Sample records for hybridomov linie produkujc

  1. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini. (United States)

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G O; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J; Jones, David A; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N


    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their

  2. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane eNemri


    Full Text Available Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp. Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimise parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analysed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote

  3. Structural, electrical and electrochemical behaviours of LiNi0⋅ 4M0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 37; Issue 3. Structural, electrical and electrochemical behaviours of LiNi0.4M0.1Mn1.5O4 ( = Al, ... In order to improve the cycling performance of LiMn2O4 based cathode materials, we ... by structural characterization using TG/DTA, XRD, FT–IR, EPR, SEM and EPR.

  4. DNA Barcoding and Molecular Phylogeny of Drosophila lini and Its Sibling Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Feng Li


    Full Text Available Drosophila lini and its two sibling species, D. ohnishii and D. ogumai, are hardly distinguishable from one another in morphology. These species are more or less reproductively isolated. The mitochondrial ND2 and COI-COII and the nuclear ITS1-ITS2 regions were sequenced to seek for the possibility of DNA barcoding and to reconstruct the phylogeny of them. The character-based approach for DNA barcoding detected some diagnostic nucleotides only for monophyletic D. ogumai, but no informative sites for the other two very closely species, D. lini and D. ohnishii, of which strains intermingled in the molecular phylogenetic trees. Thus, this study provides another case of limited applicability of DNA barcoding in species delineation, as in other cases of related Drosophila species. The molecular phylogenetic tree inferred from the concatenated sequences strongly supported the monophyly of the cluster of the three species, that is, the lini clade. We propose some hypotheses of evolutionary events in this clade.

  5. Nitrates–melt synthesized LiNi0⋅ 8Co0⋅ 2O2 and its performance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cyclic voltammograms suggest that LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 undergoes phase transformation on first charge with resultant phase being completely reversible in subsequent cycles. The first-charge-cycle phase transition is further supported by impedance spectroscopy that shows substantial reduction in resistance during initial ...

  6. Powder Characterization and Electrochemical Properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Materials Produced by Large Spray Pyrolysis Using Flame Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Akao


    Full Text Available LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode materials were produced by spray pyrolysis apparatus using the flame combustion. SEM revealed that as-prepared powders had spherical morphology with porous microstructure which had an average diameter of about 2 μm with broad size distribution. After the calcination, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders with polygonal morphology and narrow particle size distribution were obtained. XRD showed that LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was well crystallized after the calcination at 900°C. Rechargeable measurement of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode showed that the long plateau was observed at 4.7 V in discharge curve of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode and its discharge capacity was 145 mAh/g at 1 C. The capacity retention of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode were 95% at 1 C after 100 cycles. The discharge capacity and capacity retention of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode were 125 mAh/g and 88% at 20 C. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode exhibited also stable cycle performance at 50∘C.

  7. Genome shuffling of Colletotrichum lini for improving 3β,7α,15α-trihydroxy-5-androsten-17-one production from dehydroepiandrosterone. (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Li, Hui; Ni, Yu; Zhang, Xiaomei; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong


    3β,7α,15α-Trihydroxy-5-androsten-17-one (7α,15α-diOH-DHEA) is a key intermediate of the novel oral contraceptive Yasmin. It can be catalyzed from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) through Colletotrichum lini. Improvement of 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA production was performed through recursive protoplast fusion of C. lini ST in a genome shuffling format. 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield of the best performing recombinant C. lini ST-F307 reached 6.08 g/L from 10 g/L DHEA, and this was 94.9% higher than that of the initial C. lini ST strain. Through optimized conditions, the 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield was increased to 9.32 g/L from 12 g/L DHEA, with 1.5% ethanol as cosolvent. This is the highest reported substrate concentration and 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA production with one-step substrate addition. Moreover, C. lini ST-F307 showed high P450 enzyme activity and gene transcript levels of several cytochrome P450s, and this might contribute to the enhancement of 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA production. Genome shuffling was an efficient approach to breed high-yield strains.

  8. Enhanced 3β,7α,15α-Trihydroxy-5-Androsten-17-One Production from Dehydroepiandrosterone by Colletotrichum lini ST-1 Resting Cells with Tween-80. (United States)

    Li, Hui; Yin, Siqi; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Li, Heng; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong


    7α,15α-diOH-DHEA is a key precursor of the novel oral contraceptive Yasmin. Colletotrichum lini could catalyze dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) at the 7α and 15α positions. In this work, C. lini resting cells were applied in the bioconversion of DHEA to 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA. In the presence of 2 % (w/v) Tween-80, the conversion efficiency of DHEA increased drastically. The DHEA conversion and the 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield increased by 34.6 and 87.0 %, respectively, at the DHEA concentration of 10 g/L. Furthermore, the effects of Tween-80 on substrate solubility and C. lini physiological properties were studied. Results showed that the DHEA solubility with 2 % Tween-80 increased by 7.8 times. Meanwhile, the mycelia were integrated and full in the presence of 2 % Tween-80. The analysis on fatty acid profile of the C. lini cell membrane indicated that Tween-80 increases the content of unsaturated fatty acid. All above results suggested that the enhanced product yield caused by Tween-80 was mainly associated with easier substrate-molecule transportation across the cell membrane of C. lini.

  9. In Situ Carbon Coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Material Prepared by Prepolymer of Melamine Formaldehyde Resin Assisted Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang


    Full Text Available Carbon coated spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 were prepared by spray-drying using prepolymer of melamine formaldehyde resin (PMF as carbon source of carbon coating layer. The PMF carbon coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was characterized by XRD, SEM, and other electrochemical measurements. The as-prepared lithium nickel manganese oxide has the cubic face-centered spinel structure with a space group of Fd3m. It showed good electrochemical performance as a cathode material for lithium ion battery. After 100 discharge and charge cycles at 0.5 C rate, the specific discharge capacity of carbon coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was 130 mAh·g−1, and the corresponding capacity retention was 98.8%. The 100th cycle specific discharge capacity at 10 C rate of carbon coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was 105.4 mAh·g−1, and even the corresponding capacity retention was 95.2%.

  10. GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized by citric acid assisted high-energy ball milling ... The State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science; The Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, P. R. China ...

  11. Comparison of nanorod-structured Li[Ni0.54 Co0.16 Mn0.30 ]O2 with conventional cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. (United States)

    Noh, Hyung-Joo; Ju, Jin Wook; Sun, Yang-Kook


    We successfully synthesized a safe, high-capacity cathode material specifically engineered for EV applications with a full concentration gradient (FCG) of Ni and Co ions at a fixed Mn content throughout the particles. The electrochemical and thermal properties of the FCG Li[Ni(0.54)Co(0.16)Mn(0.30)]O2 were evaluated and compared to those of conventional Li[Ni(0.5) Co(0.2) Mn(0.3)]O2 and Li[Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)]O2 materials. It was found that the FCG Li[Ni(0.54)Co(0.16)Mn(0.30)]O2 demonstrated a higher discharge capacity and a superior lithium intercalation stability compared to Li[Ni(0.5) Co(0.2)Mn(0.3)]O2 and Li[Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)]O2 over all of the tested voltage ranges. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and transition-metal dissolution demonstrate that the microstructure of primary particle with rod-shaped morphology plays an important role in reducing metal dissolution, which thereby decreases the charge transfer resistance as a result of stabilization of the host structure. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. An organic coprecipitation route to synthesize high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. (United States)

    Feng, Jijun; Huang, Zhipeng; Guo, Chao; Chernova, Natasha A; Upreti, Shailesh; Whittingham, M Stanley


    High-voltage cathode material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 has been prepared with a novel organic coprecipitation route. The as-prepared sample was compared with samples produced through traditional solid state method and hydroxide coprecipitation method. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the spinel structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Besides the ordered/disordered distribution of Ni/Mn on octahedral sites, the confusion between Li and transition metal is pointed out to be another important factor responsible for the corresponding performance, which is worthy further investigation. Galvanostatic cycles, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are employed to characterize the electrochemical properties. The organic coprecipitation route produced sample shows superior rate capability and stable structure during cycling.

  13. Theoretical and experimental study of the non-stoichiometric LinI (n = 3 and 5) clusters (United States)

    Đustebek, Jasmina; Milovanović, Milan; Jerosimić, Stanka; Veljković, Miomir; Veličković, Suzana


    The neutrals of the LinI (n = 2-6) clusters were detected using Knudsen-cell which was placed into ionization chamber of the magnetic sector mass spectrometer. The first theoretical and experimental data on the Li3I and Li5I clusters were presented in this Letter. The ionization energies of the neutral of Li3I and Li5I clusters, obtained by the electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, were (5.14 ± 0.25) and (4.62 ± 0.25) eV, respectively. We report the geometry, ionization energies and thermodynamical stability of these clusters, calculated at the restricted coupled cluster RHF-RCCSD/cc-pVTZ(Li), cc-pVTZ-PP(I) level of theory.

  14. Microbial transformation of 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid by Cunninghamella elegans and Fusarium lini, and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of transformed products. (United States)

    Iqbal Choudhary, Muhammad; Ali Siddiqui, Zafar; Ahmed Nawaz, Sarfraz


    The microbial transformation of 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (1) by Cunninghamella elegans afforded a metabolite, 3beta,7beta-dihydroxy-11-oxo-olean-12-en-30-oic acid (2), while fermentation of 1 with Fusarium lini afforded a metabolite, 3,11-dioxo-olean-12-en-30-oic acid (3). Compound 3 exhibited a potent lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic techniques.

  15. Processing of water-based LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 pastes for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In order to meet the demand for more ecological and economic fabrication of lithium ion (Li-ion) bat- teries, water is considered as an alternative solvent for electrode paste preparation. In this study, we report on the feasibility of water-based processing of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2-based pastes for manufacturing ...

  16. Zn-Doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Composite as Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Battery: Preparation, Characterization, and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Du


    Full Text Available Zn-doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 composite, Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/31–xZnxO2 (x = 0.02; 0.05; 0.08, is synthesized by the sol-gel method. The crystal structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance are investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV, and constant current charge/discharge experiment. The result reveals that Zn-doping cathode material can reach the initial charge/discharge capacity of 188.8/162.9 mAh·g−1 for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.98Zn0.02O2 and 179.0/154.1 mAh·g−1 for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.95Zn0.05O2 with the high voltage of 4.4 V at 0.1 C. Furthermore, the capacity retention of Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.98Zn0.02O2 is 95.1% at 0.5 C after 50 cycles at room temperature. The improved electrochemical properties of Zn-doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are attributed to reduced electrode polarization, enhanced capacity reversibility, and excellent cyclic performance.

  17. Facile synthesis and characterization of a SnO2-modified LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 high-voltage cathode material with superior electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries. (United States)

    Ma, Feng; Geng, Fushan; Yuan, Anbao; Xu, Jiaqiang


    A thin-layer-SnO2 modified LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4@SnO2 material is synthesized via a facile synthetic approach. It is physically and electrochemically characterized as a high-voltage lithium ion battery cathode and compared to the pristine LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material prepared under similar conditions. The two materials are proved to be crystals of a well-defined disordered spinel phase with the morphology of aggregates of micron/submicron polyhedral particles. The Mn(3+) ions and the inactive NixLiyO phase in the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4@SnO2 is less than those in the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 due to incorporation of a very small amount of Sn(2+) into the spinel structure upon high-temperature calcination of the precursor. Besides, the mean particle size of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4@SnO2 is obviously smaller than that of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. The LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4@SnO2 demonstrates much superior electrochemical performance over the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 in terms of specific capacity, rate capability and cyclability. For example, the discharge capacities at current rates of 0.2C, 2C and 20C are 145.4, 139.9 and 112.2 mA h g(-1), respectively. A capacity retention rate of ca. 75% is obtained after 500 cycles at 2C rate. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the positive effect of the surface protective SnO2 coating layer as well as the structural and morphological modifications of the spinel.

  18. Controlled synthesis of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode materials with superior electrochemical performance through urea-based solution combustion synthesis


    Zhu, Chunyu; Han, Cheng-gong; Akiyama, Tomohiro


    High-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode materials were synthesized using urea-based solution combustion synthesis combined with a calcination treatment. The morphology and particle size distribution of the products were considerably dependent on the amount of urea fuel. The electrochemical characterization illustrated that the sample that was produced with a fuel ratio of phi = 0.5 had a homogenous particle size distribution of approximately 8 mu m, and showed the best cycling and rate performanc...

  19. Hierarchia oddziaływania wybranych elementów systemu koryta cieku na rośliny wodne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Hachoł


    Full Text Available W pracy podjęto próbę określenia hierarchii elementów systemu koryta cieku, które są kształtowane przez roboty regulacyjne i konserwacyjne, decydujących o składzie jakościowym i ilościowym zbiorowisk makrofitów wodnych. Badania terenowe wykonano w korytach 29 małych i średnich cieków nizinnych Dolnego Śląska. Na ciekach tych wyznaczono 100 odcinków badawczych. Badania obejmowały pomiar i opis wybranych elementów złożonego systemu koryta cieku, takich jak: spadek podłużny, szerokość dna, głębokość koryta, nachylenie skarp oraz sposób ich umocnienia, substrat dna, liczba gatunków roślin wodnych oraz pokrycie dna przez rośliny. Do określenia hierarchii oddziaływania rozpatrywanych elementów systemu cieku na skład jakościowy i ilościowy zbiorowisk roślin wodnych wykorzystano teorię zbiorów przybliżonych. Jej zastosowanie pozwoliło na określenie kolejności oddziaływania: pojedynczych elementów rozpatrywanego systemu koryta cieku, par tych elementów, zespołów złożonych z trzech oraz z czterech elementów na liczbę gatunków roślin wodnych występujących w cieku oraz na stopień pokrycia przez nie dna.

  20. Calendering effects on the physical and electrochemical properties of Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathode (United States)

    Zheng, Honghe; Tan, Li; Liu, Gao; Song, Xiangyun; Battaglia, Vincent S.


    Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathode laminate containing 8% PVDF and 7% acetylene black is fabricated and calendered to different porosities. Calendering effects on the physical and electrochemical properties of the Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathode are investigated. It is found that mechanical properties of the composite laminate strongly depend on the electrode porosity whereas the electronic conductivity is not significantly affected by calendering. Electrochemical performances including the specific capacity, the first coulombic efficiency, cycling performance and rate capability for the cathode at different porosities are compared. An optimized porosity of around 30-40% is identified. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies illustrate that calendering improves the electronic conductivity between active particles at relatively high porosities, but increases charge transfer resistance at electrode/electrolyte interface at relatively low porosities. An increase of activation energy of Li interfacial transfer for the electrode at 0% porosity indicates a relatively high barrier of activation at the electrode/electrolyte interface, which accounts for the poor rate capability of the electrode at extremely low porosity.

  1. In Situ Multitechnical Investigation into Capacity Fading of High-Voltage LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2. (United States)

    Shen, Chong-Heng; Wang, Qi; Chen, Hong-Jiang; Shi, Chen-Guang; Zhang, Hui-Yi; Huang, Ling; Li, Jun-Tao; Sun, Shi-Gang


    LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 positive electrode materials of lithium ion battery can release a discharge capacity larger than 200 mAh/g at high potential (>4.30 V). However, its inevitable capacity fading, which is greatly related to the structural evolution, reduces the cycling performance. The origin of this capacity fading is investigated by coupled in situ XRD-PITT-EIS. A new phase of NiMn2O4 is discovered on the surface of the LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 upon charging to high voltage, which blocks Li(+) diffusion pathways. Theoretical calculations predict the formation of cubic NiMn2O4. Moreover, corrosion, cracks, and microstress appear to increase the difficulty of Li(+) transportation, which are attributed to the protection degradation of the interfacial film on the positive electrode material at high voltage. After 50 electrochemical cycles, the increase in degree of crystal defects by low-angle grain boundary, evidenced through HR-TEM, leads to poor Li(+) kinetics, which in turn causes capacity loss. The in situ XRD-PITT-EIS technique can bring multiperspective insights into fading mechanism of the high-voltage positive electrode materials and provide a solution to control or suppress the problem on the basis of structural, kinetic, and electrochemical interfacial understandings.

  2. The acceleration intermediate phase (NiS and Ni3S2) evolution by nanocrystallization in Li/NiS2 thermal batteries with high specific capacity (United States)

    Jin, Chuanyu; Zhou, Lingping; Fu, Licai; Zhu, Jiajun; Li, Deyi; Yang, Wulin


    The intermediate phase of NiS2 is thought to be a bottleneck currently to improve the overall performance of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries because of its low conductivity and close formation enthalpy between NiS2 and the intermediate phase (NiS, Ni3S2, etc). For improving the discharge performances of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries, the nano NiS2 with an average size of 85 ± 5 nm is designated as a cathode material. The electrochemical measurements show that the specific capacity of nano NiS2 cathode is higher than micro NiS2. The nano NiS2 cathode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances with high specific capacities of 794 and 654 mAh g-1 at current density of 0.1 and 0.5 A cm-2 under a cut-off voltage of 0.5 V, respectively. These results show that the rapid intermediate phase evolution from the nanocrystallization can obviously enhance use efficiency of NiS2 and improve discharge performances of thermal batteries.

  3. A core-shell structured LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4@LiCoO2 cathode material with superior rate capability and cycling performance. (United States)

    Deng, Yunlong; Mou, Jirong; He, Lihua; Xie, Fengyu; Zheng, Qiaoji; Xu, Chenggang; Lin, Dunmin


    A core-shell structured LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4@LiCoO2 cathode material has been successfully synthesized by the combination of sol-gel and solid state methods. The coating of LiCoO2 has a significant effect on the electrochemical performance of the spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-based cathode material, especially the cycling stability at high temperature and rate capability. After modification, the ionic conductivity of the material is greatly improved due to the high ion conductivity of LiCoO2. The LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4@LiCoO2 with 1% LiCoO2 presents the optimal rate capability and delivers a relatively high discharge capacity of 122 mA h g-1 at 10C. On the other hand, the surface coating of LiCoO2 can effectively facilitate Li+ interfacial diffusion, and alleviate the side reactions between the active material and the electrolyte; as a result, the capacity retention of 96.17% for the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4@LiCoO2 electrode with 1% LiCoO2 is much higher than that for the bare LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (74.93%) after 100 cycles at elevated temperature. Our study confirms that the core-shell structure construction caused by the coating of LiCoO2 plays a critical role in the improvement of the electrochemical cycling stability at elevated temperatures and rate capability.

  4. RNA-seq Transcriptome Response of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. to the Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Miguel Galindo-González


    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars. In the current study, disease progression in two flax cultivars (CDC Bethune and Lutea, showed earlier disease symptoms and higher susceptibility in the later cultivar. Chitinase gene expression was also divergent and demonstrated and earlier molecular response in Lutea. The most resistant cultivar (CDC Bethune was used for a full RNA-seq transcriptome study through a time-course at 2, 4, 8 and 18 days post-inoculation (DPI. While over 100 genes were significantly differentially expressed at both 4 and 8 DPI, the broadest deployment of plant defense responses was evident at 18 DPI with transcripts of more than 1,000 genes responding to the treatment. These genes evidenced a reception and transduction of pathogen signals, a large transcriptional reprogramming, induction of hormone signalling, activation of pathogenesis-related (PR genes, and changes in secondary metabolism. Among these several key genes, that consistently appear in studies of plant-pathogen interactions, had increased transcript abundance in our study, and constitute suitable candidates for resistance breeding programs. These included: an induced RPMI-induced protein kinase (RIPK; transcription factors WRKY3, WRKY70, WRKY75, MYB113 and MYB108; the ethylene response factors ERF1 and ERF14; two genes involved in auxin/glucosinolate precursor synthesis (CYP79B2 and CYP79B3; the flavonoid

  5. Atomic Layer Deposited MgO: A Lower Overpotential Coating for Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 Cathode. (United States)

    Laskar, Masihhur R; Jackson, David H K; Xu, Shenzhen; Hamers, Robert J; Morgan, Dane; Kuech, Thomas F


    An ultrathin MgO coating was synthesized via atomic layer deposition (ALD) to improve the surface properties of the Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 (NMC) cathode. An in-situ quartz crystal sensor was used to monitor the "self-limiting" surface reactions during ALD process and estimate the density of the deposited film. The electrochemical performance of the MgO-coated NMC cathode was evaluated in a half-cell assembly and compared to other ALD-based coatings, such as Al2O3 and ZrO2. Cyclic voltammetry studies suggested that ALD MgO has a higher Li-diffusion coefficient which resulted in lower overpotential on the NMC cathode surface and improved Li-ion battery rate performance. MgO-coated NMC also yielded improved capacity retention over uncoated NMC in a long-range cycling test.

  6. Cobalt segregation in the LiNi 1-yCo yO 2 solid solution: A preliminary 7Li NMR study (United States)

    Menetrier, M.; Rougier, A.; Delmas, C.


    LiNi 1-yCo yO 2 materials exhibit a layered structure built from alternate sheets of (Ni,Co)O 6 and of LiO 6 octahedra sharing edges. They are particularly interesting as positive electrode in rechargeable lithium batteries. Single-pulse 7Li NMR spectra allow to distinguish between the Li + ions with only cobalt as their first 3d neighbors and those with at least one Ni 3+ (LS t 26e 1). The small amount of excess Ni 2+ ions (t 26e 2) known to be present in the materials with small y causes an alteration of the spectra. Li + ions with only cobalt as their first cationic neighbors are detected even for small cobalt contents, which shows the existence of a cobalt segregation while X-rays show that no phase separation occurs.

  7. High Tap Density Spherical Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 Cathode Material Synthesized via Continuous Hydroxide Coprecipitation Method for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunyi Yang


    Full Text Available Spherical [Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2](OH2 precursor with narrow size distribution and high tap density has been successfully synthesized by a continuous hydroxide coprecipitation, and Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 is then prepared by mixing the precursor with 6% excess Li2CO3 followed by calcinations. The tap density of the obtained Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 powder is as high as 2.61 g cm−3. The powders are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscope (SEM, particle size distribution (PSD, and charge/discharge cycling. The XRD studies show that the prepared Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 has a well-ordered layered structure without any impurity phases. Good packing properties of spherical secondary particles (about 12 μm consisted of a large number of tiny-thin plate-shape primary particles (less than 1 μm, which can be identified from the SEM observations. In the voltage range of 3.0–4.3 V and 2.5–4.6 V, Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 delivers the initial discharge capacity of approximately 175 and 214 mAh g−1 at a current density of 32 mA g−1, and the capacity retention after 50 cycles reaches 98.8% and 90.2%, respectively. Besides, it displays good high-temperature characteristics and excellent rate capability.

  8. Surface Modification of Li(Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2)O₂ Cathode Materials by Nano-Al₂O₃ to Improve Electrochemical Performance in Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Yoo, Kwang Soo; Kang, Yeon Hui; Im, Kyoung Ran; Kim, Chang-Sam


    Al₂O₃-coated Li(Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2)O₂ cathode materials were prepared by simple surface modification in water media through a sol-gel process with a dispersant. The crystallinity and surface morphology of the samples were characterized through X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy observation. The Li(Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2)O₂ cathode material was of a polycrystalline hexagonal structure and agglomerated with particles of approximately 0.3 to 0.8 μm in diameter. The nanosized Al₂O₃ particles of low concentration (0.06-0.12 wt %) were uniformly coated on the surface of Li(Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2)O₂. Measurement of electrochemical properties showed that Li(Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2)O₂ coated with Al₂O₃ of 0.08 wt % had a high initial discharge capacity of 206.9 mAh/g at a rate of 0.05 C over 3.0-4.5 V and high capacity retention of 94.5% at 0.5 C after 30 cycles (cf. uncoated sample: 206.1 mAh/g and 90.8%, respectively). The rate capability of this material was also improved, i.e., it showed a high discharge capacity of 166.3 mAh/g after 5 cycles at a rate of 2 C, whereas the uncoated sample showed 155.8 mAh/g under the same experimental conditions.

  9. Morphology controlled Si-modified LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres as high performance high voltage cathode materials in lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Nageswaran, Shubha; Keppeler, Miriam; Kim, Sung-Jin; Srinivasan, Madhavi


    Well-crystallized, microspherical LiNi0.5Mn1.5-nSinO4 (0.05 FE-SEM, XRD, EDX, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge testing. Spherical shape and incorporation of silicon into the crystal leads to higher proportion of the disordered Fd-3m phase, and electrochemical performance is significantly improved. High capacity retention of 99.4% after 100 cycles at 1 C rate for LiNi0.5Mn1.45Si0.05O4 microspheres is achieved, which is superior compared to 93.1% capacity retention of the pristine LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres. Since the Sisbnd O bond exhibits higher dissociation energy compared to the dissociation energies of the Mnsbnd O or Nisbnd O bonds, the excellent electrochemical performance might be associated with an increased structural and chemical stability caused by incorporation of silicon into the oxygen rich crystal lattice.

  10. Monitoring local redox processes in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 battery cathode material by in operando EPR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Niemöller, Arvid; Jakes, Peter; Eurich, Svitlana; Paulus, Anja; Kungl, Hans; Eichel, Rüdiger-A; Granwehr, Josef


    Despite the multitude of analytical methods available to characterize battery cathode materials, identifying the factors responsible for material aging is still challenging. We present the first investigation of transient redox processes in a spinel cathode during electrochemical cycling of a lithium ion battery by in operando electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The battery contains a LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) spinel cathode, which is a material whose magnetic interactions are well understood. The evolution of the EPR signal in combination with electrochemical measurements shows the impact of Mn3+ on the Li+ motion inside the spinel. Moreover, state of charge dependent linewidth variations confirm the formation of a solid solution for slow cycling, which is taken over by mixed models of solid solution and two-phase formation for fast cycling due to kinetic restrictions and overpotentials. Long-term measurements for 480 h showed the stability of the investigated LNMO, but also small amounts of cathode degradation products became visible. The results point out how local, exchange mediated magnetic interactions in cathode materials are linked with battery performance and can be used for material characterization.

  11. LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2: Enhanced Electrochemical Performance From Reduced Cationic Disordering in Li Slab. (United States)

    Xiao, Peng; Lv, Tingjian; Chen, Xueping; Chang, Chengkang


    Sub-micron sized LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 cathode materials with improved electrochemical performance caused by the reduced cationic disordering in Li slab were synthesized through a solid state reaction routine. In a typical process, spherical precursor powder was prepared by spray drying of a uniform suspension obtained from the ball-milling of the mixture of the starting raw materials. Then the precursor powders were pressed into tablets under different pressures and crushed into powder. The pressing treated powders were finally calcinated under oxygen atmosphere to obtain the target cathode materials. XRD investigation revealed a hexagonal layered structure without impurity phase for all samples and significant increase in the diffraction intensity ratio of I (003) /I (104) was observed. Rietveld refinement further confirmed the reduced cationic disordering in Li slab by such pressing treatment, and the smallest disordering was observed for sample S4 with only 1.3% Ni ions on Li lattice position. The electrochemical testing showed an improvement in electrochemical behavior for those pressing treated samples. The calculation of diffusion coefficients using EIS data showed improved Li diffusion coefficient after pressing treatment. The sample S4 presented a diffusion coefficient of 4.36 × 10 -11  cm 2 ·s -1 , which is almost 3.5 times the value of untreated sample.

