 foram aplicadas aos 30, 20, 10 e 0 dias antes da semeadura das plantas daninhas. Avaliou-se o controle das plantas daninhas após a permanência dos herbicidas no solo por períodos de 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias depois da aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA. A atividade residual de alachlor e prometryne, na dose C95, não foi suficiente para o controle eficiente (>80% das espécies por períodos de até 30 DAA. Quanto ao alachlor, o emprego da dose recomendada não se refletiu em aumento considerável da atividade residual, exceto em relação a A. viridis. A dose recomendada de prometryne proporcionou controle eficiente das espécies até 30 DAA, exceto de A. hybridus. A dose recomendada de oxyfluorfen controlou eficientemente A. hybridus e A. spinosus até 30 DAA, espécies estas que não haviam sido eficientemente controladas pela dose C95. Trifluralin 450 promoveu controle residual eficiente de 30 DAA somente em relação a A. hybridus. Trifluralin 600 foi eficiente no controle de A. hybridus e A. viridis até os 30 DAA e até 29 e 28 DAA para A. lividus e A. spinosus, respectivamente. Clomazone não promoveu controle eficiente das espécies até 30 DAA, exceto de A. viridis. Diuron, pendimethalin e S

  13. Las citoquininas están asociadas al desarrollo floral de plantas de solidago x luteus en días cortos

    OpenAIRE

    Flórez, Víctor Julio

    2010-01-01

    En Solidago × luteus (M.L. Greene) Brouillet y Semple (= × Solidaster hybridus,× S. luteus), planta comercializada principalmente para flor de corte, el proceso de inducción floral es dependiente de las condiciones fotoperiódicas ambientales. Con el objetivo de determinar la acción de las citoquininas en este proceso, se analizó su presencia en condiciones fotoperiódicas opuestas: días largos (DL) de 18 h y días cortos (DC) de 8 h. En la primera fase del ensayo, con el fin de analizar ...

  14. Allelopathy in pigweed (a review

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    Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus spp. are plants with proven allelopathic potential. The release of allelochemicals from Amaranthus spp. in the environment can influence seed germination, photosynthesis rate, reduce growth and, consequently, the productivity of various plant species. Among the species with allelopathic potential are Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus gracilis, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis, with A. retroflexus being the most studied species and A. spinosus being the species with the greatest allelopathic potential. Due to the large quantities of allelochemicals produced by Amaranthus spp. these plants stand out as future suppliers of chemical molecules for bioherbicides and semisynthetic herbicides.

  15. Inhibidores de la germinación en el residuo seco del tallo del amaranto (Amaranthus hypochondriacus)

    OpenAIRE

    Tejeda-Sartorius, Olga; Escalante-Estrada, J. Alberto; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Rodríguez-González, Ma. Teresa; Vibrans, Heike; Ramírez-Guzmán, Martha E.

    2004-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto del extracto acuoso del residuo seco del tallo del amaranto (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. var. Azteca) a diferentes concentraciones, en la germinación y longitud de radícula y vástago de Amaranthus hybridus L. Dicho extracto, a 108 y 54 ppm inhibió la germinación de la especie en 100% y 68.42%, respectivamente, disminuyendo significativamente la longitud del vástago y la radícula, cuando la inhibición de la germinación no fue total. Se identificaron los ácidos ferúlico (A...

  16. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths

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    Stephen Oyedeji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized soil of Ilorin, Nigeria. Viable seeds of the Amaranths raised in nursery for two weeks were transplanted (one plant per pot into unfertilized soil (control and soils fertilized with either NPK or poultry manure (PM at 30 Kg ha−1 rate arranged in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Data were collected on plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, and number of branches from 1 week after transplanting (1 WAT. Fresh weight, dry weight, and proximate composition were determined at 6 WAT. Except for the length, breadth, and number of leaves, the order of growth parameters and yield in the three Amaranthus species was NPK > PM > control. NPK grown Amaranthus species had the highest protein while PM-grown vegetables had the highest ash content. Crude fibre in A. cruentus grown with PM was significantly higher than NPK and the control. The NPK treatment of A. hybridus and A. deflexus had the highest crude fibre content. NPK and PM favoured growth and yield of the Amaranthus species but influenced proximate composition differently.

  17. ACTIVIDAD FITOTÓXICA DE LOS EXTRACTOS DE CHILE MANZANO (Capsicum pubescens R & P

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    Ma. del Rosario García-Mateos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La búsqueda de nuevos herbicidas de origen natural se ha realizado mediante los estudios de sustancias fitotóxicas debido a que no afectan el ambiente y son menos tóxicos que los sintéticos. En la literatura existen pocas evidencias de los efectos fitotóxicos de los capsaicinoides presentes en el género Capsicum , por lo que el objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar in vitro el efecto fitotóxico de los extractos del fruto de chile manzano ( Capsicum pubescens R & P en la germinación y vigor de Amaranthus hybridus L., Lactuca sativa L., Ipomoea purpurea L. y Bidens odorata Cav. Se realizó una prueba de germinación de acuerdo con la metodología de la International Seed Testing Asociation. El efecto de seis concentraciones de extractos (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20 % v/v, capsaicina (0.1 p/v y ABA (0.01 p/v fue evaluado en un experimento, usando un diseño completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una. El testigo fue agua destilada. Las variables evaluadas fueron el número de semillas germinadas (NSG y el vigor (longitud de radícula, LR; longitud de la parte aérea, LPA. Se realizaron análisis de varianza y comparaciones de medias de Tukey ( P ≤ 0.05. El extracto de diclorometano, comparado con el extracto etéreo, causó el mayor efecto fitotóxico sobre la germinación de A. hybridus y L. sativa , en las que el porcentaje se redujo hasta 100 %. También afectó en forma negativa el vigor de I. purpurea . El efecto fitotóxico de la capsaicina sobre la germinación y vigor sólo se manifestó en A. hybridus.

  18. Nutritional Evaluation of Non-Conventional Vegetables in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luis Felipe Lima E; Souza, Douglas C DE; Resende, Luciane V; Nassur, Rita DE Cássia M R; Samartini, Carolina Q; Gonçalves, Wilson M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the nutritional compounds of interest present in vegetables known as non-conventional, in Brazil. The following evaluations were carried out: antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, vitamin C, calories, carbohydrates, humidity, lipids, proteins, fiber, acidity and quantification of minerals (P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and B). The species studied were Amaranthus hybridus L., Amaranthus viridis L., Basella alba L., Eryngium campestre L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lactuca canadensis L., Rumex acetosa L., Stachys byzantina K. Koch, Tropaeolum majus L. and Xanthosoma sagittifolium L. Representative samples of plant structures of interest were harvested from each species suitable for human consumption such as leaves, flowers and flower buds. The results were submitted to multivariate analysis - principal components analysis (PCA). All the species present nutritional compounds of interest in different levels among the evaluated structures.

