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Sample records for hybrids f2 mice

  1. EFFECT OF HIGH SALT ON RENAL NKCC2 IN CYP4F2 transgenic mice

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    Yanyan Zhao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 4F2 (CYP4F2 catalyzes the ω-hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA to 20-HETE. We previously generated a CYP4F2 transgenic (TG mouse model, and demonstrated that overexpressed CYP4F2 elevates 20-HETE production and blood pressure in the TG mice, indicating 20-HETE plays a prohypertensive role via vasoconstriction in CYP4F2 TG mice. To investigate antihypertensive action of 20-HETE via natriuresis in CYP4F2 TG mice , we fed TG mice a high salt (4% NaCl diet for 2 weeks, and measured their systolic blood pressure (SBP, urine sodium concentration, urine volume, and urinary 20-HETE excretion. The expression of renal Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter, isoform 2 (NKCC2 was detected by Real-time PCR and Western blot. The results showed that SBP was not changed, but the urinary sodium excretion and urinary 20-HETE excretion were promoted by high salt intake in TG mice. NKCC2 protein was reduced by high salt intake, but its mRNA was not. These data suggest that 20-HETE of CYP4F2 TG mice exert natriuresis in renal adaptation to elevated Na+ intake, in which reduction of renal NKCC2 protein was involved through high salt-induced posttranscriptional regulation.

  2. Compact setup for the production of {sup 87}Rb |F = 2, m{sub F} = + 2〉 Bose-Einstein condensates in a hybrid trap

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    Nolli, Raffaele; Venturelli, Michela; Marmugi, Luca, E-mail: l.marmugi@ucl.ac.uk; Wickenbrock, Arne; Renzoni, Ferruccio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    We present a compact experimental apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation of {sup 87}Rb in the |F  =  2, m{sub F} = + 2〉 state. A pre-cooled atomic beam of {sup 87}Rb is obtained by using an unbalanced magneto-optical trap, allowing controlled transfer of trapped atoms from the first vacuum chamber to the science chamber. Here, atoms are transferred to a hybrid trap, as produced by overlapping a magnetic quadrupole trap with a far-detuned optical trap with crossed beam configuration, where forced radiofrequency evaporation is realized. The final evaporation leading to Bose-Einstein condensation is then performed by exponentially lowering the optical trap depth. Control and stabilization systems of the optical trap beams are discussed in detail. The setup reliably produces a pure condensate in the |F = 2, m{sub F} = + 2〉 state in 50 s, which includes 33 s loading of the science magneto-optical trap and 17 s forced evaporation.

  3. The quantitative and qualitative difference between a F1 hybrid of maize and its F2 generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Steven; Reheul, Dirk; De Cauwer, Benny

    2004-01-01

    The majority of modern maize varieties are single F1 hybrids. The yield performance of the F2 generation is known to be inferior to the F1 yield performance. We crossed several F1 hybrids and compared these crossings, together with true F2 generations, with the original F1s. Compared to the F1 generation, biomass yield in the F2 generation dropped with -26.7%, and with -8.7% in the crossings. Ear yield dropped with -35.3% and -10.7% respectively. F2 generations had a reduced early vigour and the ear filling startedlater. The yield of some F1 diallel crosses was not significantly different from the yield of the parental F1s.

  4. Major urinary metabolites of 6-keto-prostaglandin F2α in mice[S

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    Kuklev, Dmitry V.; Hankin, Joseph A.; Uhlson, Charis L.; Hong, Yu H.; Murphy, Robert C.; Smith, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Western diets are enriched in omega-6 vs. omega-3 fatty acids, and a shift in this balance toward omega-3 fatty acids may have health benefits. There is limited information about the catabolism of 3-series prostaglandins (PG) formed from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a fish oil omega-3 fatty acid that becomes elevated in tissues following fish oil consumption. Quantification of appropriate urinary 3-series PG metabolites could be used for noninvasive measurement of omega-3 fatty acid tone. Here we describe the preparation of tritium- and deuterium-labeled 6-keto-PGF2α and their use in identifying urinary metabolites in mice using LC-MS/MS. The major 6-keto-PGF2α urinary metabolites included dinor-6-keto-PGF2α (∼10%) and dinor-13,14-dihydro-6,15-diketo-PGF1α (∼10%). These metabolites can arise only from the enzymatic conversion of EPA to the 3-series PGH endoperoxide by cyclooxygenases, then PGI3 by prostacyclin synthase and, finally, nonenzymatic hydrolysis to 6-keto-PGF2α. The 6-keto-PGF derivatives are not formed by free radical mechanisms that generate isoprostanes, and thus, these metabolites provide an unbiased marker for utilization of EPA by cyclooxygenases. PMID:23644380

  5. Effects of the recombinant allergen rDer f 2 on neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthmatic mice.

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    Jiang, Yong-Qian; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang; Ji, You-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Severe and life-threatening side effects can occur in patients receiving allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), and recombinant allergens made from cDNA have been used in clinical trials for ten years and appear promising for SIT. The aim of this study is to explore the effects of the recombinant allergen Der f 2 (the group 2 allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae) on the neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthmatic mice. Twenty-eight mice were divided into four groups - A, B, C and D. To induce asthma, a crude extract of D. farinae was injected intraperitoneally into the mice in groups B, C and D. Later, the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 was given to groups C and D, respectively. Normal saline was given to groups A and B. Serum corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), interleukin 4 (IL-4), and interferon γ (IFN-γ) were detected by immunoassay and the pathological change of lung tissue was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Serum CRH, ACTH, CORT, and IFN-γ were highest in healthy group A but lowest in asthma group B. Treatment with the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 significantly attenuated this response in asthmatic mice, but there was no difference between the two treatments (p > 0.05). Serum IL-4 was elevated in asthma group B but lowest in healthy group A. Treatment with the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 significantly attenuated this response in asthmatic mice, but there was no significant difference between the two treatments (p > 0.05). However, lung pathology as measured histologically (Underwood Score) showed that rDer f 2-treatment was significantly better than crude extract treatment (p < 0.05). In brief, recombinant allergen Der f 2 can strengthen the function of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, affect the balance of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and reduce pulmonary inflammation in asthmatic mice.

  6. F1 hybrid of cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) and European pear (Pyrus communis) with fertile F2 offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, T.C.; Malnoy, M.; Hofmann, T.; Schwab, W.; Palmieri, L.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Schuch, L.A.; Müller, M.; Schimmelpfeng, H.; Velasco, R.; Martens, S.

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of intergeneric hybrids for horticultural and agricultural crops is still a demanding task for breeding programmes. The aim of such approaches is to introduce new quality and resistance traits and to enlarge the gene pool. Recently, an F1 hybrid between Malus × domestica and Pyrus

  7. Use of the mice passive protection test to evaluate the humoral response in goats vaccinated with Sterne 34F2 live spore vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaswana, P H; Ndumnego, O C; Koehler, S M; Beyer, W; Crafford, J E; van Heerden, H

    2017-09-07

    The Sterne live spore vaccine (34F2) is the most widely used veterinary vaccine against anthrax in animals. Antibody responses to several antigens of Bacillus anthracis have been described with a large focus on those against protective antigen (PA). The focus of this study was to evaluate the protective humoral immune response induced by the live spore anthrax vaccine in goats. Boer goats vaccinated twice (week 0 and week 12) with the Sterne live spore vaccine and naive goats were used to monitor the anti-PA and toxin neutralizing antibodies at week 4 and week 17 (after the second vaccine dose) post vaccination. A/J mice were passively immunized with different dilutions of sera from immune and naive goats and then challenged with spores of B. anthracis strain 34F2 to determine the protective capacity of the goat sera. The goat anti-PA ELISA titres indicated significant sero-conversion at week 17 after the second doses of vaccine (p = 0.009). Mice receiving undiluted sera from goats given two doses of vaccine (twice immunized) showed the highest protection (86%) with only 20% of mice receiving 1:1000 diluted sera surviving lethal challenge. The in vitro toxin neutralization assay (TNA) titres correlated to protection of passively immunized A/J mice against lethal infection with the vaccine strain Sterne 34F2 spores using immune goat sera up to a 1:10 dilution (r s  ≥ 0.522, p = 0.046). This study suggests that the passive mouse protection model could be potentially used to evaluate the protective immune response in livestock animals vaccinated with the current live vaccine and new vaccines.

  8. Genetic Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL Detection of Six Economic Traits Using an F2 Population of the Hybrid from Saccharina longissima and Saccharina japonica.

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    Jing Zhang

    Full Text Available Saccharina (Laminaria is one of the most important economic seaweeds. Previously, four genetic linkage maps of Saccharina have been constructed and five QTLs have been identified. However, they were not enough for its breeding. In this work, Saccharina longissima (♀ and Saccharina japonica (♂, which showed obvious differences in morphology and genetics, were applied in hybridization to yield the F2 mapping population with 102 individuals. Using these 102 F2 hybrids, the genetic linkage map of Saccharina was constructed by MapMaker software based on 37 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs, 22 sequence-related amplified polymorphisms (SRAPs and 139 simple sequence repeats (SSRs markers. Meanwhile, QTL analysis was performed for six economic traits. The linkage map constructed in this research consisted of 422 marker loci (137 AFLPs, 57 SRAPs and 228 SSRs, which formed 45 linkage groups (LGs with an average marker space of 7.92 cM; they spanned a total length of 2233.1 cM, covering the whole estimated genome size. A total of 29 QTLs were identified for six economic traits, which explained 1.06 to 64.00% of phenotypic variation, including three QTLs for frond length (FL and raw weight (RW, five QTLs for frond width (FW, two QTLs for frond fascia width (FFW and frond thickness (FT, and fourteen QTLs for base shape (BS. The results of this research will improve the breeding efficiency and be beneficial for marker-assisted selection (MAS schemes in Saccharina breeding.

  9. Prostaglandin F2alpha- and FAS-activating antibody-induced regression of the corpus luteum involves caspase-8 and is defective in caspase-3 deficient mice

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    Flavell Richard A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We recently demonstrated that caspase-3 is important for apoptosis during spontaneous involution of the corpus luteum (CL. These studies tested if prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α or FAS regulated luteal regression, utilize a caspase-3 dependent pathway to execute luteal cell apoptosis, and if the two receptors work via independent or potentially shared intracellular signaling components/pathways to activate caspase-3. Wild-type (WT or caspase-3 deficient female mice, 25–26 days old, were given 10 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG intraperitoneally (IP followed by 10 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG IP 46 h later to synchronize ovulation. The animals were then injected with IgG (2 micrograms, i.v., the FAS-activating antibody Jo2 (2 micrograms, i.v., or PGF2α (10 micrograms, i.p. at 24 or 48 h post-ovulation. Ovaries from each group were collected 8 h later for assessment of active caspase-3 enzyme and apoptosis (measured by the TUNEL assay in the CL. Regardless of genotype or treatment, CL in ovaries collected from mice injected 24 h after ovulation showed no evidence of active caspase-3 or apoptosis. However, PGF2α or Jo2 at 48 h post-ovulation and collected 8 h later induced caspase-3 activation in 13.2 ± 1.8% and 13.7 ± 2.2 % of the cells, respectively and resulted in 16.35 ± 0.7% (PGF2α and 14.3 ± 2.5% TUNEL-positive cells when compared to 1.48 ± 0.8% of cells CL in IgG treated controls. In contrast, CL in ovaries collected from caspase-3 deficient mice whether treated with PGF2α , Jo2, or control IgG at 48 h post-ovulation showed little evidence of active caspase-3 or apoptosis. CL of WT mice treated with Jo2 at 48 h post-ovulation had an 8-fold increase in the activity of caspase-8, an activator of caspase-3 that is coupled to the FAS death receptor. Somewhat unexpectedly, however, treatment of WT mice with PGF2α at 48 h post-ovulation resulted in a 22-fold increase in caspase-8 activity in the CL, despite the fact

  10. The Relationship between Structurally Different Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Western Flower Thrips Resistance in F2 Hybrids of Jacobaea vulgaros and Jacobaea aquatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, D.; Kirk, H.; Vrieling, K.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.

    2011-01-01

    Segregating plant hybrids often have more ecological and molecular variability compared to parental species, and are therefore useful for studying relationships between different traits, and the adaptive significance of trait variation. Hybrid systems have been used to study the relationship between

  11. Acetylsalicylic acid regulates MMP-2 activity and inhibits colorectal invasion of murine B16F0 melanoma cells in C57BL/6J mice: effects of prostaglandin F(2)alpha.

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    Tsai, Chin-Shaw Stella; Luo, Shue-Fen; Ning, Chung-Chu; Lin, Chien-Liang; Jiang, Ming-Chung; Liao, Ching-Fong

    2009-08-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that acetylsalicylic acid may reduce the risk of mortality due to colon cancers. Metastasis is the major cause of cancer death. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in tumor invasion regulation, and prostaglandin F(2)alpha (PGF(2)alpha) is a key stimulator of MMP production. Thus, we investigated whether acetylsalicylic acid regulated MMP activity and the invasion of cancer cells and whether PGF(2)alpha attenuated acetylsalicylic acid-inhibited invasion of cancer cells. Gelatin-based zymography assays showed that acetylsalicylic acid inhibited the MMP-2 activity of B16F0 melanoma cells. Matrigel-based chemoinvasion assays showed that acetylsalicylic acid inhibited the invasion of B16F0 cells. Acetylsalicylic acid can inhibit PGF(2)alpha synthesis and PGF(2)alpha is a key stimulator of MMP-2 production. Our data showed that PGF(2)alpha treatment attenuated the acetylsalicylic acid-inhibited invasion of B16F0 cells. In animal experiments, acetylsalicylic acid reduced colorectal metastasis of B16F0 cells in C57BL/6J mice by 44%. Our results suggest that PGF(2)alpha is a therapeutic target for metastasis inhibition and acetylsalicylic acid may possess anti-metastasis ability.

  12. Xenogeneic gene expression in chimeric mice derived from rat--mouse hybrid cells.

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    Illmensee, K; Croce, C M

    1979-02-01

    Thymidine kinase-deficient OTT6050 mouse teratocarcinoma cells were fused with hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient Fu5AH rat hepatoma cells by means of inactivated Sendai virus. The resulting hybrid cells, which were selected in hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine medium, retained almost all of the mouse chromosomes and various numbers of rat chromosomes, and showed many chromosomal rearrangements. The hybrid cells, as well as both parental lines, formed tumors after subcutaneous injection into athymic nude mice. Single rat--mouse hybrid cells from a clonally established subline were transplanted into C57BL6/J mouse blastocysts carrying many genetic markers suitable for the detection of hybrid cell-derived tissue contributions. From 144 blastocysts, each of which was injected with a hybrid cell and then surgically transferred to the uterus of a pseudopregnant foster mother, 62 adult mice developed without any visible coat mosaicism. However, three of these mice showed internal hybrid-cell participation in their livers and a limited number of organs of endomesodermal origin. A tumor classifiable as hemangio endothelioma was found in the liver, the only mosaic tissue, of one of the chimeric mice. Nine different rat-specific enzyme variants were detected in the mosaic organs. A considerable number of variations concerning the presence and quantitative activity of the foreign gene products probably resulted from chromosomal segregation, tissue-specific gene activity, or dosage compensation during differentiation in vivo. Our results demonstrate that cultured malignant rat--mouse hybrid cells differentiate normally and become functionally integrated during development. The appearacne in vivo of certain rat-specific gene products that are not found in the hybrid cells under conditions in vitro indicates differential gene expression of the introduced xenogeneic chromosomes.

  13. Activation of specific cellular immunity toward murine leukemia in mice rejecting syngeneic somatic hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, W.; Cohen, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    ASL-1 x LM(TK) - somatic hybrid cells form both H-2/sup a/ and H-2/sup k/ antigen complexes. After forming a localized tumor in syngeneic (A/J x C 3 H/HeJ)F 1 mice, they are rejected. Such mice are resistant to otherwise invariably lethal injections of ASL-1 cells, surviving for prolonged and, in some instances, indefinite periods. To examine the basis of immunity, the capacity of spleen cells from mice rejecting hybrid cells to stimulate the release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells was investigated. Cells from the spleens of mice rejecting ASL-1 x LM(TK) - cells stimulated the release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells, but not from Ehrlich ascites or P815 cells. Cells from mice injected with mitomycin-C-treated ASL-1 cells led to the release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells as well, but the extent of 51 Cr release was approximately one-third as occurred in the presence of cells from hybrid cell-injected mice. Cells from noninjected mice or from mice injected with LM(TK) - cells failed to lead to the specific release of 51 Cr from ASL-1 cells. The presence of unlabeled ASL-1 cells, but not Ehrlich ascites cells, competitively inhibited the spleen cell-stimulated release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells. Sera from A/J mice injected with mitomycin-C-treated ASL-1 cells contained antibodies specific for the tumor-associated antigen of ASL-1 cells

  14. Widespread over-expression of the X chromosome in sterile F₁hybrid mice.

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    Jeffrey M Good

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The X chromosome often plays a central role in hybrid male sterility between species, but it is unclear if this reflects underlying regulatory incompatibilities. Here we combine phenotypic data with genome-wide expression data to directly associate aberrant expression patterns with hybrid male sterility between two species of mice. We used a reciprocal cross in which F₁ males are sterile in one direction and fertile in the other direction, allowing us to associate expression differences with sterility rather than with other hybrid phenotypes. We found evidence of extensive over-expression of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis in sterile but not in fertile F₁ hybrid males. Over-expression was most pronounced in genes that are normally expressed after meiosis, consistent with an X chromosome-wide disruption of expression during the later stages of spermatogenesis. This pattern was not a simple consequence of faster evolutionary divergence on the X chromosome, because X-linked expression was highly conserved between the two species. Thus, transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis appears particularly sensitive to evolutionary divergence between species. Overall, these data provide evidence for an underlying regulatory basis to reproductive isolation in house mice and underscore the importance of transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome to the evolution of hybrid male sterility.

  15. Beta-cell lines derived from transgenic mice expressing a hybrid insulin gene-oncogene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efrat, S; Linde, S; Kofod, Hans

    1988-01-01

    Three pancreatic beta-cell lines have been established from insulinomas derived from transgenic mice carrying a hybrid insulin-promoted simian virus 40 tumor antigen gene. The beta tumor cell (beta TC) lines maintain the features of differentiated beta cells for about 50 passages in culture...... by glucose, although with a lower threshold for maximal stimulation than that for normal beta cells. beta TC lines can be repeatedly derived from primary beta-cell tumors that heritably arise in the transgenic mice. Thus, targeted expression of an oncogene with a cell-specific regulatory element can be used...

  16. Re-engineering the zinc fingers of PRDM9 reverses hybrid sterility in mice.

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    Davies, Benjamin; Hatton, Edouard; Altemose, Nicolas; Hussin, Julie G; Pratto, Florencia; Zhang, Gang; Hinch, Anjali Gupta; Moralli, Daniela; Biggs, Daniel; Diaz, Rebeca; Preece, Chris; Li, Ran; Bitoun, Emmanuelle; Brick, Kevin; Green, Catherine M; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel; Myers, Simon R; Donnelly, Peter

    2016-02-11

    The DNA-binding protein PRDM9 directs positioning of the double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination in mice and humans. Prdm9 is the only mammalian speciation gene yet identified and is responsible for sterility phenotypes in male hybrids of certain mouse subspecies. To investigate PRDM9 binding and its role in fertility and meiotic recombination, we humanized the DNA-binding domain of PRDM9 in C57BL/6 mice. This change repositions DSB hotspots and completely restores fertility in male hybrids. Here we show that alteration of one Prdm9 allele impacts the behaviour of DSBs controlled by the other allele at chromosome-wide scales. These effects correlate strongly with the degree to which each PRDM9 variant binds both homologues at the DSB sites it controls. Furthermore, higher genome-wide levels of such 'symmetric' PRDM9 binding associate with increasing fertility measures, and comparisons of individual hotspots suggest binding symmetry plays a downstream role in the recombination process. These findings reveal that subspecies-specific degradation of PRDM9 binding sites by meiotic drive, which steadily increases asymmetric PRDM9 binding, has impacts beyond simply changing hotspot positions, and strongly support a direct involvement in hybrid infertility. Because such meiotic drive occurs across mammals, PRDM9 may play a wider, yet transient, role in the early stages of speciation.

  17. Detection of Neorickettsia (Ehrlichia) risticii in tissues of mice experimentally infected with cercariae of trematodes by in situ hybridization.

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    Chae, Joon-seok; Kim, Min-seok; Madigan, John

    2002-09-02

    Neorickettsia (Ehrlichia) risticii was demonstrated to occur in cercariae developing in Juga yrekaensis snails by experimental transmission, genetic detection and histopathology. Cercariae were isolated from the digestive glands of snails collected in a fresh stream water area of Siskiyou County, CA, and inoculated into CF1 mice. Mice developed clinical signs, splenomegaly and histopathologic abnormalities. The agent was maintained by serial passages of whole blood in CF1 mice. A 527-bp product of the 16S rRNA gene of N. risticii was serially detected by nested PCR in blood, feces, salivary gland, suprarenal gland, spleen, intestine and bone marrow of inoculated mice. N. risticii DNA was detected by in situ hybridization with DIG-labeled probe in PCR-positive salivary gland, intestine and spleen tissue sections of experimental mice on day 30 after inoculation. Infection in mice was established when cercariae were inoculated by either IP or SC routes but not established following intraoral route. N. risticii was detected by PCR in spleen, intestine and bone marrow even after 73 days post-inoculation whereas blood from the same animals became negative at 58 days. N. risticii was observed by in situ hybridization in salivary gland, spleen and intestine of mice infected by IP or SC inoculation. This ISH protocol should aid investigations on the host range of the Neorickettsiosis and pathogenesis of neorickettiosis in vector, animal or human.

  18. The radiosensitivity of spermatogonial stem cells in C3H/101 F1 hybrid mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meer, Yvonne; De Rooij, Dirk G.; Cattanach, Bruce M.

    1993-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of spermatogonial stem cells of C3H/HeHx101/H F 1 hybrid mice was determined by counting undifferentiated spermatogonia at 10 days after X-irradiation. During the spermatogenic cycle, differences in radiosensitivity were found, which were correlated with the proliferative activity of the spermatogonial stem cells. In stage VIII irr , during quiescence, the spermatogonial stem cells were most radiosensitive with a D 0 of 1.4 Gy. In stages XI irr -V irr , when the cells were proliferatively active, the D 0 was about 2.6 Gy. Based on the D 0 values for sensitive and resistant spermatogonia and on the D 0 for the total population, a ratio of 45:55% of sensitive to resistant spermatogonial stem cells was estimated for cell killing. When the present data were compared with data on translocation induction obtained in mice of the same genotype, a close fit was obtained when the translocation yield (Y; in % abnormal cells) after a radiation dose D was described by Y=e τD , with τ=1 for the sensitive and τ=0.1 for the resistant spermatogonial stem cells, with a maximal e τD of 100

  19. Phylogeography of Chinese house mice (Mus musculus musculus/castaneus): distribution, routes of colonization and geographic regions of hybridization.

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    Jing, Meidong; Yu, Hon-Tsen; Bi, Xiaoxin; Lai, Yung-Chih; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Ling

    2014-09-01

    House mice (Mus musculus) are human commensals and have served as a primary model in biomedical, ecological and evolutionary research. Although there is detailed knowledge of the biogeography of house mice in Europe, little is known of the history of house mice in China, despite the fact that China encompasses an enormous portion of their range. In the present study, 535 house mice caught from 29 localities in China were studied by sequencing the mitochondrial D-loop and genotyping 10 nuclear microsatellite markers distributed on 10 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two evolutionary lineages corresponding to Mus musculus castaneus and Mus musculus musculus in the south and north, respectively, with the Yangtze River approximately representing the boundary. More detailed analyses combining published sequence data from mice sampled in neighbouring countries revealed the migration routes of the two subspecies into China: M. m. castaneus appeared to have migrated through a southern route (Yunnan and Guangxi), whereas M. m. musculus entered China from Kazakhstan through the north-west border (Xinjiang). Bayesian analysis of mitochondrial sequences indicated rapid population expansions in both subspecies, approximately 4650-9300 and 7150-14 300 years ago for M. m. castaneus and M. m. musculus, respectively. Interestingly, the migration routes of Chinese house mice coincide with the colonization routes of modern humans into China, and the expansion times of house mice are consistent with the development of agriculture in southern and northern China, respectively. Finally, our study confirmed the existence of a hybrid zone between M. m. castaneus and M. m. musculus in China. Further study of this hybrid zone will provide a useful counterpart to the well-studied hybrid zone between M. m. musculus and Mus musculus domesticus in central Europe. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. High-resolution vascular tissue characterization in mice using 55 MHz ultrasound hybrid imaging

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    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Sandoval, Cesar; Teng, Bunyen; Schnermann, Jurgen B.; Martin, Karen H.; Mustafa, S. Jamal; Mukdadi, Osama M.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound and Duplex ultrasonography in particular are routinely used to diagnose cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, these techniques may not be able to characterize vascular tissue compositional changes due to CVD. This work describes an ultrasound-based hybrid imaging technique that can be used for vascular tissue characterization and the diagnosis of atherosclerosis. Ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data were acquired and processed in time, frequency, and wavelet domains to extract six parameters including time integrated backscatter (TIB), time variance (Tvar), time entropy (TE), frequency integrated backscatter (FIB), wavelet root mean square value (Wrms), and wavelet integrated backscatter (WIB). Each parameter was used to reconstruct an image co-registered to morphological B-scan. The combined set of hybrid images were used to characterize vascular tissue in vitro and in vivo using three mouse models including control (C57BL/6), and atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-knockout (APOE-KO) and APOE/A1 adenosine receptor double knockout (DKO) mice. The technique was tested using high-frequency ultrasound including single-element (center frequency = 55 MHz) and commercial array (center frequency = 40 MHz) systems providing superior spatial resolutions of 24 μm and 40 μm, respectively. Atherosclerotic vascular lesions in the APOE-KO mouse exhibited the highest values (contrast) of −10.11 ± 1.92 dB, −12.13 ± 2.13 dB, −7.54 ± 1.45 dB, −5.10 ± 1.06 dB, −5.25 ± 0.94 dB, and −10.23 ± 2.12 dB in TIB, Tvar, TE, FIB, Wrms, WIB hybrid images (n = 10, p ultrasound findings within a maximum error of 3.6% in lesion estimation. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a high-resolution hybrid imaging technique to diagnose atherosclerosis and characterize plaque components in mouse. In the future, it can be easily implemented on commercial ultrasound systems and eventually translated into

  1. Prostaglandin F2alpha elevates blood pressure and promotes atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ying; Lucitt, Margaret B; Stubbe, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about prostaglandin F(2alpha) in cardiovascular homeostasis. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) dose-dependently elevates blood pressure in WT mice via activation of the F prostanoid (FP) receptor. The FP is expressed in preglomerular arterioles, renal collecting ducts, and the hypothalamus...... that exhibit mild polyuria and polydipsia. Atherogenesis is retarded by deletion of the FP, despite the absence of detectable receptor expression in aorta or in atherosclerotic lesions in Ldlr KOs. Although vascular TNF(alpha), inducible nitric oxide enzyme and TGF(beta) are reduced and lesional macrophages...... are depleted in the FP/Ldlr double KOs, this result reflects the reduction in lesion burden, as the FP is not expressed on macrophages and its deletion does not alter macrophage cytokine generation. Blockade of the FP offers an approach to the treatment of hypertension and its attendant systemic vascular...

  2. High-resolution vascular tissue characterization in mice using 55MHz ultrasound hybrid imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Sandoval, Cesar; Teng, Bunyen; Schnermann, Jurgen B; Martin, Karen H; Mustafa, S Jamal; Mukdadi, Osama M

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasound and Duplex ultrasonography in particular are routinely used to diagnose cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, these techniques may not be able to characterize vascular tissue compositional changes due to CVD. This work describes an ultrasound-based hybrid imaging technique that can be used for vascular tissue characterization and the diagnosis of atherosclerosis. Ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data were acquired and processed in time, frequency, and wavelet domains to extract six parameters including time integrated backscatter (T(IB)), time variance (T(var)), time entropy (T(E)), frequency integrated backscatter (F(IB)), wavelet root mean square value (W(rms)), and wavelet integrated backscatter (W(IB)). Each parameter was used to reconstruct an image co-registered to morphological B-scan. The combined set of hybrid images were used to characterize vascular tissue in vitro and in vivo using three mouse models including control (C57BL/6), and atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-knockout (APOE-KO) and APOE/A(1) adenosine receptor double knockout (DKO) mice. The technique was tested using high-frequency ultrasound including single-element (center frequency=55 MHz) and commercial array (center frequency=40 MHz) systems providing superior spatial resolutions of 24 μm and 40 μm, respectively. Atherosclerotic vascular lesions in the APOE-KO mouse exhibited the highest values (contrast) of -10.11±1.92 dB, -12.13±2.13 dB, -7.54±1.45 dB, -5.10±1.06 dB, -5.25±0.94 dB, and -10.23±2.12 dB in T(IB), T(var), T(E), F(IB), W(rms), W(IB) hybrid images (n=10, p<0.05), respectively. Control segments of normal vascular tissue showed the lowest values of -20.20±2.71 dB, -22.54±4.54 dB, -14.94±2.05 dB, -9.64±1.34 dB, -10.20±1.27 dB, and -19.36±3.24 dB in same hybrid images (n=6, p<0.05). Results from both histology and optical images showed good agreement with ultrasound findings within a maximum

  3. Dissecting the genetic architecture of F-1 hybrid sterility in house mice

    OpenAIRE

    Dzúr-Gejdošová, M. (Mária); Šimeček, P. (Petr); Gregorová, S. (Soňa); Bhattacharyya, T. (Tanmoy); Forejt, J. (Jiří)

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid sterility as a postzygotic reproductive isolation mechanism has been studied for over 80 years, yet the first identifications of hybrid sterility genes in Drosophila and mouse are quite recent. To study the genetic architecture of F-1 hybrid sterility between young subspecies of house mouse Mus m. domesticus and M. m. musculus, we conducted QTL analysis of a backcross between inbred strains representing these two subspecies and probed the role of individual chromosomes in hybrid steril...

  4. Effect of 1918 PB1-F2 expression on influenza A virus infection kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Amber M [UNIV OF UTAH; Adler, Frederick R [UNIV OF UTAH; Mcauley, Julie L [ST. JUDES CHILDREN RESEARCH; Mccullers, Jonathan A [ST. JUDES CHILDREN RESEARCH

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the viral factors contributing to the lethality of the 1918 pandemic, although its unparalleled virulence was likely due in part to the newly discovered PB1-F2 protein. This protein, while unnecessary for replication, increases apoptosis in monocytes, alters viral polymerase activity in vitro, and produces enhanced inflammation and increased secondary pneumonia in vivo. However, the effects the PB1-F2 protein have in vivo remain unclear. To address the mechanisms involved, we intranasally infected groups of mice with either influenza A virus PR8 or a genetically engineered virus that expresses the 1918 PB1-F2 protein on a PR8 background, PR8-PB1-F2(1918). Mice inoculated with PR8 had viral concentrations peaking at 72 hours, while those infected with PR8-PB1-F2(1918) reached peak concentrations earlier, 48 hours. Mice given PR8-PB1-F2(1918) also showed a faster decline in viral loads. We fit a mathematical model to these data to estimate parameter values and select the best model. This model supports a lower viral clearance rate and higher infected cell death rate with the PR8-PB1-F2(1918) virus, although the viral production rate may also be higher. We hypothesize that the higher PR8-PB1-F2(1918) viral titers early in an infection are due to both an increase in viral production with decreased viral clearance, and that the faster decline in the later stages of infection result from elevated cell death rates. We discuss the implications these mechanisms have during an infection with a virus expressing a virulent PBI-F2 on the possibility of a pandemic and on the importance of antiviral treatments.

  5. hmF2 variability over Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, B.; Alazo, K.; Rodriguez, M.; Calzadilla, A.

    2003-01-01

    The hmF2 variability over Havana station (Geo. Latitude 23 deg. N, Geo Longitude 278 deg. E; Dip 54.6 deg. N; Modip: 44.8 deg. N) is presented. In this study different solar and seasonal conditions are considered. The results show that, in general, standard deviation of hmF2 is quite irregular and reaches its values at nighttimes hours. Lower and upper quartiles variability has a similar behaviour to IQ variability, showing its higher values at nighttimes too. (author)

  6. [PB1-F2 protein of influenza A virus interacts with human MOAP-1 protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuming; Hou, Peili; Zhang, Maolin; Duan, Ming; Guan, Zhenhong

    2012-09-04

    To identify the interaction between influenza A virus PB1-F2 and human modulator of apoptosis 1 (MOAP-1). The recombinant plasmid pACT2-MOAP-1 was constructed and co-transformed into yeast AH109 with pGBKT7-PB1-F2. The growth of the co-transformants on quadruple dropout medium and beta-galactosidase activity of the reporter gene were tested. We further confirmed the interaction of cellular protein MOAP-1 and PB1-F2 by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays. In addition, we investigated the effect of PB1-F2 on MOAP-1 protein level by Western blot. The results of yeast two-hybrid assay showed that MOAP-1 specifically interacted with PB1-F2 in yeast cells. Furthermore, the binding of MOAP-1 with PB1-F2 was demonstrated by glutathione S-transferase pull-down and Co-IP assays. PB1-F2 could upregulate exogenous MOAP-1 protein level. These results suggested that influenza virus PB1-F2 interacted with MOAP-1 and it might be involved in the regulation of cell growth and apoptosis via association with MOAP-1.

  7. QTL mapping for test weight by using F2:3 population in maize

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ity of corn in agriculture, but also an important factor to determining the corn market grades for milling, export and other purposes. For test weight improvement in maize, devel- oping hybrids with ..... Zhang C. R. 2009 QTL mapping for yield and yield related traits using F2:3 population derived from Zhengdan 958 in maize,.

  8. Phenotypic variation of F 1 and F 2 populations from three species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incomplete restoration of some of the masked characters in the F2 hybrids suggests a near-complete homogenization of parental genomes and/or chromosomal disharmony through silent genomic changes. These might have prevented sufficient chromosomal rearrangement and full homology for improved vigour in ...

  9. Summary of breakout Session F2: F2, decision support systems: Knowledge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The discussions in breakout session F2 are summarized. The topics discussed include contingency planning, environmental sensitivity, countermeasures planning tools, cleanup operations management, and logistics support systems. General comments, concerns and major research issues are summarized

  10. The behavior after intravenous injection in mice of multiwalled carbon nanotube / Fe3O4 hybrid MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huixia; Liu, Gang; Zhuang, Yeming; Wu, Dongmei; Zhang, Haoqiang; Yang, Hong; Hu, He; Yang, Shiping

    2011-07-01

    Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were in situ loaded on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a solvothermal method using diethylene glycol and diethanolamine as solvents and complexing agents. The as-prepared MWCNT/Fe(3)O(4) hybrids exhibited excellent hydrophilicity, superparamagnetic property at room temperature, and a high T(2) relaxivity of 175.5 mM(-1) s(-1) in aqueous solutions. In vitro experiments revealed that MWCNT/Fe(3)O(4) had an excellent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement effect on cancer cells, and importantly, they displayed low cytotoxicity and neglectable hemolytic activity. After intravenous administration, the T(2)-weighted MRI signal in the liver and spleen of mice decreased significantly, suggesting the potential application of the hybrids as MRI contrast agents. The organ biodistribution studies, histological analyses and elimination investigations showed that the hybrids were uptaken by the liver, lung and spleen after intravenous injection, and could be excreted from the liver and kidney. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The variable genomic architecture of isolation between hybridizing species of house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, Katherine C; Thibodeau, Lisa M; Gompert, Zachariah; Buerkle, C Alex; Nachman, Michael W; Tucker, Priscilla K

    2010-02-01

    Studies of the genetics of hybrid zones can provide insight into the genomic architecture of species boundaries. By examining patterns of introgression of multiple loci across a hybrid zone, it may be possible to identify regions of the genome that have experienced selection. Here, we present a comparison of introgression in two replicate transects through the house mouse hybrid zone through central Europe, using data from 41 single nucleotide markers. Using both genomic and geographic clines, we found many differences in patterns of introgression between the two transects, as well as some similarities. We found that many loci may have experienced the effects of selection at linked sites, including selection against hybrid genotypes, as well as positive selection in the form of genotypes introgressed into a foreign genetic background. We also found many positive associations of conspecific alleles among unlinked markers, which could be caused by epistatic interactions. Different patterns of introgression in the two transects highlight the challenge of using hybrid zones to identify genes underlying isolation and raise the possibility that the genetic basis of isolation between these species may be dependent on the local population genetic make-up or the local ecological setting.

  12. NaF-CaF2-BaF2-BaMoO4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdiev, N.N.; Gasanaliev, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Stable tetrahedron NaF-CaF 2 -BaF 2 -BaMoO 4 of a mutual quaternary system Na, Ca, Ba parallel F, MoO 4 was investigated. The investigations were carried on using differential thermal (DTA), X-ray phase (RPA) and visual-polythermal (VPM) analyses. A quaternary eutectic point found as a result of the investigations performed is characterized with relatively low melting temperature and considerable content of barium molybdates which permits to refer it to perspective compositions for electrodeposition of molybdenum

  13. Magnetic Excitations of Mixed CoF2/ZnF2 Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, R. A.; Dietrich, O. W.; Jones, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic excitations in mixed crystals of Co1-cZncF2 with c=0.14+or-0.02, 0.31+or-0.03 and 0.77+or-0.10 have been measured using neutron inelastic scattering techniques. The results for the first two crystals show that the excitations decrease in frequency with increasing zinc concentration...... and also have a finite lifetime. For the crystal containing the largest concentration of ZnF2 well defined magnetic excitations were not observed. These results are very similar to the predictions of the virtual lattice model in which each exchange interaction of CoF2 is reduced by the concentration of Co......F2 in the mixed crystal. Reasonable agreement is also found with the results of calculations based on the single-site CPA approximation but the results do not clearly show that any one of the particular variants of this model gives a markedly better result than any of the other variants....

  14. Radiation Effect on Body Weight and Hematological Changes of Hybrid Mice by Conventional Fraction, Large Abdominal Field Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Heon; Shin, Sei One; Kim, Myung Se

    1985-01-01

    Radiation effect on mammals, especially on hematologic changes, has been studied since discovery of x-ray. Various experimental animals were tried for radiobiological studies. 72 hybrid mice with conventional fraction (5X/week), large abdominal field (2 x 3cm, from symphysis pubic to xyphoid process) were used. Body weight was declined gradually by increasing irradiation doses, nadir was about 29.7% in male ; 30.4% in female at 6000 rad irradiation group. Hemoglobin value was nearly normal throughout entire treatment. Significant dropping of WBC count was noted to 40-50% of pretreatment values by only 1000 rad irradiation. Change of differential count was interesting; lymphocyte proportion showed gradual reduction, instead of gradual increasing of segmented neutrophil. Those proportion were reversed after 6000 rad irradiation. Urinary protein tests showed + - +++, showing no correlation with dosage. Application. of our study in clinical combination therapy (radiation + chemotherapy) was discussed

  15. Generation of large homozygous chromosomal segments by mitotic recombination during lymphomagenesis in F{sub 1} hybrid mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Doo-Pyo; Mori, Nobuko; Umesako, Seiichi; Okumoto, Masaaki [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Kubo, Kihei; Tsugawa, Naomi [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Sciences; Song, Chang-Woo [Korea Research Inst. of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    The loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been reported in numerous neoplasms in both human and animals, and has often been observed in chromosomal regions, which contain tumor-suppressor genes. We previously found frequent LOH on chromosomes 4, 12 and 19 in radiation-induced lymphomas from (BALB/cHeA x STS/A)F{sub 1} hybrid mice by allelotype analysis at polymorphic microsatellite loci. In this study, to elucidate the nature of allelic losses, we refined the loss regions on chromosomes 4, 12 and 19 of the tumors from the F{sub 1} mice and then analyzed them cytogenetically. The results represent evidence of a wide range of allelic losses owing to mitotic recombination on chromosomes 4 and 19 in the tumors, possibly reflecting functional losses of putative tumor-suppressor genes. It is suggested that the generation of these large homozygous chromosomal segments probably containing the affected genes is one of the genetic alterations responsible for tumorigenesis. (author)

  16. Scintillation properties of LiF–SrF2 and LiF–CaF2 eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Fukuda, Kentaro; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uritani, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Dopant free eutectic scintillators 6 LiF–SrF 2 and 6 LiF–CaF 2 were developed by the vertical Bridgeman method for the purpose of thermal neutron detection. The molar ratio of LiF and Ca/SrF 2 was 4:1 on its eutectic composition. The α-ray induced radioluminescence spectra of the scintillators showed intense emission peak at 300 nm due to the emission from the self-trapped exciton in Ca/SrF 2 layers. When the samples were irradiated with 252 Cf neutrons, 6 LiF–SrF 2 and 6 LiF–CaF 2 exhibited the light yields of 4700 and 9400 ph/n, respectively. Scintillation decay times of 6 LiF–SrF 2 and 6 LiF–CaF 2 were accepted for scintillation detectors, 90 and 250 ns, respectively. -- Highlights: • Nondoped LiF–CaF 2 and LiF–SrF 2 eutectic scinitillators are reported for the first time. • Two sample showed self-trapped exciton emission. • LiF–SrF 2 sample exhibited the light yield of 9400 ph/n and this value was comparable to conventional materials doped with rare earth ions. • Scintillation decay times of LiF–CaF 2 and LiF–SrF 2 were 250 and 90 ns, respectively

  17. Dissecting the genetic architecture of F-1 hybrid sterility in house mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dzúr-Gejdošová, Mária; Šimeček, Petr; Gregorová, Soňa; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Forejt, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 11 (2012), s. 3321-3335 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD11079 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : hybrid sterility * reproductive isolation * recombination hotspots * chromosome X * chromosome 17 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.864, year: 2012

  18. Pou4f2 knock-in Cre mouse: A multifaceted genetic tool for vision researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Aaron B; Bloomsburg, Samuel J; Billingslea, Samuel A; Merrill, Morgan M; Li, Shuai; Thomas, Marshall W; Fuerst, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    A transgenic mouse that expresses Cre recombinase under control of the Pou4f2-promoter (also referred to as Brn-3b and Brn-3.2) was characterized. Pou4f2 expression has been reported in a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the retina, in the midbrain, and in the germline. In this study, we characterize the expression pattern of this Cre-recombinase line and report its utility in targeted deletion, temporal deletion, RGC depletion, and germline targeting, which can be regulated by the sex of the Cre-carrying mouse. Pou4f2(Cre) was mapped by using a combination of PCR and sequencing of PCR products to better understand the construct and to locate where it was inserted within the Pou4f2 locus. Cre expression patterns were examined by crossing Pou4f2(Cre/+) mice to Cre reporter mice. Immunohistochemistry was used to further define the pattern of Cre expression and Cre-mediated recombination within the retina, brain, and other tissues. An internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-Cre cassette was inserted into the Pou4f2 gene disrupting normal gene function, as verified by the depletion of RGCs in mice homozygous for the insert. Pou4f2(Cre) expression was observed in the retina, brain, peripheral neurons, and male germ cells. Germline recombination was observed when the sire carried the Cre and the target for recombination. In all other breeding schemes, recombination was observed within subsets of cells within the retina, brain, intestines, heart, and gonads. In the retina, Cre efficiently targets recombination in neurons within the RGC layer (RGL), the inner nuclear layer (INL), and a small percentage of photoreceptors, activity that has not been previously reported. Unlike most other Cre lines active in the inner retina, recombination in Müller and other glia was not observed in mice carrying Pou4f2(Cre) . Within the visual centers of the brain, Cre targets recombination in about 15% of cells within the superchiasmatic nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus, and

  19. Relativistic and perturbational calculations of fine structure splittings in F2 and F2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, F.; Marian, C.; Schwarz, W. H. E.

    Dirac-Fock calculations near the SCF limit using the recently developed basis set expansion technique of Mark and Schwarz have been performed on the F2 ground state with particular consideration of the relativistic splitting of the πg and πu orbitals. The magnetic contribution to the Breit interaction has been included by first-order perturbation theory. Fine structure splittings of the ionic states F2+(X 2Πg) and F2+(A 2Πu) have been calculated by first-order perturbation theory within the Breit-Pauli framework at three levels of approximation for the zero-order wavefunction. The results of the Dirac-Breit and the Breit-Pauli approaches are compared with experimental data. The calculated splittings are analysed by partitioning them into physically meaningful contributions. Aided by results of numerical Dirac-Fock calculations on atoms the general conclusion is drawn that ionic reorganization of the wavefunction increases the fine structure splitting at the Breit-Pauli level, whereas it decreases the splitting at the Dirac-Breit level. Using a model of Ishiguro and Kobori the ratios of Πg and Πu spin-orbit splittings of halogen molecular ions X2+ are discussed.

  20. Absolute refractive indices and thermal coefficients of CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, and LiF near 157 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, John H; Gupta, Rajeev; Griesmann, Ulf

    2002-05-01

    We present high-accuracy measurements for wavelengths near 157 nm of the absolute index of refraction, the index dispersion, and the temperature dependence of the index for the ultraviolet optical materials with cubic symmetry: CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, and LiF. Accurate values of these quantities for these materials are needed for designs of the lens systems for F2 excimer-laser-based exposure tools for 157-nm photolithography. These tools are expected to use CaF2 as the primary optical material and possibly one of the others to correct for chromatic aberrations. These optical properties were measured by the minimum deviation method. Absolute refractive indices were obtained with an absolute accuracy of 5 x 10(-6) to 6 x 10(-6).

  1. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  2. Radiobiological properties of spermatogonial stem cells in C3H/101 hybrid mice and evaluation of the model for induction of genetic damage in spermatogonial stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rooij, V.

    1993-01-01

    C3H/101 (3H1) hybrid mice are studied, in order to find answers to the following questions: What are the D 0 values for killing of proliferating and quiescent stem cells by X-irradiation in 3H1 mice; How many stem cells are present per 3H1 testis and what is the density of these cells during the epithelial cycle; What are the approximate numbers of proliferating and quiescent stem cells in a 3H1 mouse testis. (R.P.) 5 figs

  3. Hardness of CaF2 and BaF2 solid lubricants at 25 to 670 deg C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deadmore, Daniel L.; Sliney, Harold E.

    1987-01-01

    Plastic deformation is a prominent factor in determining the lubricating value of solid lubricants. Little information is available and its direct measurement is difficult so hardness, which is an indirect measure of this property was determined for fluoride solid lubricant compositions. The Vickers hardness of BaF2 and CaF2 single crystals was measured up to 670 C in a vacuum. The orientation of the BaF2 was near the (013) plane and the CaF2 was about 16 degrees from the degrees from the (1'11) plane. The BaF2 has a hardness of 83 kg/sq mm at the 25 C and 9 at the 600 C. The CaF2 is 170 at 25 C and 13 at 670 C. The decrease in hardness in the temperature range of 25 to 100 C is very rapid and amounts to 40% for both materials. Melts of BaF2 and CaF2 were made in a platinum crucible in ambient air with compositions of 50 to 100 wt% BaF2. The Vickers hardness of these polycrystalline binary compositions at 25 C increased with increasing CaF2 reaching a maximum of 150 kn/sq mm near the eutectic. The polycrystalline CaF2 was 14% softer than that of the single crystal surface and BsF2 was 30% harder than the single crystal surface. It is estimated that the brittle to ductile transition temperature for CaF2 and BaF2 is less than 100 C for the conditions present in the hardness tester.

  4. Magnetic hyperfine interactions of U2 center in CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, C.J.F.

    1976-02-01

    The magnetic hyperfine parameters of the U 2 center in CaF 2 , SeF 2 and BaF 2 , using a molecular orbitals scheme have been calculated. The need for the inclusion of mechanisms such as Pauli Repulsion and Covalence in order to describe the electronic structure of the defect has been shown. In the molecular orbitals model a weak covalence parameter has been phenomenologically introduced, mixing the is atomic wavefunction of hydrogen with a properly symmetrized linear combination of 2p F - functions centered on the ions of the first fluorine shell. The results obtained are compared with experimental measurements of EPR and ENDOR. (Author) [pt

  5. Calculation of the hyperfine constants of Vk center in CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufaical, R.F.

    1975-03-01

    The magnetic hyperfine constants of the V sub(K) center in CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 have been calculated, assuming a phenomenological model, based on the F 2 central molecule, to describe the wave function of the defect. The introduction of covalence, with the ions neighboring the central molecule, have shown that this is a better description for the defect than a simple central molecule model. It was also shown that the results for the hyperfine constants are strongly dependent on the relaxations of these neighboring ions, which have been determined by fitting the experimental data. The present results are compared with other previous calculations where similar and different methods have been used. A better description for the wave function of the defect is suggested

  6. Immunization of Mice with a Live Transconjugant Shigella Hybrid Strain Induced Th1 and Th17 Cell-Mediated Immune Responses and Confirmed Passive Protection Against Heterologous Shigellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, D; Koley, H; Sinha, R; Mukherjee, P; Sarkar, C; Withey, J H; Gachhui, R

    2016-02-01

    An avirulent, live transconjugant Shigella hybrid (LTSHΔstx) strain was constructed in our earlier study by introducing a plasmid vector, pPR1347, into a Shiga toxin gene deleted Shigella dysenteriae 1. Three successive oral administrations of LTSHΔstx to female adult mice produced comprehensive passive heterologous protection in their offspring against challenge with wild-type shigellae. Production of NO and different cytokines such asIL-12p70, IL-1β and IL-23 in peritoneal mice macrophages indicated that LTSHΔstx induced innate and adaptive immunity in mice. Furthermore, production of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 in LTSH-primed splenic CD4+ T cell suggested that LTSHΔstx may induce Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune responses. Exponential increase of the serum IgG and IgA titre against whole shigellae was observed in immunized adult mice during and after the immunization with the highest peak on day 35. Antigen-specific sIgA was also determined from intestinal lavage of immunized mice. The stomach extracts of neonates from immunized mice, mainly containing mother's milk, contained significant levels of anti-LTSHΔstx immunoglobulin. These studies suggest that the LTSHΔstx could be a new live oral vaccine candidate against shigellosis in the near future. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  7. Chronic self-administration of alcohol results in elevated ΔFosB: comparison of hybrid mice with distinct drinking patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozburn Angela R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inability to reduce or regulate alcohol intake is a hallmark symptom for alcohol use disorders. Research on novel behavioral and genetic models of experience-induced changes in drinking will further our knowledge on alcohol use disorders. Distinct alcohol self-administration behaviors were previously observed when comparing two F1 hybrid strains of mice: C57BL/6J x NZB/B1NJ (BxN show reduced alcohol preference after experience with high concentrations of alcohol and periods of abstinence while C57BL/6J x FVB/NJ (BxF show sustained alcohol preference. These phenotypes are interesting because these hybrids demonstrate the occurrence of genetic additivity (BxN and overdominance (BxF in ethanol intake in an experience dependent manner. Specifically, BxF exhibit sustained alcohol preference and BxN exhibit reduced alcohol preference after experience with high ethanol concentrations; however, experience with low ethanol concentrations produce sustained alcohol preference for both hybrids. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that these phenotypes are represented by differential production of the inducible transcription factor, ΔFosB, in reward, aversion, and stress related brain regions. Results Changes in neuronal plasticity (as measured by ΔFosB levels were experience dependent, as well as brain region and genotype specific, further supporting that neuronal circuitry underlies motivational aspects of ethanol consumption. BxN mice exhibiting reduced alcohol preference had lower ΔFosB levels in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus than mice exhibiting sustained alcohol preference, and increased ΔFosB levels in central medial amygdala as compared with control mice. BxN mice showing sustained alcohol preference exhibited higher ΔFosB levels in the ventral tegmental area, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, and amygdala (central and lateral divisions. Moreover, in BxN mice ΔFosB levels in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and ventral

  8. Shock Compression Response of Calcium Fluoride (CaF2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Seth

    2017-06-01

    The fluorite crystal structure is a textbook lattice that is observed for many systems, such as CaF2, Mg2 Si, and CeO2. Specifically, CaF2 is a useful material for studying the fluorite system because it is readily available as a single crystal. Under static compression, CaF2 is known to have at least three solid phases: fluorite, cotunnite, and a Ni2 In phase. Along the Hugoniot CaF2 undergoes a fluorite to cotunnite phase transition, however, at higher shock pressures it is unknown whether CaF2 undergoes another solid phase transition or melts directly from the cotunnite phase. In this work, we conducted planar shock compression experiments on CaF2 using Sandia's Z-machine and a two-stage light gun up to 900 GPa. In addition, we use density functional theory (DFT) based quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations to provide insight into the CaF2 state along the Hugoniot. In collaboration with: Michael Desjarlais, Ray Lemke, Patricia Kalita, Scott Alexander, Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL850.

  9. Scintillation properties of CdF2 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Koshimizu, Masanori; Fukuda, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    CdF 2 single crystal was prepared by Tokuyama Corp. with the μ-PD method to investigate Auger free luminescence of this material. From optical transmittance spectrum, bandgap wavelength was around 280 nm. In X-ray induced radioluminescence spectrum, emission lines appeared around 350 nm and 420 nm. Excitation wavelength was investigated and excitation peak was around 250 nm. Photoluminescence and scintillation decay times were evaluated and decay time was few ns. Temperature dependence of X-ray induced radioluminescence was compared with conventional BaF 2 scintillator and scintillation of CdF 2 decreased when the temperature increased. Consequently, scintillation of CdF 2 is possibly emission at color centers or exciton related one. - Highlights: • CdF 2 crystal scinitillator was synthesized. • Emission wavelengths of CdF 2 appeared around 350 and 420 nm. • Scintillation decay time of CdF 2 was quite fast, 1.75 ns. • Excitation bands were investigated by using Synchrotron facility, UVSOR

  10. Structure of the house dust mite allergen Der f 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Birthe R; Skov, Lars; Kastrup, Jette S

    2005-01-01

    The X-ray structure of the group 2 major allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 2) was determined to 1.83 A resolution. The overall Der f 2 structure comprises a single domain of immunoglobulin fold with two anti-parallel beta-sheets. A large hydrophobic cavity is formed in the interior...... of Der f 2. Structural comparisons to distantly related proteins suggest a role in lipid binding. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity between group 2 house dust mite major allergens can be explained by conserved surface areas representing IgE binding epitopes....

  11. The inductive effect of ginsenoside F2 on hair growth by altering the WNT signal pathway in telogen mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Park, Sang-Yong; Hwang, Eun-Son; Lee, Don-Gil; Song, Hyun-Geun; Mavlonov, Gafurjon T; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2014-05-05

    This study was conducted to confirm the possibility of using minor ginseng saponin F2 by oral administration on hair anagen induction effects. The signaling pathway and anagen induction effect of ginsenoside F2 were investigated and compared with finasteride on the effect of hair growth induction. The cell-based MTT assay results indicated that the proliferation rates of HHDPC and HaCaT treated with F2 significantly increased by 30% compared with the finasteride-treated group. A western blot study showed that the expression of β-catenin Lef-1 and DKK-1 increased by 140, 200% and decreased by 40% in the F2-treated group, respectively compared to that of finasteride-treated group. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to the same treatments. The hair growth promotion rates were compared with groups treated with finasteride, which was 20% higher in the F2-treated group. Tissue histological analysis results showed the number of hair follicles, thickness of the epidermis, and follicles of the anagen phase which increased in the F2-treated group, compared with the finasteride-treated groups. Moreover, the effect of F2 on hair growth was confirmed through the immunofluorescence (IF) methods indicating the expression aspect of Wnt signal pathway-related factors in the tissue of C57BL/6 mouse. Our results considered the expression increase in β-catenin, Lef-1 which was suggested as a major factor related to the development and growth of hair follicle and the decrease in DKK-1 when entering catagen by F2. As the data showed, F2 might be a potential new therapeutic source for anagen induction and hair growth through the Wnt signal pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular CsF 5 and CsF 2 +

    KAUST Repository

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu.

    2015-06-03

    D5h star-like CsF5, formally isoelectronic with known XeF5− ion, is computed to be a local minimum on the potential energy surface of CsF5, surrounded by reasonably large activation energies for its exothermic decomposition to CsF+2F2, or to CsF3 (three isomeric forms)+F2, or for rearrangement to a significantly more stable isomer, a classical Cs+ complex of F5−. Similarly the CsF2+ ion is computed to be metastable in two isomeric forms. In the more symmetrical structures of these molecules there is definite involvement in bonding of the formally core 5p levels of Cs.

  13. Stratification of the F2 layer observed in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, K. J. W.; Harris, T. J.; Sjarifudin, M.

    2000-12-01

    This paper describes the latitudinal variation in F2 stratification [Balan and Bailey, 1995] as observed by a number of oblique and vertical ionosondes operating in Southeast Asia during 1997. Stratification of the F2 layer was seen at dip latitudes from 4°S to 18°S on the southern side of the magnetic equator but did not occur at the closest reflection point to the magnetic equator (diplatitude=2.3°N). The observed transient cusp (vertical ionosonde) or additional nose (oblique ionosonde) was defined as an F3 layer or an F1.5 layer depending on whether it occurred above or below the layer which maintained continuity with the normal F2 layer peak. Within the zone of occurrence, the transient layer was commonly seen as an F3 layer at reflection points closest to the magnetic equator but invariably as an F1.5 layer at reflection points farther from the magnetic equator. These observations suggest that the distortion in the equatorial electron density profile associated with the phenomenon moved toward the base of the F2 layer as magnetic field lines descended with increasing latitude. Stratification of the F2 layer commenced at the same local time (e.g., 0845 LT in November 1997) throughout the longitudinal range of coverage and was associated with a rapid rise in F2 layer height following sunrise. The stratification ended at times varying from 1300 LT to sunset and was associated with a fall in the height of F2 peak electron density. The region of maximum F2 layer stratification lay between the magnetic equator and the peak of the southern equatorial anomaly.

  14. Substituting mouse transcription factor Pou4f2 with a sea urchin orthologue restores retinal ganglion cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chai-An; Agca, Cavit; Mocko-Strand, Julie A; Wang, Jing; Ullrich-Lüter, Esther; Pan, Ping; Wang, Steven W; Arnone, Maria Ina; Frishman, Laura J; Klein, William H

    2016-03-16

    Pou domain transcription factor Pou4f2 is essential for the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the vertebrate retina. A distant orthologue of Pou4f2 exists in the genome of the sea urchin (class Echinoidea) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (SpPou4f1/2), yet the photosensory structure of sea urchins is strikingly different from that of the mammalian retina. Sea urchins have no obvious eyes, but have photoreceptors clustered around their tube feet disc. The mechanisms that are associated with the development and function of photoreception in sea urchins are largely unexplored. As an initial approach to better understand the sea urchin photosensory structure and relate it to the mammalian retina, we asked whether SpPou4f1/2 could support RGC development in the absence of Pou4f2. To answer this question, we replaced genomic Pou4f2 with an SpPou4f1/2 cDNA. In Pou4f2-null mice, retinas expressing SpPou4f1/2 were outwardly identical to those of wild-type mice. SpPou4f1/2 retinas exhibited dark-adapted electroretinogram scotopic threshold responses, indicating functionally active RGCs. During retinal development, SpPou4f1/2 activated RGC-specific genes and in S. purpuratus, SpPou4f2 was expressed in photoreceptor cells of tube feet in a pattern distinct from Opsin4 and Pax6. Our results suggest that SpPou4f1/2 and Pou4f2 share conserved components of a gene network for photosensory development and they maintain their conserved intrinsic functions despite vast morphological differences in mouse and sea urchin photosensory structures. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Monte Carlo Simulation of Gamma-Ray Response of BaF2 and CaF2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Xie, YuLong; Wang, Zhiguo; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Wu, Dangxin; Campbell, Luke W.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Prange, Micah P.

    2013-12-01

    We have employed a Monte Carlo (MC) method to study intrinsic properties of two alkaline-earth halides, namely BaF2 and CaF2, relevant to their use as radiation detector materials. The MC method follows the fate of individual electron-hole (e-h) pairs and thus allows for a detailed description of the microscopic structure of ionization tracks created by incident γ-ray radiation. The properties of interest include the mean energy required to create an e-h pair, W, Fano factor, F, the maximum theoretical light yield, and the spatial distribution of e-h pairs resulting from γ-ray excitation. Although W and F vary with incident photon energy at low energies, they tend to constant values at energies higher than 1 keV. W is determined to be 18.9 and 19.8 eV for BaF2 and CaF2, respectively, in agreement with published data. The e-h pair spatial distributions exhibit a linear distribution along the fast electron tracks with high e-h pair densities at the end of the tracks. Most e-h pairs are created by interband transition and plasmon excitation in both scintillators, but the e-h pairs along fast electron tracks in BaF2 are slightly clustered, forming nanoscale domains and resulting in the higher e-h pair densities than in CaF2. Combining the maximum theoretical light yields calculated for BaF2 and CaF2 with those obtained for CsI and NaI shows that the theoretical light yield decreases linearly with increasing band gap energy.