  12. Crystallographic origin of cycle decay of the high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel lithium-ion battery electrode. (United States)

    Pang, Wei Kong; Lu, Cheng-Zhang; Liu, Chia-Erh; Peterson, Vanessa K; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Ming


    High-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is considered a potential high-power-density positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries, however, it suffers from capacity decay after extended charge-discharge cycling, severely hindering commercial application. Capacity fade is thought to occur through the significant volume change of the LNMO electrode occurring on cycling, and in this work we use operando neutron powder diffraction to compare the structural evolution of the LNMO electrode in an as-assembled 18650-type battery containing a Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with that in an identical battery following 1000 cycles at high-current. We reveal that the capacity reduction in the battery post cycling is directly proportional to the reduction in the maximum change of the LNMO lattice parameter during its evolution. This is correlated to a corresponding reduction in the MnO6 octahedral distortion in the spinel structure in the cycled battery. Further, we find that the rate of lattice evolution, which reflects the rate of lithium insertion and removal, is ∼9 and ∼10% slower in the cycled than in the as-assembled battery during the Ni(2+)/Ni(3+) and Ni(3+)/Ni(4+) transitions, respectively.

  13. Geometric and Electrochemical Characteristics of LiNi 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 O 2 Electrode with Different Calendering Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Huixiao; Lim, Cheolwoong; Li, Tianyi; Fu, Yongzhu; Yan, Bo; Houston, Nicole; De Andrade, Vincent; De Carlo, Francesco; Zhu, Likun


    The impact of calendering process on the geometric characteristics and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) electrode was investigated in this study. The geometric properties of NMC electrodes with different calendering conditions, such as porosity, pore size distribution, particle size distribution, specific surface area and tortuosity were calculated from the computed tomography data of the electrodes. A synchrotron transmission X-ray microscopy tomography system at the Advanced Photon Source of the Argonne National Laboratory was employed to obtain the tomography data. The geometric and electrochemical analysis show that calendering can increase the electrochemically active area, which improves rate capability. However, more calendering will result in crushing of NMC particles, which can reduce the electrode capacity at relatively high C rates. This study shows that the optimum electrochemical performance of NMC electrode at 94:3:3 weight ratio of NMC:binder:carbon black can be achieved by calendering to 3.0 g/cm3 NMC density.

  14. Impact of morphological changes of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 on lithium-ion cathode performances (United States)

    Pierre-Etienne, Cabelguen; David, Peralta; Mikael, Cugnet; Pascal, Maillet


    Major advances in Li-ion battery technology rely on the nanostructuration of active materials to overcome the severe kinetics limitations of new - cheaper and safer - chemistries. However, opening porosities results in the decrease of volumetric performances, closing the door to significant applications such as portable electronics, electromobility, and grid storage. In this study, we analyze the link between morphologies and performances of model LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 materials. By quantifying exhaustively their microstructures using nitrogen adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and helium pycnometry, we can discuss how porosities and surface areas are linked to the electrochemical behavior. There is no geometrical parameters that can predict the performances of all our materials. The shape of agglomeration dictates the electrochemical behavior. A huge drop in volumetric performances is measured when microstructure is considered. We show that gravimetric and volumetric power performances are contrary to each other. Highly dense materials exhibit, by far, the best power performances in terms of volumetric figures, so that opening porosities might not be the best strategy, even in non-nanosized materials, for Li-ion battery technology.

  15. Designed seamless outer surface: Application for high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode with excellent cycling stability (United States)

    Zhang, Kan; Li, Ping; Ma, Ming; Park, Jong Hyeok


    Suppressing side reactions at the cathode-electrolyte interface (CEI) is critical for alleviating capacity fading of the high-voltage (>5 V) spinel cathode material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO). The primary bottleneck in conventional nanoengineering of LNMO involves an antagonistic relationship between the positive effects of the nanometer particle size and negative effects stemming from the larger CEI area. Inspired by Buckminster Fuller's geodesic domes, we have designed a seamless LNMO hollow sphere (S-LNMO) that comprises average 120 nm-sized triangles and truncated triangle subunits by means of grain growth orientation. The "tensegrity" structure has efficiently hindered the interfacial side reaction, which occurs only within a depth of 5 nm from the surface, thereby improving its electrochemical stability. The embedded layered Li2TiO3 (LTO) in bulk S-LNMO (LTO:S-LNMO) region further improved the high-rate performance, demonstrating an ∼110 mAh/g capacity with 80.9% retention after 400 cycles at 5 C and remaining stable after 900 cycles at 5 C even after being stored at 50 °C for one week.

  16. Synthesis and performance of Li[(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)(1-x)Mgx]O2 prepared from spent lithium ion batteries. (United States)

    Weng, Yaqing; Xu, Shengming; Huang, Guoyong; Jiang, Changyin


    To reduce cost and secondary pollution of spent lithium ion battery (LIB) recycling caused by complicated separation and purification, a novel simplified recycling process is investigated in this paper. Removal of magnesium is a common issue in hydrometallurgy process. Considering magnesium as an important additive in LIB modification, tolerant level of magnesium in leachate is explored as well. Based on the novel recycling technology, Li[(Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3))(1-x)Mg(x)]O(2) (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) cathode materials are achieved from spent LIB. Tests of XRD, SEM, TG-DTA and so on are carried out to evaluate material properties. Electrochemical test shows an initial charge and discharge capacity of the regenerated LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O(2) to be 175.4 mAh g(-1) and 152.7 mAh g(-1) (2.7-4.3 V, 0.2C), respectively. The capacity remains 94% of the original value after 50 cycles (2.7-4.3 V, 1C). Results indicate that presence of magnesium up to x=0.01 has no significant impact on overall performance of Li[(Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3))(1-x)Mg(x)]O(2). As a result, magnesium level as high as 360 mg L(-1) in leachate remains tolerable. Compared with conventional limitation of magnesium content, the elimination level of magnesium exceeded general impurity-removal requirement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Orbital-Specific observation of O2p and Ni3d electrons in LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2, a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Satou


    Full Text Available Cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries containing Ni2+ have attracted much interest because of their high theoretical capacity. However, the precise electronic structures of these cathode materials have not yet been clearly observed, especially the energy positions of the O2p and Ni3d orbitals and the shape of the density of states. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative energy positions and shape of the density of states of O2p and Ni3d for LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 experimentally. We cleaved a LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 pellet in an Ar-filled glove box and performed synchrotron ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy for different photon energies, which enabled us to investigate the relative cross-section intensity of O2p and Ni3d. As a result, the valence-band structure was determined. We found that O2p electrons are itinerant and exist in the vicinity of the Fermi energy more than Ni3d electrons. Ni3d electrons are more localized and spread mainly from 1.2–1.5 eV below the Fermi energy. To validate the electronic structure, we measured the synchrotron O K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure of electrochemically lithium-extracted LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2. The electronic structure demonstrated that ligand holes in the oxygen atoms form below the Fermi level during the initial stage of Li extraction and that the formation rate of the holes decreases with Li extraction.

  18. Orbital-Specific observation of O2p and Ni3d electrons in LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2, a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Satou, Yoshinori; Komine, Shigeki; Shimizu, Sumera


    Cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries containing Ni2+ have attracted much interest because of their high theoretical capacity. However, the precise electronic structures of these cathode materials have not yet been clearly observed, especially the energy positions of the O2p and Ni3d orbitals and the shape of the density of states. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative energy positions and shape of the density of states of O2p and Ni3d for LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 experimentally. We cleaved a LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 pellet in an Ar-filled glove box and performed synchrotron ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy for different photon energies, which enabled us to investigate the relative cross-section intensity of O2p and Ni3d. As a result, the valence-band structure was determined. We found that O2p electrons are itinerant and exist in the vicinity of the Fermi energy more than Ni3d electrons. Ni3d electrons are more localized and spread mainly from 1.2-1.5 eV below the Fermi energy. To validate the electronic structure, we measured the synchrotron O K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure of electrochemically lithium-extracted LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2. The electronic structure demonstrated that ligand holes in the oxygen atoms form below the Fermi level during the initial stage of Li extraction and that the formation rate of the holes decreases with Li extraction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Suhendra


    satu lini produksi dalam satu periode dan melalui analisis pareto terhadap hasil pengukuran tersebut diperoleh akar permasalahan dan faktor penyebabnya yang secara jelas ditampilkan pada sebuah diagram sebab-akibat. Kata kunci: pengukuran kinerja peralatan, regresi berganda dan analisa korelasi, industri otomotif, peralatan pabrik.

  20. The Impact of Aluminum and Iron Substitution on the Structure and Electrochemistry of Li[Ni0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4]O2 Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIlcox, James D.; Rodriguez, Efrain E.; Doeff, Marca M.


    Li[Ni0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4]O2 (0<_y<_0.2) (M=Al) and Li[Ni0.4Co0.15Fe0.05Mn0.4]O2 compounds were prepared in order to investigate the effect of replacement of all or part of the cobalt on the structural and electrochemical properties. The impact of substitution on the structure has been examined by both x-ray and neutron diffraction experiments. The incorporation of aluminum has minimal effect on the anti-site defect concentration, but leads to structural changes that affect electrochemical performance. The most important effect is an opening of the lithium slab dimension upon substitution, which results in improved rate performance compared to the parent compound. In contrast, the lithium slab dimension is not affected by iron substitution and no rate enhancement effect is observed. The cycling stability of aluminum containing materials is superior to both the parent material and iron-substituted materials.

  1. NiCo2O4 surface coating Li[Ni0.03Mn1.97]O4 micro-/nano- spheres as cathode material for high-performance lithium ion battery (United States)

    Ye, Pan; Dong, Hui; Xu, Yunlong; Zhao, Chongjun; Liu, Dong


    Here we report a novel transitional metal oxide (NiCo2O4) coated Li[Ni0.03Mn1.97]O4 micro-/nano- spheres as high-performance Li-ion battery cathode material. A thin layer of ∼10 nm NiCo2O4 was formed by simple wet-chemistry approach adjacent to the surface of Li[Ni0.03Mn1.97]O4 micro-/nano- spheres, leading to significantly enhanced battery electrochemical performance. The optimized sample(1 wt%) not only delivers excellent discharge capacity and cycling stability improvement at both room temperature and elevated temperatures, but also effectively prevents Mn dissolution while retaining its coating structure intact according to XRF and TEM results. The CV and EIS break-down analysis indicated a much faster electrochemical reaction kinetics, more reversible electrode process and greatly reduced charge transfer and Warburg resistance, clearly illustrating the dual role of NiCo2O4 coating to boost electron transport and Li+ diffusion, and alleviation of manganese dissolving. This approach may render as an efficient technique to realize high-performance lithium ion battery cathode material.

  2. Structure and Electrochemistry of LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M=Ti, Al, Fe) Positive Electrode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, James; Patoux, Sebastien; Doeff, Marca


    A series of materials based on the LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M = Ti,Al,Fe) system has been synthesized and examined structurally and electrochemically. It is found that the changes in electrochemical performance depend highly on the nature of the substituting atom and its effect on the crystal structure. Substitution with small amounts of Ti4+ (y = 1/12) leads to the formation of a high-capacity and high-rate positive electrode material. Iron substituted materials suffer from an increased antisite defect concentration and exhibit lower capacities and poor rate capabilities. Single-phase materials are found for LiNi1/3Co1/3-yAlyMn1/3O2 when y<_ 1/4 and all exhibit decreased capacities when cycled to 4.3 V. However, an increase in rate performance and cycle stability upon aluminum substitution is correlated with an improved lamellar structure.

  3. Preparation of nano-porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with high electrochemical performances by a co-precipitation method for 5 V lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoling; Li, Hongliang; Li, Shiyou


    Porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is prepared by co-precipitation method. The results of scanning electron microscopy show that the sample has a nano-porous structure. Charge-discharge tests show that the synthesized product exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a high initial discharge capacity of 129.1 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C and a preferably capacity retention of 96.5% after 200 cycles. The superior performance of the synthesized product is attributed to its nano-porous structure. The nanoparticle reduces the path of Li+ diffusion and increases the reaction sites for lithium insertion/extraction, the pores provide room to buffer the volume changes during charge-discharge.

  4. High Voltage LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2/Graphite Cell Cycled at 4.6 V with A FEC/HFDEC-Based Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Feng, Zhenxing; Zeng, Li; Wu, Tianpin; Bedzyk, Michael J.; Fenter, Paul; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Zhengcheng


    A high voltage LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2/graphite cell with a fluorinated electrolyte formulation 1.0 m LiPF6 fluoroethylene carbonate/bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) carbonate is reported and its electrochemical performance is evaluated at cell voltage of 4.6 V. Comparing with its nonfluorinated electrolyte counterpart, the reported fluorinated one shows much improved Coulombic efficiency and capacity retention when a higher cut-off voltage (4.6 V) is applied. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data clearly demonstrate the superior oxidative stability of the new electrolyte. The structural stability of the bulk cathode materials cycled with different electrolytes is extensively studied by X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction.

  5. Toward greener lithium-ion batteries: Aqueous binder-based LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 cathode material with superior electrochemical performance (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Kim, Guk-Tae; Chao, Dongliang; Loeffler, Nicholas; Copley, Mark; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Zexiang; Passerini, Stefano


    This work reports the performance of LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 electrodes employing sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as the binder (CMC/NCM). Compared with conventional organic PVDF-based electrodes, the CMC/NCM electrodes display very uniform distribution of NCM and carbon particles together with strong adhesion among the particles and with the current collector, leading to significantly mitigated crack formation and delamination of the electrode upon repeated delithiation/lithiation processes. Additionally, these electrodes offer enhanced Li+ diffusion kinetics, reduced polarization, therefore, excellent high C-rate capability, and extremely stable cycling performance even at elevated temperature (60 °C). Benefiting from the features of low cost, environmentally friendliness, and easy disposability-recyclability, the water-soluble CMC is a promising binder for practical application in energy storage systems.

  6. Research Progress in Improving the Cycling Stability of High-Voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode in Lithium-Ion Battery (United States)

    Xu, XiaoLong; Deng, SiXu; Wang, Hao; Liu, JingBing; Yan, Hui


    High-voltage lithium-ion batteries (HVLIBs) are considered as promising devices of energy storage for electric vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle, and other high-power equipment. HVLIBs require their own platform voltages to be higher than 4.5 V on charge. Lithium nickel manganese spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathode is the most promising candidate among the 5 V cathode materials for HVLIBs due to its flat plateau at 4.7 V. However, the degradation of cyclic performance is very serious when LNMO cathode operates over 4.2 V. In this review, we summarize some methods for enhancing the cycling stability of LNMO cathodes in lithium-ion batteries, including doping, cathode surface coating, electrolyte modifying, and other methods. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different methods.

  7. Production of 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA from dehydroepiandrosterone by Colletotrichum lini ST-1 through integrating glucose-feeding with multi-step substrate addition strategy. (United States)

    Li, Cong; Li, Hui; Sun, Jin; Zhang, XinYue; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong


    Hydroxylation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to 3β,7α,15α-trihydroxy-5-androstene-17-one (7α,15α-diOH-DHEA) by Colletotrichum lini ST-1 is an essential step in the synthesis of many steroidal drugs, while low DHEA concentration and 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA production are tough problems to be solved urgently in industry. In this study, the significant improvement of 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield in 5-L stirred fermenter with 15 g/L DHEA was achieved. To maintain a sufficient quantity of glucose for the bioconversion, glucose of 15 g/L was fed at 18 h, the 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield and dry cell weight were increased by 17.7 and 30.9 %, respectively. Moreover, multi-step DHEA addition strategy was established to diminish DHEA toxicity to C. lini, and the 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield raised to 53.0 %. Further, a novel strategy integrating glucose-feeding with multi-step addition of DHEA was carried out and the product yield increased to 66.6 %, which was the highest reported 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA production in 5-L stirred fermenter. Meanwhile, the conversion course was shortened to 44 h. This strategy would provide a possible way in enhancing the 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield in pharmaceutical industry.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of LiNi0.7–xMgxCo0.3O2 (0≤x≤0.1 Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailang Zhang


    Full Text Available Prospective cathode materials LiNi0.7–xMgxCo0.3O2 (0≤x≤0.1 for a lithium-ion secondary battery were synthesized using a sol-gel method. The structural and electrochemical properties were examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, cyclic voltammetry(CV, and charge-discharge tests. The results show that the LiNi0.7–xMgxCo0.3O2 maintains the α-NaFeO2 type layered structure regardless of the magnesium content in the range x⩽0.1. On the other hand, Mg-doping improves the capacity retention well. Besides, the Mg-doping promotes the diffusion of Li+ in LiNi0.7Co0.3O2. Moreover, Mg-doping suppresses the phase transitions that usually occur in LiNiO2 during cycling and improves the charge-discharge reversibility of Li/LiNi0.7Co0.3O2. High temperature cycling performance of the cathode at 55.5°C is also improved by Mg-doping, which is possibly attributed to the total stronger metal-oxygen bonding and the enhanced structure stability of those delithiated Mg-doped cathodes during cycling.

  9. In-situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction study of the structure evolution of electrode materials in a commercial battery with LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode (United States)

    Bobrikov, I. A.; Samoylova, N. Yu.; Sumnikov, S. V.; Ivanshina, O. Yu.; Vasin, R. N.; Beskrovnyi, A. I.; Balagurov, A. M.


    A commercial lithium-ion battery with LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cathode has been studied in situ using high-intensity and high-resolution neutron diffraction. Structure and phase composition of the battery electrodes have been probed during charge-discharge in different cycling modes. The dependence of the anode composition on the charge rate has been determined quantitatively. Different kinetics of Li (de)intercalation in the graphite anode during charge/discharge process have been observed. Phase separation of the cathode material has not been detected in whole voltage range. Non-linear dependencies of the unit cell parameters, atomic and layer spacing on the lithium content in the cathode have been observed. Measured dependencies of interatomic spacing and interlayer spacing, and unit cell parameters of the cathode structure on the lithium content could be qualitatively explained by several factors, such as variations of oxidation state of cation in oxygen octahedra, Coulomb repulsion of oxygen layers, changes of average effective charge of oxygen layers and van der Waals interactions between MeO2-layers at high level of the NCA delithiation.

  10. The effect of gradient boracic polyanion-doping on structure, morphology, and cycling performance of Ni-rich LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode material (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hao; Yan, Xinxiu; Wang, Lei; Deng, Bangwei; Ge, Wujie; Qu, Meizhen


    A gradient boracic polyanion-doping method is applied to Ni-rich LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cathode material in this study to suppress the capacity/potential fade during charge-discharge cycling. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results show that all samples present spherical morphology and the secondary particle size increases with increasing boron content. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results demonstrate that boracic polyanions are successfully introduced into the bulk material and more enriched in the outer layer. XPS analysis further reveals that the valence state of Ni3+ is partly reduced to Ni2+ at the surface due to the incorporation of boracic polyanions. From the electrochemical measurements, B0.015-NCA electrode exhibits excellent cycling performance, even at high potential and elevated temperature. Moreover, the SEM images illustrate the presence of cracks and a thick SEI layer on pristine particles after 100 cycles at high temperature, while the B0.015-NCA particles show an intact structure and thin SEI layer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirms that the boracic polyanion doping could hinder the impedance increase during cycling at elevated temperature. These results clearly indicate that the gradient boracic polyanion-doping contributes to the remarkable enhancement of structure stability and cycling performance of NCA.

  11. Core/Double-Shell Type Gradient Ni-Rich LiNi0.76Co0.10Mn0.14O2 with High Capacity and Long Cycle Life for Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Liao, Jin-Yun; Oh, Seung-Min; Manthiram, Arumugam


    A concentration-gradient Ni-rich LiNi0.76Co0.1Mn0.14O2 layered oxide cathode has been developed by firing a core/double-shell [Ni0.9Co0.1]0.4[Ni0.7Co0.1Mn0.2]0.5[Ni0.5Co0.1Mn0.4]0.1(OH)2 hydroxide precursor with LiOH·H2O, where the Ni-rich interior (core) delivers high capacity and the Mn-rich exterior (shells) provides a protection layer to improve the cyclability and thermal stability for the Ni-rich oxide cathodes. The content of nickel and manganese, respectively, decreases and increases gradually from the center to the surface of each gradient sample particle, offering a high capacity with enhanced surface/structural stability and cyclability. The obtained concentration-gradient oxide cathode exhibits high-energy density with long cycle life in both half and full cells. With high-loading electrode half cells, the concentration-gradient sample delivers 3.3 mA h cm(-2) with 99% retention after 100 cycles. The material morphology, phase, and gradient structure are also maintained after cycling. The pouch-type full cells fabricated with a graphite anode delivers high capacity with 89% capacity retention after 500 cycles at C/3 rate.

  12. Solvent-free dry powder coating process for low-cost manufacturing of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes in lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Al-Shroofy, Mohanad; Zhang, Qinglin; Xu, Jiagang; Chen, Tao; Kaur, Aman Preet; Cheng, Yang-Tse


    We report a solvent-free dry powder coating process for making LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. This process eliminates volatile organic compound emission and reduces thermal curing time from hours to minutes. A mixture of NMC, carbon black, and poly(vinylidene difluoride) was electrostatically sprayed onto an aluminum current collector, forming a uniformly distributed electrode with controllable thickness and porosity. Charge/discharge cycling of the dry-powder-coated electrodes in lithium-ion half cells yielded a discharge specific capacity of 155 mAh g-1 and capacity retention of 80% for more than 300 cycles when the electrodes were tested between 3.0 and 4.3 V at a rate of C/5. The long-term cycling performance and durability of dry-powder coated electrodes are similar to those made by the conventional wet slurry-based method. This solvent-free dry powder coating process is a potentially lower-cost, higher-throughput, and more environmentally friendly manufacturing process compared with the conventional wet slurry-based electrode manufacturing method.

  13. Reaction Heterogeneity in LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 Induced by Surface Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, Antonin [X-ray; Liu, Hao [X-ray; Wiaderek, Kamila M. [X-ray; Lebens-Higgins, Zachary W. [Department; Borkiewicz, Olaf J. [X-ray; Piper, Louis F. J. [Department; Chupas, Peter J. [Energy; Chapman, Karena W. [X-ray


    Through operando synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of layered transition metal oxide electrodes of composition LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA), we decouple the intrinsic bulk reaction mechanism from surface-induced effects. For identically prepared and cycled electrodes stored in different environments, we demonstrate that the intrinsic bulk reaction for pristine NCA follows solid-solution mechanism, not a two-phase as suggested previously. By combining high resolution powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and surface sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we demonstrate that adventitious Li2CO3 forms on the electrode particle surface during exposure to air, through reaction with atmospheric CO2. This surface impedes ionic and electronic transport to the underlying electrode, with progressive erosion of this layer during cycling giving rise to different reaction states in particles with an intact vs an eroded Li2CO3 surface-coating. This reaction heterogeneity, with a bimodal distribution of reaction states, has previously been interpreted as a “two-phase” reaction mechanism for NCA, as an activation step that only occurs during the first cycle. Similar surface layers may impact the reaction mechanism observed in other electrode materials using bulk probes such as operando powder XRD.

  14. Sustainable and Superior Heat-Resistant Alginate Nonwoven Separator of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li Batteries Operated at 55 °C. (United States)

    Wen, Huijie; Zhang, Jianjun; Chai, Jingchao; Ma, Jun; Yue, Liping; Dong, Tiantian; Zang, Xiao; Liu, Zhihong; Zhang, Botao; Cui, Guanglei


    High-voltage lithium-ion batteries have become a major research focus. As a major part of lithium batteries, the separator plays a critical role in the development of high-voltage lithium batteries. Herein, we demonstrated a sustainable and superior heat-resistant alginate nonwoven separator for high-voltage (5 V) lithium batteries. It was demonstrated that the resultant alginate nonwoven separator exhibited better mechanical property (37 MPa), superior thermal stability (up to 150 °C), and higher ionic conductivity (1.4 × 10 -3 S/cm) as compared to commercially available polyolefin (PP) separator. More impressively, the 5 V class LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO)/Li cell with this alginate nonwoven separator delivered much better cycling stability (maintaining 79.6% of its initial discharge capacity) than that (69.3%) of PP separator after 200 cycles at an elevated temperature of 55 °C. In addition, the LiFePO 4 /Li cell assembled with such alginate nonwoven separator could still charge and discharge normally even at an elevated temperature of 150 °C. The above-mentioned fascinating characteristics of alginate separator provide great probability for its application for high-voltage (5 V) lithium batteries at elevated temperatures.

  15. Zr-doping effect on the capacity retention of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δ cycled between 5.0 and 1.0 V: In situ synchrotron X-Ray diffraction study (United States)

    Yoon, Jaesang; Jeong, Mihee; Bae, In Tae; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Yoon, Won-Sub


    Zr-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δ (Zr-LNMO) is synthesized by a solid-state method and the effects of Zr-doping on its structural behavior are systematically investigated by using synchrotron-based in situ x-ray diffraction during the 1st and the 2nd cycles between 1.0 and 5.0 V. Differences in the structural changes for Zr-LNMO and LNMO during cycling were clearly observed. Both samples show similar reversible phase transitions between three cubic phases and two tetragonal phases during the 1st cycle. However, during the 2nd cycle, overall phase transitions between tetragonal and cubic phases for Zr-LNMO show more reversible features than those for LNMO. In situ XRD results during the 2nd cycle reveal that some parts of LNMO cathode materials do not contribute to the capacity, due to the incomplete phase transition between cubic and tetragonal phases and sluggish phase transition kinetics. It is proposed that the increase in the lattice volume by Zr-doping allows more reversible structural changes during repeated cycling, compared to the undoped LNMO, resulting in the improved capacity retention of Zr-LNMO. This study shows that Zr-doping has a great potential, if optimized, to provide structural stability during repeated cycling, thereby leading to superior cycling stability.

  16. Optimized structure stability and electrochemical performance of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 by sputtering nanoscale ZnO film (United States)

    Lai, Yan-Qing; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Zhi-An; Gao, Chun-Hui; Wang, Peng; Yu, Zi-Yang


    LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) is one of the most promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles, which is successfully adopted in Tesla. However, the dissolution of the cation into the electrolyte is still a one of the major challenges (fading capacity and poor cyclability, etc.) presented in pristine NCA. Herein, a homogeneous nanoscale ZnO film is directly sputtered on the surface of NCA electrode via the magnetron sputtering (MS). This ZnO film is evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results clearly demonstrate that ZnO film is fully and uniformly covered on the NCA electrodes. After 90 cycles at 1.0C, the optimized MS-2min coated NCA electrode delivers much higher discharge capacity with 169 mAh g-1 than that of the pristine NCA electrode with 127 mAh g-1. In addition, the discharge capacity also reaches 166 mAh g-1 at 3.0C, as compared to that of 125 mAh g-1 for the pristine electrode. The improved electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the superiority of the MS ZnO film that reduce charge transfer resistance and protect the NCA electrode from cation dissolution.