  19. Glyphosate em mistura com herbicidas alternativos para o manejo de plantas daninhas Glyphosate combined with alternative herbicides for vegetation management

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    P.A. Monquero

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de glyphosate como herbicida não-seletivo tem selecionado espécies de plantas daninhas tolerantes. Dessa forma, é importante que sejam estudadas misturas de tanque com herbicidas de mecanismos de ação alternativos e que apresentem efeitos sinergísticos ou aditivos. Por essa razão, foi instalado um experimento inteiramente casualizado, composto por 13 tratamentos e 4 repetições, em casa de vegetação da Universidade de São Paulo - ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba-SP, com as plantas daninhas Richardia brasiliensis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus hybridus, Galinsoga parviflora e Ipomoea grandifolia em misturas de tanque dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl, sulfentrazone, carfentrazone, bentazon ou flumioxazin com glyphosate. As interações foram aditivas para as plantas daninhas I. grandifolia e C. benghalensis, e os herbicidas flumioxazin, sulfentrazone e carfentrazone aplicados isoladamente e em mistura com glyphosate foram os que proporcionaram os melhores níveis de controle. A interação de glyphosate com sulfentrazone foi antagônica em R. brasiliensis; a mistura de glyphosate com os demais herbicidas estudados foi aditiva, sendo os tratamentos com mistura de glyphosate e chlorimuron-ethyl ou flumioxazin os mais eficazes. Em A. hybridus, os tratamentos que apresentaram melhores níveis de controle foram o glyphosate e carfentrazone, aplicados isoladamente, e a mistura de glyphosate com flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl e bentazon, sendo estes interações aditivas. No caso de G. parviflora, os tratamentos com flumioxazin e sulfentrazone apresentaram controle total, o mesmo acontecendo com as misturas de glyphosate com carfentrazone, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, chlorimuron-ethyl ou bentazon.The intensive use of glyphosate as a non-selective herbicide for weed vegetation management has selected some tolerant weed species. Thus, it is important to study the synergistic or antagonic or additive effects of tank

  20. Nutritional Evaluation of Non-Conventional Vegetables in Brazil

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    LUIS FELIPE LIMA E SILVA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to characterize the nutritional compounds of interest present in vegetables known as non-conventional, in Brazil. The following evaluations were carried out: antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, vitamin C, calories, carbohydrates, humidity, lipids, proteins, fiber, acidity and quantification of minerals (P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. The species studied were Amaranthus hybridus L., Amaranthus viridis L., Basella alba L., Eryngium campestre L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lactuca canadensis L., Rumex acetosa L., Stachys byzantina K. Koch, Tropaeolum majus L. and Xanthosoma sagittifolium L. Representative samples of plant structures of interest were harvested from each species suitable for human consumption such as leaves, flowers and flower buds. The results were submitted to multivariate analysis - principal components analysis (PCA. All the species present nutritional compounds of interest in different levels among the evaluated structures.

  1. Accumulation of Aluminium and Physiological Status of Tree Foliage in the Vicinity of a Large Aluminium Smelter

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    E. D. Wannaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina. Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al and sulphur (S as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  2. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  3. WHITE BLISTER SPECIES (Albuginaceae ON WEEDS

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    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The obligate fungi inside the family Albuginaceae are widespread world wide and cause white rust or white blister disease. Mycopopulation of weeds has been researched within the project „The role of weeds in epidemiology of row-crop diseases“. The aim of this research was to identify white blister species occurring on weeds in Eastern Croatia. Weed plants with disease symptoms characteristic for white blister species have been collected since 2001 on location Slavonia and Baranja country. Determination of white blister species was based on morphological characters of pathogen and the host. Wilsoniana bliti was determined on Amaranthus retroflexus and Amaranthus hybridus leaves. Capsella bursa pastoris is a host for Albugo candida. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a host for Pustula sp. and Cirsium arvense was found to be host for Pustula spinulosa. Wilsoniana portulaceae was determined on Portulaca oleracea.

  4. Novelties on taxonomy and nomenclature of Spanish vascular hybrids

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    Crespo, Manuel B.

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available The nomenclature of some Iberian hybrids is revised and several new combinations are proposed: Centaurea X subdecurrens var. segobricensis, C. X subdecurrens notbosubsp. albuferae, Cistus X hybridus nothosubsp. grandiflorus var. secallianus. C. X ledon var. recognitus, C. X nigricans var. longifolius, C. X nigricans nothosubsp. grosii and Onopordum X humile var. turolensis. Besides, a new nothosubspecies: Sideritis x paui nothosubsp. enguerana (S. hirsuta X S. incana subsp. virgata, is described for the mountains of Valencia Province (E of Spain.

    Se revisa la nomenclatura de algunos híbridos vasculares ibéricos, proponiéndose algunas nuevas combinaciones: Centaurea X subdecurrens var. segobricensis, C. X subdecurrens notbosubsp. albuferae, Cistus X hybridus nothosubsp. grandiflorus var. secallianus. C. X ledon var. recognitus, C. X nigricans var. longifolius, C. X nigricans nothosubsp. grosii y Onopordum X humile var. turolensis. Además, se describe una nueva notosubespecie de las montañas de la provincia de Valencia: Sideritis X paui nothosubsp. enguerana (S. hirsuta X S. incana subsp. virgata.

  5. Differentiation of Xenarthra (Mammalia species through the identification of their fecal bile acid patterns: An ecological tool Diferenciación de especies de Xenarthra (Mammalia a través de la identificación de sus patrones de ácidos biliares fecales: Una herramienta ecológica

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    M. SOLEDAD ARAUJO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of feces is a fundamental tool for field work, especially to identify the presence of certain species in an area. Fecal bile acids and their relative concentration follow patterns that are species-specific, and can be characterized by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. This technique has been used for differentiating feces of several mammal species; however it has never been used for Xenarthra species. In this work, 96 feces of Xenarthra species were analyzed by TLC to determine the bile acid pattern. The species were: Zaedyus pichiy (n = 10, Chaetophractus vellerosus (n = 5, Chaetophractus villosus (n = 57, Dasypus kybridus (n = 4, Priodontes maximus (n = 2, Tamanduá tetradactyla (n = 14 and Myrmecophaga tridactyla (n = 4. There were differences between the bile acid patterns of all the species, but not between males and females, nor between wild and captive animals of the same species. We found seven known bile acids, cholesterol and seven unidentified compounds (X1-X7. All the species had taurocholic, glycochenodeoxycholic and lithocholic acids, and cholesterol. Only C. villosus had deoxycholic acid (Rf: 0.30 ± 0.01. Z. pichiy, C. vellerosus and C. villosus had two or three bands of dehydrocholic acid (Rf between 0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.45 ± 0.02, while the other species had one or two. Z. pichiy had two unidentified bile acids, X6 (Rf: 0.85 ± 0.06 and X7 (Rf 0.93 ± 0.03, that were almost indistinguishable in other species. D. hybridus differed from Z. pichiy, C. vellerosus and C villosus because it did not have chenodeoxycholic acid and X7. T. tetradactyla was the only species without cholic acid and it differed from M. tridactyla because it had dehydrocholic acid. D. hybridus was the species with the lowest number of compounds (seven, and differed from the others because it did not have the X1 and X5 unidentified compounds. These results are the first for Xenarthra and would be very important for fu ture studies about the

  6. Amaranto BRS Alegria: alternativa para diversificar os sistemas de produção Amaranth BRS Alegria: alternative for diversification of cropping systems

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    Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação do sistema produtivo depende de espécies com rápido crescimento, tolerância ao déficit hídrico, produção de biomassa, ciclagem de nutrientes e utilização humana e animal. As espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus apresentam essas características e sementes claras, sem dormência. Distinguem-se das invasoras A. spinosus, A. hybridus, A. blitum e A. viridis, com sementes escuras e dormentes. Os grãos, com excelente qualidade protéica, atendem à demanda por dietas especiais, livres de glúten e podem ser usados na alimentação animal. O A. cruentus BRS Alegria, primeira recomendação ao cultivo granífero no Brasil, originou-se da variedade AM 5189, dos Estados Unidos, na qual realizou-se seleção massal. Em sucessão à soja, apresentou produção média de 2.359 kg ha-1 de grãos e 5.650 kg ha-1 de biomassa total em apenas 90 dias de ciclo.Diversification of production systems depends on rapid growth, tolerance to hydric stress, biomass production, nutrient cycling and human and animal utilization. The grain amaranth species Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus, with light seed colour and no dormancy, present these characteristics. They are distinguishable from the weeds A. spinosus, A. hybridus, A. blitum and A. viridis, with dark and dormant seeds. Their grains, with excellent protein quality, can be used in gluten-free special diets and livestock feed. The A. cruentus BRS Alegria, the first recommendation for grain production systems in Brazil, originated from mass selection in the variety AM 5189 of the United States. In double-cropping, after soybeans, it showed average yield of 2,359 kg ha-1 for grain and of 5,650 kg ha-1 for total biomass, in 90 days from emergence to maturity.