  16. The effect of ˜27 day solar rotation on ionospheric F2 region peak densities (NmF2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruiping; Xu, Jiyao; Wang, Wenbin; Lei, Jiuhou

    2012-03-01

    Ionospheric F2 region peak electron densities (NmF2) observed from 11 ionosonde stations in the East Asian-Australian sector from 1969 to 1986 have been used to investigate the effect of ˜27 day solar rotation on the ionosphere. These stations were located from the magnetically equatorial regions to the middle latitudes in both hemispheres. We found that, averaged over all stations and for 18 years, the normalized standard deviation of the midday ˜27 day variations of NmF2 was 8% and that of the midnight variations was 10%. We applied different data analysis methods, including Fourier transform, band-pass filter, and multiple linear regression analysis, to determine quantitatively the sources of the observed ˜27 day variations of NmF2 and their relative contributions to these variations. Our results show that the ˜27 day variations in solar radiation and geomagnetic activity, caused by solar rotation, are the main drivers of the ionospheric ˜27 day variations. They accounted for more than 85% of the variations seen in the NmF2 ˜27 day variation, and their contributions became about 95% at higher latitudes. At geomagnetically low latitudes, the contribution of the ˜27 day variation in solar EUV radiation was greater than that of the ˜27 day variation in geomagnetic activity. However, the contribution from geomagnetic activity became more significant and was even larger than the contribution of solar radiation at higher latitudes, especially at midnight. At all latitudes the correlation between the ˜27 day variations of NmF2 and solar radiation was evidently positive, whereas that between NmF2 and geomagnetic activity was positive at geomagnetically low latitudes and became negative at higher middle latitudes. We did not found large seasonal or solar cycle changes in the ˜27 day variations of NmF2. These variations, however, did show significant differences between the two hemispheres.

  17. Urinary F2-Isoprostanes and Metabolic Markers of Fat Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Il’yasova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic studies of increased fat oxidation showed increase in circulating acylcarnitines C2, C8, C10, and C12 and decrease in C3, C4, and C5. We hypothesize that urinary F2-isoprostanes reflect intensity of fatty acid oxidation and are associated with circulating C2, C8, C10, and C12 directly and with C3, C4, and C5 inversely. Four urinary F2-isoprostane isomers and serum acylcarnitines are quantified using LC-MS/MS within the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study nondiabetic cohort (n = 682. Cross-sectional associations between fasting urinary F2-isoprostanes (summarized as a composite index and the selected acylcarnitines are examined using generalized linear models. F2-isoprostane index is associated with C2 and C12 directly and with C5 inversely: the adjusted beta coefficients are 0.109, 0.072, and −0.094, respectively (P < 0.05. For these acylcarnitines and for F2-isoprostanes, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs of incident diabetes are calculated from logistic regression models: the ORs (95% CI are 0.77 (0.60–0.97, 0.79 (0.62–1.01, 1.18 (0.92–1.53, and 0.51 (0.35–0.76 for C2, C12, C5, and F2-isoprostanes, respectively. The direction of the associations between urinary F2-isoprostanes and three acylcarnitines (C2, C5, and C12 supports our hypothesis. The inverse associations of C2 and C12 and with incident diabetes are consistent with the suggested protective role of efficient fat oxidation.

  18. Studies of radioinduced mutations in sorghum grain: 1. Comparison of phenotypic variability obtained through hybridation and mutagenesis of F2 and M2 populations; 2. Agronomical and physiotechnical characterization of mutants lines in the original collection and in the advanced lines of the Chapingo Postgraduate college

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra Negrete, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Genetic inprovement of cultivated plants consists essentially of three phases (1) generation of genetic variability (2) selection of genotypes and (3) evaluation of selected genotypes. Hybridization and spontaneous or induced mutations are, responsible for the generation of and increase in genetic vegetative variability. Accordingly, such methods are used alternatively in local programs for plant improvement either for introducing improved genotypes or as sources of germplasma. This thesis is based on two experiments of mutations induced by cobalt 60 ionizing radiation while using distinct materials and methods presented in two parts, the first section analyze the mutation variability and the second the evaluation of mutant lines. (author)

  19. LiF:F2 color center laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udo, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    A pulsed color center laser based on the F 2 centers in LiF that operates at room temperature, was developed. This laser was pumped by a dye laser pumped by a N 2 laser. The color center formation using three irradiation sources was studied. The F 2 color center stability was studied as a function of temperature and under light irradiation 1000 watts xenon lamp. The active media was obtained with LiF slabs pure or with Mg and irradiated with X-rays, γ or high energy electrons. A second configuration was tried utilizing LiF rods pumped by flash lamps. LiF:F 2 color center lasers allowed a time limited operation after what a F 2 photodissociation process extinguishes the laser action. The F 2 laser emission is centered at 690 nm with 40 nm of FWHM. The peak power presented was 0,5 μJ within the nanosecond range duration. A maximum of 650 pulses out of the same active region after what the crystal had to be repositioned to re-initiate laser operation was obtained. (author) [pt

  20. Electron color centers in SrF2-Na crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachan, S.I.; Chornij, Z.P.

    2006-01-01

    A radiation-induced memory effect in SrF 2 -Na crystals is studied. It was shown that optical bleaching of M + A color centers at 80 K in SrF 2 -Na crystals causes the core of an M + A -center to transform into the V + a Me + V + a configuration, in which all three point defects are arranged diagonally in the cube cell. Reirradiation of an optically bleached crystal by X-rays generates F D centers in it. The F D →M + A transformation in SrF 2 -Na crystals occurs at T = 135 K, in contrast to the F A →M + A transformations, which take place at T > 200 K [ru

  1. [Differentially expressed genes identified in the main olfactory epithelium of mice with deficiency of adenylate cyclase 3 by using suppression subtractive hybridization approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenlong, Cao; Jiangye, Hao; Yanfen, Zhou; Zhe, Zhang; Zhihua, Ni; Yuanxiang, Hu; Weili, Liu; Yongchao, Li; Daniel, R Storm; Runlin, Z Ma; Zhenshan, Wang

    2014-06-01

    Adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3) is one of the major players in the olfactory signaling within the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice. However, we are not ascertained whether deficiency of AC3 will lead to the differential expression of related genes in the MOE. Forward and reverse subtractive libraries were constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach, with MOEs from AC3(-/-) and AC3(+/+) mice. These two libraries were primarily screened by Dot blot, differential expressed clones were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatics, and differential expressed genes were verified by qRT-PCR. A total of 386 differentially expressed clones were picked out after Dot blot. The DNA sequences of 80 clones randomly selected were determined, and 62 clones were identified by blasting in GenBank. We found that 24 up-regulated clones were corresponded to genes of kcnk3, mapk7, megf11, and 38 down-regulated clones were corresponded to tmem88b, c-mip, skp1a, mlycd, etc. Their functions were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and found to be mainly focused on molecular binding, cell cycle, processes of biology and cells. Five genes (kcnk3, c-mip, mlycd, tmem88b and trappc5) were verified by qRT-PCR with individuals of AC3(+/+) and AC3(-/-) mice. The data indicate that kcnk3 gene is up-regulated significantly, increasing 1.27 folds compared to control mice, whereas c-mip, mlycd, tmem88b and trappc5 are down-regulated significantly, decreasing 20%, 7%, 32% and 29% compared to the AC3(+/+)mice. The functions of these genes are closely related with K(+) channels, cell differentiation, metabolism of fats, membrane transportation, and so on. It is tempting to speculate that these genes might work together with AC3 to orchestrate the olfactory transduction signaling in the MOE.

  2. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) F2 population segregation for improving shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendra, K N; Ramanjini Gowda, P H

    2013-02-27

    Breeding for better quality fruits is a major focus for tomatoes, which are continuously subjected to post-harvest losses. Several methods have been used to improve the fruit shelf life of tomatoes, including the use of ripening gene mutants of Solanum lycopersicum. We developed extended shelf-life tomato hybrids with better quality fruits using ripening mutants. Nine tomato crosses were developed using 3 fruit ripening gene mutants of S. lycopersicum [alcobaca (alc), non-ripening, and ripening inhibitor] and 3 agronomically superior Indian cultivars ('Sankranti', 'Vaibhav', and 'Pusaruby') with short shelf life. The hybrid progenies developed from alc x 'Vaibhav' had the highest extended shelf life (up to 40 days) compared with that of other varieties and hybrids. Further, the F(2) progenies of alc x 'Vaibhav' were evaluated for fruit quality traits and yield parameters. A wide range of genetic variability was observed in shelf life (5-106 days) and fruit firmness (0.55-10.65 lbs/cm(2)). The potential polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers underlying shelf life traits were identified in an F(2) mapping population. The marker association with fruit quality traits and yield was confirmed with single-marker analysis and composite interval mapping. The genetic parameters analyzed in the parents and F(1) and F(2) populations indicated that the cross between the cultivar 'Vaibhav' and ripening gene mutant alc yielded fruit with long shelf life and good quality.

  3. Construction of CaF2-appended PVA nanofibre scaffold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-02

    Feb 2, 2018 ... Construction of CaF2-appended PVA nanofibre scaffold. JIA XU1,2,3,∗. , JIANFENG MA1,3,4, YAN HE5, CHUNHONG LIU2 and QINGSONG YE3,5. 1College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Cairns 4878, Australia. 2Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Nanotechnology at ...

  4. Spin waves in antiferromagnetic FeF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, M T; Rainford, B.D.; Guggenheim, H J

    1970-01-01

    Spin-wave dispersion in antiferromagnetic FeF2 has been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer. The single mode observed has a relatively flat dispersion curve rising from 53 cm-1 at the zone centre to 79 cm-1 at the zone boundary. A spin...

  5. Strain-dependent effects of PB1-F2 of triple-reassortant H3N2 influenza viruses in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Lindomar; Vincent, Amy L; Loving, Crystal L; Henningson, Jamie N; Lager, Kelly M; Li, Weizhong; Perez, Daniel R

    2012-10-01

    The PB1-F2 protein of the influenza A viruses (IAVs) can act as a virulence factor in mice. Its contribution to the virulence of IAV in swine, however, remains largely unexplored. In this study, we chose two genetically related H3N2 triple-reassortant IAVs to assess the impact of PB1-F2 in virus replication and virulence in pigs. Using reverse genetics, we disrupted the PB1-F2 ORF of A/swine/Wisconsin/14094/99 (H3N2) (Sw/99) and A/turkey/Ohio/313053/04 (H3N2) (Ty/04). Removing the PB1-F2 ORF led to increased expression of PB1-N40 in a strain-dependent manner. Ablation of the PB1-F2 ORF (or incorporation of the N66S mutation in the PB1-F2 ORF, Sw/99 N66S) affected the replication in porcine alveolar macrophages of only the Sw/99 KO (PB1-F2 knockout) and Sw/99 N66S variants. The Ty/04 KO strain showed decreased virus replication in swine respiratory explants, whereas no such effect was observed in Sw/99 KO, compared with the wild-type (WT) counterparts. In pigs, PB1-F2 did not affect virus shedding or viral load in the lungs for any of these strains. Upon necropsy, PB1-F2 had no effect on the lung pathology caused by Sw/99 variants. Interestingly, the Ty/04 KO-infected pigs showed significantly increased lung pathology at 3 days post-infection compared with pigs infected with the Ty/04 WT strain. In addition, the pulmonary levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and gamma interferon were regulated differentially by the expression of PB1-F2. Taken together, these results indicate that PB1-F2 modulates virus replication, virulence and innate immune responses in pigs in a strain-dependent fashion.

  6. Fabrication and characterisation of nanostructures on CaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzill, M.M.

    1999-04-01

    Novel nanostructure fabrication techniques are described in this dissertation. Furthermore, an unusual two dimensional phase segregation on CaF 2 surfaces after glancing incidence ion beam irradiation is reported. Atomic force microscope (AFM)-tip assisted self-organisation of clusters on anisotropic surfaces is illustrated. This new technique for the fabrication of periodic structures has been demonstrated using silver clusters grown on vicinal CaF 2 (111) surfaces. The scanning action of the tip aligns silver clusters along crystal step edges on the vicinal surface. Nanowire arrays of silver with a uniform periodicity of 20-50 nm and wire widths of 5-7 nm have been achieved over the entire area scanned by the AFM. Calcium remaining on CaF 2 surfaces after electron irradiation induced depletion of the surface of fluorine is found to re-organise itself into island structures. These islands show a shape transition, upon reaching a critical size of ∼ 20 nm in diameter, from a compact to an elongated island shape. Crystal step edge erosion of fluorine allows the formation of long ranging nanowires. These wires have a uniform width of ∼ 15 nm. The observed island shape transition and the width of the wires has been explained by the presence of strain in the islands. This is the first experimental observation confirming a theoretical prediction of the reduction of island width with increasing length for strained islands. A novel technique of ion beam assisted fabrication of periodic nanowire arrays over macroscopic areas is reported. Potential sputtering of CaF 2 surfaces leads to a calcium enriched surface that organised itself in stress domains due to the lattice misfit between calcium and CaF 2 . These stress domains can be oriented by directed ion beam irradiation under glancing angles in parallel stripes with a periodicity of 8-12 nm. A phase segregation on the CaF 2 (111) surface has been observed upon glancing incidence ion beam irradiation under certain

  7. Estimation of growth rates of Escherichia coli BJ4 in streptomycin-treated and previously germfree mice by in situ rRNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rang, C U; Licht, T R; Midtvedt, T; Conway, P L; Chao, L; Krogfelt, K A; Cohen, P S; Molin, S

    1999-05-01

    The growth physiology of Escherichia coli during colonization of the intestinal tract was studied with four animal models: the streptomycin-treated mouse carrying a reduced microflora, the monoassociated mouse with no other microflora than the introduced strain, the conventionalized streptomycin-treated mouse, and the conventionalized monoassociated mouse harboring a full microflora. A 23S rRNA fluorescent oligonucleotide probe was used for hybridization to whole E. coli cells fixed directly after being taken from the animals, and the respective growth rates of E. coli BJ4 in the four animal models were estimated by correlating the cellular concentrations of ribosomes with the growth rate of the strain. The growth rates thus estimated from the ribosomal content of E. coli BJ4 in vivo did not differ in the streptomycin-treated and the monoassociated mice. After conventionalization there was a slight decrease of the bacterial growth rates in both animal models.

  8. Thruster Performance Estimatino of Koreasat F1 & F2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Kyu Park

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the REA thrusters performance estimation results for the KOREASAT F1&F2 launched in 1995. The satellite tracking data obtained from the ground system from end of 1999 to beginning of the 2000 are used to estimate the thruster performance. The estimation algorithm is derived from the least square estimation theory and designed to estimate the velocity change induced by the on-boarded thruster firing as well as the orbit parameter. The estimation results show that the Koreasat F1 thruster are in bad thruster condition of 64% performance for REA when it fires in on-pulse mode. Here, the performance is defined by the ratio of the resulted velocity change to that of planned. But, in the case of the Koreasat F2, it is found that the performance approximately reaches up to 100%, even after the 5 years of the mission.

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.; Anselm, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities

  10. The rise in F$_{2}^{p}$ at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Forte, S

    1994-01-01

    We show that the rise in F_2^p at small x and large Q^2 seen at HERA is indeed the non-Regge double asymptotic scaling behaviour expected from the perturbative emission of strongly ordered hard gluons. An alternative explanation, in which there is no strong ordering, and a new hard Reggeon is generated, is also tried but found wanting: its theoretical short-comings are betrayed by its failure to properly account for the HERA data.

  11. Basal and induced granulopoiesis in outbred, F1 hybrid and inbred mice: can inbreeding depression influence the experimental practice?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Dušek, L.; Holá, Jiřina; Hoferová, Zuzana; Weiterová, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 235, č. 8 (2010), s. 928-931 ISSN 1535-3702 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : hematopoiesis * outbred mice * inbreeding depression Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.954, year: 2010

  12. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant-inbred lines and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654) and coastal (NL-6) germplasm groups...

  13. NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca Solid-State High-Temperature Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; DelCastillo, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical study have demonstrated the promise of all-solid-state, high-temperature electrochemical battery cells based on NiF2 as the active cathode material, CaF2 doped with NaF as the electrolyte material, and Ca as the active anode material. These and other all-solid-state cells have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments that must operate in environments much hotter than can be withstood by ordinary commercially available batteries. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus (where the mean surface temperature is about 450 C), and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal wells and oil wells. All-solid-state high-temperature power cells are sought as alternatives to other high-temperature power cells based, variously, on molten anodes and cathodes or molten eutectic salt electrolytes. Among the all-solid-state predecessors of the present NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca cells are those described in "Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells" (NPO-44396), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 5 (May 2008), page 40. In those cells, the active cathode material is FeS2, the electrolyte material is a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and LiSiO4, and the active anode material is Li contained within an alloy that remains solid in the intended high operational temperature range.

  14. Mapping quantitative trait loci for binary trait in the F2: 3 design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the analysis of inheritance of quantitative traits with low heritability, an F2:3 design that genotypes plants in F2 and phenotypes plants in F2:3 progeny is often used in plant genetics. Although statistical approaches for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the F2:3 design have been well developed, those for binary traits ...

  15. Obtaining teaching expertise from F2F learning interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Samara; Urretavizcaya, Maite; Fernández de Castro, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Learning environments are commonly used nowadays, but they exclude face-to-face interaction among teachers and students what is a successful basis of traditional education. On the other hand, in many cases teachers are imposed to use technology, what they do in an intuitive way. That is, teachers “learn by doing” and do not fully exploit its potential benefits. Consequently, some questions arise: How do teachers use F2F interaction to guide learning session? How can technology help teachers a...

  16. Behavioral Differences Between C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J × NZB/B1NJ F1 Hybrid Mice: Relation to Control of Ethanol Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. A.; Blednov, Y. A.

    2011-01-01

    C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ F1 (B6 × FVB) mice consume more alcohol than C57BL/6J × NZB/B1NJ F1 (B6 × NZB) mice and this high alcohol consumption is stable after abstinence whereas B6 × NZB show reduced consumption, thus providing models of Sustained Alcohol Preference (SAP) and Reduced Alcohol Preference (RAP). In female hybrids, we assessed several behavioral responses to define behaviors which might predict SAP and RAP. B6 × FVB exhibited less severe ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion and were less sensitive to ethanol- induced loss of righting reflex than B6 × NZB. Both hybrids demonstrated ethanol-induced place preference and a low ethanol withdrawal severity. We found that these hybrids differ in their sensitivity to the aversive and sedative, but not rewarding, effects of ethanol. Results of elevated plus maze, mirror chamber, and locomotor tests reveal B6 × FVB mice are less anxious and more active than B6 × NZB mice. Results obtained offer insights about factors that determine SAP and RAP in these new genetic models of alcohol consumption. PMID:20364436

  17. Behavioral differences between C57BL/6J x FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J x NZB/B1NJ F1 hybrid mice: relation to control of ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozburn, A R; Harris, R A; Blednov, Y A

    2010-07-01

    C57BL/6J x FVB/NJ F1 (B6 x FVB) mice consume more alcohol than C57BL/6J x NZB/B1NJ F1 (B6 x NZB) mice and this high alcohol consumption is stable after abstinence whereas B6 x NZB show reduced consumption, thus providing models of Sustained Alcohol Preference (SAP) and Reduced Alcohol Preference (RAP). In female hybrids, we assessed several behavioral responses to define behaviors which might predict SAP and RAP. B6 x FVB exhibited less severe ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion and were less sensitive to ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex than B6 x NZB. Both hybrids demonstrated ethanol-induced place preference and a low ethanol withdrawal severity. We found that these hybrids differ in their sensitivity to the aversive and sedative, but not rewarding, effects of ethanol. Results of elevated plus maze, mirror chamber, and locomotor tests reveal B6 x FVB mice are less anxious and more active than B6 x NZB mice. Results obtained offer insights about factors that determine SAP and RAP in these new genetic models of alcohol consumption.

  18. Atomic structure of CaF2/MnF2-Si(1 1 1) superlattices from X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, Simon G.; Nicklin, C.L.; Howes, P.B.; Norris, C.A.; Kyutt, R.N.; Sokolov, N.S.; Yakovlev, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity and non-specular crystal truncation rod scans have been used to determine the three-dimensional atomic structure of the buried CaF 2 -Si(1 1 1) interface and ultrathin films of MnF 2 and CaF 2 within a superlattice. We show that ultrathin films of MnF 2 , below a critical thickness of approximately four monolayers, are crystalline, pseudomorphic, and adopt the fluorite structure of CaF 2 . High temperature deposition of the CaF 2 buffer layer produces a fully reacted, CaF 2 -Si(1 1 1) type-B interface. The mature, 'long' interface is shown to consist of a partially occupied layer of CaF bonded to the Si substrate, followed by a distorted CaF layer. Our atomistic, semi-kinematical scattering method extends the slab reflectivity method by providing in-plane structural information

  19. An interpretation of the ƒoF2 and hmF2 long-term trends in the framework of the geomagnetic control concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Earlier revealed morphological features of the foF2 and hmF2 long-term trends are interpreted in the scope of the geomagnetic control concept based on the contemporary F2-layer storm mechanisms. The F2-layer parameter trends strongly depend on the long-term varying geomagnetic activity whose effects cannot be removed from the trends using conventional indices of geomagnetic activity. Therefore, any interpretation of the foF2 and hmF2 trends should consider the geomagnetic effects as an inalienable part of the trend analysis. Periods with negative and positive foF2 and hmF2 trends correspond to the periods of increasing or decreasing geomagnetic activity with the turning points around 1955, and the end of 1960s and 1980s, where foF2 and hmF2 trends change their signs. Such variations can be explained by neutral composition, as well as temperature and thermospheric wind changes related to geomagnetic activity variations. In particular, for the period of increasing geomagnetic activity (1965–1991 positive at lower latitudes, but negative at middle and high latitudes, foF2 trends may be explained by neutral composition and temperature changes, while soft electron precipitation determines nighttime trends at sub-auroral and auroral latitudes. A pronounced dependence of the foF2 trends on geomagnetic (invariant latitude and the absence of any latitudinal dependence for the hmF2 trends are due to different dependencies of NmF2 and hmF2 on main aeronomic parameters. All of the revealed latitudinal and diurnal foF2 and hmF2 trend variations may be explained in the frame-work of contemporary F2-region storm mechanisms. The newly proposed geomagnetic storm concept used to explain F2-layer parameter long-term trends proceeds from a natural origin of the trends rather than an artificial one, related to the thermosphere cooling due to the greenhouse effect. Within this concept, instead of cooling, one should expect the thermosphere heating for the period of

  20. Behavioral Differences Between C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J × NZB/B1NJ F1 Hybrid Mice: Relation to Control of Ethanol Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Ozburn, A. R.; Harris, R. A.; Blednov, Y. A.

    2010-01-01

    C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ F1 (B6 × FVB) mice consume more alcohol than C57BL/6J × NZB/B1NJ F1 (B6 × NZB) mice and this high alcohol consumption is stable after abstinence whereas B6 × NZB show reduced consumption, thus providing models of Sustained Alcohol Preference (SAP) and Reduced Alcohol Preference (RAP). In female hybrids, we assessed several behavioral responses to define behaviors which might predict SAP and RAP. B6 × FVB exhibited less severe ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion and we...

  1. Scintillation and radiation damage of doped BaF2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zufang; Xu Zizong; Chang Jin

    1992-01-01

    The emission spectra and the radiation damage of BaF 2 crystals doped Ce and Dy have been studied. The results indicate that the doped BaF 2 crystals have the intrinsic spectra of impurity besides the intrinsic spectra of BaF 2 crystals. The crystals colored and the transmissions decrease with the concentration of impurity in BaF 2 crystals after radiation by γ-ray of 60 Co. The doped Ce BaF 2 irradiated by ultraviolet has faster recover of transmissions but for doped Dy the effect is not obvious. The radiation resistance is not good as pure BaF 2 crystals

  2. Genomic locus modulating corneal thickness in the mouse identifies POU6F2 as a potential risk of developing glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca King

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Central corneal thickness (CCT is one of the most heritable ocular traits and it is also a phenotypic risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. The present study uses the BXD Recombinant Inbred (RI strains to identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTLs modulating CCT in the mouse with the potential of identifying a molecular link between CCT and risk of developing POAG. The BXD RI strain set was used to define mammalian genomic loci modulating CCT, with a total of 818 corneas measured from 61 BXD RI strains (between 60-100 days of age. The mice were anesthetized and the eyes were positioned in front of the lens of the Phoenix Micron IV Image-Guided OCT system or the Bioptigen OCT system. CCT data for each strain was averaged and used to QTLs modulating this phenotype using the bioinformatics tools on GeneNetwork (www.genenetwork.org. The candidate genes and genomic loci identified in the mouse were then directly compared with the summary data from a human POAG genome wide association study (NEIGHBORHOOD to determine if any genomic elements modulating mouse CCT are also risk factors for POAG.This analysis revealed one significant QTL on Chr 13 and a suggestive QTL on Chr 7. The significant locus on Chr 13 (13 to 19 Mb was examined further to define candidate genes modulating this eye phenotype. For the Chr 13 QTL in the mouse, only one gene in the region (Pou6f2 contained nonsynonymous SNPs. Of these five nonsynonymous SNPs in Pou6f2, two resulted in changes in the amino acid proline which could result in altered secondary structure affecting protein function. The 7 Mb region under the mouse Chr 13 peak distributes over 2 chromosomes in the human: Chr 1 and Chr 7. These genomic loci were examined in the NEIGHBORHOOD database to determine if they are potential risk factors for human glaucoma identified using meta-data from human GWAS. The top 50 hits all resided within one gene (POU6F2, with the highest significance level of p = 10-6 for

  3. The monoclonal antibody Zt/f2 targeting RON receptor tyrosine kinase as potential therapeutics against tumor growth-mediated by colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Rui-Wen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overexpression of the RON receptor tyrosine kinase contributes to epithelial cell transformation, malignant progression, and acquired drug resistance. RON also has been considered as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. This study determines biochemical features and inhibitory activity of a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb Zt/f2 in experimental cancer therapy. Results Zt/f2 is a mouse IgG2a mAb that is highly specific and sensitive to human RON and its oncogenic variants such as RON160 (ED50 = 2.3 nmol/L. Receptor binding studies revealed that Zt/f2 interacts with an epitope(s located in a 49 amino acid sequence coded by exon 11 in the RON β-chain extracellular sequences. This sequence is critical in regulating RON maturation and phosphorylation. Zt/f2 did not compete with ligand macrophage-stimulating protein for binding to RON; however, its engagement effectively induced RON internalization, which diminishes RON expression and impairs downstream signaling activation. These biochemical features provide the cellular basis for the use of Zt/f2 to inhibit tumor growth in animal model. Repeated administration of Zt/f2 as a single agent into Balb/c mice results in partial inhibition of tumor growth caused by transformed NIH-3T3 cells expressing oncogenic RON160. Colon cancer HT-29 cell-mediated tumor growth in athymic nude mice also was attenuated following Zt/f2 treatment. In both cases, ~50% inhibition of tumor growth as measured by tumor volume was achieved. Moreover, Zt/f2 in combination with 5-fluorouracil showed an enhanced inhibition effect of ~80% on HT-29 cell-mediated tumor growth in vivo. Conclusions Zt/f2 is a potential therapeutic mAb capable of inhibiting RON-mediated oncogenesis by colon cancer cells in animal models. The inhibitory effect of Zt/f2 in vivo in combination with chemoagent 5-fluorouracil could represent a novel strategy for future colon cancer therapy.

  4. Isolation of genes involved in the preventive effect of electroacupuncture at Fenglong acupoint (ST40) on hypercholesterolemia mice by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) combined with negative subtraction chain (NSC) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingjie; Zhang, Yizheng; Yan, Wenqi; Kang, Jinmei; Kang, Yaoxia; Lie, Min

    2006-01-01

    We have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) at Fenglong acupoint (ST40) has the cholesterol-lowering effect in hypercholesterolemia mice. The present study was designed to study preventive effect of EA at ST40 on hypercholesterolemia. C57BL/6j mice were randomly divided into normal group (NG), hypercholesterolemia group (HG) and EA prevention group (EPG). NG were fed chow, HG a hypercholesterolemic diet (HD), and EPG the same HD and received EA treatment simultaneously. Lipid profile of both the plasma and liver indicated that EA at ST40 had preventive effect on hypercholesterolemia. Compared with corresponding values in the HG mice, the levels of the hepatic total cholesterol and total triglyceride in the EPG mice lowered 45% and 23% respectively, and the levels of plasma total-, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol in the EPG mice lowered 39%, 37% and 39% respectively. Eleven genes whose expressions were up-regulated in EPG mice compared with HG were isolated using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) combined with negative subtraction chain (NSC) technology, and then confirmed by dot-blot assay. Except two genes whose functions were still unknown, the others were mainly involved in cholesterol metabolism, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism and immune response. The potential molecular mechanism of preventive effect was discussed.

  5. Neural-network-based prediction techniques for single station modeling and regional mapping of the foF2 and M(3000F2 ionospheric characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Xenos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Neural-Network-based single-station hourly daily foF2 and M(3000F2 modelling of 15 European ionospheric stations is investigated. The data used are neural networks and hourly daily values from the period 1964- 1988 for training the neural networks and from the period 1989-1994 for checking the prediction accuracy. Two types of models are presented for the F2-layer critical frequency prediction and two for the propagation factor M(3000F2. The first foF2 model employs the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12 and the local noon F2- layer critical frequency of the previous day. The second foF2 model, which introduces a new regional mapping technique, employs the Juliusruh neural network model and uses the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12, and the previous day F2-layer critical frequency measured at Juliusruh at noon. The first M(3000F2 model employs the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12, its ± 3 h deviations and the local noon cosine of the solar zenith angle (cos c12. The second model, which introduces a new M(3000F2 mapping technique, employs Juliusruh neural network model and uses the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12, and the previous day F2-layer critical frequency measured at Juliusruh at noon.

  6. Mapping quantitative trait loci for binary trait in the F2:3 design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the analysis of inheritance of quantitative traits with low heritability, an F2:3 design that genotypes plants in F2 and phe- notypes plants in F2:3 progeny is often used in plant genetics. Although statistical approaches for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the F2:3 design have been well developed, those for binary traits ...

  7. Ab initio study of dissociative attachment of low-energy electrons to F2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A.U.; Orel, A.E.; Rescigno, T.N.

    1981-01-01

    Adiabatic-nuclei resonance theory has been applied to the study of dissociative attachment of low-energy electrons to F 2 . Stieltjes moment theory was used to derive fixed-nuclei electronic resonance parameters from large scale configuration-interaction calculations on F 2 and F 2 - . Dissociative attachment cross sections are reported for the four lowest vibrational levels of F 2 and compared to available experimental data

  8. 26 CFR 1.860F-2 - Transfers to a REMIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfers to a REMIC. 1.860F-2 Section 1.860F-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860F-2 Transfers to a REMIC. (a) Formation of a REMIC—(1...

  9. Anomalous variations of NmF2 over the Argentine Islands: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a statistical study of variations in the F2-layer peak electron density, NmF2, and altitude, hmF2, over the Argentine Islands ionosonde. The critical frequencies, foF2, and, foE, of the F2 and E-layers, and the propagation factor, M(3000F2, measured by the ionosonde during the 1957–1959 and 1962–1995 time periods were used in the statistical analysis to determine the values of NmF2 and hmF2. The probabilities to observe maximum and minimum values of NmF2 and hmF2 in a diurnal variation of the electron density are calculated. Our study shows that the main part of the maximum diurnal values of NmF2 is observed in a time sector close to midnight in November, December, January, and February exhibiting the anomalous diurnal variations of NmF2. Another anomalous feature of the diurnal variations of NmF2 exhibited during November, December, and January when the minimum diurnal value of NmF2 is mainly located close to the noon sector. These anomalous diurnal variations of NmF2 are found to be during both geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. Anomalous features are not found in the diurnal variations of hmF2. The statistical study of the NmF2 winter anomaly phenomena over the Argentine Islands ionosonde was carried out. The variations in a maximum daytime value, R, of a ratio of a geomagnetically quiet daytime winter NmF2 to a geomagnetically quiet daytime summer NmF2 taken at a given UT and for approximately the same level of solar activity were studied. The conditional probability of the occurrence of R in an interval of R, the most frequent value of R, the mean expected value of R, and the conditional probability to observe the F2-region winter anomaly during a daytime period were calculated for low, moderate, and high solar activity. The calculations show that the mean expected value of R and the occurrence frequency of the F2-region winter anomaly increase with increasing solar activity.

  10. Transgenic mice susceptible to poliovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Koike, S; Taya, C; Kurata, T; Abe, S; Ise, I; Yonekawa, H; Nomoto, A

    1991-01-01

    Poliovirus-sensitive transgenic mice were produced by introducing the human gene encoding cellular receptors for poliovirus into the mouse genome. Expression of the receptor mRNAs in tissues of the transgenic mice was analyzed by using RNA blot hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction. The human gene is expressed in many tissues of the transgenic mice just as in tissues of humans. The transgenic mice are susceptible to all three poliovirus serotypes, and the mice inoculated with poliov...

  11. Social investigation and long-term recognition memory performance in 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice and their hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hädicke

    Full Text Available When tested for their behavioural performance, the mixed genetic background of transgenic mice is a critical, but often ignored, issue. Such issues can arise because of the significant differences in defined behavioural parameters between embryonic stem cell donor and recipient strains. In this context, the commonly used stem cell donor strain '129' shows 'deficits' in different paradigms for learning and long-term memory. We investigated the long-term social recognition memory performance and the investigative behaviour in commercially available 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice and two F1-hybrids (129S1/SvImJ×C57BL/6JOlaHsd by using the social discrimination procedure and its modification, the volatile fraction cage (VFC. Our data revealed an unimpaired olfactory long-term recognition memory not only in female and male 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice but also in the two hybrid lines (129S1/SvImJxC57BL/6JOlaHsd when the full 'olfactory signature' of the 'to-be-recognized' conspecific was presented. Under these conditions we also failed to detect differences in the long-term recognition memory between male and female mice of the tested strains and revealed that the oestrus cycle did not affect the performance in this memory task. The performance in the VFC, based only on the volatile components of the 'olfactory signature' of the 'to-be-recognized' conspecific, was similar to that observed under direct exposure except that females of one F1 hybrid group failed to show an intact long-term memory. Thus, the social discrimination procedure allowing direct access between the experimental subject and the stimulus animal(s is highly suitable to investigate the impact of genetic manipulations on long-term memory in male and female mice of the strain 129S1/SvImJ, C57BL/6JOlaHsd and 129S1/SvImJxC57BL/6JOlaHsd hybrids.

  12. A Novel Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1)/Glucagon Hybrid Peptide with Triple-acting Agonist Activity at Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide, GLP-1, and Glucagon Receptors and Therapeutic Potential in High Fat-fed Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Victor A.; Bhat, Vikas K.; Irwin, Nigel; Flatt, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon bind to related members of the same receptor superfamily and exert important effects on glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, and energy regulation. The present study assessed the biological actions and therapeutic utility of novel GIP/glucagon/GLP-1 hybrid peptides. Nine novel peptides were synthesized and exhibited complete DPP-IV resistance and enhanced in vitro insulin secretion. The most promising peptide, [dA2]GLP-1/GcG, stimulated cAMP production in GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon receptor-transfected cells. Acute administration of [dA2]GLP-1/GcG in combination with glucose significantly lowered plasma glucose and increased plasma insulin in normal and obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice. Furthermore, [dA2]GLP-1/GcG elicited a protracted glucose-lowering and insulinotropic effect in high fat-fed mice. Twice daily administration of [dA2]GLP-1/GcG for 21 days decreased body weight and nonfasting plasma glucose and increased circulating plasma insulin concentrations in high fat-fed mice. Furthermore, [dA2]GLP-1/GcG significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by day 21. Interestingly, locomotor activity was increased in [dA2]GLP-1/GcG mice, without appreciable changes in aspects of metabolic rate. Studies in knock-out mice confirmed the biological action of [dA2]GLP-1/GcG via multiple targets including GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon receptors. The data suggest significant promise for novel triple-acting hybrid peptides as therapeutic options for obesity and diabetes. PMID:24165127

  13. A novel glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/glucagon hybrid peptide with triple-acting agonist activity at glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, GLP-1, and glucagon receptors and therapeutic potential in high fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Victor A; Bhat, Vikas K; Irwin, Nigel; Flatt, Peter R

    2013-12-06

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon bind to related members of the same receptor superfamily and exert important effects on glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, and energy regulation. The present study assessed the biological actions and therapeutic utility of novel GIP/glucagon/GLP-1 hybrid peptides. Nine novel peptides were synthesized and exhibited complete DPP-IV resistance and enhanced in vitro insulin secretion. The most promising peptide, [dA(2)]GLP-1/GcG, stimulated cAMP production in GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon receptor-transfected cells. Acute administration of [dA(2)]GLP-1/GcG in combination with glucose significantly lowered plasma glucose and increased plasma insulin in normal and obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice. Furthermore, [dA(2)]GLP-1/GcG elicited a protracted glucose-lowering and insulinotropic effect in high fat-fed mice. Twice daily administration of [dA(2)]GLP-1/GcG for 21 days decreased body weight and nonfasting plasma glucose and increased circulating plasma insulin concentrations in high fat-fed mice. Furthermore, [dA(2)]GLP-1/GcG significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by day 21. Interestingly, locomotor activity was increased in [dA(2)]GLP-1/GcG mice, without appreciable changes in aspects of metabolic rate. Studies in knock-out mice confirmed the biological action of [dA(2)]GLP-1/GcG via multiple targets including GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon receptors. The data suggest significant promise for novel triple-acting hybrid peptides as therapeutic options for obesity and diabetes.

  14. Dietary fats and F2-isoprostanes: A review of the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Marine S; Bilodeau, Jean-François; Julien, Pierre; Rudkowska, Iwona

    2017-12-12

    Evidence supports that a high dietary fat intake increases oxidative stress and the risk of diet-induced metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. F 2 -isoprostanes (F 2 -isoP) are formed by the non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid and are widely used as reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress in clinical studies. Dietary fats may influence F 2 -isoP levels, as they (1) are metabolic substrates for their formation, (2) modify the lipid composition of tissues, and (3) affect the plasma lipoprotein concentrations which are involved in F 2 -isoP transport. This review examined the latest clinical evidence on how dietary fats can affect blood circulation and excretion of F 2 -isoP in individuals with healthy or deteriorated metabolic profiles. Clinical studies reported that saturated or monounsaturated fat-rich diets did not affect F 2 -isoP levels in adults with healthy or deteriorated metabolic profiles. Though, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased F 2 -isoP levels in numerous studies, whereas trans-fatty acids raised F 2 -isoP excretion. Yet, the reported heterogeneous results reveal important considerations, such as the health status of the participants, the biological fluids used to determine F 2 -isoP, the analytical methods employed and the specific F 2 -isoP isomers detected. Therefore, future clinical studies should be designed in order to consider these issues in the studies of the effects of fat intake on oxidative stress.

  15. Genetic and molecular analysis of wild-derived arrhythmic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Watanabe

    Full Text Available A new circadian variant was isolated by screening the intercross offspring of wild-caught mice (Mus musculus castaneus. This variant was characterized by an initial maintenance of damped oscillations and subsequent loss of rhythmicity after being transferred from light-dark (LD cycles to constant darkness (DD. To map the genes responsible for the persistence of rhythmicity (circadian ratio and the length of free-running period (tau, quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis was performed using F(2 mice obtained from an F(1 cross between the circadian variant and C57BL/6J mice. As a result, a significant QTL with a main effect for circadian ratio (Arrhythmicity; Arrh-1 was mapped on Chromosome (Chr 8. For tau, four significant QTLs, Short free-running period (Sfp-1 (Chr 1, Sfp-2 (Chr 6, Sfp-3 (Chr 8, Sfp-4 (Chr 11 were determined. An epistatic interaction was detected between Chr 3 (Arrh-2 and Chr 5 (Arrh-3. An in situ hybridization study of clock genes and mouse Period1::luciferase (mPer1::luc real-time monitoring analysis in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN suggested that arrhythmicity in this variant might not be attributed to core circadian mechanisms in the SCN neurons. Our strategy using wild-derived variant mice may provide a novel opportunity to evaluate circadian and its related disorders in human that arise from the interaction between multiple variant genes.

  16. Can there be a multi-bond between noble gas and metal? A theoretical study of F2XeMoF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kunqi; Sheng, Li

    2017-04-05

    A new noble gas compound containing a Xe-Mo double bond, F 2 XeMoF 2 , was theoretically constructed and studied based on DFT and ab initio calculations. The CCSD(T)-calculated Xe-Mo bond length of 2.518 Å was comparable to the standard value of 2.56 Å. The bonding energy (32.3 kcal mol -1 ) was even higher than that of the Xe-Au bond in the well-known XeAuF complex (24.1 kcal mol -1 ). The result of natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis indicates that there is a σ-bond and a π-bond between the Xe and Mo atoms in F 2 XeMoF 2 . The properties of the Xe-Mo double bond were also analyzed with the atoms in molecules (AIM) approach and natural resonance theory (NRT).

  17. Complex refractive index measurements for BaF 2 and CaF 2 via single-angle infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly-Gorham, Molly Rose K.; DeVetter, Brent M.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Cannon, Bret D.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bliss, Mary; Johnson, Timothy J.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2017-10-01

    We have re-investigated the optical constants n and k for the homologous series of inorganic salts barium fluoride (BaF2) and calcium fluoride (CaF2) using a single-angle near-normal incidence reflectance device in combination with a calibrated Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Our results are in good qualitative agreement with most previous works. However, certain features of the previously published data near the reststrahlen band exhibit distinct differences in spectral characteristics. Notably, our measurements of BaF2 do not include a spectral feature in the ~250 cm-1 reststrahlen band that was previously published. Additionally, CaF2 exhibits a distinct wavelength shift relative to the model derived from previously published data. We confirmed our results with recently published works that use significantly more modern instrumentation and data reduction techniques

  18. Magnetoelastic effects in Jahn-Teller distorted CrF2 and CuF2 studied by neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterji, Tapan; Hansen, Thomas C

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the temperature dependence of the crystal and magnetic structures of the Jahn-Teller distorted transition metal difluorides CrF 2 and CuF 2 by neutron powder diffraction in the temperature range 2-280 K. The lattice parameters and the unit cell volume show magnetoelastic effects below the Neel temperature. The lattice strain due to the magnetostriction effect couples with the square of the order parameter of the antiferromagnetic phase transition. We also investigated the temperature dependence of the Jahn-Teller distortion, which does not show any significant effect at the antiferromagnetic phase transition but increases linearly with increasing temperature for CrF 2 , and remains almost independent of temperature in CuF 2 . The magnitude of magnetovolume effect seems to increase with the low temperature saturated magnetic moment of the transition metal ions but the correlation is not at all perfect.

  19. Dipole model analysis of F2cc¯${m{F}}_2^{{m{car c}}} $ derived from the new D* data in DIS at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luszczak Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I analyse the new D* deep inelastic scattering data from HERA with the help of dipole models. I calculate F2cc¯${m{F}}_2^{{m{car c}}} $ from the GBW [1] and BGK [2] saturation models. I compare results with the last values determined by H1 at low Q2. I find good agreement with the data.

  20. Variability of critical frequency and M(3000)F2 at Tucuman and San Juan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezquer, R.G.; Mosert, M.; Corbella, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    The variability of the M(3000)F2 factor and the critical frequency of the E and F2 ionospheric regions over two argentine stations for middle solar activity conditions is studied. To this end different parameters to specify variability are used, namely: standard deviation, difference between median to lower quartile and to upper quartile. The results show that low variability is observed for foE and M(3000)F2 factor at both stations for equinoxes and solstices. The coefficients of variability are lower than 10% for foE and M(3000)F2 factor. The highest variability was observed for foF2. In general, the foF2 coefficient of variability ranges between 0 and 30%, at both stations. (author)

  1. Variability in the Fl and F2 region electron density during a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the variation in the F1 and F2 region electron density during a geomagnetic activity, at East Asian mid-latitude stations. In this analysis, we have employed D(foF1) and D(foF2) representing deviation of the critical frequency for the F1 and F2 ionospheric regions respectively. The F1 region appears to ...

  2. Investigation of the relationship between ionospheric foF2 and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaboga, Tuba; Canyilmaz, Murat; Ozcan, Osman

    2018-04-01

    Variations of the ionospheric F2 region critical frequency (foF2) have been investigated statistically before earthquakes during 1980-2008 periods in Japan area. Ionosonde data was taken from Kokubunji station which is in the earthquake preparation zone for all earthquakes. Standard Deviations and Inter-Quartile Range methods are applied to the foF2 data. It is observed that there are anomalous variations in foF2 before earthquakes. These variations can be regarded as ionospheric precursors and may be used for earthquake prediction.

  3. Absence of systemic oxidative stress and increased CSF prostaglandin F2α in progressive MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Magda A.; Maghzal, Ghassan J.; Khademi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS).  Methods: We determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry nonenzymatic (F2-isoprostanes) and enzymatic oxidation products of arachidonic acid (prostaglandin F2α [PGF2α...... (neurofilament light protein).  Results: Compared with OND controls, plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes and PGF2α were significantly lower in patients with progressive disease, and decreased with increasing disability score (Expanded Disability Status Scale). In contrast, CSF concentrations of PGF2α......, but not F2-isoprostanes, were significantly higher in patients with progressive disease than OND controls (p

  4. Measurement of Inclusive $\\rho^{0}, f_{0}(980), f_{2}(1270), K^{*0}_{2}(1430)$ and $f'_{2}(1525)$ Production in $Z^0$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Ajinenko, I; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Damgaard, G; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerdyukov, L N; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grimm, H J; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Masik, J; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neufeld, N; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A

    1999-01-01

    DELPHI results are presented on the inclusive production of the neutral mesons$\\rho^0$, $f_0(980)$, $f_2(1270)$, K$^{*0}_2(1430)$ and $f^{'}_2(1525)$ in hadronic Z$^0$ decays. They are based on about 2 million multihadronic events collected in 1994 and 1995, using the particle identification capabilities of the DELPHI Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors and measured ionization losses in the Time Projection Chamber. The total production rates per hadronic Z$^0$ decay have been determined to be: $1.19 \\pm 0.10$ for $\\rho^0$; $0.164 \\pm 0.021$ for $f_0(980)$;$0.214 \\pm 0.038$ for $f_2(1270)$; 0:073 \\pm 0:023 for $K^{*0}_2 (1430)$; and 0:012 \\pm 0:006 for $f_{2}$(1525). The total production rates for all mesons and differential cross-sections for the $\\rho^{0}$, $f_{0}$(980) and $f_{2}$(1270) are compared with the results of other LEP experiments and with models.

  5. Elastic properties of Na 2 O–ZnO–ZnF 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elastic properties of Na2O–ZnO–ZnF2–B2O3 oxyfluoride glasses with different ZnF2 concentrations have been investigated using ultrasonic velocity measurements at room temperature, at a frequency of 10 MHz. Glasses prepared by melt quenching method were suitably polished for the ultrasonic velocity measurements ...

  6. First measurement of the photon structure function F2,cγ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisius, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The first measurement of F 2,c γ is presented. At low x the measurement indicates a non-zero hadron-like component to F 2,c γ . At large x the measurement constitutes a test of perturbative QCD at next-to-leading order, with only m c and α s as free parameters, with a precision of O(40%)

  7. Supplementary data: Table 1. QTL for tassel related traits of F2:3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    User

    Supplementary data: Table 1. QTL for tassel related traits of F2:3 population across and RIL population through single-environment analysis (SEA). Trait. Population. Environment. QTL. Binlocusa. Flanking marker. Peak position. (cM). Range. (cM)b. Ac. Dd. Gene actione. R2(%)f. Subtotal R2. (%)g. F(0.05)h type. TTL. F2:3.

  8. Ionospheric F2-Layer Semi-Annual Variation in Middle Latitude by Solar Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Kyung Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the ionospheric F2-layer electron density variation by solar activity in middle latitude by using foF2 observed at the Kokubunji ionosonde station in Japan for the period from 1997 to 2008. The semi-annual variation of foF2 shows obviously in high solar activity (2000-2002 than low solar activity (2006-2008. It seems that variation of geomagnetic activity by solar activity influences on the semi-annual variation of the ionospheric F2-layer electron density. According to the Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis of foF2 and Ap index, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bs (IMF Bz <0 component, solar wind speed, solar wind number density and flow pressure which influence the geomagnetic activity, we examine how the geomagnetic activity affects the ionospheric F2-layer electron density variation. We find that the semi-annual variation of daily foF2, Ap index and IMF Bs appear clearly during the high solar activity. It suggests that the semi-annual variation of geomagnetic activity, caused by Russell-McPherron effect, contributes greatly to the ionospheric F2-layer semi-annual electron density variation, except dynamical effects in the thermosphere.

  9. Mapping quantitative trait loci for binary trait in the F2:3 design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cross populations derived from the cross between two inbred lines. Typically, QTL mapping statistics assumes that each. F2 individual is genotyped for the markers and phenotyped for the trait. However, the power in the detection of QTL for a trait with low heritability is relatively low. To increase the power, an F2:3 design, ...

  10. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-2 - Recapture of overall foreign losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(f)-2T(c)(1). (2) Election to recapture more of the overall foreign loss than is required under... in accordance with § 1.904(f)-1(e)(2). Example 4. [Reserved] For further guidance see § 1.904(f)-2T(c... the time. An aircraft, railroad rolling stock, vessel, motor vehicle, container, or other property...

  11. Regulated expression of human A γ-, β-, and hybrid γ β-globin genes in transgenic mice: manipulation of the developmental expression patterns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Kollias (George); N. Wrighton; J. Hurst; F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractWe have introduced the human fetal gamma- and adult beta-globin genes into the germ line of mice. Analysis of the resulting transgenic mice shows that the human gamma-globin gene is expressed like an embryonic mouse globin gene; the human beta-globin gene is expressed (as previously

  12. Thermal expansion coefficients of obliquely deposited MgF2 thin films and their intrinsic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaing, Cheng-Chung

    2011-03-20

    This study elucidates the effects of columnar angles and deposition angles on the thermal expansion coefficients and intrinsic stress behaviors of MgF2 films with columnar microstructures. The behaviors associated with temperature-dependent stresses in the MgF2 films are measured using a phase-shifting Twyman-Green interferometer with a heating stage and the application of a phase reduction algorithm. The thermal expansion coefficients of MgF2 films at various columnar angles were larger than those of glass substrates. The intrinsic stress in the MgF2 films with columnar microstructures was compressive, while the thermal stress was tensile. The thermal expansion coefficients of MgF2 films with columnar microstructures and their intrinsic stress evidently depended on the deposition angle and the columnar angle.

  13. One- and two-photon spectra of Nd3+ clusters in CaF2 and SrF2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Voronov, Valerii V; Glotova, M Yu; Papashvili, A G; Karasik, Aleksandr Ya

    2003-01-01

    The polarised two-photon (IR) and one-photon (visible) luminescence excitation spectra of Nd 3+ nanoclusters in CaF 2 and SrF 2 crystals are measured at 10 K using a F - 2 :LiF colour centre laser tunable in spectral ranges 1090 - 1230 nm and 545 - 615 nm with an emission linewidth of ∼0.02 - 0.03 cm -1 , an average output power of ∼55 mW, and a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. The two-photon excitation spectra at the 4 I 9/2 → 4 G 5/2 transition reveal the structure, which is absent upon one-photon excitation, which can be explained by different selection rules for some Stark - Stark transitions upon one- and two-photon absorption. (special issue devoted to the memory of academician a m prokhorov)

  14. Aspects of the production of 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose via 18F2 with a tandem Van de Graaf accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaughnessy, W.J.; Gatley, S.J.; Hichwa, R.D.; Lieberman, L.M.; Nickles, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    During deuteron irradiation of 100 psig neon containing 1-2% of elemental fluorine, the induced 18 F partitions into three main fractions. About 50% remains in the passivated nickel target after elution of the gas mixture. Some of the gaseous 18 F is capable of performing fluorination reactions and is presumed to be 18 F 2 : the rest is a mixture of at least two unreactive gases, one of which behaves on gas chromatography like CF 4 . The ratio of reactive to unreactive gaseous 18 F decreases with longer irradiation times but increases when the target gas is cooled to -30C during bombardment. Reaction of the presumed 18 F 2 with 4.5,6-triacetyl-D-glucal, essentially by the published method, yielded 18 F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-4,5,6-triacetyl-x-D-glucosyl fluoride and the corresponding β-D-mannosyl fluoride. These were separated either by column chromatography or preparative TLC, using plates with a pre-absorbent layer. Hydrolysis of the glucoyl fluoride gave 18 F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-2FDG) with a decay-corrected yield of about 10% based on 18 F trapped by the triacetylglucal. The 60 min organ distribution of 18 F from 18 F-2-FDG in tumor bearing rats was compared with the corresponding distribution after administration of 18 F-3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-3FDG). Organ/blood ratios were uniformly higher for 18 F-2FDG than for no carrier added 18 F-3FDG; only heart, brain and thyroid had ratios greater than unity. Added carrier 3-FDG further lowered organ/blood ratios. The main conclusion drawn from this animal work is that 18 F-3FDG is unlikely to rival 18 F-2FDG for nuclear medicine studies, where high target /blood ratios (obtained by metabolic trapping as the sugar-6-phosphate) are necessary. However 18 F-3FDG may be useful for estimating the concentration of free glucose in organs if further work confirms that it is an essentially non-metabolized analog of glucose. (author)

  15. miR-99a reveals two novel oncogenic proteins E2F2 and EMR2 and represses stemness in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Andrea; Garcia-Mayea, Yoelsis; Jubierre, Luz; Mir, Cristina; Hummel, Manuela; Castellvi, Josep; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Paciucci, Rosanna; Sansano, Irene; Sun, Yilin; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago; Kondon, Hiroshi; Soriano, Aroa; Segura, Miguel; Lyakhovich, Alex; LLeonart, Matilde E

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most aggressive tumours with very low life expectancy. Altered microRNA expression is found in human tumours because it is involved in tumour growth, progression and metastasis. In this study, we analysed microRNA expression in 47 lung cancer biopsies. Among the most downregulated microRNAs we focussed on the miR-99a characterisation. In vitro experiments showed that miR-99a expression decreases the proliferation of H1650, H1975 and H1299 lung cancer cells causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We identified two novel proteins, E2F2 (E2F transcription factor 2) and EMR2 (EGF-like module-containing, mucin-like, hormone receptor-like 2), downregulated by miR-99a by its direct binding to their 3′-UTR. Moreover, miR-99a expression prevented cancer cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and repressed the tumourigenic potential of the cancer stem cell (CSC) population in both these cell lines and mice tumours originated from H1975 cells. The expression of E2F2 and EMR2 at protein level was studied in 119 lung cancer biopsies. E2F2 and EMR2 are preferentially expressed in adenocarcinomas subtypes versus other tumour types (squamous and others). Interestingly, the expression of E2F2 correlates with the presence of vimentin and both E2F2 and EMR2 correlate with the presence of β-catenin. Moreover, miR-99a expression correlates inversely with E2F2 and directly with β-catenin expression in lung cancer biopsies. In conclusion, miR-99a reveals two novel targets E2F2 and EMR2 that play a key role in lung tumourigenesis. By inhibiting E2F2 and EMR2, miR-99a represses in vivo the transition of epithelial cells through an EMT process concomitantly with the inhibition of stemness features and consequently decreasing the CSC population. PMID:29072692

  16. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopF2 suppresses Arabidopsis stomatal immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenden Hurley

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae subverts plant immune signalling through injection of type III secreted effectors (T3SE into host cells. The T3SE HopF2 can disable Arabidopsis immunity through Its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Proteomic analysis of HopF2 interacting proteins identified a protein complex containing ATPases required for regulating stomatal aperture, suggesting HopF2 may manipulate stomatal immunity. Here we report HopF2 can inhibit stomatal immunity independent of its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Transgenic expression of HopF2 in Arabidopsis inhibits stomatal closing in response to P. syringae and increases the virulence of surface inoculated P. syringae. Further, transgenic expression of HopF2 inhibits flg22 induced reactive oxygen species production. Intriguingly, ADP-ribosyltransferase activity is dispensable for inhibiting stomatal immunity and flg22 induced reactive oxygen species. Together, this implies HopF2 may be a bifunctional T3SE with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity required for inhibiting apoplastic immunity and an independent function required to inhibit stomatal immunity.

  17. Earth's magnetic field effect on MUF calculation and consequences for hmF2 trend estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Ana G.; Zossi, Bruno S.; Yiğit, Erdal; Saavedra, Zenon; de Haro Barbas, Blas F.

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the state of the upper atmosphere, and in particular of the ionosphere, is essential in several applications such as systems used in radio frequency communications, satellite positioning and navigation. In general, these systems depend on the state and evolution of the ionosphere. In all applications involving the ionosphere an essential task is to determine the path and modifications of ray propagation through the ionospheric plasma. The ionospheric refractive index and the maximum usable frequency (MUF) that can be received over a given distance are some key parameters that are crucial for such technological applications. However, currently the representation of these parameters are in general simplified, neglecting the effects of Earth's magnetic field. The value of M(3000)F2, related to the MUF that can be received over 3000 km is routinely scaled from ionograms using a technique which also neglects the geomagnetic field effects assuming a standard simplified propagation model. M(3000)F2 is expected to be affected by a systematic trend linked to the secular variations of Earth's magnetic field. On the other hand, among the upper atmospheric effects expected from increasing greenhouse gases concentration is the lowering of the F2-layer peak density height, hmF2. This ionospheric parameter is usually estimated using the M(3000)F2 factor, so it would also carry this ;systematic trend;. In this study, the geomagnetic field effect on MUF estimations is analyzed as well as its impact on hmF2 long-term trend estimations. We find that M(3000)F2 increases when the geomagnetic field is included in its calculation, and hence hmF2, estimated using existing methods involving no magnetic field for M(3000)F2 scaling, would present a weak but steady trend linked to these variations which would increase or compensate the few kilometers decrease ( 2 km per decade) expected from greenhouse gases effect.

  18. Comment on 'A summation formula for Clausen's series 3F2(1) with an application to Goursat's function 2F2(x)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Sup; Rathie, Arjun K

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper, Miller (2005 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 3541-5) obtained a new summation formula for the Clausen's series 3 F 2 (1). The aim of this comment is to point out that the summation formula obtained by Miller is not a new one. (comment)

  19. Long-term trends in foF2: their estimating and origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with two problems, methods of foF2 trend determination and origin of trends in foF2, both being controversial in current literature. We found that various regression-based methods and artificial neural network-based method of Yue et al. (2006 provided comparable results within uncertainties caused mainly by various ways of removing/suppressing the dominant solar cycle effect. The role of geomagnetic activity in the observed trends in foF2 was probably substantial and might be still even rather dominant in the last quarter of the 20th century.

  20. 4He adsorption and third-sound propagation on rough CaF2 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, J.C.; Hallock, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the propagation of third sound on well characterized rough CaF 2 surfaces as a function of 4 He film thickness. In addition we have measured the adsorption of 4 He to the CaF 2 surfaces using quartz crystal microbalances. We report values for the superfluid depletion thickness D for the three surfaces examined here. A model for the reduction of the third-sound speed due to the increased helium adsorption on rough CaF 2 is explored

  1. Theoretical study of the F2 molecule using the variational cellular method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.A.P.; Leite, J.R.; Fazzio, A.

    1981-02-01

    Variational Cellular Method calculations for F 2 have been carried out at several internuclear distances. The ground and excited state potential curves are presented. The overall agreement between the VCM results and ab initio calculations is fairly good. (Author) [pt

  2. Observation of ultraslow stress release in silicon nitride films on CaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Tianyi; Deen, M. Jamal; Xu, Changqing; Fang, Qiyin; Selvaganapathy, P. Ravi; Zhang, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Silicon nitride thin films are deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on (100) and (111) CaF 2 crystalline substrates. Delaminated wavy buckles formed during the release of internal compressive stress in the films and the stress releasing processes are observed macroscopically and microscopically. The stress release patterns start from the substrate edges and propagate to the center along defined directions aligned with the crystallographic orientations of the substrate. The stress releasing velocity of SiN x film on (111) CaF 2 is larger than that of SiN x film with the same thickness on (100) CaF 2 . The velocities of SiN x film on both (100) and (111) CaF 2 increase with the film thickness. The stress releasing process is initiated when the films are exposed to atmosphere, but it is not a chemical change from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  3. Isolation and characterization of a thermolysin peptide containing acetyllysine from enzymatically acetylated f2al histone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Daisaburo

    1973-01-01

    Previous studies (vol. 72, 433, '72) in this laboratory showed that histone acetylase in the cytosol of calf thymus introduced acetyl groups primarily into the epsilon-amino groups of lysine residues in a histone fraction, f2al. In an attempt to examine the site of acetylation in f2al by the enzyme, 14 C-acetylated f2al was isolated and digested by thermolysin. A radioactive peptide, which accounted for 50 - 60% of the total radioactivity, was obtained from the thermolysin digest and identified as the fragment containing amino acid residues 10-21. It appears, therefore, that the major sites of acetylation by the enzyme are the lysine 12 or 16 or both, which are known to be acetylated in vivo. It was also shown that the peptide was not deacetylated by histone deacetylase, in contrast with the whole f2al molecule. (author)

  4. QTL mapping for test weight by using F2: 3 population in maize

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 90; Issue 1. QTL mapping for test weight by using F2:3 population in maize. Jun-Qiang Ding Jin-Liang ... In the years 2007 and 2008, a F2:3 population along with the parents Chang7-2 and Zheng58 were planted in Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China. Significant genotypic ...