  17. Composite coating of Li2O-2B2O3 and carbon as multi-conductive electron/Li-ion channel on the surface of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode (United States)

    Lee, Kanghyeon; Yang, Gene Jaehyoung; Kim, Hackyeon; Kim, Taejoong; Lee, Sun Sook; Choi, Si-Young; Choi, Sungho; Kim, Yongseon


    The coating effects of electronically and ionically conductive materials on the surface of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathodes for Li-ion batteries are examined. In order for the coating layers to promote facile electrochemical reactions, in addition to their protective functions of blocking side reactions between the LNMO surface and the electrolyte, carbon and Li2O-2B2O3 (LBO), which conduct electrons and Li ions, respectively, are chosen as coating materials. The properties of the LBO-carbon composite coating are examined in comparison with those of carbon- or LBO-only coatings. Electrochemical metrics, such as discharge capacity, rate performance, and cyclability, are improved with the addition of the thin-film coatings. The LBO-carbon coating shows the best overall properties, particularly greatly improved capacity retention under elevated-temperature (60 °C) cycling. The multi-conductive feature of LBO-carbon for both electrons and Li ions provides stable electrochemical kinetics under conditions of severe side reactions at elevated temperatures. The proposed simple one-step aqueous process for forming and applying the composite electrode coating may be extended to other materials and the mass production thereof.

  18. Improvement in the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 cathode material by Li2ZrO3 coating (United States)

    Liang, Hongmei; Wang, Zhixing; Guo, Huajun; Wang, Jiexi; Leng, Jin


    Li2ZrO3 with three dimensional tunnels for Li+ diffusion is introduced to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2. The coating process is carried on the precursor rather than on the product. The Li2ZrO3 coating layer with thickness of 10 nm has been detected by morphological observation. Electrochemical tests indicate that the Li2ZrO3-coating samples display better electrochemical performance than the bare sample. Especially, the 2% Li2ZrO3 coated sample delivers desirable capacity retention of 94.5% after 200 cycles at 1C, which is superior to the bare one (82.5%). Furthermore, the 1% Li2ZrO3 coated sample exhibits superior specific capacity of 144.3 mAh g-1 at 10C, much greater than the bare sample (107.4 mAh g-1). The cyclic voltammograms and electrochemical impedance spectra tests demonstrate that the Li2ZrO3-coated layer can cut down the electrochemical polarization of the materials and decrease the charge-transfer resistance in the cycling process. The XRD patterns and SEM images of the electrodes before and after 200 cycles reveal the Li2ZrO3-coated samples have more stable structure during cycling.

  19. Tailoring the potential window of negative electrodes: A diagnostic method for understanding parasitic oxidation reactions in cells with 5 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 positive electrodes (United States)

    Levi, Mikhael D.; Dargel, Vadim; Shilina, Yuliya; Borgel, Valentina; Aurbach, Doron; Halalay, Ion C.


    We present herein a diagnostic method which provides insights into the interactions between parasitic reactions at battery electrodes and their consequences for battery performance degradation. We also provide a cautionary tale about misinterpreting or misrepresenting the significance of test data, as is sometimes found in the peer-reviewed literature or in developers' claims. Reversible cycling of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 positive electrode in a full cell with an electrolyte solution containing no additives may appear achievable through tailoring of the operating potential window of the cell. Self-discharging of the negative stems from parasitic oxidation products formed on the positive. We show that either excess negative electrode capacity over the positive or initial pre-lithiation of the negative suppresses their detrimental effect on capacity retention. Simultaneous monitoring the potentials of the two electrodes vs. Li/Li+ during galvanostatic cycling of a full cell shows, however, that self-discharging of the negative still takes place. The latter process was tracked by the drift of the average potential of the cell towards higher values and leads to two characteristic patterns in the failure of full cells during their long-term cycling, depending on whether a cut-off voltage or a capacity limit is used as the control criterion during cycling.

  20. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Materials with Cr(3+) and F(-) Composite Doping for Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Shaofang; Xu, Shuaijun; Huang, Si; Zhu, Jianxin


    A Cr(3+) and F(-) composite-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material was synthesized by the solid-state method, and the influence of the doping amount on the material's physical and electrochemical properties was investigated. The structure and morphology of the cathode material were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and HRTEM, and the results revealed that the sample exhibited clear spinel features. No Cr(3+) and F(-) impurity phases were found, and the spinel structure became more stable. The results of the charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test results suggested that LiCr0.05Ni0.475Mn1.475O3.95F0.05 in which the Cr(3+) and F(-) doping amounts were both 0.05, had the optimal electrochemical properties, with discharge rates of 0.1, 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 C and specific capacities of 134.18, 128.70, 123.62, 119.63, and 97.68 mAh g(-1) , respectively. After 50 cycles at a rate of 2 C, LiCr0.05Ni0.475Mn1.475O3.95F0.05 showed extremely good cycling performance, with a discharge specific capacity of 121.02 mAh g(-1) and a capacity retention rate of 97.9%. EIS test revealed that the doping clearly decreased the charge-transfer resistance.

  1. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Materials with Cr3+ and F- Composite Doping for Lithium-Ion Batteries (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Shaofang; Xu, Shuaijun; Huang, Si; Zhu, Jianxin


    A Cr3+ and F- composite-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material was synthesized by the solid-state method, and the influence of the doping amount on the material's physical and electrochemical properties was investigated. The structure and morphology of the cathode material were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and HRTEM, and the results revealed that the sample exhibited clear spinel features. No Cr3+ and F- impurity phases were found, and the spinel structure became more stable. The results of the charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test results suggested that LiCr0.05Ni0.475Mn1.475O3.95F0.05 in which the Cr3+ and F- doping amounts were both 0.05, had the optimal electrochemical properties, with discharge rates of 0.1, 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 C and specific capacities of 134.18, 128.70, 123.62, 119.63, and 97.68 mAh g-1 , respectively. After 50 cycles at a rate of 2 C, LiCr0.05Ni0.475Mn1.475O3.95F0.05 showed extremely good cycling performance, with a discharge specific capacity of 121.02 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention rate of 97.9%. EIS test revealed that the doping clearly decreased the charge-transfer resistance.

  2. Uncovering the role of Nb modification in improving the structure stability and electrochemical performance of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode charged at higher voltage of 4.5 V (United States)

    Liu, Siyang; Chen, Xiang; Zhao, Jiayue; Su, Junming; Zhang, Congcong; Huang, Tao; Wu, Jianhua; Yu, Aishui


    Ni-rich cathode materials attract ongoing interest due to their high specific capacity (∼200 mAh g-1). However, these materials suffer rapid capacity fading when charged to a high voltage and cycled at elevated temperature. In this study, we propose a facile method to reconstruct the surface structure of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 via Nb modification, which integrates the merits of partial Nb5+ doping in the pristine structure and surface Li3NbO4 coating. The obtained results from Rietveld refinement and high resolution transmission electron microscopy confirm that Nb5+ is partially doped into Li+ sites within the surface lattice. Further ex-situ powder X-ray diffraction and kinetic analysis using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveal that Nb modification stabilizes the layered structure and facilitates the charge transfer process. Owing to the robust surface structure, 1 mol% Nb modified LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 delivers a discharge capacity of 160.9 mAh g-1 with 91% capacity retention after 100 cycles at 3.0-4.5 V, whereas the discharge capacity of the pristine sample drops to 139.6 mAh g-1, corresponding to 78% of its initial value. The presence of Nb5+ in the Li layer exhibits positive effects on stability of layered structure, and the surface Li3NbO4 coating layer increases interfacial stability, which results in superior electrochemical performance.

  3. Li3PO4 surface coating on Ni-rich LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 by a citric acid assisted sol-gel method: Improved thermal stability and high-voltage performance (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Woo; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jeong, Jun Hui; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum


    A surface coating of Li3PO4 was applied to a Ni-rich LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (NCM) material to improve its thermal stability and electrochemical properties via a citric acid assisted sol-gel method. The addition of citric acid effectively suppressed the instant formation of Li3PO4 in solution, resulting in successful coating of the NCM surface. The improved thermal stability of NCM after Li3PO4 surface coating was demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction (TR-XRD). In particular, the TR-XRD results showed that the improved thermal stability after Li3PO4 surface coating originates from suppression of the phase transition of charged NCM at high temperatures. Furthermore, the charge-discharge tests demonstrated that Li3PO4-coated LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (LP-NCM) has excellent electrochemical properties. LP-NCM exhibited a specific capacity of 192.7 mAh g-1, a capacity retention of 44.1% at 10 C, and a capacity retention of 79.7% after 100 cycles at a high cut-off voltage of 4.7 V; these values represent remarkably improved electrochemical properties compared with those of bare NCM. These improved thermal and electrochemical properties were mainly attributed to the improvement of the structural stability of the material and the suppression of the interface reaction between the cathode and the electrolyte owing to the Li3PO4 coating.

  4. Systematic Optimization of Battery Materials: Key Parameter Optimization for the Scalable Synthesis of Uniform, High-Energy, and High Stability LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Ren, Dong; Shen, Yun; Yang, Yao; Shen, Luxi; Levin, Barnaby D A; Yu, Yingchao; Muller, David A; Abruña, Héctor D


    Ni-rich LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (x > 0.5) (NMC) materials have attracted a great deal of interest as promising cathode candidates for Li-ion batteries due to their low cost and high energy density. However, several issues, including sensitivity to moisture, difficulty in reproducibly preparing well-controlled morphology particles and, poor cyclability, have hindered their large scale deployment; especially for electric vehicle (EV) applications. In this work, we have developed a uniform, highly stable, high-energy density, Ni-rich LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 cathode material by systematically optimizing synthesis parameters, including pH, stirring rate, and calcination temperature. The particles exhibit a spherical morphology and uniform size distribution, with a well-defined structure and homogeneous transition-metal distribution, owing to the well-controlled synthesis parameters. The material exhibited superior electrochemical properties, when compared to a commercial sample, with an initial discharge capacity of 205 mAh/g at 0.1 C. It also exhibited a remarkable rate capability with discharge capacities of 157 mAh/g and 137 mAh/g at 10 and 20 C, respectively, as well as high tolerance to air and moisture. In order to demonstrate incorporation into a commercial scale EV, a large-scale 4.7 Ah LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 Al-full pouch cell with a high cathode loading of 21.6 mg/cm2, paired with a graphite anode, was fabricated. It exhibited exceptional cyclability with a capacity retention of 96% after 500 cycles at room temperature. This material, which was obtained by a fully optimized scalable synthesis, delivered combined performance metrics that are among the best for NMC materials reported to date.

  5. Mechanistic Insight in the Function of Phosphite Additives for Protection of LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 Cathode in High Voltage Li-Ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Peebles, Cameron; Feng, Zhenxing; Connell, Justin G.; Liao, Chen; Wang, Yan; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Zhang, Zhengcheng


    Triethlylphosphite (TEP) and tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFP) have been evaluated as electrolyte additives for high-voltage Li-ion battery cells using a Ni-rich layered cathode material LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) and the conventional carbonate electrolyte. The repeated charge/discharge cycling for cells containing 1 wt% of these additives was performed using an NCM523/graphite full cell operated at the voltage window from 3.0 to 4.6 V. During the initial charge process, these additives decompose on the cathode surface at a lower oxidation potential than the baseline electrolyte. Impedance spectroscopy and post-test analyses indicate the formation of protective coatings by both additives on the cathode surface that prevent oxidative breakdown of the electrolyte. However, only TTFP containing cells demonstrate the improved capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency. For TEP, the protective coating is also formed, but low Li+ ion mobility through the interphase layer results in inferior performance. These observations are rationalized through the inhibition of electrocatalytic centers present on the cathode surface and the formation of organophosphate deposits isolating the cathode surface from the electrolyte. The difference between the two phosphites clearly originates in the different properties of the resulting phosphate coatings, which may be in Li+ ion conductivity through such materials.

  6. NASICON-type surface functional modification in core-shell LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2@NaTi2(PO4)3 cathode enhances its high-voltage cycling stabilty and rate capacity towards Li-ion batteries. (United States)

    Liang, Longwei; Sun, Xuan; Wu, Chen; Hou, Linrui; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yuan, Changzhou


    Surface modifications are established well as efficient methodologies to enhance comprehensive Li-storage behaviors of the cathodes, and play a significant role in cutting edge innovations towards lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we first logically devised a pilot-scale coating strategy to integrate solid state electrolyte NaTi2(PO4)3 (NTP) and layered LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC) for smart construction of core-shell NMC@NTP cathodes. The NASICON-type NTP nanoshell with exceptional ion conductivity effectively suppressed gradual encroachment and/or loss of electroactive NMC, guaranteed stable phase-interfaces, and rendered small sur-/interfacial eletron/ion-diffusion resistance meanwhile. Benefitting from immanently promoting contributions of the nano-NTP coating, the as-fabricated core-shell NMC@NTP architectures were competitively endowed with superior high-voltage cyclic stabilities and rate capacities within larger electrochemical window from 3.0 to 4.6 V when utilized as advanced cathodes for advanced LIBs. More meaningfully, the appealing electrode design concept proposed here will exert significant impact upon further constructing other high-voltage Ni-based cathodes for high-energy/power LIBs.

  7. Synthesis, dielectric, conductivity and magnetic studies of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn(1/3−xAlxO2 (x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 for cathode materials of lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Murali

    Full Text Available Layered structure cathode materials LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn(1/3−xAlxO2 (x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 are prepared by the sol-gel method by adding citric acid as chelating agent. The physical, electrical and magnetic properties of the synthesized materials are systematically discussed using the structural (XRD, FESEM with EDS and FT-IR, impedance (LCR and electron spin resonance (ESR measurements. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the synthesized samples possessed the α-NaFeO2 structure of the space group, R3¯m, with no evidence of any impurities. The peak intensity ratio I(104/I(003 increased with Al concentration, which indicated the cation mixing between transition metal layer and lithium layer. The field effect scanning electron microscopy showed the particle size distribution in the range of 230–250 nm and EDS has been analysed for elemental mapping. The local structure is investigated by vibrational spectroscopy in FT-IR study. The impedance studies are characterized by complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS in the frequency range from 42 Hz to 1 MHz at room temperature (30 °C. The dielectric properties are analyzed in the framework of complex dielectric permittivity and formalism of the complex electric modulus. For these samples, the ESR analysis of magnetic measurements, the degree of cation mixing, is estimated to be Ni2+(3b = 2.75%. Keywords: Layered structure, XRD, FESEM, FT-IR, Dielectric, ESR

  8. Identifikasi Kekritisan Komponen pada Lini Produksi Pabrik Gula Tebu Menggunakan Metode Equipment Criticality Rating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Cahyati


    Full Text Available ECR is one of Maintenance Performance Index (MPI’s criteria in The System of Eco Maintenance (SEM proposed for sugarcane fabrication. The SEM is a maintenance system that concerns to energy conservation issue in sugarcane fabrication. Reduction of energy consumption can affect the reduction of pollutant produced by sugarcane fabrication process. MPI and EPI (Environment Performance Index are Operational Performance Index (OPI’s components that calculated by SEM. The OPI will be used for selecting a proper strategy for revitalization of sugarcane factory. ECR uses a pairwise comparison assesment based on experts interview and judgement. Then, it will be calculated by Expert Choice software. The weight of ECR’s criteria will be multiplied by criteria value from data processing result in SEM software. The results show that the highest value of ECR is of 41.52 for Mill and Boiler station and the lowest result is of 8.83 for Drying and Packaging station. Finally the value of ECR will be classified into very critical (ECR1, critical (ECR2, less critical (ECR3 and non critical (ECR4, to determine the level of station’s criticality.

  9. Structural, electrical and electrochemical studies of LiNi0. 4M0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrochemical characterization is carried out using CR-2032 coin type cell configuration. The cyclic voltammogram shows two pairs of redox current peaks, 4.35/3.80 V and 4.90/4.37 V vs. Li in a typical case of Co-doped sample, ascribed to two-step reversible intercalation of Li. A.c.-impedance (Nyquist plot) shows ...

  10. Structural, electrical and electrochemical behaviours of LiNi0⋅4M0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    solutions is confirmed by structural characterization using TG/DTA, XRD, FT–IR, EPR, SEM and EPR. A.c.- ... (s) + Mn 2+. (soln.) (Huggins 2008) by the HF acid attack, generated by hydrolysis of LiPF6 elec- trolyte, (ii) the onset of John–Teller (J–T) distortion on ... made by a Bruker EMX plus X-band spectrometer, with a.

  11. Refractometrische vetbepaling in oliehoudende grondstoffen : (semen soya, fructus helianthi, semen sesami, semen lini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartstra, Eduard Alfred Cornelis


    In de, hiervoor behandelde, hoofdstukken werd een refractometrische m ethode uitgewerkt voor de oliebepalingen in sojaboonen, zonnepitten,sesam- en lijnzaad. Behalve het reeds bekende monochloornaphtaline, werden 3 nieuwe oplosmiddelen in gevoerd, namelijk: broombenzoli, sobutylbutyraat en



    Yosua Caesar Fernando; Sunday Noya


    Meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi adalah salah satu tujuan dari suatu perusahaan. Lean adalah metode yang dapat meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi. Dalam penelitian ini, metode yang digunakan untuk meminimalkan limbah di PT. Bonindo Abadi adalah Value Stream Analysis Tools (VALSAT) dan Value Stream Mapping (VSM). VSM digunakan untuk melihat kondisi peta keadaan pada perusahaan. Pengurangan pemborosan dilakukan dengan menggunakan salah satu alat dari VALSAT yaitu Process...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosua Caesar Fernando


    Full Text Available Meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi adalah salah satu tujuan dari suatu perusahaan. Lean adalah metode yang dapat meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi. Dalam penelitian ini, metode yang digunakan untuk meminimalkan limbah di PT. Bonindo Abadi adalah Value Stream Analysis Tools (VALSAT dan Value Stream Mapping (VSM. VSM digunakan untuk melihat kondisi peta keadaan pada perusahaan. Pengurangan pemborosan dilakukan dengan menggunakan salah satu alat dari VALSAT yaitu Process Activity Mapping (PAM. Jumlah non value added (NVA yang ditemukan dalam proses produksi PT. X adalah 90,17% diikuti oleh necessary but non value added (NNVA dengan jumlah 9,79% dan value added (VA sebesar 0,04%. Usulan perbaikan yang diberikan adalah dengan mengurangi jumlah waktu aktivitas NVA atau menghilangkannya.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical studies of LiNi0⋅ 8 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    XRD, TEM, SEM with EDAX) and spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. XRD results show that the compounds are similar to LiNiO2 in structure. TEM and SEM analyses were used to examine the particle size, nature and morphological aspects of ...

  15. Performance and Structure of LiNi Mn O Prepared from Various Ni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Zhaoyong Chena, Shan Jib*, Huali Zhua, Sivakumar Pasupathib, Ben Bladergroenb and Vladimir Linkovb. aDepartment of Materials Science and Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha, 410076, People's Republic of China. bSouth African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry, ...

  16. Peningkatan Kapasitas Overhead Conveyor di Lini Produksi Electrodeposition Studi Kasus: di PT. Xyz


    Hendri, Hendri


    This review discusses how to analyze and calculate the increase in overhead conveyor capacity in the electrodeposition production line in the automotive industry doing halo improvements to meet market needs with Toyoto Business Practices method. Overheat conveyor (conveyor tool above) is a mechanical device that moves to move material from one location to another location which is done by hanging from above. While Electrodeposition is a way to clean the surface in a way. After the analysis is...

  17. Solid-state synthesis and characterization of LiCoO 2 and LiNi Co ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Formation mechanisms of the products are discussed in the light of TG/DTA results. Nickel-containing ... The lower loss in capacity per cycle for cells with unsubstituted LiCoO2 , as determined from cycling studies up to 25 cycles, makes it more suitable than the substituted ones for long cycle-life cells with low capacity fade.

  18. Structural, electrical and electrochemical studies of LiNi0.4M0.1Mn1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    storage cathode materials have been explored in the past two decades [1]. Among those, LiMn2O4 was found to be a potential substitute for LiCoO2 in terms of cost, abundance and environmental compatibility [2–8]. However, the specific capacity of ...

  19. graft-carbon nanotubes with LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Materials Technology Key Laboratory (Mtlab), Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Vietnam National. University, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet, ... ties such as 1D tubular structure, high electrical and thermal conductivities, mechanical ... area, a short diffusion and high electric/thermal conductions is necessary to overcome the.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Susanto


    Full Text Available In developing countries like Indonesia, the rationalization of production processes and systems will increase.Challenge that emerged significantly is the increase in planning efficiency. A prospective approach to reduce theplanning effort is the development of a production system capable of optimizing itself during the process. On theassembly line PT. Kubota Indonesia found that the workers perform assembly process with a sequence that is notplanned as a result of the lack of a standardized sequence of process companies and lead to cognitive controlthat are not stable and continuous learning process. Because this issue contrary to the concept of efficiency inplanning, it takes an automated system with a complete and fully optimized (self-optimizing production system.The purpose of this study is to apply the planning efficiency through implementation of optimized productionsystem (self-optimizing production systems in assembly-line PT. Kubota Indonesia. Data obtaining done by thedetermination of primary and secondary variables include the perception of cognitive control, a solution basedon the memory (memory, and action. Repairs are carried out is by applying self-optimizing production systemconsisting of 4 steps: the development of cognitive architecture is to determine the sequence of work andapplying it to extend the software, implementation of individual modules is through the use of hand screw, thedevelopment of human machine interfaces in hand tool screw is through the explanation task analysis andimplementation and evaluation of improvement is the use of robotic assembly in the assembly processenvironment.

  1. Vliv alfa-humulenu na adhezi prsní nádorové linie MDA-MB-231


    Marešová, Markéta


    Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Bc. Markéta Marešová Supervisor: Ing. Petra Matoušková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Effect of alpha-humulene on adhesion of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 α-humulene is a sesquiterpene contained in the essential oil of Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra), which has various biological effects. The aim of this thesis was to study the cell adhesion of tumor cell line MDA-MB-231, an...

  2. Nitrates–melt synthesized LiNi0⋅8Co0⋅2O2 and its performance as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Lithium batteries; intercalation compounds; electrochemical characterization; diffusion. 1. Introduction. Layered LiCoO2 is extensively used as cathode material in commercial Li-ion batteries (Nagaura and Tozawa. 1990). But the capacity of the LiCoO2 cathode is limited to extraction of 0⋅5 Li because the Co4+/Co3+ redox ...

  3. Re-construction layer effect of LiNi0.8Co0.15Mn0.05O2 with solvent evaporation process (United States)

    Park, Kwangjin; Park, Jun-Ho; Hong, Suk-Gi; Choi, Byungjin; Heo, Sung; Seo, Seung-Woo; Min, Kyoungmin; Park, Jin-Hwan


    The solvent evaporation method on the structural changes and surface chemistry of the cathode and the effect of electrochemical performance of Li1.0Ni0.8Co0.15Mn0.05O2 (NCM) has been investigated. After dissolving of Li residuals using minimum content of solvent in order to minimize the damage of pristine material and the evaporation time, the solvent was evaporated without filtering and remaining powder was re-heated at 700 °C in oxygen environment. Two kinds of solvent, de-ionized water and diluted nitric acid, were used as a solvent. The almost 40% of Li residuals were removed using solvent evaporation method. The NCM sample after solvent evaporation process exhibited an increase in the initial capacity (214.3 mAh/g) compared to the pristine sample (207.4 mAh/g) at 0.1C because of enhancement of electric conductivity caused by decline of Li residuals. The capacity retention of NCM sample after solvent evaporation process (96.0% at the 50th cycle) was also improved compared to that of the pristine NCM sample (90.6% at the 50th cycle). The uniform Li residual layer after solvent treated and heat treatment acted like a coating layer, leading to enhance the cycle performance. The NCM sample using diluted nitric acid showed better performance than that using de-ionized water.

  4. Structural, spectral, dielectric and magnetic properties of Tb–Dy doped Li-Ni nano-ferrites synthesized via micro-emulsion route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junaid, Muhammad, E-mail: [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar, E-mail: [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Iqbal, F. [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Murtaza, Ghulam [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Ahmad, Mukhtar [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Deanship of scientific research, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan)


    Terbium (Tb) and dysprosium (Dy) doped lithium-nickel nano-sized ferrites (Li{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 0.8}Tb{sub 0.5x}Dy{sub 0.5x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} where x=0.00−0.08) were prepared by micro-emulsion technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the single phase cubic spinel structure. The lattice constant was increased due to larger ionic radii of Tb{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} cations. The crystallite size was found in the range 30–42 nm. The FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) spectra revealed two significant absorption bands (~400–600 cm{sup −1}) which indicate the formation of cubic spinel structure. The peaking behavior of dielectric parameters was observed beyond 1.5 GHz. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were found to decrease by the increase of Tb–Dy contents and frequency. The doping of Tb and Dy in Li–Ni ferrites led to increase the coercive field (120–156 Oe). The smaller magnetic and dielectric parameters suggested the possible utility of these nano-materials in switching and microwave devices applications. - Highlights: • Li{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 0.8}Tb{sub 0.5x}Dy{sub 0.5x}Fe{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} ferrites were synthesized by micro-emulsion route. • Tb and Dy addition improves coercivity while decreased saturation magnetization. • These nanomaterials can be useful in microwave and switching devices applications.

  5. GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science; The Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, P. R. China. MS received ... the hybrid electric car. The layered Li1+yNix Co1−2x Mnx O2 stands out for its higher plateau voltage, better ...

  6. Aplikasi Metode Lean Six Sigma Untuk Usulan Improvisasi Lini Produksi Dengan Mempertimbangkan Faktor Lingkungan. Studi Kasus: Departemen GLS (General Lighting Services PT. Philips Lighting Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftachul Arifin


    Full Text Available Departemen GLS (General Lighting Services PT. Philips Lighting Surabaya merupakan produsen lampu pijar. Pada pelaksanaan proses produksinya, perusahaan menemui beberapa kendala yang terkait dengan waste. Analisis lean six sigma dengan menggunakan value stream mapping menunjukkan terjadi defect di mesin finishing dan waiting di mesin mounting. EHS waste juga muncul yang mengindikasikan adanya dampak terhadap lingkungan dan kesehatan serta keselamatan pekerja. Pencarian akar permasalahan dilakukan dengan menggunakan tools RCA (5 whys dan FMEA hingga memunculkan 15 penyebab utama terjadinya ketiga waste tersebut. Pembentukan tim Total productive maintenance, penelitian perbaikan kualitas bulb dan flare, serta eksperimen pengurangan jumlah jenis coil menjadi usulan alternatif yang bisa dilakukan perusahaan. Dengan menggunakan konsep value management didapatkan alternatif terbaik dengan melakukan pembentukan dan pelatihan tim Total productive maintenance. Alternatif ini meningkatkan nilai sigma defect dari 2,92 menjadi 3,08 dan sigma waiting dari 2,83 menjadi 2,89. Indikator dampak lingkungan juga mengindikasikan penurunan yang sejalan.

  7. Performance of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/graphite batteries based on aqueous binder (United States)

    Loeffler, Nicholas; von Zamory, Jan; Laszczynski, Nina; Doberdo, Italo; Kim, Guk-Tae; Passerini, Stefano


    This manuscript reports on the manufacturing and characterization of sodium carboxymethylcellulose-based, Li-ion positive electrodes with high active material mass loadings using only water as a solvent. The effect of different calendering forces on the aqueous processed cathode electrodes is also reported. Finally, the performance of balanced full Li-ion cells in pouch cell configuration is investigated. These Li-ion cells subjected to long-term cycling experiment displayed an average coulombic efficiency of 99.96% and retained a specific capacity of almost 70% of its initial capacity after 2000 cycles.