  7. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura de cebola (Allium cepa transplantada Periods of weed interference with transplanted onion crop (Allium cepa

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    D.J. Soares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de períodos de convivência (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias após o transplantio de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade de quatro cultivares de cebola (Mercedes, Granex 33, Superex e Serrana, em sistema de transplantio de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em Jaboticabal-SP, de abril a outubro de 2000, utilizando delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 8. As principais populações de plantas daninhas no final dos períodos de convivência foram de Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus e Cyperus rotundus. Os cultivares Mercedes (2,90 kgm-2 e Granex 33 (2,64 kgm-2 foram os mais produtivos, independentemente da interferência das plantas daninhas. A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante os primeiros 98 dias reduziu a produtividade da cebola em 95% e o peso médio de bulbos em 91%. O período anterior à interferência (PAI foi de 42 dias, não havendo diferença entre os cultivares de cebola.This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of weed coexistence periods (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting on the productivity of four onion cultivars (Mercedez, Granex 33, Superex and Serrana. The experiment was installed in Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil, from April to October 2000, arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications, in a factorial design 4 x 8. The main weed populations at the end of the coexistence periods were Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus and Cyperus rotundus. The cultivars Mercedez (2.90 kg m-2 and Granex-33 (2.64 kg m-2 were the most productive, under the conditions of weed interference.Weed interference during the first 98 days reduced production weight around 95% and the average weight of bulbs was reduced by 91%. For all the cultivars, weed coexistence the during the first 42 days after transplanting did not reduce the total

  8. Seletividade e eficácia da aplicação sequencial de oxyfluorfen e de ioxynil-octanoato, em semeadura direta de cebola Selectivity and efficacy of the sequential application of oxyfluorfen and ioxynyl-octanoate in direct sowing of onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino R. Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando avaliar os efeitos do parcelamento da dose de oxyfluorfen e ioxyniloctanoato sobre a tolerância de plantas de cebola 'Granex 33' e a eficiência no controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, instalada por semeadura direta, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um na presença de plantas daninhas e o outro na ausência das mesmas. Ioxynil-octanoato, quando aplicado em doses acima de 0,125 kg/ha, aos 19 DAS, foi menos seletivo para o cultivar Granex 33 do que o oxyfluorfen. O parcelamento da dose, em até três aplicações, aumentou a tolerância das plantas de cebola ao oxyfluorfen e ao ioxynil-octanoato. Oxyfluorfen, nas doses avaliadas, controlou Galinsoga parviflora e Amaranthus hybridus, porém não controlou Lepidium virginicum e Coronopus didymus. Ioxynil-octanoato a 0,125 kg/ha, aos 19 DAS, mais duas aplicações de 0,25 kg/ha aos 34 e 65 DAS, controlou as espécies daninhas presentes, com produção de bulbos semelhantes à testemunha capinada. Nenhum dos herbicidas influenciou a conservação pós-colheita dos bulbos até 120 dias de armazenamento.With the purpose of evaluating the splitting of the dose of oxyfluorfen and ioxynyloctanoato on the tolerance of the 'Granex 33' onion plants and the efficiency on the weed control at crop, installed by direct sowing, two experiment were carried out, one in the presence and the other in the absence of weeds. Ioxynyloctanoato, when applied in doses higher than 0.125 kg/ha, at 19 DAS, was less selective for the 'Granex 33' cultivar than oxyfluorfen. Splitting of the doses, up to three applications, increased the tolerance of onion plants toward both oxyfluorfen and ioxynyl-octanoato. Oxyfluorfen, at the evaluated doses, controlled Galinsoga parviflora and Amaranthus hybridus; however it did not control Lepidium virginicum and Coronopus didymus. Ioxynyl-octanoato at 0.125 kg/ha, at 19 DAS, plus two applications of 0.25 kg/ha at 34 and 65 DAS, controlled the existing weeds, with

  9. Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem

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    SRI WIDAWATI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Widawati S (2011 Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem. Biodiversitas 12: 17-21. Soil, water, sand, and plant rhizosphere samples collected from coastal ecosystem of Laki Island-Jakarta were screened for phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB. While the population was dependent on the cultivation media and the sample type, the highest bacterial population was observed in the rhizosphere of Ipomea aquatica. The PSB strains isolated from the sample registered 18.59 g-1L-1, 18.31 g-1L-1, and 5.68 g-1L-1 of calcium phosphate (Ca-P, Al-P and rock phosphate solubilization after 7-days. Phosphate solubilizing capacity was the highest in the Ca-P medium. Two strains, 13 and 14, registered highest Phosphomonoesterase activities (2.01 µgNP.g-1.h-1 and 1.85NP µg.g-1.h-1 were identified as Serattia marcescens, and Pseudomonas fluorescense, respectively. Both strains were isolated from the crops of Amaranthus hybridus and I. aquatica, respectively, which are commonly observed in coastal ecosystems. The presence of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and their ability to solubilize various types of phosphate species are indicative of the important role of both species of bacteria in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus and the plant growth in coastal ecosystems.

  10. Identification of a 34 kDa protein altered in the LF-1 mutant as the herbicide-binding D1 protein of photosystem II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, J.; Pakrasi, H.; Seibert, M.; Arntzen, C.

    1986-01-01

    The LF-1 mutant of Scenedesmus has a complete block on the oxidizing side of its PSII reaction center. However, the reaction center as well as the reducing side of PSII is fully functional in this mutant. Compared to the wildtype (WT) the only detected protein difference in the PSII complex of LF-1 is the change in mobility of a 34 kDa protein to 36 kDa. This protein has been implicated to have a major role in Mn-binding and water-oxidation. The authors have recently shown that photoaffinity labeling of thylakoids with azido-[ 14 C]-atrazine tags the 34 kDa protein in WT and the 36 kDa protein in LF-1. It has been shown that the azido-atrazine labeled protein, called D1, functions in herbicide binding and Q/sub A/ to Q/sub B/ electron transfer on the reducing side of PSII. Polyclonal antibodies directed against the D1 protein of Amaranthus hybridus (Ohad, et al., EMBOJ 1985) were found to recognize the Scenedesmus 34 kDa (WT) and 36 kDa (LF-1) proteins. The implied dual function for the D1 protein on the reducing as well as the oxidizing side of PSII reaction center will be discussed

  11. Ecology of carrion beetles (Nicrophorus spp.) at a solid radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veith, R.D.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the population ecology of three species of carrion beetles (Nicrophorus hecate, N. hybridus, N. marginatus) was initiated on a solid radioactive waste disposal area on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in June 1981. Successive mark and recapture procedures were used to document redistribution of individually numbered adults. During the first summer of research, 1410 individuals were captured in baited pitfall traps, marked, and released during three 12-day sampling periods. Eighty marked individuals were subsequently caught at sampling stations located at varied distances from the site of release, but half of the recaptures occurred within 66.2 m of this point, and a decline in number of recaptures was observed with increasing distance. Capture of beetles at trapping points was related to the prevailing wind direction. Based upon the observed densities, local populations of these species could have an important role in the organic breakdown of small mammals that die on or adjacent to the disposal area. Thus, they may also be an important vector in the redistribution of radionuclides present in small mammals taht become contaminated prior to death