  5. [Adsorption characteristics of f2 bacteriophages by four substrates in constructed wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Zheng, Xiang; Wei, Yuan-Song; Yang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Performance of f2 phages adsorption by four substrates including anthracite coal, steel slag, zeolite and forsterite was investigated through batch and dynamic experiments. Results of batch experiments showed that the removal efficiency of f2 phages by these four substrates was in the order of anthracite > steel slag > forsterite approximately zeolite. The adsorption of f2 phages by anthracite experienced fast, medium and slow stages, and the removal efficiency of f2 phages increased gradually with the increase of anthracite dosage, e. g. the optimized dosage of anthracite was 8.0 g at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:12.5 (m/V). The isothermal adsorption of all four substrates was described with Freundlich and Langmuir isothermal adsorption equation very well, and the adsorption of f2 phages by both anthracite and steel slag fitted pseudo-second order adsorption kinetics at their theoretical adsorption capacities of 3. 35 x 10(8) PFU.g-1 and 2.56 x 10(8) PFU.g-1, respectively, nearly the same as the equilibrium adsorption capacities obtained under the experiment conditions. And the liquid diffusion process was a rate-limiting step of the adsorption of f2 phage by both anthracite and steel slag, but not the only one. The results of dynamic adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption process of f2 phages in the three adsorption columns including anthracite, steel slag and zeolite experienced four stages of adaption, adsorption, pulse adsorption and adsorption equilibrium, and the total removal rates of f2 phages were more than 2. 55 Ig.

  6. 220D-F2 from Rubus ulmifolius kills Streptococcus pneumoniae planktonic cells and pneumococcal biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila J Talekar

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus forms organized biofilms to persist in the human nasopharynx. This persistence allows the pneumococcus to produce severe diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis that kill nearly a million children every year. While bacteremia and meningitis are mediated by planktonic pneumococci, biofilm structures are present during pneumonia and otitis media. The global emergence of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to most commonly prescribed antibiotics warrants further discovery of alternative therapeutics. The present study assessed the antimicrobial potential of a plant extract, 220D-F2, rich in ellagic acid, and ellagic acid derivatives, against S. pneumoniae planktonic cells and biofilm structures. Our studies first demonstrate that, when inoculated together with planktonic cultures, 220D-F2 inhibited the formation of pneumococcal biofilms in a dose-dependent manner. As measured by bacterial counts and a LIVE/DEAD bacterial viability assay, 100 and 200 µg/ml of 220D-F2 had significant bactericidal activity against pneumococcal planktonic cultures as early as 3 h post-inoculation. Quantitative MIC's, whether quantified by qPCR or dilution and plating, showed that 80 µg/ml of 220D-F2 completely eradicated overnight cultures of planktonic pneumococci, including antibiotic resistant strains. When preformed pneumococcal biofilms were challenged with 220D-F2, it significantly reduced the population of biofilms 3 h post-inoculation. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50 was obtained incubating biofilms with 100 µg/ml of 220D-F2 for 3 h and 6 h of incubation. 220D-F2 also significantly reduced the population of pneumococcal biofilms formed on human pharyngeal cells. Our results demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of 220D-F2 to both kill planktonic pneumococcal cells and disrupt pneumococcal biofilms.

  7. Defective lysis of streptomycin-resistant escherichia coli cells infected with bacteriophage f2.

    OpenAIRE

    De Mars Cody, J; Conway, T W

    1981-01-01

    A lysis defect was found to account for the failure of a streptomycin-resistant strain of Escherichia coli to form plaques when infected with the male-specific bacteriophage f2. The lysis defect was associated with the mutation to streptomycin resistance. Large amounts of apparently normal bacteriophage accumulated in these cells. Cell-free extracts from both the parental and mutant strains synthesized a potential lysis protein in considerable amounts in response to formaldehyde-treated f2 RN...

  8. First Measurement of the Photon Structure Function $F_{2},c^{\\gamma}$

    CERN Document Server

    Nisius, Richard

    2001-11-13

    The first measurement of F_2,c^gamma is presented. At low x the measurement indicates a non-zero hadron-like component to F_2,c^gamma. At large x the measurement constitutes a test of perturbative QCD at next-to-leading order, with only m_c and alpha_s as free parameters, with a precision of O(40%).

  9. Studies of genetics of yield and yield component characters in F2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... Three parents with three different durations were crossed in full diallel fashion. ... physical appearance of the grain like grain length, grain ... A similar trend was almost observed in the F2 and F3 populations of the cross. P2 x P3. The kurtosis value was less than three in F2's and F3's of all the six crosses ...

  10. Relating 2f1 −f2 distortion product otoacoustic emission and equivalent rectangular bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez, Rodrigo; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    To explore the extent of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) toward low frequencies we measured in 21 normal-hearing human subjects its dependence on the ratio between evoking stimulus frequencies, f1 and f2, at 2f1-f2 distortion frequencies 88, 176 and 264 Hz. The "optimal" ratio evo...... evoking the largest DPOAE level is frequency dependent but well-guided by 1.52 equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB)....

  11. A new global model for the ionospheric F2 peak height for radio wave propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Hoque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The F2-layer peak density height hmF2 is one of the most important ionospheric parameters characterizing HF propagation conditions. Therefore, the ability to model and predict the spatial and temporal variations of the peak electron density height is of great use for both ionospheric research and radio frequency planning and operation. For global hmF2 modelling we present a nonlinear model approach with 13 model coefficients and a few empirically fixed parameters. The model approach describes the temporal and spatial dependencies of hmF2 on global scale. For determining the 13 model coefficients, we apply this model approach to a large quantity of global hmF2 observational data obtained from GNSS radio occultation measurements onboard CHAMP, GRACE and COSMIC satellites and data from 69 worldwide ionosonde stations. We have found that the model fits to these input data with the same root mean squared (RMS and standard deviations of 10%. In comparison with the electron density NeQuick model, the proposed Neustrelitz global hmF2 model (Neustrelitz Peak Height Model – NPHM shows percentage RMS deviations of about 13% and 12% from the observational data during high and low solar activity conditions, respectively, whereas the corresponding deviations for the NeQuick model are found 18% and 16%, respectively.

  12. Statistical Models of F2 Slope in Relation to Severity of Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunjung; Weismer, Gary; Kent, Raymond D.; Duffy, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the distribution of second-formant (F2) slopes in a relatively large number of speakers with dysarthria associated with two different underlying diseases. Patients and Methods Forty speakers with dysarthria (20 with Parkinson's disease, PD; 20 with stroke) and 5 control speakers without a history of neurological disease were asked to repeat six words (coat, hail, sigh, shoot, row and wax) 10 times. Acoustic analysis was performed to derive F2 slope, and speech intelligibility data were collected using a direct magnitude estimate technique to examine its relationship to F2 slope. Results Statistical analysis revealed that both clinical groups showed significantly reduced F2 slopes compared to healthy speakers for all words but row. No group difference was found between speakers with PD and stroke; however, different words showed varying sensitivity to the speech motor control problems. The F2 slopes of only two words, shoot and wax, were significantly correlated with scaled speech intelligibility. Conclusion The findings support the idea that distributional characteristics of acoustic variables, such as F2 slope, could be used to develop a quantitative metric of severity of speech motor control deficits in dysarthria, when the materials are appropriately selected and additional distributional characteristics are studied. PMID:19864914

  13. Ordre local dans quelques verres fluores du systeme PbF 2 MIItF 2 MIIItF 3 par EXAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bail, A.; Jacoboni, C.; De Pape, R.

    1984-03-01

    The local environment of transition metal ( Mt) and lead has been studied by EXAFS for some fluoride glasses in the system PbF 2 MIItF 2 MIIItF 3 ( MIIt = Mn 2+, Zn 2+; MIIIt = Fe 3+, Ga 3+). Theoretical phase shifts and backscattering amplitude are used after testing with crystallized fluorides of various structures. Transition metals are sixfold coordinated and MtF distances are very close to those known in crystallized compounds. Lead has eight to nine fluorine neighbors forming a very distorted polyhedra. Radial distributions, partially corrected for phase shifts, show a very weak second peak but the second neighbors nature and the distances cannot be determined without ambiguity.

  14. On the application of CaF2:Eu and SrF2:Eu phosphors in LED based phototherapy lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, P. D.; Moharil, S. V.; Joshi, C. P.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years the interest of scientific community has been increased towards solid state lighting based on LEDs because of their superior advantages over the conventional fluorescent lamps. As the GaN based LEDs are easily available efforts of the researchers are now on making the new phosphors which are excitable in the near UV region (360-400nm) for solid state lighting. This paper reports the photoluminescence characteristics of CaF2:Eu and SrF2:Eu phosphor prepared by wet chemical method. The violet emission of these phosphors with near UV excitation can be useful in making a phototherapy lamp based on LEDs for treating various skin diseases like acne vulgaris and hyperbilirubinemia.

  15. Timing of solid food introduction is associated with urinary F2-isoprostane concentrations in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Brittni N; Seifert, Jennifer; Kroehl, Miranda; Lamb, Molly M; Milne, Ginger L; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M

    2015-10-01

    Timing of solid food introduction in infancy has been associated with several chronic diseases. To explore potential mechanisms, we investigated the relationship between timing of solid food introduction and F2-isoprostanes-a marker of oxidative stress. Urinary F2-isoprostanes were assessed in 336 healthy children aged less than 11.5 y with 1,266 clinic visits (mean = 3.8 visits per child) in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young. We analyzed the association between F2-isoprostane concentrations and infant diet exposures using linear mixed models adjusted for age, age(2), HLA-DR3/4,DQB1*0302 genotype, first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes, maternal age, maternal education, sex, and exposure to in utero cigarette smoke. Later solid food introduction was associated with lower F2-isoprostane concentrations in childhood (on average, 0.10 ng/mg per month of age at introduction; estimate: -0.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.18, -0.02) P value = 0.02). Moreover, childhood F2-isoprostane concentrations were, on average, 0.24 ng/mg lower in individuals breastfed at solid food introduction (estimate: -0.24 (95% CI: -0.47, -0.01) P value = 0.04) compared with those who were not. Associations remained significant after limiting analyses to F2-isoprostanes after 2 y of age. Our results suggest a long-term protective effect of later solid food introduction and breastfeeding at solid food introduction against increased F2-isoprostane concentrations throughout childhood.

  16. Colloidal synthesis of BaF2 nanoparticles and their application as fillers in polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Tuncer, Enis; More, Karren L.; Gu, Baohua; Sauers, Isidor; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2012-03-01

    Nanoparticles of pure and Eu-doped BaF2 have been prepared through sol-gel colloidal synthesis. In addition, BaF2-filled PMMA polymer nanocomposites were fabricated and dielectric properties were measured. The as-synthesized pure and Eu-doped BaF2 nanoparticles were analyzed by both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and consisted of crystalline BaF2 particles with an average diameter of 13.6 nm with a standard deviation of about ±2.4 nm. The photoluminescence properties of the pure and Eu-doped (2%, 4% and 8%) nanoparticles showed characteristic emission of Eu3+ (5D0→7F J ( J=1-4) transitions). We also measured significantly enhanced dielectric breakdown strength of up to 30% for BaF2 nanocomposites over the unfilled PMMA polymer. This study thus offers some promise of sol-gel synthesis of nanocomposite dielectrics with great potential for use as electrical insulation materials in cryogenic high-voltage applications.

  17. Colloidal synthesis of BaF2 nanoparticles and their application as fillers in polymer nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles of pure and Eu-doped BaF2 have been prepared through sol-gel colloidal synthesis. In addition, BaF2 filled PMMA polymer nanocomposites were fabricated and dielectric properties were measured. The as-synthesized pure and Eu-doped BaF2 nanoparticles were analyzed by both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and consisted of crystalline BaF2 particles with an average diameter of 13.6 nm with a standard deviation of about 2.4 nm. The photoluminescence properties of the pure and Eu-doped (2%, 4% and 8%) nanoparticles showed characteristic emission of Eu3+ (5D0 7FJ (J=1-4) transitions). We also measured significantly enhanced dielectric breakdown strength of up to 30% for BaF2 nanocomposites over the unfilled PMMA polymer. This study thus offers some promise of sol-gel synthesis of nanocomposite dielectrics with great potential for use as electrical insulation materials in cryogenic high voltage applications.

  18. Size Controlled CaF2 Nanocubes and Their Dosimetric Properties Using Photoluminescence Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa D. Alharbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new synthetic chemical coprecipitation route for the preparation of well-crystallized size controlled nano- and microcrystalline cubes of CaF2 is reported. Crystalline cubes in the range of 2 μm–20 nm could be synthesized and their sizes were controlled by varying the solvent : cosolvent ratio. The as-synthesized CaF2 nanocubes were characterized by different techniques. Photoluminescence (PL emission spectrum of CaF2 nanocrystalline powder showed strong emission band at 415 nm. Moreover, the effect of Eu as a dopant on the emission spectrum of CaF2 was investigated. This dopant was found to get incorporated in its Eu2+ and Eu3+ forms. The as-produced nanocubes were exposed to UV irradiation and the corresponding PL emission was studied. Excellent results are obtained, where CaF2:Eu nanocubes were found to be highly sensitive and might be suitable for esteeming the doses of UV irradiation using the PL technique.

  19. PPARγ ligands suppress the feedback loop between E2F2 and cyclin-E1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Yoko; Ito, Ichiaki; Wayama, Mitsutoshi; Fujimura, Akiko; Akaogi, Kensuke; Machida, Hikaru; Nakajima, Yuka; Kuroda, Takao; Ohmori, Kazuji; Murayama, Akiko; Kimura, Keiji; Yanagisawa, Junn

    2008-01-01

    PPARγ is a nuclear hormone receptor that plays a key role in the induction of peroxisome proliferation. A number of studies showed that PPARγ ligands suppress cell cycle progression; however, the mechanism remains to be determined. Here, we showed that PPARγ ligand troglitazone inhibited G1/S transition in colon cancer cells, LS174T. Troglitazone did not affect on either expression of CDK inhibitor (p18) or Wnt signaling pathway, indicating that these pathways were not involved in the troglitazone-dependent cell cycle arrest. GeneChip and RT-PCR analyses revealed that troglitazone decreased mRNA levels of cell cycle regulatory factors E2F2 and cyclin-E1 whose expression is activated by E2F2. Down-regulation of E2F2 by troglitazone results in decrease of cyclin-E1 transcription, which could inhibit phosphorylation of Rb protein, and consequently evoke the suppression of E2F2 transcriptional activity. Thus, we propose that troglitazone suppresses the feedback loop containing E2F2, cyclin-E1, and Rb protein

  20. Synthesis, characterization of CaF2doped silicate glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Mirza, Ambreen; Hussain, Tousif; Bashir, Farooq; Anjum, Safia

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of silicate glass-ceramics doped with (0-12mol%) CaF 2 . TGA-DSC analysis was carried out to determine the crystallization temperature and stability of glass measured by two glass parameters; Hruby parameter K H =(T x -T g )/(T L -T x ) and Weinberg parameter K W =(T c -T g )/T L . It was found that with CaF 2 doping improved sinterability at low temperature and provided stability to the glass. The XRD pattern exhibits a single phase of combeite and doping of CaF 2 cause increase in crystallite size. Microstructure of samples was also improved with CaF 2 addition, pores were significantly reduced. After 15days immersion in simulated body fluid all samples developed apatite layer onto its surface. Hence, the addition of CaF 2 provided bioactive glass-ceramic material having a low processing temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. F2 slope as a perceptual cue for the front-back contrast in Standard Southern British English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chládková, K.; Hamann, S.; Williams, D.; Hellmuth, S.

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic studies of several languages indicate that second-formant (F2) slopes in high vowels have opposing directions (independent of consonantal context): front [iː]-like vowels are produced with a rising F2 slope, whereas back [uː]-like vowels are produced with a falling F2 slope. The present

  2. 26 CFR 1.280F-2T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investment tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). 1.280F-2T Section 1.280F-2T Internal... TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.280F-2T Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). (a) Limitation on amount of investment tax credit—(1...

  3. Fitness consequences of reciprocally asymmetric hybridization between simultaneous hermaphrodites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwegweaw, Amporn; Seki, Keiichi; Utsuno, Hiroki; Asami, Takahiro

    2009-03-01

    Depending on fitness consequences, hybridization may rescue Inbred populations; generate premating barriers, reproductive Interference, or hybrid species; or extinguish a species. However, the fitness of hybrids is unpredictable without direct quantification of their performance in fitness components across multiple generations. The land snails Bradybaena pellucida and B. similaris, which are Indigenous and non-Indigenous in Japan, respectively, copulate with each other simultaneously and reciprocally. However, only B. pellucida produces hybrids, because it ends mating by removing the penis before transferring a spermatophore, while B. similaris Inseminates B. pellucida. To evaluate the strength of an Intrinsic postzygotic barrier against the hybrids produced by B. pellucida, we conducted breeding experiments in the laboratory and measured six life-history traits: (1) growth rate, (2) body weight at maturity, (3) number of days to first oviposition after being permitted to mate, (4) clutch size, (5) fecundity, and (6) hatchability. We also calculated the relative intrinsic fitness based on five of these trait values (excluding clutch size). F(1) hybrids exhibited heterosis in growth rate, body weight at maturity and relative intrinsic fitness. F(2) hybrids also showed heterosis in body weight at maturity. Nevertheless, the F(2) hybrids produced significantly fewer progeny than the mid-point value of the parental species. Thus, the F(2) hybrids exhibited weak out-breeding depression in reproduction, offsetting their vigor in body size. These results indicate that only a weak postzygotic barrier, contrasting with strong F(1) heterosis, has evolved during genetic divergence of the two sibling species in allopatry.

  4. Software data acquisition system for the ''Chateau de Cristal'' multicounter 74 BaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzama, G.

    1985-01-01

    The ''Chateau de Cristal'' is a 74 BaF2 detector assembly. Other detectors such as Ge (up to 12) and particle detectors can be added to this multidetector. The data acquisition system hardware and software are implemented in 3 VME crates. The operating system is handled by 68000 Motorola microprocessors. This work is dedicated to the initialization and control tasks of the multidetector. Handling of high voltage power supply for the 74 BaF2 detectors via a RS 232 C serial port, CAMAC initialization for the ADC 4300 Lecroy and DFC modules, data exchange between the 3 VME crates and automatic energy calibration for the BaF2 detectors. All the software is written in 68000 Motorola assembly language [fr

  5. Dipole orientation effects in rare-earth doped CdF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelletti, R.; Fermi, F.; Okuno, E.

    1974-01-01

    A number of experiences carried out by means of ITC technique in the temperature range 80-200K shows unequivocally that n.n. Rare Earth-Fluorine Insterstitial (RE-FI) dipole reorientation occurs in CdF 2 : Eu, resolving the puzzle of the lack of this kind of relaxation in trivalent ions doped CdF 2 . The activation energy for orientation (epsilon = 0,40 eV) and the preexponential factor (Tauo = 10 -12 s) are evaluated for the principal ITC peak (T(sub) M = 152.5K) discussed and compared with the analogous parameters in Eu doped Ca and Sr fluorides. Other ITC peaks at 168 and 186 K are also analyzed. A parallel study on CdF 2 : Gd shows that eletronic effects are not negligible and can mask dispolar relaxations. The difference between Eu and Gd is discussed

  6. Identification of θ(f2(1720)) as a tensor glueball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    The energy-momentum tensor matrix element for the tensor glueball is obtained from the tensor dominance model. Branching ratio of θ(f 2 (1720)) in J/ψ radiative decay is thus calculated which is in accord with the observed experimental branching ratio. The decay modes of θ(f 2 (1720)) and results from J/ψ→ γK bar K,ωK bar K, and φK bar K are taken as good indicators for flavor independence of the tensor meson Θ. Suppression of θ(f 2 (1720)) in γγ reaction and K - p → ΛK o s K o s are considered as evidence for the fact that there are no quarks in θ. From the combined theoretical and experimental studies, the authors conclude that θ is by far the best tensor glueball candidate

  7. Measurement of the electron structure function F2e at LEP energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abdallah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The hadronic part of the electron structure function F2e has been measured for the first time, using e+e− data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies of s=91.2–209.5 GeV. The data analysis is simpler than that of the measurement of the photon structure function. The electron structure function F2e data are compared to predictions of phenomenological models based on the photon structure function. It is shown that the contribution of large target photon virtualities is significant. The data presented can serve as a cross-check of the photon structure function F2γ analyses and help in refining existing parameterisations.

  8. ESR of Ag2+ ions in S2F2 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaripov, M.M.; Ulanov, V.A.; Falin, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data on investigation of bivalent silver ions in S 2 F 2 crystals are presented. Due to the investigation of the grown crystals it is determined that centres of univalent silver ore formed in SrF 2 during crystal growth. X-ray irradiation at room temperature results in the transition of these centres in bivalent staes. Investigation of temperature dependence of ESR spectra type has allowed to make the conclusion about the presence of Jahn-Teller dynamic effect. Analysis of experimental data allows to develop a model of the investigated paramagnetic complex in S 2 F 2 crystal where Ag 2* ion has coordination polyhedron in the form of eight F - ion cube distorted by C 3 3 axis

  9. Behavior of Parameters of Nighttime Electron Density Enhancements of the Ionospheric F2 Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovets, Artur; Gordienko, Galina

    2017-04-01

    There is known a wide class of disturbances of the F2-layer of the ionosphere, which are superimposed on the regular diurnal variations of the electron density. Different types of disturbances are characterized by different mechanisms of their generation. Traveling ionospheric disturbances appear to be the most characteristic features of the inhomogeneous structure of the ionosphere. Another type of ionospheric disturbances presents the nighttime electron density enhancements in the ionospheric F2- layer maximum (NmF2). This type of irregularities is described in numerous papers. There is a concept that, in spite of the various mechanisms of ionospheric disturbances generation a response of F2-layer parameters exhibits similar features associated with the upward lift and the simultaneous expansion of the layer and then its subsequent downward movement, including layer compression, which results in the formation of the electron density peak in the layer maximum at the moment of greatest compression. The aim of this study is a verification of this concept on the example of disturbances related with the nighttime electron density enhancements, and the definition of precise quantitative relationships between the variations of different F2-layer parameters for such disturbances. By using the data of the ionospheric vertical sounding in Almaty, (76° 55'E, 43°15'N) during 2001-2012, analysis of the behavior the F2-layer parameters during the night electron density enhancements was carried out within framework of a single concept of effects of various types of ionospheric plasma perturbations in variations of height and half-thickness of the F2-layer, accompanied by increasing and decreasing NmF2 at moments of maximum compression and expansion of the layer. For a quantitative analysis of the parameters of nighttime enhancements we have selected 20 nights characterized by low magnetic activity (Dst> - 50 nT) and evident manifestations of the nighttime electron density

  10. Variability study of foF2 for an equatorial station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniyi, J.O.; Radicella, S.M.; Adimula, I.A.

    1994-08-01

    The deviation of hourly values of foF 2 from the monthly median values was used to study the variability of foF 2 . The study was done for the period of high and low solar activity. Generally the range of variation of the deviation is not dependent on solar activity. There is a tendency for positive deviation to occur on magnetically disturbed days and for negative deviation to occur on quiet days. The magnitude of the deviation does not depend on whether the day is disturbed or quiet. The correlation between Ap index and deviation of foF 2 from the median value is generally poor. THe range of deviation at night is usually higher than that of the daytime for the period of high solar activity. Some seasonal effect were also observed on the deviation. (author). 4 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Inhibition of plant cell membrane transport phenomena induced by zearalenone (F-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, A; Macri, F

    1978-01-01

    Zearalenone (F-2), an estrogenic factor produced by a number of Fusarium spp., stimulates a leakage of electrolytes, β-cyanin and aminoacids from three plant tissues. F-2 inhibits rubidium uptake in roots of Zea mays L. and Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra. However the effect in the latter tissue is evident after long-term treatments with the toxin. Rubidium uptake is not affected in Solanum tuberosum L. var. Bintje. The toxin also causes inhibition of H(+) extrusion, of root elongation, of ATPase activity of plasmalemma-enriched fractions and depolarization of transmembrane potentials of corn roots. The evidence presented supports the hypothesis that F-2 affects plasma membranes of several plant species.

  12. Investigations on transgenerational epigenetic response down the male line in F2 pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Braunschweig

    Full Text Available We investigated the nutritional effects on carcass traits, gene expression and DNA methylation in a three generation Large White pig feeding experiment. A group of experimental (E F0 boars were fed a standard diet supplemented with high amounts of methylating micronutrients whereas a control group (C of F0 boars received a standard diet. These differentially fed F0 boars sired F1 boars which then sired 60 F2 pigs. Carcass traits were compared between 36 F2 descendants of E F0 boars and 24 F2 descendants of C F0 boars. The two F2 offspring groups differed with respect to backfat percentage (P = 0.03 and tended to differ with respect to adipose tissue (P = 0.09, fat thickness at the 10(th rib (P = 0.08 and at the croup (P = 0.09 as well as percentages of shoulder (P = 0.07. Offspring from the experimental F0 boars had a higher percentage of shoulder and were leaner compared to the control group. Gene expression profiles showed significant twofold differences in mRNA level between 8 C F2 offspring and 8 E F2 offspring for 79, 64 and 53 genes for muscle, liver and kidney RNA, respectively. We found that in liver and muscle respective pathways of lipid metabolism and metabolic pathway were over-represented for the differentially expressed genes between these groups. A DNA methylation analysis in promoters of differentially expressed genes indicated a significant difference in DNA methylation at the IYD gene. If these responses on carcass traits, gene expression and DNA methylation withstand verification and can indeed be attributed to transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, it would open up pioneering application in pork production and would have implications for human health.

  13. Development of F2 two-step fluorination process for non-aqueous reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    To establish the F 2 two-step fluorination for stable and high recoveries of plutonium, the fluorination process has been studied with the simulated fuel to a FBR containing UO 2 - PuO 2 and non-radioactive fission products in the 2''phi fluid-bed. The process principle was demonstrated and the effect of FPs on fluorination of U and Pu and the possibility of reducing the Pu loss could be clarified. The feasibility of separating PuF 6 from UF 6 onto UO 2 F 2 by adsorption, was also indicated. (auth.)

  14. The f2(1565) in pbar-p -> (omega-omega)pizero interactions at rest

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, C.A.; Batty, C.J.; Braune, K.; Bugg, D.V.; Cramer, O.; Crede, V.; Djaoshvili, N.; Dunnweber, W.; Faessler, M.A.; Hessey, N.P.; Hidas, P.; Hodd, C.; Jamnik, D.; Kilinowsky, H.; Kisiel, J.; Klempt, E.; Kolo, C.; Montanet, L.; Pick, B.; Roethel, W.; Sarantsev, A.; Scott, I.; Strassburger, C.; Thoma, U.; Volcker, C.; Wallis, S.; Walther, D.; Wittmack, K.; Zou, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    Data are presented on the reaction pbar-p -> omega-omega-pizero at rest from the Crystal Barrel detector. These data identify a strong signal due to f2(1565) -> omega-omega. The relative production from initial pbar-p states 3P2, 3P1 and 1S0 is well determined from omega-omega decay angular correlations; P-state annihilation dominates strongly. A combined fit is made with data on pbar-p -> 3pizero at rest, where f2(1565) -> pizero-pizero is observed.

  15. Determination of CaF2 in plaster muck in reaction furnace by EDTA volumetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shihou; Zhang Denglong

    1999-01-01

    CaSO 4 was converted into CaCO 3 after the sample and Na 2 CO 3 solution had been boiled. Then CaCO 3 was dissolved with addition of C 2 H 4 O 2 and separated from CaF 2 . the separated CaF 2 was dissolved into mixed solution of HCl-H 2 SO 4 -H 3 BO 4 and titrated with EDTA standard solution in the medium of pH>1.2

  16. [18F]-2-FDG as a tool for studying hexokinase kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, J.; Gysemans, M.

    1990-01-01

    In the basic research related to the development of radiolabelled glucose analogues or to sugar metabolism, the measurement of hexokinase kinetics is very important. The article of S. J. Gatley et al about the quality control of [ 18 F]-2-FDG preparations using the hexokinase reaction in vitro was the basic idea of the method proposed in this paper dealing with the direct measurement of hexokinase kinetics by the measurement of the activity related to [ 18 F]-2-FDG-6-phosphate. Experimental results indicate that the method is appropriate for hexokinase studies

  17. Annual and semiannual variations in the ionospheric F2-layer: II. Physical discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    Full Text Available The companion paper by Zou et al. shows that the annual and semiannual variations in the peak F2-layer electron density (NmF2 at midlatitudes can be reproduced by a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere computational model (CTIP, without recourse to external influences such as the solar wind, or waves and tides originating in the lower atmosphere. The present work discusses the physics in greater detail. It shows that noon NmF2 is closely related to the ambient atomic/molecular concentration ratio, and suggests that the variations of NmF2 with geographic and magnetic longitude are largely due to the geometry of the auroral ovals. It also concludes that electric fields play no important part in the dynamics of the midlatitude thermosphere. Our modelling leads to the following picture of the global three-dimensional thermospheric circulation which, as envisaged by Duncan, is the key to explaining the F2-layer variations. At solstice, the almost continuous solar input at high summer latitudes drives a prevailing summer-to-winter wind, with upwelling at low latitudes and throughout most of the summer hemisphere, and a zone of downwelling in the winter hemisphere, just equatorward of the auroral oval. These motions affect thermospheric composition more than do the alternating day/night (up-and-down motions at equinox. As a result, the thermosphere as a whole is more molecular at solstice than at equinox. Taken in conjunction with the well-known relation of F2-layer electron density to the atomic/molecular ratio in the neutral air, this explains the F2-layer semiannual effect in NmF2 that prevails at low and middle latitudes. At higher midlatitudes, the seasonal behaviour depends on the geographic latitude of the winter downwelling zone, though the effect of the composition changes is modified by the large solar zenith angle at midwinter. The zenith angle effect is especially important in longitudes far from the magnetic

  18. Annual and semiannual variations in the ionospheric F2-layer: II. Physical discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The companion paper by Zou et al. shows that the annual and semiannual variations in the peak F2-layer electron density (NmF2 at midlatitudes can be reproduced by a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere computational model (CTIP, without recourse to external influences such as the solar wind, or waves and tides originating in the lower atmosphere. The present work discusses the physics in greater detail. It shows that noon NmF2 is closely related to the ambient atomic/molecular concentration ratio, and suggests that the variations of NmF2 with geographic and magnetic longitude are largely due to the geometry of the auroral ovals. It also concludes that electric fields play no important part in the dynamics of the midlatitude thermosphere. Our modelling leads to the following picture of the global three-dimensional thermospheric circulation which, as envisaged by Duncan, is the key to explaining the F2-layer variations. At solstice, the almost continuous solar input at high summer latitudes drives a prevailing summer-to-winter wind, with upwelling at low latitudes and throughout most of the summer hemisphere, and a zone of downwelling in the winter hemisphere, just equatorward of the auroral oval. These motions affect thermospheric composition more than do the alternating day/night (up-and-down motions at equinox. As a result, the thermosphere as a whole is more molecular at solstice than at equinox. Taken in conjunction with the well-known relation of F2-layer electron density to the atomic/molecular ratio in the neutral air, this explains the F2-layer semiannual effect in NmF2 that prevails at low and middle latitudes. At higher midlatitudes, the seasonal behaviour depends on the geographic latitude of the winter downwelling zone, though the effect of the composition changes is modified by the large solar zenith angle at midwinter. The zenith angle effect is especially important in longitudes far from the magnetic poles. Here, the downwelling occurs

  19. Comparative QTL analysis of maize seed artificial aging between an immortalized F2 population and its corresponding RILs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed aging decreases the quality and vigor of crop seeds, thereby causing substantial agricultural and economic losses in crops. To identify genetic differences in seed aging between homozygotes and heterozygotes in maize, the seeds of a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs and an immortalized F2 (IF2 population were subjected to artificial aging treatments for 0, 2, 3, and 4 days under 45 ºC and 85% relative humidity and seed vigor was then evaluated in a field experiment. Seed vigor of all entries tested decreased sharply with longer aging treatment and seed vigor decreased more slowly in heterozygotes than in homozygotes. Forty-nine QTL were detected for four measured seed vigor traits in the RIL (28 QTL and IF2 (21 QTL populations. Only one QTL, qGP5, was detected in both populations, indicating that the genes involved in anti-aging mechanisms differed between inbred lines and hybrids. Several QTL were identified to be responsible for multiple seed vigor traits simultaneously in the RIL and IF2 populations under artificial aging conditions. These QTL may include major genes for seed vigor or seed aging. QTL qVI4b and qGE3a detected in the RIL population coincided with genes ZmLOX1 and ZmPLD1 in the same respective chromosomal regions. These QTL would be useful for screening for anti-aging genes in maize breeding.

  20. Membrane ion transport in erythrocytes of salt hypertensive Dahl rats and their F2 hybrids: the importance of cholesterol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokurková, Martina; Dobešová, Zdenka; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2003), s. 397-404 ISSN 0916-9636 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/1638; GA MŠk LN00A069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : ion transport * salt hypertension * plasma lipids Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.013, year: 2003

  1. Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Office, Title 10, U.S. Code ; Act of 5 May 1960. 3. 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review Report, February 2010, 8. 4. Hybrid Warfare, Global Accountability...Rise of Hybrid Wars.” Proceedings 132 (November 2005); William J. Nemeth , Future War and Chechnya: A Case for Hybrid War- fare (master’s thesis, U.S...William J. Nemeth which represents the earliest scholarly work on the subject, in which the emergence of devolved hybrid societies gives rise to hybrid

  2. Genetic control of resistance to Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyáš Síma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei brucei infects livestock, with severe effects in horses and dogs. Mouse strains differ greatly in susceptibility to this parasite. However, no genes controlling these differences were mapped.We studied the genetic control of survival after T. b. brucei infection using recombinant congenic (RC strains, which have a high mapping power. Each RC strain of BALB/c-c-STS/A (CcS/Dem series contains a different random subset of 12.5% genes from the parental "donor" strain STS/A and 87.5% genes from the "background" strain BALB/c. Although BALB/c and STS/A mice are similarly susceptible to T. b. brucei, the RC strain CcS-11 is more susceptible than either of them. We analyzed genetics of survival in T. b. brucei-infected F(2 hybrids between BALB/c and CcS-11. CcS-11 strain carries STS-derived segments on eight chromosomes. They were genotyped in the F(2 hybrid mice and their linkage with survival was tested by analysis of variance.We mapped four Tbbr (Trypanosoma brucei brucei response loci that influence survival after T. b. brucei infection. Tbbr1 (chromosome 3 and Tbbr2 (chromosome 12 have effects on survival independent of inter-genic interactions (main effects. Tbbr3 (chromosome 7 influences survival in interaction with Tbbr4 (chromosome 19. Tbbr2 is located on a segment 2.15 Mb short that contains only 26 genes.This study presents the first identification of chromosomal loci controlling susceptibility to T. b. brucei infection. While mapping in F(2 hybrids of inbred strains usually has a precision of 40-80 Mb, in RC strains we mapped Tbbr2 to a 2.15 Mb segment containing only 26 genes, which will enable an effective search for the candidate gene. Definition of susceptibility genes will improve the understanding of pathways and genetic diversity underlying the disease and may result in new strategies to overcome the active subversion of the immune system by T. b. brucei.

  3. The complexity of the CaF2:Yb system: evidence that CaF2:Yb2+ is not an impurity trapped exciton system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackeen, Cameron; Bridges, Frank; Kozina, Michael; Mehta, Apurva; Reid, M. F.; Wells, J.-P. R.; BarandiaráN, Zoila

    Fluorite crystal structures doped with rare-earth elements exhibit an anomalous redshifted luminescence upon UV excitation, generally attributed to the relaxation of impurity trapped excitons (ITE). We find that the intensity of this luminescence decreases as the total concentration of Yb 2+ increases in unexposed samples, which is in conflict with the currently accepted ITE model. Further, using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and UV-vis studies of CaF2:Yb, we find a large (but reversible) Yb valence reduction upon x-ray exposure at 200 K - from mostly 3+ to 2+. This valence reduction is stable for long time periods at low T < 50 K, but reverts to the initial state upon warming to 300 K. After reverting to the initial valence state of 3+ the anomalous luminescence does not reappear; only after annealing at 900 K do we again observe the anomalous emission below 150 K. To explore the mechanism at work, we employ extended x-ray fine-structure absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) to probe local structure and its role in the anomalous luminescence. The x-ray and emission studies show that CaF2:Yb is not described by the ITE model; the data appear more consistent with an intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) model. It is likely that many similar ITE systems have also been misidentified.

  4. Analysis of the Rare Decay $B_s \\rightarrow f_2' \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ with $f_2' \\rightarrow K^+ K^-$ Final State

    CERN Document Server

    Berninghoff, Daniel Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the project that I worked on during my time as a summer student at CERN in summer 2014: A search for the rare decay $B_s \\rightarrow f_2' \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ at the LHCb experiment has been performed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity $\\mathcal{L} = 3.0 \\text{ fb}^{-1}$. In the Standard Model (SM), this decay is highly suppressed as it proceeds via an electroweak penguin transition. New Physics (NP) effects can enter the loop and influence observables like the branching ratio $\\mathcal{B}$. A theoretical prediction of the branching ratio in the SM is given by $\\mathcal{B}_\\text{th}(B_s \\rightarrow f_2' \\mu^+ \\mu^-) = \\left( 1.8\\,^{+1.1}_{-0.7} \\right) \\cdot 10^{-7}$. We found $N_\\text{obs} = 17.2 \\pm 2.9$ signal candidates using a two dimensional mass fit which is in the same order of magnitude as the theoretical prediction $N_\\text{pred} = 15_{-7}^{+10}$. Though, further systematic effects in the analysis still have to be investigated before converting this into a reliable va...

  5. Effect of aging and radiation in mice of different genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storer, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Data are presented on the life span of nine inbred strains and five hybrid strains of mice based on 400 mice of each sex for inbred and 200 mice of each sex for hybrid. Some of these mice were exposed when 120 days old to 250 R or 450 R of x radiation delivered at a dose rate of 60 R/min. Data on strain, sample size, and mean survival times are presented in tables

  6. Role of MgF2 on properties of glass–ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Role of MgF2 on properties of glass–ceramics. M GHASEMZADEH. ∗ and A NEMATI†. Department of Materials Engineering, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran. †School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. MS received 13 August 2011; revised 28 November ...

  7. Luminescence Properties of CaF2 Nanostructure Activated by Different Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numan Salah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructures of calcium fluoride (CaF2 doped with Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu, and Ag were synthesized by the coprecipitation method and studied for their thermoluminescence (TL and photoluminescence (PL properties. The PL emission spectrum of pure CaF2 nanostructure has a broad band in the 370–550 nm range. Similar spectra were observed in case of doped samples, beside extra bands related to these impurities. The maximum PL intensity was observed in Eu doped sample. The TL results of Eu, Cu, Ag, and Tb doped samples show weak glow peaks below 125°C, whereas Dy doped one is found to be highly sensitive with a prominent peak at 165°C. This sample was further exposed to a wide range of gamma rays exposures from 137Cs source. The response curve is linear in the 100 Gy-10 kGy range. It is also observed that the particle size of CaF2 nanostructure was significantly reduced by increasing Dy concentration. These results showed that Dy is a proper activator in the host of CaF2 nanostructure, providing a highly sensitive dosimeter in a wide range of exposures and also plays a role as a controlling agent for particle size growth.

  8. Effect of Local Time on the F2 -Region Response to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1985-01-28

    The F2-region response to the storm of January 28, 1985, was investigated in this research using some ionospheric stations from East Asian and Euro-African sectors. The sectors were chosen because of their huge time difference, which enabled the proper identification of whether or not plasma is redistributed owing to ...

  9. Vibrational excitation resulting from electron capture in LUMO of F2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    resonance anionic Hamiltonian HAB- (AB=F2/HCl) is effected using Lanczos reduction technique followed by fast Fourier transform and the target (AB) vibrational eigenfunctions φνi (R) and φν f (R) are calculated using Fourier grid Hamiltonian method applied to potential energy (PE) curve of the neutral target. The result-.

  10. 17 CFR 270.17f-2 - Custody of investments by registered management investment company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custody of investments by....17f-2 Custody of investments by registered management investment company. (a) The securities and similar investments of a registered management investment company may be maintained in the custody of such...

  11. 17 CFR 240.17f-2 - Fingerprinting of securities industry personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fingerprinting of securities... Activities § 240.17f-2 Fingerprinting of securities industry personnel. (a) Exemptions for the fingerprinting... of investors. (b) Fingerprinting pursuant to other law. Every member of a national securities...

  12. Mapping of imprinted quantitative trait loci using immortalized F2 populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxian Wen

    Full Text Available Mapping of imprinted quantitative trait loci (iQTLs is helpful for understanding the effects of genomic imprinting on complex traits in animals and plants. At present, the experimental designs and corresponding statistical methods having been proposed for iQTL mapping are all based on temporary populations including F2 and BC1, which can be used only once and suffer some other shortcomings respectively. In this paper, we propose a framework for iQTL mapping, including methods of interval mapping (IM and composite interval mapping (CIM based on conventional low-density genetic maps and point mapping (PM and composite point mapping (CPM based on ultrahigh-density genetic maps, using an immortalized F2 (imF2 population generated by random crosses between recombinant inbred lines or doubled haploid lines. We demonstrate by simulations that imF2 populations are very desirable and the proposed statistical methods (especially CIM and CPM are very powerful for iQTL mapping, with which the imprinting effects as well as the additive and dominance effects of iQTLs can be unbiasedly estimated.

  13. Response of MEDEA BaF2 detectors to 20-280 MeV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellia, G.; Migneco, E.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Frascaria, N.; Lhenry, I.; Roynette, J.C.; Suomijaervi, T.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Gillibert, A.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Sida, J.L.; Silveira Gomes, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    The response function of MEDEA BaF 2 crystals to high energy photons, up to 280 MeV, has been studied using monochromatic γ-rays from the in flight annihilation of positron beams. The experimental response functions are compared to the results of Monte Carlo simulations based on the EGS3 code and parameterized over the whole investigated energy range. (orig.)

  14. A BaF2 crystal array for high energy-ray measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We shall discuss about the scientific motivation and construction of a 7 × 7 BaF2 crystal array at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. This detector would be used to measure high energy -ray photons from GDR decay and proton–neutron bremsstrahlung reactions at the present 88'' cyclotron and upcoming ...

  15. miR-27b inhibits gastric cancer metastasis by targeting NR2F2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhao Feng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Increasing attention is focused on the down-regulation of miRNAs in cancer process. Nuclear receptor subfamily 2 (NR2F2, also known as COUP-TFII is involved in the development of many types of cancers, but its role in gastric cancer remains elusive. In this experiment, oncomine and Kaplan-meier database revealed that NR2F2 was up-regulated in gastric cancer and that the high NR2F2 expression contributed to poor survival. MicroRNA-27b was targeted and down-regulated by NR2F2 in human gastric cancer tissues and cells. The ectopic expression of miR-27b inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Assays suggested that the overexpression of miR-27b could promote MGC-803 cells’ migration and invasion and retard their metastasis to the liver. In addition, down-regulation of miR-27b enhanced GES-1 cells’ proliferation and metastasis in vitro. These findings reveal that miR-27b is a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer and a biomarker for improving patients’ survival.

  16. Calcium flouride (CaF2) from oyster shell as a raw material for thermoluminescence dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coloma, Lyra C.; Fanuga, Lyn N.; Ocreto, Cherries Ann; Rodriguez, Richita

    2006-03-01

    This study aims to develop a thermoluminescence dosimeter raw material made of calcium fluoride from locally available seashells that is suitable for personal radiation monitoring. Oyster shells were collected and grounded as powder samples and analyzed for calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) content using XRF and XRD testing. Samples include pure CaF 2 , pure oyster shell, and oyster shells treated with acid. Based from the XRF results, natural oyster shell (w/ and w/o HNO 3 ) had high percentage of calcium about 49.64% and 47.45%, next to the pure calcium fluoride of 51.08%. X-ray diffractrogram shows that oyster sample had the nearest desired structure of CaF 2 compared with two seashells relative to the pure CaF 2 as standard materials. Results show that all of the natural oyster samples displayed TL emission glow curves at the temperature range 200-300 o C. It was also found that pure oyster sample has better TL response as compared to the treated ones. The researchers concluded that the calcium fluoride from oyster shells (without acid and heated) is a potentially good low-cost TLD raw material and may be used as an alternative for the much more expensive LiF dosimeters. (Authors)

  17. QTL analysis for early yield in a pseudo F2 population of cassava

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... Genetic mapping of early bulking in a full-sib population of cassava was continued in a selfed family of. 268 cassava plants derived from a single progeny of the full-sib population. The pseudo F2 population was analysed with 122 segregating SSR markers. A previously constructed linkage map of cassava.

  18. 3s2p inelastic x-ray scattering of CaF2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGroot, FMF

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the 3s2p inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) cross sections of CaF2 are analyzed using a ligand-field multiplet approach. All dipole matrix elements necessary for the IXS cross section are calculated and it is shown that interference effects are not negligible. The important possibility

  19. 3s2p inelastic x-ray scattering of CaF 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the 3s2p inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) cross sections of CaF 2 are analyzed using a ligand-field multiplet approach. All dipole matrix elements necessary for the IXS cross section are calculated and it is shown that interference effects are not negligible. The important

  20. Structure and transport properties of LiF-BeF 2 mixtures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 1. Structure and transport properties of LiF-BeF2 mixtures: Comparison of rigid and polarizable ion potentials. B Shadrack Jabes Manish Agarwal Charusita Chakravarty. Volume 124 Issue 1 January 2012 pp 261-269 ...

  1. Relationship between Kinematics, F2 Slope and Speech Intelligibility in Dysarthria Due to Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Panying; Loucks, Torrey; Kim, Heejin; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A multimodal approach combining acoustics, intelligibility ratings, articulography and surface electromyography was used to examine the characteristics of dysarthria due to cerebral palsy (CP). CV syllables were studied by obtaining the slope of F2 transition during the diphthong, tongue-jaw kinematics during the release of the onset consonant,…

  2. Genetic linkage mapping in an F2 perennial ryegrass population using DArT markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaszewski, Céline; Byrne, Stephen; Foito, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    T markers, and a DArT array has recently been developed for the Lolium-Festuca complex. In this study, we report the first use of the DArTFest array to generate a genetic linkage map based on 326 markers in a Lolium perenne F2 population, consisting of 325 genotypes. For proof of concept, the map was used...

  3. Protein-protein docking with F(2Dock 2.0 and GB-rerank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaul Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Computational simulation of protein-protein docking can expedite the process of molecular modeling and drug discovery. This paper reports on our new F(2 Dock protocol which improves the state of the art in initial stage rigid body exhaustive docking search, scoring and ranking by introducing improvements in the shape-complementarity and electrostatics affinity functions, a new knowledge-based interface propensity term with FFT formulation, a set of novel knowledge-based filters and finally a solvation energy (GBSA based reranking technique. Our algorithms are based on highly efficient data structures including the dynamic packing grids and octrees which significantly speed up the computations and also provide guaranteed bounds on approximation error.The improved affinity functions show superior performance compared to their traditional counterparts in finding correct docking poses at higher ranks. We found that the new filters and the GBSA based reranking individually and in combination significantly improve the accuracy of docking predictions with only minor increase in computation time. We compared F(2 Dock 2.0 with ZDock 3.0.2 and found improvements over it, specifically among 176 complexes in ZLab Benchmark 4.0, F(2 Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution as the top prediction for 22 complexes; where ZDock 3.0.2 does so for 13 complexes. F(2 Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution within the top 1000 predictions for 106 complexes as opposed to 104 complexes for ZDock 3.0.2. However, there are 17 and 15 complexes where F(2 Dock 2.0 finds a solution but ZDock 3.0.2 does not and vice versa; which indicates that the two docking protocols can also complement each other.The docking protocol has been implemented as a server with a graphical client (TexMol which allows the user to manage multiple docking jobs, and visualize the docked poses and interfaces. Both the server and client are available for download. Server: http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~bajaj/cvc/software/f

  4. Investigation of the conversion mechanism of nanosized CoF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Yin Ting; Pramana, Stevin S.; Ding, Junfeng; Wu, Tom; Yazami, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • First report on synthesis of nanosized cobalt fluoride via precipitation. • CoF x formation during recharging commences at the interface between cobalt and lithium fluoride. • Valance change of cobalt in cobalt fluoride electrode upon discharging and recharging is shown from EELS and XPS. • Lithiation of CoF 2 leads to formation of superparamagnetic nanosized cobalt particles. • Morphology of the conductive carbon addictives used plays a crucial factor in determining the capacity retention ability. -- Abstract: Nanoparticles (∼20 nm) of tetragonal (P42/mnm) cobalt fluoride (CoF 2 ) has been synthesized by precipitation using cobalt nitrate and ammonium fluoride solution at room temperature, followed by annealing at 400 °C under argon atmosphere. The morphology and structure have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical lithiation of CoF 2 and its structural and valence changes during conversion have been investigated. Electrochemical measurements revealed a discharge specific capacity close to theoretical specific capacity of 553 mAh g −1 and charge specific capacities ranging from 250 to 450 mAh g −1 in the first cycle, depending on the type of conductive carbon addictive used. Lithiation of CoF 2 occurs without any intercalation, but via conversion reaction CoF 2 + 2Li + + 2e − → Co(0) + 2LiF. During lithiation, CoF 2 is fully reduced to Co(0) and breaks down into smaller particles of ∼2 nm. Upon recharging, CoF x is formed instead of CoF 2 . XPS and EELS studies show that only the surface of the electrode is reconverted back to CoF x during recharging. In addition, recharging to form CoF x commences at the interface between the cobalt and lithium fluoride. These results offer the experimental evidence explaining the lack of cycle stability of metal fluorides that undergo a conversion reaction with lithium such

  5. Influenza A virus protein PB1-F2 exacerbates IFN-beta expression of human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goffic, Ronan; Bouguyon, Edwige; Chevalier, Christophe; Vidic, Jasmina; Da Costa, Bruno; Leymarie, Olivier; Bourdieu, Christiane; Decamps, Laure; Dhorne-Pollet, Sophie; Delmas, Bernard

    2010-10-15

    The PB1-F2 protein of the influenza A virus (IAV) contributes to viral pathogenesis by a mechanism that is not well understood. PB1-F2 was shown to modulate apoptosis and to be targeted by the CD8(+) T cell response. In this study, we examined the downstream effects of PB1-F2 protein during IAV infection by measuring expression of the cellular genes in response to infection with wild-type WSN/33 and PB1-F2 knockout viruses in human lung epithelial cells. Wild-type virus infection resulted in a significant induction of genes involved in innate immunity. Knocking out the PB1-F2 gene strongly decreased the magnitude of expression of cellular genes implicated in antiviral response and MHC class I Ag presentation, suggesting that PB1-F2 exacerbates innate immune response. Biological network analysis revealed the IFN pathway as a link between PB1-F2 and deregulated genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR and IFN-β gene reporter assay, we determined that PB1-F2 mediates an upregulation of IFN-β expression that is dependent on NF-κB but not on AP-1 and IFN regulatory factor-3 transcription factors. Recombinant viruses knocked out for the PB1-F2 and/or the nonstructural viral protein 1 (the viral antagonist of the IFN response) genes provide further evidence that PB1-F2 increases IFN-β expression and that nonstructural viral protein 1 strongly antagonizes the effect of PB1-F2 on the innate response. Finally, we compared the effect of PB1-F2 variants taken from several IAV strains on IFN-β expression and found that PB1-F2-mediated IFN-β induction is significantly influenced by its amino acid sequence, demonstrating its importance in the host cell response triggered by IAV infection.

  6. Sexual selection against natural hybrids may contribute to reinforcement in a house mouse hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, Yasmin; Perriat-Sanguinet, Marco; Caminade, Pierre; Boursot, Pierre; Smadja, Carole M; Ganem, Guila

    2014-02-07

    Sexual selection may hinder gene flow across contact zones when hybrid recognition signals are discriminated against. We tested this hypothesis in a unimodal hybrid zone between Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus where a pattern of reinforcement was described and lower hybrid fitness documented. We presented mice from the border of the hybrid zone with a choice between opposite sex urine from the same subspecies versus hybrids sampled in different locations across the zone. While no preference was evidenced in domesticus mice, musculus males discriminated in favour of musculus signals and against hybrid signals. Remarkably, the pattern of hybrid unattractiveness did not vary across the hybrid zone. Moreover, allopatric populations tested in the same conditions did not discriminate against hybrid signals, indicating character displacement for signal perception or preference. Finally, habituation-discrimination tests assessing similarities between signals pointed out that hybrid signals differed from the parental ones. Overall, our results suggest that perception of hybrids as unattractive has evolved in border populations of musculus after the secondary contact with domesticus. We discuss the mechanisms involved in hybrid unattractiveness, and the potential impact of asymmetric sexual selection on the hybrid zone dynamics and gene flow between the two subspecies.

  7. F2 slope as a Perceptual Cue for the Front-Back Contrast in Standard Southern British English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chládková, Kateřina; Hamann, Silke; Williams, Daniel; Hellmuth, Sam

    2017-09-01

    Acoustic studies of several languages indicate that second-formant (F2) slopes in high vowels have opposing directions (independent of consonantal context): front [iː]-like vowels are produced with a rising F2 slope, whereas back [uː]-like vowels are produced with a falling F2 slope. The present study first reports acoustic measurements that confirm this pattern for the English variety of Standard Southern British English (SSBE), where /uː/ has shifted from the back to the front area of the vowel space and is now realized with higher midpoint F2 values than several decades ago. Subsequently, we test whether the direction of F2 slope also serves as a reliable cue to the /iː/-/uː/ contrast in perception. The findings show that F2 slope direction is used as a cue (additional to midpoint formant values) to distinguish /iː/ from /uː/ by both young and older Standard Southern British English listeners: an otherwise ambiguous token is identified as /iː/ if it has a rising F2 slope and as /uː/ if it has a falling F2 slope. Furthermore, our results indicate that listeners generalize their reliance on F2 slope to other contrasts, namely /ɛ/-/ɒ/ and /æ/-/ɒ/, even though F2 slope is not employed to differentiate these vowels in production. This suggests that in Standard Southern British English, a rising F2 seems to be perceptually associated with an abstract feature such as [+front], whereas a falling F2 with an abstract feature such as [-front].

  8. F2-laser patterning of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M.Y.; Li, J.; Herman, P.R.; Lilge, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the controlled micromachining of 100 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates with a vacuum-ultraviolet 157 nm F 2 laser. Partial to complete film removal was observed over a wide fluence window from 0.49 J/cm 2 to an optimized single pulse fluence of 4.5 J/cm 2 for complete film removal. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis show little substrate or collateral damage by the laser pulse which conserved the stoichiometry, optical transparency and electrical conductivity of ITO coating adjacent to the trenches. At higher fluence, a parallel micron sized channel can be etched in the glass substrate. The high photon energy and top-hat beam homogenized optical system of the F 2 laser opens new means for direct structuring of electrodes and microchannels in biological microfluidic systems or in optoelectronics. (orig.)

  9. Response of the BaF2 scintillator to light charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Zoppo, A.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Bellia, G.; Migneco, E.; Peghaire, A.

    1993-01-01

    The response of a large BaF 2 scintillator crystal in terms of analog output and energy resolution dependence on the light charged particles kinetic energy in the 4-150 MeV/u range has been investigated. The occurrence of loss mechanisms in the kinetic energy to light yield conversion is observed. A model calculation, based on the electron-hole recombination to trapping competition and the occurrence of ionization quenching, gives results in very good agreement with the experimental data. The detector energy resolution is found to be consistent with the photoelectron statistics as the main contribution. A procedure for reproducible particle energy calibration, based on the cosmic muon energy deposition in the BaF 2 as reference is established. (orig.)

  10. Measurement of the photon structure function $F_{2}^{\\gamma}$ at low x

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Beeston, C.; Behnke, T.; Bell, A.N.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bloomer, J.E.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Bouwens, B.T.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davies, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Edwards, J.E.G.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Evans, H.G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D.G.; Foucher, M.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geddes, N.I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hart, P.A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ingram, M.R.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P.W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jones, G.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W.P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markus, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Muller, U.; Mihara, S.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Pearce, M.J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rees, D.L.; Rigby, D.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rooke, A.; Ros, E.; Rossi, A.M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D.R.; Rylko, R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schenk, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, Robert Wayne; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Utzat, P.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E.H.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilkens, B.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1997-01-01

    Deep inelastic electron-photon scattering is studied using e+e- data collected by the OPAL detector at centre-of-mass energies sqrt{s_ee} ~ M_{Z^0}. The photon structure function F_2^gamma(x,Q^2) is explored in a Q^2 range of 1.1 to 6.6 GeV/c^2 at lower x values than ever before. To probe this kinematic region events are selected with a beam electron scattered into one of the OPAL luminosity calorimeters at scattering angles between 27 and 55 mrad. A measurement is presented of the photon structure function F_2^gamma(x,Q^2) at = 1.86 GeV^2 and 3.76 GeV^2 in five logarithmic x bins from 0.0025 to 0.2.

  11. The Electrical Properties of Tb-Doped CaF2 Nanoparticles under High Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingjing Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The high-pressure transport behavior of CaF2 nanoparticles with 3 mol% Tb concentrations was studied by alternate-current impedance measurement. All of the electrical parameters vary abnormally at approximately 10.76 GPa, corresponding to the fluorite-cotunnite structural transition. The substitution of Ca2+ by Tb3+ leads to deformation in the lattice, and finally lowers the transition pressure. The F− ions diffusion, electronic transport, and charge-discharge process become more difficult with the rising pressure. In the electronic transport process, defects at grains play a dominant role. The charge carriers include both F− ions and electrons, and electrons are dominant in the transport process. The Tb doping improves the pressure effect on the transport behavior of CaF2 nanocrystals.

  12. Immunological comparison of basic encephalitogen and histone F2A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustin, M.; Teitelbaum, D.; Webb, C.

    1975-01-01

    The extent of immunological cross-reaction between basic encephalitogen and histone F2A1 on both the humoral antibody level and on the cellular level has been established. The extent of humoral cross-reaction was tested by direct complement fixation employing both anti-histone F2A1 and antisera to basic encephalitogen, by inhibition of complement fixation, by radioimmunoassay and by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. The data obtained failed to reveal immunological cross-reaction between the proteins on the humoral antibody level. The extent of cross-reaction at the cellular level was tested by the lymphocyte stimulation technique in rabbits and guinea pigs, by inhibition of lymphocyte stimulation and by delayed hypersensitivity skin reactions. It is concluded that the immunological studies provide limited evidence that the two proteins share antigenic determinants. (orig./GSE) [de

  13. Measurement of the photon structure function F2γ and jet production at TRISTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, K.; Hayashii, H.; Noguchi, S.; Fujiwara, N.; Abe, K.; Abe, T.; Adachi, I.; Aoki, M.; Aoki, M.; Awa, S.; Belusevic, R.; Emi, K.; Enomoto, R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, K.; Fujii, T.; Fujimoto, J.; Fujita, K.; Howell, B.; Iida, N.; Ikeda, H.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Kajikawa, R.; Kaneyuki, K.; Kato, S.; Kawabata, S.; Kichimi, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Koltick, D.; Levine, I.; Minami, S.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyamoto, A.; Nagai, K.; Nagira, T.; Nakano, E.; Nakabayashi, K.; Nitoh, O.; Ochiai, F.; Ohnishi, Y.; Okuno, H.; Okusawa, T.; Shimozawa, K.; Shinohara, T.; Sugiyama, A.; Sugiyama, N.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, T.; Takemoto, M.; Tanimori, T.; Tauchi, T.; Teramae, F.; Teramoto, Y.; Toomi, N.; Toyama, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Uno, S.; Watanabe, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Topaz Collaboration

    1994-07-01

    We have measured the photon structure function F2γ in the reaction e+e- → e+e- hadrons for average Q2 values from 5.1 to 338 GeV 2 by using data collected by the TOPAZ detector at TRISTAN. The data have been corrected for detector effects and are compared with theoretical expectations based on QCD. The structure function F2γ increases as ln Q2, as expected. A sample of events with one or two distinct jets has been identified in the final state. Although two-jet events can be explained solely by the point-like perturbative part, one-jet events require a significant hadron-like part in addition.