  8. Nice module. Apollon Solar present their new line of solar modules; Nettes Modul. Apollon Solar stellt Linie fuer neuartige Modultechnologie vor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podewils, C.


    Solar modules, TGV engines and perfume Zerstaeuber seem to have nothing in common. The new solar module developed by French producer Apollon Solar makes use of both technologies in the construction process. The contribution presents the 'Nice' module which has many new features. (orig.)

  9. Vliv vybraných seskviterpenů na účinek cytostatik u buněčné linie MDA-MB-231


    TŮMOVÁ, Veronika


    Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Title, Name, Surname of candidate: Veronika Tůmová Title, Name, Surname of tutor: PharmDr. Hana Bártíková, Ph.D Title of a diploma work: The influence of selected sesquiterpenes on the effect of cytostatics for the cell line MDA-MB-231 Breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer. It makes up approximately one quarter of cancer cases amongst women. The rise in the incidence of this...

  10. Microwave-enhanced electrochemical cycling performance of the LiNi0.2Mn1.8O4 spinel cathode material at elevated temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raju, Kumar


    Full Text Available confirmed by XRD, XPS, (sup6)LiMAS-NMR and electrochemical studies including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The microwave-treated sample (LMNO(submic)) allowed for the clear exposure of the {111} facets of the spinel, optimized the Mn(sup3...

  11. Økologisk risikovurdering af genmodificeret dobbelt herbicidtolerant sojabønne linie FG72 i anmeldelse vedr. markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Damgaard, Christian; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov


    i Danmark, da de klimatiske forhold udelukker dette. En markedsføring af sojabønnen kan derfor ikke have nogen uøn-skede økologiske konsekvenser i Danmark. I dyrkningsområderne i Sydeuropa kan der ved uheld ske en iblanding af GM-sojabønnefrø i frø til udsæd af ikke-GM soja. En eventuel tilfældig...... spredning af GM-soja vurderes dog ikke at få nogen uønskede økologi-ske konsekvenser. BIOSCIENCE vurderer samlet, at der ikke kan forventes nogen uønskede økologiske konsekvenser for dyre- og planteliv ved markedsføring af den genmodificerede herbicidtolerante FG72-4-sojabønne til andre for-mål end dyrkning...

  12. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.4Mn1.5Cr0.1O4 and Li4Ti5O12

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Liu, GQ


    Full Text Available -gel, electrochemistry, x-ray diffraction, cycle voltammetry Corresponding author: Tel?86-024-83673860; Fax: 86-024-83687731 Email address: 2 1. Introduction The 5 V cathode materials for lithium ion batteries consist mainly of Li...

  13. Processing of water-based LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 pastes for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /3Co1/3O2-based pastes for manufacturing cathode electrodes. The influence of the total solid content, the amount of conductive agent and binder materials on paste rheology and the final electrode properties was investigated. Suitable paste ...

  14. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties Characterization of SnO2-coated LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries (United States)


    min in range of 10-90º with 0.01°step size. The sample morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM: JSM-5600LV, JEOF, Japan ...K Yamato , H Noguchi, J Itoh, M Okada, T Mouri, “Perparation of LiyMnxNi1-xO2 as a cathode for lithium-ion batteries”, Journal of Power Source 74(1

  15. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Ni doped spinel LiNi (subx)Mn (sub2-x)O(sub)4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) cathode materials for Li-Ion battery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA


    Full Text Available Spherical pristine LiMn(sub2)O(sub4) and Ni doped LiNixMn(sub2-x)O(sub)4 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) cathode materials for lithium ion battery with high first cycle discharge capacity and excellent cycle performance were synthesized using...

  16. Structure and physical state of the interstellar gases from observations of the 21 cm HI line. Die struktur und der physikalische zustand des interstellaren gases aus beobachtungen der 21 cm HI-linie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachenberg, O.; Mebold, U.


    Observations as well as theoretical considerations suggest that the interstellar gas may be described by a two-component model. The basic idea is that cold and dense clouds are embedded in a hot and tenuous medium (the intercloud medium), and that the clouds and the medium are roughly in pressure equilibrium. The 21 cm observational evidence for a hot and tenuous intercloud medium is reviewed. The space distribution of the intercloud gas has been determined from emission line studies in intermediate and high galactic latitudes. The radial velocity of the intercloud line shows a 2l variation of differential galactic rotation (l = galactic longitude). The density distribution of the intercloud gas perpendicular to the galactic plane can be described by a scale height of about 200 to 300 pc with a number density of about 0.2 cm/sup -3/ in the galactic plane. About 60% of the HI gas in the solar neighborhood is in the intercloud state. The temperature of the intercloud gas has been determined from a comparison of emission and absorption spectra in the direction of strong radio sources and from the fluctuations of the intercloud emission with position. The fluctuation of the intercloud emission with position can also be used to estimate the Mach number, M, in the intercloud gas and the positional correlation length of the turbulence. One finds M approx. = 1 and a correlation length of about 6%. The density n approx. 0.3 cm/sup -3/ and temperature (T greater than or equal to 3500/sup 0/K) for the intercloud gas and the corresponding values (n approx. 10 cm/sup -3/ and T approx. 70/sup 0/K) for the clouds in the Galaxy are similar to those found for the solar surroundings. 16 figures, 1 table.

  17. Gas swelling behaviour at different stages in Li4Ti5O12/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 pouch cells (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Haohan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Xia, Baojia; Min, Guoquan


    Gas swelling behaviour is a major drawback of batteries that are based on Li4Ti5O12 anode materials and hinders their application. In this article, the morphology and electronic structure changes of Li4Ti5O12 electrodes at ageing and cycling stages are investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge structure and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A simple method that uses an air bag to collect the generated gases was conducted and the gases were then characterised by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the charge transformation of Ti ions would aggravate the gas swelling behaviour. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films form on the surface of the Li4Ti5O12 particles and become thicker with increasing charge state. The gas components change significantly during the ageing and cycling, indicating the complexity of the gas swelling mechanism.

  18. Establishment of line A and partial renovation of the infrastructure of the waste incinerator Berlin Ruhleben during operation; Errichtung der Linie A und teilweise Erneuerung der Infrastruktur im laufenden Betrieb der Abfallverbrennungsanlage Berlin Ruhleben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosten, Alexander [Berliner Stadtreinigungsbetriebe (BSR), Berlin (Germany). Abfallverwertung und -beseitigung; Hauser, Ralf; Rintel, Bernd; Hensel, Jochen [Berliner Stadtreinigungsbetriebe (BSR), Berlin (Germany). Projekt ERIN/Bunkerertuechtigung


    In the light of the implementation of the Technical Guidelines for the treatment and disposal of municipal waste, the incineration of waste materials in the thermal power plant Berlin-Ruhleben (Federal Republic of Germany) awarded a crucial importance in the waste management concept of the Land of Berlin. The contribution describes the construction of the line A and partial renovation of the infrastructure of the waste incinerator Berlin Ruhleben. First of all, the history of the former waste incinerator and the partial renovation as well as the starting situation and the basis for decision-making for replacement investments are described. Subsequently, the project ERIN is presented, in which components of the existing waste incinerator are substituted. Further aspects of this contribution are the general conditions for the development of the project organisation, requirements relative to the project organisation, accessibility of the project organization to the business unit.

  19. Oxidation reaction of polyether-based material and its suppression in lithium rechargeable battery using 4 V class cathode, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Yo; Tabuchi, Masato; Shono, Kumi; Ohno, Yasutaka; Mita, Yuichi; Miyashiro, Hajime


    The all solid-state lithium battery with polyether-based solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) is regarded as one of next-generation lithium batteries, and has potential for sufficient safety because of the flammable-electrolyte-free system. It has been believed that polyether-based SPE is oxidized at the polymer/electrode interface with 4 V class cathodes. Therefore, it has been used for electric devices such as organic transistor, and lithium battery under 3 V. We estimated decomposition reaction of polyether used as SPE of all solid-state lithium battery. We first identified the decomposed parts of polyether-based SPE and the conservation of most main chain framework, considering the results of SPE analysis after long cycle operations. The oxidation reaction was found to occur slightly at the ether bond in the main chain with the branched side chain. Moreover, we resolved the issue by introducing a self-sacrificing buffer layer at the interface. The introduction of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to the 4 V class cathode surface led to the suppression of SPE decomposition at the interface as a result of the preformation of a buffer layer from CMC, which was confirmed by the irreversible exothermic reaction during the first charge, using electrochemical calorimetry. The attained 1500 cycle operation is 1 order of magnitude longer than those of previously reported polymer systems, and compatible with those of reported commercial liquid systems. The above results indicate to proceed to an intensive research toward the realization of 4 V class "safe" lithium polymer batteries without flammable liquid electrolyte.

  20. Tuning of Thermal Stability in Layered Li(Ni x Mn y Co z )O 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Liu, Tongchao; Hu, Zongxiang; Wei, Yi; Song, Xiaohe; Ren, Yang; Wang, Weidong; Rao, Mumin; Lin, Yuan; Chen, Zonghai; Lu, Jun; Wang, Chongmin; Amine, Khalil; Pan, Feng


    Understanding and further designing new layered Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 (NMC) (x + y + z = 1) materials with optimized thermal stability is important to rechargeable Li batteries (LIBs) for electrical vehicles (EV). Using ab initio calculations combined with experiments, we clarified how the thermal stability of NMC materials can be tuned by the most unstable oxygen, which is determined by the local coordination structure unit (LCSU) of oxygen (TM(Ni, Mn, Co)3-O-Li3-x'): each O atom bonds with three transition metals (TM) from the TM-layer and three to zero Li from fully discharged to charged states from the Li-layer. Under this model, how the lithium content, valence states of Ni, contents of Ni, Mn, and Co, and Ni/Li disorder to tune the thermal stability of NMC materials by affecting the sites, content, and the release temperature of the most unstable oxygen is proposed. The synergistic effect between Li vacancies and raised valence state of Ni during delithiation process can aggravate instability of oxygen, and oxygen coordinated with more nickel (especially with high valence state) in LSCU becomes more unstable at a fixed delithiation state. The Ni/Li mixing would decrease the thermal stability of the “NiMn” group NMC materials but benefit the thermal stability of “Ni-rich” group, because the Ni in the Li layer would form 180° Ni-O-Ni super exchange chains in “Ni-rich” NMC materials. Mn and Co doping can tune the initial valence state of Ni, local coordination environment of oxygen, and the Ni/Li disorder, thus to tune the thermal stability directly.

  1. High-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-d spinel material synthesized by microwave-assisted thermo-polymerization: some insights into the microwave-enhancing physico-chemistry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, Mesfin A


    Full Text Available that the microwave treatment enhance the electrochemical property by adjusting the lattice parameter, nickel content, and Mn3+ content. The galvanostatic charge/discharge testing results show that LMNOmic exhibits high capacity of 133 mAh g-1 at a 0.1 C and a high...

  2. Infekce makrofágové linie J774.2 bakterií Francisella tularensis - změny membránových a nitrobuněčných molekul


    Novosad, Jakub


    Summary: Background: Francisella tularensis (F.t.) is a facultative intracellular bacteria, enrolled at the list of Centre for Disease Control (CDC) as a high risk bioterrorism agent, category A. There is a long-term effort to understand to the immunopathogenesis of F.t. infection. The aim of our study was focused on phenotype analysis (CD54, CD16/32 and CD86) and nitric oxide (NO) production analysis of murine macrophage-like cell line J774.2 durig F.t. live vaccine strain (LVS) in vitro inf...

  3. Identifying the Distribution of Al 3+ in LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trease, Nicole M.; Seymour, Ieuan D.; Radin, Maxwell D.; Liu, Haodong; Liu, Hao; Hy, Sunny; Chernova, Natalya; Parikh, Pritesh; Devaraj, Arun; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Chupas, Peter J.; Chapman, Karena W.; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Meng, Ying Shirley; Van der Van, Anton; Grey, Clare P.


    The doping of Al into layered Li transition metal (TM) oxide cathode materials, LiTMO2, is known to improve the structural and thermal stability, although the origin of the enhanced properties is not well understood. The effect of aluminum doping on layer stabilization has been investigated using a combination of techniques to measure the aluminum distribution in layered LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) over multiple length scales with 27Al and 7Li MAS NMR, local electrode atom probe (APT) tomography, X-ray and neutron diffraction, DFT, and SQUID magnetic susceptibility measurements. APT ion maps show a homogenous distribution of Ni, Co, Al and O2 throughout the structure at the single particle level in agreement with the high-temperature phase diagram. 7Li and 27Al NMR indicates that the Ni3+ ions undergo a dynamic Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion. 27Al NMR spectra indicate that the Al reduces the strain associated with the JT distortion, by preferential electronic ordering of the JT long bonds directed toward the Al3+ ion. The ability to understand the complex atomic and orbital ordering around Al3+ demonstrated in the current method will be useful for studying the local environment of Al3+ in a range of transition metal oxide battery materials.

  4. Part-II: Exchange current density and ionic diffusivity studies on the ordered and disordered spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Belharouak, Ilias


    Additive-free pellets of Li1-xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 have been prepared for the purpose of performing ionic diffusivity and exchange current density studies. Here we report on the characterization of interfacial charge transfer kinetics and ionic diffusivity of ordered (P4332) and disordered (Fd 3 bar m) Li1-xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a function of lithium content at ambient temperature. The exchange current density at the electrode/electrolyte interface is found to be continuously increased with increasing the degree of delithiation for ordered phase (∼0.21-6.5 mA/cm2) at (x = 0.01-0.60), in contrast the disordered phase exhibits gradually decrease of exchange current density in the initial delithiation at the 4 V plateau regime (x = 0.01-0.04) and again monotonously increases (0.65-6.8 mA/cm2) with further delithiation at (x = 0.04-0.60). The ionic diffusivity of ordered and disordered phase is found to be ∼5 × 10-10cm2s-1 and ∼10-9cm2s-1, respectively, and does not vary much with the degree of delithiation. From the obtained results it appears that the chemical diffusivity during electrochemical use is limited by lithium transport, but is fast enough over the entire state-of-charge range to allow charge/discharge of micron-scale particles at practical C-rates.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was found to be antagonistic against Alternaria brassicae, Alternaria brassicicola, Alternaria dauci, Alternaria linicola, Alternaria radicinia, Ascochyta fabae, Colletotrichum lini, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium moniliforme, Macrophomina phaseolina, Pyrenophora graminea, Pyrenophora teres and Stemphylium botryosum.

  6. Tervenemine kirgastumise kaudu / Riin Kübarsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kübarsepp, Riin, 1978-


    August Künnapu kohaspetsiifiline kuraatoriprojekt "Tervenemine" Mustamäe haiglas, näituse "X mistakes Y for Z" haruprojekt. Paralleele Toomas Altnurme suviste maalide ja taivani kunstniku Michael Lini installatsiooniga "Voodi"

  7. Environ: E00446 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00446 Linum usitatissimum seed Lini semen Flaxseed Crude drug; Medicinal herb Prot...:C06426 C06427] Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Linaceae (flax family) E00446 Linum usitatissimum seed Medicinal

  8. Wpływ zwiększonej zawartości dtuutlenku węgla w powietrzu na młode rośliny pomidorów uprawianych różnymi metodami [Effect of increased CO2 level in atmosphere on young tomato plants under various culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gumińska


    Full Text Available An experiment was performed in order to establish whether an increase of CO2 content in the atmosphere is advantageous to plants grown in hydroponic culture. Tomato plants were grown in hydroponic, water and soil cultures in two chambers with different CO2 concentration. After 16 days of experiment the tenfold concentration of CO2 increased the dry mass of plants by 73 - 93% in all the cultures.

  9. Wyciszenie ekspresji genów CBP20 i CBP80 w ziemniaku a tolerancja na niedobór wody


    Pieczyński, Marcin


    Wydział Biologii: Instytut Biologii Molekularnej i Biotechnologii, Zakład Ekspresji Genów Celem prowadzonych badań było uzyskanie odpowiedzi na pytanie: czy możliwe jest podwyższenie poziomu tolerancji na okresowy niedobór wody u ziemniaka S.tuberosum w wyniku wyciszenia ekspresji genu CBP20 lub CBP80/ABH1, jak w przypadku rośliny modelowej A.thaliana? Uzyskano, a następnie scharakteryzowano rośliny ziemniaka odmiany Desiree z wyciszonym genem CBP20 lub CBP80/ABH1. Badania wykazały wol...

  10. Produktionskontrolle - 100% inline: Im Fokus - Das Experteninterview


    Carl, Daniel


    Mit Dr. Daniel Carl, Abteilungsleiter des Geschäftsfeldes Produktionskontrolle am Fraunhofer-Institut für Physikalische Messtechnik IPM in Freiburg, sprach inspect über die Anwendung moderner optischer Messtechnik in der Linie und ihre Stellung innerhalb einer sich durch die Industrie 4.0 verändernden Produktion.

  11. Ufundishaji wa Kusoma na Kuandika Kiswahili: Uzoefu wa Idara ya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makala haya yanahusu shughuli za kufundisha Kiswahili kama lugha ya kigeni katika Chuo Kikuu cha Sebha nchini Libya. Kwanza inaeleza historia ya Kiswahili – yaani kilianza lini kufundishwa kwa madhumuni gani na nani walikuwa wanzilishi. Halikadhalika makala ya naeleza utaratibu uliowekwa na idara ili kuweza ...

  12. Autonomous Mobile Systems 2012 22 Fachgespräch Stuttgart, 26 bis 28 September 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Zweigle, Oliver; Häußermann, Kai; Eckstein, Bernd


    In erster Linie werden Tagungsberichte von Fachtagungen der Gesellschaft für Informatik veröffentlicht, die regelmäßig, oft in Zusammenarbeit mit anderen wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaften, von den Fachausschüssen der Gesellschaft für Informatik veranstaltet werden. Die Auswahl der Vorträge erfolgt im allgemeinen durch international zusammengesetzte Programmkomitees. Die Tagungssprache ist Deutsch.

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bladergroen, B. Vol 60 (2007) - Articles Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly (ether ether ketone)/Phosphated Zirconia Nanoparticles Composite Proton-conducting Membranes Abstract PDF · Vol 61 (2008) - Articles Performance and Structure of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Prepared from Various Ni Precursors for ...

  14. Effect of zeatin on the infection process and expression of MAPK-4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 24, 2013 ... germination. This is also supported by Kowalska and. Niks (1999) for a resistant flax (Linum usitatissimum) genotype against Melampsora lini and by Blakeman and. Sztejnberg (1973) in beetroot (Beta vulgaris) against. Botrytis cinerea. At 3 days post inoculation (dpi), epidermal penetration was observed in ...

  15. Screening of bacterial isolates from various European soils for in vitro antagonistic activity towards Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum : Site-dependent composition and diversity revealed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adesina, Modupe F.; Lembke, Antje; Costa, Rodrigo; Speksnijder, Arien; Smalla, Kornelia


    A cultivation-based approach was used to determine the in vitro antagonistic potential of soil bacteria towards Rhizoctonia solani AG3 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini (Foln3). Four composite soil samples were collected from four agricultural sites with previous documentation of disease

  16. Kommentarer vedr. eventuelle ændringer af den tidligere risikovurdering. Zea mays (1507). Supplerende oplysninger til EFSA. Modtaget 17-12-2004, deadline 28-01-2005, svar 25-01-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune


    "DMU har modtaget og vurderet de supplerende oplysninger (brev fra Skov- og Naturstyrelsen d. 16-12-2004) til ansøgningen om tilladelse til markedsføring af genetisk modificeret majs C/ES/01/01 (linie 1507). Vi har gennemgået oplysningerne i det tilsendte materiale for at se om de giver anledning...

  17. Det spektakulære museum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thau, Carsten


    Forfatteren mener at museumsarkitekturen idag fungerer på linie med tidligere kirkebyggeri som et domæne for en artistisk overgiven dyrkelse af arkitektur som sådan. Til gengæld er det ikke indskreven i en symbolsk eller hierakisk orden. Den æstetiske gestus er næppe mindre påfaldende, men langt ...

  18. Trimethylsilylcyclopentadiene as a novel electrolyte additive for high temperature application of lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode (United States)

    Tu, Wenqiang; Ye, Changchun; Yang, Xuerui; Xing, Lidan; Liao, Youhao; Liu, Xiang; Li, Weishan


    Electrolyte additives are necessary for the application of high potential cathode in high energy density lithium ion batteries, especially at elevated temperature. However, the electrolyte additives that can effectively suppress the dissolution of transition metal ions from cathode have seldom been developed up to date. In this work, we propose a novel electrolyte additive, trimethylsilylcyclopentadiene (SE), for high temperature application of a representative high potential cathode, lithium nickel manganese oxide (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4). It is found that the dissolution of Mn and Ni from LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 can be effectively suppressed by applying SE. With applying 0.25% SE, the dissolved amount of Mn and Ni is decreased by 97.4% and 98%, respectively, after 100 cycles at 55 °C. Correspondingly, the cyclic performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is significantly improved. Physical characterizations and electrochemical measurements show that SE can be preferentially oxidized and generate a protective film on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. The resulting film inhibits the electrolyte decomposition and the transition metal ion dissolution.

  19. Screening of bacterial isolates from various European soils for in vitro antagonistic activity towards Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum: Site-dependent composition and diversity revealed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adesina, M.F.; Lembke, A.; Costa, R.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Smalla, K.


    A cultivation-based approach was used to determine the in vitro antagonistic potential of soil bacteria towards Rhizoctonia solani AG3 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini (Foln3). Four composite soil samples were collected from four agricultural sites with previous documentation of disease

  20. Dansk sekretær i DAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov


    Danmark lå noget længere nede ad listen, hvad deltagere angår - på linie med Algeriet, Venezuela og Estland! Selvom Euroanalysis kongressen og DANSAK kongressen nu holdes i henholdsvis ulige og lige år, så var det alligevel kun de tre medlemmer af Analytikergruppen fra DTU, som repræsenterede Danmark. Det...

  1. Usulan Perbaikan Line Production PT. Tiga Mitra Sentosa dengan Metode Rank Position Weight (RPW) dan Methods-Time Measurement (MTM)




    130403038 PT. Tiga Mitra Sentosa (TMS) merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak dalam pengolahan kayu menjadi produk setengah dengan jenis produksi make to order sehingga fleksibilitas daripada lini produksi sangat menentukan dalam pencapaian target permintaan atau order. Banyaknya permintaan menyebabkan tidak jarang ditemukan Bottleneck akibat perbedaan waktu penyelesaian suatu stasiun kerja terhadap suatu stasiun kerja yang lain. Adanya Bottleneck juga menyebabkan delay pada ...

  2. Pilihan Terapi pada Overactive Bladder Refrakter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinto Hariwibowo


    Full Text Available AbstrakOveractive bladder (OAB merupakan suatu kondisi yang berkaitan dengan gangguan proses berkemih. International Continence Society menetapkan OAB sebagai suatu gangguan berkemih yang terdiri dari gejala desakan, dengan atau tanpa inkontinensia, umumnya disertai dengan sering berkemih dan nokturia, tanpa suatu bukti infeksi atau proses patologis lainnya. Saat ini, terapi lini pertama OAB meliputi perubahan gaya hidup, terapi fisik dan/atau perilaku, pengaturan jadwal berkemih, hingga pemberian obat golongan antimuskarinik. Ada beberapa kasus OAB yang memiliki respon kurang baik terhadap terapi lini pertama. Pasien dengan OAB yang tidak menunjukkan respon positif setelah menjalani terapi lini pertama selama tiga bulan harus menjalani pemeriksaan urodinamik dan sistoskopi untuk mengevaluasi penyebab lain dari gejala berkemih yang dialami. Untuk kasus refrakter, harus dipertimbangkan penggunaan terapi lini kedua yang bersifat lebih invasif. Injeksi botulinum toxin intravesika, neuromodulasi sakral, dan sistoplasti merupakan pilihan terapi lini kedua bagi OAB yang refrakter terhadap terapi konservatif lini pertama. Ketiga terapi lini kedua tersebut cukup invasif, sehingga terapi alternatif seperti stimulasi N. Tibialis posterior, Mirabegron, serta kombinasi dual antimuskarinik dapat menjadi pilihan.Kata kunci: OAB refrakter, overactive bladder, botox, neuromodulasi, sistoplasti, mirabegron AbstractOveractive bladder (OAB is a condition related to voiding dysfunction. The International Continence Society defined OAB as a urinary urgency, with or without incontinence, usually with frequent voiding and nocturia, without evidence of infection or other pathological process. At the moment, the first line therapy for OAB includes lifestyle modification, physical and/or behavioral therapy, timed voiding, and antimuscarinic drugs. There are some cases of OAB that do not respond to first line therapy. Patients who do not respond positively to first line

  3. In Situ Probing and Synthetic Control of Cationic Ordering in Ni-Rich Layered Oxide Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jianqing [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA; School of Energy, College of Physics, Optoelectronics & Energy, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 P. R. China; Zhang, Wei [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA; Huq, Ashfia [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Misture, Scott T. [Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred NY 14802 USA; Zhang, Boliang [Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LA 70803 USA; Guo, Shengmin [Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LA 70803 USA; Wu, Lijun [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA; Zhu, Yimei [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Pan, Feng [School of Advanced Materials, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen Guangdong 518055 P. R. China; Bai, Jianming [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA; Wang, Feng [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA


    Ni-rich layered oxides (LiNi1-xMxO2; M = Co, Mn, ...) are appealing alternatives to conventional LiCoO2 as cathodes in Li-ion batteries for automobile and other large-scale applications due to their high theoretical capacity and low cost. However, preparing stoichiometric LiNi1-xMxO2 with ordered layer structure and high reversible capacity, has proven difficult due to cation mixing in octahedral sites. Herein, in situ studies of synthesis reactions and the associated structural ordering in preparing LiNiO2 and the Co-substituted variant, LiNi0.8Co0.2O2, are made, to gain insights into synthetic control of the structure and electrochemical properties of Ni-rich layered oxides. Results from this study indicate a direct transformation of the intermediate from the rock salt structure into hexagonal phase, and during the process, Co substitution facilities the nucleation of a Co-rich layered phase at low temperatures and subsequent growth and stabilization of solid solution Li(Ni, Co)O-2 upon further heat treatment. Optimal conditions are identified from the in situ studies and utilized to obtain stoichiometric LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 that exhibits high capacity (up to 200 mA h g(-1) ) with excellent retention. The findings shed light on designing high performance Ni-rich layered oxide cathodes through synthetic control of the structural ordering in the materials.