  12. Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Werlang

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%, Desmodium tortuosum (100%, Bidens pilosa (99%, Eleusine indica (96%, Digitaria horizontalis (100% e Commelina benghalensis (93% aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamente controlou eficazmente C. benghalensis. As misturas de glyphosate nas doses de 252 e 720 g ha-1 com carfentrazone-ethyl nas doses de 15 e 30 g ha¹ demonstraram efeito aditivo no controle de A. hybridus, D. tortuosum e Bidens pilosa, à exceção das misturas de glyphosate na dose de 252 g ha-1 com as doses de 15 e 30 g ha-1 de carfentrazone-ethyl, que proporcionam efeito sinergístico no controle de D. tortuosum. A adição das duas doses de carfentrazone-ethyl antagonizou o efeito de glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 no controle de E. indica, apresentando, no entanto, efeito aditivo com o glyphosate na maior dose (720 g ha-1. Já para D. horizontalis, as misturas de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 apresentaram efeito sinergístico no controle dessa espécie, demonstrando, ainda, efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1. A mistura de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate proporcionou efeito aditivo no controle de C. benghalensis, independentemente das combinações de doses avaliadas. Os resultados deste experimento indicam que carfentrazone-ethyl apresenta comportamento diferenciado quanto à interação com glyphosate, dependendo da espécie de planta daninha e da dose dos herbicidas utilizados na mistura em tanque, sendo complementar na mistura em tanque com glyphosate, pois demonstrou efeito antagônico em poucas das combinações estudadas, prevalecendo seu efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate, no

  13. Host Status of Five Weed Species and Their Effects on Pratylenchus zeae Infestation of Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, E M; De Waele, D

    1988-10-01

    The host suitability of five of the most common weed species occurring in maize (Zea mays L.) fields in South Africa to Pratylenchus zeae was tested. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, mealie crotalaria (Crotalaria sphaerocarpa) was a good host; goose grass (Eleusine indica), common pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and thorn apple (Datura stramonium) were moderate hosts; and khaki weed (Tagetes minuta) was a poor host. Only the root residues of khaki weed suppressed the P. zeae infestation of subsequently grown maize. When goose grass, khaki weed, and mealie crotalaria were grown in association with maize in soil infested with P. zeae, goose grass and khaki weed severely suppressed maize root development; this resulted in a low number of nematodes per maize root system and a high number of nematodes per maize root unit. Mealie crotalaria did not restrict maize root growth and did not affect nematode densities per maize root system or maize root unit. Special attention should be given to the control of mealie crotalaria, which is a good host for P. zeae, and goose grass, which, in addition to its ability to compete with maize, is also a suitable host for P. zeae.

  14. ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE VÂLCELE BASIN DURING FEBRUARY 2013 – JANUARY 2014

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    Adrian Mestecăneanu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are showed the results of the researches performed during February 2013 – January 2014 on the avifauna from the Vâlcele Basin. The 65 observed species belong to 13 orders, Passeriformes being the richest (33 species. Anseriformes and Charadriiformes (each with 7 species were the best represented among the wetland birds. 5 species (Podiceps cristatus, Phalacrocorax carbo, Anas platyrhynchos, Fulica atra, and Larus argentatus cachinnans/michahellis were euconstant and 2 species (Anas platyrhynchos and Fulica atra were eudominant. Anas platyrhynchos counted most individuals in a month in December; in July were no individuals. Fulica atra had the most number in September; it was absent in May. For the Vâlcele Basin avicoenose, Anseriformes and Gruiformes were the overdominat orders and, inside the Anseriformes order, Anas platyrhynchos was overdominant species. 7 species (Egretta alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ciconia ciconia, Chlidonias hybridus, Alcedo atthis, Picus canus, and Lanius collurio are in the Annex I of the Birds Directive.

  15. Optimizing the use of biological indicators for detection of significant pollutant types. Optimierung verschiedener Bioindikationsverfahren zur Erfassung wichtiger Immissionstypen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.D.

    1982-04-14

    Bioindication methods to determine the different pollutant types have been compared using the accumulation indicators Halian ryegrass (cloned material) and pine (Picea abies) and the sensitive indicator species tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), gladiolus (G. hybridus), tulip (T. gesneriana), leek (A. porrum), clover (T. pratense), alfalfa (M. sativa), spinach (S. oleracea), petunia (P. hybrida), pelargonium (P. zonale), French marigold (T. patula), salvia (S. splendens) and ipomoea (I. purpurea). Field tests were carried out on 15 different sites in Bavaria. By means of the accumulation indicators, inorganic pollutants (S, F, Cl, Pb, Cd, Zn) were to be determined by analyses of the plant material. In the sensitive indicator plants, growth and flowering were studied with regard to external damage. In tobacco plants, also the physiological parameters and the total nitrogen concentration were determined. The following recommendations can be made for region with unknown pollutant levels: Accumulation indicators can be used in large areas; they yield valid information in case of high pollutant levels and react in a highly differentiated manner to site-specific pollutant levels already within the normal concentration range. Sensitive indicators are of use only in the direct vicinity of large-scale pollution sources. They have a signal function and may warn of high air pollution levels.

  16. Screening of traditional South African leafy vegetables for specific anti-nutritional factors before and after processing

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    Humaira ESSACK

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effect of processing on anti-nutritional factors of thirteen traditional leafy vegetables collected in Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa. The aim was to determine whether processing reduced anti-nutrient levels of leafy vegetables. The vegetables were boiled in a plant-to-distilled water ratio of 1:4 (w/v at 97 °C for a time period of 5 and 15 min. The vegetables studied were: Amaranthus dubius, Amaranthus hybridus, Asystasia gangetica, Bidens pilosa, Ceratotheca triloba, Chenopodium album, Emex australis, Galinsoga parviflora, Guilleminea densa, Momordica balsamina, Oxygonum sinuatum, Physalis viscosa and Solanum nigrum. From this study, it was determined that non processed samples contained anti-nutrients such as tannins, phytic acid, alkaloids, oxalic acid, and cyanogenic glycoside. Both boiling parameters were effective in reducing the tannin, phytic acid, alkaloid, oxalic acid and cyanogenic glycoside contents of all 13 traditional leafy vegetables. The results of this study provide evidence that the local traditional leafy vegetables which the population is so reliant upon, are important contributors to micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries and can be minimized through common boiling methods for a minimum of 5 and maximum of 15 minutes.

  17. Protein concentrate production from the biomass contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizhko, V.F.; Shinkarenko, M.P.; Polozhaj, V.V.; Krivchik, O.V.