  14. Selective cell culture on UV transparent polymer by F2 laser surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Yasutaka; Sugioka, Koji; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Tsuchimoto, Takayoshi; Miyamoto, Iwao; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2009-01-01

    A microchip made of UV transparent polymer (CYTOP) that can perform selective cell culture has been fabricated by F 2 laser surface modification. The refractive index of CYTOP is almost the same as that of culture medium, which is essential for three-dimensional (3D) observation of cells. The F 2 laser modification of CYTOP achieves hydrophilicity only on the laser irradiated area with little deterioration of the optical properties and surface smoothness. After the laser modification, HeLa cells were successfully cultured and strongly adhered only on the modified area of CYTOP. The cells patterned on CYTOP were applied for clear 3D observation using an optical microscope in phase contrast mode.

  15. Activation of antitumor immune responses by Ganoderma formosanum polysaccharides in tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Li; Lu, Chiu-Ying; Hsueh, Ying-Chao; Liu, Wen-Hsiung; Chen, Chun-Jen

    2014-11-01

    Fungi of the genus Ganoderma are basidiomycetes that have been used as traditional medicine in Asia and have been shown to exhibit various pharmacological activities. We recently found that PS-F2, a polysaccharide fraction purified from the submerged culture broth of Ganoderma formosanum, stimulates the maturation of dendritic cells and primes a T helper 1 (Th1)-polarized adaptive immune response in vivo. In this study, we investigated whether the immune adjuvant function of PS-F2 can stimulate antitumor immune responses in tumor-bearing mice. Continuous intraperitoneal or oral administration of PS-F2 effectively suppressed the growth of colon 26 (C26) adenocarcinoma, B16 melanoma, and sarcoma 180 (S180) tumor cells in mice without adverse effects on the animals' health. PS-F2 did not cause direct cytotoxicity on tumor cells, and it lost the antitumor effect in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and serum from PS-F2-treated tumor-bearing mice all exhibited antitumor activities when adoptively transferred to naïve animals, indicating that PS-F2 treatment stimulates tumor-specific cellular and humoral immune responses. These data demonstrate that continuous administration of G. formosanum polysaccharide PS-F2 can activate host immune responses against ongoing tumor growth, suggesting that PS-F2 can potentially be developed into a preventive/therapeutic agent for cancer immunotherapy.

  16. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption of uranium ions diluted in CdF2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, J.J.C.R.

    1976-08-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been studied in conection with the optical absortion spectra of Uranium ions diluted in CdF 2 single crystals. Analyses of the EPR and optical absorption spectra obtained experimentally, and a comparison with known results in the isomorfic CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 , allowed the identification of two paramagnetic centers associated with Uranium ions. These are the U(2+) ion in cubic symmetry having the triplet γ 5 as ground state, and the U(3+) ion in cubic symmetry having the dublet γ 6 as ground state. (Author) [pt

  17. Variation of hmF2 and NmF2 deduced from DPS-4 over Multan (Pakistan) and their comparisons with IRI-2012 & IRI-2016 during the deep solar minimum between cycles 23 & 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Muhammad Ayyaz; Khursheed, Haqqa; Jabbar, Mehak Abdul; Ali, Muneeza Salman; Chishtie, Farrukh

    2018-04-01

    We report the results of ionospheric measurements from DPS-4 installed at Multan (Geog coord. 30.18°N, 71.48°E, dip 47.4°). The variations in F2-layer maximum electron density NmF2 and its peak height hmF2 are studied during the deep solar minimum between cycles 23 & 24 i.e 2008-2009 with comparisons conducted with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) versions 2012 & 2016. We find that the hmF2 observations peak around the pre-sunrise and sunrise hours depending on the month. Seasonally, the daytime variation of NmF2 is higher in the Equinox and Summer, while daytime hmF2 are slightly higher in the Equinox and Winter. High values of hmF2 around midnight are caused by an increase of upward drifts produced by meridional winds. The ionosphere over Multan, which lies at the verge of low and mid latitude, is affected by both E × B drifts and thermospheric winds as evident from mid-night peaks and near-sunrise dips in hmF2. The results of the comparison of the observed NmF2 and hmF2 for the year 2008-2009 with the IRI-2012 (both NmF2 and hmF2) and IRI-2016 (only hmF2) estimates indicate that for NmF2, IRI-2012 with Consultative Committee International Radio (CCIR) option produces values in better agreement with observed data. Whereas, for hmF2, IRI-2016 with both International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and CCIR SHU-2015 options, predicts well for nighttime hours throughout the year. However, the IRI-2012 with CCIR option produces better agreement with data during daytime hours. Furthermore, IRI-2012 with CCIR option gives better results during Equinox months, whereas, IRI-2016 with both URSI and CCIR SHU-2015 options predict well for Winter and Summer.

  18. New perspectives for undoped CaF2 scintillator as a threshold activation neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibczynski, Pawel; Dziedzic, Andrzej; Grodzicki, Krystian; Iwanowska-Hanke, Joanna; Moszyński, Marek; Swiderski, Lukasz; Syntfeld-Każuch, Agnieszka; Wolski, Dariusz; Carrel, Frédérick; Grabowski, Amélie; Hamel, Matthieu; Laine, Frederic; Sari, Adrien; Iovene, Alessandro; Tintori, Carlo; Fontana, Cristiano; Pino, Felix

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present the prompt photofission neutron detection performance of undoped CaF2 scintillator using Threshold Activation Detection (TAD). The study is carried out in the frame of C-BORD Horizon 2020 project, during which an efficient toolbox for high volume freight non-intrusive inspection (NII) is under development. Technologies for radiation monitoring are the part of the project. Particularly, detection of various radiological threats on country borders plays an important significant role in Homeland Security applications. Detection of illegal transfer of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) - 235U, 233U and 239Pu - is particular due to the potential use for production of nuclear weapon as well as radiological dispersal device (RDD) V known also as a "dirty bomb". This technique relies on activation of 19F nuclei in the scintillator medium by fast neutrons and registration of high-energy β particles and γ-rays from the decay of reaction products. The radiation from SNM is detected after irradiation in order to avoid detector blinding. Despite the low 19F(n,α)16N or 19F(n,p)19O reaction cross-section, the method could be a good solution for detection of shielded nuclear material. Results obtained with the CaF2 detector were compared with the previous study done for BaF2 and 3He detector. These experimental results were obtained using 252Cf source and 9 MeV Varian Linatron M9 linear accelerator (LINAC). Finally, performance of the prompt neutron detection system based on CaF2 will be validated at Rotterdam Seaport during field trails in 2018.

  19. Determination of fluoride content in UO2F2 and ADUF solution by ion selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Papu; Kumar, Pradeep; Bagchi, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    During production of uranium metal powder, liquid solution UO 2 F 2 and ADUF containing high content of fluoride gets generated. Fluoride being corrosive in nature, fluorides concentration needs to determined. Ion selective electrode, LaF 3 (Eu) crystal, has been used. Uranium was found to interfere with fluoride analysis. Study was carried out to selectively remove uranium by solvent extraction employing D2EHPA+Cyanex 923 and TBP in dodecane. The TBP was found effective to remove uranium. (author)

  20. Effet antihypertensif de BpF2, une fraction d\\'extrait aqueux de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ces effets ressemblent à ceux bien connus de l\\'acétylcholine (ACh). Toutefois, alors que l\\'atropine inhibe totalement l\\'hypotension induite par l\\'ACh, elle ne reverse que partiellement l\\'hypotension provoquée par BpF2. Ces résultats suggèrent fortement la présence de deux types de principes actifs dans cette fraction ...

  1. Temporal and spatial deviation in F2 peak parameters derived from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, R. P.; Tan, Eng Leong; Singh, A. K.; Ghodpage, R. N.; Siingh, Devendraa

    2016-06-01

    The plasma frequency profiles derived from the Constellation of Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) radio occultation measurements are compared with ground-based ionosonde data during the year 2013. Equatorial and midlatitude five stations located in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere are considered: Jicamarca, Jeju, Darwin, Learmonth, and Juliusruh. The aim is to validate the COSMIC-derived data with ground-based measurements and to estimate the difference in plasma frequency (which represents electron density) and height of F2 layer peak during the daytime/nighttime and during different seasons by comparing the two data sets. Analysis showed that the nighttime data are better correlated than the daytime, and the maximum difference occurs at the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA) station as compared to lower and midlatitude stations during the equinox months. The difference between daytime and nighttime correlations becomes insignificant at midlatitude stations. The statistical analysis of computed errors in foF2 (hmF2) showed Gaussian nature with the most probable error range of ±15% (±10%) at the equatorial and EIA stations, ±9% (±7%) outside the EIA region which reduced to ±8% (±6%) at midlatitude stations. The reduction in error at midlatitudes is attributed to the decrease in latitudinal electron density gradients. Comparing the analyzed data during the three geomagnetic storms and quiet days of the same months, it is observed that the differences are significantly enhanced during storm periods and the magnitude of difference in foF2 increases with the intensity of geomagnetic storm.

  2. Scientific and regulatory standards for assessing product performance using the similarity factor, f2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ruth E; Gray, Vivian; Dorantes, Angelica; Gold, Lynn; Pham, Loan

    2015-03-01

    The similarity factor, f2, measures the sameness of dissolution profiles. The following commentary is an overview of discussions and presentations from a group of industry and US regulatory experts that have integrated the science and regulatory research and practice for assessing product performance, particularly for modified-release (MR) dosage forms, using f2. For a drug development sponsor or applicant with an orally complex dosage formulation, it is critical to understand dissolution methods and the similarity factor and how and/or when to apply it in their NDA, ANDA, or PMA submission. As part of any regulatory submission, it is critical to justify that the product performance has not been impacted by any change in the manufacturing process and/or the delayed and/or prolonged drug release characteristics compared to a similar conventional or another orally complex dosage form. The purposes of this document are (1) to provide a description of appropriate dissolution methods, how is the f2 calculated and how it can be used to justify product performance similarity, or not; (2) to provide an overview of alternative methods available for dissolution profile comparisons, and (3) to illustrate how applying these concepts in a focused way supports approval of submissions and regulatory dossiers and aligns them with on-going science and regulatory initiatives. A case study will be used as an example to demonstrate how dissolution testing and the f2 calculation results can impact regulatory outcomes from an NDA (505(b)(1)), NDA (505(b)(2)), ANDA (505(j)), supplemental NDAs/ANDAs, or PMA perspective.

  3. Time delays in the correlation between solar activity and the F2 region plasma frequency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Třísková, Ludmila; Truhlík, Vladimír; Podolská, Kateřina

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 73, 5-6 (2011), s. 623-626 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/2086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : F2 region ionosphere * Solar activity * Time series Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.596, year : 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682610004128

  4. Composition dependence of electrical properties of ZnF2–MO–TeO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dielectric constant ('), loss (tan ), a.c. conductivity () of ZnF2–MO–TeO2 glasses with varying concentrations of MO (P2O5, As2O3 and Bi2O3) were measured as a function of frequency and temperature over moderately wide ranges. From the analysis of these studies along with IR spectra and DTA results of these ...

  5. New perspectives for undoped CaF2 scintillator as a threshold activation neutron detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibczynski Pawel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the prompt photofission neutron detection performance of undoped CaF2 scintillator using Threshold Activation Detection (TAD. The study is carried out in the frame of C-BORD Horizon 2020 project, during which an efficient toolbox for high volume freight non-intrusive inspection (NII is under development. Technologies for radiation monitoring are the part of the project. Particularly, detection of various radiological threats on country borders plays an important significant role in Homeland Security applications. Detection of illegal transfer of Special Nuclear Material (SNM - 235U, 233U and 239Pu - is particular due to the potential use for production of nuclear weapon as well as radiological dispersal device (RDD V known also as a “dirty bomb”. This technique relies on activation of 19F nuclei in the scintillator medium by fast neutrons and registration of high-energy β particles and γ-rays from the decay of reaction products. The radiation from SNM is detected after irradiation in order to avoid detector blinding. Despite the low 19F(n,α16N or 19F(n,p19O reaction cross-section, the method could be a good solution for detection of shielded nuclear material. Results obtained with the CaF2 detector were compared with the previous study done for BaF2 and 3He detector. These experimental results were obtained using 252Cf source and 9 MeV Varian Linatron M9 linear accelerator (LINAC. Finally, performance of the prompt neutron detection system based on CaF2 will be validated at Rotterdam Seaport during field trails in 2018.

  6. New perspectives for undoped CaF2 scintillator as a threshold activation neutron detector

    OpenAIRE

    Sibczynski Pawel; Dziedzic Andrzej; Grodzicki Krystian; Iwanowska-Hanke Joanna; Moszyński Marek; Swiderski Lukasz; Syntfeld-Każuch Agnieszka; Wolski Dariusz; Carrel Frédérick; Grabowski Amélie; Hamel Matthieu; Laine Frederic; Sari Adrien; Iovene Alessandro; Tintori Carlo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present the prompt photofission neutron detection performance of undoped CaF2 scintillator using Threshold Activation Detection (TAD). The study is carried out in the frame of C-BORD Horizon 2020 project, during which an efficient toolbox for high volume freight non-intrusive inspection (NII) is under development. Technologies for radiation monitoring are the part of the project. Particularly, detection of various radiological threats on country borders plays an important sig...

  7. Pharmacological effects of a synthetic quinoline, a hybrid of tomoxiprole and naproxen, against acute pain and inflammation in mice: a behavioral and docking study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In the present study, we investigated the potential anti-nociceptive activity and acute anti-inflammatory effect of a synthetic quinoline compound (2-(4-Methoxyphenylbenzo[h]quinoline-4-carboxylic acid, QC, possessing structural elements of both naproxen and tomoxiprole drugs. Materials and Methods: The anti-nociceptive activity of QC was evaluated using chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models and its acute anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by xylene-induced ear edema test in mice. Results: QC displayed a dose dependent effect in both acute anti-nociceptive tests (writhing and hot plate. This compound at dose of 6.562 mg/kg showed a high anti-nociceptive effect near equal to  diclofenac 5 mg/kg. It also showed high anti-inflammatory effects (less than 6.562 mg/kg comparable to those of reference drugs diclofenac (5 mg/kg and celecoxib (100 mg/kg. Docking study showed that this quinoline derivative could inhibit COX-2 enzyme strongly. Conclusion: QC showed high anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects comparable to reference drugs and can exert its anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities through COX-2 inhibition.

  8. Genetic injury in hybrid male mice exposed to low doses of /sup 60/CO. gamma. -rays or fission neutrons. 1. Response to single doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, D.; Carnes, B.A.; Farrington, B.H.; Lee, C.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1984-11-01

    Young adult male B6CF/sub 1/ mice were exposed to single whole body doses of fission neutrons or /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays. Postspermatogonial dominant lethal injury, incidence of reciprocal chromosome translocations induced in spermatogonia, incidence of abnormal epididymal sperm 4-6 weeks after exposure, and testis weight loss 3-6 weeks after exposure were all measured. Significant effects were seen at 1 and 2.5 rad of neutrons consistent with extrapolation from higher doses, with the exception of dominant lethal mutations, which occurred in significant excess of expectation. Dose-response functions were linear or linear-quadratic, depending upon end point, radiation quality, and dose range. For translocation frequencies, the D/sup 2/ term was negative for neutron and positive for ..gamma..-ray irradiations. RBE values varied with dose and end point. For testis weight loss and abnormal sperm over the full dose range, the RBEs were between 5 and 6. They were between 7 and 9 at lower doses (< 10 rad) for translocations. RBEs for postimplantation and total dominant lethal rates were 5-6 above 10 rad and 10-14 below 10 rad. The RBEs for preimplant losses were between 15 and 25 above 10 rad and possibly higher below 10 rad, although the data are statistically 'noisy'.

  9. Exploring the Association of Surface Plasmon Resonance with Recombinant MHC:Ig Hybrid Protein as a Tool for Detecting T Lymphocytes in Mice Infected with Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenilton Silva da Silveira-Júnior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A surface plasmon resonance- (SPR- based recognition method applying H-2 Ld:Ig/peptides complexes for ex vivo monitoring cellular immune responses during murine infection with Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis is described. Lymphocytes from lesion-draining popliteal lymph nodes were captured on a carboxylated sensor chip surface previously functionalized with H-2 Ld:Ig (DimerX protein bound to synthetic peptides derived from the COOH-terminal region of cysteine proteinase B of L. (L. amazonensis. In computational analysis, these peptides presented values of kinetic constants favorable to form complexes with H-2 Ld at neutral pH, with a Gibbs free energy ΔG°<0. The assayed DimerX:peptide complexes presented the property of attaching to distinct T lymphocytes subsets, obtained from experimentally infected BALB/c mice, in each week of infection, thus indicating a temporal variation in specific T lymphocytes populations, each directed to a different COOH-terminal region-derived peptide. The experimental design proposed herein is an innovative approach for cellular immunology studies of a neglected disease, providing a useful tool for the analysis of specific T lymphocytes subsets.

  10. Prototype of Field Waveform Digitizer for BaF2 Detector Array at CSNS-WNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Cao, Ping; Zhang, Deliang; Qi, Xincheng; Yu, Tao; Jiang, Di; He, Bing; Zhang, Yaxi; An, Qi

    2017-07-01

    At the China spallation neutron source-white neutron sources (CSNS-WNS), the BaF2 (barium fluoride) detector array in planning is designed for neutron capture cross section measurements with high accuracy and efficiency. Once proton beam collides with the spallation target, the neutrons will fly from the target to specimen surrounded by BaF2 array and produce cascaded γ rays eventually. The time of flight (TOF) corresponds to the neutron energy. To identify γ signals from the high α-particle background, pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique is usually used according to the ratio of fast to slow component in the signal. Waveform digitization is a valid supporting technology for PSD. In order to precisely obtain the wave and time information carried by detector signal, and to maximally cover the signal dynamic range, a universal digitizer with 1 GSps sampling rate and 12-b resolution has been designed based on a 3U PXIe platform in this paper. Besides waveform digitization, this customized digitizer also measures TOF precisely based on the digitized waveform data and technique of time-to-digital converting on field-programming gate array. Test results show that this digitizer can achieve good static and dynamic performance. The specification of effective number of bits is better than 9.43 b within 198 MHz. Digitizer proposed in this paper can meet the requirements for BaF2 spectrum at CSNS-WNS.

  11. Frictional Heating of Ions In The F2-region of The Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhizhko, G. O.; Vlasov, V. G.

    Auroral electron beams unstable on the Cherenkov resonance are stabilized by large- scale inhomogeneity of the plasma density during all their way from the acceleration region to the E-region of the ionosphere. The generation of plasma waves by beam is possible only in the region of small plasma density gradients, that always is the area of the F2-region maximum. Thus, collective dissipation of the electron beam energy occurs in the local region with the length about several tens of kilometers. This leads to the intensive heating of the electrons(up to temperatures about 10000 K) and will give origin to the ion upflows with velocity about 1 km/s and density about 109 cm-2 s-1. These flows can result in the ion frictional heating. At the same time ion temperatures reach the values about 5000 K. A numerical simulation of the ion frictional heating in the presence of collective elec- tron heating in the high-latitude F2-region of the ionosphere was performed. The sim- ulation has shown that the most critical parameter for the occurence of the ion fric- tional heating was the the steepness of the plasma density profile above the F2-region maximum.

  12. Ion conductivities of ZrF4-BaF2-CsF glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yoji; Nohara, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The glass-forming region in the ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -CsF glass system has been determined and the ac conductivity and the transport number of fluoride ions have been measured. The conductivities of compounds β-Cs 2 ZrF 6 , α-SrZrF 6 , α-BaZrF 6 , β-BaZrF 6 and α-PbZrF 6 have also been measured. These results and a previous study of ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -MF n (M: the groups I-IV metals) glasses revealed the following: (1) the ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -CsF glasses are exclusively fluoride-ion conductors; (2) the ionic conductivities of ZrF 4 -based glasses are predominantly determined by the activation energies for conduction; (3) the activation energy for conduction decreases with an increase in the average polarizability of glass-constituting cations; (4) a decrease in average Zr-F bond length and a lowering of the average F coordination number of Zr are presumed to increase the activation energy for conduction. Principles of developing ZrF 4 -based glasses with higher conductivities have also been proposed. (Auth.)

  13. Evaluation Software for BaF2 Detector Array Electronics at CSNS-WNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaxi; Cao, Ping; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Deliang; He, Bing; Qi, Xincheng; An, Qi

    2017-06-01

    The “in programming barium fluoride (BaF2) detector array” is one of the experiment facilities at China Spallation Neutron Source-White Neutron Sources, which is designed for the measurement of neutron capture cross section with high accuracy. It consists of 92 crystal elements with completely 4π solid-angle coverage, which needs 92 analog channels and 92 digitization channels for data acquisition. Accordingly, the readout electronics is comprised with four distributed readout PXIe crates, containing 46 field digitization modules (FDMs). Each FDM supports two valid channels for signal digitizing. In this paper, evaluation software is designed for evaluating the performance of BaF2 readout electronics. It focuses on evaluating the performance of data transmission, waveform digitizing, and working status monitoring. Test results show that the evaluation software can correctly acquire and assemble data from the BaF2 readout system and evaluate the analog digital converter (ADC) performance under ADC test mode. FDMs in the readout system can also be monitored and controlled by this software in real time.

  14. The investigation on electrochemical reaction mechanism of CuF2 thin film with lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Yanhua; Xue Mingzhe; Zhou Yongning; Peng Shuming; Wang Xiaolin; Fu Zhengwen

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline CuF 2 thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition under room temperature. The physical and electrochemical properties of the as-deposited thin films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Reversible capacity of 544 mAh g -1 was achieved in the potential range of 1.0-4.0 V. A reversible couple of redox peaks at 3.0 V and 3.7 V was firstly observed. By using ex situ XRD and TEM techniques, an insertion process followed by a fully conversion reaction to Cu and LiF was revealed in the lithium electrochemical reaction of CuF 2 thin film electrode. The reversible insertion reaction above 2.8 V could provide a capacity of about 125 mAh g -1 , which makes CuF 2 a potential cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  15. Scintillation and optical stimulated luminescence of Ce-doped CaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Watanabe, Kenichi; Fukuda, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Miyamoto, Yuka; Nanto, Hidehito

    2014-01-01

    Scintillation and optical stimulated luminescence of Ce 0.1–20% doped CaF 2 crystals prepared by Tokuyama Corp. were investigated. In X-ray induced scintillation spectra, luminescence due to Ce 3+ 5d–4f transition appeared around 320 nm with typically 40 ns decay time. By 241 Am 5.5 MeV α-ray irradiation, 0.1% doped one showed the highest scintillation light yield and the light yield monotonically decreased with Ce concentrations. Optically stimulated luminescence after X-ray irradiation was observed around 320 nm under 550 or 830 nm stimulation in all samples. As a result, intensities of optically stimulated luminescence were proportional to Ce concentrations. Consequently, scintillation and optically stimulated luminescence resulted to have a complementary relation in Ce-doped CaF 2 system. - Highlights: • Optical, scintillation, and OSL properties of Ce 0.1–20% doped CaF 2 were studied. • Scintillation light yield exhibited inverse proportionality to Ce concentrations. • OSL intensities showed proportionality to Ce concentrations. • Complementary relation of scintillation and OSL was experimentally confirmed

  16. Upgrading CCIR's fo F 2 maps using available ionosondes and genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gularte, Erika; Carpintero, Daniel D.; Jaen, Juliana

    2018-04-01

    We have developed a new approach towards a new database of the ionospheric parameter fo F 2 . This parameter, being the frequency of the maximum of the ionospheric electronic density profile and its main modeller, is of great interest not only in atmospheric studies but also in the realm of radio propagation. The current databases, generated by CCIR (Committee Consultative for Ionospheric Radiowave propagation) and URSI (International Union of Radio Science), and used by the IRI (International Reference Ionosphere) model, are based on Fourier expansions and have been built in the 60s from the available ionosondes at that time. The main goal of this work is to upgrade the databases by using new available ionosonde data. To this end we used the IRI diurnal/spherical expansions to represent the fo F 2 variability, and computed its coefficients by means of a genetic algorithm (GA). In order to test the performance of the proposed methodology, we applied it to the South American region with data obtained by RAPEAS (Red Argentina para el Estudio de la Atmósfera Superior, i.e. Argentine Network for the Study of the Upper Atmosphere) during the years 1958-2009. The new GA coefficients provide a global better fit of the IRI model to the observed fo F 2 than the CCIR coefficients. Since the same formulae and the same number of coefficients were used, the overall integrity of IRI's typical ionospheric feature representation was preserved. The best improvements with respect to CCIR are obtained at low solar activities, at large (in absolute value) modip latitudes, and at night-time. The new method is flexible in the sense that can be applied either globally or regionally. It is also very easy to recompute the coefficients when new data is available. The computation of a third set of coefficients corresponding to days of medium solar activity in order to avoid the interpolation between low and high activities is suggested. The same procedure as for fo F 2 can be perfomed to

  17. Some AFLP amplicons are highly conserved DNA sequences mapping to the same linkage groups in two F2 populations of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP is a fast and reliable tool to generate a large number of DNA markers. In two unrelated F2 populations of carrot (Daucus carota L., Brasilia x HCM and B493 x QAL (wild carrot, it was hypothesized that DNA 1 digested with the same restriction endonuclease enzymes and amplified with the same primer combination and 2 sharing the same position in polyacrylamide gels should be conserved sequences. To test this hypothesis AFLP fragments from polyacrylamide gels were eluted, reamplified, separated in agarose gels, purified, cloned and sequenced. Among thirty-one paired fragments from each F2 population, twenty-six had identity greater than 91% and five presented identity of 24% to 44%. Among the twenty-six conserved AFLPs only one mapped to different linkage groups in the two populations while four of the five less-conserved bands mapped to different linkage groups. Of eight SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions primers tested, one conserved AFLP resulted in co-dominant markers in both populations. Screening among 14 carrot inbreds or cultivars with three AFLP-SCAR primers revealed clear and polymorphic PCR products, with similar molecular sizes on agarose gels. The development of co-dominant markers based on conserved AFLP fragments will be useful to detect seed mixtures among hybrids, to improve and to merge linkage maps and to study diversity and phylogenetic relationships.

  18. Prefrontal and agranular cingulate projections to the dorsal premotor areas F2 and F7 in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppino, Giuseppe; Rozzi, Stefano; Calzavara, Roberta; Matelli, Massimo

    2003-02-01

    The superior sector of Brodmann area 6 (dorsal premotor cortex, PMd) of the macaque monkey consists of a rostral and a caudal architectonic area referred to as F7 and F2, respectively. The aim of this study was to define the origin of prefrontal and agranular cingulate afferents to F7 and F2, in the light of functional and hodological evidence showing that these areas do not appear to be functionally homogeneous. Different sectors of F7 and F2 were injected with neural tracers in seven monkeys and the retrograde labelling was qualitatively and quantitatively analysed. The dorsorostral part of F7 (supplementary eye field, F7-SEF) was found to be a target of strong afferents from the frontal eye field (FEF), from the dorsolateral prefrontal regions located dorsally (DLPFd) and ventrally (DLPFv) to the principal sulcus and from cingulate areas 24a, 24b and 24c. In contrast, the remaining part of F7 (F7-non SEF) is only a target of the strong afferents from DLPFd. Finally, the ventrorostral part of F2 (F2vr), but not the F2 sector located around the superior precentral dimple (F2d), receives a minor, but significant, input from DLPFd and a relatively strong input from the cingulate gyrus (areas 24a and 24b) and area 24d. Present data provide strong hodological support in favour of the idea that areas F7 and F2 are formed by two functionally distinct sectors.

  19. Effect of preionization, fluorine concentration, and current density on the discharge uniformity in F2 excimer laser gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathew, D.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Boller, Klaus J.; Peters, P.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The discharge homogeneity in F2-based excimer laser gas mixtures and its dependence on various key parameters, such as the degree of preionization, preionization delay time, F2 concentration and current density, is investigated in a small x-ray preionized discharge chamber. The spatial and temporal

  20. Elastic properties of Na2 O–ZnO–ZnF2 –B2 O3 oxyfluoride glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Elastic properties of Na2O–ZnO–ZnF2–B2O3 oxyfluoride glasses with different ZnF2 concentra- tions have been investigated using ultrasonic velocity measurements at room temperature, at a frequency of. 10 MHz. Glasses prepared by melt quenching method were suitably polished for the ultrasonic velocity ...

  1. A Theoretical Framework for Association Studies in F2 Family Pools Using Allele Frequencies from Genotyping-By-Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janss, Luc L; Ashraf, Bilal H; Greve-Pedersen, Morten

    a sequencing approach to obtain Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) frequencies is considered here. In this work we develop the theoretical framework to perform association studies using allele frequencies from such F2 family pools. We show that expected allele frequencies in the F2 families will have...

  2. Elastic properties of Na2 O–ZnO–ZnF2–B2 O3 oxyfluoride glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... is typical to covalent bonded network. The variation of D with ZnF2 indicates complex behaviour of the glass network. The results have been analysed in view of the modified borate glass network. Addition of ZnF2 into the pure glass seems to influence the borate network by replacement of B–O–B linkages with B–O–Zn.

  3. Restored PB1-F2 into the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus has minimal effects in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    PB1-F2 is an 87-90 amino acid long protein expressed by certain influenza A viruses. Previous studies have shown that PB1-F2 contributes to virulence in the mouse model; however, its role in natural hosts - pigs, humans, or birds - remains largely unknown. Outbreaks of domestic pigs infected with th...

  4. Gas phase UV and IR absorption spectra of CxF2x+1CHO (x=1-4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashikawa, Y; Kawasaki, M; Waterland, RL

    2004-01-01

    The UV and IR spectra of CxF2x+1 CHO (x = 1-4) were investigated using computational and experimental techniques. CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1-4) have broad UV absorption features centered at 300-310 nm. The maximum absorption cross-section increases significantly and shifts slightly to the red with increas...

  5. Hexafluoridophosphate partial hydrolysis leading to the one-dimensional coordination polymer [{Cu(xantphos)(µ-PO2F2)}n

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, S.; Brunner, F.; Prescimone, A.; Constable, E. C.; Housecroft, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    The one-dimensional coordination polymer [{Cu(xantphos)(μ-PO2F2)}n] (xantphos = 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-9,9-dimethylxanthene) is reported, the first extended structure in which copper(I) centres are linked by μ-PO2F2 units.

  6. Interfacial chemical bonding state and band alignment of CaF2/hydrogen-terminated diamond heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Cheng, S. H.; Imura, M.; Koide, Y.

    2013-01-01

    CaF 2 films are deposited on hydrogen-terminated diamond (H-diamond) by a radio-frequency sputter-deposition technique at room temperature. Interfacial chemical bonding state and band alignment of CaF 2 /H-diamond heterojunction are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is confirmed that there are only C-Ca bonds at the CaF 2 /H-diamond heterointerface. Valence and conductance band offsets of the CaF 2 /H-diamond heterojunciton are determined to be 3.7 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.2 eV, respectively. It shows a type I straddling band configuration. The large valence band offset suggests advantage of the CaF 2 /H-diamond heterojunciton for the development of high power and high frequency field effect transistors.

  7. Old Yellow Enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi Exhibits In Vivo Prostaglandin F2α Synthase Activity and Has a Key Role in Parasite Infection and Drug Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Díaz-Viraqué

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery that trypanosomatids, unicellular organisms of the order Kinetoplastida, are capable of synthesizing prostaglandins raised questions about the role of these molecules during parasitic infections. Multiple studies indicate that prostaglandins could be related to the infection processes and pathogenesis in trypanosomatids. This work aimed to unveil the role of the prostaglandin F2α synthase TcOYE in the establishment of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, the causative agent of Chagas disease. This chronic disease affects several million people in Latin America causing high morbidity and mortality. Here, we propose a prokaryotic evolutionary origin for TcOYE, and then we used in vitro and in vivo experiments to show that T. cruzi prostaglandin F2α synthase plays an important role in modulating the infection process. TcOYE overexpressing parasites were less able to complete the infective cycle in cell culture infections and increased cardiac tissue parasitic load in infected mice. Additionally, parasites overexpressing the enzyme increased PGF2α synthesis from arachidonic acid. Finally, an increase in benznidazole and nifurtimox susceptibility in TcOYE overexpressing parasites showed its participation in activating the currently anti-chagasic drugs, which added to its observed ability to confer resistance to hydrogen peroxide, highlights the relevance of this enzyme in multiple events including host–parasite interaction.

  8. Tunability of laser based on Yb-doped hot-pressed CaF2 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, Jan; Doroshenko, Maxim E.; Jelínková, Helena; Basiev, Tasoltan T.; Konyushkin, Vasilii A.; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.

    2012-06-01

    The aim of presented study was an investigation of tunability of diode pumped laser based on hot-pressed Yb:CaF2 ceramics. The tested Yb:CaF2 sample was in the form of 3.5mm thick plane-parallel face-polished plate (without AR coatings). The Yb3+ concentration was 5.5 %. A fiber (core diameter 200 μm, NA= 0.22) coupled laser diode (LIMO, HLU25F200-980) with emission at wavelength 976 nm, was used for longitudinal Yb:CaF2 pumping. The laser diode was operating in the pulsed regime (4 ms pulse length, 20 Hz repetition rate). The duty-cycle 8% ensured a low thermal load even under the maximum diode pumping power amplitude 10W (crystal sample was only air-cooled). This radiation was focused into the crystal (pumping beam waist diameter ~ 170 μm). The 145mm long semi-hemispherical laser resonator consisted of a flat pumping mirror (HR @ 1.01 - 1.09 μm, HT @ 0.97 μm) and curved (r = 150mm) output coupler with a reflectivity of ~ 98% @ 1.01 - 1.09 μm. Tuning of the ytterbium laser was accomplished by using a birefringent filter (single 1.5mm thick quartz plate) placed inside the optical resonator at the Brewster angle between the output coupler and the laser active medium. The extremely broad and smooth tuning was obtained. The laser was continuously tunable over ~ 66nm (from 1015nm to 1081 nm) and the tuning band was mostly limited by free spectral range of used birefringent filter. The tunability FWHM was 40 nm corresponding bandwidth 10 THz results in Fourier limited gaussian pulse width ~ 40 fs (FWHM). The maximum output power amplitude 0.68W was obtained at wavelength 1054nm for absorbed pump power amplitude 6W. The laser slope efficiency was 15%.

  9. Discovery of a magnetic field in the δ Scuti F2m star ρ Pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.; Sikora, J.

    2017-06-01

    ρ Pup is a δ Scuti F2 pulsator, known to host a main radial mode as well as non-radial pulsations, with chemical peculiarities typical of evolved Am stars. We present a high-precision spectropolarimetric observations of this star, obtained with ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in the frame of the BRITE spectropolarimetric survey. A magnetic field is clearly detected in ρ Pup, with a longitudinal field strength below 1 G. This makes ρ Pup the second known magnetic δ Scuti discovered, after HD 188774, and a possible cool evolved counterpart of the recently discovered ultraweakly magnetic Am family.

  10. High-reflectance 193 nm Al2O3/MgF2 mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Shuzhen; Shao Jianda; Liao Chunyan; Yi Kui; Fan Zhengxiu; Chen Lei

    2005-01-01

    Thin-film single layers of Al 2 O 3 and MgF 2 were deposited upon super polished fused-silica by electron-beam evaporation. The subsequent optical constants n and k were reported for the spectral range of 180-230 nm. High-reflectance dense multilayer coatings for 193 nm were designed on the basis of the evaluated optical constants and produced. The spectra of the reflectance of HR coatings were compared to the theoretical calculations. HR mirrors of 27 layers with a reflectance of more than 98% were reported

  11. Pseudoscalar decay constants from N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farchioni, Federico [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl; Nube, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Petschlies, Marcus [Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Urbach, Carsten [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics

    2010-12-15

    We present first results for the pseudoscalar decay constants f{sub K}, f{sub D} and f{sub D{sub S}} from lattice QCD with N{sub f} = 2 + 1 + 1 flavours of dynamical quarks. The lattice simulations have been performed by the European Twisted Mass collaboration (ETMC) using maximally twisted mass quarks. For the pseudoscalar decay constants we follow a mixed action approach by using so called Osterwalder-Seiler fermions in the valence sector for strange and charm quarks. The data for two values of the lattice spacing and several values of the up/down quark mass is analysed using chiral perturbation theory. (orig.)

  12. Annual variations of dayside F2 layer parameters in the region of the geomagnetic equator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshchinskaya, T.Yu.; Mikhajlov, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Annual variations of height hm, electron concentration nsub(e)(h) of the F2 equatorial layer in American and Indian sections are considered. Variations of atomic oxygen the concentration of which in the period of December solstice is higher than that in the period of June solstice at all the phases of the cycle of solar activity are shown to be the main reason for excess of January hsub(m) and nsub(e)sup(m) values over the July ones (irespective of the hemisphere). Variations of the profile width reflect season fluctuations of atmospheric temperature

  13. Glass formation in RbF-BeF2-ErF3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetnikova, L.P.; Topshinoev, A.P.; Zakharova, B.S.; Sipachev, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    IR spectroscopic method (200-2000 cm -1 ) is used to study the glass structure in RbF-BeF 2 -ErF 3 system. It is shown that with increase of erbium fluoride content in fluoroberyllate glasses the absorption bands characteristic of (BeF 3 ) n n- groupings, appear in spectra. DTA and X-ray diffraction analysis of the glass annealing products are used to study the glass crystallization process. It is stated that erbium fluoride introduction into the glass results in increase of crystallization stability. The glass structure model is suggested

  14. Nucleon form factors and couplings with N_{f}=2+1 Wilson fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukanovic, D.; Harris, T.; von Hippel, G.; Junnarkar, P.; Meyer, H. B.; Wittig, H.

    We present updated results on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors and axial coupling calculated using CLS ensembles with $N_\\mathrm{f}=2+1$ dynamical flavours of Wilson fermions. The measurements are performed on large, fine lattices with a pseudoscalar mass reaching down to 200 MeV. The truncated-solver method is employed to reduce the variance of the measurements. Estimation of the matrix elements is challenging due to large contamination from excited states and further investigation is necessary to bring these effects under control.

  15. Modeling ionospheric foF2 by using empirical orthogonal function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, A.; Zhang, D.-H.; Xiao, Z.; Hao, Y.-Q.; Ridley, A. J.; Moldwin, M.

    2011-08-01

    A similar-parameters interpolation method and an empirical orthogonal function analysis are used to construct empirical models for the ionospheric foF2 by using the observational data from three ground-based ionosonde stations in Japan which are Wakkanai (Geographic 45.4° N, 141.7° E), Kokubunji (Geographic 35.7° N, 140.1° E) and Yamagawa (Geographic 31.2° N, 130.6° E) during the years of 1971-1987. The impact of different drivers towards ionospheric foF2 can be well indicated by choosing appropriate proxies. It is shown that the missing data of original foF2 can be optimal refilled using similar-parameters method. The characteristics of base functions and associated coefficients of EOF model are analyzed. The diurnal variation of base functions can reflect the essential nature of ionospheric foF2 while the coefficients represent the long-term alteration tendency. The 1st order EOF coefficient A1 can reflect the feature of the components with solar cycle variation. A1 also contains an evident semi-annual variation component as well as a relatively weak annual fluctuation component. Both of which are not so obvious as the solar cycle variation. The 2nd order coefficient A2 contains mainly annual variation components. The 3rd order coefficient A3 and 4th order coefficient A4 contain both annual and semi-annual variation components. The seasonal variation, solar rotation oscillation and the small-scale irregularities are also included in the 4th order coefficient A4. The amplitude range and developing tendency of all these coefficients depend on the level of solar activity and geomagnetic activity. The reliability and validity of EOF model are verified by comparison with observational data and with International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). The agreement between observations and EOF model is quite well, indicating that the EOF model can reflect the major changes and the temporal distribution characteristics of the mid-latitude ionosphere of the Sea of Japan

  16. Microwave, High-Resolution Infrared, and Quantum Chemical Investigations of CHBrF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Cludi, Lino; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    analysis by high-level quantum chemical calculations at the coupled-cluster level. In this context, the importance of relativistic effects, which are of the order of 6.5% and included in the present work using second-order direct perturbation theory, needs to be emphasized for accurate predictions...... of the bromine quadrupole-coupling constants. The infrared measurements focused on the v(4) fundamental band of (CHBrF2)-Br-79. Fourier transform investigations using a synchrotron radiation source provided the necessary resolution for the observation and analysis of the rotational structure. The spectroscopic...

  17. IMPURITY CENTRES.Ni+ and Ni3+ centers in X-irradiated CaF2

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, J.; Den Hartog, H.; Alcalá, R.

    1980-01-01

    Optical and EPR measurements of CaF2 : Ni before and after X-irradiation are reported. An absorption band at 255 nm grows during X-irradiation. The thermal evolution of this band and some bleaching experiments in 15 K X-irradiated samples containing Vk centers indicate that the 255 nm band is due to Ni+ centers. Some EPR signals associated with the Ni+ centers are also observed. Low temperature measurements show that there are two slightly different kinds of centers one of them having tetrago...

  18. Measurement of the photon structure function F2 gamma with the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Jin, B.N.; Jindal, P.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosemann, C.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.

    2005-01-01

    The e+e- -> e+e- hadrons reaction, where one of the two electrons is detected in a low polar-angle calorimeter, is analysed in order to measure the hadronic photon structure function F2gamma . The full high-energy and high-luminosity data set, collected with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies 189-209GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 608/pb is used. The Q^2 range 11-34GeV^2 and the x range 0.006-0.556 are considered. The data are compared with recent parton density functions.

  19. Electrical properties and scaling behaviour of Sm doped CaF2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The electrical properties for 20Bi2O3–60B2O3 (20−x)–CaF2–xSm2O3 glasses (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) were measured in the temperature range 297 K up to 629 K and in the frequency range 0·1–100 kHz. The d.c. and a.c. conduc- tivity values and the dielectric loss (tan δ) values were found to increase with increasing ...

  20. Electrochemistry of uranium in molten LiF-CaF2

    OpenAIRE

    Nourry, Christophe; Soucek, Pavel; Massot, Laurent; Malmbeck, Rikard; Chamelot, Pierre; Glatz, Jean-Paul

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This article is focused on the electrochemical behaviour of U ions in molten LiF-CaF2 (79-21 wt.%) eutectic. On aWelectrode, U(III) is reduced in one step to U metal and U(III) can be also oxidised to U(IV). Both systems were studied by cyclic and square wave voltammetry. Reversibility of both systems for both techniques was verified and number of exchanged electrons was determined, as well as diffusion coefficients for U(III) and U(IV). The results are in a good agree...

  1. Measurement of the Low-x Behaviour of the Photon Structure Function $F2-\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Ainsley, C.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauke, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schmitt, S.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tarem, S.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Ward, J.J.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    2000-01-01

    The photon structure function F2-gamma(x,Q**2) has been measured using data taken by the OPAL detector at centre-of-mass energies of 91Gev, 183Gev and 189Gev, in Q**2 ranges of 1.5 to 30.0 GeV**2 (LEP1), and 7.0 to 30.0 GeV**2 (LEP2), probing lower values of x than ever before. Since previous OPAL analyses, new Monte Carlo models and new methods, such as multi-variable unfolding, have been introduced, reducing significantly the model dependent systematic errors in the measurement.

  2. Genetic incompatibility dampens hybrid fertility more than hybrid viability: yeast as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibo Xu

    Full Text Available Genetic incompatibility is believed to be the major cause of postzygotic reproductive isolation. Despite huge efforts seeking for speciation-related incompatibilities in the past several decades, a general understanding of how genetic incompatibility evolves in affecting hybrid fitness is not available, primarily due to the fact that the number of known incompatibilities is small. Instead of further mapping specific incompatible genes, in this paper we aimed to know the overall effects of incompatibility on fertility and viability, the two aspects of fitness, by examining 89 gametes produced by yeast S. cerevisiae-S. paradoxus F1 hybrids. Homozygous F2 hybrids formed by autodiploidization of F1 gametes were subject to tests for growth rate and sporulation efficiency. We observed much stronger defects in sporulation than in clonal growth for every single F2 hybrid strain, indicating that genetic incompatibility affects hybrid fertility more than hybrid viability in yeast. We related this finding in part to the fast-evolving nature of meiosis-related genes, and proposed that the generally low expression levels of these genes might be a cause of the observation.

  3. Size distribution of BaF2 nanocrystallites in transparent glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocker, Christian; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Hoeche, Thomas; Ruessel, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In glasses with the composition 1.9 Na 2 O-15 K 2 O-7.5 Al 2 O 3 -69.6 SiO 2 -6 BaF 2 (in mol.%), BaF 2 nanocrystalline precipitates are formed upon heat treatment. Using dark-field and bright-field transmission electron micrographs, crystallite size distributions are obtained for samples crystallized at various temperatures. According to the 'tomato-salad problem', the size distributions are corrected and then compared to various theories of grain growth taking into account coarsening of the crystallites during heat treatment. The experimental crystallite size distributions show for smaller mean crystallite sizes a more symmetric shape in comparison to the theories of Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) or Brailsford and Wynblatt (B and W). With increasing mean crystallite sizes to about 18 nm at higher heat-treatment temperatures, the full width at half maximum of the observed distributions decreases and becomes even narrower than the LSW function. These findings indicate that in the investigated nano glass ceramics no coarsening by Ostwald ripening or coalescence occurs. This is explained by the formation of a diffusion barrier around each nanocrystallite which limits the size of the crystallites and hence results in such a narrow and uniform crystallite size distribution.

  4. Defective lysis of streptomycin-resistant escherichia coli cells infected with bacteriophage f2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mars Cody, J; Conway, T W

    1981-01-01

    A lysis defect was found to account for the failure of a streptomycin-resistant strain of Escherichia coli to form plaques when infected with the male-specific bacteriophage f2. The lysis defect was associated with the mutation to streptomycin resistance. Large amounts of apparently normal bacteriophage accumulated in these cells. Cell-free extracts from both the parental and mutant strains synthesized a potential lysis protein in considerable amounts in response to formaldehyde-treated f2 RNA but not in response to untreated RNA. As predicted from the nucleotide sequence of the analogous MS2 phage, the protein synthesized in vitro had the expected molecular weight and lacked glycine. The cistron for the lysis protein overlapped portions of the coat and replicase cistrons and was translated in the +1 reading frame. Initiation at the lysis protein cistron may be favored by translation errors that expose the normally masked initiation site, and streptomycin-resistant ribosomes, known to have more faithful translation properties, may be unable to efficiently synthesize the lysis protein. Images PMID:6783768

  5. Dynamic XRD, Shock and Static Compression of CaF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Patricia; Specht, Paul; Root, Seth; Sinclair, Nicholas; Schuman, Adam; White, Melanie; Cornelius, Andrew; Smith, Jesse; Sinogeikin, Stanislav

    2017-06-01

    The high-pressure behavior of CaF2 is probed with x-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with both dynamic compression, using a two-stage light gas gun, and static compression, using diamond anvil cells. We use XRD to follow the unfolding of a shock-driven, fluorite to cotunnite phase transition, on the timescale of nanoseconds. The dynamic behavior of CaF2 under shock loading is contrasted with that under static compression. This work leverages experimental capabilities at the Advanced Photon Source: dynamic XRD and shock experiments at the Dynamic Compression Sector, as well as XRD and static compression in diamond anvil cell at the High-Pressure Collaborative Access Team. These experiments and cross-platform comparisons, open the door to an unprecedented understanding of equations of state and phase transitions at the microstructural level and at different time scales and will ultimately improve our capability to simulate the behavior of materials at extreme conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Long-term trends of foF2 independent of geomagnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Danilov

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the foF2 data at a series of ionospheric stations is performed to reveal long-term trends independent of the long-term changes in geomagnetic activity during the recent decades (nongeomagnetic trends. The method developed by the author and published earlier is used. It is found that the results for 21 out of 23 stations considered agree well and give a relative nongeomagnetic trend of -0.0012 per year (or an absolute nongeomagnetic trend of about -0.012 MHz per year for the period between 1958 and the mid-nineties. The trends derived show no dependence on geomagnetic latitude or local time, a fact confirming their independence of geomagnetic activity. The consideration of the earlier period (1948–1985 for a few stations for which the corresponding data are available provides significantly lower foF2 trends, the difference between the later and earlier periods being a factor of 1.6. This is a strong argument in favor of an anthropogenic nature of the trends derived.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances; mid-latitude ionosphere

  7. Chiral phase transition of QCD with N{sub f}=2+1 flavors from holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Danning [Department of Physics, Jinan University,Guangzhou 510632 (China); Huang, Mei [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-02-08

    Chiral phase transition for three-flavor N{sub f}=2+1 QCD with m{sub u}=m{sub d}≠m{sub s} is investigated in a modified soft-wall holographic QCD model. Solving temperature dependent chiral condensates from equations of motion of the modified soft-wall model, we extract the quark mass dependence of the order of chiral phase transition in the case of N{sub f}=2+1, and the result is in agreement with the “Columbia Plot”, which is summarized from lattice simulations and other non-perturbative methods. First order phase transition is observed around the three flavor chiral limit m{sub u/d}=0,m{sub s}=0, while at sufficient large quark masses it turns to be a crossover phase transition. The first order and crossover regions are separated by a second order phase transition line. The second order line is divided into two parts by the m{sub u/d}=m{sub s} line, and the m{sub s} dependence of the transition temperature in these two parts are totally contrast, which might indicate that the two parts are governed by different universality classes.

  8. A Study on molecular characterization of Razi Bacillus anthracis Sterne 34F2 substrain in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon, K.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax, a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, has affected humans since ancient times. For genomic characterization of Razi B. anthracis Sterne 34F2 substrain, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping method developed by Van Erth, variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR-8 analysis proposed by Keim, and multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA-3 introduced by Levy were employed. In the SNPs typing system, where the nucleotide content of the genome at 13 evolutionary canonical loci was collectively analyzed, the originally South African 34F2 substrain was categorized in the A.Br.001/002 subgroup. In the VNTR-8 analysis, fragments with lengths of 314, 229, 162, 580, 532, 158, and 137 bp were identified at the following loci: vrrA, vrrB1, vrrB2, vrrC1, vrrC2, CG3, and pxO1, respectively. In addition, application of Levy's MLVA-3 genotyping method revealed that the genome of this strain carried 941, 451, and 864 bp fragments at AA03, AJ03, and AA07 loci, respectively. The present findings are undoubtedly helpful in meeting the requirements set by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE and World Health Organization (WHO for anthrax vaccine manufacturers including Razi Institute. However, further similar studies are required to promote the current epidemiological knowledge of anthrax in Iran.

  9. The hairpin structure of the 6F11F22F2 fragment from human fibronectin enhances gelatin binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, Andrew R.; Smith, Steven P.; Staunton, David; Boyd, Jonathan; Campbell, Iain D.

    2001-01-01

    The solution structure of the 6F11F22F2 fragment from the gelatin-binding region of fibronectin has been determined (Protein Data Bank entry codes 1e88 and 1e8b). The structure reveals an extensive hydrophobic interface between the non-contiguous 6F1 and 2F2 modules. The buried surface area between 6F1 and 2F2 (∼870 Å2) is the largest intermodule interface seen in fibronectin to date. The dissection of 6F11F22F2 into the 6F11F2 pair and 2F2 results in near-complete loss of gelatin-binding activity. The hairpin topology of 6F11F22F2 may facilitate intramolecular contact between the matrix assembly regions flanking the gelatin-binding domain. This is the first high-resolution study to reveal a compact, globular arrangement of modules in fibronectin. This arrangement is not consistent with the view that fibronectin is simply a linear ‘string of beads’. PMID:11285216

  10. iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis of Ginsenoside F2 on Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells SGC7901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside F2 (F2, a protopanaxdiol type of saponin, was reported to inhibit human gastric cancer cells SGC7901. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of F2, an iTRAQ-based proteomics approach was applied to define protein expression profiles in SGC7901 cells in response to lower dose (20 μM and shorter duration (12 hour of F2 treatment, compared with previous study. 205 proteins were screened in terms of the change in their expression level which met our predefined criteria. Further bioinformatics and experiments demonstrated that F2 treatment downregulated PRR5 and RPS15 and upregulated RPL26, which are implicated in ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway. F2 also inhibited CISD2, Bcl-xl, and NLRX1, which are associated with autophagic pathway. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that F2 treatment increased Atg5, Atg7, Atg10, and PUMA, the critical downstream effectors of ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway, and Beclin-1, UVRAG, and AMBRA-1, the important molecules in Bcl-xl/Beclin-1 pathway. The 6 differentially abundant proteins, PRR5, CISD2, Bcl-xl, NLRX1, RPS15, and RPL26, were confirmed by western blot. Taken together, ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway and Bcl-xl/Beclin-1 pathway might be the most significantly regulated biological process by F2 treatment in SGC7901 cells, which provided valuable insights into the deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of F2 for gastric cancer treatment.

  11. Thermal performance study of a box type solar cooker: evaluation of second figure of merit, F2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    The thermal performance of a box type solar cooker can be evaluated through the determination of two figures of merit-F 1 and F 2 . The F 1 is defined as the ratio of optical efficiency factor (η o ) the overall heat loss coefficient (U L ) and F 2 relates to the effectiveness of heat exchange between cooker interiors and contents of the pots. The values of F 1 and F 2 can be found experimentally from the stagnation (no-load) and load (water) tests respectively. The sensible heating curve (a plot between pot water temperature and time) from the load test is used for determination of F 2 . An accurate determination of F 2 is necessary for making the correct and reliable assessment of solar cooker performance. In the present work, the thermal analysis has been carried out to simulate the sensible heating curves for different loads of water in the commercially available, fibre body double-glazed box type solar cooker (size 0.245 m 2 ) by using the heat balance equation. The comparison between the simulated and experimental sensible heating curves is presented. The close agreement in the results shows that the simulated heating curve can be employed for predicting the thermal performance (or F 2 ) of the solar cooker. The F 2 for different loads of water in the solar cooker have been obtained using the computer simulation, while considering the variable overall heat loss coefficient U L (a function of pot water temperature). The results indicate that F 2 increases linearly up to a load of 1.5 kg. Thereafter, the increase in the value of F 2 decreases gradually with the load

  12. Correlation studies for B-spline modeled F2 Chapman parameters obtained from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Limberger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of ionospheric key quantities such as the maximum electron density of the F2 layer NmF2, the corresponding F2 peak height hmF2 and the F2 scale height HF2 are of high relevance in 4-D ionosphere modeling to provide information on the vertical structure of the electron density (Ne. The Ne distribution with respect to height can, for instance, be modeled by the commonly accepted F2 Chapman layer. An adequate and observation driven description of the vertical Ne variation can be obtained from electron density profiles (EDPs derived by ionospheric radio occultation measurements between GPS and low Earth orbiter (LEO satellites. For these purposes, the six FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C satellites provide an excellent opportunity to collect EDPs that cover most of the ionospheric region, in particular the F2 layer. For the contents of this paper, F3/C EDPs have been exploited to determine NmF2, hmF2 and HF2 within a regional modeling approach. As mathematical base functions, endpoint-interpolating polynomial B-splines are considered to model the key parameters with respect to longitude, latitude and time. The description of deterministic processes and the verification of this modeling approach have been published previously in Limberger et al. (2013, whereas this paper should be considered as an extension dealing with related correlation studies, a topic to which less attention has been paid in the literature. Relations between the B-spline series coefficients regarding specific key parameters as well as dependencies between the three F2 Chapman key parameters are in the main focus. Dependencies are interpreted from the post-derived correlation matrices as a result of (1 a simulated scenario without data gaps by taking dense, homogenously distributed profiles into account and (2 two real data scenarios on 1 July 2008 and 1 July 2012 including sparsely, inhomogeneously distributed F3/C EDPs. Moderate correlations between hmF2 and HF2 as

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of host immune and cell death responses associated with the influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Le Goffic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Airway inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of influenza viruses and can lead to a fatal outcome. One of the challenging objectives in the field of influenza research is the identification of the molecular bases associated to the immunopathological disorders developed during infection. While its precise function in the virus cycle is still unclear, the viral protein PB1-F2 is proposed to exert a deleterious activity within the infected host. Using an engineered recombinant virus unable to express PB1-F2 and its wild-type homolog, we analyzed and compared the pathogenicity and host response developed by the two viruses in a mouse model. We confirmed that the deletion of PB1-F2 renders the virus less virulent. The global transcriptomic analyses of the infected lungs revealed a potent impact of PB1-F2 on the response developed by the host. Thus, after two days post-infection, PB1-F2 invalidation severely decreased the number of genes activated by the host. PB1-F2 expression induced an increase in the number and level of expression of activated genes linked to cell death, inflammatory response and neutrophil chemotaxis. When generating interactive gene networks specific to PB1-F2, we identified IFN-γ as a central regulator of PB1-F2-regulated genes. The enhanced cell death of airway-recruited leukocytes was evidenced using an apoptosis assay, confirming the pro-apoptotic properties of PB1-F2. Using a NF-kB luciferase adenoviral vector, we were able to quantify in vivo the implication of NF-kB in the inflammation mediated by the influenza virus infection; we found that PB1-F2 expression intensifies the NF-kB activity. Finally, we quantified the neutrophil recruitment within the airways, and showed that this type of leukocyte is more abundant during the infection of the wild-type virus. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PB1-F2 strongly influences the early host response during IAV infection and provides new insights into the

  14. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  15. Hybrid vigour and gene action for two quantitative traits of castor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five homozygous lines of castor plant, namely RS1-Om, RN1-Om, RTl-2m, RSl- Owm, and RNl- Omb, were crossed to raise F1, F2, BC1, and BC2 generations. The hybrids were tested for hybrid vigour for two metric traits, viz; number of pods per plant and seed yield per plant. Highly significant hybrid vigour was detected ...

  16. Traceable Determination of the Absolute Neutron Emission Yields of UO2F2 Working Reference Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFleur, A.M.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Mayo, D.R.; Sapp, B.A.; Croft, S.; Mayer, R.L.

    2013-06-01

    The nuclear material contained in the process equipment of a uranium enrichment plant (referred to as holdup) is an important component of the overall nuclear material inventory for the plant. Accurate quantification and verification of holdup is needed to improve international safeguards and nuclear material accountancy. This is also needed for criticality safety and waste disposition. Passive neutron and gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) methods are used to measure the holdup in process equipment. A key advantage of neutron measurements is that neutrons are highly penetrating and can be measured through thick walled equipment. The dominant source of neutrons in the UO 2 F 2 holdup is from the 19 F(α, n) 22 Na reaction resulting from 234 U alpha decay when uranium is enriched. There is a considerable spread between different historic determinations of the 19 F(α, n) yield from uranium which limits the accuracy of modeling and the calibration of NDA instruments. Furthermore, the compound form and presence of water also significantly affects the neutron emission rate from the holdup. This paper describes a series of experimental measurements performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to determine the absolute neutron emission yield from 10 different UO 2 F 2 working reference materials (WRMs) fabricated at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The Mini Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (Mini ENMC) and a NIST certified 252 Cf neutron source were used for these measurements. The high efficiency and short die-away time of the Mini ENMC provides the high measurement precision needed to certify the neutron emission yield. The experiment was designed to achieve sub 1% accuracy in the net counting rate on each item and to provide assurance that important factors such as instrument stability, item placement and background were well understood. The traceable neutron yields measured from the WRMs were used to determine a more accurate neutron yield

  17. Application of Industrial Waste CaF2 for Vegetative Covering of Phosphogypsum Disposal Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leaković, S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum, i.e. calcium sulphate dihydrate is generated as a by-product in the phosphoric acid production during reaction between phosphate rock and sulphuric acid. It is stored as nonhazardous waste in a disposal site. Since 1983, when the phosphoric acid plant started operation, about 8 140 000 t of phosphogypsum have been disposed there. The disposal site consists of four separate ponds (compartments which are bounded by 6 meter high embankments of earth. According to a special design, it is possible to build layers upon the existing disposal site using phosphogypsum for making embankments. So far, the first 6-meter high level has been built with a 1:3 side slope of phosphogypsum embankments. Formation of the second level with 1:5 side slope is currently in progress. Another byproduct of phosphoric acid production is fluoride- and phosphorus-polluted wastewater. Before being discharged into the natural recipient, this wastewater is treated with calcium hydroxide. The product of neutralisation is calcium fluoride (CaF2 which is deposited in separate lagoons as nonhazardous waste. The application of calcium fluoride as a substrate for plants in the process of vegetative covering of the phosphogypsum disposal site is a new method of its usage. This way, a significant financial benefit is achieved because it is not necessary to build a new lagoon for calcium fluoride disposal. Regarding the environmental aspect, usage for vegetative covering is far better than the standard process of calcium fluoride disposal because residual phosphorus from CaF2 is utilised for enhanced growth of the plants. At the same time, the necessity for natural soil covering of the disposal site is reduced by 500 000 m3. Apart from the natural grass species, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., grass mixtures with high content of red fescue (Festuca rubra L. and false indigo bush (Amorpha fruticosa L. displayed the best growth on the

  18. Identifying Rare FHB-resistant Segregants in Intransigent Backcross and F2 Winter Wheat Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony James Clark

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB, caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [telomorph: Gibberella zeae Schwein.(Petch] in the US, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum L.. Infected grain is usually contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON, a serious mycotoxin. The challenge in FHB resistance breeding is combining resistance with superior agronomic and quality characteristics. Exotic QTL are widely used to improve FHB resistance. Success depends on the genetic background into which the QTL are introgressed, whether through backcrossing or forward crossing; QTL expression is impossible to predict. In this study four high-yielding soft red winter wheat breeding lines with little or no scab resistance were each crossed to a donor parent (VA01W-476 with resistance alleles at two QTL: Fhb1 (chromosome 3BS and QFhs.nau-2DL (chromosome 2DL to generate backcross and F2 progeny. F2 individuals were genotyped and assigned to 4 groups according to presence/ absence of resistance alleles at one or both QTL. The effectiveness of these QTL in reducing FHB rating, incidence, index, severity, Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK and DON, in F2-derived lines was assessed over two years. Fhb1 showed an average reduction in DON of 17.5%, and conferred significant resistance in 3 of 4 populations. QFhs.nau-2DL reduced DON 6.7 % on average and conferred significant resistance in 2 of 4 populations. The combination of Fhb1 and QFhs.nau-2DL resistance reduced DON 25.5% across all populations. Double resistant lines had significantly reduced DON compared to double susceptible lines in 3 populations. Backcross derived progeny were planted in replicated yield trials (2011 and 2012 and in a scab nursery in 2012. Several top yielding lines performed well in the scab nursery, with acceptable DON concentrations, even though the average effect of either QTL in this population was not significant. Population selection is often viewed as an all

  19. Effect of vertical plasma transport on ionospheric f2-region parameters at a low-latitude station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekola, O. S.; Akin Ojo, R.