  4. Electrochemical and thermal studies of lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Lu, Wenquan

    The structural, electrochemical, and thermal characteristics of carbonaceous anodes and LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathode in Li-ion cells were investigated using various electrochemical and calorimetric techniques. The electrode-electrolyte interface was investigated for various carbonaceous materials such as graphite with different shapes, surface modified graphite with copper, and novel carbon material derived from sepiolite template. The structural and morphological properties were determined using XRD, TGA, SEM, BET techniques. The electrochemical characteristics were studied using conventional electrochemical techniques such as galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance (AC and DC) methods. It was observed that the electrochemical active surface area instead of the BET area plays a critical role in the irreversible capacity loss associated with the carbonaceous anodes. It was also found that the exfoliation of carbon anodes especially in PC based electrolyte could be significantly reduced by protective copper coating of the natural graphite. LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathode material was found to possess high energy density and excellent cycling characteristics. The structural and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.8Co 0.2O2 synthesized by sol-gel and solid-state methods were studied. Results of the AC impedance spectroscopy carried out on LiNi 0.8Co0.2O2 cathodes revealed that the charge transfer resistance is a function of the state of charge. The solid state Li + diffusion was calculated to be around 10-13 cm2/s in the oxide particle by Warburg impedance method. In addition, the cell fabricated with LiNi0.8Co0.2O 2 cathode showed excellent energy and power performance under static and dynamic load conditions that prevail in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. Thermal properties of the LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathode, carbonaceous anodes, and Li-ion cells fabricated with these electrodes were also investigated using isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC), differential

  5. Stable interstitial layer to alleviate fatigue fracture of high nickel cathode for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Yang, Chengkai; Shao, Ruiwen; Mi, Yingying; Shen, Lanyao; Zhao, Binglu; wang, Qian; Wu, Kai; Lui, Wen; Gao, Peng; Zhou, Henghui


    High nickel cathodes can deliver higher capacity with lower cost than conventional LiCoO2, however, the irreversible structural and morphology degradation with long-term cycling hinder their further application. In this paper, LiNi0.815Co0.15Al0.035O2 agglomerates are treated by LiNi0.333Co0.333Mn0.333O2 coating to get a stable interstitial layer without capacity loss. The interstitial layer is about 10 nm in thickness and has a layered (R-3m) structure, which can improve the chemical and mechanical stability of cathode materials with capacity retention of 88.5% after 200 cycles. The structural analysis and in-situ compression test proves that the morphology degradation is a fatigue process within long-term electrochemical reaction, and the coated sample has an excellent elastic recovery capacity thus leading to long cycle life.

  6. Frank Robert Tangherlini — the Founder of an Alternative Relativistic Kinematics (On the Occasion of His 85th Birthday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykin G. B.


    Full Text Available Already fifty years ago, Frank Robert Tangherlini, an American theoretical physicist, suggested an original procedure which, targeting the synchronization of clocks located in two different inertial reference frames of the space, was di erent from that Einstein had introduced. As a result of these, Tangherlini had deduced the so-called the Tangher- lini transformations, which are a sort of the transformations of the spatial coordinates and time being moved from one inertial reference frame into another one. The Tangher- lini transformations differ from the Lorentz transformations (which can be meant clas- sic ones in the theory of relativity and, in particular, suggest the velocity of light to be anisotropic in a moving inertial reference frame. The Tangherlini transformations be- ing applied provide adequate explanations to all well-known interference experiments checking of the Special Theory of Relativity.

  7. Skulptuur kui avaliku ruumi keskkond / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-


    Skulptuuri mõistest, keskkonnana lahendatud skulptuuridest. Daniel Libeskindi projekteeritud Holokausti tornist ja Eksiili aiast Berliini juudimuuseumis, Maya Lini (sünd. 1959) Vietnami sõja veteranide memoriaalist (1982) Washington DC-s, Joseph Beuysi aiaskulptuurist "7000 tamme" (1982-1987) Kasselis, Raoul Kurvitza "Katedraalist kodututele" (1999) Vabaduse väljakul, Andres Kure heliinstallatsioonist "Metroopol" (1999) Tallinna Liivalaia t. jalakäijate tunnelis

  8. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrochemical behaviour of LiMMn2–O4(M = Cu, Cr; 0 0 4) · R Thirunakaran B Ramesh Babu N ... Volume 37 Issue 3 May 2014 pp 705-711. Structural, electrical and electrochemical behaviours of LiNi0.4M0.1Mn1.5O4 ( = Al, Bi) as cathode material for Li-ion batteries · G P Nayaka J Manjanna K C Anjaneya P ...

  9. Stravovací režim softballového družstva na soustředění


    Kadlecová, Klára


    Title: Dietary regime of a softball team during a training camp Work objective: The aim of this work is to put together a menu corresponding with energetic and nutritional needs at a training camp for women agend 18 - 25 without specific nutritional preferences using SW FitLinie 5.82. Method: The method of indirect calorimetry was used for establishing the players'energetic needs. Average antropomotoric parameters of the softball players were put into the equation, and the reset was increased...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Laukova


    Full Text Available Púchov salami is favorite fermented salami among Slovak consumers. Nisin is the only bacteriocin accepted by European Commission for a commercial use as additive for food preservation (although not commonly used in meat products. Because of its possibility to prolonge shelf-life of the products and its antimicrobial activity, its effect in dry fermented Slovak salami Púchov experimentally inoculated with Listeria innocua Li1 strain was checked. The initial number of L. innocua Li1 in the inoculated salami mixtures was 104 CFU/g (log 10; 4.04  ± 0 07. After nisin addition, the count of Li1 strain in the meat samples (inoculated with Li1 and treated by nisin was 1.36±0.07 CFU/g; difference 2.68 logarithmic cycle was noted between Li and Li/Ni samples. At day 2, the difference 3.23 log cycle was detected between Li1 and Li/Ni samples (Li:5.46±0.08, Li/Ni: 2.14±0.07 CFU/g; at weeks 3, 4, it was 1.69 and 1.80 log cycle. Activity of nisin itself was not recovered from the experimental salamis by the analytical method; however, its inhibitory effect was shown by Li1 count decrease. The pH in  salamis during processing was almost at the same level (5.52, 5.53, 5.55. Water activity was not negatively influenced. Water content in Li/Ni salamis reached almost requested levels (maximum percentage of water requested is 34 %.doi:10.5219/218

  11. Queer – Genealogie eines problematischen Begriffs Queer—Genealogy of a troublemaking term


    Birgit Müller


    Jagoses Einführung in die Queer Theory ist in erster Linie eine Genealogie des Begriffs ‚queer‘. Über den historischen Kontext von Homophilenbewegung, Homobefreiungsbewegung und lesbischem Feminismus in den USA fragt sie nach den Entstehungsbedingungen, die Queer Theory hervorgebracht haben und zeichnet die Kontinuitäten und Brüche in der Bedeutungsgeschichte von queer nach. Sie setzt sich mit den poststrukturalistischen Wurzeln von Queer Theory auseinander und diskutiert das emanzipatorische...

  12. Queer – Genealogie eines problematischen Begriffs


    Birgit Müller


    Jagoses Einführung in die Queer Theory ist in erster Linie eine Genealogie des Begriffs ‚queer‘. Über den historischen Kontext von Homophilenbewegung, Homobefreiungsbewegung und lesbischem Feminismus in den USA fragt sie nach den Entstehungsbedingungen, die Queer Theory hervorgebracht haben und zeichnet die Kontinuitäten und Brüche in der Bedeutungsgeschichte von queer nach. Sie setzt sich mit den poststrukturalistischen Wurzeln von Queer Theory auseinander und diskutiert das emanzipatorische...

  13. Die religiösen Gemälde von Emil Nolde


    Kim, Kyong-Mi


    In 20. Jahrhundert war es in erster Linie der Expressionismus, der zu einem neuen Christusbild führte. Die expressionistischen Künstler wagten es, den biblischen Stoff machtvoll und ausdrucksvoll zu behandeln ohne auf kirchliche oder traditionelle Einschränkungen Rücksicht zu nehmen. Nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg, unter dem Eindruck des Leids und der Verzweiflung, den dieser für die Menschen gebracht hatte, waren leidenschaftliche Passionsszenen zu einer zentralen Thematik der expressionistischen...

  14. Den grønne dimension i Det Indre Marked

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou


    Udviklingen af en miljødimension i EF svækkes af traktatkravet om enstemmige beslutninger. Trods EF-Kommissionens mere aktive linie og diskussion om traktatændringer betyder det, at miljøreglerne næppe vil være klar, når Det indre Marked er en realitet i 1993. Selv om en udvidet anvendelse af mil...

  15. Finding the Shape of Space (United States)


    Analysis and Design, 694. 64 19. Musinski et al., “Nanoparticle Electric Propulsion,” 2–11; and Davide Nico- lini, “ LISA Pathfinder FEEP Subsystem” (paper...Chilton, “Commander’s Media Roundtable” (Peterson AFB, CO: AFSPC, 2006). 63 4. Diane K. Fisher, “ LISA : Opening a New Window on the Universe...presented at the Sixth International LISA Symposium, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 2006), 17. 20. Jessie Hennion and Lauren Moye

  16. Katheterablation des AV-Knotens mit Implantation frequenzadaptiver Herzschrittmachersysteme : Behandlung therapierefraktärer atrialer Tachyarrythmie : Methoden und klinische Behandlungsergebnisse


    Siemon, Gregor


    Vorhofflimmern - chronisch oder paroxysmal - stellt neben der ventrikulären Extrasystolie die häufigste Herzrhythmusstörung überhaupt dar. Trotz einer großen Auswahl potenter Antiarrhythmika findet sich jedoch immer noch ein Teil der Patienten, bei welchen eine solche Therapie klinisch unzureichend erscheint oder sich aufgrund ausgeprägter Nebenwirkungen verbietet. In erster Linie sind hier zu starke Bradykardisierung zum Beispiel bei latent vorliegendem Syndrom des kranken Sinusknot...

  17. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. J Manjanna. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 37 Issue 3 May 2014 pp 705-711. Structural, electrical and electrochemical behaviours of LiNi0.4M0.1Mn1.5O4 ( = Al, Bi) as cathode material for Li-ion batteries · G P Nayaka J Manjanna K C Anjaneya P ...

  18. Perceived security and usage of a mobile payment application


    Sieger, Hanul


    Die vorliegende Arbeit präsentiert eine umfassende experimentelle Untersuchung des subjektiven Sicherheitsempfindens der Nutzer und der Nutzungshäufigkeit einer Smartphone-basierten Mobile Payment App. Bisherige Forschungen arbeiten in erster Linie mit Umfragen, um Einstellungen zum mobilen Bezahlen bei potentiellen Nutzern zu erheben. Dabei wird nicht deutlich wie sich Nutzer mit einer realen App auseinandersetzen würden und wie diese im Vergleich zu vorhandenen Bezahlmethoden wie Bargeld un...

  19. Lithium recycling and cathode material regeneration from acid leach liquor of spent lithium-ion battery via facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes. (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; He, Yinghe


    A novel process for extracting transition metals, recovering lithium and regenerating cathode materials based on facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes has been developed. 100% manganese, 99% cobalt and 85% nickel are co-extracted and separated from lithium by D2EHPA in kerosene. Then, Li is recovered from the raffinate as Li2CO3 with the purity of 99.2% by precipitation method. Finally, organic load phase is stripped with 0.5M H2SO4, and the cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is directly regenerated from stripping liquor without separating metal individually by co-precipitation method. The regenerative cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is miro spherical morphology without any impurities, which can meet with LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 production standard of China and exhibits good electrochemical performance. Moreover, a waste battery management model is introduced to guarantee the material supply for spent battery recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Economical recycling process for spent lithium-ion batteries and macro- and micro-scale mechanistic study (United States)

    Li, Li; Bian, Yifan; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Xue, Qing; Fan, Ersha; Wu, Feng; Chen, Renjie


    An economical effective method is developed for recycling spent LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes, where more than 98% Li, Co, Ni and Mn can be leached out with different organic acids, and resynthesized to LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2. The leaching mechanism is investigated at macro- and micro-scales. The particles undergo a loosening-breaking-shrinking change for two acids, while the FTIR and UV-vis spectra indicate different coordination reactions. The performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 resynthesized from the leachate of the acetic acid leaching (NCM-Ac) and maleic acid leaching (NCM-Ma) are compared. The first discharge capacity of NCM-Ma and NCM-Ac at 0.2C are 151.6 and 115.0 mA h g-1, respectively. The much better performance of NCM-Ma than NCM-Ac results from the different coordination of the two acids in the sol-gel process, where the maleic acid can esterify to establish a stable network to chelate metal ions, while the weak chelation of acetic acid leads to the formation of impurities. The economics analysis including the cost of leaching acid and energy consumption shows that the price of organic acids and reducing agents, short leaching time, low temperature and high-valued products are the effective way to increase recycling and environmental benefits, which shows advantages in terms of resources cost and added value.

  1. Nine new species of the spider genus Pireneitega Kishida, 1955 (Agelenidae, Coelotinae) from Xinjiang, China (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Zhe; Zheng, Guo; Li, Shuqiang


    Abstract Nine new Pireneitega species collected from Xinjiang, China are described as new to science: Pireneitega burqinensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega fuyunensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega gongliuensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega huochengensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega lini sp. n. (♀), Pireneitega liui sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega wensuensis sp. n. (♂), Pireneitega wui sp. n. (♂) and Pireneitega yaoi sp. n. (♀). DNA barcodes were obtained for all these species for future use. PMID:27551187

  2. Tweaking the spin-wave dispersion and suppressing the incommensurate phase in LiNiPO4 by iron substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiying; Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius; Andersen, Niels Hessel


    Elastic and inelastic neutron-scattering studies of Li(Ni1−xFex)PO4 single crystals reveal anomalous spin-wave dispersions along the crystallographic direction parallel to the characteristic wave vector of the magnetic incommensurate phase. The anomalous spin-wave dispersion (magnetic soft mode) ......, sufficient to suppress the incommensurate phase. An energy gap in the dispersion curves gradually decreases with the increase in Fe content from ∼2 meV for the pure system (x=0) to ∼0.9 meV for x=0.2....

  3. Evolution und Kreationismus in Europa (United States)

    Graf, Dittmar; Lammers, Christoph

    Das Phänomen der Ablehnung des wissenschaftlichen Faktums der Evolution wird als Kreationismus von vielen Europäern in erster Linie jenseits des Atlantiks in den USA verortet. In der europäischen Presse wird beispielsweise immer einmal wieder über Gerichtsverhandlungen berichtet, in denen darüber gestritten wird, ob das Thema Kreationismus in seinen verschiedenen Spielarten Teil des Biologieunterrichts sein darf. In der Tat sind diese gerichtlichen Auseinandersetzungen über Schulstoff in Europa weit weniger verbreitet als in den USA, wo sie Konsequenz aus der amerikanischen Verfassung sind, nach der in öffentlichen Schulen kein Religionsunterricht erteilt werden darf.

  4. Stadig og stædigt at tro på det ufærdige som dyd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keldorff, Søren Christian


    Med udgangspunkt i den norske kriminolog, Thomas Mathiesens bog "Det ufærdige" fra 1971 angiver forfatteren sit åndelige slægtskab med Allan Christensen, der gennem sin forskning altid har efterstræbt de demokratiske løsninger på organisationsmæssige forhold. Artiklen trækker en linie fra den...... tidlige, amerikanske arbejdspsykologi - frem til aktuel forskning i psykisk arbejdsmiljøde - med vægten på at respektere initiativerne fra neden og stedse fastholde et udviklingsperspektiv....

  5. High-voltage cable systems - trends and facts; Hochspannungskabelanlagen - Trends und Fakten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poehler, S. [Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Starkstromkabel und -leitungen


    This year`s technical fairs and exhibitions showed now spectacular innovations in the field of HV cables. The products presented all used X-PE as cable insulation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf den diesjaehrigen Messen und Ausstellungen waren erwartungsgemaess keine spektakulaeren Innovationen im Bereich der HS-Kabelanlagen zu finden. Die vorgestellten Produktkonzepte stuetzten sich auf das bewaehrte vernetzte Polyethylen als Kabelisolierung. Die hohen elektrischen und dielektrischen Anforderungen im HS-Bereich und die bekannten Vorzuege von VPE als Isolierstoff sind der Grund dafuer. So finden sich auf den Praesentationen der Aussteller in erster Linie Produktanpassungen und -weiterentwicklungen von VPE-Kabeln und deren Garnituren. (orig.)

  6. Optimization of environment compatible analysis methods for mineral hydrocarbons in the soil; Optimierung umweltvertraeglicher Analysenverfahren fuer Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffe im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flachowsky, J.; Borsdorf, H. [eds.] [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Loehmannsroeben, H.G.; Roch, T. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Leopom, P. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Reimers, C. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany); Matz, G.; Kuebler, J. [MOBILAB GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Christall, B. [SOFIA GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Hahn, M.; Matschiner, H. [Elektrochemie Halle GmbH (Germany); Baermann, A. [Dr. Baermann und Partner Mikroanalytik, Hamburg (Germany)


    This paper describes several analytical methods for the quantitative chemical analysis of mineral oil hydrocarbons in soils. The measuring methods are investigated on accuracy, errors, sample preparation methods, analysis of reference materials and real materials. (SR) [Deutsch] Mit dieser Schrift praesentiert die Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt der Oeffentlichkeit Ergebnisse zu alternativen umweltvertraeglichen Bestimmungsmethoden fuer Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffe in Boeden. Es war in erster Linie das Ziel aller beteiligten Forscher und Entwickler, die heute noch in der Anwendung befindliche Vorschrift nach DIN 38409 H18 zur Analytik von Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffen durch eine sowohl umweltfreundliche als auch insgesamt aussagekraeftige Methode zu substituieren. (orig.)

  7. Reducing Carbon Footprint Direction of the Development of Aviation Fuels / Redukcja Emisji Dwutlenku Węgla Kierunkiem Rozwoju Paliw Lotniczych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Białecki Tomasz


    Full Text Available Publikacja przedstawia kierunek rozwoju paliw do silników odrzutowych, wyznaczony przez redukcję emisji dwutlenku węgla w lotnictwie. Tematyka ta jest efektem realizacji założonego przez Organizację Międzynarodowego Lotnictwa Cywilnego celu zmniejszenia o połowę emisji CO2. Dodatkowo przedstawia możliwości zastosowania drugiej generacji biopaliw w lotnictwie oraz rentowność zastosowania takiego paliwa przez linie lotnicze na skalę komercyjną

  8. On The Problem of Constructing Routes, Part I: Preface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertsbakh Ilya B.


    Full Text Available This is a preface of the translation of the 1967 paper by Linis and Maksim, “On the problem of constructing routes” (in Russian (in the Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Aviation Engineering, Issue 102, pp. 36-45. It marks 50-year to the deficit function (DF model initially developed in this 1967 work; the DF model then paved the way to further research of vehicle-fleet management in terms of optimal routing and scheduling. The merit of this translation is to describe the roots of the DF modelling to enable further studies to emerge with more contributions.

  9. Magie, Hexen und Strafverfolgung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker


    Full Text Available In der Reihe „Historische Einführungen“ des Campus Verlags versucht Johannes Dillinger, die Entwicklung von Magie- und Hexereivorstellungen vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart zu beschreiben. Die Hexenverfolgungen und -prozesse der Frühen Neuzeit und ihre Voraussetzungen nehmen dabei etwas mehr als die Hälfte der Gesamtdarstellung ein. Das Buch bietet in erster Linie eine Einführung in die neuere und neueste Sekundärliteratur und die dort besprochenen aktuellen Streitpunkte. In einem Teilabschnitt wird auch auf die Hexenverfolgung als Frauenverfolgung eingegangen und nach Ursachen für den hohen Frauenanteil unter den Verfolgten geforscht.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erry Rimawan


    Full Text Available PT. Multi Bintang Indonesia Tbk bergerak dalam bidang industri pembuatan minuman, dimana perusahaan tersebut berproduksi berdasarkan besarnya permintaan dari costumer yang merupakan kantor-kantor pemasaran yang telah tersebar berbagai daerah di Indonesia. Dalam tahap proses packaging di PT.MBI melalui dengan 3 line diantaranya racking line, canning line, bottling line. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui nilai overall equipment effectiveness (OEE dan Losses yang paling berpengaruh dari six big Losses OEE yang terfokus pada peralatan atau mesin secara keseluruhan menjadi satu kesatuan yaitu pada lini Line 2, yang kemudian akan diketahui akar penyebab losses yang terjadi dari penelitian selama dilapangan. Dari hasil perhitungan overall equipment effectiveness (OEE terdapat dua rasio yang masih kurang baik dan berada dibawah standar kelas dunia, adapun rasio tersebut yaitu avaibility sebesar 88,85% dari standar kelas dunia sebesar 90% dan performance ratio sebesar 78,51% dari standar kelas dunia sebesar 95%, sedangkan untuk quality ratio telah masuk standar kelas dunia yaitu sebesar 99,90%. Sehingga dengan demikian nilai OEE pada lini Line 2 masih berada dibawah standar kelas dunia. Pada penelitian ini hanya terdapat lima losses yang dapat diidentifikasi, dan adapun losses yang sangat berpengaruh yaitu pada Reduced Speed Losses, losses ini menyumbang nilai tingkat presentase losses terbesar yakni 19,12%, dari hasil penelitian losses ini terjadi karena adanya sistem pengawasan yang jelek (kurang baik yang menyebabkan karyawan atau operator tidak melakukan pekerjaan sesuai ketentuan yang telah ditetapkan.

  11. Improving the Performance of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Using Spinel Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Arrebola


    Full Text Available In this work, we examined the use of nanospinels to construct batttery electrodes. We chose two spinels suitable as cathode materials (LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, which are representative of 4 and 5 V versus Li metal, resp. and one providing good results as anode (Li4Ti5O12. In order to ensure good cell performance, nanometric particles must meet another requirement; thus they should contain few surface or bulk defects (i.e., they should be highly crystalline. Because the synthesis of such spinels usually requires a thermal treatment, ensuring that they will meet both requirements entails accuratly controlling in the synthesis conditions. Thermal decomposition of nanooxalate in the spinel-conaining elements obtained by mechanochenical activation in the presence of polymers provides a simple, effective route for this purpose. We prepared two types of hybrid lithium-ion batteries using LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as cathode materials, and Li4Ti5O12 as anode material. The electrochemical properties of these cells were compared with those of a similar configuration made from micrometric particles. The nano-nano configuration exhibited higher reversibility and better performance than the micro-micro configuartion in both types of cells, possibly as a result of lithium ions in the former being able to migrate more easily into the electrode material.

  12. Numerical calculation and optimisation of the Bonn municipal waste incinerator; Numerische Berechnung und Optimierung der MVA Bonn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerner, K.; Klasen, T.; Kuemmel, J.


    CFD investigations showed the positive effect of modifications of the Bonn municipal waste incinerator. A more homogeneous flow and temperature distribution in the post-combustion chamber was achieved. Calculations showed the large influence of secondary air supply on the combustion process. Measurements and simulations provided similar results. The positive results induced the operators to modify unit II as well (1998). Unit III was converted in 1999. [German] Durch die CFD-Untersuchungen konnte der positive Effekt des 'Bonner Primas' der Muellverbrennungsanlage Bonn aufgezeigt werden. Durch gezielte Veraenderung verschiedener Prozess- und Anlagenvarianten wurde der Einsatz des Prismas an einer konkreten Anlage vorbereitet und optimiert. Die damit erzielte Wirkung wird aus der Darstellung der O{sub 2}-Isoflaechen deutlich. In seiner Gesamtwirkung fuehrt das Prisma und die damit verbundene gleichmaessigere O{sub 2}- und Umsatzverteilung zu einer homogenen Anstroemung und Temperaturverteilung im gesamten Bereich der Nachbrennkammer. Die Messwerte nach Anlagenumbau bestaetigen diese Rechnungen in vollem Umfang und geben Beleg fuer die Guete des eingesetzten Modells. Die Rechnungen haben den grossen Einfluss der Sekundaerlufteinduesung auf die Verbrennung verdeutlicht. Der Unterschied zwischen den Mess- und Simulationswerten war fuer einen speziellen Anwendungsfall sehr klein. Die positiven Betriebsergebnisse, welche deutlich ueber den Erwartungen lagen (z.B. Reisezeiterhoehung von ca. 3.000 Betriebsstunden vor dem Umbau auf ueber 9.000 Betriebsstunden nach dem Umbau) veranlassten die Betriebsleitung der MVA Bonn, 1998 auch die Linie II umzuruesten. Die Umruestung der Linie III erfolgt noch im Sommer 1999. (orig./AKF)

  13. Intragranular cracking as a critical barrier for high-voltage usage of layer-structured cathode for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Chong-Min


    LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2-layered cathode is often fabricated in the form of secondary particles, consisting of densely packed primary particles. This offers advantages for high energy density and alleviation of cathode side reactions/corrosions, but introduces drawbacks such as intergranular cracking. Here, we report unexpected observations on the nucleation and growth of intragranular cracks in a commercial LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode by using advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy. We find the formation of the intragranular cracks is directly associated with high-voltage cycling, an electrochemically driven and diffusion-controlled process. The intragranular cracks are noticed to be characteristically initiated from the grain interior, a consequence of a dislocation-based crack incubation mechanism. This observation is in sharp contrast with general theoretical models, predicting the initiation of intragranular cracks from grain boundaries or particle surfaces. Our study emphasizes that maintaining structural stability is the key step towards high-voltage operation of layered-cathode materials.

  14. Low-cost waste incineration and recycling from the operator`s point of view; Kostenguenstige thermische Abfallverwertung und Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz aus Betreibersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgorf, J. [Saarberg-Oekotechnic GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)


    The 1996 Act on Recycling and Waste Management specified that waste production should be reduced first of all, and that waste still produced should be recycled or used for power generation. Dumping and `classic` incineration are permissible only if it is the more acceptable solution from an environmental point of view. There are two categories of thermal treatment: Thermal treatment of `waste for dumping`, and use of the energy content of `waste for utilisation`. The contribution analyzes the effects of the law on future waste management concepts in consideration of the current situation of thermal treatment of residual waste. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das im Oktober 1996 in Kraft getretene Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz (KrW-/AbfG) schreibt in den Grundsaetzen der Kreislaufwirtschaft fest, dass Abfaelle in erster Linie zu vermeiden und in zweiter Linie stofflich oder energetisch zu verwerten sind. Die Beseitigung von Abfaellen - und darunter faellt auch die `klassische` Muellverbrennung - ist nur dann zugelassen, wenn sie gegenueber der Verwertung die umweltvertraeglichere Loesung darstellt. Fuer die thermische Behandlung von Abfaellen denfiniert das KrW-/AbfG deshalb zwei Wege mit unterschiedlichen Ansaetzen: Zum einen die thermische Behandlung von `Abfaellen zur Beseitigung`, wie sie bisher in vielen Anlagen zur Muellverbrennung realisiert worden ist und zum anderen die energetische Nutzung von `Abfaellen zur Verwertung`. Der vorliegende Beitrag soll die Auswirkung dieser Vorgabe auf zukuenftige Abfallwirtschaftskonzepte unter Beruecksichtigung der derzeitigen Situation der thermischen Restabfallbehandlung darstellen. (orig.)

  15. Determination of the mechanism and extent of surface degradation in Ni-based cathode materials after repeated electrochemical cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyeon Hwang


    Full Text Available We take advantage of scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy to investigate the changes in near-surface electronic structure and quantify the degree of local degradation of Ni-based cathode materials with the layered structure (LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 and LiNi0.4Mn0.3Co0.3O2 after 20 cycles of delithiation and lithiation. Reduction of transition metals occurs in the near-surface region of cathode materials: Mn is the major element to be reduced in the case of relatively Mn-rich composition, while reduction of Ni ions is dominant in Ni-rich materials. The valences of Ni and Mn ions are complementary, i.e., when one is reduced, the other is oxidized in order to maintain charge neutrality. The depth of degradation zone is found to be much deeper in Ni-rich materials. This comparative analysis provides important insights needed for the devising of new cathode materials with high capacity as well as long lifetime.