    1992-01-01

    Coefficients of radionuclides accumulation are determined for traditional and rare forage crops grown on contaminated soils. It is shown that with low concentration of radionuclides in soil minimal level of contamination were found in the biomass of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) and sainfoin (Onobrychis hybridus L.). Relatively high levels of contamination were found in comfrey (Symphytum asperum Lepech.) and bistort (Polygonum divaricatum L.). Comparatively low accumulation coefficients in case of higher density of soil contamination were observed for white and yellow sweetclovers (Melilotus albus Medik. and M. officinalis (L.) Desr.), while higher values of coefficients were found for bird's-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and alsike clover (t. hybridum L.). Biomass of white sweet-clover and alsike clover has been processed to produce leaf protein concentrate. It is shown that with biomass contamination of 1 kBq/kg and above conventional technology based on thermal precipitation of the protein does not provide production of pure product. More purified protein concentrates are obtained after two-stage processing of the biomass

  18. Seleção de plantas com potencial para fitorremediação de tebuthiuron Plant selection with potential for tebuthiuron phytodecontamination

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    F.R. Pires

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar espécies tolerantes ao tebuthiuron, visando utilizá-las em programas de fitorremediação de solos contaminados com esse herbicida. Foram avaliadas: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, Chamaesyce hyssopifolia, C. hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus annus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium aterrimum, Raphanus raphanistrum e Crotalaria incana. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos contendo 3 dm³ de solo de textura argilo-arenosa com 2,18 dag kg¹ de matéria orgânica. O experimento foi delineado em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições de tratamentos em fatorial 10 x 4 x 4, os quais foram constituídos por 10 espécies, quatro doses de tebuthiuron (0,0; 5,0; 1,0; e 2,0 kg ha-1, aplicadas em pré-emergência, e quatro épocas de avaliação (15, 30, 45 e 60 dias após a semeadura. Foram avaliadas a fitotoxicidade do herbicida, a altura de plantas e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta. Canavalia ensiformes e Pennisetum typhoides foram tolerantes ao tebuthiuron na dose de 0,5 kg ha-1. Estizolobium aterrimum tolerou tebuthiuron até a dose de 1,0 kg ha¹, apresentando fitotoxicidade menos acentuada e menor redução de altura de plantas e da massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta em relação ao tratamento testemunha.This study aimed to select tebuthiuron- tolerant plants to use them in phytoremediation programs in contaminated soils. The evaluated species were: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, C. hyssopifolia, Chamaesyce hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus annus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium aterrimum, Raphanus raphanistrum and Crotalaria incana. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with a sandy-clay soil with 2.18 dag kg-1 of organic matter, in pots of 3 dm³ capacity. The experiment was arranged in a 10 x 4 x 4 factorial scheme in a randomized block design with three

  19. EL ÁCIDO ABSCÍSICO ACELERA EL DESARROLLO FLORAL DE SOLIDAGO EN DÍAS CORTOS ABSCISIC ACID SPEED UP FLORAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOLIDAGO UNDER SHORT DAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Julio Flórez Roncancio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Solidago x luteus (M. L. Greene Broulliet y Semple (= x Solidaster hybridus, x S. luteus es una planta que responde a días cortos (DC para el desarrollo floral. En este proceso se ha establecido la participación de varias fitohormonas, entre éstas, la presencia del ácido abscísico (ABA en zonas y periodos específicos durante el desarrollo de la flor lo cual sugiere su acción promotora en la velocidad de antesis floral de esta especie en DC. En este trabajo se buscaron nuevos indicios de la participación de fitohormonas presentes en la fracción ácida con el proceso de floración. En una primera etapa, extractos foliares provenientes de hojas de plantas en días largos (caracterizadas por menor velocidad de antesis floral se aplicaron en botones florales de plantas en días cortos (caracterizadas por una mayor velocidad de antesis floral. Se realizaron ocho aplicaciones con diferentes frecuencias totalizando un periodo de tratamiento de 25 días. Los resultados mostraron que las sustancias presentes en los extractos de la fracción ácida, no alteran la velocidad promedio de antesis floral en los botones florales de plantas en DC. En la segunda etapa del experimento, la cuantificación de los extractos por ELISA, permitió establecer una mayor concentración de ABA en los extractos de hojas y de botones florales de plantas en DC y de botones florales en el inicio del tratamiento. Estos resultados confirman la relación del ABA con la mayor velocidad de antesis floral en plantas de Solidago x luteus en condiciones de DC.Solidago x luteus (M.L. Greene Broulliet & Semple (= x Solidaster hybridus, x S. luteus is a plant that respond to short days (SD for flower development. In this process, there has been established the involvement of many phytohormones, between these, the presence of the abscisic acid (ABA in zones and specific periods during flower development, suggests its promoter roll on the floral anthesis period of this species under

  20. Selenium Accumulating Leafy Vegetables Are a Potential Source of Functional Foods

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    Petro E. Mabeyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium deficiency in humans has been associated with various diseases, the risks of which can be reduced through dietary supplementation. Selenium accumulating plants may provide a beneficial nutrient for avoiding such illnesses. Thus, leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus sp., Cucurbita maxima, Ipomoea batatas, Solanum villosum, Solanum scabrum, and Vigna unguiculata were explored for their capabilities to accumulate selenium when grown on selenium enriched soil and for use as a potential source of selenium enriched functional foods. Their selenium contents were determined by spectrophotometry using the complex of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine hydrochloride (DABH as a chromogen. The mean concentrations in the leaves were found to range from 7.90±0.40 to 1.95±0.12 μg/g dry weight (DW, with C. maxima accumulating the most selenium. In stems, the accumulated selenium content ranged from 1.12±0.10 μg/g in Amaranthus sp. to 5.35±0.78 μg/g DW in C. maxima and was hence significantly different (P<0.01. The cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used in cytotoxicity assays to determine the anticancer potential of these extracts. With exception of S. scabrum and S. villosum, no cytotoxicity was detected for the selenium enriched vegetable extracts up to 100 μg/mL concentration. Hence, following careful evaluation the studied vegetables may be considered as selenium enriched functional foods.

  1. Nutritive and Antioxidant properties of Shade Dried Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

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    Patricia Dehegnan Oulaï

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables are highly perishable and often subjected to post-harvest wastes. Among the various methods of preservation, the effect of shadow drying on the nutritive value and antioxidant properties of five (5 leafy vegetables species widely consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire was investigated. These species were Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata. Experiment was conducted as follow: portions of washed and drained fresh leafy vegetables (500 g were spread on clean filter paper and kept in a well-ventilated room of the laboratory at 25°C for 5, 10 and 15 days. The results of proximate composition after 15 days of shadow drying were: moisture (15.19 – 20.36%, ash (9.14 -19.54%, crude fiber (11.04 – 27.40%, proteins (11.14 - 17.94%, lipids (2.41 – 5.86% and carbohydrates (16.59 – 45.14%. The concentration of minerals increased with respective values after 15 days of shadow drying: calcium (68.14-408.09 mg/100 g, magnesium (50.62-317.23 mg/100 g, iron (27.52-92.03 mg/100 g and zinc (10.17-16.73 mg/100 g. During shadow drying, vitamin C and carotenoids were subjected to losses estimated to 35.52 – 70.50% and 22.82 – 45.63%, respectively. Contrary to these losses, antioxidant activity increased and ranged from 57.45 to 75.55 % after 15 days of shadow drying. All these results suggest that the considerable nutrient contents of shade dried leafy vegetables make them good source of food supplements in order to meet the nutritional requirements of Ivorian population.

  2. Compost-based growing media: influence on growth and nutrient use of bedding plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigatti, Marco; Giorgioni, Maria Eva; Ciavatta, Claudio

    2007-12-01

    The agronomic performance and the mineral composition and trace element content in Begonia semperflorens "Bellavista F1", Mimulus "Magic x hybridus", Salvia splendens "maestro", and Tagete patula xerecta "Zenith Lemon Yellow", were tested by growing the plants on substrates of white peat and 25-50-75-100% green waste and sewage sludge (80%+20%v/v) compost (CP). A commercial peat medium of black and white peat (2:1v/v) was used as control. At flowering, the agronomic parameters were compared by ANOVA and plant nutritional status was compared by vector analysis. Substrate-species interactions (PBegonia grown in 25% CP, showed the highest dry weight (DW) and number of flowers. Other treatments were comparable to the control. Mimulus and Salvia showed the highest DW in the 25-50% CP. Mimulus, after a DW increase up to 50% CP, showed the steepest reduction as the CP increased further. Tagete showed no differences in DW up to 50% CP, or in flower number up to 25% CP, compared to the control. The additional increases of CP in the medium showed a DW decrease similar to that of Salvia. Vector analysis showed the use of compost mainly induced a decrease of P concentration in tissues, except for Begonia which remained unchanged. Plant tissues showed a general P reduction due to a dilution effect in the low compost mixtures (25-50%) and a deficiency in the higher CP mixtures. In contrast, an increase of Mg in the aboveground tissues of all species was detectable as compost usage increased, with the exception of Salvia which suffered a Mg deficiency. Vector analysis also highlighted a Ni and partial Fe deficiency in Tagete and Salvia.