    The variations of the F2-region even during magnetically quiet times are fairly complex owning to the effects of plasma transport. The effect of vertical electrodynamic (E x B) drifts on ionospheric F2-region parameters during the daytime sector under high solar activity and geomagnetically quiet ionosphere conditions has been investigated for Ibadan (7.4°N, 3.9°E, dip latitude 6°S). Strong correlations exist between the vertical plasma drifts and the F2-region characteristics. The results indicate that the vertical plasma motion, peak plasma concentration and the corresponding peak height; virtual height and the critical frequencies of the F2-region ionosphere are all interconnected.

  20. TRANSMISI GEN krt-GP11 DAN PERFORMA KETAHANAN IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio TRANSGENIK F-2 TERHADAP INFEKSI KHV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Syahputra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pembentukan ikan mas transgenik merupakan salah satu program penelitian di Balai Penelitian Pemuliaan Ikan, Sukamandi dalam rangka menghasilkan varietas unggul ikan mas tahan infeksi KHV (Koi herpesvirus. Pada tahun 2015 telah dilakukan pembentukan ikan mas transgenik tahan KHV generasi F-2. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi transmisi gen krt-GP11, ketahanan ikan mas transgenik F-2 terhadap infeksi KHV, keberadaan marka Cyca-DAB1*05 tahan KHV pada populasi ikan mas transgenik F-2. Ikan mas transgenik F-2 dihasilkan dengan memijahkan ikan mas transgenik F-1 jantan dengan betina non-transgenik. Pengujian transmisi transgen dan deteksi marka ketahanan KHV pada transgenik F-2 dilakukan dengan metode PCR menggunakan primer spesifik untuk transgen krt-GP11 dan gen Cyca-DAB1*05. Evaluasi ketahanan ikan mas transgenik F-2 terhadap infeksi KHV dilakukan dengan uji tantang secara kohabitasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa transmisi gen krt-GP11 pada keturunan F-2 memiliki persentase yang relatif rendah yaitu sebesar 0%-2%. Ikan mas transgenik F-2 memiliki ketahanan relatif baik terhadap KHV dengan sintasan uji tantang sebesar 90% dan tidak berbeda nyata dengan ikan mas pembanding atau non-transgenik (P>0,05. Tingginya pesentase keberadaan marka Cyca-DAB1*05 pada populasi transgenik berperan pada ketahanan ikan mas transgenik terhadap infeksi KHV. Creating of transgenic common carp is one of the breeding programs in Research Institute for Fish Breeding for producing a superior strain of common carp resistant to KHV(Koi herpesvirus. Since 2015, the creation of common carp transgenic has been conducted to produce F2 population resistant to KHV. This study was aimed to evaluate the transmission of krt-GP11 gen,the resistantce of F2 transgenic common carp against to KHV infection, and the existence of Cyca-DAB1*05 marker resistant to KHV in F2 transgenic population. F2 transgenic population has been produced by mating F1 transgenic male with non

  1. Simulation and analysis of Au-MgF2 structure in plasmonic sensor in near infrared spectral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj K.

    2018-05-01

    Plasmonic sensor based on metal-dielectric combination of gold and MgF2 layers is studied in near infrared (NIR) spectral region. An emphasis is given on the effect of variable thickness of MgF2 layer in combination with operating wavelength and gold layer thickness on the sensor's performance in NIR. It is established that the variation in MgF2 thickness in connection with plasmon penetration depth leads to significant variation in sensor's performance. The analysis leads to a conclusion that taking smaller values of MgF2 layer thickness and operating at longer NIR wavelength leads to enhanced sensing performance. Also, fluoride glass can provide better sensing performance than chalcogenide glass and silicon substrate.

  2. Radiation-induced defect production in MgF2-Co crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuritdinov, I.; Turdanov, K.; Mirinoyatova, N.M.; Rejterov, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Impact of Co-admixture on structural radiation defects formation in the MgF 2 crystals is studied. It is found that the Co admixture facilitates the probability of generating the F- and m-type centers of radiation defects as well as creation of the F- and M-centers, perturbed by admixtures. The availability of structural defects leads in its turn to the admixture ions perturbation. It is reflected in the removal of prohibition on spin-prohibited transitions of the Co 2 + ions. It is assumed that creation of the M-centers is the main cause for removal of the prohibition on the spin-prohibited transitions. 8 refs., 4 figs

  3. Genomic prediction based on next generation sequencing of 1000 F2-families in Lolium perenne L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Ashraf, Bilal; Greve-Pedersen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The “FORAGESELECT” collaborative project aims to develop and implement Genome Wide Selection (GWS) in breeding programs for perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The goal is to improve the genetic response in important agronomic traits, such as forage and seed yield and resistance to biotic...... and abiotic stresses. The study is performed on 995 F2 families originated from the DLF breeding program. All families were genotyped by reduced representation sequencing. A total of 1,020,065 SNPs were detected and used for genomic prediction. First analyses, used for model testing, have been carried out...... of each treatment, the percentage of green matter was evaluated by visual scoring and by digital imaging. Preliminary analysis using GBLUP have identified a significant amount of genetic variance (individual heritabilities ranging between 0.20 and 0.40 and family heritabilities up to about 0.15). Genomic...

  4. The immune response of adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) to the bacteriophage f2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, D. T.

    1970-01-01

    Humoral immunity to the bacteriophage f2 was studied in adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and their responses were compared to those in New Zealand White rabbits. Antibodies were found in the serum of opossums 7 days after the subcutaneous injection of the antigen and peak antibody responses were observed between 10 and 21 days after immunization. A second injection of antigen resulted in increased antibody activity. In either case the level of serum antibody reached in opossums was less than that in rabbits. More striking, however, was the relatively slow conversion from γM to γG antibodies in opossums. The course of the immune response in adult opossums was more nearly like that of cold-blooded vertebrates than that of eutherian mammals. PMID:5416636

  5. Magnon dispersion relation and exchange interactions in MnF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikotin, O.; Lindgård, Per-Anker; Dietrich, O. W.

    1969-01-01

    The magnon dispersion relation for MnF2 at 4·2 °K has been measured by means of the triple-axis neutron scattering technique along the symmetry lines in the (010) plane of the Brillouin zone. Using an exact dipole model, the three nearest-neighbour exchange constants were found to be J1 = 0·028 ± 0......·001 mev, J2 = -0·152 ± 0·001 mev and J3 = -0·004 ± 0·001 mev. The second moment was also calculated with this model. The density of magnon states was evaluated by applying a six-parameter simulation of the dispersion surface. The critical points in the density of states agree well with those obtained...

  6. The bottomonium spectrum at finite temperature from N f = 2 + 1 lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, G.; Allton, C.; Harris, T.; Kim, S.; Lombardo, M. P.; Ryan, S. M.; Skullerud, J.-I.

    2014-07-01

    We present results on the bottomonium spectrum at temperatures above and below the deconfinement crossover temperature, T c , from dynamical lattice QCD simulations. The heavy quark is treated with a non-relativistic effective field theory on the lattice and serves as a probe of the hot medium. Ensembles with a finer spatial lattice spacing and a greater range of temperatures below T c than those previously employed by this collaboration are used. In addition, there are N f = 2 + 1 flavours of Wilson clover quark in the sea with M π ≈ 400 MeV and we perform a more careful tuning of the bottom quark mass in this work. We calculate the spectral functions of S and P wave bottomonium states using the maximum entropy method and confirm earlier findings on the survival of the ground state S wave states up to at least 2 T c and the immediate dissociation of the P wave states above T c .

  7. B{sub K}-parameter from N{sub f}=2 twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinou, M. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Dimopoulos, P. [Roma Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Frezzotti, R. [Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Rome (IT). Dipt. di Fisica] (and others)

    2011-01-07

    We present an unquenched N{sub f} = 2 lattice computation of the B{sub K} parameter which controls K{sup 0}- anti K{sup 0} oscillations. A partially quenched setup is employed with two maximally twisted dynamical (sea) light Wilson quarks, and valence quarks of both the maximally twisted and the Osterwalder-Seiler variety. Suitable combinations of these two kinds of valence quarks lead to a lattice definition of the B{sub K} parameter which is both multiplicatively renormalizable and O(a) improved. Employing the non-perturbative RI-MOM scheme, in the continuum limit and at the physical value of the pion mass we get B{sup RGI}{sub K}=0.729{+-}0.030, a number well in line with the existing quenched and unquenched determinations. (orig.)

  8. The properties of CaF2:Dy used as a thermoluminescent dosimeter at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, T.

    1976-05-01

    Chips of CaF 2 :Dy have been studied to assess their usefulness as a thermoluminescent dosimeter for the measurement of doses of the order of 1 mrad in water. The glow curve structure and the total light output from peaks below about 240 0 C have both been studied. Experiments have been done to study linearity, fading and energy dependence. Fading was found to be 15% in the first day and a further 21% over four weeks. The response of the material per rad in water showed a peak at 30 keV where the sensitivity was 17.5 times the value at 1 MeV. Doses of 0.1 mrad have been assessed with a standard deviation of 25%. (author)

  9. Longitudinal structure function from logarithmic slopes of F2 at low x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroun, G. R.

    2018-01-01

    Using Laplace transform techniques, I calculate the longitudinal structure function FL(x ,Q2) from the scaling violations of the proton structure function F2(x ,Q2) and make a critical study of this relationship between the structure functions at leading order (LO) up to next-to-next-to leading order (NNLO) analysis at small x . Furthermore, I consider heavy quark contributions to the relation between the structure functions, which leads to compact formula for Nf=3 +Heavy . The nonlinear corrections to the longitudinal structure function at LO up to NNLO analysis are shown in the Nf=4 (light quark flavor) based on the nonlinear corrections at R =2 and R =4 GeV-1 . The results are compared with experimental data of the longitudinal proton structure function FL in the range of 6.5 ≤Q2≤800 GeV2 .

  10. Transcriptional profiling of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (34F2 during iron starvation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Carlson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lack of available iron is one of many environmental challenges that a bacterium encounters during infection and adaptation to iron starvation is important for the pathogen to efficiently replicate within the host. Here we define the transcriptional response of B. anthracis Sterne (34F(2 to iron depleted conditions. Genome-wide transcript analysis showed that B. anthracis undergoes considerable changes in gene expression during growth in iron-depleted media, including the regulation of known and candidate virulence factors. Two genes encoding putative internalin proteins were chosen for further study. Deletion of either gene (GBAA0552 or GBAA1340 resulted in attenuation in a murine model of infection. This attenuation was amplified in a double mutant strain. These data define the transcriptional changes induced during growth in low iron conditions and illustrate the potential of this dataset in the identification of putative virulence determinants for future study.

  11. Unbiased determination of the proton structure function F2p with faithful uncertainty estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Latorre, Jose I.; Rojo, Joan; Piccione, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    We construct a parametrization of the deep-inelastic structure function of the proton F 2 (x,Q 2 ) based on all available experimental information from charged lepton deep-inelastic scattering experiments. The parametrization effectively provides a bias-free determination of the probability measure in the space of structure functions, which retains information on experimental errors and correlations. The result is obtained in the form of a Monte Carlo sample of neural networks trained on an ensemble of replicas of the experimental data. We discuss in detail the techniques required for the construction of bias-free parameterizations of large amounts of structure function data, in view of future applications to the determination of parton distributions based on the same method. (author)

  12. Studies on prostaglandin F2 alpha formation caused by pentametylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seregi, A; Folly, G; Antal, M; Serfözö, P; Schaefer, A

    1981-02-01

    Prostaglandin F2 alpha formation caused by pentametylenetetrazol convulsions was studied as a function of the duration, the doses of the convulsant and the intensity of the seizures. It was shown by the statistical analysis of the results in the case of clonic convulsions that the amount of synthetized PGF2 alpha did not depend on the doses of convulsant, while close relation existed between the duration and the PGF2 alpha production. At the same time, during tonic convulsions lasting longer than 50 sec, no more increase in the PGF2 alpha content of the brain was observed. An experimental model is suggested to study in vivo the mechanisms regulating the brain's prostaglandin biosynthesis. Pretreatment of the animals with reserpine did not affect the rate of convulsion-induced PGF2 alpha-formation.

  13. Causes of the mid-latitudinal daytime NmF2 semi-annual anomaly at solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Ionospheric ionosonde and radar observations and theoretical calculations of the F2-layer peak altitude, hmF2, and number density, NmF2, over Millstone Hill during winter, spring, summer, and autumn geomagnetically quiet time periods at low solar activity are used to study the causes of the observed daytime NmF2 semi-annual anomaly. It follows from the model simulations that this anomalous phenomenon arises in the ionosphere mainly as a result of seasonal variations of the following atmospheric parameters: (1) the plasma drift along geomagnetic field lines due to corresponding changes in neutral wind components, (2) temperature and number densities of the neutral atmosphere, and (3) an optical thickness of the atmosphere caused by the dependence of the solar zenith angle on the day of the year for the same solar local time. Seasonal variations of the production rate unexcited O+ ions due to chemical reactions involving electronically excited O+ ions contribute to the formation of the NmF2 semi-annual anomaly during the predominant part of the existence time of this anomalous phenomenon. However, these seasonal variations are not significant, and this mechanism should be considered only as an additional source of the NmF2 semi-annual anomaly during its time of existence. The reactions of unexcited O+ ions with vibrationally excited N2 and O2 cause only weak changes of NmF2 and these changes are close in magnitude at a given solar local time during the winter, spring, summer, and autumn daytime conditions under consideration. Ignoring these reactions cannot produce a significant impact on the formation of the NmF2 semi-annual anomaly.

  14. TRANSMISI, EKSPRESI, DAN DISTRIBUSI GEN HORMON PERTUMBUHAN IKAN PATIN SIAM PADA IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus) TRANSGENIK F-2

    OpenAIRE

    Huria Marnis; Bambang Iswanto; Rommy Suprapto; Imron Imron; Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Salah satu keberhasilan pembentukan ikan transgenik ditandai dengan kemampuan dari individu transgenik tersebut untuk mewariskan transgen pada keturunannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi transmisi dan ekspresi transgen (PhGh) dari generasi F-1 ke F-2 serta mengetahui distribusi transgen pada berbagai organ. Deteksi transgen dilakukan pada larva, benih, dan berbagai organ ikan lele generasi F-2 (pituitari, otak, timus, jantung, limfa, hati, ginjal, lambung, usus, gonad, otot, kul...

  15. Synthesis and structural studies of Na2 O–ZnO–ZnF2 –B2 O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Due to this the structure of glass is expected to be diffe- rent from that of alkali borate glasses (Kim and Bray. 1974; Munia et al 1999). In the present study, we report the synthesis and structural studies of Na2O–ZnO–ZnF2–. B2O3 oxyfluoride glasses and study the role of intersub- stitution of ZnO by ZnF2. 2. Experimental.

  16. BaF2 scintillator: A stand-alone detector for γ-rays and light charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piatelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Chen Yan

    1988-01-01

    The performances of thick (≥ 10 cm) BaF 2 crystals as detectors for γ-rays and light charged particles have been tested. The capability of BaF 2 of identifying Z=1 particles by itself alone is shown. A new method to perform γ-particle mass discrimination to be used in multiple coincidence experiments with highly segmented detection system is presented. (orig.)

  17. Matrix infrared spectra and electronic structure calculations of the first actinide borylene: FB=ThF(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Roos, Björn O; Andrews, Lester

    2010-03-14

    Laser-ablated Th atoms react with BF(3) during condensation in excess argon at 6 K to form the first actinide borylene (FB=ThF(2)) and actinide-boron multiple bond. Three new product absorptions in the B-F and Th-F stretching regions of matrix infrared spectra are assigned to FB=ThF(2) from comparison to theoretically predicted vibrational frequencies.

  18. Diode laser spectra of CCl2F2 near 10.8 muon M: Air-broadening effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory spectra of CCL2F2 in the 10.8 micron region was recorded, using a tuneable diode laser spectrometer. Effects of air-broadening at pressures up to 48 Torr show that spectral structure should be exhibited under high resolution at altitudes as low as 19 Km. The single line, pressure-broadening coefficient for CCL2F2 was estimated to be 8 MHz/Torr FWHM.

  19. Effects of estrogen on the fibrosis process of intrauterine adhesions and the expression of forkhead box F2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-ping CHEN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of estrogen on the fibrosis process of intrauterine adhesions and the expression of forkhead box F2 (FoxF2. Methods Primary human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs were obtained by separation with 0.2% collagenase Ι digestion-mesh filtration-differential adherence, and identified by immunocytochemistry. HESCs affected with 10ng/ml transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 for 48 hours. HESCs in model group were affected with 0, 10–6, 10–8, 10–10 and 10–12mol/L estrogen, the expressions of smooth muscle actin alpha (α-SMA, Collagen I (COLⅠ and FoxF2 were detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR and Western blotting. Results HESCs with high purity and good activity were obtained by using 0.2% collagenase Ι digestion-mesh filtration-differential adherence separation method. Immunocytochemistry showed positive vimentin and negative cytokeratin 18 in HESCs. The results of qPCR and Western blotting showed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of α-SMA, COLⅠ and FoxF2 were higher in model group than in control group (P0.05 in 10–10mol/L estrogen group, P0.05. Compared with the model group, the protein expression levels of α-SMA, COLⅠ and FoxF2 in 10–6, 10–8 and 10–10mol/L estrogen groups decreased, but no significant difference was found (P0.05, and of COLⅠ and FoxF2 proteins decreased (P<0.05. Conclusions The expression of FoxF2 in intrauterine adhesions is increased. Estrogen can reverse the fibrosis process of intrauterine adhesions in a certain range and inhibit the expression of FoxF2. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.04.10

  20. Study of the OSL response of the CaF2:Dy (TLD-200) dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Beatriz M.; Alencar, Marcus A.V. de

    2013-01-01

    The OSL dosimetry has become, in recent years, a successful technique in personal and environmental dosimetry due to high luminescence efficiency, excellent reproducibility, fast readout of signal and repeated and successive OSL measurements of the same dosimeter. Another factor that contributes to the increased use of OSL dosimetry is the use of the aluminum oxide doped with carbon (Al 2 O 3 :C) as dosimeter. Developed initially as thermoluminescent dosimeter, the Al 2 O 3 :C has an excellent OSL sensitivity, high efficiency, good linearity, low or no fading and excellent stability with respect to environmental conditions. However, the OSL dose response for aluminum oxide is linear only for low doses. For intermediate doses (doses in radiotherapy), the response is supralinear. For the values of high doses used in the processes of food irradiation and sterilization of surgical materials, the OSL signal of the aluminum oxide already saturated. Furthermore, the degree of supralinearity and the saturation value vary from sample to sample (∼ 30-300 Gy). Therefore, the use of aluminum oxide as OSL dosimeter is inappropriate in radiotherapy and in the irradiation industrial processes. The objective of this work is the study of the OSL properties of other dosimetric materials irradiated with values of intermediate and high dose to verify the applicability of the OSL dosimetry in radiotherapy and in the processes of food irradiation and sterilization of medical materials. The dosimetric material used in this work is the calcium fluoride doped with dysprosium (CaF 2 :Dy) produced by Harshaw and known commercially as TLD-200. The results demonstrate that the CaF 2 :Dy has OSL signal and the OSL dose response is linear in the range of 10 Gy to 300 Gy. Therefore, the dosimetry OSL with this dosimeter can be used in the evaluation of doses of the order of dozens to hundreds of grays. (author)

  1. Unusual nighttime impulsive foF2 enhancements at low latitudes: Phenomenology and possible explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, L.; Pezzopane, M.; Zuccheretti, E.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; Cabrera, M. A.; Ezquer, R. G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper is focused on unusual nighttime impulsive electron density enhancements that are rarely observed at low latitudes on a wide region of South America, under quiet and medium/high geomagnetic conditions. The phenomenon under investigation is very peculiar because besides being of brief duration, it is characterized by a pronounced compression of the ionosphere. The phenomenon was studied and analyzed using both the F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) and the virtual height of the base of the F region (h‧F) values recorded at five ionospheric stations widely distributed in space, namely: Jicamarca (-12.0°, -76.8°, magnetic latitude -2.0°), Peru; Sao Luis (-2.6°, -44.2°, magnetic latitude +6.2°), Cachoeira Paulista (-22.4°, -44.6°, magnetic latitude -13.4°), and São José dos Campos (-23.2°, -45.9°, magnetic latitude -14.1°), Brazil; Tucumán (-26.9°, -65.4°, magnetic latitude -16.8°), Argentina. In a more restricted region over Tucumán, the phenomenon was also investigated by the total electron content (TEC) maps computed by using measurements from 12 GPS receivers. A detailed analysis of isoheight ionosonde plots suggests that traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) caused by gravity wave (GW) propagation could play a significant role in causing the phenomenon both for quiet and for medium/high geomagnetic activity; in the latter case however a recharging of the fountain effect, due to electric fields penetrating from the magnetosphere, joins the TID propagation and plays an as much significant role in causing impulsive electron density enhancements.

  2. Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tulunay

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.

  3. Persistence of the planetary wave type oscillations in foF2 over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laštovička

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Planetary waves are oscillations of very predominantly tropospheric origin with typical periods of about 2–30 days. Their dominant zonal wave numbers are 1, 2 and 3, i.e. the waves are of large-scale (global character. The planetary wave type oscillations have been observed in the lower and middle atmosphere but also in the ionosphere, including the ionospheric F2-layer. Here, we deal only with the oscillations analyzed for four European stations over a solar cycle with the use of the Meyer and Morlet wavelet transforms. Waves with periods near 5, 10 and 16 days are studied. Only events with a duration of three wave-cycles and more are considered. The 5-day period wave events display a typical duration of 4 cycles, while 10- and 16-day wave events are less persistent, with a typical duration of about 3.5 cycles and 3 cycles, respectively. The persistence pattern in terms of number of cycles and in terms of number of days is different. In terms of number of cycles, the typical persistence of oscillations decreases with increasing period. On the other hand, in terms of number of days the typical persistence evidently increases with increasing period. The spectral distribution of event duration is too broad to allow for a reasonable prediction of event duration. Thus, the predictability of the planetary wave type oscillations in foF2 seems to be very questionable.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interaction, mid-latitude ionosphere, ionospheric disturbances – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides

  4. Distinguishing between MSSM and NMSSM through ΔF=2 processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jacky [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,Ist Homi Bhabha road, 400 005 Mumbai (India); Paraskevas, Michael [Department of Physics, Division of Theoretical Physics, University of Ioannina,GR 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2016-10-25

    We study deviations between MSSM and Z{sub 3}-invariant NMSSM, with respect to their predictions in ΔF=2 processes. We find that potentially significant effects arise either from the well known double-penguin diagrams, due to the extra scalar NMSSM states, or from neutralino-gluino box contributions, due to the extended neutralino sector. Both are discussed to be effective in the large tan β regime. Enhanced genuine-NMSSM contributions in double penguins are expected for a light singlet spectrum (CP-even, CP-odd), while the magnitude of box effects is primarily controlled through singlino mixing. The latter is found to be typically subleading (but non-negligible) for λ≲0.5, however it can become dominant for λ∼O(1). We also study the low tan β regime, where a distinction between MSSM and NMSSM can come instead due to experimental constraints, acting differently on the allowed parameter space of each model. To this end, we incorporate the LHC Run-I limits from H→Z Z, A→h Z and H{sup ±}→τ ν non-observation along with Higgs observables and set (different) upper bounds for new physics contributions in ΔF=2 processes. We find that a ∼25% contribution in ΔM{sub s(d)} is still possible for MFV models, however such a large effect is nowadays severely constrained for the case of MSSM, due to stronger bounds on the charged Higgs masses.

  5. Persistence of the planetary wave type oscillations in foF2 over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Novotná

    Full Text Available Planetary waves are oscillations of very predominantly tropospheric origin with typical periods of about 2–30 days. Their dominant zonal wave numbers are 1, 2 and 3, i.e. the waves are of large-scale (global character. The planetary wave type oscillations have been observed in the lower and middle atmosphere but also in the ionosphere, including the ionospheric F2-layer. Here, we deal only with the oscillations analyzed for four European stations over a solar cycle with the use of the Meyer and Morlet wavelet transforms. Waves with periods near 5, 10 and 16 days are studied. Only events with a duration of three wave-cycles and more are considered. The 5-day period wave events display a typical duration of 4 cycles, while 10- and 16-day wave events are less persistent, with a typical duration of about 3.5 cycles and 3 cycles, respectively. The persistence pattern in terms of number of cycles and in terms of number of days is different. In terms of number of cycles, the typical persistence of oscillations decreases with increasing period. On the other hand, in terms of number of days the typical persistence evidently increases with increasing period. The spectral distribution of event duration is too broad to allow for a reasonable prediction of event duration. Thus, the predictability of the planetary wave type oscillations in foF2 seems to be very questionable.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interaction, mid-latitude ionosphere, ionospheric disturbances – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides

  6. Fine-mapping alleles for body weight in LG/J × SM/J F2 and F34 advanced intercross lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Clarissa C.; Cheng, Riyan; Sokoloff, Greta; Lim, Jackie E.; Skol, Andrew D.; Abney, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The present study measured variation in body weight using a combined analysis in an F2 intercross and an F34 advanced intercross line (AIL). Both crosses were derived from inbred LG/J and SM/J mice, which were selected for large and small body size prior to inbreeding. Body weight was measured at 62 (±5) days of age. Using an integrated GWAS and forward model selection approach, we identified 11 significant QTLs that affected body weight on ten different chromosomes. With these results we developed a full model that explained over 18% of the phenotypic variance. The median 1.5-LOD support interval was 5.55 Mb, which is a significant improvement over most prior body weight QTLs. We identified nonsynonymous coding SNPs between LG/J and SM/J mice in order to further narrow the list of candidate genes. Three of the genes with nonsynonymous coding SNPs (Rad23b, Stk33, and Anks1b) have been associated with adiposity, waist circumference, and body mass index in human GWAS, thus providing evidence that these genes may underlie our QTLs. Our results demonstrate that a relatively small number of loci contribute significantly to the phenotypic variance in body weight, which is in marked contrast to the situation in humans. This difference is likely to be the result of strong selective pressure and the simplified genetic architecture, both of which are important advantages of our system. PMID:21761260

  7. Statistical description of non-Gaussian samples in the F2 layer of the ionosphere during heliogeophysical disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeenko, N. P.

    2017-11-01

    An adequate statistical method should be developed in order to predict probabilistically the range of ionospheric parameters. This problem is solved in this paper. The time series of the critical frequency of the layer F2- foF2( t) were subjected to statistical processing. For the obtained samples {δ foF2}, statistical distributions and invariants up to the fourth order are calculated. The analysis shows that the distributions differ from the Gaussian law during the disturbances. At levels of sufficiently small probability distributions, there are arbitrarily large deviations from the model of the normal process. Therefore, it is attempted to describe statistical samples {δ foF2} based on the Poisson model. For the studied samples, the exponential characteristic function is selected under the assumption that time series are a superposition of some deterministic and random processes. Using the Fourier transform, the characteristic function is transformed into a nonholomorphic excessive-asymmetric probability-density function. The statistical distributions of the samples {δ foF2} calculated for the disturbed periods are compared with the obtained model distribution function. According to the Kolmogorov's criterion, the probabilities of the coincidence of a posteriori distributions with the theoretical ones are P 0.7-0.9. The conducted analysis makes it possible to draw a conclusion about the applicability of a model based on the Poisson random process for the statistical description and probabilistic variation estimates during heliogeophysical disturbances of the variations {δ foF2}.

  8. Hydrodechlorination of Tetrachloromethane over Palladium Catalysts Supported on Mixed MgF2-MgO Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bonarowska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pd/MgO, Pd/MgF2 and Pd/MgO-MgF2 catalysts were investigated in the reaction of CCl4 hydrodechlorination. All the catalysts deactivated in time on stream, but the degree of deactivation varied from catalyst to catalyst. The MgF2-supported palladium with relatively large metal particles appeared the best catalyst, characterized by good activity and selectivity to C2-C5 hydrocarbons. Investigation of post-reaction catalyst samples allowed to find several details associated with the working state of hydrodechlorination catalysts. The role of support acidity was quite complex. On the one hand, a definite, although not very high Lewis acidity of MgF2 is beneficial for shaping high activity of palladium catalysts. The MgO-MgF2 support characterized by stronger Lewis acidity than MgF2 contributes to very good catalytic activity for a relatively long reaction period (~5 h but subsequent neutralization of stronger acid centers (by coking eliminates them from the catalyst. On the other hand, the role of acidity evolution, which takes place when basic supports (like MgO are chlorided during HdCl reactions, is difficult to assess because different events associated with distribution of chlorided support species, leading to partial or even full blocking of the surface of palladium, which plays the role of active component in HdCl reactions.

  9. PB1-F2 Protein Does Not Impact the Virulence of Triple-Reassortant H3N2 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs but Alters Pathogenicity and Transmission in Turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Kumar, Sandeep R. P.; Raghunath, Shobana; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT PB1-F2 protein, the 11th influenza A virus (IAV) protein, is considered to play an important role in primary influenza virus infection and postinfluenza secondary bacterial pneumonia in mice. The functional role of PB1-F2 has been reported to be a strain-specific and host-specific phenomenon. Its precise contribution to the pathogenicity and transmission of influenza virus in mammalian host, such as swine, and avian hosts, such as turkeys, remain largely unknown. In this study, we explored the role of PB1-F2 protein of triple-reassortant (TR) H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) in pigs and turkeys. Using the eight-plasmid reverse genetics system, we rescued wild-type SIV A/swine/Minnesota/1145/2007 (H3N2) (SIV 1145-WT), a PB1-F2 knockout mutant (SIV 1145-KO), and its N66S variant (SIV 1145-N66S). The ablation of PB1-F2 in SIV 1145 modulated early-stage apoptosis but did not affect the viral replication in swine alveolar macrophage cells. In pigs, PB1-F2 expression did not affect nasal shedding, lung viral load, immunophenotypes, and lung pathology. On the other hand, in turkeys, SIV 1145-KO infected poults, and its in-contacts developed clinical signs earlier than SIV 1145-WT groups and also displayed more extensive histopathological changes in intestine. Further, turkeys infected with SIV 1145-N66S displayed poor infectivity and transmissibility. The more extensive histopathologic changes in intestine and relative transmission advantage observed in turkeys infected with SIV 1145-KO need to be further explored. Taken together, these results emphasize the host-specific roles of PB1-F2 in the pathogenicity and transmission of IAV. IMPORTANCE Novel triple-reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus emerged in 1998 and spread rapidly among the North American swine population. Subsequently, it showed an increased propensity to reassort, generating a range of reassortants. Unlike classical swine influenza virus, TR SIV produces a full-length PB1-F2 protein, which is

  10. PB1-F2 Protein Does Not Impact the Virulence of Triple-Reassortant H3N2 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs but Alters Pathogenicity and Transmission in Turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deventhiran, Jagadeeswaran; Kumar, Sandeep R P; Raghunath, Shobana; Leroith, Tanya; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2016-01-01

    PB1-F2 protein, the 11th influenza A virus (IAV) protein, is considered to play an important role in primary influenza virus infection and postinfluenza secondary bacterial pneumonia in mice. The functional role of PB1-F2 has been reported to be a strain-specific and host-specific phenomenon. Its precise contribution to the pathogenicity and transmission of influenza virus in mammalian host, such as swine, and avian hosts, such as turkeys, remain largely unknown. In this study, we explored the role of PB1-F2 protein of triple-reassortant (TR) H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) in pigs and turkeys. Using the eight-plasmid reverse genetics system, we rescued wild-type SIV A/swine/Minnesota/1145/2007 (H3N2) (SIV 1145-WT), a PB1-F2 knockout mutant (SIV 1145-KO), and its N66S variant (SIV 1145-N66S). The ablation of PB1-F2 in SIV 1145 modulated early-stage apoptosis but did not affect the viral replication in swine alveolar macrophage cells. In pigs, PB1-F2 expression did not affect nasal shedding, lung viral load, immunophenotypes, and lung pathology. On the other hand, in turkeys, SIV 1145-KO infected poults, and its in-contacts developed clinical signs earlier than SIV 1145-WT groups and also displayed more extensive histopathological changes in intestine. Further, turkeys infected with SIV 1145-N66S displayed poor infectivity and transmissibility. The more extensive histopathologic changes in intestine and relative transmission advantage observed in turkeys infected with SIV 1145-KO need to be further explored. Taken together, these results emphasize the host-specific roles of PB1-F2 in the pathogenicity and transmission of IAV. Novel triple-reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus emerged in 1998 and spread rapidly among the North American swine population. Subsequently, it showed an increased propensity to reassort, generating a range of reassortants. Unlike classical swine influenza virus, TR SIV produces a full-length PB1-F2 protein, which is considered an important

  11. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  12. Comparison of IRES and F2A-based locus-specific multicistronic expression in stable mouse lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao Yun Chan

    Full Text Available Efficient and stoichiometric expression of genes concatenated by bi- or multi-cistronic vectors has become an invaluable tool not only in basic biology to track and visualize proteins in vivo, but also for vaccine development and in the clinics for gene therapy. To adequately compare, in vivo, the effectiveness of two of the currently popular co-expression strategies - the internal ribosome entry site (IRES derived from the picornavirus and the 2A peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FDMV (F2A, we analyzed two locus-specific knock-in mouse lines co-expressing SRY-box containing gene 9 (Sox9 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP linked by the IRES (Sox9(IRES-EGFP or the F2A (Sox9(F2A-EGFP sequence. Both the constructs expressed Sox9 and EGFP proteins in the appropriate Sox9 expression domains, with the IRES construct expressing reduced levels of EGFP compared to that of the F2A. The latter, on the other hand, produced about 42.2% Sox9-EGFP fusion protein, reflecting an inefficient ribosome 'skipping' mechanism. To investigate if the discrepancy in the 'skipping' process was locus-dependent, we further analyzed the FLAG(3-Bapx1(F2A-EGFP mouse line and found similar levels of fusion protein being produced. To assess if EGFP was hindering the 'skipping' mechanism, we examined another mouse line co-expressing Bagpipe homeobox gene 1 homolog (Bapx1, Cre recombinase and EGFP (Bapx1(F2A-Cre-F2A-EGFP. While the 'skipping' was highly efficient between Bapx1 and Cre, the 'skipping' between Cre and EGFP was highly inefficient. We have thus demonstrated in our comparison study that the efficient and close to equivalent expression of genes linked by F2A is achievable in stable mouse lines, but the EGFP reporter may cause undesirable inhibition of the 'skipping' at the F2A sequence. Hence, the use of other reporter genes should be explored when utilizing F2A peptides.

  13. Exposure to welding fumes is associated with hypomethylation of the F2RL3 gene: a cardiovascular disease marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Li, Huiqi; Hedmer, Maria; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Albin, Maria; Broberg, Karin

    2015-12-01

    Welders are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Recent studies linked tobacco smoke exposure to hypomethylation of the F2RL3 (coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3) gene, a marker for cardiovascular disease prognosis and mortality. However, whether welding fumes cause hypomethylation of F2RL3 remains unknown. We investigated 101 welders (median span of working as a welder: 7 years) and 127 unexposed controls (non-welders with no obvious exposure to respirable dust at work), age range 23-60 years, all currently non-smoking, in Sweden. The participants were interviewed about their work history, lifestyle factors and diseases. Personal sampling of respirable dust was performed for the welders. DNA methylation of F2RL3 in blood was assessed by pyrosequencing of four CpG sites, CpG_2 (corresponds to cg03636183) to CpG_5, in F2RL3. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between exposure to welding fumes and F2RL3 methylation. Welders had 2.6% lower methylation of CpG_5 than controls (pWelding fumes exposure and previous smoking were associated with F2RL3 hypomethylation. This finding links low-to-moderate exposure to welding fumes to adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, and suggests a potential mechanistic pathway for this link, via epigenetic effects on F2RL3 expression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Room temperature fabrication of dielectric Bragg reflectors composed of a CaF2/ZnS multilayered coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muallem, Merav; Palatnik, Alex; Nessim, Gilbert D; Tischler, Yaakov R

    2015-01-14

    We describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of mechanically stable, reproducible, and highly reflecting distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) composed of thermally evaporated thin films of calcium fluoride (CaF2) and zinc sulfide (ZnS). CaF2 and ZnS were chosen as the low and high refractive index components of the multilayer DBR structures, with n = 1.43 and n = 2.38 respectively, because neither material requires substrate heating during the deposition process in order to produce optical quality thin films. DBRs consisting of seven pairs of CaF2 and ZnS layers, were fabricated with thicknesses of 96 and 58 nm, respectively, as characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), and exhibited a center wavelength of λc = 550 nm and peak reflectance exceeding 99%. The layers showed good adhesion to each other and to the glass substrate, resulting in mechanically stable DBR coatings. Complete optical microcavities consisting of two such DBR coatings and a CaF2 spacer layer between them could be fabricated in a single deposition run. Optically, these structures exhibited a resonator quality factor of Q > 160. When a CaF2/ZnS DBR was grown, without heating the substrate during deposition, on top of a thin film containing the fluorescent dye Rhodamine 6G, the fluorescence intensity showed no degradation compared to an uncoated film, in contrast to a MgF2/ZnS DBR coating grown with substrate heating which showed a 92% reduction in signal. The ability to fabricate optical quality CaF2/ZnS DBRs without substrate heating, as introduced here, can therefore enable formation of low-loss high-reflectivity coatings on top of more delicate heat-sensitive materials such as organics and other nanostructured emitters, and hence facilitate the development of nanoemitter-based microcavity device applications.

  15. Improvement in crystallinity of apatite coating on titanium with the insertion of CaF2 buffer layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Hee; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Kim, Hae-Won

    2008-05-01

    In the apatite coatings on Ti the heat treatment process is necessary to crystallize the apatite structure for improved chemical stability and biological properties. However, the heat treatment normally degrades the mechanical strength of the coating layer associated with thermally induced stress. In this study, we aimed to improve the crystallization of apatite coating by using calcium fluoride (CaF2) as a buffer layer. The insertion of a thin layer of CaF2 (0.2-1 microm) between apatite and Ti significantly improved the crystallization behavior of apatite. Moreover, this crystallization was more enhanced as the thickness of CaF2 was increased. When a 1 microm-thick CaF2 was inserted, the crystallization of apatite initiated at a temperature as low as 320 degrees C, being a dramatic improvement in the crystallization when considering the crystallization initiation temperature of a bare apatite coating on Ti was approximately 450 degrees C. As a result of this crystallization enhancement, the dissolution behavior of CaF2-inserted apatite coatings was more stable than that of the bare apatite coating, showing much reduced initial-burst effect. Preliminary cellular assay showed the CaF2-inserted apatite coating provided a substrate for cells to spread and grow favorably, as being similar to the bare apatite coating. This novel way of apatite coating on Ti using CaF2 buffer layer may be useful in the coating systems particularly requiring low temperature processing and increased crystallinity with high chemical stability.

  16. Optical absorption, fluorescence and thermoluminescence of CaF2 single crystals doped with lanthanide rare earth ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Choyu

    1979-01-01

    Optical Absorption (OA) , Fluorescence (FL) and Thermoluminescence (TL) experiments were carried out in X-irradiated CaF 2 crystals doped with most of the Lanthanide Rare Earth (RE) ions, Yttrium, and with both RE ions Dysprosium and Terbium. All optical Absorption and Fluorescence measurements as well as optical bleaching and X-irradiation were performed at RT while the TL measurements were done i n the RT- 800K range. Every RE-doped specimen has been fully characterized by its OA and FL bands due to the RE ion-electronic transitions. Most of the RE ions which substitutes for a Ca 2+ ion in the CaF 2 lattice is in the trivial state, being reduced to the divalent state by X-irradiation. The TL results for X-irradiated CaF 2 :Tb , CaF 2 :Dy and CaF 2 :Ho specimens show that the mechanism proposed f o r the 4K-300K TL processing these crystals is also valid for the 300K - 800K temperature range. The photochromic (PC) effect in X-irradiated Tb-doped CaF 2 crystals upon thermal and optical bleaching has been detected. Optical experiments in CaF 2 :Tb,Dy show that the observed PC effect is due to photo switched reversibility of an electron between two states, the thermally stable original state and the ionized stat PC - e - -> PC + , Tb 3+ e - -. Tb 2+ . The regeneration of the OA bands is achieved thermally (-100 deg C) and optically (λ Vis >400nm) with further UV blenching. A detailed analysis of the OA spectra of CaF 2 :Tb crystals X=irradiated and thermally as well as optically bleached show that besides the photo switching, electron-hole recombination occurs leading to a decrease in the overall OA spectrum. The OA bands due to PC-, PC + and Tb 2+ - transitions have been identified by means of Optical Absorption Differential Analysis. Further studies of Photochromic color centers in CaF 2 :Tb crystals show that some of the OA bands detected i the 15Kcm -1 - 20Kcm -1 spectral region are due to hole centers. The TL emissions peaks resulting from the thermal

  17. Two transcription factors, Pou4f2 and Isl1, are sufficient to specify the retinal ganglion cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuguo; Kaczynski, Tadeusz J; Sethuramanujam, Santhosh; Li, Renzhong; Jain, Varsha; Slaughter, Malcolm; Mu, Xiuqian

    2015-03-31

    As with other retinal cell types, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) arise from multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs), and their formation is regulated by a hierarchical gene-regulatory network (GRN). Within this GRN, three transcription factors--atonal homolog 7 (Atoh7), POU domain, class 4, transcription factor 2 (Pou4f2), and insulin gene enhancer protein 1 (Isl1)--occupy key node positions at two different stages of RGC development. Atoh7 is upstream and is required for RPCs to gain competence for an RGC fate, whereas Pou4f2 and Isl1 are downstream and regulate RGC differentiation. However, the genetic and molecular basis for the specification of the RGC fate, a key step in RGC development, remains unclear. Here we report that ectopic expression of Pou4f2 and Isl1 in the Atoh7-null retina using a binary knockin-transgenic system is sufficient for the specification of the RGC fate. The RGCs thus formed are largely normal in gene expression, survive to postnatal stages, and are physiologically functional. Our results indicate that Pou4f2 and Isl1 compose a minimally sufficient regulatory core for the RGC fate. We further conclude that during development a core group of limited transcription factors, including Pou4f2 and Isl1, function downstream of Atoh7 to determine the RGC fate and initiate RGC differentiation.

  18. The 22-year cycle in the geomagnetic 27-day recurrences reflecting on the F2-layer ionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Apostolov

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar cycle variations of the amplitudes of the 27-day solar rotation period reflected in the geomagnetic activity index Ap, solar radio flux F10.7cm and critical frequency foF2 for mid-latitude ionosonde station Moscow from the maximum of sunspot cycle 18 to the maximum of cycle 23 are examined. The analysis shows that there are distinct enhancements of the 27-day amplitudes for foF2 and Ap in the late declining phase of each solar cycle while the amplitudes for F10.7cm decrease gradually, and the foF2 and Ap amplitude peaks are much larger for even-numbered solar cycles than for the odd ones. Additionally, we found the same even-high and odd-low pattern of foF2 for other mid-latitude ionosonde stations in Northern and Southern Hemispheres. This property suggests that there exists a 22-year cycle in the F2-layer variability coupled with the 22-year cycle in the 27-day recurrence of geomagnetic activity.

    Key words. Ionosphere (mid-latitude ionosphere; ionosphere- magnetosphere interactions – Magnetospheric physics (solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  19. The 22-year cycle in the geomagnetic 27-day recurrences reflecting on the F2-layer ionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Apostolov

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar cycle variations of the amplitudes of the 27-day solar rotation period reflected in the geomagnetic activity index Ap, solar radio flux F10.7cm and critical frequency foF2 for mid-latitude ionosonde station Moscow from the maximum of sunspot cycle 18 to the maximum of cycle 23 are examined. The analysis shows that there are distinct enhancements of the 27-day amplitudes for foF2 and Ap in the late declining phase of each solar cycle while the amplitudes for F10.7cm decrease gradually, and the foF2 and Ap amplitude peaks are much larger for even-numbered solar cycles than for the odd ones. Additionally, we found the same even-high and odd-low pattern of foF2 for other mid-latitude ionosonde stations in Northern and Southern Hemispheres. This property suggests that there exists a 22-year cycle in the F2-layer variability coupled with the 22-year cycle in the 27-day recurrence of geomagnetic activity. Key words. Ionosphere (mid-latitude ionosphere; ionosphere- magnetosphere interactions – Magnetospheric physics (solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  20. Crystallization kinetics and spectroscopic investigations on Tb3+ and Yb3+ codoped glass ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lihui; Qin Guanshi; Arai, Yusuke; Jose, Rajan; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Akimoto, Yusuke

    2007-01-01

    Transparent Tb 3+ and Yb 3+ codoped oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing CaF 2 nanocrystals were prepared by melt quenching and subsequent heat treatment. Crystallization kinetics of CaF 2 nanocrystals was investigated by differential scanning calorimetric method. The average apparent activation energy E a of the crystallization was ∼498 kJ/mol. Moreover, the value of the Avrami exponent n was 1.01. These results suggest that the crystallization mechanism of CaF 2 is a diffusion controlled growth process of needles and plates of finite long dimensions. X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy image confirmed the CaF 2 nanocrystals in the glass ceramic. Ultraviolet (UV) and visible emission spectra of the as-made glass and the glass ceramic with an excitation of a 974 nm laser diode were recorded at room temperature. An intense UV emission at 381 nm was observed in the glass ceramic. The origin of the enhancement of the emission at 381 nm was investigated using spectroscopic technique and Judd-Ofelt analysis. The enhancement of the emission at 381 nm could be attributed to the change of the ligand field of Tb 3+ ions due to the incorporation of some Tb 3+ and Yb 3+ ions into CaF 2 nanocrystals in the glass ceramic

  1. Parameters of heavy quark effective theory from N{sub f}=2 lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blossier, Benoit [CNRS, Orsay (France). LPT; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Della Morte, Michele [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Fritzsch, Patrick [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Garron, Nicolas [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Heitger, Jochen [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1; Simma, Hubert; Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Tantalo, Nazario [Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Sezione di Roma (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    We report on a non-perturbative determination of the parameters of the lattice Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) Lagrangian and of the time component of the heavy-light axial-vector current with N{sub f} = 2 flavors of massless dynamical quarks. The effective theory is considered at the 1/m{sub h} order, and the heavy mass m{sub h} covers a range from slightly above the charm to beyond the beauty region. These HQET parameters are needed to compute, for example, the b-quark mass, the heavy-light spectrum and decay constants in the static approximation and to order 1/m{sub h} in HQET. The determination of the parameters is done non-perturbatively. The computation reported in this paper uses the plaquette gauge action and two different static actions for the heavy quark described by HQET. For the light-quark action we choose non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions.

  2. First Type of Ferroelectricity Generated by Undulated-Prototypic to Ferroic Transition. II. f=2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizu, Kêichiro

    1996-08-01

    Before this paper, ferroelectricity generated by undulated-prototypic to ferroic transition was abbreviated as U-ferroelectricity. This paper deals with U-ferroelectricity of type I and of f=2 (f denotes faintness index). A case study is made. The prototypic phase when homogeneous is assumed tetragonal. The order parameters are two real variables, Qα and Qβ. The free energy function can be expanded into a power series in electric field, as Ψ=Φ-EΦ‧-(1/2)E2Φ‧‧-…, which defines Φ, Φ‧, etc. A theory is given; it clarifies that the combination of the following term within Φ (not Φ‧) and the following δ undulation is responsible for the generation of U-ferroelectricity:Term [Qβ(∂xx2-∂yy2)Qα-Qα(∂xx2-∂yy2)Qβ]and δ =U\\cos (\\hat{h}x+\\hatθ)+U\\prime\\cos (\\hat{h}y+\\hatθ\\prime).

  3. Synthesis and dosimetric characterization of LiF-MgF2, doped with Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Pedro R.; Nieto, Ana L.; Cruz-Zaragoza, Epifanio; Furetta, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The results of the synthesis and characterization of dosimetric thermoluminescent material based on the composition LiF-MgF 2 1:1 (Z eff = 9.7) doped Lu 3+ ions, developed at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, Mexico are presented. The TL material synthesis was carried out using the technique of casting solid substances, preparations were made with dopant concentrations of 0.25, 0.83, 1.00 and 2.00 mol%, the 1 mol% resulted in increased sensitivity to radiation. Its brightness curve has the TL peak intensity at 330 deg C when irradiated to 1000 Gy, whereas when irradiated greater than 2500 Gy, occurs at 230 ° C, also has a peak of smaller maximum intensity at 140 ° C. Microstructural characterization of the obtained material was performed using the techniques of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction Kinetic parameters of the curves of brightness of the material is performed by the deconvolution method using the sequential quadratic programming algorithm, developed in the same institute. This new TL material complies fully with international standards to be used as dosimetry system in medical physics, research and industry, as its TL response (total integrated under the curve) to 60 Co gamma radiation, presents linearity between 1 and 5000 Gy , while the response of commercial TLD dosimeter-100 used as a reference, is only linear up to 10 Gy

  4. Extreme 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn air samples from NEEM, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Blunier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 12 high volume air samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-12 (CCl2F2. While the mixing ratio measurements compare favorably to other firn air studies, the isotope results show extreme 13C depletion at the deepest measurable depth (65 m, to values lower than δ13C = −80‰ vs. VPDB (the international stable carbon isotope scale, compared to present day surface tropospheric measurements near −40‰. Firn air modeling was used to interpret these measurements. Reconstructed atmospheric time series indicate even larger depletions (to −120‰ near 1950 AD, with subsequent rapid enrichment of the atmospheric reservoir of the compound to the present day value. Mass-balance calculations show that this change is likely to have been caused by a large change in the isotopic composition of anthropogenic CFC-12 emissions, probably due to technological advances in the CFC production process over the last 80 yr, though direct evidence is lacking.

  5. Determination of UO2F2, UO2 and UF4 in tetrafluoride of uranium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Guzman, Ariel; Arlegui Hormazabal, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    The combustible elements for investigation reactors that at the present are manufacturing by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) they are based on aluminum and silicide uranium powdered which is obtained from metallic uranium. At the present the Conversion Units, is developing the technology of transformation UF 6 in metallic Uranium, reason for which is necessary that the Chemical Analysis Laboratory have a methodology that allows to quantify the presence of UO 2 F 2 , UO 2 and UF 4 in the samples obtained in this transformation process. For this reason we are implements the methodology of sequential analysis that had been developed previously, for the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Investigations, IPEN Brasil, and to adapt it to the present conditions in the Laboratory of Chemical Analysis of the CCHEN. This method is based on the different solubilities that present those sample in front of solvents as ethanol and solutions of ammonium oxalate, what allows the separation of these compounds for a later analysis by means of the method of Davies and Gray. This method is based on the reduction of the uranium (VI) to uranium (IV) with ferrous ion amid phosphoric acid, quantifying the present uranium in the samples by means of titration with potassium dicromate. With the purpose of checking the efficiency of the method, the sum of all values of uranium coming from each compound and compares it with the total uranium of the sample (author)

  6. Luminescence properties of Eu3+ doped CdF2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubekri, H.; Diaf, M.; Guerbous, L.; Jouart, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the photoluminescence properties of Eu3+ doped CdF2 single crystals. The pulled crystals were prepared by use of the Bridgman technique from a vacuum furnace in fluoride atmosphere. Absorption, excitation and emission spectra of the crystal doped with three Eu3+ concentrations (0.02%, 0.1% and 0.6% mol.) were recorded at room temperature. The emission spectra exhibit a strong yellow and red emissions in the spectral range 550-720 nm which are assigned to 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 1, 2, 4) transitions and a weak infrared emission around 816 nm corresponding to 5D0 → 7F6 transition. The magnetic dipole emission (5D0 → 7F1) is the most intense for each Eu3+ concentration. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4, Ω6 for 4f-4f transitions of Eu3+ ions were computed from the emission spectra using the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 1, 2, 4, 6) transitions. Via these phenomenological intensity parameters, the spontaneous emission probabilities, branching ratios, radiative lifetimes, quantum efficiencies and emission cross-sections for the main Eu3+ emitting levels are evaluated.

  7. X-ray ionization and fragmentation of XeF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, S. H.; Dunford, R. W.; Doumy, G.; Kanter, E. P.; Krässig, B.; Ho, P. J.; March, A. M.; Lehmann, C. S.; Picón, A.; Young, L.; Ray, D.; Wehlitz, R.

    2014-05-01

    An inner-shell hole produced by x-ray absorption in a heavy atom decays in a multi-step process with emission of fluorescent photons and Auger electrons. If the heavy atom is in a molecular environment, the initial hole and the holes produced by the first decay steps remain localized, but eventually charge is redistributed to neighboring atoms and the system Coulomb explodes. Such processes are responsible for x-ray damage in molecules and materials. It is informative to study charge redistribution in XeF2 molecules in comparison with core-hole decays in atomic Xe. We have used hard x rays at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source to produce Xe 1s holes and a multi-hit x-ray/ion spectrometer to measure charge distributions and kinetic energies released to the fragment ions. At Wisconsin's Synchrotron Radiation Center, soft x rays were used to measure ion charge-state yields resulting from Xe 3d5/2, Xe 3d3/2, and F 1s holes. To explore core-hole decay dynamics on the femtosecond time scale, x-ray-pump/x-ray-probe experiments are planned at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, US Dept of Energy, Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  8. Efficiency of Intravulval Lip Route of Prostaglandin F2a Administration on Estrus Synchron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Srikandakumar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrus was synchronized in dairy cattle using the synthetic prostaglandin F2a (PG analog Estnunate (Coopers Animal Health Ltd., Berkhamsed, England. UK; 250 ug/ml of cloprostenol. PG was administered by two routes at two different doses, 500 ug by im route (control and 125 pg by intravulval lip (ivu route (treatment. All animals were bred by artificial insemination (AI to detected estrus using the am-pm breeding rule (BR. First service conception rate (FSCR for all dairy cows and heifers was 70% for the control and 54% for the treatment groups (P>0.05. The FSCR was also not different (P>0.05 between Holstein (HOL and Australian Milking Zebu (AMZ breeds (HOL 52% and AMZ 78%. Moreover, all the animals in this study were confirmed pregnant by the end of the breeding season. In conclusion, dairy cows and heifers can be successfully synchronized using only 125 pg of cloprostenol without impairing fertility. This dose corresponds to only one fourth of the recommended dose of 500 pg of cloprostenol by the manufacturer.

  9. PAC - Perturbed Angular Correlation spectrometer with six BaF2 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domienikan, Claudio; Lapolli, Andre L.; Carbonari, Artur W.; Saxena, Rajendra N.; Schoueri, Roberto M.

    2009-01-01

    A Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectrometer with six conical BaF 2 detectors was built. The increased number of detectors in relation with the current configuration of the spectrometer (with four detectors), extends the number of delayed γ- γ coincidence spectra from 12 to 30 obtained simultaneously, reducing the time of PAC measurements. The standard multichannel analyzer (MCA) commonly used in these types of spectrometers was replaced with an ultra fast analog to digital converter (8715 ADC - CANBERRA R ) and a high speed digital input-output (I/O) board (6534 Acquisition system - NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS R ). The experimental data consisting of relevant information about the delayed γ-γ coincidence events generated from different combinations of detectors (for example: the timing information, start and stop detector identification, coincidence validation etc.) are stored in a file-mode in the hard disk of a computer. This information can be processed at a later stage by background data processing to generate and periodically refresh individual PAC spectra without interruption of the data collection process. The coincidence spectra are generated in real time by using LabVIEW software. The increased number of simultaneous spectra generated in this spectrometer improves the hyperfine parameters deduced from the TDPAC measurements. More important, the new spectrometer would be used for application of some interesting radioactive nuclei that can be used as probes in several hyperfine interaction studies. (author)

  10. Crosshole investigations - physical properties of core samples from boreholes F1 and F2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, K.A.; Carlsten, S.; Olsson, O.

    1987-06-01

    The geology and physical properties has been studied of roughly 100 core samples from the boreholes F1 and F2 drilled at the Crosshole site, located at the 360 m level in the Stripa mine. The granitic rock has been divided into two classes: fracture zones (also called major units) and a rock mass which is relatively undeformed. Samles from the major units have lower resistivity, higher porosity and dielectric constant than the samples from the less deformed rock mass. The electrical properties of the core samples have been measured over a frequency interval ranging from 1 Hz to 70 MHz. The conductivity of the samples increases with frequency, approximately with the frequency raised to the power 0.38. The dielectric constant decreases with frequency but is essentially constant above 3 MHz. These results show that the Hanai-Bruggeman equation can be used to describe the electrical bulk properties of the Stripa granite. The electrical conductivity of the samples is well correlated to the water content of the samples. The granite has a small content of electrically conductive minerals which could influence the electrical bulk properties. (author) 14 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Absorption Spectra of BaF2 Sm2O3, Sm, Gd, and Ho Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael; Bastiani-Ceccotti, Serena

    2009-11-01

    Knowledge of the opacities of high Z element plasmas is important in indirect drive ICF and the study of stellar evolution. There are few experimental measurements of this quantity, and its theoretical determination is difficult due to the number of possible bound electron configurations. This study aims to better the theoretical understanding of this parameter by looking at the 3d-4f transitions of BaF2, Sm2O3, Sm, Gd, and Ho plasmas at the LULI2000 facility. The plasmas are produced by radiative heating and are cold, 15 -- 40 eV, and relatively dense, ˜ .01gm/cm^3 A plasma is produced by a .5 ns laser pulse irradiating a gold hohlraum and then probed by an x-ray source created by a gold foil irradiated by a 10 ps laser pulse. The transmission is found with simultaneous source and absorption measurements by an x-ray spectrometer in the 8 - 20 å range We will compare the results with statistical atomic structure codes. From this experiment we will gain further insight into the spectral broadening of neighboring Z elements due to changing plasma temperature and into mixture thermodynamics. This is a first step towards an experimental study of astrophysical domains.