  16. Synthesis of hierarchical mesoporous lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide spheres with high rate capability for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Tong, Wei; Huang, Yudai; Cai, Yanjun; Guo, Yong; Wang, Xingchao; Jia, Dianzeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Pang, Weikong; Guo, Zaiping; Zong, Jun


    Hierarchical mesoporous LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 spheres have been synthesized by urea-assisted solvothermal method with adding Triton X-100. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared materials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and electron microscope. The results show that the as-prepared samples can be indexed as hexagonal layered structure with hierarchical architecture, and the possible formation mechanism is speculated. When evaluated as cathode material, the hierarchical mesoporous LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 spheres show good electrochemical properties with high initial discharge capacity of 129.9 mAh g-1, and remain the discharge capacity of 95.5 mAh g-1 after 160 cycles at 10C. The excellent electrochemical performance of the as-prepared sample can be attributed to its stable hierarchical mesoporous framework in conjunction with large specific surface, low cation mixing and small particle size. They not only provide a large number of reaction sites for surface or interface reaction, but also shorten the diffusion length of Li+ ions. Meanwhile, the mesoporous spheres composed of nanoparticles can contribute to high rate ability and buffer volume changes during charge/discharge process.

  17. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Conry, Thomas; Wilcox, James


    Recent work in our laboratory has been directed towards development of mixed layered transition metal oxides with general composition Li[Ni, Co, M, Mn]O2 (M=Al, Ti) for Li ion battery cathodes. Compounds such as Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 (often called NMCs) are currently being commercialized for use in consumer electronic batteries, but the high cobalt content makes them too expensive for vehicular applications such as electric vehicles (EV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). To reduce materials costs, we have explored partial or full substitution of Co with Al, Ti, and Fe. Fe substitution generally decreases capacity and results in poorer rate and cycling behavior. Interestingly, low levels of substitution with Al or Ti improve aspects of performance with minimal impact on energy densities, for some formulations. High levels of Al substitution compromise specific capacity, however, so further improvements require that the Ni and Mn content be increased and Co correspondingly decreased. Low levels of Al or Ti substitution can then be used offset negative effects induced by the higher Ni content. The structural and electrochemical characterization of substituted NMCs is presented in this paper.

  18. From Coating to Dopant: How the Transition Metal Composition Affects Alumina Coatings on Ni-Rich Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Binghong [Chemical; Key, Baris [Chemical; Lapidus, Saul H. [Chemical; Garcia, Juan C. [Chemical; Iddir, Hakim [Chemical; Vaughey, John T. [Chemical; Dogan, Fulya [Chemical


    Surface alumina coatings have been shown to be an effective way to improve the stability and cyclability of cathode materials. However, a detailed understanding of the relationship between the surface coatings and the bulk layered oxides is needed to better define the critical cathode–electrolyte interface. In this paper, we systematically studied the effect of the composition of Ni-rich LiNixMnyCo1–x–yO2 (NMC) on the surface alumina coatings. Changing cathode composition from LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC532) to LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC622) and LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811) was found to facilitate the diffusion of surface alumina into the bulk after high-temperature annealing. By use of a variety of spectroscopic techniques, Al was seen to have a high bulk compatibility with higher Ni/Co content, and low bulk compatibility was associated with Mn in the transition metal layer. It was also noted that the cathode composition affected the observed morphology and surface chemistry of the coated material, which has an effect on electrochemical cycling. The presence of a high surface Li concentration and strong alumina diffusion into the bulk led to a smoother surface coating on NMC811 with no excess alumina aggregated on the surface. Structural characterization of pristine NMC particles also suggests surface Co segregation, which may act to mediate the diffusion of the Al from the surface to the bulk. The diffusion of Al into the bulk was found to be detrimental to the protection function of surface coatings leading to poor overall cyclability, indicating the importance of compatibility between surface coatings and bulk oxides on the electrochemical performance of coated cathode materials. These results are important in developing a better coating method for synthesis of next-generation cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Synthesis of high-density nickel cobalt aluminum hydroxide by continuous coprecipitation method. (United States)

    Kim, Yongseon; Kim, Doyu


    Spherical nickel cobalt aluminum hydroxide (Ni(0.80)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)-hydroxide, NCA) was prepared by a continuous coprecipitation method. A new design of the Al solution and the feeding method was applied, which enabled to prevent rapid precipitation of Al(OH)(3) and to obtain spherical NCA with large enough particle size and high density. The active material (LiNi(0.80)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)O(2) or LNCA) prepared from it showed higher tap-density than that made from NCA prepared by general processes, and homogeneity of Al-distribution was also improved. It is expected that the electrode density of lithium ion batteries adopting LNCA could be improved with the new process proposed in this study.

  20. Sergio Benvenuto: Perversionen. Sexualität, Ethik und Psychoanalyse. Wien u.a.: Verlag Turia + Kant 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Müller


    Full Text Available Sergio Benvenuto entkoppelt die beiden Bereiche Moral und Perversion – um stattdessen ein basales Verhältnis von Ethik und Perversion zu skizzieren. Dieses diskutiert er zum einen im Rückgriff auf die freudsche Psychoanalyse. Zum anderen greift der Autor auf sozial- und moralphilosophische Erwägungen zurück. In erster Linie erweist sich der Kantische Imperativ als wegweisend für die letztlich favorisierte soziale Verhältnisbestimmung von Moral, Sexualität und Perversion.  Sergio Benvenuto decouples the fields of morals and perversions – in order to sketch a fundamental relationship between ethics and perversions instead. On the one hand, he discusses this with the aid of Freudian psychoanalysis. On the other hand, the author relies on social, moral, and philosophical deliberations. The Kantian imperative reveals itself to be most decisive for the social correlation between morals, sexuality, and perversions, which is here ultimately favored.

  1. Understanding Mn-Based Intercalation Cathodes from Thermodynamics and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Xie


    Full Text Available A series of Mn-based intercalation compounds have been applied as the cathode materials of Li-ion batteries, such as LiMn2O4, LiNi1−x−yCoxMnyO2, etc. With open structures, intercalation compounds exhibit a wide variety of thermodynamic and kinetic properties depending on their crystal structures, host chemistries, etc. Understanding these materials from thermodynamic and kinetic points of view can facilitate the exploration of cathodes with better electrochemical performances. This article reviews the current available thermodynamic and kinetic knowledge on Mn-based intercalation compounds, including the thermal stability, structural intrinsic features, involved redox couples, phase transformations as well as the electrical and ionic conductivity.

  2. Sorb Tech - ein neuer Konstruktionswerkstoff für den Holzbearbeitungsmaschinenbau (United States)

    Gringel, Martin

    Innovationen im Maschinenbau und insbesondere bei Holzbearbeitungsmaschinen werden in erster Linie durch neue Produkte unserer Kunden, neue Herstellungsund Bearbeitungsverfahren sowie neue hochproduktive Maschinenkonzepte vorangetrieben. Beste Beispiele hierfür sind Leichtbaukonstruktionen bei Möbeln, das Laserfügen bei Kantenanleimmaschinen, Technologien zur Oberflächengestaltung von Möbelteilen sowie die Entwicklung von Automatisierungslösungen für die gesamte Möbelproduktion. Neben diesen Highlights stellt sich im Konstruktionsalltag einer Entwicklungsabteilung immer wieder die Frage, welcher Konstruktionswerkstoff ist für welche Aufgabenstellung bei einer Maschinen-Neuentwicklung die optimale Wahl? Die Funktion des Bauteiles einer Maschine ist hierbei meist hinreichend bekannt, ebenso die für dessen Auslegung relevanten Belastungen.

  3. Haptische Modellierung und Deformation einer Kugelzelle (United States)

    Schippritt, Darius; Wiemann, Martin; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd

    Haptische Simulationsmodelle dienen in der Medizin in erster Linie dem Training operativer Eingriffe. Sie basieren zumeist auf physikalischen Gewebemodellen, welche eine sehr genaue Simulation der biomechanischen Eigenschaften des betreffenden Gewebes erlauben, aber gleichzeitig sehr rechenintensiv und damit zeitaufwändig in der Ausführung sind. Die menschliche Wahrnehmung kann allerdings auch eine ungenaue haptische Modellierung psychooptisch ausgleichen. Daher kann es sinnvoll sein, haptische Simulationen auch mit nicht vollständig physikalisch definierten Deformationsmodellen durchzuführen. Am Beispiel der haptischer Simulation einer in-vitro Fertilisation wird gezeigt, dass durch die Anwendung eines geometrischen Deformationsmodells eine künstliche Befruchtung unter realistischen experimentellen Bedingungen in Echtzeit haptisch simuliert und damit trainiert werden kann.

  4. apport alimentaire chez des patients attients la sclérose en plaque dans la region de Tlemcen


    haddaoui, hadjer


    La sclérose en plaques (SEP) est une maladie inflammatoire et démyélinisant du système nerveux central (SNC). L'apparition de plaques démyélinisées dans le SNC est associée à un infiltrat inflammatoire principalement composé de macrophages et de lymphocytes T (LT). L'objectif de notre étude est d'évaluer l'apport alimentaire chez une population atteinte de Sclérose en plaque dans la wilaya de Tlemcen, et d'essayer de déterminer la relation entre l'apport alimentaire de fer, vit...

  5. Lithium diffusion in a new cathode material Li0.8[Ni0.6Sb0.4]O2 studied by 7Li NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikhov T., Klysheva E., Zvereva E., Nalbandyan V., Shukaev I., Medvedev B., Vavilova E.


    Full Text Available A rhombohedral layered α-NaFeO2-type compound, Lix[Ni(1+x/3Sb(2-x/3]O2 (x=0.8 has been prepared from the sodium analogue by ion exchange at 570 K. In contrast to the stoichiometric composition Li3Ni2SbO6, it shows considerable Li/Ni inversion and no long-range Ni/Sb ordering. The temperature dependence of the 7Li NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate and linewidth data measured at temperature range from 30-450 K show the sharp increase of lithium ions mobility comparing to the stoichiometric compound Li3Ni2SbO6. From the NMR data the activation energy was estimated by different methods.

  6. Le Vanuatu côté océan : La révolution bleue et les premières années de l’indépendance


    David, Gilbert


    Les premières années du gouvernement de Walter Lini ont été marquées par une forte volonté de développer l’exploitation des ressources halieutiques du pays pour renforcer la sécurité alimentaire du pays, réduire sa dépendance économique vis-à-vis de l’extérieur et diversifier l’économie monétaire dans les îles en mettant en exploitation un nouvel espace économique, à l’aide d’une technologie nouvelle, offrant des rendements sans commune mesure avec les pratiques halieutiques traditionnelles. ...

  7. "Elementa Pverilis Institutionis" (Kraków 1692) – przyczynek do historii elementarzy polskich


    Margarita A Korzo


    Artykuł zawiera opis unikatowego polsko-łacińskiego podręcznika elementarnego Elementa Pverilis Institutionis (Kraków: Albrecht Górecki, 1692) ze zbiorów Rosyjskiego Państwowego Archiwum Akt Dawnych w Moskwie. Wydanie z 1692 roku zapoczątkowało linię elementarzy, która przetrwała do XX stulecia (ok. 44 edycji). Dwujęzyczność wszystkich wydań, lakoniczność części elementarzo wej i rozbudowana część zawierająca teksty o treści religijnej stanowią cechy specyficzne dan...

  8. „Geschichte des Mitmachens“ oder Opferdiskurs. Frauen als Autorinnen von Kriegsliteratur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Gehrig


    Full Text Available Cordula Mahr ermöglicht mit ihrer Untersuchung von 70 Autobiographien deutscher Frauen einen Blick auf die „Heimatfront“, ein Blick, der bisher in einer vornehmlich männlich besetzten Kriegsliteratur, die Krieg in erster Linie als Fronterlebnis definiert, vernachlässigt wurde. Die Autorin konzentriert sich auf die Passagen der Autobiographien, die sich direkt auf den Zweiten Weltkrieg beziehen, und berücksichtigt ausschließlich nach 1960 erschienene Texte. In den Darstellungen überwiegt in Bezug auf den Krieg und den Nationalsozialismus das Selbstverständnis als Geschädigte und Leidtragende. Nur sieben Frauen schreiben in ihren Autobiographien auch ihre „Geschichte des Mitmachens”. Mahrs Untersuchung gibt gerade durch diese Auffälligkeit Anlass, auch über formale Strukturmerkmale der Autobiographie nachzudenken, z. B. darüber, ob diese eventuell eine Selbstdarstellung als Opfer begünstigen.

  9. Analysis of Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. QTF5 Reveals Its Benzoic Acid Degradation Ability and Heavy Metal Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li


    Full Text Available Pseudomonas sp. QTF5 was isolated from the continuous permafrost near the bitumen layers in the Qiangtang basin of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China (5,111 m above sea level. It is psychrotolerant and highly and widely tolerant to heavy metals and has the ability to metabolize benzoic acid and salicylic acid. To gain insight into the genetic basis for its adaptation, we performed whole genome sequencing and analyzed the resistant genes and metabolic pathways. Based on 120 published and annotated genomes representing 31 species in the genus Pseudomonas, in silico genomic DNA-DNA hybridization (<54% and average nucleotide identity calculation (<94% revealed that QTF5 is closest to Pseudomonas lini and should be classified into a novel species. This study provides the genetic basis to identify the genes linked to its specific mechanisms for adaptation to extreme environment and application of this microorganism in environmental conservation.

  10. Rezension zu: Tim Rohrmann: Zwei Welten? Geschlechtertrennung in der Kindheit. Opladen u.a.: Budrich UniPress 2008 — Franz-Michael Konrad, Klaudia Schultheis: Kindheit. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer Verlag 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rendtorff


    Full Text Available Rohrmann legt im ersten Teil seines Buches eine sehr breite Literaturstudie zu geschlechtstypischen Themen, vor allem für den Elementarbereich, vor und entwickelt am Ende Perspektiven für Forschung und pädagogisches Handeln. Ihn interessiert dabei in erster Linie die Frage, ob die Professionellen die geschlechtliche Zusammensetzung von Kindergruppen steuern sollen und wie sie mit der bei Kindern verbreiteten Tendenz zur Bildung geschlechtergetrennter Gruppen umzugehen haben. Das Buch von Konrad/Schultheis dagegen ist eine „allgemeine pädagogische Einführung“ in die Kindheit, die erst im letzten Kapitel von der Tatsache der Geschlechtlichkeit von Kindern überrascht wird.

  11. Physikdidaktik Theorie und Praxis

    CERN Document Server

    Girwidz, Raimund; Häußler, Peter


    „Physikdidaktik – Theorie und Praxis“ ist ein Sammelband, der dynamisch gewachsen ist. Der Teil I wurde im Jahre 2000 in erster Linie für Studierende des Lehramts Physik konzipiert. Der Teil II zeigt Konkretisierungen und im Unterricht erprobte Beispiele zu neueren didaktischen und methodischen Ansätzen, die aus der Pädagogik und der allgemeinen Didaktik für die Physikdidaktik aufbereitet wurden. Die Physikdidaktik befasst sich natürlich auch mit der Frage, welche Elemente aus der modernen Physik in den Unterricht eingehen können und sollen. Vor der Aufbereitung der Inhalte für den Unterricht, mit Vereinfachungen und angemessenen didaktischen Reduktionen, steht die Sachanalyse und die Zusammenfassung von interessanten Themen aus aktuellen experimentellen und theoretischen Arbeitsgebieten der Physik (Teil III). In der vorliegenden 3. Ausgabe eines Gesamtbandes „Physikdidaktik – Theorie und Praxis“ wurden Astrophysik, Elementar­teilchenphysik und Biophysik als interessante Beispiele aus ...

  12. Precision and endurance. Robots weld Mercedes CLK front end; Praezise Dauerlaeufer. Roboter schweissen Vorbau des Mercedes CLK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmbold, J.


    High repeatability and continuous availability are what automotive supplier Laepple requires most of all from its welding robots. Laepple's fast-paced environment - with three-shift operation and 'just in time' contracts - demands precise welding processes and extraordinary staying power. Operational readiness is further enhanced by the PC-based KUKA robot controller, which provides significant time savings when making program changes or correcting malfunctions. (orig.) [German] Der Automobilzulieferer Laepple verlangt von einem Schweissroboter in erster Linie eine hohe Widerholgenauigkeit und eine permanente Verfuegbarkeit. Vor dem Hintergrund eines Szenarios mit Drei-Schicht-Betrieb und 'Just-in-Time'-Vertraegen sind daher exakte Schweissprozesse und ein ausgepraegtes Stehvermoegen gefragt. Als vorteilhaft in Bezug auf die Einsatzbereitschaft erweist sich deshalb auch die PC-basierte KUKA Roboter-Steuerung, die bei Programmumstellungen und beim Beseitigen von Stoerungen einen merklichen Zeitgewinn garantiert. (orig.)

  13. Quantitative Microstructure Characterization of a NMC Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usseglio-Viretta, François Laurent Emilien; Smith, Kandler


    Performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is strongly influenced by the porous microstructure of their electrodes. In this work, 3D microstructures of calendared and un-calendared positive electrode LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) have been investigated in order to extract relevant properties useful for battery modeling. Transport (volume fraction, connectivity, particle size and tortuosity) and electrochemical (specific surface area) properties have been calculated for the pore and the active material. Special attention has been paid to determine the size of the so-called representative volume element (RVE) required to be statistically representative of the heterogeneous medium. Several parameters have been calculated using a panel of different numerical methods in order to compare their results. Besides, the image level of detail has been evaluated (using original criteria based upon edge detection) to assess the overall data quality available for the study.

  14. Acrylonitrile-grafted poly(vinyl alcohol) copolymer as effective binder for high-voltage spinel positive electrode (United States)

    Tanaka, Shinichi; Narutomi, Takuya; Suzuki, Shigeru; Nakao, Aiko; Oji, Hiroshi; Yabuuchi, Naoaki


    Acrylonitrile-grafted poly(vinyl alcohol) copolymer with a branched structure is synthesized and used as binder for a LiNi1/2Mn3/2O4 composite electrode. Electrode performances of composite electrodes with different binders are compared in Li cells at 50 °C. The branched copolymer has better coatability to active materials in comparison to a simple mixture of linear polymers and conventional PVdF as evidenced by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cyclability is effectively improved by using the branched copolymer at elevated temperatures because of high chemical stability of the coated polymer layer and formation of a protective layer on cycles. Moreover, excellent rate-capability is realized by applying the branched copolymer with high adhesive strength, and the composite electrode delivers 70 mAh g-1 of discharge capacity at a rate of 1280 mA g-1.

  15. Quantitative Microstructure Characterization of a NMC Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usseglio Viretta, Francois L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is strongly influenced by the porous microstructure of their electrodes. In this work, 3D microstructures of calendared and un-calendared positive electrode LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) have been investigated in order to extract relevant properties useful for battery modeling. Transport (volume fraction, connectivity, particle size and tortuosity) and electrochemical (specific surface area) properties have been calculated for the pore and the active material. Special attention has been paid to determine the size of the so-called representative volume element (RVE) required to be statistically representative of the heterogeneous medium. Several parameters have been calculated using a panel of different numerical methods in order to compare their results. Besides, the image level of detail has been evaluated (using original criteria based upon edge detection) to assess the overall data quality available for the study.

  16. Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology – High Voltage Electrolyte - REVISED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunstrom, Joseph [Daikin America, Inc., Orangeburg, NY (United States); Hendershot, Ron E. [Daikin America, Inc., Orangeburg, NY (United States)


    An evaluation of high voltage electrolytes which contain fluorochemicals as solvents/additive has been completed with the objective of formulating a safe, stable electrolyte capable of operation to 4.6 V. Stable cycle performance has been demonstrated in LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC111)/graphite cells to 4.5 V. The ability to operate at high voltage results in significant energy density gain (>30%) which would manifest as longer battery life resulting in higher range for electric vehicles. Alternatively, a higher energy density battery can be made smaller without sacrificing existing energy. In addition, the fluorinated electrolytes examined showed better safety performance when tested in abuse conditions. The results are promising for future advanced battery development for vehicles as well as other applications.

  17. The first Late Triassic Chinese triadophlebiomorphan (Insecta: Odonatoptera): biogeographic implications. (United States)

    Zheng, Daran; Nel, André; Wang, He; Wang, Bo; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Chang, Su-Chin; Zhang, Haichun


    The clade Triadophlebiomorpha represents a morphological 'link' between the Paleozoic griffenflies (Meganisoptera) and the modern taxa. Nevertheless they are relatively poorly known in the body structures and paleobiogeography. The Triassic dragonfly is extremely rare in China with only one previously recorded. A new family, Sinotriadophlebiidae Zheng, Nel et Zhang fam. nov., for the genus and species Sinotriadophlebia lini Zheng, Nel et Zhang gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Upper Triassic Baijiantan Formation of Xinjiang, northwestern China. It is the second Chinese Triassic odonatopteran and the second largest Mesozoic representative of this superorder in China. The discovery provides new information for the clade Triadophlebiomorpha during the Late Triassic and expands its distribution and diversity in Asia. The find reflects a close relationship between the two Triassic entomofaunas from Kyrgyzstan and the Junggar Basin, and provides a Carnian age constraint on the lowermost part of the Baijiantan Formation.

  18. Ahrenkiels påstand under lavmålet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole John


    Opinion: Ahrenkiels påstand under lavmålet   Af Ole John Nielsen, professor, Kemisk Institut, Københavns Universitet,  fredag 04. jan 2008 kl. 00:45 At Steen Ahrenkiel vil påstå at IPCC ikke kender til Milankovic cykler er under lavmålet. Anden linie i introduktionen i Summary for Policymakers i...... den seneste IPCC rapport omtaler "natural drivers of climate change". Jeg mener, at et blad som Ingeniøren burde kunne fortælle indsenderen af et sådant læserbrev, at han er helt ude på Herrens mark og burde læse indledningen til IPCC's rapport, før han udtaler sig offentligt....

  19. Electrosmog prevention in office buildings. Frequency modulators prevent electrosmog; Raumentstoerung in Buerogebaeuden. Mit Frequenzmodulatoren gegen Elektrosmog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W. [Technische Gebaeudeausruestung, Muenchen (Germany)


    Experts agree that electrosmog is caused by radiocommunication, electronic and electric equipment at the place of work and call for minimisation of radiation. IPR Stuttgart, a subsidiary of Drees and Sommer, Stuttgart, reduces electrosmog in office buildings with the aid of frequency modulators. [German] Noch vor wenigen Jahren galt die Klimaanlage gemeinhin als Hauptverursacher von Muedigkeit, Kopfschmerzen und Konzentrationsschwaeche. Mit dem Trend zu Kuehldecken, Quell-Lueftung, Bauteiltemperierung und Oeko-Klimaanlagen hat die Akzeptanz raumlufttechnischer Anlagen spuerbar zugenommen. Viele buerotypischen Beschwerden sind allerdings geblieben. Experten sind sich darueber einig, dass dafuer in erster Linie Elektrosmog durch Mobilfunk, elektronische Geraete und Elektrosysteme verantwortlich sind und fordern eine Minimierung der Strahlenbelastung am Arbeitsplatz. Das Institut fuer physikalische Raumentstoerung (IPR), eine Tochtergesellschaft des Projektentwicklers Drees and Sommer, Stuttgart, hat sich jetzt zur Aufgabe gemacht, Gebaeude und deren technische Ausstattung mit Hilfe von Frequenzmodulatoren physikalischen zu entstoeren. (orig.)

  20. A step toward production of smaller diameter single wall carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lemos


    Full Text Available Single-wall carbon nanotubes were produced with, either, a bimetallic or a mixture of three catalysts. Raman scattering and high resolution transmission electron microscopy were used as characterization tools. The mixture LiNi0.5Co0.5O2 leaded to a sample relatively free from impurities with long bundles, each containing a few tubes. A narrow distribution of diameters for the sample produced with this mixture was evidenced by Raman scattering experiences. The mean tube diameter was found to be smaller than those measured for the nanotubes obtained with the bimetallic catalysts, Fe/Ni and Ni/Co. Possible chiralities were calculated for the semiconductor nanotubes formed. Assignments of the Raman radial breathing mode frequencies to the calculated structures are presented.

  1. Studies of the decomposition of fibre components in the biogas process by means of in-sacco-batch metho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Demmig


    Full Text Available Die in Biogasanlagen eingesetzten Substrate werden in erster Linie anhand ihres Biogas­potenzials charakterisiert. In der Tierernährung ist die In-Sacco-Methode eine anerkannte Methode, die zur Ermittlung der Verdaulichkeit verschiedener Futtermittelbestandteile dient. Die Verdaulichkeit und die Geschwindigkeit des Abbaus der Pflanzeninhaltsstoffe und Gerüstsubstanzen im anaeroben Abbauprozess in Biogasanlagen sind wichtige Parameter, die mit den gängigen Methoden zur Biogaspotenzialbestimmung nicht untersucht werden können. Für die Prozessoptimierung spielt diese Kenntnis allerdings eine wichtige Rolle. Deswegen wurde die In-Sacco-Methode für den Einsatz in den für die Biogaspotenzialbestimmung genutzten Systemen adaptiert und weiterentwickelt. Mithilfe dieser Methode kann die Wirkung verschiedener Prozesshilfsstoffe untersucht werden, die in Biogasanlagen eingesetzt werden. Des Weiteren ist mit dieser Methode die Untersuchung des Ausnutzungsgrades der eingesetzten Substrate möglich.

  2. Sexuelle Gewalt in Besatzungsalltag und Vernichtungskrieg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Schneider


    Full Text Available Als Grundlage für ihre Analyse des Umgangs der Wehrmacht mit sexueller Gewalt im Zweiten Weltkrieg dienen Birgit Beck die Akten militärgerichtlicher Verfahren. Das Thema wird von der Autorin in die Geschichte der sexuellen Gewalt in Kriegen von der Frühen Neuzeit bis zur Gegenwart eingeordnet. Ziel ist die Überprüfung geschichts- und sozialwissenschaftlicher Annahmen über die Ursachen sexueller Gewalt im Krieg am konkreten historischen Beispiel. Die Gründe für die militärgerichtliche Verfolgung sexueller Gewalt – die nur einen Bruchteil der Verfahren insgesamt darstellt – sieht Beck in erster Linie in übergeordneten militärischen Verhaltensvorgaben, dem Männerbild der Wehrmacht und dem Schutz der deutschen „Volksgemeinschaft“ begründet; für einen systematischen Einsatz sexueller Gewalt durch die Wehrmacht bieten die untersuchten Verfahren keine ausreichenden Belege.