  3. Mitogenomic phylogeny of cone snails endemic to Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalde, Samuel; Tenorio, Manuel J; Afonso, Carlos M L; Zardoya, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    Cone snails attain in Senegal one of their highest peaks of species diversity throughout the continental coast of Western Africa. A total of 15 endemic species have been described, all placed in the genus Lautoconus. While there is ample data regarding the morphology of the shell and the radular tooth of these species, virtually nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of one of the most endangered groups of cones. In this work, we determined the complete or near-complete (only lacking the control region) mitochondrial (mt) genomes of 17 specimens representing 11 endemic species (Lautoconus belairensis, Lautoconus bruguieresi, Lautoconus cacao, Lautoconus cloveri, Lautoconus cf. echinophilus, Lautoconus guinaicus, Lautoconus hybridus, Lautoconus senegalensis, Lautoconus mercator, Lautoconus taslei, and Lautoconus unifasciatus). We also sequenced the complete mt genome of Lautoconus guanche from the Canary Islands, which has been related to the cones endemic to Senegal. All mt genomes share the same gene arrangement, which conforms to the consensus reported for Conidae, Neogastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Phylogenetic analyses using probabilistic methods recovered three major lineages, whose divergence coincided in time with sea level and ocean current changes as well as temperature fluctuations during the Messinian salinity crisis and the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Furthermore, the three lineages corresponded to distinct types of radular tooth (robust, small, and elongated), suggesting that dietary specialization could be an additional evolutionary driver in the diversification of the cones endemic to Senegal. The reconstructed phylogeny showed several cases of phenotypic convergence (cryptic species) and questions the validity of some species (ecotypes or phenotypic plasticity), both results having important taxonomic and conservation consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ontogenetic criteria to distinguish vertebral types on the debated xenarthran synsacrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliari, Fernando C; Carlini, Alfredo A

    2015-05-01

    The presence of a synsacrum formed by the fusion of vertebrae that come into closed contact with the ilium and ischium is a feature that characterizes the clade Xenarthra. Nevertheless, the proper identity of each vertebral element that forms it is a matter of discussion. In this article, we provide ontogenetic information about skeletal ossification of the xenarthran synsacrum and define the position of the sacrocaudal limit within it. We analyzed the synsacrum of 25 specimens of nonadult and 101 adult armadillos and anteaters: Dasypus hybridus, D. novemcinctus, Chaetophractus vellerosus, C. villosus, Tamandua tetradactyla, and Myrmecophaga tridactyla. Two sets of vertebrae were identified: an anterior set, often attached to the iliac bones, in which transverse processes are originated mainly from an expansion of the base of the neural arches, and secondarily from a lateroventral ossification center. A posterior set is characterized by a series of vertebrae along which extra lateral ossifications (described here for the first time) are developed and form exclusively the transverse processes. Among armadillos, the sacrocaudal limit is set between the last vertebrae attached to the iliac bones and the first vertebrae that form the dorsal border of the sacroischial fenestra. In addition, anterior free caudals also showed extra lateral ossifications forming exclusively the transverse processes, supporting the notion that more posterior synsacrals are in fact caudal vertebrae that were incorporated to the synsacrum. In pilosans, the sacrocaudal limit is set between the first vertebrae that come into contact with the ischial bones and the immediately anterior one. However, the pattern of homologies is obscured by the low resolution in the ontogenetic sequence when compared to that of armadillos. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Inhibition of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α by Medicinal Plants in Relation to Their Phenolic Content

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    Eva Arnold

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytosolic phospholipase A2α(cPLA2α is one of the potential targets for anti-inflammatory drugs, since this enzyme plays a key role in the inflammation processes seen in health disorders, like asthma, allergic reactions, arthritis and neuronal diseases. In this study, cPLA2α inhibition by 43 methanol extracts from medicinal plants rich in polyphenols was determined. The eight most active extracts were derived from Ribes nigrum (IC50 of 27.7 μg/mL, Ononis spinosa (IC50 of 39.4 μg/mL, Urtica dioica (IC50 of 44.32 μg/mL, Betula sp. (IC50 of 58.02 μg/mL, Sanguisorba officinalis (IC50 of 76.25 μg/mL, Orthosiphon stamineus (IC50 of 78.83 μg/mL, Petasites hybridus (IC50 of 81.02 μg/mL and Tussilago farfara (IC50 of 123.28 μg/mL. Additionally, the antioxidant activities of these extracts were determined with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay and their phenolic content with the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Antioxidant activity showed a non-linear, positive correlation to the phenolic content, but no correlation of PLA2 inhibition with phenolic content could be established. This study provides evidence that cPLA2α may be a relevant target for anti-inflammatory agents.

  6. Polyphenolic screening and protective properties of some vegetables against CCl4 liver damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salawu, S.O.; Akindahunsi, A.A.

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, we screened for the polyphenolic compounds present in some selected tropical vegetables and the protective effect of the vegetable extract against CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats as a way of evaluating their medicinal potential in addition to their nutritional values. The use of HPLC/DAD/MS revealed the presence of some phenolic compounds in the studied vegetables. Crassocephalum crepidioides; caffeoyl derivatives, Talinum triangulare; rutin and kaempferol derivatives, Amaranthus hybridus; caffeoyl derivative, rutin and kaempferol derivative, Hibiscus esculentus; caffeoyl derivative, quercetin derivative and an unidentified flavonoid, Xanthosoma mafaffa; six unidentified flavonoids with similar absorption maximum at different retention times) and Celocia argentia (luteolin derivative and four unidentified flavonoids. Carbon tetrachloride at a dose of 0.5ml/kg body weight (b.w) produced liver damage in rats as manifested by the rise in the levels of ALT (IU/l), AST (IU/l) and total protein (g/l) in the serum (40.60 ± 3.50, 80.60 ± 5.10, 73.20 ± 1.87), in the liver homogenate (1300.00 ± 7.38, 1660.00 ± 13.69, 250.00 ± 7.51) and MDA content (nmol TBARS/mg Liver Protein) in the liver homogenate (82.00 ± 0.02, 82.00 ± 0.07) compared to the control. The result revealed a reduction of the serum marker enzymes (ALT, AST and Total protein), compared with the CCl 4 treated group after the administration of the various polyphenolic extract. In a similar manner, the extract brings about a reduction of the MDA content. It could be concluded that the protective properties exhibited by the vegetables could be amongst other factor due to the presence of some polyphenols. (author)

  7. TAXONOMY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ISOLATED FROM CULTIVATED PLANTS, WEEDS AND THEIR PATHOGENICITY FOR WHEAT