  12. The effects of prostaglandins E1, F1α and F2α on monosynaptic reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, P.; Horton, E. W.; McPherson, Angus

    1968-01-01

    1. Experiments, using electrophysiological recording techniques, were carried out to confirm the report that prostaglandins affect spinal reflexes in cats. 2. Ventral root potentials evoked by stimulation of the ipsilateral dorsal root were recorded. Those with a latent period corresponding to a monosynaptic pathway were used primarily in this investigation. 3. Prostaglandin E1 (3·5-17·8 μg/kg) injected into the aorta reduced the amplitude of monosynaptic responses in six out of ten cats. The effect began about 15 min after injection and lasted over 3 hr. In one cat E1 caused potentiation of the reflex and in three cats there was no effect. 4. Prostaglandin F1α (2·4-3·5 μg/kg) inhibited the monosynaptic response in four cats but in one of these a subsequent large dose (19·6 μg/kg) greatly potentiated the reflex. 5. Prostaglandin F2α (1·4-17·8 μg/kg) injected into the aorta was followed by significant but variable changes in monosynaptic response. In one experiment an intravenous injection (30·3 μg/kg) was followed by a long-lasting potentiation of the reflex response. 6. It is concluded that prostaglandins, two of which have previously been identified in cat brain extracts, have pronounced and long-lasting effects on monosynaptic spinal reflexes. PMID:5659846

  13. Ab-initio Calculations of Electronic Properties of Calcium Fluoride (CaF2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohara, Bir; Franklin, Lashounda; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Bagayoko, Diola

    We have performed first principle, local density approximation (LDA) calculations of electronic and related properties of cubic calcium fluorite (CaF2) . Our non-relativistic computations employed the Ceperley and Alder LDA potential and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) formalism. The implementation of the LCAO formalism followed the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams (BZW) method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). We discuss the electronic energy bands, including the large band gap, total and partial density of states, electron and hole effective masses, and the bulk modulus. Our calculated, indirect (X- Γ) band gap is 12.98 eV; it is 1 eV above an experimental value of 11.8 eV. The calculated bulk modulus (82.89 GPA) is excellent agreement with the experimental result of 82.0 +/-0.7. Our predicted equilibrium lattice constant is 5.42Å. Acknowledgments: This work is funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA [Award Nos. EPS- 1003897, NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR], and NSF HRD-1002541, the US Department of Energy, National, Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award No. DE-NA-0002630), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.

  14. Trigger system prototype for BaF2 detector array at CSNS-WNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T.; Cao, P.; Jiang, D.; Wang, Q.; Qi, X.; An, Q.

    2017-12-01

    A segmented 4π detector array composed of 92 BaF2 crystals is under development for neutron capture cross-section measurements at CSNS-WNS (White Neutron Source at China Spallation Neutron Source). Each of the detector channels will be recorded by a high performance digitizer, which will produce huge amount of raw data and bring challenges to data acquisition. To decrease the data rate, a trigger system based on the PXI Express (PXIe) platform that helps to filter desired signal out of the backgrounds is proposed in this paper. The trigger system is used to obtain the relevant hit information from all the detector signals, including the total energy (ESum) and the channel hit status (NHit). The trigger system is located in 4 PXIe chassis, together with the readout electronics. Between different chassis, the trigger signal is encoded and distributed using the high speed serial link. While within the same chassis, trigger signal is fanned out via PXIe backplane star trigger bus. Exploiting these methods, the number of distributing cables decreases drastically and the trigger system is much more compact. Test results exhibit the feasibility of this proposed method.

  15. Longitudinal conductivity of LaF3/SrF2 multilayer heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergentev, Tikhon; Banshchikov, Alexander; Filimonov, Alexey; Koroleva, Ekaterina; Sokolov, Nikolay; Wurz, Marc Christopher

    2016-01-01

    LaF 3 /SrF 2 multilayer heterostructures with thicknesses of individual layers in the range 5-100 nm have been grown on MgO(100) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. The longitudinal conductivity of the films has been measured using impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range 10 -1 -10 6  Hz and a temperature range 300-570 K. The ionic DC conductivities have been determined from Nyquist impedance diagrams and activation energies from the Arrhenius-Frenkel equation. An increase of the DC conductivity has been observed to accompany decreased layer thickness for various thicknesses as small as 25 nm. The greatest conductivity has been shown for a multilayer heterostructure having thicknesses of 25 nm per layer. The structure has a conductivity two orders of magnitude greater than pure LaF 3 bulk material. The increasing conductivity can be understood as a redistribution of charge carriers through the interface due to differing chemical potentials of the materials, by strong lattice-constant mismatch, and/or by formation of a solid La 1-x Sr x F 3-x solution at the interface during the growth process.

  16. Synchronization of ovulation in goats using prostaglandin F2α based protocols during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Simões

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this review was to describe the feasibility of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α based protocols used as a tool for ovulation synchronization in cycling goats. There is a reproductive seasonality in small ruminants. However, from latitudes 45 ° towards equator, the intensity of anoestrus progressively decreases and tends to disappear in local breeds. Consequently, PGF2α or their synthetic analogues as luteolytic substances can assume a great importance in reproductive management of flocks from these regions. However, a single or double (9–11 days apart PGF2α administration provokes a good induction but a moderate synchronization of ovulations if timed artificial insemination is considered, and a significant short oestrous cycle can occur with detrimental effects on fertility rate when compared with conventional progesterone-based protocols. In order to minimize this constraint, some gonadotropinreleasing hormone-PGF2α-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Ovsynch-based protocols and their modifications, manipulating the dominant follicles and corpora lutea, were successfully tested in goats. Similar to cows, these PGF2α based protocols seem to be a promising and more cost-effective tool for reproductive management in cycling goats.

  17. KIMA, PERLUKAH MENUNGGU F2 UNTUK PERDAGANGAN? SUATU KAJIAN BERDASARKAN MARKER GENETIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estu Nugroho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Kima (Tridagnidae merupakan salah satu komoditas air laut yang prospektif secara ekonomis, tercatat harga di Taiwan adalah $35--$142 per kg. Dalam pengembangan akuabisnis kima masih dijumpai kendala di antaranya adalah adanya aturan bahwa hanya turunan kedua atau F2 yang boleh diperdagangkan karena masuk dalam daftar CITES (Convention on Trade of Endangered Species menurut PP No. 8 tahun 1999 tentang pemanfaatan satwa. Karena pertumbuhannya yang relatif lambat serta adanya negara lain, misalnya Filipina, Fiji, dan Taiwan yang memperdagangkan hasil budidaya pada turunan F1, maka keadaan ini sangat merugikan pihak Indonesia. Kajian tentang permasalahan penurunan variasi genetik merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk mendukung adanya pelonggaran persyaratan perdagangan kima tersebut. Kajian genetika dengan menggunakan marker genetik menunjukkan bahwa tidak terjadi penurunan variasi genetik seperti yang dikuatirkan sebelumnya. Keragaman genetik pada F1 meningkat dibandingkan dengan induknya, yaitu 0,073 dan 0,023. Jarak genetik antar populasi yang diuji adalah sebesar 0,016.

  18. Placental Origin of Prostaglandin F2α in the Domestic Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta J. Siemieniuch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the question was addressed whether the feline placenta can synthesize prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α. The PGFS protein was elevated, particularly at 2.5–3 weeks of pregnancy compared to 7-8 (P<0.05 and 8.5–9 weeks (P<0.001. Transcripts for PGFS were significantly upregulated at 2.5–3 weeks of pregnancy and then gradually declined towards the end of gestation (P<0.001. Transcripts for PTGS2 were only upregulated in placentas from queens close to term (P<0.001 compared with earlier phases. Staining of PTGS2 showed distinct positive signals in placentas obtained during the last week before labor, particularly in the strongly invading trophoblast surrounding blood vessels, and also in decidual cells. Shortly after implantation, signals for PGFS were localized in the trophoblast cells. Near term, PGFS staining was seen mainly in decidual cells. Both placental PGF2α and plasma PGFM were elevated towards the end of pregnancy (P<0.001 compared with earlier weeks of pregnancy. The content of PGF2α in extracted placenta mirrored the PGFM level in plasma of pregnant females. During late gestation there is a significant increase in PGFM levels in maternal blood and of PGF2α levels in placental tissue concomitant with an upregulation of placental PTGS2.

  19. Nodal multigap superconductivity in KCa2Fe4As4F2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidman, M.; Kirschner, F. K. K.; Adroja, D. T.; Hillier, A. D.; Lang, F.; Wang, Z. C.; Cao, G. H.; Blundell, S. J.

    2018-02-01

    We find evidence that the newly discovered Fe-based superconductor KCa2Fe4As4F2 (Tc=33.36 (7 ) K) displays multigap superconductivity with line nodes. Transverse field muon spin rotation (μ SR ) measurements show that the temperature dependence of the superfluid density does not have the expected behavior of a fully gapped superconductor, due to the lack of saturation at low temperatures. Moreover, the data cannot be well fitted using either single band models or a multiband s -wave model, yet are well described by two-gap models with line nodes on either one or both of the gaps. Meanwhile the zero-field μ SR results indicate a lack of time reversal symmetry breaking in the superconducting state, but suggest the presence of magnetic fluctuations. These results demonstrate a different route for realizing nodal superconductivity in iron-based superconductors. Here the gap structure is drastically altered upon replacing one of the spacer layers, indicating the need to understand how the pairing state is tuned by changes of the asymmetry between the pnictogens located either side of the Fe planes.

  20. Potential applications of lipid peroxidation products - F4-neuroprostanes, F3-neuroprostanesn-6 DPA, F2-dihomo-isoprostanes and F2-isoprostanes - in the evaluation of the allograft function in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Las Heras-Gómez, Ignacio; Medina, Sonia; Casas-Pina, Teresa; Marín-Soler, Lidia; Tomás, Anna; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro; Oger, Camille; Galano, Jean-Marie; Durand, Thierry; Jimeno, Luisa; Llorente, Santiago; Lozoya, Elena; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2017-03-01

    F 4 -neuroprostanes, F 3 -neuroprostanes n-6 DPA , and F 2 -dihomo-isoprostanes, metabolites of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids [docosahexaenoic acid, n-6 docosapentanoic acid, and adrenic acid respectively], have become important biomarkers for oxidative stress in several diseases like epilepsy and alzheimer. These biomarkers and the 15-F 2t -isoprostane (also known as 8-iso-PGF 2α ) , a F 2 -isoprostane isomer measured as reference oxidative marker at systemic level, were analyzed by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS in the urine of 60 renal recipients from cadaveric donors of the Nephrology Unit of the University Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca, at six different times during the first six months after renal transplantation, and were compared with a control group of 60 healthy subjects from the same hospital. A total of 11 metabolites were analyzed and different patterns were observed. A tendency to decrease was observed in three metabolites (4-epi-4-F 3t - NeuroP n-6 DPA , ent-7(RS)-7-F 2t -dihomo-IsoP, and ent-7(S)-7-F 2t -dihomo-IsoP) and in our reference oxidative marker (15-F 2t -IsoP) when kidney function improved and the excretion of urine proteins decreased. These results suggest that these three biomarkers of oxidative stress could be useful to assess renal function in the postransplant phase. Unfortunately, little is known about this kind of biomarker in this cohort of patients, so further investigation would be required in the clinical field to clarify the relationship between oxidative stress and the graft function, as well as the usefulness of these biomarkers as rejection markers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. First-principles calculations of the elastic constants of the cubic, orthorhombic and hexagonal phases of BaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyawere, P.W.O.; Makau, N.W.; Amolo, G.O.

    2014-01-01

    All the elastic constants of cubic, orthorhombic and hexagonal phases of BaF 2 have been calculated using first principles methods. We have employed density-functional theory within generalized gradient approximation (GGA) using a plane-wave pseudopotentials method and a plane-wave basis set. The calculated elastic constant values for a cubic phase compare well with recent theoretical and experimental calculations. The bulk modulus derived from the elastic constant calculations of orthorhombic phase of BaF 2 is 94.5 GPa and those of hexagonal phase is 161 GPa. These values are in good agreement with experimental data available. Stability of these phases of BaF 2 is also estimated in different crystallographic directions

  2. On the QCD corrections to {Delta}F=2 FCNC in the supersymmetric SM with hierarchical squark masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Farina, Marco [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Lodone, Paolo, E-mail: p.lodone@sns.i [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-05-02

    In the context of the Supersymmetric Standard Model with hierarchical sfermion masses, we re-analyze the QCD corrections to {Delta}F=2 effective Hamiltonian properly including effects which have been neglected so far. The point is that some {Delta}F=2 diagrams, involving both the heavy and the light sparticles, exhibit a logarithmic dependence on the ratio between the two masses, signalling a sensitivity to all the momenta between the two scales. In order to properly deal with these terms one has to take into account the mixing between {Delta}F=1 and {Delta}F=2 operators. In typical situations this treatment can affect the result at the level of 30% or even more.

  3. Evolution of the spectrum of the solvated electron in BeF2 aqueous glasses at 76 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.Q.; Walker, D.C.; Gillis, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence is presented for a spontaneous shift from infrared-to- red-to-green in the overall spectrum of the electron trapped in an aqueous glass at 76 K following nanosecond pulse radiolysis. As with the alcohols, after the pulse the infrared absorption decays, there is a growth-then-decay of absorbance at intermediate wavelengths and net growth of absorption due to the equilibrated trapped electron state, e - /sub vis/. This progressive transition was not characterised by a single-step process and was discernible in aqueous glasses containing 7.5 or 10.7M BeF 2 in D 2 O. At higher BeF 2 concentrations, or with LiBr as glass-forming electrolyte, no growth of e - /sub vis/ was observed, probably because of concurrent loss of e - /sub vis/ in those glasses, as in LiCl and other glasses. BeF 2 glasses of trapped electrons showed several other features of interest: (i) wavelength- selective bleaching of the e - /sub vis/ band indicates that it is composed of a broad ''green'' band (lambda/sub max/, 530--590 nm) which bleaches homogeneously, and a broad ''red'' region which bleaches inhomogeneously. (ii) lambda/sub max/ for e - /sub vis/ changes with BeF 2 concentration, being blue shifted with increasing concentration , with both green and red underlying structures shifting slightly. (iii) No absorption due to F - 2 was found following pulse radiolysis in these glasses at 76 K. (iv) Several recent findings with LiCl are mimicked by F - 2 glasses. For instance, G (e - /sub vis/) increases and G (e - /sub ir/) decreases as the electrolyte concentration is increased, while the combined yield remains constant at 1.8 +- 0.1

  4. A prospective randomised trial comparing the modified HM3 with the MODULITH® SLX-F2 lithotripter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Pascal; Roth, Beat; Birkhäuser, Frédéric; Schneider, Silvia; Schmutz, Rolf; Thalmann, George N; Studer, Urs E

    2011-04-01

    The relative efficacy of first- versus last-generation lithotripters is unknown. To compare the clinical effectiveness and complications of the modified Dornier HM3 lithotripter (Dornier MedTech, Wessling, Germany) to the MODULITH(®) SLX-F2 lithotripter (Storz Medical AG, Tägerwilen, Switzerland) for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). We conducted a prospective, randomised, single-institution trial that included elective and emergency patients. Shock wave treatments were performed under anaesthesia. Stone disintegration, residual fragments, collecting system dilatation, colic pain, and possible kidney haematoma were evaluated 1 d and 3 mo after ESWL. Complications, ESWL retreatments, and adjuvant procedures were documented. Patients treated with the HM3 lithotripter (n=405) required fewer shock waves and shorter fluoroscopy times than patients treated with the MODULITH(®) SLX-F2 lithotripter (n=415). For solitary kidney stones, the HM3 lithotripter produced a slightly higher stone-free rate (p=0.06) on day 1; stone-free rates were not significantly different at 3 mo (HM3: 74% vs MODULITH(®) SLX-F2: 67%; p=0.36). For solitary ureteral stones, the stone-free rate was higher at 3 mo with the HM3 lithotripter (HM3: 90% vs MODULITH(®) SLX-F2: 81%; p=0.05). For solitary lower calyx stones, stone-free rates were equal at 3 mo (63%). In patients with multiple stones, the HM3 lithotripter's stone-free rate was higher at 3 mo (HM3: 64% vs MODULITH(®) SLX-F2: 44%; p=0.003). Overall, HM3 lithotripter led to fewer secondary treatments (HM3: 11% vs MODULITH(®) SLX-F2: 19%; p=0.001) and fewer kidney haematomas (HM3: 1% vs. MODULITH(®) SLX-F2: 3%; p=0.02). The modified HM3 lithotripter required fewer shock waves and shorter fluoroscopy times, showed higher stone-free rates for solitary ureteral stones and multiple stones, and led to fewer kidney haematomas and fewer secondary treatments than the MODULITH(®) SLX-F2 lithotripter. In patients with a solitary

  5. EVALUASI KERAGAMAN GENETIK INDUK IKAN KERAPU SUNU (Plectropomus leopardus F-1 DAN TURUNANNYA (F-2 DENGAN PENANDA mt-DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Budi Moria Sembiring

    2012-12-01

    pada turunannya (F-2. Hal ini dimungkinkan bahwa yuwana yang dianalisis tersebut berasal dari populasi 3 komposit haplotip induk F-1. Hasil analisis dengan program Tools for Population Genetic Analysis (TFPGA menunjukkan bahwa nilai keragaman genetik induk F-1 mengalami penurunan sebesar 20,46% terhadap turunannya (F-2, hal ini diduga karena sedikitnya jumlah induk efektif yang memijah. Dengan demikian penambahan induk efektif perlu dilakukan untuk menghindari laju penurunan keragaman genetik.

  6. Intravaginal Misoprostol Versus Intra-amniotic 15 Methyl PG F2 a for Termination of Second Trimester Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    N. Vimala, V. Dadhwal, S. Kumar, S. Mittal, S. Vinekar

    2005-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of intravaginal application of misoprostol and intra-amniotic injection ofprostaglandin 15-methyl F2 alpha (PG F2α) in terminating second trimester pregnancies, eightypregnant women at 14-20 weeks of gestation with single live fetuses and requesting for terminationof pregnancy were randomised into two groups.Women in group I: received four tablets of vaginalmisoprostol (200 mg/tablet) and in group II : intra-amniotic injection of (10 ml) 2.5 mg 15 methyl -PGF2α. Failur...

  7. M2-F2 Mated to B-52 Mothership on Ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    A head-on view of the M2-F2 lifting body mounted on the wing pylon of its B-52 mothership in 1965. This was for a captive flight made the following month. The M2-F2 remained attached to the B-52 throughout the flight to test its on-board systems. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute

  8. Ionospheric foF2 anomalies during some intense geomagnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Kane

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The global evolutions of foF2 anomalies were examined for three very intense geomagnetic storms, namely the Halloween events of October-November 2003 (Event X, 29–30 October 2003, Dst –401 nT; Event Y, 20–21 November 2003, Dst –472 nT, and the largest Dst storm (Event Z, 13–14 March 1989, Dst –589 nT. For Event X, troughs (negative storms were clearly seen for high northern and southern latitudes. For northern midlatitudes as well as for low latitudes, there were very strong positive effects on 29 October 2003, followed by negative effects the next day. For Event Y, there were no troughs in NH high latitudes for morning and evening hours but there were troughs for night. For midlatitudes and low latitudes, some longitudes showed strong negative effects in the early morning as expected, but some longitudes showed strong positive effects at noon and in the evening hours. Thus, there were many deviations from the model patterns. The deviations were erratic, indicating considerable local effects superposed on general patterns. A disconcerting feature was the presence of strong positive effects during the 24 h before the storm commencement. Such a feature appears only in the 24 h before the geomagnetic storm commencement but not earlier. If genuine, these could imply a prediction potential with a 24-h antecedence. For Event Z (13–14 March 1989, equinox, all stations (all latitudes and longitudes showed a very strong "negative storm" in the main phase, and no positive storms anywhere. Keywords. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere – Ionospheric disturbances – Mid-latitude Ionosphere – Polar ionosphere

  9. [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in predicting radiation pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Yu, Jin-ming; Kong, Feng-ming; Lu, Jie; Bai, Tong; Ma, Li; Fu, Zheng

    2009-06-05

    Prevention is presently the only available method to limit radiation-induced lung morbidity. A good predictor is the key point of prevention. This study aimed to investigate if [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake changes in the lung after radiotherapy could be used as a new predictor for acute radiation pneumonitis (RP). Forty-one patients with lung cancer underwent FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging before and after radiotherapy. The mean standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured for the isodose regions of 0 - 9 Gy, 10 - 19 Gy, 20 - 29 Gy, 30 - 39 Gy, 40 - 49 Gy. The mean SUV of these regions after radiotherapy was compared with baseline. The mean SUV in patients who developed RP was also compared with that in those who did not. The statistical difference was determined by matched pair t test. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria were used for diagnosis and grading of RP. With a median follow-up of 12 months, 11 (26.8%) of the 41 patients developed grade 2 and above acute RP. The mean SUV of regions (10 - 19 Gy, 20 - 29 Gy, 30 - 39 Gy, 40 - 49 Gy) increased after radiation therapy in all 41 patients. The mean SUVs after radiation therapy were 0.54, 0.68, 1.31, 1.74 and 2.27 for 0 - 9 Gy, 10 - 19 Gy, 20 - 29 Gy, 30 - 39 Gy and 40 - 49 Gy, respectively. Before the radiation therapy, the mean SUV in each region was 0.53, 0.52, 0.52, 0.53 and 0.54, respectively. These patients had significantly higher FDG activities in regions receiving 10 Gy or more (P acute RP subsequently. The mean SUV of the lung tissue may be a useful predictor for the acute RP. FDG-PET/CT may play a new role in the study of the radiation damage of the lung.

  10. M2-F2 Lifting Body being Carried Aloft by B-52 Mothership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    The M2-F2 Lifting Body is shown here being carried aloft by the Air Force's B-52 (tail number 003) prior to a research launch. The success of Dryden's 'homebuilt' M2-F1 program led to NASA's development and construction of two heavyweight lifting bodies--the M2-F2 and the HL-10, both built by the Northrop Corporation. The 'M' refers to 'manned' and 'F' refers to 'flight' version. 'HL' comes from 'horizontal landing.' The first flight of the M2-F2--which looked much like the 'F1'--was on July 12, 1966. Milt Thompson was the pilot. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable

  11. THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF MELTS OF DOUBLE SYSTEM MgO – Al2O3, MgO – SiO2, MgO – CaF2, Al2O3 – SiO2, Al2O3 – CaF2, SiO2 – CaF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Судавцова

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Methodology of prognostication of thermodynamics properties of melts is presented from the coordinatesof liquidus of diagram of the state in area of equilibria a hard component is solution, on which energies ofmixing of Gibbs are expected in the double border systems of MgO – Al2O3, MgO – SiO2, MgO – CaF2,Al2O3 – SiO2, Al2O3 - CaF2, SiO2 - CaF2. For the areas of equilibrium there is quasibinary connection(MgAl2O4, Mg2SiO4, Al6Si2O13 – a grout at calculations was used equalization of Hauffe-Wagner. Theobtained data comport with literary

  12. NMR metabolomics of thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) resistance in Senecio hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Kirsten A; Choi, Young H; Abdel-Farid, Ibrahim B; Verpoorte, Robert; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2009-02-01

    Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) has become a key insect pest of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Little is known about host plant resistance to thrips. In this study, we investigated thrips resistance in F (2) hybrids of Senecio jacobaea and Senecio aquaticus. We identified thrips-resistant hybrids applying three different bioassays. Subsequently, we compared the metabolomic profiles of these hybrids applying nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The new developments of NMR facilitate a wide range coverage of the metabolome. This makes NMR especially suitable if there is no a priori knowledge of the compounds related to herbivore resistance and allows a holistic approach analyzing different chemical compounds simultaneously. We show that the metabolomes of thrips-resistant and -susceptible hybrids differed considerably. Thrips-resistant hybrids contained higher amounts of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), jacobine, and jaconine, especially in younger leaves. Also, a flavanoid, kaempferol glucoside, accumulated in the resistant plants. Both PAs and kaempferol are known for their inhibitory effect on herbivores. In resistant and susceptible F (2) hybrids, young leaves showed less thrips damage than old leaves. Consistent with the optimal plant defense theory, young leaves contained increased levels of primary metabolites such as sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose, but also accumulated jacaranone as a secondary plant defense compound. Our results prove NMR as a promising tool to identify different metabolites involved in herbivore resistance. It constitutes a significant advance in the study of plant-insect relationships, providing key information on the implementation of herbivore resistance breeding strategies in plants.

  13. Accelerating effect of an MRL gene locus on the severity and onset of arthropathy in DBA/1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Hisashi; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Mizuki, Shinichi; Kamogawa, Junji; Lu, Ling-Min; Tsubaki, Takahito; Arita, Norimasa; Ono, Masao; Yamamoto, Haruyasu; Nose, Masato

    2005-03-01

    To analyze the influence of the genetic background of an arthritis-prone strain of mice, MRL, on the spontaneous development of arthropathy in DBA/1 mice, which histopathologically resembles enthesopathy in humans, and to clarify the strain-specific gene loci and their interactions that confer susceptibility to arthropathy. MRL, DBA/1, (MRL x DBA/1)F(1), and (MRL x DBA/1)F(2) intercross mice were prepared, and the severity and onset of arthropathy of the ankle joints in individual mice were quantified (0-3 and 0-5 scale, respectively). A genome-wide scan of 271 male F(2) intercross mice with polymorphic microsatellite markers was performed. Only male DBA/1, (MRL x DBA/1)F(1), and (MRL x DBA/1)F(2) mice developed arthropathy. The macroscopic and histopathologic findings of arthropathy in the F(2) mice were similar to those in the parental DBA/1 mice, but the onset was significantly earlier. In the quantitative trait locus analysis of male F(2) mice, 1 susceptibility locus for both the severity and early onset of the disease in the region of an MRL allele, Amd1, was located at marker D10Mit259 (map position 40.0 cM), which was common to 1 of the sialadenitis susceptibility loci in MRL mice, Asm1. Another susceptibility locus for the severity and early onset of arthropathy in the region of a DBA allele, Amd2, was located at D3Mit46 (29.5 cM). These loci manifested an additive effect on the development of arthropathy. Arthropathy in DBA/1 mice is under the control of an allelic combination of gene loci, one of which is common to the locus for sialadenitis in MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice.

  14. Superionic conductors with the fluorite structure: a) Measurement of the ionic conductivity of SrF2 at high temperatures, b) Study of the thermodynamic properties at CaF2 by numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelakis, Georges

    1989-01-01

    In this work we present the results of an experimental study concerning the superionic conductivity of SrF 2 and those obtained by an investigation of the thermodynamical properties of CaF 2 using molecular dynamics simulation in the superionic region. The conductivity measurements in SrF 2 have been performed at high temperatures (700-1350 K) and various frequencies (10 Hz-10 MHz). At each temperature a frequency dependence of the conductivity has been detected. The analysis of the results using complex impedance diagrams revealed that this dependence is not an intrinsic property of the material but is related to electrodes effects. The apparent activation energies associated to the different parts of the intrinsic and extrinsic conductivity regions have been determined. Unfortunately no clear conclusion relative to the conduction mechanism can be made there from. Computer simulations by molecular dynamics have been performed in CaF 2 modeled using a rigid ion potential. The diffusion coefficient, the specific heat, structure factors, mean square displacements of both anions and cations, as well as the temperature dependence of these quantities have been calculated. The good agreement found between calculated quantities and experimental results justified us in using the crude approximation of a rigid on potential. A direct computation of the superionic conductivity has been obtained for the first time using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics in the linear response regime. From the independent calculation of the diffusion coefficient and the conductivity, the Havens ratio has been deduced, Hr 0.34, in the superionic region. Its value suggests that the superionic conductivity of CaF 2 is due to a collective and correlated mechanism, a fact which has been confirmed by the MD trajectory analysis. (author) [fr

  15. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 753-756. Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... be composed of normal nuclear matter with hyperons and/or condensed mesons. The matter at ...

  16. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available balance between the inherent advantages and disadvantages. Also, using a hybrid composite that contains two or more types of fibre, the advantages of one type of fibre could complement with what are lacking in the other. As a consequence, a balance in cost...

  17. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  18. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  19. Critical frequency and maximum electron density of F2 region over four stations in the North American sector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ezquer, R. G.; Cabrera, M. A.; López, J. L.; Albornoz, M. R.; Mosert, M.; Marcó, P.; Burešová, Dalia

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 4 (2011), s. 420-429 ISSN 1364-6826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Ionosphere * F2 region * Critical frequency * Electron density * Model Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.596, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682610002786

  20. Neutron diffraction and TSDC on Ba1−xUxF2+2x solid electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouwerkerk, M.; Andersen, N. H.; Veldkamp, F. F.

    1986-01-01

    The defect structure of fluorite-type Ba1−xUxF2+2x solid solutions, which exhibit fast fluoride ion conductivity, has been investigated by quasi-elastic diffuse neutron scattering (QDNS) experiments, and thermally stimulated depolarisation current (TSDC) measurements. A comparison with model...

  1. Determination of etching parameters for pulsed XeF2 etching of silicon using chamber pressure data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipta; Baboly, M. G.; Elahi, M. M.; Abbas, K.; Butner, J.; Piñon, D.; Ward, T. L.; Hieber, Tyler; Schuberth, Austin; Leseman, Z. C.

    2018-04-01

    A technique is presented for determination of the depletion of the etchant, etched depth, and instantaneous etch rate for Si etching with XeF2 in a pulsed etching system in real time. The only experimental data required is the pressure data collected temporally. Coupling the pressure data with the knowledge of the chemical reactions allows for the determination of the etching parameters of interest. Using this technique, it is revealed that pulsed etching processes are nonlinear, with the initial etch rate being the highest and monotonically decreasing as the etchant is depleted. With the pulsed etching system introduced in this paper, the highest instantaneous etch rate of silicon was recorded to be 19.5 µm min-1 for an initial pressure of 1.2 Torr for XeF2. Additionally, the same data is used to determine the rate constant for the reaction of XeF2 with Si; the reaction is determined to be second order in nature. The effect of varying the exposed surface area of Si as well as the effect that pressure has on the instantaneous etch rate as a function of time is shown applying the same technique. As a proof of concept, an AlN resonator is released using XeF2 pulses to remove a sacrificial poly-Si layer.

  2. Bacterial effector HopF2 interacts with AvrPto and suppresses Arabidopsis innate immunity at the plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant pathogenic bacteria inject a cocktail of effector proteins into host plant cells to modulate the host immune response, thereby promoting pathogenicity. How or whether these effectors work cooperatively is largely unknown. The Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effector HopF2 suppresses the host plan...

  3. Increased levels of the oxidative stress biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α in wastewater associated with tobacco use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Bade, Richard

    2016-01-01

    oxidative stress at a community level. In this work, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) was analysed in raw 24 h-composite wastewater samples collected from 4 Norwegian and 7 other European cities in 2014 and 2015. Using the same samples, biomarkers of alcohol (ethyl sulfate) and tobacco (trans-3...

  4. The global distribution of the dusk-to-nighttime enhancement of summer NmF2 at solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiding; Liu, Libo; Le, Huijun; Wan, Weixing; Zhang, Hui

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the dusk-to-nighttime enhancement (DNE) of summer NmF2 was investigated based on Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate radio occultation observations at solar minimum. The global distributions of the magnitude and the peak time of the DNE as well as the role of the DNE in NmF2 diurnal cycle were presented. The DNE mainly exists in three regions (one in the Southern Hemisphere and two in the Northern Hemisphere), and its distribution is related to geomagnetic configuration, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. For most DNEs, their peaks correspond to the maxima of NmF2 diurnal cycle. The DNEs are much more prominent in the southern than in the northern summer hemisphere; they last to later nighttime hours, have larger magnitudes, and play more important roles in NmF2 diurnal cycle in the southern than in the northern summer hemisphere. The distribution of the DNE was analyzed in terms of photoionization and the vertical plasma drift induced by neutral winds. The positive geomagnetic declinations and the smaller geomagnetic inclinations at higher geographic latitudes over the South Pacific are crucial for the prominent DNEs in the southern summer hemisphere; they result in larger upward plasma drift at higher latitudes where photoionization is still significant at sunset and evening hours.

  5. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Der f 2, a Potent Allergen Derived from the House Dust Mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophugoides sp.) are particularly ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis, and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are often caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unclear biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite Dermatophagoides farinae, has been recombinantly expressed and characterized. The Der f 2 protein has been crystallized in our laboratory and a native data set collected at a synchrotron source. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group I422 with unit cell parameters of a = 95.2 Angstroms, b = 95.2 Angstroms, and c = 103.3 Angstroms. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 Angstroms. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the available NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pterovssinus) failed to reveal a creditable solution.

  6. 18F-2-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography in Staging of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, J.J.M. van der; Krak, N.C.; Hoekstra, O.S.; Comans, E.F.I.; Boom, R.P.A.; Geldere, D. van; Meijer, S.; Wall, E. van der; Buter, J.; Pinedo, H.M.; Teule, G.J.J.; Lammertsma, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE To prospectively evaluate the effect of adding whole-body 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to conventional screening for distant metastases in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). PATIENTS AND METHODS All women with LABC referred for

  7. Safety block of the measuring channels F1 and F2 (SBK-F) at the RB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Petronijevic, M.; Jevremovic, M.; Vranic, S.; Ilic, I.

    1985-01-01

    This report shows the technical properties and the safety aspects of the safety block of measuring channels F1 and F2 completed at the RB reactor. The block is tested and built in the existing safety system of the reactor [sr

  8. Ion-radical synergy in HfO2 etching studied with a XeF2/Ar+ beam setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevers, P. M.; Beijerinck, H. C. W.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2008-01-01

    To gain more insight into fundamental aspects of the etching behavior of Hf-based high-k materials in plasma etch reactors, HfO 2 films were etched in a multiple-beam setup consisting of a low energy Ar + ion beam and a XeF 2 radical beam. The etch rate and etch products were monitored by real-time ellipsometry and mass spectrometry, respectively. Although etching of HfO 2 in XeF 2 /Ar + chemistry is mainly a physical effect, an unambiguous proof of the ion-radical synergistic effect for the etching of HfO 2 is presented. The etch yield for 400 eV Ar + ions at a substrate temperature of 300 deg. C was 0.3 atoms/ion for Ar + sputtering and increased to 2 atoms/ion when XeF 2 was also supplied. The etch yield proved to follow the common square root of ion energy dependence both for pure sputtering and radical enhanced etching, with a threshold energy at room temperature of 69±17 eV for Ar + ions and 54±14 eV for Ar + ions with XeF 2

  9. Suppression in the electrical hysteresis by using CaF2 dielectric layer for p-GaN MIS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Liwen; Ren, Bing; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2018-04-01

    The capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis in the bidirectional measurements of the p-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor is suppressed by using a CaF2 dielectric layer and a post annealing treatment. The density of trapped charge states at the CaF2/p-GaN interface is dramatically reduced from 1.3 × 1013 cm2 to 1.1 × 1011/cm2 compared to that of the Al2O3/p-GaN interface with a large C-V hysteresis. It is observed that the disordered oxidized interfacial layer can be avoided by using the CaF2 dielectric. The downward band bending of p-GaN is decreased from 1.51 to 0.85 eV as a result of the low-density oxides-related trap states. Our work indicates that the CaF2 can be used as a promising dielectric layer for the p-GaN MIS structures.

  10. Long-pulse high-power VUV molecular F2 laser pumped by a beam of relativistic electrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.J.M.; Lankhorst, Frank T.; Lankhorst, F.T.J.L.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Botma, H.; Botma, Hako; Witteman, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    A long pulse molecular F2 laser ((lambda) equals 157 nm) with an optical pulse width of 160 ns and an output energy of 1.7 J (4.6 MW/cm2) pumped by an electron beam has been realized. The only restriction for the optical pulse width of the laser seems to be the duration of the excitation pulse. No

  11. More on the 1/f(2) phase noise performance of CMOS differential-pair LC-tank oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreani, Pietro; Fard, Ali

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a rigorous phase noise analysis in the 1/f2 region for the differential CMOS LC-tank oscillator with both nMOS and pMOS switch pairs. A compact, closed-form phase noise equation is obtained, accounting for the noise contributions from both tank losses and transistors currents,...

  12. Production of Ginsenoside F2 by Using Lactococcus lactis with Enhanced Expression of β-Glucosidase Gene from Paenibacillus mucilaginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Shin, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Jin; Moon, Jin Seok; Im, Wan Taek; Han, Nam Soo

    2016-03-30

    This study aimed to produce a pharmacologically active minor ginsenoside F2 from the major ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd by using a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain expressing a heterologous β-glucosidase gene. The nucleotide sequence of the gene (BglPm) was derived from Paenibacillus mucilaginosus and synthesized after codon optimization, and the two genes (unoptimized and optimized) were expressed in L. lactis NZ9000. Codon optimization resulted in reduction of unfavorable codons by 50% and a considerable increase in the expression levels (total activities) of β-glucosidases (0.002 unit/mL, unoptimized; 0.022 unit/mL, optimized). The molecular weight of the enzyme was 52 kDa, and the purified forms of the enzymes could successfully convert Rb1 and Rd into F2. The permeabilized L. lactis expressing BglPm resulted in a high conversion yield (74%) of F2 from the ginseng extract. Utilization of this microbial cell to produce F2 may provide an alternative method to increase the health benefits of Panax ginseng.

  13. Learners' Perceptions of Blended Learning and the Roles and Interaction of f2f and Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to probe into learners' perceptions of blended learning in relation to the respective roles of face-to-face learning (f2f learning) and online learning as well as their interaction in the blended EFL contexts. Questionnaires were used in the study to examine the attitudes of 296 university students towards a blended English…

  14. Additivity of fast neutron and gamma ray induced thermoluminescence and reusability of CaF2:TLD-300 ribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, A S; Rassow, J; Olthoff-Muenter, K

    1985-02-01

    TL response of CaF2:Tm to fast neutrons and gamma rays is found to be additive. No significant change in the response is observed for a number of irradiation, anneal and readout cycles. Problems associated with mixed field dosimetry are discussed.

  15. The Dependence of the Distortion Product 2f1-f2 on Primary Levels in Non-Impaired Human Ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahr, Sumit; Long, Glenis R.; Culpepper, N. Brandt

    1998-01-01

    The ILO92 was used to determine the level of Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs) at 2f1-f2 for 16 combinations of primary levels in the range of 40 to 80 dB SPL from 40 unimpaired adult ears. An overall increase of DPOAE amplitude with increase in primary level was observed. (Author/CR)

  16. Heritability and genetic advance studies for biochemical traits in F2-3 introgressed families of Brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhatullah, N.K.; Khalil, I.H.; Nahed, H.

    2015-01-01

    Higher heritability estimates along with high genetic advance values are effective in envisaging gain under selection in developing genotypes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate variability, heritability and genetic advance in 10 interspecific F2-3 families of Brassica species (B. napus * B. juncea, B. napus * B. rapa). These families were studied for heterospecific introgression of biochemical traits. Low to high heritability estimates were recorded for seed quality traits. Considerable variations within F2-3 families were observed for biochemical traits. Most of the F2-3 families for oil content and erucic showed moderate to high heritability indicating the slightest influence of environment thus modification of trait by selection would be more effective. Among F2-3 introgressed families Bn-510 x Bj-109 produced high oil i.e., 49.5% while Bn-532 x Br-118 (24.4%), Bn-533 x Bj-109 (24.1%) and high protein percentage in terms of mean performance. In the present research, individual segregating progenies of interspecific cross populations i.e., which possessed combination of desirable traits, were identified which could be incorporated in the future Breeding programs and it may facilitate varietal development. (author)

  17. Inner ear dysfunction in caspase-3 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Minna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-3 is one of the most downstream enzymes activated in the apoptotic pathway. In caspase-3 deficient mice, loss of cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion cells coincide closely with hearing loss. In contrast with the auditory system, details of the vestibular phenotype have not been characterized. Here we report the vestibular phenotype and inner ear anatomy in the caspase-3 deficient (Casp3-/- mouse strain. Results Average ABR thresholds of Casp3-/- mice were significantly elevated (P Casp3+/- mice and Casp3+/+ mice at 3 months of age. In DPOAE testing, distortion product 2F1-F2 was significantly decreased (P Casp3-/- mice, whereas Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice showed normal and comparable values to each other. Casp3-/- mice were hyperactive and exhibited circling behavior when excited. In lateral canal VOR testing, Casp3-/- mice had minimal response to any of the stimuli tested, whereas Casp3+/- mice had an intermediate response compared to Casp3+/+ mice. Inner ear anatomical and histological analysis revealed gross hypomorphism of the vestibular organs, in which the main site was the anterior semicircular canal. Hair cell numbers in the anterior- and lateral crista, and utricle were significantly smaller in Casp3-/- mice whereas the Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice had normal hair cell numbers. Conclusions These results indicate that caspase-3 is essential for correct functioning of the cochlea as well as normal development and function of the vestibule.

  18. Taste dysfunction in BTBR mice due to a mutation of Itpr3, the inositol triphosphate receptor 3 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Hillary T.

    2013-01-01

    The BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) mouse strain is indifferent to exemplars of sweet, Polycose, umami, bitter, and calcium tastes, which share in common transduction by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). To investigate the genetic basis for this taste dysfunction, we screened 610 BTBR × NZW/LacJ F2 hybrids, identified a potent QTL on chromosome 17, and isolated this in a congenic strain. Mice carrying the BTBR/BTBR haplotype in the 0.8-Mb (21-gene) congenic region were indifferent to sweet, Polycose, umami, bitter, and calcium tastes. To assess the contribution of a likely causative culprit, Itpr3, the inositol triphosphate receptor 3 gene, we produced and tested Itpr3 knockout mice. These were also indifferent to GPCR-mediated taste compounds. Sequencing the BTBR form of Itpr3 revealed a unique 12 bp deletion in Exon 23 (Chr 17: 27238069; Build 37). We conclude that a spontaneous mutation of Itpr3 in a progenitor of the BTBR strain produced a heretofore unrecognized dysfunction of GPCR-mediated taste transduction. PMID:23859941

  19. Extended Analysis of Real-Time foF2 Mapping in Mideastern China Based On Shortwave Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li; Ma, Hong; Yu, De; Li, Yang; Qin, Yong

    2017-11-01

    A method for the real-time mapping of the critical frequency of the F2 layer (foF2) is established using shortwave radio signals as the radiation sources, thereby eliminating the need for ionosonde stations, and tested in mideastern China. The ionospheric foF2 in the reflection area between the receiving station and the radio stations is obtained using a probabilistic inversion method. Subsequently, Kriging is used for the real-time foF2 mapping. To heighten the performance of the reconstruction, the International Reference Ionosphere 2012 (IRI-2012) Model was used as a background for ionospheric interpolation to calculate regional variant. The mapping accuracy is estimated using ionosonde data derived from seven stations in mideastern China: Xinxiang (35.2°S, 113.9°E), Wuhan (30.6°S, 114.6°E), Qingdao (36.1°S, 12.4°E), Suzhou (30.3°S, 120.6°E), Xian (34.3°S, 108.9°E), Chongqing (29.6°S, 106.5°E), and Guangzhou (23.1°S, 113.3°E). The data were recorded approximately every 15 min during two recording intervals between 04:00 UTC LT on 31 October 2012, and 03:30 UTC on 1 November 2012. The estimates of foF2 obtained from the reconstruction method and the foF2 values predicted using IRI are compared with the measurements from the vertical ionosondes at the above seven stations. The root-mean-square error and percent deviation are calculated to evaluate the performance of the inversion model. The results indicate that the new method for real-time foF2 mapping based on shortwave signals is a promising candidate technique for obtaining ionospheric parameters and studying the ionosphere.

  20. F2DPR: a fast and robust cross-correlation technique for volumetric PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Thomas; Jeon, Young Jin; Lecordier, Bertrand; David, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    The current state-of-the-art in cross-correlation based time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques are the fluid trajectory correlation, FTC (Lynch and Scarano 2013) and the fluid trajectory evaluation based on an ensemble-averaged cross-correlation, FTEE (Jeon et al 2014a). These techniques compute the velocity vector as a polynomial trajectory Γ in space and time, enabling the extraction of beneficial quantities such as material acceleration whilst significantly increasing the accuracy of the particle displacement prediction achieved by standard two-frame PIV. In the context of time-resolved volumetric PIV, the drawback of trajectory computation is the computational expense of the three-dimensional (3D) cross-correlation, exacerbated by the requirement to perform N  -  1 cross-correlations, where N (for typically 5≤slant N≤slant 9 ) is the number of sequential particle volumes, for each velocity field. Therefore, the acceleration of this calculation is highly desirable. This paper re-examines the application of two-dimensional (2D) cross-correlation methods to three-dimensional (3D) datasets by Bilsky et al (2011) and the binning techniques of Discetti and Astarita (2012). A new and robust version of the 2D methods is proposed and described, called fast 2D projection—re-projection (f2dpr). Performance tests based on computational time and accuracy for both two-frame and multi-frame PIV are carried out on synthetically generated data. The cases presented herein include uniaxial uniform linear displacements and shear, and simulated turbulence data. The proposed algorithm is shown to be in the order of 10 times faster than a standard 3D FFT without loss of precision for a wide range of synthetic test cases, while combining with the binning technique can yield 50 times faster computation. The algorithm is also applied to reconstructed synthetic turbulent particle fields to investigate reconstruction noise on its performance and no

  1. Prostaglandin E and F2 alpha receptors in human myometrium during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy and labor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannopoulos, G.; Jackson, K.; Kredentser, J.; Tulchinsky, D.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of prostaglandins E1 and F2 alpha has been studied in the human myometrium and cervix during the menstrual cycle and in the myometrium of pregnant patients at term before and during labor. Tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 and F2 alpha binding was saturable and reversible. Scatchard analysis of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding was linear, which suggests a single class of high-affinity binding sites with an estimated apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of 2.5 to 5.4 nmol/L and inhibitor affinities of 0.9, 273, 273, and 217 nmol/L for prostaglandins E2, A1, B1, and F2 alpha, respectively. Scatchard analysis of tritium-labeled prostaglandin F2 alpha, binding was also linear, but the affinity of these binding sites was much lower, with an average dissociation constant of 50 nmol/L and inhibitor affinities of 1.6, 2.2, and 11.2 nmol/L for prostaglandins E1, E2, and A1, respectively. In nonpregnant patients, the concentrations and affinities of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites were similar in the myometrium during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle, but the concentration of these sites was much lower in the cervix. The concentration of the tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites was significantly lower in the myometrium of pregnant patients at term than in the myometrium of nonpregnant patients. The concentrations and affinities of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites were not significantly different in the upper and lower myometrium of pregnant patients at term or in the myometrium of such patients before and during labor. The concentrations of the tritium-labeled prostaglandin F2 alpha binding sites during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy at term were similar to those of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites

  2. Prostaglandin E and F2 alpha receptors in human myometrium during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy and labor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannopoulos, G.; Jackson, K.; Kredentser, J.; Tulchinsky, D.

    1985-12-15

    The binding of prostaglandins E1 and F2 alpha has been studied in the human myometrium and cervix during the menstrual cycle and in the myometrium of pregnant patients at term before and during labor. Tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 and F2 alpha binding was saturable and reversible. Scatchard analysis of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding was linear, which suggests a single class of high-affinity binding sites with an estimated apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of 2.5 to 5.4 nmol/L and inhibitor affinities of 0.9, 273, 273, and 217 nmol/L for prostaglandins E2, A1, B1, and F2 alpha, respectively. Scatchard analysis of tritium-labeled prostaglandin F2 alpha, binding was also linear, but the affinity of these binding sites was much lower, with an average dissociation constant of 50 nmol/L and inhibitor affinities of 1.6, 2.2, and 11.2 nmol/L for prostaglandins E1, E2, and A1, respectively. In nonpregnant patients, the concentrations and affinities of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites were similar in the myometrium during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle, but the concentration of these sites was much lower in the cervix. The concentration of the tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites was significantly lower in the myometrium of pregnant patients at term than in the myometrium of nonpregnant patients. The concentrations and affinities of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites were not significantly different in the upper and lower myometrium of pregnant patients at term or in the myometrium of such patients before and during labor. The concentrations of the tritium-labeled prostaglandin F2 alpha binding sites during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy at term were similar to those of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites.

  3. [Pb2F2](SeO4): a heavier analogue of grandreefite, the first layered fluoride selenate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkin, Dmitri O.; Plokhikh, Igor V.; Zadoya, Anastasiya I.; Kazakov, Sergey M.; Zaloga, Alexander N.; Kozin, Michael S.; Depmeier, Wulf; Siidra, Oleg I.

    2018-01-01

    Co-precipitation of PbF2 and PbSeO4 in weakly acidic media results in the formation of [Pb2F2](SeO4), the selenate analogue of the naturally occurring mineral grandreefite, [Pb2F2](SO4). The new compound is monoclinic, C2/ c, a = 14.0784(2) Å, b = 4.6267(1) Å, c = 8.8628(1) Å, β = 108.98(1)°, V = 545.93(1) Å3. Its structure has been refined from powder data to R B = 1.55%. From thermal studies, it is established that the compound is stable in air up to about 300 °C, after which it gradually converts into a single phase with composition [Pb2O](SeO4), space group C2/ m, and lattice parameters a = 14.0332(1) Å, b = 5.7532(1) Å, c = 7.2113(1) Å, β = 115.07(1)°, V = 527.37(1) Å3. It is the selenate analogue of lanarkite, [Pb2O](SO4), and phoenicochroite, [Pb2O](CrO4), and its crystal structure was refined to R B = 1.21%. The formation of a single decomposition product upon heating in air suggests that this happens by a thermal hydrolysis mechanism, i.e., Pb2F2SeO4 + H2O (vapor) → Pb2OSeO4 + 2HF↑. This relatively low-temperature process involves complete rearrangement of the crystal structure—from a 2D architecture featuring slabs [Pb2F2]2+ formed by fluorine-centered tetrahedra into a structure characterized by 1D motifs based on [OPb2]2+ chains of oxocentered tetrahedra. The comparative crystal chemistry of the obtained anion-centered structural architectures is discussed.

  4. Extensive hybridization and introgression between Melastoma candidum and M. sanguineum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Liu

    Full Text Available Natural hybridization can lead to various evolutionary outcomes in plants, including hybrid speciation and interspecific gene transfer. It can also cause taxonomic problems, especially in plant genera containing multiple species. In this study, the hybrid status of Melastoma affine, the most widespread taxon in this genus, and introgression between its putative parental species, M. candidum and M. sanguineum, were assessed on two sites, Hainan and Guangdong, using 13 SSR markers and sequences of a chloroplast intergenic spacer. Bayesian-based STRUCTURE analysis detected two most likely distinct clusters for the three taxa, and 76.0% and 73.9% of the morphologically identified individuals of M. candidum and M. sanguineum were correctly assigned, respectively. 74.5% of the M. affine individuals had a membership coefficient to either parental species between 0.1 and 0.9, suggesting admixture between M. candidum and M. sanguineum. Furthermore, NewHybrids analysis suggested that most individuals of M. affine were F2 hybrids or backcross hybrids to M. candidum, and that there was extensive introgression between M. candidum and M. sanguineum. These SSR data thus provides convincing evidence for hybrid origin of M. affine and extensive introgression between M. candidum and M. sanguineum. Chloroplast DNA results were consistent with this conclusion. Much higher hybrid frequency on the more disturbed Guangdong site suggests that human disturbance might offer suitable habitats for the survival of hybrids, a hypothesis that is in need of further testing.

  5. Research Pilot Milt Thompson in M2-F2 Aircraft Attached to B-52 Mothership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    NASA research pilot Milt Thompson sits in the M2-F2 'heavyweight' lifting body research vehicle before a 1966 test flight. The M2-F2 and the other lifting-body designs were all attached to a wing pylon on NASA's B-52 mothership and carried aloft. The vehicles were then drop-launched and, at the end of their flights, glided back to wheeled landings on the dry lake or runway at Edwards AFB. The lifting body designs influenced the design of the Space Shuttle and were also reincarnated in the design of the X-38 in the 1990s. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft

  6. Effect of selection on green pea hybrid population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Стригун

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article features the results of variability study for one of the productivity characteristics in green pea, namely «number of seeds in the seedpod» for hybrid  populations and for the selections made thereof. Statistical methods of analysis have established the levels of variability for the characteristics in F2 original population , the impact of the selection completed within F2 onto the variability of F3 hybrid population. This shows the efficiency of repeated selection from F3 population and its impact onto the level of expersiioon of the characteristic being studied in the resulting F6 population. As a conclusion, a good time is set for practical breeding with the characteristic of «number of seeds in a seedpod» for  the selection, as well as for the methods for achieving its stable expression, that is to facilitate the decrease of durations and means for the tests conduct.

  7. Systematic selection for increased fruit yield in populations derived from hybridization only, F1 irradiation, and hybridization following parental irradiation in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, D.A.; Wynne, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Three hybrid peanut populations involving a single pair of high yielding parents were developed to determine the effects of irradiation prior to and after hybridization on the response to selection for fruit yield. The control-hybrid population was produced by making reciprocal crosses between the two parents. The pre-hybrid-irradiated population was initiated by making reciprocal crosses between the M 1 plants of the two parents irradiated as seeds. The post-hybrid-irradiated population was developed by irradiating the mature F 1 embryos of crosses between the same parents. Each of the three original populations consisted of 55 F 1 plants. Ten F 2 plants were grown from each F 1 and one F 3 plant from each F 2 was used to initiate the yield tests. Selection for increased yield was practiced systematically and uniformly in each population over the F 3 to F 5 generations until the number of lines derived from single F 1 plants was reduced to five and the number of sublines descended from particular F 2 plants to three per line for yield trials in the F 6 generation. The mean yields of the F 1 derived lines of the irradiated populations were considerably below that of the control hybrid population when selection began but they reached 99% of the control mean in the F 6 generation. Selection gains in the irradiated populations appeared to result from the removal of inferior yielding sublines since greatest progress was made by raising the lower extremities of mean F 2 derived subline ranges rather than by extending the upper extremities of the ranges. The three highest yielding lines in the F6 generation occurred in the irradiated populations while the three highest yielding sublines were found in the hybrid-control population. No incidental association between size and yield of fruit was noted and a wide range of fruit sizes was found among the high yielding lines and sublines in all populations. (author)

  8. Preparation , rare earth doping and characterization of glasses and transparent glass-ceramics in the system Pb F2-Cd F2-M O (M O=Si O2, B2 O3, Te O2 and P2 O5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.A.P.; Ribeiro, S.J.L.; Messaddeq, Y.; Briois, V.; Poulain, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, we presents general results on the preparation and characterization of some related glasses. Various well known glasses former oxides were used together with Pb F 2 -Cd F 2 towards the preparation of a new glasses. Results from thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and absorption (Exafs) are presented for the Pb F 2 -Cd F 2 -M O systems, where M O=Si O 2 , B 2 O 3 , Te O 2 and P 2 O 5 . (author)

  9. CEDAR Electrodynamics Thermosphere Ionosphere (ETI) Challenge for Systematic Assessment of Ionosphere/Thermosphere Models: NmF2, hmF2, and Vertical Drift Using Ground-Based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J. S.; Kuznetsova, M.; Rastatter, L.; Hesse, M.; Bilitza, D.; Butala, M.; Codrescu, M.; Emery, B.; Foster, B.; Fuller-Rowell, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Objective quantification of model performance based on metrics helps us evaluate the current state of space physics modeling capability, address differences among various modeling approaches, and track model improvements over time. The Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) Electrodynamics Thermosphere Ionosphere (ETI) Challenge was initiated in 2009 to assess accuracy of various ionosphere/thermosphere models in reproducing ionosphere and thermosphere parameters. A total of nine events and five physical parameters were selected to compare between model outputs and observations. The nine events included two strong and one moderate geomagnetic storm events from GEM Challenge events and three moderate storms and three quiet periods from the first half of the International Polar Year (IPY) campaign, which lasted for 2 years, from March 2007 to March 2009. The five physical parameters selected were NmF2 and hmF2 from ISRs and LEO satellites such as CHAMP and COSMIC, vertical drifts at Jicamarca, and electron and neutral densities along the track of the CHAMP satellite. For this study, four different metrics and up to 10 models were used. In this paper, we focus on preliminary results of the study using ground-based measurements, which include NmF2 and hmF2 from Incoherent Scatter Radars (ISRs), and vertical drifts at Jicamarca. The results show that the model performance strongly depends on the type of metrics used, and thus no model is ranked top for all used metrics. The analysis further indicates that performance of the model also varies with latitude and geomagnetic activity level.

  10. EFICIÊNCIA AGRONÔMICA DOS RIZÓBIOS SEMIA 6156, F 3 (4, F 2 (1, F2 - 2B, CPAC-B10 EM FEIJÃO DE PORCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Santos de Paula Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi validar e recomendar bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio usadas em inoculantes comerciais na leguminosa Canavalia ensiformis. O trabalho foi conduzido durante os meses de novembro de 2013 a fevereiro 2014. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e com unidade experimental de 24 m2, o plantio realizado no espaçamento de 0,5 m entre sulcos, densidade de 10 sementes por metro linear, As estirpes de rizóbio avaliadas foram: SEMIA 6156, F 3 (4, F 2 (1, F2 - 2B, CPAC-B10. A primeira avaliação foi realizada aos 30 dias após a semeadura (DAS, para número e massa de nódulos frescos e secos, massa seca da parte aérea e raízes. A segunda avaliação foi realizada quando 50% das plantas estavam em florescimento, quantificando-se a massa seca das folhas e caules, massa seca total da parte aérea e análise total de macronutrientes em folhas e caule. A estirpe F 2 (1 pode realizar efetiva simbiose com as plantas de feijão de porco, promovendo ganhos no acúmulo de massa seca de parte aérea das plantas, sendo assim considerada agronomicamente eficiente e recomendada para uso em inoculantes comerciais.

  11. PB1-F2 influenza A virus protein adopts a beta-sheet conformation and forms amyloid fibers in membrane environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Christophe; Al Bazzal, Ali; Vidic, Jasmina; Février, Vincent; Bourdieu, Christiane; Bouguyon, Edwige; Le Goffic, Ronan; Vautherot, Jean-François; Bernard, Julie; Moudjou, Mohammed; Noinville, Sylvie; Chich, Jean-François; Da Costa, Bruno; Rezaei, Human; Delmas, Bernard

    2010-04-23

    The influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein, encoded by an alternative reading frame in the PB1 polymerase gene, displays a high sequence polymorphism and is reported to contribute to viral pathogenesis in a sequence-specific manner. To gain insights into the functions of PB1-F2, the molecular structure of several PB1-F2 variants produced in Escherichia coli was investigated in different environments. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that all variants have a random coil secondary structure in aqueous solution. When incubated in trifluoroethanol polar solvent, all PB1-F2 variants adopt an alpha-helix-rich structure, whereas incubated in acetonitrile, a solvent of medium polarity mimicking the membrane environment, they display beta-sheet secondary structures. Incubated with asolectin liposomes and SDS micelles, PB1-F2 variants also acquire a beta-sheet structure. Dynamic light scattering revealed that the presence of beta-sheets is correlated with an oligomerization/aggregation of PB1-F2. Electron microscopy showed that PB1-F2 forms amorphous aggregates in acetonitrile. In contrast, at low concentrations of SDS, PB1-F2 variants exhibited various abilities to form fibers that were evidenced as amyloid fibers in a thioflavin T assay. Using a recombinant virus and its PB1-F2 knock-out mutant, we show that PB1-F2 also forms amyloid structures in infected cells. Functional membrane permeabilization assays revealed that the PB1-F2 variants can perforate membranes at nanomolar concentrations but with activities found to be sequence-dependent and not obviously correlated with their differential ability to form amyloid fibers. All of these observations suggest that PB1-F2 could be involved in physiological processes through different pathways, permeabilization of cellular membranes, and amyloid fiber formation.

  12. PB1-F2 Influenza A Virus Protein Adopts a β-Sheet Conformation and Forms Amyloid Fibers in Membrane Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Christophe; Al Bazzal, Ali; Vidic, Jasmina; Février, Vincent; Bourdieu, Christiane; Bouguyon, Edwige; Le Goffic, Ronan; Vautherot, Jean-François; Bernard, Julie; Moudjou, Mohammed; Noinville, Sylvie; Chich, Jean-François; Da Costa, Bruno; Rezaei, Human; Delmas, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein, encoded by an alternative reading frame in the PB1 polymerase gene, displays a high sequence polymorphism and is reported to contribute to viral pathogenesis in a sequence-specific manner. To gain insights into the functions of PB1-F2, the molecular structure of several PB1-F2 variants produced in Escherichia coli was investigated in different environments. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that all variants have a random coil secondary structure in aqueous solution. When incubated in trifluoroethanol polar solvent, all PB1-F2 variants adopt an α-helix-rich structure, whereas incubated in acetonitrile, a solvent of medium polarity mimicking the membrane environment, they display β-sheet secondary structures. Incubated with asolectin liposomes and SDS micelles, PB1-F2 variants also acquire a β-sheet structure. Dynamic light scattering revealed that the presence of β-sheets is correlated with an oligomerization/aggregation of PB1-F2. Electron microscopy showed that PB1-F2 forms amorphous aggregates in acetonitrile. In contrast, at low concentrations of SDS, PB1-F2 variants exhibited various abilities to form fibers that were evidenced as amyloid fibers in a thioflavin T assay. Using a recombinant virus and its PB1-F2 knock-out mutant, we show that PB1-F2 also forms amyloid structures in infected cells. Functional membrane permeabilization assays revealed that the PB1-F2 variants can perforate membranes at nanomolar concentrations but with activities found to be sequence-dependent and not obviously correlated with their differential ability to form amyloid fibers. All of these observations suggest that PB1-F2 could be involved in physiological processes through different pathways, permeabilization of cellular membranes, and amyloid fiber formation. PMID:20172856

  13. A measurement of the photon structure function F$_{2}^{\\gamma}$ at an average Q$^{2}$ of 12 GeV$^{2}$/c$^{4}$ : results from DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Batyunya, B; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bocci, V; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Daum, A; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; De Boeck, H; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fürstenau, H; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gillespie, D; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Haedinger, U; Hahn, F; Hahn, M; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Ioannou, P; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kalmus, George Ernest; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köhne, J H; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Królikowski, J; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, G; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Fernandez, A; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stepaniak, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1996-01-01

    The hadronic photon structure function F_{2}^{\\gamma} has been measured in the Q^{2} range from 4 to 30~GeV^2/c^{4} and down to x values of order 0.001, using data taken with the DELPHI detector at LEP between 1991 and 1993. A comparison is made with several F_{2}^{\\gamma} parameterizations with special emphasis on their low x behaviour. A result on the Q^{2} evolution of F_{2}^{\\gamma} is presented.