  3. Corrosion of stainless steel battery components by bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide based ionic liquid electrolytes (United States)

    Evans, Tyler; Olson, Jarred; Bhat, Vinay; Lee, Se-Hee


    While the anodic behavior of aluminum foil current collectors in imide-based room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) is relatively well understood, interactions between such RTILs and other passive battery components have not been studied extensively. This study presents the solvent and potential dependent oxidation of SS316 coin-cell components in the N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR13FSI) RTIL. While this phenomenon prohibits high-voltage cycling of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathodes in SS316 coin-type cells, Al-clad cell components or alternative cell configurations can be utilized to avoid SS316 oxidation-induced cell failure.

  4. Iz novõh stihhov / Jaan Kaplinski ; per. Svetlan Semenenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaplinski, Jaan, 1941-


    J. Kaplinski elu- ja loomeloost lk. 2-12. Sisu: "Rasskazõval studentam o natshale gretsheskoi kulturõ..." ; "Net boga..." ; "Mezhdu dvumja porõvami vetra..." ; "Na ulitse Vallikraavi odinoki muravei tashtshil..." ; "Tshto v stihhah glavnoje? - ne soderzhanje, ne forma..." ; "Otnosja na pomoiku slantsevuju zolu i banki..." ; "Stihhi kak zelen - vesnoi ona rozhdajetsja..." ; "Vizhu tvoju reshitelnost: prevrashtshajesh svoju zhizn..." ; "Lini, kazhetsja, ne sushtshestvujet, jest tolko totshki..." ; "Natshal stirat rubashku sõna. Nashol v karmane bumazhku..." ; "Vspomnit, podumat o sginuvshem dne..." ; "Smert ne prihhodit izvne. Smert vnutri..." ; "Ja ne pishu stihhov o lete, ob osseni..." ; "Stihhi zhivut na zemle uzhe s eotsena. Ih predki zhili..." ; "Vneshnim vidom idealõ napominajut krolikov ili beshvostnõh..."

  5. Spatial dynamics of the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus, L. in the Paklenica National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I.V. Klobucar


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyse the spatial dynamics of a noble crayfish population inhabiting the Velika Paklenica Stream (Paklenica National Park, Croatia. The study was conducted in July 2000, and between March and September 2002. Crayfish were trapped by baited LiNi traps and hand-made traps at two localities over 25 nights. We recorded the precise position of the captured crayfish, their sex, and total length. Crayfish were individually marked and then released back into the stream at the same spot where they were caught. Spatial analyses included determination of movement direction, distribution type, home range, total distance travelled, and mean daily movement. A mean home range of approximately 19 m was calculated. No difference in home range between the sexes was found. There was a large individual variation in the extent of movement without any effect of sex or size.

  6. A novel separator material consisting of ZeoliticImidazolate Framework-4 (ZIF-4) and its electrochemical performance for lithium-ions battery (United States)

    Dai, Meng; Shen, Jianxing; Zhang, Jiayan; Li, Guangda


    A novel film based on zeoliticimidazolate framework-4 (ZIF-4) as a separator is prepared by hydrothermal method and a stable electrode-supported separator is synthesized by blade-coating technology. The ZIF-4 separator with the thicknesses of about 60 μm is coated on Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 electrode with a slurry of ZIF-4, PVDF and amount of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). It is found that the ZIF-4 separator has good thermal stability and cycle performance than conventional polypropylene (PP) separator. And it has larger liquid electrolyte uptake, higher retention, higher ionic conductivity and lower interfacial resistance. The C-rate performance of ZIF-4 separator is superior than PP separator, and it enhances the safety of lithium-ions battery. Therefore, the ZIF-4 separator is a promising material to improve stability and safety of lithium-ions battery.

  7. Solar radiation transfer in the inhomogeneous atmosphere; Solarer Strahlungstransport in der inhomogenen Atmosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheirer, R.


    fuehren. Zur Untersuchung dieser Fehler wurde ein Monte Carlo Strahlungstransportmodell entwickelt. Die hier untersuchten Wolkenfelder entstammen dem nichthydrostatischen dreidimensionalen Atmosphaerenmodell GESIMA. Absorptions- und Streueigenschaften der Wolkenpartikel werden nach der Mie-Theorie fuer sphaerische Wolkenwassertropfen oder mittels Ray-Tracing fuer nichtsphaerische Teilchen (Regentropfen, Eis und Schnee) berechnet. 'Linie fuer Linie' Berechnungen liefern die Absorptionseigenschaften der Gase. (orig.)

  8. On the LiCo{sub 2/3}Ni{sub 1/6}Mn{sub 1/6}O{sub 2} positive electrode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Abdelfattah [ECME, FST Marrakech, University Cadi Ayyad, BP549, Av. A. Khattabi, Marrakech (Morocco); Saadoune, Ismael, E-mail: saadoune1@yahoo.f [ECME, FST Marrakech, University Cadi Ayyad, BP549, Av. A. Khattabi, Marrakech (Morocco); Amarilla, Jose Manuel [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Hakkou, Rachid [ECME, FST Marrakech, University Cadi Ayyad, BP549, Av. A. Khattabi, Marrakech (Morocco)


    Research highlights: LiCo{sub 2/3}Ni{sub 1/6}Mn{sub 1/6}O{sub 2} layered oxide, prepared by the combustion method, consists of particles with homogenous distribution. Rietveld refinement shows that the crystal structure of this cathode material presents no Li/Ni mixing. The best cycling performances were recorded when the upper cut off is fixed at 4.5 V corresponding to a solid solution domain. - Abstract: LiCo{sub 2/3}Ni{sub 1/6}Mn{sub 1/6}O{sub 2} layered oxide was synthesized by the combustion method that led to a crystalline phase with good homogeneity and low particles size. The structural properties of the prepared positive electrode material were investigated by performing XRD Rietveld refinement. Practically no Li/Ni mixing was detected evidencing that the studied compound adopts almost an ideal {alpha}-NaFeO{sub 2} type structure. The Li||LiCo{sub 2/3}Ni{sub 1/6}Mn{sub 1/6}O{sub 2} cell showed a discharge capacity of 199 mAh g{sup -1} when cycled in the 2.7-4.6 V potential range while the best cycling performances were recorded when the upper cut off is fixed at 4.5 V. Structural changes in Li{sub x}Co{sub 2/3}Ni{sub 1/6}Mn{sub 1/6}O{sub 2} with lithium electrochemical de-intercalation were studied using X-ray diffraction. This study clearly shows the existence of a solid solution domain in the 0.1 < x < 1.0 composition range while for x = 0.1, a new phase appears explaining the decrease of the electrochemical performance when the cell is cycled at high upper cut off voltage.

  9. High voltage spinel oxides for Li-ion batteries: From the material research to the application (United States)

    Patoux, Sébastien; Daniel, Lise; Bourbon, Carole; Lignier, Hélène; Pagano, Carole; Le Cras, Frédéric; Jouanneau, Séverine; Martinet, Sébastien

    Li-ion batteries are already used in many nomad applications, but improvement of this technology is still necessary to be durably introduced on new markets such as electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) or eventually photovoltaic solar cells. Modification of the nature of the active materials of electrodes is the most challenging and innovative aspect. High voltage spinel oxides for Li-ion batteries, with general composition LiMn 2- xM xO 4 (M a transition metal element), may be used to face increasing power source demand. It should be possible to obtain up to 240 Wh kg -1 at cell level when combining a nickel manganese spinel oxide with graphite (even more with silicon/carbon nanocomposites at the anode). Specific composition and material processing have to be selected with care, as discussed in this paper. It is demonstrated that 'LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4' and LiNi 0.4Mn 1.6O 4 have remarkable properties such as high potential, high energy density, good cycle life and high rate capability. Choice of the electrolyte is also of primary importance in order to prevent its degradation at high voltage in contact with active surfaces. We showed that a few percents of additive in the electrolyte were suitable for protecting the positive electrode/electrolyte interface, and reducing the self-discharge. High voltage materials are also possibly interesting to be used in safe and high power Li-ion cells. In this case, the negative electrode may be made of Li 4Ti 5O 12 or TiO 2 to give a '3 V' system.

  10. Determination of lithium and transition metals in Li1 Ni1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 (NCM) cathode material for lithium-ion batteries by capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Vortmann-Westhoven, Britta; Lürenbaum, Constantin; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha


    In this work, we present a novel electrophoretic method that was developed for the determination of lithium and transition metals in LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 cathode material after microwave digestion. The cations in the digested LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 material were separated by CE and the element content was determined by UV/Vis detection. To characterize the precision of the measurements, the RSDs and concentrations were calculated and compared to those obtained with ICP-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Furthermore, a certified reference material (BCR 176R-fly ash) was investigated for all techniques. For active material components, the LOD and LOQ were determined. The LODs and LOQs for the metals determined by CE were as follows: lithium (LOD/LOQ): 17.41/62.70 μg/L, cobalt (LOD/LOQ): 348.4/1283 μg/L, manganese (LOD/LOQ): 540.2/2095 μg/L, and nickel (LOD/LOQ): 838.0/2982 μg/L. Recovery rates for lithium were in the range of 95-103%. It could be proven that with the new technique, the results for the determination of the lithium content of active material were comparable with those obtained by ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Furthermore, the recovery rates of the transition metals were determined to be between 96 and 110% by CE and ICP-OES. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Aligned Li+Tunnels in Core-Shell Li(NixMnyCoz)O2@LiFePO4Enhances Its High Voltage Cycling Stability as Li-ion Battery Cathode. (United States)

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Ji, Shunping; Liu, Tongchao; Duan, Yandong; Xiao, Shu; Lin, Yuan; Xu, Kang; Pan, Feng


    Layered transition-metal oxides (Li[Ni x Mn y Co z ]O 2 , NMC, or NMCxyz) due to their poor stability when cycled at a high operating voltage (>4.5 V) have limited their practical applications in industry. Earlier researches have identified Mn(II)-dissolution and some parasitic reactions between NMC surface and electrolyte, especially when NMC is charged to a high potential, as primarily factors responsible for the fading. In our previous work, we have achieved a capacity of NMC active material close to theoretical value and optimized its cycling performance by a depolarized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) network and an unique "pre-lithiation process" that generates an in situ organic coating (∼40 nm) to prevent Mn(II) dissolution and minimize the parasitic reactions. Unfortunately, this organic coating is not durable enough during a long-term cycling when the cathode operates at a high potential (>4.5 V). This work attempts to improve the surface protection of the NMC532 particles by applying an active inorganic coating consisting of nanosized- and crystal-orientated LiFePO 4 (LFP) (about 50 nm, exposed (010) face) to generate a core-shell nanostructure of Li(Ni x Mn y Co z )O 2 @LiFePO 4 . Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and etching X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have confirmed an intimate contact coating (about 50 nm) between the original structure of NMC and LFP single-particle with atomic interdiffusion at the core-shell interface, and an array of interconnected aligned Li + tunnels are observed at the interface by cross-sectional high-resolution TEM, which were formed by ball-milling and then strictly controlling the temperature below 100 °C. Batteries based on this modified NMC cathode material show a high reversible capacity when cycled between 3.0 and 4.6 V during a long-term cycling.

  12. Two Players Make a Formidable Combination: In Situ Generated Poly(acrylic anhydride-2-methyl-acrylic acid-2-oxirane-ethyl ester-methyl methacrylate) Cross-Linking Gel Polymer Electrolyte toward 5 V High-Voltage Batteries. (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Ma, Jun; Chai, Jingchao; Liu, Zhihong; Ding, Guoliang; Xu, Gaojie; Liu, Haisheng; Chen, Bingbing; Zhou, Xinhong; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan


    Electrochemical performance of high-voltage lithium batteries with high energy density is limited because of the electrolyte instability and the electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactivity. Hence, a cross-linking polymer network of poly(acrylic anhydride-2-methyl-acrylic acid-2-oxirane-ethyl ester-methyl methacrylate) (PAMM)-based electrolyte was introduced via in situ polymerization inspired by "shuangjian hebi", which is a statement in a traditional Chinese Kungfu story similar to the synergetic effect of 1 + 1 > 2. A poly(acrylic anhydride) and poly(methyl methacrylate)-based system is very promising as electrolyte materials for lithium-ion batteries, in which the anhydride and acrylate groups can provide high voltage resistance and fast ionic conductivity, respectively. As a result, the cross-linking PAMM-based electrolyte possesses a significant comprehensive enhancement, including electrochemical stability window exceeding 5 V vs Li+/Li, an ionic conductivity of 6.79 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature, high mechanical strength (27.5 MPa), good flame resistance, and excellent interface compatibility with Li metal. It is also demonstrated that this gel polymer electrolyte suppresses the negative effect resulting from dissolution of Mn2+ ions at 25 and 55 °C. Thus, the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li4Ti5O12 cells using the optimized in situ polymerized cross-linking PAMM-based gel polymer electrolyte deliver stable charging/discharging profiles and excellent rate performance at room temperature and even at 55 °C. These findings suggest that the cross-linking PAMM is an intriguing candidate for 5 V class high-voltage gel polymer electrolyte toward high-energy lithium-on batteries.

  13. A closed-loop process for recycling LiNixCoyMn(1−x−yO2 from mixed cathode materials of lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujuan Zheng


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of consumer electronics and electric vehicles (EV, a large number of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs have been generated worldwide. Thus, effective recycling technologies to recapture a significant amount of valuable metals contained in spent LIBs are highly desirable to prevent the environmental pollution and resource depletion. In this work, a novel recycling technology to regenerate a LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material from spent LIBs with different cathode chemistries has been developed. By dismantling, crushing, leaching and impurity removing, the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (selected as an example of LiNixCoyMn(1−x−yO2 powder can be directly prepared from the purified leaching solution via co-precipitation followed by solid-state synthesis. For comparison purposes, a fresh-synthesized sample with the same composition has also been prepared using the commercial raw materials via the same method. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and electrochemical measurements have been carried out to characterize these samples. The electrochemical test result suggests that the re-synthesized sample delivers cycle performance and low rate capability which are comparable to those of the fresh-synthesized sample. This novel recycling technique can be of great value to the regeneration of a pure and marketable LiNixCoyMn(1−x−yO2 cathode material with low secondary pollution. Keywords: Spent lithium-ion battery, Cathode material recycling, Acid leaching, Purification, Co-precipitation

  14. Assessment of the Condition of Hoisting Ropes by Measuring their Geometric Parameters in a Three-Dimensional Image of their Surface / Metoda Oceny Stanu Lin Wyciągowych Poprzez Pomiar Parametrów Geometrycznych Na Trójwymiarowym Obrazie Ich Powierzchni (United States)

    Olszyna, Grzegorz; Sioma, Andrzej; Tytko, Andrzej


    This article discusses a vision method of measuring the geometric parameters of ropes and evaluating their wear based on measurements made in a three-dimensional projection of rope surface. The purposes of this method include assessment of the condition of all kinds of ropes working in the mining industry. The proposed method is novel, eliminates the shortcomings of previously used mandatory visual methods, removes their constraints, and is an important complement to magnetic methods. The article discusses the method of construction of a three-dimensional image based on mapping of the actual dimensions of the rope and on algorithms that allow determination of the parameters describing its basic geometrical dimensions and surface condition. The article discusses issues related to resolution of the vision system, resolution of laser beam analysis, and resolution relating to the measurement of the height profile on the surface of the rope. Based on the image constructed in such a way, measurements are presented in order to assess the dimensional parameters and surface defects in sample rope structures. Based on tests and analyses of the three-dimensional image, a range of inspection tasks using 3D vision systems is indicated. Praca poświęcona jest omówieniu metody pomiaru parametrów geometrycznych lin i oceny ich zużycia metodą wizyjną na bazie pomiarów wykonywanych na trójwymiarowym rozwinięciu powierzchni liny. Metoda dedykowana jest między innymi do oceny stanu wszystkich rodzajów lin pracujących w górnictwie. Proponowana metoda jest nowatorska, eliminuje wady dotychczas stosowanych obligatoryjnych metod wizualnych, usuwa ich ograniczenia oraz stanowi istotne uzupełnienie metod magnetycznych. W pracy omówiono metodę budowy obrazu trójwymiarowego opartą na odwzorowywaniu rzeczywistych wymiarów liny oraz algorytmy umożliwiające wyznaczenie parametrów opisujących jej podstawowe wymiary geometryczne oraz stan powierzchni. W artykule om

  15. PC based electrolytes with LiDFOB as an alternative salt for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Knight, Brandon M.

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been greatly sought after as a source of renewable energy storage. LIBs have a wide range of applications including but not limited portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and power tools. As a direct result of their commercial viability an insatiable hunger for knowledge, advancement within the field of LIBs has been omnipresent for the last two decades. However, there are set backs evident within the LIB field; most notably the limitations of standard electrolyte formulations and LiPF6 lithium salt. The standard primary carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) has a very limited operating range due to its innate physical properties, and the LiPF6 salt is known to readily decompose to form HF which can further degrade LIB longevity. The goal of our research is to explore the use of a new primary salt LiDFOB in conjunction with a propylene carbonate based electrolyte to establish a more flexible electrolyte formulation by constructing coin cells and cycling them under various conditions to give a clear understanding of each formulation inherent performance capabilities. Our studies show that 1.2M LiDFOB in 3:7 PC/EMC + 1.5% VC is capable of performing comparably to the standard 1.2M LiPF6 in 3:7 EC/EMC at 25°C and the PC electrolyte also illustrates performance superior to the standard at 55°C. The degradation of lithium manganese spinel electrodes, including LiNi 0.5Mn1.5O4, is an area of great concern within the field of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Manganese containing cathode materials frequently have problems associated with Mn dissolution which significantly reduces the cycle life of LIB. Thus the stability of the cathode material is paramount to the performance of Mn spinel cathode materials in LIBs. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the stability of LiNi0.5 Mn1.5O4 in common LiPF6/carbonate electrolytes, samples were stored at elevated temperature in the presence of electrolyte. Then after storage both

  16. Designing and Thermal Analysis of Safe Lithium Ion Cathode Materials for High Energy Applications (United States)

    Hu, Enyuan

    Safety is one of the most critical issues facing lithium-ion battery application in vehicles. Addressing this issue requires the integration of several aspects, especially the material chemistry and the battery thermal management. First, thermal stability investigation was carried out on an attractive high energy density material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. New findings on the thermal-stability and thermal-decomposition-pathways related to the oxygen-release are discovered for the high-voltage spinel Li xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) with ordered (o-) and disordered (d-) structures at fully delithiated (charged) state using a combination of in situ time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) coupled with mass spectroscopy (MS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Both fully charged o--LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 and d-LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 start oxygen-releasing structural changes at temperatures below 300 °C, which is in sharp contrast to the good thermal stability of the 4V-spinel LixMn2O4 with no oxygen being released up to 375 °C. This is mainly caused by the presence of Ni4+ in LNMO, which undergoes dramatic reduction during the thermal decomposition. In addition, charged o-LNMO shows better thermal stability than the d-LNMO counterpart, due to the Ni/Mn ordering and smaller amount of the rock-salt impurity phase in o-LNMO. Newly identified two thermal-decomposition-pathways from the initial LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 spinel to the final NiMn2O4-type spinel structure with and without the intermediate phases (NiMnO3 and alpha-Mn 2O3) are found to play key roles in thermal stability and oxygen release of LNMO during thermal decomposition. In addressing the safety issue associated with LNMO, Fe is selected to partially substitute Ni and Mn simultaneously utilizing the electrochemical activity and structure-stabilizing high spin Fe3+. The synthesized LiNi1/3Mn4/3Fe1/3O4 showed superior thermal stability and satisfactory electrochemical performance. At charged state, it is able to withstand the temperature as


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeetpy Maisana


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to analyze rejected product in slaughterhouse division using total quality management approach. The secondary data were collected from the company archives and judgmental sampling was used to collect primary data from six experienced respondents. The analysis method used was total quality management, include stratification, Pareto diagrams, control charts, fishbone diagrams, and quality function deployment. The findings of this study showed that the use of line production system by the slaughterhouse to produce the product; where products’ redness/bruises, size uniformity, bloodless feature, incorrect delivery, delivery delay, and damaged package were the cause of product rejection. The strategies ordered based on the priority to improve the management quality are: tools repair and replacement, creating quality based projects, build an information system between the production lines, training and seminar. The managerial implications of the study suggested the slaughterhouse to replace or repair the plucker, scalder and automatic weighing machine. It also suggested the slaughterhouse to tighten the span of control in the chilling room to maintain product freshness.Keywords: rejected product analysis, TQM, QFD, chicken slaughterhouse, carcassABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis produk tolakan pada rumah potong ayam melalui pendekatan total quality management. Pengumpulan data sekunder penelitian diperoleh dari arsip perusahaan dan judgemental sampling digunakan terhadap enam responden ahli untuk memperoleh data primer penelitian. Metode analisis data yang digunakan total quality management, meliputi stratifikasi, diagram pareto, peta kendali, diagram tulang ikan, dan quality function deployment.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penggunaan sistem lini produksi pada proses produksi di perusahaan, dimana memar pada produk, keseragaman ukuran, kesegaran produk, pengiriman tidak sesuai pesanan

  18. Functional cine-MRI of the pelvic floor - normal anatomy and pathologic findings; Funktionelle MRT des Beckenbodens: normale Anatomie und pathologische Befunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, D.; Lienemann, A.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Anthuber, C. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Frauenklinik


    Purpose. Functional MRI of the pelvic floor allows mapping and definition of different forms of pelvic floor dysfunction. Methods. We performed functional MRT of the pelvic floor in 39 healthy nulliparas and 324 patients. The diagnosis of a pathological organ descent was made if certain landmarks of the pelvic floor compartments descended below the pubococcygeal reference-line (PC-line). Results. If there was no organ descent below the PC-line on straining and if the pelvic floor muscles hardly changed position, a normal finding was diagnosed. 70% of organ prolapses came in the combined form. The generally gradual development of an organ descent led to a change of the main finding in 21,6%. The masking of a cystocele (48,6%) or of an enterocele (34,3%) by a rectocele was most frequent in these cases. Discussion. The use of functional MRI of the pelvic floor appears to be especially useful in young patients, in cases of divergent clinical and sonographic or radiological findings and if the presence of a predominant hernial sac with or without enterocele/rectocele is supposed. (orig.) [German] Ziel. Die funktionelle MRT des Beckenbodens ermoeglicht die Dokumentation und Definition der verschiedenen Manifestationsformen einer Beckenbodeninsuffizienz. Methodik. Es wurde bei 39 gesunden Nulliparen und 324 Patientinnen eine funktionelle MRT des Beckenbodens durchgefuehrt. Ein pathologischer Organdeszensus wurde dokumentiert, wenn bestimmte Kennstrukturen der Beckenbodenkompartimente unterhalb der pubokokygealen Referenzlinie (PC-Linie) zu liegen kamen. Ergebnisse. Beim Normalbefund zeigt sich unter Pressen kein Deszensus der Kennstrukturen unterhalb der PC-Linie und die Beckenbodenmuskulatur veraendert ihre Position kaum. In 70% fand sich die kombinierte Form eines Organdeszensus. Die meist stufenweise Entwicklung eines Organvorfalles fuehrte bei 21.6% zu einem Wechsel des Hauptbefundes. Am haeufigsten war hierbei die Maskierung einer Zystozele (48,6%) oder einer

  19. Geschlecht als Vexierbild? Gender as a Puzzle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstanze Plett


    Full Text Available Jede Geschichte hat eine Vorgeschichte. Es ist das Verdienst von Rainer Herrn, mit dem hier angezeigten Buch die Frühgeschichte von Transgender auf- und nachgezeichnet zu haben, die sich in Berlin im ersten Drittel des 20. Jahrhunderts zugetragen hat. Verknüpft ist diese Geschichte vor allem mit dem Namen Magnus Hirschfeld, der bislang in erster Linie als Vorkämpfer für die Entkrimininalisierung der Homosexualität wahrgenommen wurde. Einen passenderen Titel als Schnittmuster des Geschlechts hätte der Autor für sein Buch nicht finden können.Every history has a prehistory. Rainer Herrn has produced an accomplished work that records and traces the early history of transgendered people in Berlin during the first third of the twentieth century. This history is particularly connected to the name Magnus Hirschfeld, who, till now, has been primarily perceived as a pioneering campaigner for the decriminalization of homosexuality. The author could not have found a more appropriate title for his book than Patterns of Gender (Schnittmuster des Geschlechts.

  20. Interfacial Chemistry Regulation via a Skin-Grafting Strategy Enables High-Performance Lithium-Metal Batteries. (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Zhao, Yuming; Li, Yuguang C; Huang, Qingquan; Mallouk, Thomas E; Wang, Donghai


    The lithium (Li) metal anode suffers severe interfacial instability from its high reactivity toward liquid electrolytes, especially carbonate-based electrolytes, resulting in poor electrochemical performance of batteries that use 4 V high-capacity cathodes. We report a new skin-grafting strategy that stabilizes the Li metal-liquid electrolyte interface by coating the Li metal surface with poly((N-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-methyl)-5-norbornene-exo-2,3-dicarboximide), a chemically and electrochemically active polymer layer. This layer, composed of cyclic ether groups with a stiff polycyclic main chain, serves as a grafted polymer skin on the Li metal anode not only to incorporate ether-based polymeric components into the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) but also to accommodate Li deposition/dissolution under the skin in a dendrite/moss-free manner. Consequently, a Li-metal battery employing a Li metal anode with the grafted skin paired with LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cathode has a 90.0% capacity retention after 400 charge/discharge cycles and a capacity of 1.2 mAh/cm(2) in a carbonate-based electrolyte. This proof-of-concept study provides a new direction for regulating the interfacial chemistry of Li metal anodes and for enabling high-performance Li-metal batteries.

  1. Insulating correctly. Manual for up-to-date construction in existing buildings; Richtig daemmen. Handbuch fuer zeitgemaesses Bauen im Bestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaenssmantel, Juergen; Geburtig, Gerd


    The authors show clearly what have to be taken into account during modernization or retrofitting of an existing building or during new construction an optimal planning according to energetic points of view. Content: selection of a suitable insulation materials; airtightness and thermography; overview on insulating materials; selection of manufacturers and correct contracts; ventilation by heat recovery. (GL) [German] Die beiden Autoren zeigen auf, welche Beobachtungen und Ueberlegungen anzustellen sind, bevor ein Daemmstoff in die Hand genommen wird. Das Buch hilft dem Praktiker die verschiedenen Gegebenheiten, Anforderungen und Materialien zu beurteilen. Dazu werden auch grundlegende bauphysikalische Kenntnisse vermittelt, wie sie heute fuer jeden auf einer Baustelle verantwortlich Taetigen unerlaesslich sind. Diskutiert werden neben den Moeglichkeiten auch die Grenzen des Daemmens. Die zahlreiche Uebersichten und Checklisten erhoehen den praktischen Nutzen dieses Buches. Bei konkreten Bauvorhaben helfen sie, aus dem Buendel von Anforderungen, Gebaeudedaten und Beobachtungen zu einem Urteil zu kommen. Das Buch bietet Entscheidungshilfen und Antworten zu den Fragen: - Wo lohnt es sich nachtraeglich zu daemmen? - Wie waehlt man den geeigneten Daemmstoff aus? - Welche Checklisten kann man bei der Auswahl anwenden? - Warum haben auch energetische Nachruestungen ihre Grenzen? - Weshalb muessen bauphysikalische 'Spielregeln' beachtet werden? Ein umfangreicher Adressteil mit den Angaben zu den Herstellern von Waermedaemm-Verbundsystemen, Daemmputzen und Daemmstoffen ergaenzt das Werk. Das Buch wendet sich in erster Linie an die Fachunternehmer und Handwerker, die im Bereich des Bauens im Bestand taetig sind, darueber hinaus auch an Energieberater und Planer. (orig.)