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    Jasenka Ćosić

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species are wide-spread and known to be pathogenic agents to cultivated plants in various agroclimatic areas. During a four year investigation 10 Fusarium species and Microdochium nivale were isolated from wheat, barley, maize and soybean as well as from 10 weeds collected from 10 locations in Slavonia and Baranya. Fusarium graminearum was dominant on wheat and barley, F. moniliforme on maize and F. oxysporum on soybean. Regarding weeds, the presence of the following Fusarium species was established: F. graminearum on Amaranthus hybridus, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Lamium purpureum, Sorghum halepense and Urtica dioica, F. moniliforme on Abutilon theophrasti, F. subglutinans on Polygonum aviculare, F. avenaceum on Capsella bursa-pastoris, Rumex crispus and Matricaria sp., F. culmorum on Abutilon theophrasti, F. sporotrichioides on Polygonum aviculare, F. proliferatum and F. poae on Artemisia vulgaris. Pathogenicity test to wheat seedlings was done in our laboratory on winter wheat cultivars Slavonija and Demetra (totally 146 isolates. The most pathogenic species to wheat seedilings were F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides and the least pathogenic F. moniliforme, F. solani, F. oxysporum and F. poae. Pathogenicity test for wheat ears was done on genotypes Osk.8c9/3-94 and Osk.6.11/2 (totally 25 isolates. The results obtained by our investigation showed that there were no significant differences in pathogenicity of Fusarium species isolated from both cultivated plants and weeds. Weeds represent a constant source of inoculum of F. species for cultivated plants and they serve as epidemiologic bridges among vegetations.

  8. Benefits, pitfalls and risks of phytotherapy in clinical practice in otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laccourreye, O; Werner, A; Laccourreye, L; Bonfils, P

    2017-04-01

    To elucidate the benefits, pitfalls and risks of phytotherapy in the clinical practice of otorhinolaryngology. The PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched using the following keywords: phytotherapy, phytomedicine, herbs, otology, rhinology, laryngology, otitis, rhinitis, laryngitis and otorhinolaryngology. Seventy-two articles (18 prospective randomized studies, 4 Cochrane analyses, 4 meta-analysis and 15 reviews of the literature) devoted to clinical studies were analyzed. Articles devoted to in vitro or animal studies, biochemical analyses or case reports (including fewer than 10 patients) and articles dealing with honey, aromatherapy or minerals were excluded. Per os ginkgo biloba has no indications in tinnitus, presbycusis or anosmia following viral rhinitis. Traditional Asian medicine has no proven benefit in sudden deafness or laryngeal papillomatosis. Per os mistletoe extracts associated to conventional treatment for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma does not increase 5-year survival. Extracts of various herbs, notably echinacea, eucalyptus, petasites hybridus, pelargonium sidoides, rosemary, spirulina and thyme, show superiority over placebo for rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis, as does gingko biloba for selected vertigo. There have been encouraging preliminary results for intratumoral injection of mistletoe in head and neck carcinoma and acupoint herbal patching for allergic rhinitis. Herb intake should be screened for in case of certain unexplained symptoms such as epistaxis, headache or dizziness, or signs suggesting allergy. Phytotherapy should be interrupted ahead of surgery and/or chemotherapy. Scientific proof of the benefit of phytotherapy in otorhinolaryngology remains to be established but, given its widespread use and the reported data, knowledge of this form of treatment needs to be developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Studi Eksperimental Pengaruh Intensitas Cahaya terhadap Performa DSSC (Dye Sensitized Solar Cell dengan Ekstrak Buah dan Sayur Sebagai Dye Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiruz Zadit Taqwa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sel surya adalah peralatan yang dapat mengubah energi matahari menjadi energi listrik dengan menggunakan efek photovoltaic. Desain dan konstruksi dari solar cell mengalami perkembangan seiring dengan berkembangnya teknologi saat ini, hingga pada tahun 1991 ditemukan DSSC (Dye Sensitized Solar Cell. Sampai saat ini bahan yang umum digunakan sebagai dye pada pembuatan DSSC adalah ruthenium complex yang berharga mahal dan sulit untuk disintesa. Karena itu perlu dilakukannya penelitian tentang penggunaan bahan lain yang murah dan mudah untuk disintesa sebagai bahan dye, karena itu perlu diadakan pengujian terhadap performa yang dihasilkan dari DSSC dengan bahan dye tersebut dan apa saja variabel yang mempengaruhinya. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi eksperimental terhadap prototype DSSC dengan variasi bahan dye sensitizer dari ekstrak kulit manggis (Garcinia mangostana, ekstrak daun bayam (Amaranthus hybridus l. ekstrak buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus. Pengujian prototype DSSC dilakukan dengan cara menyinarinya menggunakan cahaya lampu halogen yang diatur tegangannya menggunakan sebuah dimmer untuk mengendalikan temperatur dari lampu, sehingga lampu tersebut menghasilkan variasi tintensitas cahaya sebesar 29 W/m2, 36 W/m2 dan 49 W/m2. Selanjutnya pengujian dilakukian dengan cara yang sama, tetapi dengan ditambahkan pendingin berupa air yang mengalir dibawah permukaan prototype DSSC. Penilitian ini menghasilkan kesimpulan bahwa semakin tinggi intensitas cahaya, maka semakin tinggi Pmax yang dihasilkan oleh prototype. Semakin bertambah temperatur pencahayaan maka semakin berkurang performa dari prototype DSSC. Efisiensi yang paling besar dihasilkan oleh prototype dengan bahan dye dari ekstrak kulit manggis pada intensitas 29 W/m2 sebesar 0,73%,Pendinginan yang diberikan kepada prototype mampu memperbaiki efisiensi dari prototype DSSC yang dibuat akan tetapi tidak signifikan.

  10. Oral toxicity study of certain plant extracts containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şeremet, Oana Cristina; Bărbuceanu, Florica; Ionică, Floriana Elvira; Margină, Denisa Marilena; GuŢu, Claudia Maria; Olaru, Octavian Tudorel; Ilie, Mihaela; Gonciar, Veaceslav; Negreş, Simona; ChiriŢă, Cornel

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of toxic compounds which are found in plants. Poisoning caused by these toxins is associated with acute and chronic liver damage. Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot), Petasites hybridus (common butterbur), Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel) and Symphytum officinale (comfrey) are traditional phytotherapic species, which beside the therapeutic bioactive compounds contain PAs. The aim of the paper was to assess the safety of some dry extracts obtained from these species. For the determination of acute toxicity, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guideline No. 423 was used. For the determination of repeated dose oral toxicity, Senecionis vernalis herba and Symphyti radix extracts (250 mg÷kg) were administrated, by gavage, for 28 days, and their effects on animal weight, liver and biliary functions, hepatic tissue and oxidative stress were investigated. After the acute toxicity testing, the dry extracts were placed in the GHS Category V (LD50>5000 mg÷kg, p.o.). For the subacute toxicity testing, no death or any signs of toxicity were observed. Also, no significant differences in biochemical parameters were observed between control and treated groups. The observed histopathological lesions were non-specific and were not consistent with the data reported in the literature for PAs exposure. In conclusion, the administration for 28 days, of the tested extracts, in a dose which correspond to a PAs concentration over the limits imposed in some countries, produced no hepatic and biliary toxic effects. Further studies, extended over a longer period of time, are needed in order to determine the safety of plant extracts containing PAs.