  14. Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Christensen, Bruce W.; Smith, Fran; Young, Julie K.

    2017-01-01

    Following the production of western gray wolf (Canis lupus) x western coyote (Canis latrans) hybrids via artificial insemination (AI), the present article documents that the hybrids survived in captivity for at least 4 years and successfully bred with each other. It further reports that backcrossing one of the hybrids to a male gray wolf by AI also resulted in the birth of live pups that have survived for at least 10 months. All male hybrids (F1 and F2) produced sperm by about 10 months of age, and sperm quality of the F1 males fell within the fertile range for domestic dogs, but sperm motility and morphology, in particular, were low in F2 males at 10 months but improved in samples taken at 22 months of age. These studies are relevant to a long-standing controversy about the identity of the red wolf (Canis rufus), the existence of a proposed new species (Canis lycaon) of gray wolf, and to the role of hybridization in mammalian evolution.

  15. Ensaio de potência da alfaepoetina: Comparação de camundongos Swiss Webster, NIH, C57BL/6, BALB/c com o híbrido B6D2F1 /Potency assay of epoetin alpha: Comparison of Swiss Webster, NIH, C57BL/6, BALB/c mice with the hybrid B6D2F1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Barbosa da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo comparamos os resultados de ensaios de potência da alfaepoetina (EPOhr realizados com camundongos de diferentes colônias e linhagens (Swiss Webster, NIH, C57BL/6 e BALB/c com aqueles de ensaios conduzidos com o híbrido B6D2F1, o úni-co camundongo recomendado pela Farmacopeia Europeia (FE. Fêmeas de diferentes colônias e linhagens, pesando 16-18 gramas, receberam uma única dose de EPOhr por via subcutânea (30, 90 ou 270 UI/animal, 0,2 mL/camundongo. As potências biológi-cas de apresentações de 4.000 UI/mL da EPOhr foram avaliadas utilizando um material de referência de trabalho de alfaepoetina (3.773 UI/mL anteriormente testado junto ao padrão de referência internacional BRP (European Pharmacopeia Biological Refe-rence Preparation. Os resultados indicaram que camundongos das colônias e linhagens examinadas atingiram critérios estatísticos (FE para um ensaio válido de potência da eritropoietina e, portanto, podem ser considerados como alternativas ao uso do híbrido B6D2F1. Os ensaios com camundongos BALB/c, entretanto, foram os que produziram re-sultados mais semelhantes aos obtidos com os híbridos B6D2F1, em relação à contagem média de reticulócitos em resposta a 30, 90 e 270 UI/camundongo, e aos coefi cientes angulares (inclinação e lineares (intersecção da curva dose-resposta (curvas paralelas praticamente superpostas. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- In this study we compared the outcomes of epoetin alpha (rhEPO potency assays per-formed with Swiss Webster, NIH, C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice with those of the assay conducted with the B6D2F1 hybrid, the only mice recommended by the European Phar-macopoeia (EP. Female mice from different breeding stocks and strains, weighing 16-18 g, received a single subcutaneous injection of (30, 90 or 270 IU per mouse, 0.2 mL per mouse of rhEPO. Biological potencies 4000 IU/mL rhEPO pharmaceutical forms from di-fferent batches

  16. Hybrid incompatibilities in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia: negative effects of hemizygosity and the identification of transmission ratio distortion loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koevoets, T; Niehuis, O; van de Zande, L; Beukeboom, L W

    2012-03-01

    The occurrence of hybrid incompatibilities forms an important stage during the evolution of reproductive isolation. In early stages of speciation, males and females often respond differently to hybridization. Haldane's rule states that the heterogametic sex suffers more from hybridization than the homogametic sex. Although haplodiploid reproduction (haploid males, diploid females) does not involve sex chromosomes, sex-specific incompatibilities are predicted to be prevalent in haplodiploid species. Here, we evaluate the effect of sex/ploidy level on hybrid incompatibilities and locate genomic regions that cause increased mortality rates in hybrid males of the haplodiploid wasps Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia longicornis. Our data show that diploid F(1) hybrid females suffer less from hybridization than haploid F(2) hybrid males. The latter not only suffer from an increased mortality rate, but also from behavioural and spermatogenic sterility. Genetic mapping in recombinant F(2) male hybrids revealed that the observed hybrid mortality is most likely due to a disruption of cytonuclear interactions. As these sex-specific hybrid incompatibilities follow predictions based on Haldane's rule, our data accentuate the need to broaden the view of Haldane's rule to include species with haplodiploid sex determination, consistent with Haldane's original definition.

  17. Influencia del CaF2 sobre la capacidad de reacción de crudos de cemento

    OpenAIRE

    Palomo, Ángel; Blanco, M. Teresa

    1982-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia el efecto de una pequeña cantidad de CaF2 sobre la capacidad de reacción de crudos de cemento, para lo cual se comparan los comportamientos térmicos en función del tiempo de clinkerización de un crudo comercial con y sin adición de CaF2. Se da una estimación de los tiempos necesarios para completar las reacciones a diferentes temperaturas. El efecto mineralizador del espato-fluor pasa por un máximo a temperaturas de clinkerización del orden de 1.200ºC y tiempos d...

  18. {lambda}{sub MS} from the static potential for QCD with n{sub f}=2 dynamical quark flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Roma Univ. ' ' Tor Vergata' ' (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Roma (Italy); Karbstein, Felix [Helmholtz-Institut Jena (Germany); Jena Univ. (Germany). Theoretisch-Physikalisches Inst.; Nagy, Attila [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany); Wagner, Marc [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2011-12-15

    We determine {lambda}{sub MS} for QCD with n{sub f}=2 dynamical quark flavors by fitting the Q anti Q static potential known analytically in the perturbative regime up to terms of O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 4}) and {proportional_to}{alpha}{sub s}{sup 4} ln{alpha}{sub s} to corresponding results obtained from lattice simulations. This has become possible, due to recent advances in both perturbative calculations, namely the determination and publication of the last missing contribution to the Q anti Q static potential at O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 4}), and lattice simulations with n{sub f}=2 dynamical quark flavors performed at the rather fine lattice spacing of a{approx}0.042 fm. Imposing conservative error estimates we obtain {lambda}{sub MS}=315(30) MeV. (orig.)

  19. The 4s- and 4p- XPS spectra of Xe, XeF2 and XeF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    The 4s- and 4p- XPS spectra of Xe gas, XeF 2 molecule and XeF 4 molecule are calculated by an ab-initio atomic many-body theory. The 4s-peak and the prominent '4p'-peak are predicted well by the present theory. In XeF 2 and XeF 4 the spectral lines observed below the 4d-double ionization threshold are the 4d -2 4f multiplet states strongly perturbed by the interaction with the initial 4p 1/2 -hole state. They are very similar to the spectral lines which emerge with an increase in atomic number (e.g. Ba)

  20. Effect of Conway Medium and f/2 Medium on the growth of six genera of South China Sea marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lananan, Fathurrahman; Jusoh, Ahmad; Ali, Nora'aini; Lam, Su Shiung; Endut, Azizah

    2013-08-01

    A study was performed to determine the effect of Conway and f/2 media on the growth of microalgae genera. Genera of Chlorella sp., Dunaliella sp., Isochrysis sp., Chaetoceros sp., Pavlova sp. and Tetraselmis sp. were isolated from the South China Sea. During the cultivation period, the density of cells were determined using Syringe Liquid Sampler Particle Measuring System (SLS-PMS) that also generated the population distribution curve based on the size of the cells. The population of the microalgae genera is thought to consist of mother and daughter generations since these microalgae genera reproduce by releasing small non-motile reproductive cells (autospores). It was found that the reproduction of Tetraselmis sp., Dunaliella sp. and Pavlova sp. could be sustained longer in f/2 Medium. Higher cell density was achieved by genus Dunaliella, Chlorella and Isochrysis in Conway Medium. Different genera of microalgae had a preference for different types of cultivation media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Parameters in the estimation of the most suitable F2 population size in conventional maize (Zea mays L. breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delić Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to observe differences among four sizes of the F2 populations (100, 200, 300 and 500 plants on the basis of test-crosses for grain yield according to the average values of the populations, genetic and phenotypic variances, genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variations and broad-sense heritability. The values of genetic variance did not significantly differ over population sizes according to all possible comparisons, including the comparison of values obtained for the phenotypic variance. Furthermore, the values of broadsense heritability (67.8%-69% did not significantly vary over different F2 population sizes. Genetic variability of the observed progenies, as a principal prerequisite of successful selection, was at the satisfactory level in all population sizes.

  2. Preliminary report on electron energy-loss measurements for CCl3, CCl2F2, CCl3F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell, D.L. Jr.; Huebner, R.H.; Celotta, R.J.; Mielczarek, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    Currently, nation-wide research efforts are devoted to studying the possible ozone (O 3 ) depletion in the stratosphere by the chemical action of chlorine atoms released from CCl 2 F 2 or CCl 3 F upon absorption of ultraviolet radiation. Since electron-impact data taken in the forward scattering direction can be used to derive oscillator strengths and thus to yield apparent photoabsorption cross sections, such an analysis for CCl 2 F 2 , CCLl 3 F, and CClF 3 was carried out. Oscillator-strength distributions were obtained between 5 and 20 eV and are compared to available photoabsorption data. Certain photoabsorption values agree very well with these electron-impact data, but other optical studies deviate in some spectral regions by as much as a factor of 5. Also, the electron energy-loss spectrum reveals electronic transitions previously undetected by photoabsorption

  3. New property of organometallic compounds-redox-chemiluminescence during interaction with XeF2 and O2 in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgakov, R.G.; Majsterenko, G.Ya.; Yakovlev, V.N.; Kuleshov, S.P.; Tolstikov, G.A.; Kazakov, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    Interaction of organometallic compounds of the 1-8th group metals of the periodic system, including Sm, U, Mo, with XeF 2 and O 2 is studied. Chemiluminescence (CL) appearing during oxidation has been registered by a photoelectric multiplier. Absolute luminescence intensities are estimated by brightness standard. It is shown that during oxidation of practically all organometallic compounds (OMC) tested CL occurs. It is established that CL is excited not only for metal alkyl (aryl) OMC, but for sandwich compounds, carbonyls and for those containing metal-metal bonds. Kinetic dependences of CL intensity during OMC oxidation by oxygen possess one or several maxima of luminance, that indicates to the essential role of organometallic peroxides in luminescence excitation. The presence of similar maxima in kinetic CL dependences, appearing during reaction of some OMC with XeF 2 , can be considered as evidence of formation of intermediate organo-xenon compounds

  4. Diode laser spectra of CC12F2 near 10.8 microns; air-broadening effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer with resolution of about 0.0001/cm was used to record air-broadened spectra of CC12F2 in two regions near 922.8/cm and 921.7/cm. In the 922.8/cm region the structure shows good intensity contrast at pressures corresponding to upper atmospheric pressures. The absorption features have a spacing of 0.014/cm, which is sufficiently wide to retain spectral structure at pressures as high as 48 torr or altitudes as low as 19 km. The apparent broadening is 2 MHz/torr. The single-line broadening coefficient for CC12F2 can be estimated to be 8 + or - 2 MHz/torr FWHM. In the 921.7/cm region the high-resolution structure is discernible up to 24 torr, but the intensity contrast is not sufficiently strong to be of use in analysis of stratospheric spectra.

  5. Two-gap superconductivity with line nodes in CsCa2Fe4As4F2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Franziska K. K.; Adroja, Devashibhai T.; Wang, Zhi-Cheng; Lang, Franz; Smidman, Michael; Baker, Peter J.; Cao, Guang-Han; Blundell, Stephen J.

    2018-02-01

    We report the results of a muon-spin rotation (μ SR ) experiment to determine the superconducting ground state of the iron-based superconductor CsCa2Fe4As4F2 with Tc≈28.3 K . This compound is related to the fully gapped superconductor CaCsFe4As4 , but here the Ca-containing spacer layer is replaced with one containing Ca2F2 . The temperature evolution of the penetration depth strongly suggests the presence of line nodes and is best modeled by a system consisting of both an s - and a d -wave gap. We also find a potentially magnetic phase which appears below ≈10 K but does not appear to compete with the superconductivity. This compound contains the largest alkali atom in this family of superconductors, and our results yield a value for the in-plane penetration depth of λa b(T =0 ) =244 (3 ) nm .

  6. <報文>LiF-MgF_2,LiF-NaCl各2元系溶融塩の密度について

    OpenAIRE

    金井, 俊治; 谷内, 研太郎; 伊藤, 良雅

    1979-01-01

    The densities of the binary molten salts of LiF-MgF_2 and LiF-NaCl systems were measured by "the double bob method" based on the Archimedes' principle. 1) The densities of the molten salts in the LiF-MgF_2 binary system of an eutectic type having the solid solution on each side were measured in the composition range of 0?40 mol % MgF_2. Measured densities increased gradually with the increase in MgF_2 content. 2) The densities of the molten salts in the Lit-NaCl binary system of a simple eute...

  7. <報文>LiF-MgF_2,LiF-NaCl各2元系溶融塩の密度について

    OpenAIRE

    金井, 俊治; 谷内, 研太郎; 伊藤, 良雅; Toshiharu, KANAI; Kentaro, TANIUCHI; Yoshimasa, ITO; 東北大学選鉱製錬研究所; 東北大学選鉱製錬研究所; 東北大学選鉱製錬研究所

    1979-01-01

    The densities of the binary molten salts of LiF-MgF_2 and LiF-NaCl systems were measured by "the double bob method" based on the Archimedes' principle. 1) The densities of the molten salts in the LiF-MgF_2 binary system of an eutectic type having the solid solution on each side were measured in the composition range of 0~40 mol % MgF_2. Measured densities increased gradually with the increase in MgF_2 content. 2) The densities of the molten salts in the Lit-NaCl binary system of a simple eute...

  8. The effects of Eu-concentrations on the luminescent properties of SrF2:Eu nanophosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoub, M.Y.A.; Swart, H.C.; Noto, L.L.; O’Connel, J.H.; Lee, M.E.; Coetsee, E.

    2014-01-01

    SrF 2 :Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The structure of the nanophosphors was investigated with x-ray diffraction. The average crystallite size calculated using the Scherrer equation was in the range of 7.0 nm. The photoluminescence of Eu doped as-prepared SrF 2 nanophosphors were studied using different excitation sources. The samples showed emission from both the Eu oxidation states, Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ . At low Eu concentrations the emission from Eu 2+ centered at 416 nm was more dominant. While the narrow band of Eu 3+ emission intensity increased with an increase in the Eu concentration. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the Eu was indeed in both Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ valance states. The presence of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ in the system largely enhanced the response of the Eu 3+ under ultraviolet excitation. The time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry results suggested that the energy transfer between two ions was likely to occur. The relative photoluminescence intensity of the Eu 2+ rapidly decreased with an increasing laser beam irradiating time. This result would make the current Eu 2+ doped SrF 2 samples unsuitable candidates for several applications, such as white light-emitting diodes and wavelength conversion films for silicon photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • SrF 2 : Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesised (hydrothermal technique). • PL and XPS results showed enhanced absorption response of Eu 3+ UV excitation. • Eu concentrations more than 5 mol% improved fluorescence emission. • TOF-SIMS results suggested that the energy transfer from Eu 2+ to Eu 3+ is dominant

  9. f2f and cyberbullying among children in Northern Ireland: Data from the Kids Life and Times Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    MC GUCKIN, CONOR

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Comparatively little is known about the nature, incidence and correlates of bully/victim problems in the Northern Ireland school system. The present study examined the prevalence of self-reported experiences of bully/ victim problems (f2f and cyber), and the relationship between such experiences and levels of psychological wellbeing among representative samples of primary school pupils who participated in the 2008 and 2009 `Kids Life and Times Survey? (ARK, 2...

  10. Influence of heat treatment on cyclic fatigue and cutting efficiency of ProTaper Universal F2 instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Although 600°C treatment increased resistance to cyclic fatigue, it reduced the cutting efficiency of the files. The 400°C treatment maintained the cutting ability and prolonged the cyclic fatigue life of the files. Therefore, for clinical use of ProTaper Universal F2 files, 400°C pretreatment is a better choice than 600°C pretreatment.

  11. Possible hybridization of Brazilian planorbid snails and its importance in population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Silva, C C; Grault, C E; da Costa, V A; Barbosa, F S

    1998-01-01

    This study focuses on the possibility of experimental hybridization among host snail species for Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, with morphological characterization of the hybrids found. By using albinism as a genetic marker, intraspecific crossbreedings were performed between two strains of each species involved, in addition to interspecific crossbreedings; the only viable crossbreeding was between pigmented Biomphalaria glabrata (Paulista, PE) and albino B. tenagophila (Joinville, SC), with the formation of F1 and F2 generations. All offspring in F1 displayed black eyes and a renal ridge on the mantle, while F2 displayed dissociated morphological traits. With regard to reproduction, F1 was more efficient than F2. The experiment's results suggest post-zygotic reproductive isolation.

  12. Autopsy findings of human fetuses of descendant (F1, F2) of the A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Hori, Hiroshi; Ito, Akihiro

    1990-01-01

    An analysis was made of autopsy population of human fetuses and neonates (652 cases for F 1 and 115 cases for F 2 ) obtained from A-bomb exposed and non-exposed groups. In a study of delivery mode, the incidence of abnormal findings, including congenital anomaly, was found higher in the group of spontaneous delivery than the group of artificial delivery. Anomaly of the heart or great vessels was the most common, followed by anomaly of the central nervous system and urinary system in both F 1 and F 2 groups. Abnormal findings in the group of spontaneous delivery were observed in a total of 148 cases. For evaluable 32 cases in which the exposure distance was confirmed, these abnormalities were not related to distance from the hypocenter. Anomaly in this group was seen in 74 cases, in which autosomal dominant inheritance had induced chondrodystrophy (two cases) and polycystic kidney disease (one). For F 2 , anomaly was observed in 22 cases in the group of spontaneous delivery. Polycystic kidney disease was seen in each one case exposed at ≤2,000 m or 2,000-4,000 m from the hypocenter. The incidence of other anomalies was independent of exposure distance or either paternal or maternal exposure to A-bombing. Nor was correlation between the incidence of macerated fetuses and exposure distance or either paternal or maternal exposure. (N.K.)

  13. Physiochemical properties of greatly enhanced photoluminescence of aqueous dispersible upconversion CaF2:Yb/Er nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Anees A; Yadav, Ranvijay; Rai, S B

    2017-06-14

    Crystal phase morphological structure and optical properties of the as-prepared upconversion CaF 2 :Yb/Er(core) and sequential coating of an inert crystalline material and silica layers surrounding the seed core-nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), optical absorption, FTIR spectroscopy and upconversion photoluminescence spectroscopy. Owing to the unique properties of CaF 2 host matrix, we realized their practical applications in biomedical science to improve the upconversion luminescence property and aqueous dispersibility. The surface coating on the seed core particles will significantly influence the structural, optical band gap energy and upconversion luminescence properties. These NPs were well-dispersed in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents to form clear colloidal solutions. The colloidal solutions of three samples show a characteristic optical absorption band in UV/Visible region. As a result, optical band gap gradually decreases after sequential growth of the inert shell and amorphous silica due to an increase in the crystalline size. Comparative upconversion luminescence analysis showed that after inert shell growth, the upconversion intensity was greatly improved, and such an improvement was found to arise from efficient suppression of surface-related deactivation from the core nanocrystals. Interestingly, growth of an inert (CaF 2 ) shell over the seed core NPs shows intense upconversion emission lines under 980 nm NIR laser excitation, highlighting their promising applications, such as multi-analyte biolabels, staining, displays and other photonic based technological applications.

  14. Asymmetries, heterosis, and phenotypic profiles of red junglefowl, White Plymouth Rocks, and F1and F2reciprocal crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, D A T; Honaker, C F; Dorshorst, B; Andersson, L; Siegel, P B

    2018-03-02

    During the domestication of farm animals, humans have manipulated genetic variation for growth and reproduction through artificial selection. Here, data are presented for growth, reproductive, and behavior traits for the red junglefowl, a line of White Plymouth Rock chickens, and their F 1 and F 2 reciprocal crosses. Intra- and intergenerational comparisons for growth related traits reflected considerable additive genetic variation. In contrast, those traits associated with reproduction exhibited heterosis. The role of sexual selection was seen in the evolution of prominent secondary sexual ornaments that lend to female choice and male-male competition. The large differences between parental lines in fearfulness to humans were only mitigated slightly in the intercross generations. Whereas, overall F 1 generation heterosis was not transferred to the F 2 , there was developmental stability in the F 2 , as measured by relative asymmetry of bilateral traits. Through multigenerational analyses between the red junglefowl and the domestic White Plymouth Rocks, we observed plasticity and considerable residual genetic variation. These factors likely facilitated the adaptability of the chicken to a broad range of husbandry practices throughout the world.

  15. Production of $f_{0}(980), f_{2}(1270)$ and $\\phi(1020)$ in hadronic $Z^{0}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D.G.; Foucher, M.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geddes, N.I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hart, P.A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P.W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W.P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; List, B.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Markus, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rembser, C.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rooke, A.; Rossi, A.M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, Robert Wayne; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Utzat, P.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E.H.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1998-01-01

    Inclusive production of the f_0(980), f_2(1270) and \\phi(1020) resonances has been studied in a sample of 4.3 million hadronic Z^0 decays from the OPAL experiment at LEP. A coupled channel analysis has been used for the f_0 in simultaneous fits to the resonances in inclusive \\pi+\\pi- and K+K- mass spectra. Fragmentation functions are reported for the three states. Total inclusive rates are measured to be 0.141 +/- 0.007 +/- 0.011 f_0, 0.155 +/- 0.011 +/- 0.018 f_2, and 0.091 +/- 0.002 +/- 0.003 \\phi mesons per hadronic Z^0 decay. The production properties of the f_0, including those in three-jet events, are compared with those of the f_2 and \\phi, and with the Lund string model of hadron production. All measurements are consistent with the hypothesis that the f_0 is a conventional qq(bar) scalar meson.

  16. F2AC: A Lightweight, Fine-Grained, and Flexible Access Control Scheme for File Storage in Mobile Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current file storage service models for cloud servers assume that users either belong to single layer with different privileges or cannot authorize privileges iteratively. Thus, the access control is not fine-grained and flexible. Besides, most access control methods at cloud servers mainly rely on computationally intensive cryptographic algorithms and, especially, may not be able to support highly dynamic ad hoc groups with addition and removal of group members. In this paper, we propose a scheme called F2AC, which is a lightweight, fine-grained, and flexible access control scheme for file storage in mobile cloud computing. F2AC can not only achieve iterative authorization, authentication with tailored policies, and access control for dynamically changing accessing groups, but also provide access privilege transition and revocation. A new access control model called directed tree with linked leaf model is proposed for further implementations in data structures and algorithms. The extensive analysis is given for justifying the soundness and completeness of F2AC.

  17. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  18. F1 HYBRIDS BREEDING OF RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. ON THE BASIS OF MALE STERILE LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Monakhos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The line fixers of sterility from the other pairs with genotype TsitNrfrf are encouraged to use for off-patent biological copyright protection paternal pollinating lines. In this case, the F1 hybrids will always have a TsitSrfrf genotype and will be sterile, which makes it impossible to obtain F2 progeny.

  19. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafae Benlhabib

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant inbred lines (RIL and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654 and coastal (NL-6 germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant, while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively. Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. UPGMA based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to identify potentially

  20. Elevated Genetic Diversity in an F2:6 Population of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) Developed through an Inter-ecotype Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J; Jacobsen, Sven E; Jellen, Eric N

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due to its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant-inbred lines and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654) and coastal (NL-6) germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho-phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant), while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively). Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean-based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high-yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to

  1. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  2. PERTUMBUHAN DAN SIGOSITAS IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIK F-2 YANG MEMBAWA GEN HORMON PERTUMBUHAN IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2015-06-01

    ikan lele transgenik F-2. Ikan lele transgenik F-2 dihasilkan dari persilangan antar ikan lele transgenik F-1. Sigositas ikan F-2 dievaluasi menggunakan uji progeni dengan menyilangkan antara ikan transgenik F-2 dan non-transgenik. Parameter digunakan untuk mengevaluasi performa ikan lele transgenik F-2 meliputi:derajat pembuahan, derajat penetasan, sintasan larva, pertumbuhan, dan efisiensi pakan. Analisis sigositas ikan lele transgenik F-2 dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji progeni. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa transgen (PhGH yang ada pada ikan transgenik tidak memengaruhi derajat pembuahan dan derajat penetasan embrio, serta sintasan larva. Populasi ikan lele transgenik F-2 memiliki laju pertumbuhan 75,3% lebih tinggi dibandingkan populasi ikan non-transgenik (P<0,05. Efisiensi pakan ikan transgenik adalah 51,95% lebih tinggi dari ikan non-transgenik (P<0,05. Hasil analisis sigositas ikan lele transgenik F-2 dari 56 ekor yang diuji, hanya 16 ekor ikan lele membawa gen PhGH, emuanya heterozigot.

  3. 17 CFR 240.12f-2 - Extending unlisted trading privileges to a security that is the subject of an initial public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extending unlisted trading privileges to a security that is the subject of an initial public offering. 240.12f-2 Section 240.12f-2... initial public offering. (a) General provision. A national securities exchange may extend unlisted trading...

  4. The altered balance between sympathetic nervous system and nitric oxide in salt hypertensive Dahl rats: ontogenetic and F2 hybrid studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobešová, Zdenka; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2002), s. 945-955 ISSN 0263-6352 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011805; GA AV ČR IAA7011711; GA MŠk LN00A069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : salt hypertension * sympathetic nervous system * Dahl rats Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2002

  5. Significant associations of the mitochondrial transcription factor A promoter polymorphisms with marbling and subcutaneous fat depth in Wagyu x Limousin F2 crosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhihua; Kunej, Tanja; Michal, Jennifer J.; Gaskins, Charles T.; Reeves, Jerry J.; Busboom, Jan R.; Dovc, Peter; Wright, Raymond W.

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a nucleus-encoded protein, regulates the initiation of transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Decreased expression of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes has been associated with onset of obesity in mice. Therefore, we hypothesized genetic variants in TFAM gene influence mitochondrial biogenesis consequently affecting body fat deposition and energy metabolism. In the present study, both cDNA (2259 bp) and genomic DNA (16,666 bp) sequences were generated for the bovine TFAM gene using a combination of in silico cloning with targeted region PCR amplification. Alignment of both cDNA and genomic sequences led to the determination of genomic organization and characterization of the promoter region of the bovine TFAM gene. Two closely linked A/C and C/T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the bovine TFAM promoter and then genotyped on 237 Wagyu x Limousin F 2 animals with recorded phenotypes for marbling and subcutaneous fat depth (SFD). Statistical analysis demonstrated that both SNPs and their haplotypes were associated with marbling (P = 0.0153 for A/C, P = 0.0026 for C/T, and P = 0.0004 for haplotype) and SFD (P = 0.0200 for A/C, P = 0.0039 for C/T, and P = 0.0029 for haplotype), respectively. A search for transcriptional regulatory elements using MatInspector indicated that both SNPs lead to a gain/loss of six putative-binding sites for transcription factors relevant to fat deposition and energy metabolism. Our results suggest for the first time that TFAM gene plays an important role in lipid metabolism and may be a strong candidate gene for obesity in mammals

  6. Comparison of f2/f1 ratio functions in rabbit and gerbil: Ear-canal DPOAEs vs noninvasively inferred intracochlear DPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Glen K.; Stagner, Barden B.; Dong, Wei; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda L.

    2015-12-01

    The properties of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), i.e., distortion products (DPs) measured in the ear canal, have been thoroughly described. However, considerably less is known about the behavior of intracochlear DPs (iDPs). Detailed comparisons of DPOAEs to iDPs would provide valuable insights on the extent to which ear-canal DPOAEs mirror iDPs. Prior studies described a technique whereby the behavior of iDPs could be inferred by interacting a probe tone (f3) with the iDP of interest to produce a `secondary' DPOAE (DPOAÉ). The behavior of DPOAÉ was then used to deduce the characteristics of the iDP. In the present study, this method was used in rabbits and gerbils to simultaneously compare DPOAE f2/f1-ratio functions to their iDP counterparts. The 2f1-f2 and 2f2-f1 DPOAEs were collected with f1 and f2 primary-tone levels varied from 35-75 dB SPL, and with a 50-dB SPL f3 placed at a DP/f3 ratio of 1.25 to evoke a DPOAÉ at 2f3-(2f1-f2) or 2f3-(2f2-f1). Control experiments demonstrated little effect of the f3-probe tone on DPOAE-ratio functions. Substitution experiments were performed to determine any suppressive effects of the f1 and f2 primaries on the generation of DPOAÉ, as well as to infer the intracochlear level of the iDP once the DPOAÉ was corrected for suppression. Results showed that at low primary-tone levels, 2f1-f2 DPOAE f2/f1-ratio functions peaked around f2/f1=1.25, and exhibited an inverted U-shaped function. In contrast, simultaneously measured 2f1-f2 iDP-ratio functions peaked at f2/f1≈1. Similar growth of the inferred iDP was obtained for higher-level primaries when the ratio functions were corrected for suppressive effects. At these higher levels, DPOAE-ratio functions leveled off and no longer showed the steep reduction at narrow f2/f1 ratios. Overall, noninvasive estimates of 2f1-f2 iDP-ratio functions agreed with reports of similar functions directly measured for 2f1-f2 DPs on the basilar membrane (BM) or in

  7. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  8. Germline mutation rates in mice following in utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles by maternal inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Caitlin; Ruminski, Wojciech; Hougaard, Karin S.

    2011-01-01

    (PAPs) from industrial environments cause DNA damage and mutations in the sperm of adult male mice. Effects on the female and male germline during critical stages of development (in utero) are unknown. In mice, previous studies have shown that expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci exhibit high rates...... and mated with control CBA mice. The F2 descendents were collected and ESTR germline mutation rates were derived from full pedigrees (mother, father, offspring) of F1 male and female mice. We found no evidence for increased ESTR mutation rates in females exposed in utero to DEP relative to control females...

  9. Room temperature CW and QCW operation of Ho:CaF2 laser pumped by Tm:fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Michal; Cvrček, Jan; Kubeček, Václav; Zhao, Beibei; Ma, Weiwei; Jiang, Dapeng; Su, Liangbi

    2017-05-01

    Laser radiation in the wavelength range around 2 μm is required for its specific properties - it is very suitable for medical applications, remote sensing, or pumping of optical parametric oscillators to generate ultrafast pulses in the mid-IR region further exploited in nonlinear optics. Crystals as YLF, YAG, LLF, and GdVO4 doped by holmium were already investigated and found suitable for the tunable laser generation around 2.1 mμ. Only a few works are devoted to the laser operation of holmium-doped fluorides as CaF2. In this work, pulsed and continuous-wave laser operation of a modified- Bridgman-grown Ho:CaF2 active crystal at room temperature is reported. A commercial 50 W 1940 nm Tm-fiber laser was used to pump a laser oscillator based on a novel 10 mm long 0.5 at.% Ho:CaF2 active crystal placed in the Peltiercooled holder. In the pulsed regime (10 ms, 10 Hz), the laser slope efficiency of 53 % with respect to the absorbed pump power was achieved. The laser generated at the central wavelength of 2085 nm with the maximum mean output power of 365 mW corresponding to the power amplitude of 3.65 W. In the continuous wave regime, the maximum output power was 1.11 W with the slope efficiency of 41 % with respect to the absorbed pump power. To our best knowledge this is the first demonstration of this laser active material operating in the CW regime at room temperature. The tuning range over 60 nm from 2034 to 2094 nm was achieved using a birefringent filter showing the possibility to develop a mode-locked laser system generating pulses in the sub-picosecond range.

  10. Schizophrenia-Like Phenotype Inherited by the F2 Generation of a Gestational Disruption Model of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Stephanie M; Aguilar, David D; Neary, Jennifer L; Carless, Melanie A; Giuffrida, Andrea; Lodge, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to schizophrenia; however, the exact etiology of this disorder is not known. Animal models are utilized to better understand the mechanisms associated with neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia. One of these involves gestational administration of methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) to induce a developmental disruption, which in turn produces a schizophrenia-like phenotype in post-pubertal rats. The mechanisms by which MAM produces this phenotype are not clear; however, we now demonstrate that MAM induces differential DNA methylation, which may be heritable. Here we demonstrate that a subset of both second (F2) and third (F3) filial generations of MAM-treated rats displays a schizophrenia-like phenotype and hypermethylation of the transcription factor, Sp5. Specifically, ventral tegmental area of dopamine neuron activity was examined using electrophysiology as a correlate for the dopamine hyperfunction thought to underlie psychosis in patients. Interestingly, only a subset of F2 and F3 MAM rats exhibited increases in dopamine neuron population activity, indicating that this may be a unique model with a susceptibility to develop a schizophrenia-like phenotype. An increase in dopamine system function in rodent models has been previously associated with decreases in hippocampal GABAergic transmission. In line with these observations, we found a significant correlation between hippocampal parvalbumin expression and dopamine neuron activity in F2 rats. These data therefore provide evidence that offspring born from MAM-treated rats possess a susceptibility to develop aspects of a schizophrenia-like phenotype and may provide a useful tool to investigate gene-environment interactions.

  11. Relationship between the Porcine Stress Syndrome gene and carcass and performance traits in F2 pigs resulting from divergent crosses

    OpenAIRE

    Band,Guilherme de Oliveira; Guimarães,Simone Eliza Facioni; Lopes,Paulo Sávio; Peixoto,Jane de Oliveira; Faria,Danielle Assis; Pires,Aldrin Vieira; Figueiredo,Frederico de Castro; Nascimento,Carlos Souza do; Gomide,Lúcio Alberto de Miranda

    2005-01-01

    The PSS genotypes of 596 F2 pigs produced by initial mating of Brazilian native boars commercial sows and were characterized by PCR-RFLP and their carcass and performance traits were evaluated. Among the 596 animals analyzed, 493 (82.72%) were characterized as NN and 103 (17.28%) as Nn. With respect to carcass traits, Nn animals presented higher (p < 0.05) right half carcass weight, left half carcass weight, loin depth and loin eye area, and lower shoulder backfat thickness, backfat thickness...

  12. Measurement of the Ratio of the Neutron and Proton Structure Functions $F_2$ in Inelastic Muon Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Robert D. [UC, San Diego

    1992-01-01

    The ratio of the neutron and proton structure functions $F_2$ has been measured to very low $X_{bj}$ using inelastic muon scattering. Data were taken in 1990 using 475 GeV muons incident on hydrogen and deuterium targets. Electromagnetic calorimetry has been used to remove radiative backgrounds and muon-electron elastic scattering. Results of the measurement are presented which cover the kinematic region 0.0001 $\\le$ $X_{bj} \\le$ 0.4 and 0.1 GeV$^2$ /$c^2$ $\\le$ $Q^2$ $\\le$ 100.0 GeV$^2$ /c$^2$.

  13. Formation of nanostructures induced by capillary-discharge soft X-ray laser on BaF2 surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongpeng; Cui, Huaiyu; Zhang, Shuqing; Zhang, Wenhong; Li, Wei

    2017-02-01

    BaF2 was ablated by a capillary-discharge pumped soft X-ray laser at 46.9 nm focused by a toroidal mirror at a grazing incidence of 83°. The damaged area, induced by both single and multiple laser pulses, was determined to be covered with fringe-like nanostructures with spacings of approximately 400 nm and mastoid nanostructures with diameters of approximately 600 nm. In this study, we analyze the morphology of the detected damage patterns and discuss the damage mechanism. Results indicate that the depth of the nanostructures varies with different pulse numbers and laser power densities.

  14. Optical properties of YbF3-CaF2 composite thin films deposited by electron-beam evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songlin; Mi, Gaoyuan; Zhang, Jianfu; Yang, Chongmin

    2018-03-01

    We studied electron-beam evaporated YbF3-CaF2 composite films on ZnS substrate at different deposition parameters. The optical properties of films have been fitted, the surface roughness have been measured by AFM. The results of experiments indicated that increased the refractive indices, extinction coefficients, and surface roughness at higher deposition rate. The refractive index of composite film deposited by electron-beam evaporation with assisted-ion source was obviously higher than it without assisted-ion source.

  15. Genetic and Environmental Variance Among F2 Families in a Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian Sig

    2013-01-01

    In the joint project “FORAGESELECT”, we aim to implement Genome Wide Selection (GWS) in breeding of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), in order to increase genetic response in important agronomic traits such as yield, seed production, stress tolerance and disease resistance, while decreasing...... of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental variance in the training set composed of F2 families selected from a ten year breeding period. Variance components were estimated on 1193 of those families, sown in 2001, 2003 and 2005 in five locations around Europe. Families were tested together...

  16. TRANSMISI, EKSPRESI, DAN DISTRIBUSI GEN HORMON PERTUMBUHAN IKAN PATIN SIAM PADA IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIK F-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu keberhasilan pembentukan ikan transgenik ditandai dengan kemampuan dari individu transgenik tersebut untuk mewariskan transgen pada keturunannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi transmisi dan ekspresi transgen (PhGh dari generasi F-1 ke F-2 serta mengetahui distribusi transgen pada berbagai organ. Deteksi transgen dilakukan pada larva, benih, dan berbagai organ ikan lele generasi F-2 (pituitari, otak, timus, jantung, limfa, hati, ginjal, lambung, usus, gonad, otot, kulit insang, dan sirip ekor menggunakan metode PCR. Ekspresi transgen pada larva dan organ ikan lele transgenik F-2 dideteksi menggunakan metode reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Level ekspresi pada organ dianalisis menggunakan metode qPCR, gen β-aktin digunakan sebagai kontrol internal. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sebanyak 65 ekor induk betina transgenik F-1 positif membawa transgen di sirip ekor, hanya 18 ekor (27,69% induk betina yang positif membawa transgen di telur. Sedangkan pada induk jantan hanya 19 ekor (46,34% yang positif membawa transgen di sperma, dari 41 ekor yang positif membawa transgen di sirip. Transgen dapat terdeteksi pada larva dan sirip ekor ikan lele transgenik F-2 dengan persentase transmisinya adalah 8,11%-50% dengan rata-rata transmisi transgen sebesar 18,85%. Deteksi dan distribusi transgen ditemukan pada larva dan organ pituitari, hati, ginjal, gonad, otot, otak, timus, jantung, limfa, lambung, usus, insang, dan sirip ekor, tetapi transgen tidak ditemukan pada kulit ikan. Level ekspresi transgen tertinggi ditemukan pada hati sebesar 7,3±2,2 pg/μg cDNA – 9,2±2,7 pg/μg cDNA; sedangkan ekspresi terendah ditemukan pada ginjal berkisar 0,19±0,01 pg/μg cDNA – 0,2±0,03 pg/μg cDNA; dan insang sebesar 0,2±0,01 pg/μg cDNA.

  17. Análisis de ligamiento genético a partir de resultados de cruzamientos prueba y F2.

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Ismael; Rebordinos, Laureana

    2012-01-01

    En este simulador realizado en una hoja de cálculo se puede saber si dos genes están ligados en el genoma o por si el contrario son independientes. Este ejercicio sirve para completar la información sobre mapas genéticos en general y mapas de ligamiento en particular. Se parte de datos de individuos descendientes de cruzamientos prueba y F2 para dos caracteres cualitativos controlados por dos genes con dos alelos cada uno presentando dominancia. El programa calcula si las frecuencias obtenida...

  18. Kaon semileptonic decays with $N_f=2+1+1$ HISQ fermions and physical light-quark masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gámiz, E. [Granada U., Theor. Phys. Astrophys.; Bazavov, A. [Brookhaven; Bernard, C. [Washington U., St. Louis; DeTar, C. [Utah U.; Du, D. [Syracuse U.; El-Khadra, A. X. [Illinois U., Urbana; Freeland, E. D. [Art Inst. of Chicago; Gottlieb, Steven [Indiana U.; Heller, U. M. [APS, New York; Komijani, J. [TUM-IAS, Munich; Kronfeld, A. S. [Fermilab; Laiho, J. [Syracuse U.; Mackenzie, P. B. [Fermilab; Neil, E. T. [Colorado U.; Primer, T. [Arizona U.; Simone, J. N. [Fermilab; Sugar, R. [UC, Santa Barbara; Toussaint, D. [Arizona U.; Van de Water, R. S. [Fermilab; Zhou, Ran [Fermilab

    2016-11-13

    We discuss the reduction of errors in the calculation of the form factor $f_+^{K \\pi}(0)$ with HISQ fermions on the $N_f=2+1+1$ MILC configurations from increased statistics on some key ensembles, new data on ensembles with lattice spacings down to 0.042 fm and the study of finite-volume effects within staggered ChPT. We also study the implications for the unitarity of the CKM matrix in the first row and for current tensions with leptonic determinations of $\\vert V_{us}\\vert$.

  19. Theoretical study of the structure and optical properties of rare-earth-doped BeF2 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brawer, S.; Weber, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    We investigate the question of whether the local structure of a glass can be deduced directly from its optical spectra by testing such a procedure on a model system. The model system was Eu 3+ -doped BeF 2 glass generated the Monte Carlo technique of statistical mechanics. The optical energy levels of Eu 3+ were calculated from a point charge model. Using the resulting spectra as data, it is shown that details of the structure of the rare-earth ion sites of the simulated glass cannot be reconstructed uniquely from the data. Based on these results, it is concluded that reliable glass structure cannot be deduced from optical spectra

  20. Genomic dissection and prediction of feed intake and residual feed intake traits using a longitudinal model in F2 chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begli, Hakimeh Emamgholi; Torshizi, Rasoul vaez; Masoudi, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    -density single nucleotide polymorphism (S N P ) genotypes , a nd to conduct a GWA study on longitudinal FI and residual feed intake (RFI) in a tot al of 312 chick ens with phenotype and genotype in the F 2 population. The GWA and GS studies reported in this pap er were conducted using β-spline random regression......Feed efficiency trait s (FETs) ar e import ant economic indicators in poultry production. Because feed intake (FI) is a time -dependent variable, longitudinal models can provide insights into the genetic basis of FET variation over time. It is expected that the application of longitudinal models...

  1. Computing K and D meson masses with N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, Remi [CEA, Centre de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). IRFU/Service de Physique Nucleaire; Blossier, Benoit; Boucaud, Philippe [Paris XI Univ., 91 - Orsay (FR). Lab. de Physique Theorique] (and others)

    2010-05-15

    We discuss the computation of the mass of the K and D mesons within the framework of N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD from a technical point of view. These quantities are essential, already at the level of generating gauge configurations, being obvious candidates to tune the strange and charm quark masses to their physical values. In particular, we address the problems related to the twisted mass flavor and parity symmetry breaking, which arise when considering a non-degenerate (c,s) doublet. We propose and verify the consistency of three methods to extract the K and D meson masses in this framework. (orig.)

  2. The formation and regional distribution of prostaglandins D2 and F2 alpha in the brain of spontaneously convulsing gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seregi, A; Förstermann, U; Heldt, R; Hertting, G

    1985-06-24

    The distribution of the two major cyclooxygenase products prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) in 7 different regions of the brain (medulla, cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum, midbrain, hippocampus and cerebral cortex) was studied. Basal levels were highest in hypothalamus and cortex. Following convulsions elicited by environmental stress prostaglandin concentrations increased in all areas, with largest increases (10-20-fold) in hippocampus and cortex, reaching 70 ng/g PGD2 in hippocampus and 115 ng/g PGD2 in cortex. These results demonstrate that, during spontaneous seizures, there is a greater increase in prostanoid production in those areas involved in the convulsive process.

  3. Measurement of the Proton Structure Function $F_{2}$ at low $Q^{2}$ in QED Compton Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.-B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garutti, E.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Heuer, R.-D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Koblitz, B.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kuckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, I.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ossoskov, G.; Ozerov, D.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Poschl, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Ratiani, Z.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2004-01-01

    The proton structure function F_2(x,Q^2) is measured in inelastic QED Compton scattering using data collected with the H1 detector at HERA. QED Compton events are used to access the kinematic range of very low virtualities of the exchanged photon, Q^2, down to 0.5 GeV^2, and Bjorken x up to \\sim 0.06, a region which has not been covered previously by inclusive measurements at HERA. The results are in agreement with the measurements from fixed target lepton-nucleon scattering experiments.

  4. A time-variant analysis of the 1/f^(2) phase noise in CMOS parallel LC-Tank quadrature oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreani, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of 1/f2 phase noise in quadrature oscillators built by connecting two differential LC-tank oscillators in a parallel fashion. The analysis clearly demonstrates the necessity of adopting a time-variant theory of phase noise, where a more simplistic, time......-invariant approach fails to explain numerical simulation results even at the qualitative level. Two topologies of 5-GHz parallel quadrature oscillators are considered, and compact but nevertheless highly general, closed-form formulas are derived for the phase noise caused by the losses in the LC...

  5. Electron attachment in F2 - Conclusive demonstration of nonresonant, s-wave coupling in the limit of zero electron energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.

    1987-01-01

    Dissociative electron attachment to F2 has been observed in the energy range 0-140 meV, at a resolution of 6 meV (full width at half maximum). Results show conclusively a sharp, resolution-limited threshold behavior consistent with an s-wave cross section varying as sq rt of epsilon. Two accurate theoretical calculations predict only p-wave behavior varying as the sq rt of epsilon. Several nonadiabatic coupling effects leading to s-wave behavior are outlined.

  6. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  7. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  8. Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of neutral winds and F2 layer variations at the magnetic equator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vila

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents some night-time observations of neutral wind variations at F2 layer levels near the dip equator, measured by the Fabry-Perot interferometer set up in 1994 at Korhogo (Ivory Coast, geographic latitude 9.25°N, longitude 355°E, dip latitude –2.5°. Our instrument uses the 630 nm (O1D line to determine radial Doppler velocities of the oxygen atoms between 200 and 400 km altitude. First results for November 1994 to March 1995 reveal persistent eastward flows, and frequent intervals of southward winds of larger than 50 ms–1 velocity. Compared with the simultaneous ionospheric patterns deduced from the three West African equatorial ionosondes at Korhogo, Ouagadougou (Burkina-Faso, dip latitude +1.5° and Dakar (Sénégal, dip latitude +5°, they illustrate various impacts of the thermospheric winds on F2 layer density: (1 on the mesoscale evolution (a few 103 km and a few 100 minutes scales and (2 on local fluctuations (hundreds of km and tens of minutes characteristic times. We report on these fluctuations and discuss the opportunity to improve the time-resolution of the Fabry-Perot interferometer at Korhogo.Key words. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; Ionosphere-atmosphere interaction · Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics (General circulation

  9. Comparative Study of foF2 Measurements with IRI-2007 Model Predictions During Extended Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenkova, I. E.; Krankowski, A.; Bilitza, D.; Cherniak, Iu.V.; Shagimuratov, I.I.; Sieradzki, R.

    2013-01-01

    The unusually deep and extended solar minimum of cycle 2324 made it very difficult to predict the solar indices 1 or 2 years into the future. Most of the predictions were proven wrong by the actual observed indices. IRI gets its solar, magnetic, and ionospheric indices from an indices file that is updated twice a year. In recent years, due to the unusual solar minimum, predictions had to be corrected downward with every new indices update. In this paper we analyse how much the uncertainties in the predictability of solar activity indices affect the IRI outcome and how the IRI values calculated with predicted and observed indices compared to the actual measurements.Monthly median values of F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) derived from the ionosonde measurements at the mid-latitude ionospheric station Juliusruh were compared with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2007) model predictions. The analysis found that IRIprovides reliable results that compare well with actual measurements, when the definite (observed and adjusted) indices of solar activityare used, while IRI values based on earlier predictions of these indices noticeably overestimated the measurements during the solar minimum.One of the principal objectives of this paper is to direct attention of IRI users to update their solar activity indices files regularly.Use of an older index file can lead to serious IRI overestimations of F-region electron density during the recent extended solar minimum.

  10. Crystallization and spectroscopic properties investigations of Er3+ doped transparent glass ceramics containing CaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zhongjian; Wang Yuansheng; Ma En; Bao Feng; Yu Yunlong; Chen Daqin

    2006-01-01

    Transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics with composition of 45SiO 2 -25Al 2 O 3 -5CaCO 3 -10NaF-15CaF 2 -0.5ErF 3 (in mol%) were developed through controlled crystallization of melt-quenched glass. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics investigation showed that the average apparent activation energy E a and Avrami exponent n are about 283 kJ/mol and 2.22, respectively, indicating the crystallization a three dimensional crystal growth process controlled by the diffusion with a decreasing nucleation rate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation revealed the precipitation of CaF 2 crystallites sized about 15 nm among the glass matrix after heat-treatment at 650 deg. C for 2 h. For as-made glass, no upconversion signals were detected when excited with a 30 mW diode laser at 980 nm, while strong upconversion emissions at 545, 660 and 800 nm were obtained for transparent glass ceramic under similar excitation condition

  11. Ipsilateral distortion product otoacoustic emission (2 f1-f2) suppression in children with sensorineural hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Carolina; Fitzgerald, Tracy S.

    2003-08-01

    Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) ipsilateral suppression has been applied to study cochlear function and maturation in laboratory animals and humans. Although DPOAE suppression appears to be sensitive to regions of specialized cochlear function and to cochlear immaturity, it is not known whether it reflects permanent cochlear damage, i.e., sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), in a reliable and systematic manner in humans. Eight school-aged children with mild-moderate SNHL and 20 normal-hearing children served as subjects in this study. DPOAE (2 f1-f2) suppression data were collected at four f2 frequencies (1500, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz) using moderate-level primary tones. Features of the DPOAE iso-suppression tuning curves and suppression growth were analyzed for both subject groups. Results show that DPOAE suppression tuning curves from hearing-impaired subjects can be reliably recorded. DPOAE suppression tuning curves were generally normal in appearance and shape for six out of eight hearing-impaired subjects but showed subtle abnormalities in at least one feature. There was not one single trend or pattern of abnormality that characterized all hearing-impaired subjects. The most prominent patterns of abnormality included: broadened tuning, elevated tip, and downward shift of tip frequency. The unique patterns of atypical DPOAE suppression in subjects with similar audiograms may suggest different patterns of underlying sensory cell damage. This speculation warrants further investigation.

  12. Cobalt epitaxial nanoparticles on CaF2/Si(111): Growth process, morphology, crystal structure, and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, N. S.; Suturin, S. M.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Dubrovskii, V. G.; Gastev, S. V.; Sibirev, N. V.; Baranov, D. A.; Fedorov, V. V.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Nashchekin, A. V.; Sakharov, V. I.; Serenkov, I. T.; Shimada, T.; Yanase, T.; Tabuchi, M.

    2013-03-01

    We study molecular beam epitaxy growth, morphology, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of Co nanoislands on CaF2/Si(111) surface. In order to have a full appreciation of complex growth kinetics at different stages, a comprehensive study of Co growth on CaF2 is carried out by atomic force, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopies in the direct space, as well as by x-ray and electron diffraction in the reciprocal space. These experimental data are complemented by theoretical modeling. Magnetic properties are characterized by magneto-optical Kerr effect and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometries. Key effects influencing the Co growth on fluorite are addressed, including the sticking probability, the preferential nucleation sites, the size and shape time evolution, the dependence of Co morphology on temperature and Co exposure, and the coalescence mechanism. The two-stage deposition technique is developed, whereby the low-temperature seeding stage is used to facilitate Co nucleation, and the follow-up high-temperature deposition yields Co particles with high crystalline quality. Our results enable precise control over the resulting morphology, spatial ordering, and crystal structure affecting the magnetic properties. In particular, it is demonstrated that the transformation from dense to isolated Co nanoparticles leads to the change of the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and also the sign of polar and longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effects.

  13. High-heat-load synchrotron tests of room-temperature, silicon crystal monochromators at the CHESS F-2 wiggler station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.K.; Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T.; Assoufid, L.

    1995-01-01

    This note summarizes the results of the single crystal monochromator high-heat-load tests performed at the CHESS F-2 wiggler station. The results from two different cooling geometries are presented: (1) the ''pin-post'' crystal and (2) the ''criss-cross'' crystal. The data presented were taken in August 1993 (water-cooled pin-post) and in April 1995 (water- and gallium-cooled pin-post crystal and gallium-cooled criss-cross crystal). The motivation for trying these cooling (or heat exchanger) geometries is to improve the heat transfer efficiency over that of the conventional slotted crystals. Calculations suggest that the pin-post or the microchannel design can significantly improve the thermal performance of the crystal. The pin-post crystal used here was fabricated by Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations. From the performance of the conventional slotted crystals, it was thought that increased turbulence in the flow pattern may also enhance the heat transfer. The criss-cross crystal was a simple attempt to achieve the increased flow turbulence. The criss-cross crystal was partly fabricated in-house (cutting, etching and polishing) and bonded by RAO. Finally, a performance comparison among all the different room temperature silicon monochromators that have been tested by the APS is presented. The data includes measurements with the slotted crystal and the core-drilled crystals. Altogether, the data presented here were taken at the CHESS F-2 wiggler station between 1991 and 1995

  14. Characteristics Analysis of F1 Hybrids between Genetically Modified Brassica napus and B. rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Soo-In; Oh, Young-Ju; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Ko, Ho-Cheol; Cho, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Chang, Ancheol

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have been conducted on hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus and B. rapa or backcross of F1 hybrid to their parents. However, trait changes must be analyzed to evaluate hybrid sustainability in nature. In the present study, B. rapa and transgenic (BrAGL20) B. napus were hybridized to verify the early flowering phenomenon of F1 hybrids, and F1 hybrid traits were analyzed to predict their impact on sustainability. Flowering of F1 hybrid has been induced slightly later than that of the transgenic B. napus, but flowering was available in the greenhouse without low temperature treatment to young plant, similar to the transgenic B. napus. It is because the BrAGL20 gene has been transferred from transgenic B. napus to F1 hybrid. The size of F1 hybrid seeds was intermediate between those of B. rapa and transgenic B. napus, and ~40% of F1 pollen exhibited abnormal size and morphology. The form of the F1 stomata was also intermediate between that of B. rapa and transgenic B. napus, and the number of stomata was close to the parental mean. Among various fatty acids, the content of erucic acid exhibited the greatest change, owing to the polymorphism of parental FATTY ACID ELONGASE 1 alleles. Furthermore, F2 hybrids could not be obtained. However, BC1 progeny were obtained by hand pollination of B. rapa with F1 hybrid pollen, with an outcrossing rate of 50%.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Free 15-F2t-Isoprostane from Plasma of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients Using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Rusdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 15-F2t-isoprostane is a biomarker in assessment of oxidative stress status that due to its relatively low concentration in biological fluid and also has many isomers, the 15-F2t-isoprostane sample need to be extracted prior to the quantifying processes. Extraction techniques commonly used to extract 15-F2t-isoprostane are solid phase extraction (SPE and immunoaffinity extraction. Improvements to the SPE and immunoaffinity extraction techniques had been conducted, and the recovery results was then compared. The quantification of 15-F2t-isoprostane then was conducted using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. Then followed by the examination of the plasma recovery results. Extraction technique which had the highest recovery then was used to quantify 15-F2t-isoprostane from plasma of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA patients. Immunoaffinity extraction technique has a good recovery result. OSA patients have the tendency to have high 15-F2t-isoprostane concentrations in the plasma, therefore have a potential risk to get diseases related to the biological activities of 15-F2t-isoprostane, such as arteriosclerosis.

  16. Presence of fibronectin-binding protein gene prtF2 in invasive group A streptococci in tropical Australia is associated with increased internalisation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Davina; Norton, Robert; Layton, Ramon; Smith, Helen; Ketheesan, Natkunam

    2005-03-01

    The fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) PrtF1 and PrtF2 are considered to be major group A streptococcal virulence factors, mediating adherence to and internalisation of host cells. The present study investigated an association between the presence of prtF1 and prtF2 genes and internalisation efficiency in group A streptococci (GAS) isolated from patients with invasive disease. Of the 80 isolates tested, 58 (73%) had prtF1 and 71 (89%) possessed prtF2. Three isolates (4%) had neither gene, seven (9%) had prtF1 only, 19 (24%) had prtF2 only and 51 isolates (64%) had both prtF1 and prtF2. prtF2-positive isolates internalised up to three times more efficiently than isolates that had prtF1 alone (Pinternalisation efficiency and presence of the prtF1 gene. Analysis of the fibronectin-binding repeat domain (FBRD) of prtF2 revealed that this gene can contain 2, 3, 4 or 5 repeat regions and that five repeat regions conferred very high internalisation efficiency in invasive GAS isolates.

  17. IDENTIFIKASI ZIGOSITAS IKAN LELE (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIK F-2 YANG MEMBAWA GEN HORMON (PhGH DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE REALTIME-qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2016-11-01

    Fish farming productivity can be increased by transgenesis technology. On the previous study, transgenic African catfish population fast growing has been produced and its biological characters has been known. However information of transgenic zygosity of catfish should be examined. The aim of this study was to identify the zygosity of F-2 transgenic African catfish. The zygosity of F-2 transgenic was identified by real time-qPCR (RT-qPCR method and progeny test. Further, identification of zygosity F-2 transgenic African catfish was confirmed by progeny test, while F-2 transgenic African catfish was mated with non-transgenic. Identification of zygosity F-2 transgenic was conducted by detection PhGH gene (transgene in F-3 transgenic African catfish population. Transgene transmission was evaluated by PCR method. The result showed that the zygosity F-2 transgenic African catfish could be identified by RT-qPCR method. All F-2 transgenic African catfish were heterozygous, where as the 2-Ct value was almost same for all individual, which ranges from 0.80 to 0.99. The result of zygosity identification using RT-qPCR method was as same as that of progeny test. In the progeny test, transgene transmission in this study was non-Mendelian segregation, with ranges of 5%-40%.

  18. Validation of foF2 and TEC Modeling During Geomagnetic Disturbed Times: Preliminary Outcomes of International Forum for Space Weather Modeling Capabilities Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J. S.; Tsagouri, I.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Kuznetsova, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    To address challenges of assessment of space weather modeling capabilities, the CCMC (Community Coordinated Modeling Center) is leading the newly established "International Forum for Space Weather Modeling Capabilities Assessment." This presentation will focus on preliminary outcomes of the International Forum on validation of modeled foF2 and TEC during geomagnetic storms. We investigate the ionospheric response to 2013 Mar. geomagnetic storm event using ionosonde and GPS TEC observations in North American and European sectors. To quantify storm impacts on foF2 and TEC, we first quantify quiet-time variations of foF2 and TEC (e.g., the median and the average of the five quietest days for the 30 days during quiet conditions). It appears that the quiet time variation of foF2 and TEC are about 10% and 20-30%, respectively. Therefore, to quantify storm impact, we focus on foF2 and TEC changes during the storm main phase larger than 20% and 50%, respectively, compared to 30-day median. We find that in European sector, both foF2 and TEC response to the storm are mainly positive phase with foF2 increase of up to 100% and TEC increase of 150%. In North America sector, however, foF2 shows negative effects (up to about 50% decrease), while TEC shows positive response (the largest increase is about 200%). To assess modeling capability of reproducing the changes of foF2 and TEC due to the storm, we use various model simulations, which are obtained from empirical, physics-based, and data assimilation models. The performance of each model depends on the selected metrics, therefore, only one metrics is not enough to evaluate the models' predictive capabilities in capturing the storm impact. The performance of the model also varies with latitude and longitude.

  19. CYP4F2 repression and a modified alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) metabolism are two independent consequences of ethanol toxicity in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A; Bartolini, D; Torquato, P; Giusepponi, D; Barola, C; Galarini, R; Birringer, M; Lorkowski, S; Galli, F

    2017-04-01

    The expression of CYP4F2, a form of cytochrome P-450 with proposed role in α-tocopherol and long-chain fatty acid metabolism, was explored in HepG2 and HepaRG human hepatocytes during ethanol toxicity. Cytotoxicity, ROS production, and JNK and ERK1/2 kinase signaling increased in a dose and time-dependent manner during ethanol treatments; CYP4F2 gene expression decreased, while other CYP4F forms, namely 4F11 and 12, increased along with 3A4 and 2E1 isoforms. α-Tocopherol antagonized the cytotoxicity and CYP4F2 gene repression effect of ethanol in HepG2 cells. Ethanol stimulated the tocopherol-ω-hydroxylase activity and the other steps of vitamin E metabolism, which points to a minor role of CYP4F2 in this metabolism of human hepatocytes. PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c followed the same expression pattern of CYP4F2 in response to ethanol and α-tocopherol treatments. Moreover, the pharmacological inhibition of PPAR-γ synergized with ethanol in decreasing CYP4F2 protein expression, which suggests a role of this nuclear receptor in CYP4F2 transcriptional regulation. In conclusion, ethanol toxicity modifies the CYP expression pattern of human hepatic cells impairing CYP4F2 transcription and protein expression. These changes were associated with a lowered expression of the fatty acid biosynthesis regulators PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c, and with an increased enzymatic catabolism of vitamin E. CYP4F2 gene repression and a sustained vitamin E metabolism appear to be independent effects of ethanol toxicity in human hepatocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A hybrid biology course: Implications of merging Internet-enhanced and campus-based instructional modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sharron Ann

    This is possibly the first study of a hybrid online biology course where WebCT internet-enhanced modes of instruction replaced conventional face-to-face (F2F) lecture materials, merging with collaborative inquiry-based on-campus laboratory instructional modes. Although not a true experiment, the design of this study included three independent cohorts, a pretest and three posttests, as described by Gay and Airasian (2000). This study reported differences in age, gender, number of prior online courses and pretest scores. Over time, persistence, achievement and computer self-efficacy differed in one hybrid online section (N = 31) and two F2F cohorts (N = 29 and 30). One F2F cohort used written test materials and the other used intranet-delivered materials to examine possible differences in groups using electronic assessment modes. In this study, community college students self-selecting into online hybrid and traditional versions of the same biology course did not have the same number of prior online courses, achievement or persistence rates as those self-selecting into F2F sections of the same course with the same laboratories and instructor. This study includes twenty pretest items selected from Instructor's Manual and Test Item File to Accompany: Inquiry into Life, 9th Edition (Schrock, 2000). This study produced 63 tables, 13 figures and 173 references.

  1. Cloning and expression of a b(0,+)-like amino acid transporter functioning as a heterodimer with 4F2hc instead of rBAT. A new candidate gene for cystinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, D P; Kekuda, R; Huang, W; Wang, H; Devoe, L D; Leibach, F H; Prasad, P D; Ganapathy, V

    1999-10-08

    We have cloned a transporter protein from rabbit small intestine, which, when coexpressed with the 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) in mammalian cells, induces a b(0,+)-like amino acid transport activity. This protein (4F2-lc6 for the sixth member of the 4F2 light chain family) consists of 487 amino acids and has 12 putative transmembrane domains. At the level of amino acid sequence, 4F2-lc6 shows significant homology (44% identity) to the other five known members of the 4F2 light chain family, namely LAT1 (4F2-lc1), y(+)LAT1 (4F2-lc2), y(+)LAT2 (4F2-lc3), xCT (4F2-lc4), and LAT2 (4F2-lc5). The 4F2hc/4F2-lc6 complex-mediated transport process is Na(+)-independent and exhibits high affinity for neutral and cationic amino acids and cystine. These characteristics are similar to those of the b(0,+)-like amino acid transport activity previously shown to be associated with rBAT (protein related to b(0,+) amino acid transport system). However, the newly cloned 4F2-lc6 does not interact with rBAT. This is the first report of the existence of a b(0,+)-like amino acid transport process that is independent of rBAT. 4F2-lc6 is expressed predominantly in the small intestine and kidney. Based on the characteristics of the transport process mediated by the 4F2hc/4F2-lc6 complex and the expression pattern of 4F2-lc6 in mammalian tissues, we suggest that 4F2-lc6 is a new candidate gene for cystinuria.

  2. Aberrant phenotypes of transgenic mice expressing dimeric human erythropoietin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Seong-Jo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dimeric human erythropoietin (dHuEPO peptides are reported to exhibit significantly higher biological activity than the monomeric form of recombinant EPO. The objective of this study was to produce transgenic (tg mice expressing dHuEPO and to investigate the characteristics of these mice. Methods A dHuEPO-expressing vector under the control of the goat beta-casein promoter, which produced a dimer of human EPO molecules linked by a 2-amino acid peptide linker (Asp-Ile, was constructed and injected into 1-cell fertilized embryos by microinjection. Mice were screened using genomic DNA samples obtained from tail biopsies. Blood samples were obtained by heart puncture using heparinized tubes, and hematologic parameters were assessed. Using the microarray analysis tool, we analyzed differences in gene expression in the spleens of tg and control mice. Results A high rate of spontaneous abortion or death of the offspring was observed in the recipients of dHuEPO embryos. We obtained 3 founder lines (#4, #11, and #47 of tg mice expressing the dHuEPO gene. However, only one founder line showed stable germline integration and transmission, subsequently establishing the only transgenic line (#11. We obtained 2 F1 mice and 3 F2 mice from line #11. The dHuEPO protein could not be obtained because of repeated spontaneous abortions in the tg mice. Tg mice exhibited symptoms such as short lifespan and abnormal blood composition. The red blood cell count, white blood cell count, and hematocrit levels in the tg mice were remarkably higher than those in the control mice. The spleens of the tg mice (F1 and F2 females were 11- and -21-fold larger than those of the control mice. Microarray analysis revealed 2,672 spleen-derived candidate genes; more genes were downregulated than upregulated (849/764. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR were used for validating the results of the microarray

  3. Energetic efficiencies of synthetic and hybrid synthetic jet actuators driven by electrodynamic transducers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kordík, Jozef; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Pavelka, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, December (2015), s. 119-126 ISSN 0894-1777 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : synthetic jet * hybrid synthetic jet * energetic efficiency Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.128, year: 2015 http://ac.els- cdn .com/S0894177715002058/1-s2.0-S0894177715002058-main.pdf?_tid=bfe0a7b4-98fb-11e5-a0a3-00000aab0f26& amp ;acdnat=1449064452_d98637b768f2bd234e0f2e61b4690410

  4. Relaxation and interaction of electronic excitations induced by intense ultra short light pulses in BaF2 scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirm, M.; Nagirnyi, V.; Vielhauer, S.; Feldbach, E.

    2011-06-01

    Excitation density effects have a pronounced influence on relaxation processes in solids. They come into play in scintillating and dosimetric materials exposed to ionizing radiation or in laser materials operating in intense ultraviolet light fields. The scientific understanding of the underlying process is poor, mainly because most of the studies of light emitting materials under short wavelength excitation have been performed at weak and moderate excitation intensities due to limited availability of powerful light sources. Disembodied data on excitation density effects have been reported for wide-gap dielectrics studied by luminescence spectroscopy, by using such excitation sources as powerful ion beams,1,2pulsed electron beams,2,3 and wide-band hard X-ray synchrotron radiation.4 It is obvious that such non-selective excitation is a good tool for revealing density-related phenomena in these materials in general, but for investigating specific features of relaxation processes in insulators, light sources with well defined parameters are necessary. Since the shortwavelength free electron laser (FEL) technology has been devised by an international consortium at HASYLAB of DESY, resulting in the development of TESLA Test facility (TTF)5 and later in the construction of a dedicated FEL source FLASH in Hamburg,6 more advanced studies became possible. The range of interests towards this light source covers the fields from material science and various other branches of physics to structural biology. The pioneering luminescence study revealed excitation density effects in the decay of Ce3+ 5d-4f luminescence in Y3Al5O12 crystals and luminescence of BaF2 crystals in UV-visible range.7 These results motivated systematic investigations of excitation density effects in wide gap crystals using FEL8,9 and high-harmonic-generated VUV radiation,10 and, at lower energies, femtosecond laser pulses in the UV.11,12 The main goal of the present work is to analyze the same phenomenon

  5. Microstructures and properties of superconducting Y-ErBaCuO thin films obtained from disordered Y-ErBaF2Cu films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikmach, P.; Diociaiuti, M.; Fontana, A.; Giovannella, C.; Iannuzzi, M.; Lucchini, C.; Merlo, V.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Scopa, L.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation procedure used to obtain superconducting thin films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a single mosaic target is described in detail. The single mosaic target is composed of (Y-Er), BaF2, and Cu.

  6. Ischemic stroke in Ukrainian population: possible involvement of the F2 G20210A, F5 G1691A and MTHFR C677T gene variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova S. M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate a possible involvement of the F2, F5, MTHFR gene variants into ischemic stroke pathogenesis in population of Ukraine. Methods. Polymorphic variants were analyzed in unrelated 183 stroke patients, 100 individuals from the general population of Ukraine and 88 healthy individuals elder than 65 years using PCR followed by RFLP analysis. Results. Unfavourable polymorphic variants F2 20210A, F5 1691A and MTHFR 677T were observed more frequently in patients with ischemic stroke comparing to control groups. Conclusions. F5 1691A and MTHFR 677T polymorphic variants are associated with the occurrence of ischemic stroke in women. F2 20210A is associated with the occurrence of ischemic stroke in men. Cumulative risk factor for stroke development is revealed in a combination of unfavorable polymorphic variants 20210A, 1691A and 677T of F2, F5 and MTHFR genes.

  7. Studies of interaction between histone F2b and DNA from normal and exposed to X-radiation calf lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkowiak, J.; Gaczynski, M.

    1978-01-01

    Affinity chromatography has been used to compare the specificity of interaction between DNA and histone F2b. Histone-sepharose gels were prepared by binding the F2b protein to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B (Pharmacia, Sweden). DNA was applied to columns formed from the gels, and a linear gradient of concentration of NaCl used for elution. Absorption at 260 nm, and derivative melting points were measured for those samples of effluent containing DNA. The results indicated that the fractionation of DNA was not conditioned only by the composition of the DNA bases. There were significant differences in the interaction with DNA of gels prepared from histone F2b molecules from X-irradiated and normal lymph nodes. It is concluded that histone F2b remaining in lymph nodes after irradiation had properties which differed from protein in normal tissue. (U.K.)

  8. Generation of 103 fs mode-locked pulses by a gain linewidth-variable Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Z P; Xie, G Q; Ma, J; Ge, W Y; Yuan, P; Qian, L J; Su, L B; Jiang, D P; Ma, F K; Zhang, Q; Cao, Y X; Xu, J

    2014-04-01

    We have demonstrated a diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal laser for the first time to our knowledge. By choosing appropriate Y-doping concentration, a broad fluorescence linewidth of 31 nm has been obtained from the gain linewidth-variable Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal. With the Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal as gain medium, the mode-locked laser generated pulses with pulse duration as short as 103 fs, average output power of 89 mW, and repetition rate of 100 MHz. To our best knowledge, this is the shortest pulse generated from Nd-doped crystal lasers so far. The research results show that the Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal will be a potential alternative as gain medium of repetitive chirped pulse amplification for high-peak-power lasers.

  9. Ionospheric F2-layer Perturbations Observed After the M8.8 Chile Earthquake on February 27, 2010, at Long Distance from the Epicenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Hegai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The F2-layer critical frequency (foF2 data from several ionosondes are employed to study the long-distance effect of the M8.8 Chile Earthquake of February 27, 2010, on the F2 layer. Significant perturbations of the peak F2-layer electron density have been observed following the earthquake at two South African stations, Hermanus and Madimbo, which are located at great circle distances of ~8,000 and ~10,000 km from the earthquake epicenter, respectively. Simplified estimates demonstrate that the observed ionospheric perturbations can be caused by a long-period acoustic gravity wave produced in the F-region by the earthquake.

  10. Long-term comparison of the ionospheric F2 layer electron density peak derived from ionosonde data and Formosat-3/COSMIC occultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limberger Marco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron density profiles (EDPs derived from GNSS radio occultation (RO measurements provide valuable information on the vertical electron density structure of the ionosphere and, among others, allow the extraction of key parameters such as the maximum electron density NmF2 and the corresponding peak height hmF2 of the F2 layer. An efficient electron density retrieval method, developed at the UPC (Barcelona, Spain, has been applied in this work to assess the accuracy of NmF2and hmF2 as determined from Formosat-3/COSMIC (F-3/C radio occultation measurements for a period of more than half a solar cycle between 2006 and 2014. Ionosonde measurements of the Space Physics Interactive Data Resource (SPIDR network serve as a reference. Investigations on the global trend as well as comparisons of the F2 layer electron density peaks derived from both occultations and ionosonde measurements are carried out. The studies are performed in the global domain and with the distinction of different latitude sectors around the magnetic equator ±[0°, 20°], ±]20°, 60°] and ±]60°, 90°] and local times (LT accounting for different ionospheric conditions at night (02:00 LT ± 2 h, dawn (08:00 LT ± 2 h, and day (14:00 LT ± 2 h. The mean differences of F2 layer electron density peaks observed by F-3/C and ionosondes are found to be insignificant. Relative variations of the peak differences are determined in the range of 22%–30% for NmF2 and 10%–15% for hmF2. The consistency of observations is generally high for the equatorial and mid-latitude sectors at daytime and dawn whereas degradations have been detected in the polar regions and during night. It is shown, that the global averages of NmF2 and hmF2 derived from F-3/C occultations appear as excellent indicators for the solar activity.

  11. Relationship between the Porcine Stress Syndrome gene and pork quality traits of F2 pigs resulting from divergent crosses

    OpenAIRE

    Band,Guilherme de Oliveira; Guimarães,Simone Eliza Facioni; Lopes,Paulo Sávio; Schierholt,Alex Sandro; Silva,Kleibe Moraes; Pires,Aldrin Vieira; Benevenuto Júnior,Augusto Aloísio; Gomide,Lúcio Alberto de Miranda

    2005-01-01

    The PSS genotypes of 596 F2 pigs produced by initial mating of Brazilian commercial sows and native boars were characterized by PCR-RFLP and the pork quality traits were evaluated. Among the 596 pigs studied, 493 (82.7%) were NN and 103 (17.3%) were Nn. There were no differences between NN and Nn pigs in the following pork qualities: pHu (5.71 ± 0.16 vs 5.70 ± 0.11), intramuscular fat (1.55 ± 0.64% vs 1.65 ± 0.67%), shear force (5552 ± 878 g/1.2 cm vs 5507 ± 826 g/1.2 cm), lightness (44.96 ± ...

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 126-F-2, 183-F Clearwells, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The 126-F-2 site is the clearwell facility formerly used as part of the reactor cooling water treatment at the 183-F facility. During demolition operations in the 1970s, potentially contaminated debris was disposed in the eastern clearwell structure. The site has been remediated by removing all debris in the clearwell structure to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of radiological surveys and visual inspection of the remediated clearwell structure show neither residual contamination nor the potential for contaminant migration beyond the clearwell boundaries. The results of verification sampling at the remediation waste staging area demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  13. Direct observation of the microstructure and defects in KBe2BO3F2 crystals by TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Liu, Lijuan; Wang, Xiaoyang; Chen, Chuangtian; Zhou, Haitao; He, Xiaoling; Zhang, Changlong; Sun, Junliang

    2014-11-21

    We apply for the first time transmission electron microscopy to the direct observation of the deep-UV nonlinear optical crystal KBe2BO3F2 (KBBF) grown using different methods. Two kinds of electron diffraction patterns were observed in the hydrothermally synthesized KBBF along the [120] direction, which resulted from the coexistence of two structures with space groups R32 and R3[combining macron]c. As a comparison, the flux grown KBBF crystals show uniform R32 structures. Furthermore we observed a twin boundary in flux KBBF which corresponds to the (21[combining macron]3)R32 crystallographic plane. Two structure models are proposed here for the twin boundary. These observations on the microstructure and defects were not disclosed in previous powder XRD and optical microscopy experiments and shed new light on the understanding of the structure and defects of KBBF crystals.

  14. Bitemporal hypometabolism in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease measured by positron emission tomography with [18F]-2-fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, R.P.; Prusiner, S.B.; Jagust, W.J.; Budinger, T.F.; Davis, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    It is well established that Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is caused by a slow infectious agent similar to the scrapie prion. However, the pathogenesis of this infection is poorly understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a 54-year-old man with autopsy confirmed CJD using [18F]-2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the Donner 280-crystal tomograph. Temporal lobe hypometabolism with hemispheric asymmetry was observed. These findings are similar to those previously obtained in PET-FDG studies of patients with clinically defined Alzheimer disease (AD). The similarities in the regional metabolic alterations between CJD and AD provide additional evidence for the possibility that AD may be caused by a slow infectious prion

  15. Bitemporal hypometabolism in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease measured by positron emission tomography with (/sup 18/F)-2-fluorodeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedland, R.P.; Prusiner, S.B.; Jagust, W.J.; Budinger, T.F.; Davis, R.L.

    1984-10-01

    It is well established that Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is caused by a slow infectious agent similar to the scrapie prion. However, the pathogenesis of this infection is poorly understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a 54-year-old man with autopsy confirmed CJD using (18F)-2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the Donner 280-crystal tomograph. Temporal lobe hypometabolism with hemispheric asymmetry was observed. These findings are similar to those previously obtained in PET-FDG studies of patients with clinically defined Alzheimer disease (AD). The similarities in the regional metabolic alterations between CJD and AD provide additional evidence for the possibility that AD may be caused by a slow infectious prion.

  16. Quantitative trait locus affecting birth weight on bovine chromosome 5 in a F2 Gyr x Holstein population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gasparin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Segregation between a genetic marker and a locus influencing a quantitative trait in a well delineated population is the basis for success in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL. To detect bovine chromosome 5 (BTA5 birth weight QTL we genotyped 294 F2 Gyr (Bos indicus x Holstein (Bos taurus crossbreed cattle for five microsatellite markers. A linkage map was constructed for the markers and an interval analysis for the presence of QTL was performed. The linkage map indicated differences in the order of two markers relative to the reference map (http://www.marc.usda.gov. Interval analysis detected a QTL controlling birth weight (p < 0.01 at 69 centimorgans (cM from the most centromeric marker with an effect of 0.32 phenotypic standard-error. These results support other studies with crossbred Bos taurus x Bos indicus populations.

  17. Combining ability of opium poppy genotypes over F1 and F2 generations of 8x8 diallel cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Yadav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining abilities for yield, its component traits and morphine content were examined in opium poppy tounderstand the inheritance pattern of these traits, and to identify genotypes suitable for genetic improvement of yield andmorphine content. The experiment comprising a total of 64 treatments (28 F1+28 F2 and 8 parents was evaluated in RBD. Theresults showed that most of the traits are governed by non additive gene action however additive gene action is also important.The parents BR-232, BR-245, BR-234 were found to be good general combiners for yield and its related traits and can beutilized in multiple breeding programs. SCA effects in relation to GCA effects of parents showed that most of the crosscombinations with high SCA effects involved high x high, high x low and low x low GCA combiners.

  18. A Unique TAS Setup for high multiplicity events at VECC, Kolkata using BaF2 detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A granular total absorption spectrometer (TAS has been developed at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India using 50 elements of BaF2 detectors and covering 4π. The advantage with such a granular setup is that one can get sum spectrum with the condition of different multiplicity hits in an event. It has been shown that one can get clean sum-peaks devoid of individual peaks with the choice of two or higher fold of multiplicity. The large granularity makes it a unique TAS setup particularly for the high multiplicity events. The set up has been tested using different radioactive sources with one, two or multiple γ rays in cascade. The set up is ready to be used online.

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 126-F-2, 183-F Clearwells, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-04

    The 126-F-2 site is the clearwell facility formerly used as part of the reactor cooling water treatment at the 183-F facility. During demolition operations in the 1970s, potentially contaminated debris was disposed in the eastern clearwell structure. The site has been remediated by removing all debris in the clearwell structure to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of radiological surveys and visual inspection of the remediated clearwell structure show neither residual contamination nor the potential for contaminant migration beyond the clearwell boundaries. The results of verification sampling at the remediation waste staging area demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  20. Neutron diffraction and TSDC on Ba1−xUxF2+2x solid electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouwerkerk, M.; Andersen, N. H.; Veldkamp, F. F.

    1986-01-01

    The defect structure of fluorite-type Ba1−xUxF2+2x solid solutions, which exhibit fast fluoride ion conductivity, has been investigated by quasi-elastic diffuse neutron scattering (QDNS) experiments, and thermally stimulated depolarisation current (TSDC) measurements. A comparison with model...... calculations reveals (212) clusters to dominate the defect structure. From 10 to 400K TSDS spectra reveal for x Conductivity parameters calculated from the latter relaxation compare very well with those...... obtained from a.c. ionic conductivity studies. The low-temperature relaxation at 29.5 K is ascribed to depolarisation steps of (212) clusters. Evidence for the relaxation of a minor amount of (UBaFi)x dipoles is found. A direct indication of the freedom of orientation of a (212) cluster is obtained from...

  1. 55Mn nuclear spin relaxation and lifetime of magnons in MnF2 near the spin-flop transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, J.P.; King, A.R.

    1977-01-01

    A divergence in the nuclear relaxation rate (T 1 -1 ) of 55 Mn is observed in MnF 2 when the magnetic field approaches the field of the spin-flop transition (H=92.94Oe). The field dependence of T 1 -1 at 4.2 and 2K was studied together with its temperature dependence at 92.4 and 85 kOe. Near the transition, T 1 -1 is governed, below 8K, by the processes induced by the dipolar coupling and, above 8K, by those induced by exchange interactions. On the contrary, in weaker fields (H=85Oe), the only exchange induced processes are important [fr

  2. Microstructures and properties of superconducting Y-Er-BaCu-O thin films obtained from disordered Y-Er-BaF2-Cu films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikmach, P.; Diociaiuti, M.; Fontana, A.; Giovannella, C.; Iannuzzi, M.; Lucchini, C.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Scopa, L.; Tripodi, P.

    1990-01-01

    Since the first reports on superconducting thin films obtained by evaporating BaF2, Cu and Y(sup 1), or Yb or Er(sup 2), several others have followed. All these reports describe thin films prepared by means of molecular beam cells or electron guns. Researchers show that films with similar properties can be obtained by radio frequency sputtering of a single mosaic target composed by Y-Er, BaF2 and Cu. Process steps are described.

  3. Variability of the ionospheric plasma density, NmF2, and of Total Electron Content, TEC, over equatorial and low latitude region in Brazil during solar minimum activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido, Claudia; Batista, Inez S.; Negreti, Patricia M. S.; Klausner, Virginia

    The recent solar minimum period was unusually deep and prolonged, which opened a window to observe the ionospheric behavior under unprecedented low solar activity conditions. This work is part of a multi-instrumental effort to investigate the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere over Brazilian sector during low solar activity. We present a study of the ionospheric plasma densities variations through ionosondes measurements and dual frequency GPS receivers (L1= 1275.4 MHz, L2 = 1227.6 MHz) for two equatorial stations, Sao Luis (3° S, 45º W) e Fortaleza (4° S, 39.5° W), and for a station close to the south crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly region, Cachoeira Paulista (23º S, 45º W). From ionosondes we extract the plasma critical frequency foF2 which is related to F2 region peak electron density, NmF2, by the relationship: NmF2 = 1.24 x 104 (foF2)2, and the F2 layer peak height, hmF2. From GPS receivers we used the quantity VTEC (Vertical total electron content). We analyzed the seasonal and local time variations of NmF2 and VTEC, as well as the differences between two solar minima, 2008-2009 and 1996. We observe that the ionospheric plasma densities were lower in 2008-2009 than in 1996 for both regions. In addition, we observe that the lowest plasma densities persisted longer during 2008/2009 than in 1996, especially for nighttime periods. Finally, we applied the wavelet technique to investigate the impact of some distinct time scales drivers on the ionosphere, such as the wave activity from below that seems have been better observed and appreciated during this unusual solar quiescence.

  4. Variability in the maximum height of the ionospheric F2-layer over Millstone Hill (September 1998–March 2000; influence from below and above

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pancheva

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this ‘case study’ is to investigate the variability in the maximum height of the ionospheric F2-layer, hmF2, with periods of planetary waves (2–30 days, and to make an attempt to determine their origin. The hourly data of hmF2 above Millstone Hill (42.6° N, 71.5° W during 01 September 1998 - 31 March 2000 were used for analysis. Three types of disturbances are studied in detail: (i the 27- day oscillations observed in the hmF2 above Millstone Hill are generated by the geomagnetic activity and by the global-scale 27-day wave present in the zonal mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT neutral wind. The time delay between the 27-day oscillation in the zonal wind and that in the hmF2 is found to be 5–6 days, while between the 27-day oscillation in the geomagnetic activity and that in the hmF2 is found to be 0.8–1 day; (ii the 16-day oscillation in the hmF2 observed during summer 1999 is probably generated by the global scale 16-day modulation of the semidiurnal tide observed in the MLT region during PSMOS campaign in June–August. We found that if the modulated semidiurnal tide mediates the planetary wave signature in the ionosphere, this planetary wave oscillation has to be best expressed in the amplitude and in the phase of the 12-h periodicity of the ionosphere; and (iii the third type of disturbances studied is the quasi-2- day activity in the hmF2 that increases during geomagnetic disturbances. The strong pseudo diurnal periodicities generated during the geomagnetic storms can interact between each other and produce the quasi-2-day oscillations in the ionosphere.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionosphere-magnetoshpere interactions; wave propagation

  5. Fluoride retention in human enamel after a single phosphoric acid and mixed phosphoric acid/SnF2 application in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, P.G.E.; Flissebaalje, T.D.; Groeneveld, A.

    1980-01-01

    Pieces of enamel were treated with either an APF solution or a 1:1 mixture of APF/SnF2 (APF: 1.23 per cent F−, 0.1 M H3PO4; and SnF2: 2 per cent) for 4 min at 37 °C followed by 30 min washing. There was an increase of 1640 parts/106 in the fluoride concentration of APF-treated enamel. Most of the

  6. Analytical Variables Affecting Analysis of F2-Isoprostanes and F4-Neuroprostanes in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Chuan Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs are a gold marker of lipid peroxidation in vivo, whereas F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NPs measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF or brain tissue selectively indicate neuronal oxidative damage. Gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS is the most sensitive and robust method for quantifying these compounds, which is essential for CSF samples because abundance of these compounds in CSF is very low. The present study revealed potential interferences on the analysis of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF by GC/NICI-MS due to the use of improper analytical methods that have been employed in the literature. First, simultaneous quantification of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF samples processed for F4-NPs analysis could cause poor chromatographic separation and falsely higher F2-IsoPs values for CSF samples with high levels of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs. Second, retention of unknown substances in GC columns from CSF samples during F4-NPs analysis and from plasma samples during F2-IsoPs analysis might interfere with F4-NPs analysis of subsequent runs, which could be solved by holding columns at a high temperature for a period of time after data acquisition. Therefore, these special issues should be taken into consideration when performing analysis of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF to avoid misleading results.

  7. Unusual nighttime impulsive foF2 enhancement below the southern anomaly crest under geomagnetically quiet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzopane, M.; Fagundes, P. R.; Ciraolo, L.; Correia, E.; Cabrera, M. A.; Ezquer, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    An unusual nighttime impulsive electron density enhancement was observed on 6 March 2010 over a wide region of South America, below the southern crest of the equatorial anomaly, under low solar activity and quiet geomagnetic conditions. The phenomenon was observed almost simultaneously by the F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) recorded at three ionospheric stations which are widely distributed in space, namely Cachoeira Paulista (22.4°S, 44.6°W, magnetic latitude 13.4°S), São José dos Campos (23.2°S, 45.9°W, magnetic latitude 14.1°S), Brazil, and Tucumán (26.9°S, 65.4°W, magnetic latitude 16.8°S), Argentina. Although in a more restricted region over Tucumán, the phenomenon was also observed by the total electron content (TEC) maps computed by using measurements from 12 GPS receivers. The investigated phenomenon is very particular because besides being of brief duration, it is characterized by a pronounced compression of the ionosphere. This compression was clearly visible both by the virtual height of the base of the F region (h‧F) recorded at the aforementioned ionospheric stations, and by both the vertical electron density profiles and the slab thickness computed over Tucumán. Consequently, neither an enhanced fountain effect nor plasma diffusion from the plasmasphere can be considered as the single cause of this unusual event. A thorough analysis of isoheight and isofrequency ionosonde plots suggest that traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) caused by gravity wave (GW) propagation could have likely played a significant role in causing the phenomenon.

  8. The HCClF_2-HCCH Complex: Microwave Spectrum, Structure and C-H\\cdotsπ Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Rebecca A.; Sexton, John M.; Elliott, Ashley A.; Steber, Amanda L.; Peebles, Sean A.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Pate, Brooks H.

    2010-06-01

    The HCF_3-HCCH complex was recently found to have a weak C-H\\cdotsπ interaction between the fluoroform and acetylene, as well as having a secondary interaction between the fluorine atoms and one of the acetylene hydrogen atoms; however, extensive splittings due to large amplitude motions within the complex have complicated our efforts at making a full assignment of the HCF_3-HCCH spectrum. In an attempt to remove some of the ambiguity in the HCF_3-HCCH study, we have substituted a chlorine atom for one fluorine atom and undertaken an investigation of the HCClF_2-HCCH complex. This eliminates the possibility of internal rotation of the methane subunit, while still maintaining a C-H\\cdotsπ interaction. Using the chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer at the University of Virginia and the Balle-Flygare FTMW spectrometer at Eastern Illinois University, the spectra of four isotopologues of HCClF_2-HCCH have been assigned, with no indication of internal motions within the complex. The structure has been determined from the experimental moments of inertia, confirming that this dimer has the expected weak C-H\\cdotsπ interaction. In addition, the off-diagonal χab quadrupole coupling constant has been used to determine the angle between the C-Cl bond and the a-axis of the complex. This, and Kraitchman coordinates for the chlorine atom, help confirm the structural details from the inertial fit. The structural results will be compared with other complexes showing C-H\\cdotsπ and C-H\\cdotsO interactions. S. A. Peebles, M. M. Serafin, R. A. Peebles, 61st International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Talk MH13, June 19, 2006.

  9. Luminescent hybrid materials based on laponite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanrong; Li, Man; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Wenjun

    2014-08-11

    The spectroscopic behavior of ionic Eu(3+) or Tb(3+) complexes of an aromatic carboxyl-functionalized organic salt as well as those of the hybrid materials derived from adsorption of the ionic complexes on Laponite clay are reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns suggest that the complexes are mainly adsorbed on the outer surfaces of the Laponite disks rather than intercalated within the interlayer spaces. Photophysical data showed that the energy-transfer efficiency from the ligand to Eu(3+) ions in the hybrid material is increased remarkably with respect to the corresponding ionic complex. The hybrid material containing the Eu(3+) complex shows bright red emission from the prominent (5) D0 →(7) F2 transition of Eu(3+) ions, and that containing the Tb(3+) complex exhibits bright green emission due to the dominant (5) D4 →(7) F5 transition of Tb(3+) ions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Population genetic diversity and hybrid detection in captive zebras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hideyuki; Langenhorst, Tanya; Ogden, Rob; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2015-08-21

    Zebras are members of the horse family. There are three species of zebras: the plains zebra Equus quagga, the Grevy's zebra E. grevyi and the mountain zebra E. zebra. The Grevy's zebra and the mountain zebra are endangered, and hybridization between the Grevy's zebra and the plains zebra has been documented, leading to a requirement for conservation genetic management within and between the species. We characterized 28 microsatellite markers in Grevy's zebra and assessed cross-amplification in plains zebra and two of its subspecies, as well as mountain zebra. A range of standard indices were employed to examine population genetic diversity and hybrid populations between Grevy's and plains zebra were simulated to investigate subspecies and hybrid detection. Microsatellite marker polymorphism was conserved across species with sufficient variation to enable individual identification in all populations. Comparative diversity estimates indicated greater genetic variation in plains zebra and its subspecies than Grevy's zebra, despite potential ascertainment bias. Species and subspecies differentiation were clearly demonstrated and F1 and F2 hybrids were correctly identified. These findings provide insights into captive population genetic diversity in zebras and support the use of these markers for identifying hybrids, including the known hybrid issue in the endangered Grevy's zebra.

  11. Heterotic effects in f/sub 1s/ and inbreeding depression in f/sub 2/ hybrids of sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, S.; Baloch, M.J.; Baloch, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    genetically diverse female lines of sunflower were crossed with male testers to get heterotic hybrids. studies were carried-out during 2008-2010 at experiment filed of agriculture research institute, tandojam, sindh, pakistan. six female lines like t-4-0319, pac-0505, ho-i, hysun-33, peshawar-93 and cms-03 and three testers i.e., pac-0306, pac-64-a and sf-187 were crossed in a line * tester mating design, thus 18 f1 and f2 hybrids were developed for evaluation of heterosis and inbreeding depression for days to initial flowering, days to maturity, leaves/plant, plant height (cm), head diameter (cm), 1000-achene weight (g), seed yield kg/ha and oil yield kg/ha. the experiment was conducted in a randomised completeb lock design with four replications. the analysis of variance revealed significant differences among parents, f1s and f2 hybrids for all the traits studied. the existence of significant genetic variability among the plant traits is particularly useful because variations in these traits would allow further improvement in sunflower seed yield and oil traits. the f1 hybrids ho-i * pac-0306 and ho-i pa * c-64-a exhibited desirable negative mid and better parent heterosis for days to initial flowering, days to maturity and plant height. these hybrids also manifested desirable positive heterotic effects for leaves/plant, head diameter, 1000-achene.s weight, seed yield and oil yield. inbreeding depression for phenological, seed yield and oil traits showed that desirable high inbreeding depression was observed in hybrids ho-i * p*ac-64-a, ho-i * pac-0306 and ho-i * sf-187 for days to initial flowering, similarly t-4-0319 * pac-0306, pac-0505 ± sf-187 and ho-i * pac-64-a explicated maximum but rewarding inbreeding depression for days to maturity. the f2 hybrids hysun-33 * sf-187 and peshawer-93 * pac-64-a may be the most desirable ones in the sense that they recorded comparatively moderate inbreeding depression with enough number of leaves to be productive if f2

  12. Phenotypic novelty in experimental hybrids is predicted by the genetic distance between species of cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Corinne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgressive segregation describes the occurrence of novel phenotypes in hybrids with extreme trait values not observed in either parental species. A previously experimentally untested prediction is that the amount of transgression increases with the genetic distance between hybridizing species. This follows from QTL studies suggesting that transgression is most commonly due to complementary gene action or epistasis, which become more frequent at larger genetic distances. This is because the number of QTLs fixed for alleles with opposing signs in different species should increase with time since speciation provided that speciation is not driven by disruptive selection. We measured the amount of transgression occurring in hybrids of cichlid fish bred from species pairs with gradually increasing genetic distances and varying phenotypic similarity. Transgression in multi-trait shape phenotypes was quantified using landmark-based geometric morphometric methods. Results We found that genetic distance explained 52% and 78% of the variation in transgression frequency in F1 and F2 hybrids, respectively. Confirming theoretical predictions, transgression when measured in F2 hybrids, increased linearly with genetic distance between hybridizing species. Phenotypic similarity of species on the other hand was not related to the amount of transgression. Conclusion The commonness and ease with which novel phenotypes are produced in cichlid hybrids between unrelated species has important implications for the interaction of hybridization with adaptation and speciation. Hybridization may generate new genotypes with adaptive potential that did not reside as standing genetic variation in either parental population, potentially enhancing a population's responsiveness to selection. Our results make it conceivable that hybridization contributed to the rapid rates of phenotypic evolution in the large and rapid adaptive radiations of haplochromine

  13. Outcomes of extensive hybridization and introgression in Epidendrum (Orchidaceae: can we rely on species boundaries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesenia Vega

    Full Text Available Hybridization has the potential to contribute to phenotypic and genetic variation and can be a major evolutionary mechanism. However, when hybridization is extensive it can also lead to the blurring of species boundaries and the emergence of cryptic species (i.e., two or more species not distinguishable morphologically. In this study, we address this hypothesis in Epidendrum, the largest Neotropical genus of orchids where hybridization is apparently so common that it may explain the high levels of morphological diversity found. Nonetheless, this hypothesis is mostly based on the intermediacy of morphological characters and intermediacy by itself is not a proof of hybridization. Therefore, in this study, we first assessed the existence of hybrids using cpDNA and AFLP data gathered from a large-scale sampling comprising 1038 plants of three species of Epidendrum (E. calanthum, E. cochlidium and E. schistochilum. Subsequently, a Bayesian assignment of individuals into different genetic classes (pure species, F1, F2 or backcross generations revealed that hybrid genotypes were prevalent in all sympatric populations. In most cases, parental species were not assigned as pure individuals, rather consisting in backcrossed genotypes or F1 hybrids. We also found that reproductive barriers are apparently very weak in Epidendrum because the three species largely overlapped in their flowering periods and interspecific crosses always produced viable seeds. Further, hybridization contributed to enhance floral variability, genome size and reproductive success since we found that these traits were always higher in hybrid classes (F1, F2 and backcrosses than in pure parental species, and offer an explanation for the blurring of species boundaries in this genus of orchids. We hypothesize that these natural hybrids possess an evolutionary advantage, which may explain the high rates of cryptic species observed in this genus.

  14. Cloning Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo

    2017-08-01

    Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Investigation of the active turn geometry for the labour delaying activity of indolizidinone and azapeptide modulators of the prostaglandin F2α receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukanoun, Meriem K; Hou, Xin; Nikolajev, Ljiljana; Ratni, Sara; Olson, David; Claing, Audrey; Laporte, Stéphane A; Chemtob, Sylvain; Lubell, William D

    2015-07-28

    On pursuing molecules that delay labour, so-called tocolytics, the prostaglandin F2α receptor (FP) was targeted, because of its role in the stimulation of uterine contractions leading to birth and preterm birth. Previously, both the indolizidinone PDC-113.824 (5) and the aza-glycinyl-proline analog 6 were shown to delay labour in mice by modulating the FP function, likely by an allosteric mechanism, which features biased signalling. The crystal structure and computational analyses of the indolizidin-2-one amino acid and aza-glycinyl-proline components of 5 and 6 in model peptides have shown them to adopt a geometry that mimics ideal type I and II'β-turns. To elucidate the precise turn geometry for receptor recognition, analogs 1-4 have now been synthesized: macrocycle and pyrroloazepinone mimics 1 and 2 to mimic type I, and glycinyl-proline and d-alaninyl-proline analogs 3 and 4 to favour type II'β-turn geometry. Notably, transannular cyclization of peptide macrocycle 13 has provided diastereoselectively pyrroloazepinone 15 by a novel route that provides effective access to mimics 1 and 2 by way of a common intermediate. Among the four analogs, none exhibited efficacy nor potency on par with 5 and 6; however, d-alaninyl-proline analog 4 proved superior to the other analogs in reducing PGF2α-induced myometrial contractions and inhibiting FP modulation of cell ruffling, a response dependent on the Gα12/RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. Furthermore Gly-Pro analog 3 potentiated the effect of PGF2α on Gαq mediated ERK1/2 activation. Evidence that 4 adopted turn geometry was obtained by conformational analysis using NMR spectroscopy to characterize respectively the influence of solvent and temperature on the chemical shifts of the amide NH protons. Although mimicry of the type II' geometry by 3, 4, 5 and 6 may favour activity, distortion from ideal geometry by the indolizidinone and aza-glycinyl residues of the latter appears to enhance their biological effects.

  16. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  17. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  18. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  19. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  20. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  1. Hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szostak, J.W.; Stiles, J.I.; Tye, B.K.; Sherman, F.; Wu, R.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures are described for the use of synthetic oligonucleotides for Southern blot experiments and gene bank screening, and the effect of various mismatches on the efficiency of hybridization is demonstrated. The following topics are discussed: sensitivity vs. specificity, hybridization of a 12-mer to the lambda endolysin gene; hybridization of oligonucleotide probes to the E. coli lac operator; hybridization of synthetic probes to the CYC1 gene of yeast; and cloning eucaryotic genes. (HLW)

  2. Hybridization experiments indicate incomplete reproductive isolating mechanism between Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, T; Ichinomiya, M; Fukuda, K; Fusyuku, S; Carmona, C

    2011-09-01

    Experiments on hybridization between Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were carried out to clarify whether a reproductive isolating mechanism appears between the two Fasciola species. Molecular evidence for hybridization was based on the DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region in nuclear ribosomal DNA, which differs between the species. The results suggested that there were not pre-mating but post-mating isolating mechanisms between the two species. However, viable adults of the hybrids F1 and F2 were produced from both parental F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The hybrids inherited phenotypic characteristics such as ratio of body length and width and infectivity to rats from parental Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. These findings suggest that reproductive isolation is incomplete between Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. Adults of the hybrids F1 and F2 were completely different in mode of reproduction from aspermic Fasciola forms that occur in Asia and seem to be offspring originated from hybridization between F. hepatica and F. gigantica and to reproduce parthenogenetically.

  3. Long-lived ames dwarf mice are resistant to chemical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, Alex F; Lindsey, Merry L; Khodr, Christina; Sabia, Marian R; Richardson, Arlan

    2009-08-01

    To probe the connection between longevity and stress resistance, we compared the sensitivity of Ames long-lived dwarf mice and control littermates with paraquat, diquat, and dobutamine. In young adult animals, 95% of male and 39% of female controls died after paraquat administration, but no dwarf animals died. When the experiment was repeated at an older age or a higher dosage of paraquat, dwarf mice still showed greater resistance. Dwarf mice also were more resistant to diquat; 80% of male and 60% of female controls died compared with 40% and 20% of dwarf mice, despite greater sensitivity of dwarf liver to diquat. Dwarf mice were also less sensitive to dobutamine-induced cardiac stress and had lower levels of liver and lung F(2)-isoprostanes. This is the first direct in vivo evidence that long-lived Ames dwarf mice have enhanced resistance to chemical insult, particularly oxidative stressors.

  4. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  5. Pengaruh Pemberian Susu Coklat Terhadap Kadar F2Isoprostan pada Siswa di Pusat Pendidikan dan Latihan Olahraga Pelajar (PPLP Sumatera Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezi Ilham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latihan fisik yang berlebihan dapat meningkatkan produksi radikal bebas di dalam tubuh. Peningkatan radikalbebas ini kalau tidak dinetralisasi oleh antioksidan di dalam tubuh, maka terjadilah stres oksidatif yang dapatmenyebabkan terjadinya peroksidasi lipid, sehingga menghasilkan produk senyawa F2-isoprostan yang dapatberdampak terhadap berbagai masalah kesehatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan pengaruhpemberian susu coklat terhadap kadar F2-isoprostan. Penelitian ini merupakan eksperimental pre and post test controlgrup design terhadap 36 siswa atlet, yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan ekslusi. Subjek dibagi dua kelompok yaituyang diberikan perlakuan susu coklat dan kontrol susu putih. Susu diminum setelah latihan fisik rutin atlet sebanyaksatu kali sehari selama 15 hari. Kadar F2-isoprostan dinilai sebelum dan sesudah secara ELISA. Data dianalisisdengan paired sample t-Test, bermakna bila p<0,05. Hasil penelitian didapatkan rerata kadar F2-isoprostan sebelumperlakuan pada kelompok susu coklat adalah 65,98±14,61 pg/ml dan sesudah perlakuan adalah 45,55±13,74 pg/ml.Rerata kadar F2-isoprostan sebelum perlakuan pada kelompok kontrol susu putih adalah 54,24±20,44 pg/ml dansesudah perlakuan adalah 48,80±20,23 pg/ml. Kesimpulan yang diperoleh ada pengaruh yang bermakna dari reratakadar F2-isoprostan sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan baik pada kelompok perlakuan susu coklat dan kelompok kontrolsusu putih.Kata kunci: latihan fisik, radikal bebas, F2-isoprostan, susu coklatAbstract Excessive physical exercise can increase the production of free radicals in the body. The increase in freeradicals if not neutralized by antioxidants in the body and it caused oxidative stress which can cause lipid peroxidation,resulting in F2-isoprostane product compounds that can affect a variety of health problems. The objective of this studywas to determine the influence of milk chocolate on F2-isoprostane levels. This study was an experimental pre

  6. Comparison of internal ribosome entry site (IRES and Furin-2A (F2A for monoclonal antibody expression level and quality in CHO cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C L Ho

    Full Text Available Four versions of tricistronic vectors expressing IgG1 light chain (LC, IgG1 heavy chain (HC, and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR in one transcript were designed to compare internal ribosome entry site (IRES and furin-2A (F2A for their influence on monoclonal antibody (mAb expression level and quality in CHO DG44 cells. LC and HC genes are arranged as either the first or the second cistron. When using mAb quantification methods based on the detection antibodies against HC Fc region, F2A-mediated tricistronic vectors appeared to express mAb at higher levels than the IRES-mediated tricistronic vectors in both transient and stable transfections. Further analysis revealed that more than 40% of products detected in stably transfected pools generated using the two F2A-mediated tricistronic vectors were aggregates. LC and HC from the F2A stably transfected pools were not properly processed, giving rise to LC+F2A+HC or HC+F2A+LC fusion proteins, LC and HC polypeptides with F2A remnants, and incorrectly cleaved signal peptides. Both IRES-mediated tricistronic vectors express mAb with correct sizes and signal peptide cleavage. Arrangement of LC as the first cistron in the IRES-mediated tricistronic vectors exhibits increased mAb expression level, better growth, and minimized product aggregation, while arrangement of HC as first cistron results in low expression, slower growth, and high aggregation. The results obtained will be beneficial for designing vectors that enhance mAb expression level and quality in mammalian cells.

  7. Geomagnetic control of the midlatitude foF1 and foF2 long-term variations: Recent observations in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, L.; Mikhailov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A new very simple method, allowing an easy control, has been applied to extract long-term (11 year) δfoF2 11y and δfoF1 11y variations from June foF2 and foF1 monthly median observations at European Slough/Chilton and Juliusruh stations, including recent data until 2015. The aim of the analysis was to check the validity of the geomagnetic control of foF2 and foF1 long-term variations in the 21st century with the main accent on the period including the last deep solar minimum in 2008-2009. The geomagnetic control was shown to be valid. Moreover, the dependence on geomagnetic activity has become more pronounced and explicit after 1990. A simultaneous analysis of foF2 and foF1 long-term variations improves the reliability of the obtained conclusions and helps understand the physical mechanism of these variations. Due to common neutral composition and the similarity of photochemical processes noontime foF2 and foF1 demonstrate similar long-term variations: the correlation coefficient between δfoF2 11y and δfoF1 11y is 0.834 at Slough/Chilton and 0.884 at Juliusruh with the 99% confidence level according to Fisher's F criterion. Midnight long-term δfoF2 11y variations also manifest a pronounced dependence on Ap11y which may be interpreted in the framework of the geomagnetic control concept.

  8. Multiple susceptibility loci for radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis in F2[Dahl S x R]-intercross rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Herrera

    Full Text Available Although two major breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified accounting for 20% of breast cancer genetic risk, identification of other susceptibility genes accounting for 80% risk remains a challenge due to the complex, multi-factorial nature of breast cancer. Complexity derives from multiple genetic determinants, permutations of gene-environment interactions, along with presumptive low-penetrance of breast cancer predisposing genes, and genetic heterogeneity of human populations. As with other complex diseases, dissection of genetic determinants in animal models provides key insight since genetic heterogeneity and environmental factors can be experimentally controlled, thus facilitating the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL. We therefore, performed the first genome-wide scan for loci contributing to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female F2-(Dahl S x R-intercross rats. Tumorigenesis was measured as tumor burden index (TBI after induction of rat mammary tumors at forty days of age via ¹²⁷Cs-radiation. We observed a spectrum of tumor latency, size-progression, and pathology from poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma to fibroadenoma, indicating major effects of gene-environment interactions. We identified two mammary tumorigenesis susceptibility quantitative trait loci (Mts-QTLs with significant linkage: Mts-1 on chromosome-9 (LOD-2.98 and Mts-2 on chromosome-1 (LOD-2.61, as well as two Mts-QTLs with suggestive linkage: Mts-3 on chromosome-5 (LOD-1.93 and Mts-4 on chromosome-18 (LOD-1.54. Interestingly, Chr9-Mts-1, Chr5-Mts-3 and Chr18-Mts-4 QTLs are unique to irradiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis, while Chr1-Mts-2 QTL overlaps with a mammary cancer susceptibility QTL (Mcs 3 reported for 7,12-dimethylbenz-[α]antracene (DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis in F2[COP x Wistar-Furth]-intercross rats. Altogether, our results suggest at least three distinct susceptibility QTLs for

  9. Data on genetic analysis of atherosclerosis identifies a major susceptibility locus in the major histocompatibility complex of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Andrew T; Jones, Michael B; Li, Jing; Chen, Mei-Hua; Manichaikul, Ani; Shi, Weibin

    2016-12-01

    The data presented here are related to the research article, entitled Genetic analysis of atherosclerosis identifies a major susceptibility locus in the major histocompatibility complex of mice, published in Atherosclerosis 2016;254:124 (A.T. Grainger, M.B. Jones, J. Li, M.H. Chen, A. Manichaikul, W. Shi, 2016) [1]. The supporting materials include original genotypic and phenotypic data obtained from 206 female F2 mice derived from an intercross between BALB and SMJ inbred mice. The F2 mice were fed 12 weeks of Western diet, starting at 6 weeks of age. Atherosclerotic lesion size in the aortic root of each mouse is the sum of the top 8 lesion areas. The data is provided in the format required for determining QTLs using two independent programs, J/QTL and PLINK.

  10. Luminescent hybrid materials based on (8-hydroxyquinoline)-substituted metal-organic complexes and lead-borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Olga B.; Anurova, Maria O.; Akkuzina, Alina A.; Saifutyarov, Rasim R.; Ermolaeva, Ekaterina V.; Avetisov, Roman I.; Khomyakov, Andrew V.; Taydakov, Ilya V.; Avetissov, Igor Ch.

    2017-07-01

    Novel luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on 8-hydroxyquinoline metal complexes (Liq, Kq, Naq, Rbq, Mgq2, Srq2, Znq2, Scq3, Alq3, Gaq3, and Inq3) have been synthesized by a high temperature exchange reaction with 80PbF2-20B2O3 inorganic low-melting glass. The mechanical and optical properties, transmission spectra, emission an excitation photoluminescence, and luminescence kinetic of hybrid materials were studied. All hybrid materials showed a wide luminescence band in the range 400-700 nm.

  11. Solubility of uranium oxide in molten salt electrolysis bath of LiF-BaF2 with LaF3 additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alangi, Nagaraj; Mukherjee, Jaya; Gantayet, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    The solubility of UO2 in the molten mixtures of equimolar LiF-BaF2(1:1) with LaF3 as additive was studied in the range of 1423 K-1523 K. The molten fluoride salt mixture LiF-BaF2 LaF3 was equilibrated with a sintered uranium oxide pellet at 1423 K, 1473 K, 1523 K and the salt samples were collected after equilibration. Studies were conducted in the range of 10%-50% by weight additions of LaF3 in the equimolar LiF-BaF2(1:1) base fluoride salt bath. Solubility of UO2 increased with rise in LaF3 concentration in the molten fluoride in the temperature range of 1423 K-1523 K. At a given concentration of LaF3, the UO2 solubility increased monotonously with temperature. With mixed solvent, when UF4 was added as a replacement of part of LaF3 in LiF-BaF2(1:1)-10 wt% LaF3 and LiF-BaF2(1:1)-30 wt% LaF3, there was an enhancement of solubility of UO2.

  12. Mechanochemical synthesis, structure and properties of lead containing alkaline earth metal fluoride solid solutions MxPb1-xF2 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, M.; Scholz, G.; Düvel, A.; Heitjans, P.; Kemnitz, E.

    2018-03-01

    The paper deals with the mechanochemical synthesis of lead containing alkaline earth metal fluoride solid solutions MxPb1-xF2 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) by high-energy ball milling. Several metal precursors and fluorinating agents were tested for synthesizing M0.5Pb0.5F2. Metal acetates and ammonium fluoride as precursors show the most promising results and were therefore used for the formation of MxPb1-xF2 with different metal cationic ratios. The characterization of the local fluorine coordination and the crystal structure was performed by 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Additional calculations of 19F chemical shifts using the superposition model allow a deeper insight into the local structure of the compounds. The fluoride ion conductivity was followed by temperature dependent DC conductivity measurements. Significantly higher conductivities were found in comparison with those of the corresponding binary fluorides. The highest values were observed for samples with high lead content M0.25Pb0.75F2, bearing in mind the much higher conductivity of PbF2 compared to MF2.

  13. Valence-Band Electronic Structures of High-Pressure-Phase PdF2-type Platinum-Group Metal Dioxides MO2 (M = Ru, Rh, Ir, and Pt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Daichi; Mizui, Tatsuya; Kato, Masahiko; Shirako, Yuichi; Niwa, Ken; Hasegawa, Masashi; Akaogi, Masaki; Kojitani, Hiroshi; Ikenaga, Eiji; Muro, Takayuki

    2018-04-01

    The valence-band electronic structures of high-pressure-phase PdF2-type (HP-PdF2-type) platinum-group metal dioxides MO2 (M = Ru, Rh, Ir, and Pt) were studied by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. The obtained photoelectron spectra for HP-PdF2-type RuO2, RhO2, and IrO2 agree well with the calculated valence-band densities of states (DOSs) for these compounds, indicating their metallic properties, whereas the DOS of HP-PdF2-type PtO2 (calculated in the presence and absence of spin-orbit interactions) predicts that this material may be metallic or semimetallic, which is inconsistent with the electric conductivity reported to date and the charging effect observed in current photoelectron measurements. Compared with the calculated results, the valence-band spectrum of PtO2 appears to have shifted toward the high-binding-energy side and reveals a gradual intensity decrease toward the Fermi energy EF, implying a semiconductor-like electronic structure. Spin-dependent calculations predict a ferromagnetic ground state with a magnetization of 0.475 μB per formula unit for HP-PdF2-type RhO2.

  14. Relationship between the Porcine Stress Syndrome gene and carcass and performance traits in F2 pigs resulting from divergent crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Oliveira Band

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The PSS genotypes of 596 F2 pigs produced by initial mating of Brazilian native boars commercial sows and were characterized by PCR-RFLP and their carcass and performance traits were evaluated. Among the 596 animals analyzed, 493 (82.72% were characterized as NN and 103 (17.28% as Nn. With respect to carcass traits, Nn animals presented higher (p < 0.05 right half carcass weight, left half carcass weight, loin depth and loin eye area, and lower shoulder backfat thickness, backfat thickness between last and next to last but one lumbar vertebrae and backfat thickness after last rib at 6.5 cm from the midline compared to NN animals. Nn animals also showed (p < 0.05 higher values for most of the cut yields, indicating higher cutting yields for animals carrying the n allele and lower values for bacon depth, confirming lower fat deposition in carcass. In addition, Nn animals presented (p < 0.05 lower values for the performance trait weight at 105 days of age. These results indicate that animals carrying the PSS gene generate leaner carcasses, higher cut yields, and that the effects of the gene can be observed even in divergent crosses.

  15. Energy deposition by heavy ions: additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Y; Grygiel, C; Dufour, C; Sun, J R; Wang, Z G; Zhao, Y T; Xiao, G Q; Cheng, R; Zhou, X M; Ren, J R; Liu, S D; Lei, Y; Sun, Y B; Ritter, R; Gruber, E; Cassimi, A; Monnet, I; Bouffard, S; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2014-07-18

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe(22+) to Xe(30+)) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface.

  16. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with bone traits and body weight in an F2 resource population of chickens*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiweis Melissa A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bone fractures at the end of lay are a significant problem in egg-laying strains of hens. The objective of the current study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with bone mineralization and strength in a chicken resource population. Layer (White Leghorn hens and broiler (Cobb-Cobb roosters lines were crossed to generate an F2 population of 508 hens over seven hatches, and 26 traits related to bone integrity, including bone mineral density (BMD and content (BMC, were measured. Genotypes of 120 microsatellite markers on 28 autosomal groups were determined, and interval mapping was conducted to identify QTL regions. Twenty-three tests representing three chromosomal regions (chromosomes 4, 10 and 27 contained significant QTL that surpassed the 5% genome-wise threshold, and 47 tests representing 15 chromosomes identified suggestive QTL that surpassed the 5% chromosome-wise threshold. Although no significant QTL influencing BMD and BMC were detected after adjusting for variation in body weight and egg production, multiple suggestive QTL were found. These results support previous experiments demonstrating an important genetic regulation of bone strength in chickens, but suggest the regulation may be due to the effects of multiple genes that each account for relatively small amounts of variation in bone strength.

  17. Studies of an array of PbF2 Cherenkov crystals with large-area SiPM readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fienberg, A. T.; Alonzi, L. P.; Anastasi, A.; Bjorkquist, R.; Cauz, D.; Fatemi, R.; Ferrari, C.; Fioretti, A.; Frankenthal, A.; Gabbanini, C.; Gibbons, L. K.; Giovanetti, K.; Goadhouse, S. D.; Gohn, W. P.; Gorringe, T. P.; Hertzog, D. W.; Iacovacci, M.; Kammel, P.; Kaspar, J.; Kiburg, B.; Li, L.; Mastroianni, S.; Pauletta, G.; Peterson, D. A.; Počanić, D.; Smith, M. W.; Sweigart, D. A.; Tishchenko, V.; Venanzoni, G.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Wall, K. B.; Winter, P.; Yai, K.

    2015-05-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter for the new muon (g-2) experiment at Fermilab will consist of arrays of PbF2 Cherenkov crystals read out by large-area silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) sensors. We report here on measurements and simulations using 2.0 -- 4.5 GeV electrons with a 28-element prototype array. All data were obtained using fast waveform digitizers to accurately capture signal pulse shapes versus energy, impact position, angle, and crystal wrapping. The SiPMs were gain matched using a laser-based calibration system, which also provided a stabilization procedure that allowed gain correction to a level of 1e-4 per hour. After accounting for longitudinal fluctuation losses, those crystals wrapped in a white, diffusive wrapping exhibited an energy resolution sigma/E of (3.4 +- 0.1) % per sqrt(E/GeV), while those wrapped in a black, absorptive wrapping had (4.6 +- 0.3) % per sqrt(E/GeV). The white-wrapped crystals---having nearly twice the total light collection---display a generally wider and impact-position-dependent pulse shape owing to the dynamics of the light propagation, in comparison to the black-wrapped crystals, which have a narrower pulse shape that is insensitive to impact position.

  18. Wide band antireflective coatings Al2O3 / HfO2 / MgF2 for UV region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkowski, P.; Marszałek, Konstanty W.

    2013-07-01

    Deposition technology of the three layers antireflective coatings consists of hafnium compound are presented in this paper. Oxide films were deposited by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5x10-5 mbar in presence of oxygen and fluoride films by thermal evaporation. Substrate temperature was 250°C. Coatings were deposited onto optical lenses made from quartz glass (Corning HPFS). Thickness and deposition rate were controlled by thickness measuring system Inficon XTC/2. Simulations leading to optimization of thickness and experimental results of optical measurements carried during and after deposition process were presented. Physical thickness measurements were made during deposition process and were equal to 43 nm/74 nm/51 nm for Al2O3 / HfO2 / MgF2 respectively. Optimization was carried out for ultraviolet region from 230nm to the beginning of visible region 400 nm. In this region the average reflectance of the antireflective coating was less than 0.5% in the whole range of application.

  19. A viscoplastic model with application to LiF-22 percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, A. D.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    A viscoplastic model for class M (metal-like behavior) materials is presented. One novel feature is its use of internal variables to change the stress exponent of creep (where n is approximately = 5) to that of natural creep (where n = 3), in accordance with experimental observations. Another feature is the introduction of a coupling in the evolution equations of the kinematic and isotropic internal variables, making thermal recovery of the kinematic variable implicit. These features enable the viscoplastic model to reduce to that of steady-state creep in closed form. In addition, the hardening parameters associated with the two internal state variables (one scalar-valued, the other tensor-valued) are considered to be functions of state, instead of being taken as constant-valued. This feature enables each internal variable to represent a much wider spectrum of internal states for the material. The model is applied to a LiF-22 percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt, which is being considered as a thermal energy storage material for space-based solar dynamic power systems.

  20. Association of PPARγ2 polymorphisms with carcass and meat quality traits in a Pietrain x Jinhua F2 population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The PPARγ2 gene is a key regulator of both proliferation and preadipocyte differentiation in mammals. Herein its genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed using PCR-SSCP in eight pig breeds (N = 416. Two kinds of polymorphisms of the PPARγ2 gene were detected, including a previously reported shift SNP A177G (Met59Val in exon 1 and a novel silent mutation G876A in exon 5. The results revealed that European pig breeds carry a higher allele A frequency at the A177G locus and a fixed GG genotype at the G876A locus. Allele A at the G876A locus was only found in Jinhua pigs. The association between haplotype (A177G/G876A and carcass and meat quality traits was analyzed in a Pietrain x Jinhua F2 population (N = 248. The PPARγ2 gene was found to be significantly associated with backfat thickness at the shoulder (p < 0.05, 6-7th ribs (p < 0.01, last rib (p < 0.01, gluteus medius (p <0.05 and ham weight (p < 0.01. Significant effects of different haplotypes on ham weight and backfat thickness at the 6-7th ribs, last rib, and gluteus medius were also observed.