  11. Environmental fate and effects of granular pesta formulation from strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa C1501 and Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae C1136 on soil activity and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, Charles Oluwaseun; Oloke, Julius Kola; Osemwegie, Osarenkhoe Omorefosa

    2018-03-01

    This work investigated the effect of variably formulated pesta granules containing wild and UV mutated Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae on the rate of CO 2 evolution, organic carbon content, enzymatic activity (acidic and alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenases, urease and protease) and representative soil microorganisms in the soils using different assay techniques. After the 35th day period of experiment, the pesta granule formulation BH4 showed the best evolution of CO 2 (824 ± 6.2 mg CO 2 kg -1 soil hr -1 ) as against control treatment (689 ± 3.7 mg CO 2 kg -1 soil hr -1 ). Enzymes activities, organic carbon content of 3.8% on the 15th day of study and stable representation of microorganisms that include actinomycetes, fungi, heterogenous as well as soil nitrogen-mediatory bacteria were equally at their maximum level BH4 treatments. The phytotoxic assay showed no inhibitory effect on Solanum lycopersicum seeds and seedlings compared to the observed growth inhibition on the tested weeds (Amaranthus hybridus and Echinocholoa crus-galli) which corresponds with positive control glyphosate treatment. The glyphosate treated soil had the least critical results on parameters investigated during the study. The order of bioherbicidal activity is BH4>BH2>BH6>BH3>BH1>BH5>positive control. Results from this study confirmed the target efficacy of variably formulated pesta granules which is sustainable, cheap, ecologically suitable and recent. This is in addition to recognizing the microbial-derived formulations as characteristically potent alternative to chemical herbicides utility in agrosystems practice. Further study of the underlining factor responsible for the bioherbicidal performances of the variably formulated pesta granules and field trials are critical for their future commercialization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioinformatic approach in the identification of arabidopsis gene homologous in amaranthus

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    Jana Žiarovská

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioinfomatics offers an efficient tool for molecular genetics applications and sequence homology search algorithms became an inevitable part for many different research strategies. Appropriate managing of known data that are stored in public available databases can be used in many ways in the research. Here, we report the identification of RmlC-like cupins superfamily protein DNA sequence than is known in Arabidopsis genome for the Amaranthus - plant specie where this sequence was still not sequenced. A BLAST based approach was used to identify the homologous sequences in the nucleotide database and to find suitable parts of the Arabidopsis sequence were primers can be designed. In total, 64 hits were found in nucleotide database for Arabidopsis RmlC-like cupins sequence. A query cover ranged from 10% up to the 100% among RmlC-like cupins nucleotides and its homologues that are actually stored in public nucleotide databases. The most conserved region was identified for matches that posses nucleotides in the range of 1506 up to the 1925 bp of RmlC-like cupins DNA sequence stored in the database. The in silico approach was subsequently used in PCR analysis where the specifity of designed primers was approved. A unique, 250 bp long fragment was obtained for Amaranthus cruentus and a hybride Amaranthus hypochondriacus x hybridus in our analysis. Bioinformatic based analysis of unknown parts of the plant genomes as showed in this study is a very good additional tool in PCR based analysis of plant variability. This approach is suitable in the case for plants, where concrete genomic data are still missing for the appropriate genes, as was demonstrated for Amaranthus. 

  13. Critical period for weed control in potatoes in the Huambo Province (Angola Período crítico do controle de infestantes na cultura da batateira na Província do Huambo (Angola

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    A. Monteiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different weed management periods on potatoes were studied in three areas (Bailundo, Chianga and Calenga of the central highlands of Angola and in three cropping seasons, from June 2005 to May 2007. Six weed-management treatments were used to identify critical periods of competition and to allow the development of more precise management recommendations. Total potato yield ranged from about 22 t ha-1 in weed-free plots to about 3 t ha-1 with no weed control a yield loss of 86%. Major weed species Galinsoga parviflora, Cyperus esculentus, Bidens biternata, Amaranthus hybridus, Nicandra physaloides, Portulaca oleracea and Datura stramonium differed from area to area. The species G. parviflora dominated the weed flora in all three areas 73, 97 and 72 plants m² 50 days after crop emergence in Bailundo, Chianga and Calenga respectively, in dry season trials; while C. esculentus was also present in Chianga and Calenga, with an average density of ca 30 plants m-2 in dry season trials. Gompertz and logistic equations were fitted to data representing increasing periods of weed-free growth and weed interference, respectively. Critical periods for weed control, with a 95% weed-free total yield, were estimated from 26 to 66 and from 20 to 61 days after emergence for the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Weed competition before or after these critical periods had negligible effects on crop yield.Com o objectivo de obter recomendações mais precisas para a gestão das infestantes na cultura da batata 'Romano' avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes períodos de controle e de convivência em três locais do Planalto Central de Angola e em três épocas de crescimento da cultura. O delineamento experimental, por local, consistiu em blocos casualizados com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis intervalos de controle nos quais a cultura foi mantida livre de infestantes e após cada período estas foram deixadas crescer livremente; e

  14. Las citoquininas están asociadas al desarrollo floral de plantas de Solidago x luteus en días cortos

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    Flórez Víctor Julio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    En Solidago × luteus (M.L. Greene Brouillet y Semple (= × Solidaster hybridusS. luteus, planta comercializada principalmente para flor de corte, el proceso de inducción floral es dependiente de las condiciones fotoperiódicas ambientales. Con el objetivo de determinar la acción de las citoquininas en este proceso, se analizó su presencia en condiciones fotoperiódicas opuestas: días largos (DL de 18 h y días cortos (DC de 8 h. En la primera fase del ensayo, con el fin de analizar la respuesta de las plantas a fitohormonas con frecuencia semanal de aplicación, se realizaron los siguientes tratamientos: 1 ácido giberélico (GA3 10-4M, 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA 4x10-4 M y GA3 10-4 M más 6-BA 4x10-4 M; 2 GA3 10-4M, kinetina (KI 4x10-4 M y GA3 10-4 M más KI 4x10-4 M y 3 KI 4x10-4 M. Con el objeto de conocer la concentración endógena de hormonas, en la segunda fase los extractos vegetales se analizaron a través de cromatografía en capa fina y cuantificados por el ensayo inmunoenzimático de Elisa, previa separación por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Los resultados permitieron determinar la actividad citoquinínica en extractos provenientes de hojas y de botones florales de plantas en el inicio de los tratamientos, en DL y en DC. Se demostró que la aplicación de KI acelera la antesis floral, evidenciando la relación de citoquininas endógenas con el proceso de desarrollo floral. Por último, de los resultados obtenidos de los extractos sometidos a Elisa se sugiere la participación de las citoquininas en el proceso de antesis floral de S.× luteus, donde la iPA (isopentenil adenosina tendría una acción importante al ser transportada rápidamente de la hoja al botón floral en DC, posibilitando tal vez la mayor

  15. Levantamento de plantas infestantes em lavouras de milho 'safrinha'no estado de São Paulo Weed survey in autumn corn crops in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aildson P. Duarte

    1999-08-01

    . In Região do Paranapanema the direct seeding was done in 68 crops, in 11 a single harrowing was done and, in six, a double harrowing, with post-emergence herbicides being used in some areas. The weed species ocurring in Região Norte, according to their frequency, were: Glycine max> Amaranthus retroflexus> Bidens pilosa = Acanthospermum hispidum = Alternanthera tenella > Cenchrus echinatus > Euphorbia heterophylla > Ipomoea spp. > Commelina benghalensis > Sida spp. = Eleusine indica; and, in the Region of Médio Vale do Paranapanema: Euphorbia heterophylla = Glycine max = Commelina benghalensis > Bidens pilosa = Raphanus sativus > Cenchrus echinatus = Acanthospermum hispidum > Brachiaria plantaginea > Sida spp. = Coronopus didymus > Eleusine indica > Digitaria horizontalis > Amaranthus retroflexus. The rates of high weed infestation were as follows: direct seeding > single harrowing > doble harrowing. Commelina benghalensis, Digitaria horizontalis, Sida spp., Eleusine indica and Amaranthus hybridus, occured only with direct seeding in the Region of Paranapanema. In the North Region Ipomoea spp. and Euphorbia heterophylla ocurred only with single harrowing.