  2. Visualisierung von typisierten Links in Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neubauer


    Full Text Available Das Themengebiet der Arbeit behandelt Visualisierungen von typisierten Links in Linked Data. Die wissenschaftlichen Gebiete, die im Allgemeinen den Inhalt des Beitrags abgrenzen, sind das Semantic Web, das Web of Data und Informationsvisualisierung. Das Semantic Web, das von Tim Berners Lee 2001 erfunden wurde, stellt eine Erweiterung zum World Wide Web (Web 2.0 dar. Aktuelle Forschungen beziehen sich auf die Verknüpfbarkeit von Informationen im World Wide Web. Um es zu ermöglichen, solche Verbindungen wahrnehmen und verarbeiten zu können sind Visualisierungen die wichtigsten Anforderungen als Hauptteil der Datenverarbeitung. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Sematic Web werden Repräsentationen von zuhammenhängenden Informationen anhand von Graphen gehandhabt. Der Grund des Entstehens dieser Arbeit ist in erster Linie die Beschreibung der Gestaltung von Linked Data-Visualisierungskonzepten, deren Prinzipien im Rahmen einer theoretischen Annäherung eingeführt werden. Anhand des Kontexts führt eine schrittweise Erweiterung der Informationen mit dem Ziel, praktische Richtlinien anzubieten, zur Vernetzung dieser ausgearbeiteten Gestaltungsrichtlinien. Indem die Entwürfe zweier alternativer Visualisierungen einer standardisierten Webapplikation beschrieben werden, die Linked Data als Netzwerk visualisiert, konnte ein Test durchgeführt werden, der deren Kompatibilität zum Inhalt hatte. Der praktische Teil behandelt daher die Designphase, die Resultate, und zukünftige Anforderungen des Projektes, die durch die Testung ausgearbeitet wurden.

  3. Radikale Operation bei Nierenkarzinom mit Tumorthrombose im rechten Herzvorhof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morávek P


    Full Text Available Einleitung: Die Ansicht über eine radikale Operation bei Nierenkarzinom mit einer Tumorthrombose im rechten Herzvorhof ist in der Literatur bisher kontrovers. Nach Meinung der Autoren ist der Tumorthrombus in erster Linie ein ernsthaftes Problem der Operabilität. Sie entschieden sich für eine radikale Operation. Methode: Die Autoren operierten 11 Patienten im Zeitraum von 1978 bis 2001. Die grundlegenden Bedingungen für eine Operation waren die exakte Festlegung der Diagnose und des Stadiums der Erkrankung (T1-T3, N0, M0. Bei 9 Patienten haben die Autoren eine Entfernung des Tumorthrombus in extrakorporaler Zirkulation bei Kreislaufstillstand und bei 2 Kranken mittels kavoatrialem Shunt ohne Herz-Lungen-Maschine durchgeführt. Ergebnisse: 2 Patienten sind in der 2. bis 4. Woche nach der Operation gestorben, 1 Patientin ist 2 Jahre nach der Operation gestorben, 1 Patient ist nach 4 Jahren und 1 Patient nach 8 Jahren gestorben. 6 Patienten leben 1, 2, 3, 3,5, 3,5 und 5 Jahre nach der Operation. Schlußfolgerung: Die Voraussetzungen für eine erfolgreiche Operation sind die richtige Indikation, die Wahl der passenden Operationsmethode sowie die Zusammenarbeit von Urologen und Kardiochirurgen. Die Autoren halten eine Entfernung des Thrombus mittels Atriotomie sowie Kavotomie in extrakorporaler Zirkulation und tiefer Hypothermie mit Kreislaufstillstand für die beste Methode.

  4. The effects of assortative mating on the genetic change due to linear index selection in Tribolium. (United States)

    Campo, J L; Gil, M G


    The effectiveness of the assortative mating of selected individuals in increasing linear index selection response was tested in Tribolium castaneum. The experiment was designed to increase pupal length and adult weight, using selection and assortative mating with respect to a linear index of these traits. The experiment consisted of a randomly (R) and assortatively (A) mated line, with three replicates in each line. The proportion of selection was 25 %. Phenotypic correlations between mates in line A were not significantly different from 1. Average selection responses did not significantly differ in either line, although there was some indication of an effect of the mating system, since the response for the aggregate value was higher in line A (0.78 ± 0.15 as opposed to 0.57 ± 0.13). Average response for the selection goal and adult weight was statistically significant for both lines. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Die Auswirkungen assortativer Anpaarung auf genetischen Fortschritt bei Anwendung eines linearen Selektionsindex bei Tribolium Die Wirksamkeit assortativer Anpaarung selektionierter Individuen zur Verstärkung der Selektion mittels linearem Index wurde bei Tribolium castaneum untersucht. Selektion zielte auf längere Puppen und auf Gewichtssteigerung ausgewachsener Tiere. Das Experiment umfaßte eine zufällig angepaarte (R) und eine assortativ angepaarte (A) Linie mit je drei Wiederholungen. Die Remontierung betrug 25%. Die phänotypische Partner-Korrelation bei den in Linie A angepaarten Individuen wich nicht wesentlich von 1 ab. Die durchschnittliche Verbesserung war bei beiden Linien nicht significant verschieden, obwohl es Anzeichen einer Auswirkung des Paarungssystems gab. Die Koeffizienten der Linie A lagen höher (0.78 ± 0.15 gegenüber 0.57 ± 0.13 für Linie R). Die durchnittliche Veränderung des Selektionsziels und des Gewichts der ausgewachsenen Tiere waren statistisch significant. RÉSUMÉ: Les effets de l'accouplement classifié sur le changement g

  5. Enabling linear alkyl carbonate electrolytes for high voltage Li-ion cells (United States)

    Xia, Jian; Petibon, Remi; Xiong, Deijun; Ma, Lin; Dahn, J. R.


    Some of the problems of current electrolytes for high voltage Li-ion cells originate from ethylene carbonate (EC) which is thought to be an essential electrolyte component for Li-ion cells. Ethylene carbonate-free electrolytes containing 1 M LiPF6 in ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) with small loadings of vinylene carbonate, fluoroethylene carbonate, or (4R,5S)-4,5-Difluoro-1,3-dioxolan-2-one acting as ;enablers; were developed. These electrolytes used in Li(Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2)O2/graphite pouch type Li-ion cells tested at 4.2 V and 4.5 V yielded excellent charge-discharge cycling and storage properties. The results for cells containing linear alkyl carbonate electrolytes with no EC were compared to those of cells with EC-containing electrolytes incorporating additives proven to enhance cyclability of cells. The combination of EMC with appropriate amounts of these enablers yields cells with better performance than cells with EC-containing electrolytes incorporating additives tested to 4.5 V. Further optimizing these linear alkyl carbonate electrolytes with appropriate co-additives may represent a viable path to the successful commercial utilization of NMC/graphite Li-ion cells operated to 4.5 V and above.

  6. Biological determinants of plant and crop productivity of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając


    Full Text Available In Poland the cultivation of the fibrous form of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is dying out, but the acreage of its oilseed form, linseed, which provides seed (Semen lini used in therapy and being a source of -linolenic acid, is expanding. Nowadays, linseed is grown in 64 countries of the world, but yield levels in these countries vary greatly. Under European conditions, seed yield of linseed shows high variation, which is evidence of little knowledge of the biology of this plant and the lack of precise cultivation solutions in agricultural technologies used. A major reason is the difficulty in obtaining optimal crop density. A sparse crop results in low above-ground biomass yield, which is translated into insufficient crop yields. The selection of highly productive domestic and foreign varieties can partially increase linseed yield; apart from some domestic varieties, the Canadian cultivar 'Flanders' and the Hungarian cultivar 'Barbara' are positive examples in this respect. There is a possibility of effective selection at early stages of linseed breeding, which bodes well for the prospect of obtaining highly productive varieties with normal or very low -linolenic acid content.

  7. Training simulator for modern load dispatching centers; Trainingssimulator fuer modernen Lastverteiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordieker, B. [BKW Energie AG, Bern (Switzerland); Imhof, K. [ABB Network Partner AG, Turgi (Switzerland)


    The recent completion of the second stage of a modernization programme being carried out at the load dispatching center of BKW Energie AG, a Swiss utility with headquarters in Berne, included the start-up of a dispatcher training simulator (DTS). Besides being used to train dispatchers and staff engineers, the simulator also offers many advantages for routine power system operation. The DTS is integrated in the Energy Management System, the standby computer acting as server. If required, the simulator can also be run on the on-line computer. Two full graphics workstations are provided to enable trainees to work in an environment that approximates real-world conditions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit der Inbetriebnahme der zweiten Ausbaustufe des neuen Lastverteilers der BKW Energie AG Bern, steht fuer den Netzbetrieb der BKW ein Trainingssimulator zur Verfuegung. Er dient in erster Linie der Aus- und Weiterbildung der Dispatcher und Betriebsingenieure, bietet aber darueber hinaus zahlreiche Vorteile fuer den taeglichen Netzbetrieb. Der BKW-Trainingssimulator ist in das Energie-Management-System (EMS) integriert. Als Server dient der entsprechende Standby-Rechner. Der Trainingssimulator laeuft bei Bedarf auch auf dem Online-Rechner. Als Arbeitsinstrumente fuer Lehrer und Schueler (Dispatcher) dienen zwei beliebige vollgraphische Arbeitsplaetze. (orig.)

  8. Vibroacoustic and optical investigations of cavitation phenomena in axial piston engines; Vibroakustische und optische Untersuchung der Kavitation bei Axialkolbenmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, T.; Brunner, H.


    Hydrostatic drives are widely used. Reasons are: High-power and momentum transmission at high power density, variable arrangement of components, simplicity of designing linear drives, very high dynamics and variable design of hydraulic control systems, especially in combination with electronic solutions. However, hydrosystems have to compete with mechanical, electric and pneumatic drives, and demands on comfort, operating quality, energy efficiency, ease of servicing and environmental acceptability are getting increasingly higher. This means that innovative solutions must be found to remove the current shortcomings of hydrosystems must be overcome, i.e. noise, loss of flow, leakge of liquids, variations of rotational momentum and speed, and cavitation. The authors focus on the problem of cavitation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hydrostatische Systeme finden in der Antriebstechnik eine breite Anwendung. Gruende dafuer sind die Uebertragbarkeit grosser Kraefte und Momente bei hoher Leistungsdichte, die freizuegige Anordnung einzelner Komponenten, die einfache Realisierung linearer Antriebe, die sehr hohe Dynamik und die vielfaeltige Gestaltung hydraulischer Steuerungen, vor allem in Verbindung mit der Elektronik. Die Hydrosysteme stehen jedoch im Wettbewerb mit mechanischen, elektrischen und pneumatischen Antrieben. Zudem steigen die Anforderungen an Komfort, Arbeitsqualitaet, Energieeffizienz, Wartungsfreundlichkeit und Umweltvertraeglichkeit. Deshalb gilt es, die Nachteile von Hydrosystemen, wie z.B. die Geraeuschbildung, die Stroemungsverluste, die Fluessigkeitsleckagen, die Drehmoment- und Drehzahlschwingungen und nicht zuletzt die Kavitation, durch innovative Loesungen zu vermindern. Der vorliegende Beitrag beschaeftigt sich dabei in erster Linie mit dem Problem der Kavitation. (orig.)

  9. Riscuri şi amenințări potențiale la adresa securității internaționale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Astăzi, putem afirma cu certitudine că, la începutul secolului al XXI-lea, provocările la adresa mediului actual de securitate tind să devină din ce în ce mai difuze, puţin predictibile şi multidimensionale, constituind atât o caracteristică externă a securităţii cât şi una internă şi, desigur, devenind parte componentă indispensabilă a politicilor şi strategiilor de securitate. Din aceste considerente, a crescut necesitatea de cooperare internaţională ca fundament pentru asigurarea stabilităţii mediului de securitate care trebuie să asigure sentimentul de încredere şi de linişte, prin garantarea absenţei oricărui pericol, atât pentru individ cât şi pentru comunitatea din care acesta face parte.

  10. Partial resistance in the Linum-Melampsora host-pathogen system: does partial resistance make the red queen run slower? (United States)

    Antonovics, Janis; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J; Laine, Anna-Liisa


    Five levels of disease expression were scored in a cross-inoculation study of 120 host and 60 pathogen lines of wild flax Linum marginale and its rust fungus Melampsora lini sampled from six natural populations. Patterns of partial resistance showed clear evidence of gene-for-gene interactions, with particular levels of partial resistance occurring in specific host-pathogen combinations. Sympatric and putatively more highly coevolved host-pathogen combinations had a lower frequency of partial resistance types relative to allopatric combinations. Sympatric host-pathogen combinations also showed a lower diversity of resistance responses, but there was a trend toward a greater fraction of this variance being determined by pathogen-genotype × host-genotype interactions. In this system, there was no evidence that partial resistances slow host-pathogen coevolution. The analyses show that if variation is generated by among population host or pathogen dispersal, then coevolution occurs largely by pathogens overcoming the partial resistances that are generated. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. V-ribbed belts: heavy duty power transmission by elastomers; Keilrippenriemen aus Elastomerwerkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, K.


    V-ribbed belts of the latest generation comply with the greatest requirements for reliability. Apart from design improvements, new elastomer materials contribute mainly to this. The now most frequently used polychloroprene can only stand lower thermal loads than ADWM (alkylated chlorsulfonized polyethylene) and HNBR (hydrated nitrile rubber). Comparative investigations on hardening, rubbing, dynamic behaviour and extension at fracture give information on the thermal ageing strength. The service lives of V-ribbed belts made of ACSM or HNBR are up to 250% higher in practice than that of CR, without the costs rising to the same extent. (orig.) [Deutsch] Keilrippenriemen der neuesten Generation erfuellen hoechste Ansprueche an die Zuverlaessigkeit. Neben konstruktiven Verbesserungen tragen dazu in erster Linie neue Elastomerwerkstoffe bei. Das heute meist eingesetzte Polychloropren ist dabei thermisch weniger belastbar als ACSM (alkyliertes chlorsulfoniertes Polyethylen) und HNBR (hydrierter Nitrilkautschuk). Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Verhaertung, zum Abrieb, zum dynamischen Verhalten und zur Bruchdehnung geben Aufschluss ueber die jeweiligen Waermealterungsbestaendigkeiten. Die Lebensdauern von Keilrippenriemen aus ACSM oder HNBR liegen in der Praxis im Vergleich zu CR um bis zu 250% hoeher, ohne dass die Kosten in gleichem Masse steigen. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear waste - where to go?; Atommuell - wohin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornsiepen, Ulrich


    The question of the final di9sposal of nuclear waste is a problem of international importance. The solution of the problem is of increasing urgency; the discussion is controversial and implies a lot of emotions. In Germany there is consensus that the nuclear wastes have to be disposed within the country in deep geological formations. This kind of final disposal is predominantly a geological problem and has to be solved from the geological point of view. The geologist Ulrich Dornsiepen presents the problems of the final disposal in an objective way without ideology and generally understandable. Such a presentation is necessary since the public information and participation is demanded but the open geological questions and their scientific solutions are never explained for the public. [German] Die Frage der endgueltigen Lagerung von Atommuell ist ein Problem von nationaler Tragweite, dessen Loesung immer dringender wird, bisher aber sehr kontrovers diskutiert wird und mit vielen Emotionen verknuepft ist. Es besteht in Deutschland ein Konsens, diese Abfaelle innerhalb der Landesgrenzen dauerhaft in tief liegenden Gesteinsschichten abzulagern. Diese Art der Endlagerung ist aber in erster Linie ein geologisches Problem und so auch nur von geologischer Seite her zu loesen. Daher stellt der Geologe Ulrich Dornsiepen die Problematik der Endlagerung objektiv, ideologiefrei und allgemein verstaendlich dar. Ein solches Hoerbuch ist dringend noetig, da zwar die Information und Beteiligung breiter, betroffener Bevoelkerungsteile eingefordert, aber niemals versucht wird, die offenen geologischen Fragen und ihre wissenschaftliche Loesung verstaendlich zu machen.

  13. Rekonstruktive Urologie des oberen und unteren Harntraktes - ein Therapieupdate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H


    Full Text Available Trotz des Fortschritts konservativer Therapiemöglichkeiten ist für viele urologische Erkrankungen ein chirurgisches Vorgehen unabdingbar. Hieraus resultiert die Notwendigkeit einer ausgefeilten rekonstruktiven Chirurgie, um verloren gegangene Funktionen der einzelnen Urogenitalorgane zu ersetzen bzw. wiederherzustellen. In erster Linie bedingen ausgedehnte radikalchirurgische Eingriffe der Onkologischen Urologie einen rekonstruktiven Ersatz im Bereich des oberen und unteren Harntraktes. Neben der Rekonstruktiven Urologie als Teil der Onkologie werden diese Techniken auch für Krankheitsbilder außerhalb des onkologischen Krankheitskreises benötigt. Der vorliegende Artikel gibt anhand Peer-reviewter Literatur einen Überblick der therapeutischen Möglichkeiten des Harnblasen- und Harnleiterersatzes, der rekonstruktiven Harnröhrenchirurgie und der Möglichkeiten der operativen Korrektur der Nierenbeckenabgangsstenose. Ähnlich wie in anderen Fachrichtungen wird auch in der Urologie der Gewebeersatz durch Tissue Engineering im Labor und Tiermodell vorangetrieben. Es ist davon auszugehen, dass eine optimalere und damit funktionellere Rekonstruktion möglich und dadurch die Lebensqualität der Patienten weitreichend verbessert wird. Durch Tissue Engineering wird ein Organ- und Gewebeersatz unter möglichst äquivalenten anatomischen und funktionellen Gesichtspunkten möglich. Die Kombination altbewährter Techniken mit innovativen Neuerungen wird sich vor allem in der nahen Zukunft an Therapieerfolg, Lebensqualität und Patientenzufriedenheit messen müssen.

  14. An anion-immobilized composite electrolyte for dendrite-free lithium metal anodes. (United States)

    Zhao, Chen-Zi; Zhang, Xue-Qiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Zhang, Rui; Xu, Rui; Chen, Peng-Yu; Peng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang


    Lithium metal is strongly regarded as a promising electrode material in next-generation rechargeable batteries due to its extremely high theoretical specific capacity and lowest reduction potential. However, the safety issue and short lifespan induced by uncontrolled dendrite growth have hindered the practical applications of lithium metal anodes. Hence, we propose a flexible anion-immobilized ceramic-polymer composite electrolyte to inhibit lithium dendrites and construct safe batteries. Anions in the composite electrolyte are tethered by a polymer matrix and ceramic fillers, inducing a uniform distribution of space charges and lithium ions that contributes to a dendrite-free lithium deposition. The dissociation of anions and lithium ions also helps to reduce the polymer crystallinity, rendering stable and fast transportation of lithium ions. Ceramic fillers in the electrolyte extend the electrochemically stable window to as wide as 5.5 V and provide a barrier to short circuiting for realizing safe batteries at elevated temperature. The anion-immobilized electrolyte can be applied in all-solid-state batteries and exhibits a small polarization of 15 mV. Cooperated with LiFePO 4 and LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 cathodes, the all-solid-state lithium metal batteries render excellent specific capacities of above 150 mAh⋅g -1 and well withstand mechanical bending. These results reveal a promising opportunity for safe and flexible next-generation lithium metal batteries.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Lithium Bis(fluoromalonato)borate (LiBFMB) for Lithium Ion Battery Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chen [ORNL; Han, Kee Sung [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Hillesheim, Daniel A [ORNL; Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Lee, Dr. Eun-Sung [University of Texas at Austin; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Manthiram, Arumugam [University of Texas at Austin; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL


    A new orthochelated salt, lithium bis(monofluoromalonato)borate (LiBFMB), has been synthesized and purified for the first time for application in lithium ion batteries. The presence of fluorine in the borate anion of LiBFMB increases its oxidation potential and also facilitates ion dissociation, as reflected by the ratio of ionic conductivity measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy ( exp) and that by ion diffusivity coefficients obtained using pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) technique ( NMR). Half-cell tests using 5.0 V lithium nickel manganese oxide (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4) as a cathode and EC/DMC/DEC as a solvent reveals that the impedance of the LiBFMB cell is much larger than those of LiPF6 and LiBOB based cells, which results in lower capacity and poor cycling performance of the former. XPS spectra of the cycled cathode electrode suggest that because of the stability of the LiBFMB salt, the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the cathode surface is significantly different from those of LiPF6 and LiBOB based electrolytes, resulting in more solvent decomposition and thicker SEI layer. Initial results also indicate that using high dielectric constant solvent PC alters the surface chemistry, reduces the interfacial impedance, and enhances the performance of LiBFMB based 5.0V cell.

  16. Privatiserung von Geschichte. Probleme einer differenzierten Aufarbeitung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birthe Kundrus


    Full Text Available Ausgangspunkt der Untersuchung von Vera Neumann ist die These, daß im Krieg Erlebtes und Erlittenes in den Wiederaufbau- und Wirtschaftswunderjahren Westdeutschlands einem Thematisierungstabu unterlegen sei. Anhand von 50 Interviews, die in den 80er Jahren im Rahmen des von Lutz Niethammer geleiteten Projekts „Lebensgeschichte und Sozialgeschichte im Ruhrgebiet 1930–1960“ (LUSIR entstanden sind und die sie jetzt anhand der Tonbandprotokolle und Abschriften ein zweites Mal auswertet, möchte die Historikerin diese Verschüttungen aufspüren. Im Anschluß an Niethammers These der „Privatisierung von Geschichte“ will sie zeigen, daß seelische und körperliche Kriegsfolgen wie Deprivations- und Überlastungsgefühle, der Verlust von Angehörigen und Kriegsbeschädigungen „privatisiert“, d.h. an die Familien übertragen wurden. Dort seien dann in erster Linie die weiblichen Familienmitglieder mit der Versorgungs- und Pflegearbeit konfrontiert worden. An vier Fallbeispiele schließt sich eine detaillierte Auswertung des gesamten Interviewmaterials an. Diesen Teilen folgt ein Abschnitt zur staatlichen Kriegsopferversorgung in der frühen Bundesrepublik.

  17. The Colletotrichum destructivum species complex – hemibiotrophic pathogens of forage and field crops (United States)

    Damm, U.; O'Connell, R.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.


    Colletotrichum destructivum is an important plant pathogen, mainly of forage and grain legumes including clover, alfalfa, cowpea and lentil, but has also been reported as an anthracnose pathogen of many other plants worldwide. Several Colletotrichum isolates, previously reported as closely related to C. destructivum, are known to establish hemibiotrophic infections in different hosts. The inconsistent application of names to those isolates based on outdated species concepts has caused much taxonomic confusion, particularly in the plant pathology literature. A multilocus DNA sequence analysis (ITS, GAPDH, CHS-1, HIS3, ACT, TUB2) of 83 isolates of C. destructivum and related species revealed 16 clades that are recognised as separate species in the C. destructivum complex, which includes C. destructivum, C. fuscum, C. higginsianum, C. lini and C. tabacum. Each of these species is lecto-, epi- or neotypified in this study. Additionally, eight species, namely C. americae-borealis, C. antirrhinicola, C. bryoniicola, C. lentis, C. ocimi, C. pisicola, C. utrechtense and C. vignae are newly described. PMID:25492986

  18. Formation of an Anti-Core–Shell Structure in Layered Oxide Cathodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hanlei [Materials; amp, Department; NorthEast; Omenya, Fredrick [NorthEast; Whittingham, M. Stanley [NorthEast; Wang, Chongmin [Environmental; Zhou, Guangwen [Materials; amp, Department; NorthEast


    The layered → rock-salt phase transformation in the layered dioxide cathodes for Li-ion batteries is believed to result in a “core-shell” structure of the primary particles, in which the core region maintains as the layered phase while the surface region undergoes the phase transformation to the rock-salt phase. Using transmission electron microscopy, here we demonstrate the formation of an “anti-core-shell” structure in cycled primary particles with a formula of LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2, in which the surface and subsurface regions remain as the layered structure while the rock-salt phase forms as domains in the bulk with a thin layer of the spinel phase between the rock-salt core and the skin of the layered phase. Formation of this anti-core-shell structure is attributed to the oxygen loss at the surface that drives the migration of oxygen from the bulk to the surface, thereby resulting in localized areas of significantly reduced oxygen levels in the bulk of the particle, which subsequently undergoes the phase transformation to the rock-salt domains. The formation of the anti-core-shell rock-salt domains is responsible for the reduced capacity, discharge voltage and ionic conductivity in cycled cathode.

  19. The systems psychodynamic leadership coaching experiences of nursing managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers


    Opsomming Die meestal liniêre en meganistiese aard van die verpleegbestuursrol is vinnig besig om na ’n meer dinamiese en sistemiese rol te verander. Die verandering behels taak- en mensbestuur binne 'n steeds veranderende organisasie-identiteit, waar 'n verskeidenheid rolle opgeneem word, die self en ander in 'n komplekse matrikssisteem bemagtig word, en waartydens bewuste en onbewuste sielkundige grense in en tussen botsende sisteme bestuur word. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die sisteem-psigodinamiese leerervaringe van verpleegbestuurders tydens leierskapafrigting te beskryf. Die afrigtingstaak was om leergeleenthede aan die individuele leier beskikbaar te stel vir die ontwikkeling van insig in bewuste en onbewuste leierskapsdinamika in terme van angs, taak, rol, outoriteit, grense en identiteit. 'n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp is gebruik. Ses verpleegbestuurders het tien leierskapafrigtingsessies oor tien weke bygewoon. Veldnotas en besinnende opstelle is deur middel van sisteem-psigodinamiese gespreksanalise ontleed. Die bevindinge dui op duidelikheid oor en bemagtiging in hulle primêre taak en normatiewe rol; angs en ontmagtiging in hulle ervarings- en fenomenale rolle; angs in grenshandhawing wat verband hou met magsmisbruik deur andere; en die voortdurende ondersoek en integrasie van leierskapsrolidentiteit. Deelnemers se leerervarings is na aanleiding van kriteria vir organisasieleer geëvalueer, waarna die algemene hipotese geformuleer is.

  20. In situ strain evolution during a disconnection event in a battery nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulvestad, Andrew; Clark, Jesse N.; Singer, Andrej; Vine, David; Cho, H. M.; Harder, Ross; Meng, Ying Shirley; Shpyrko, Oleg G.


    Lithium ion batteries are the dominant form of energy storage in mobile devices, increasingly employed in transportation, and likely candidates for renewable energy storage and integration into the electrical grid. To fulfil their powerful potential, electrodes with increased capacity, faster charge rates, and longer cycle life must be developed. Understanding the mechanics and chemistry of individual nanoparticles under in situ conditions is a crucial step to improving performance and mitigating damage. Here we reveal three-dimensional strain evolution within a single nanoparticle of a promising high voltage cathode material, LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4, under in situ conditions. The particle becomes disconnected during the second charging cycle. This is attributed to the formation of a cathode electrolyte interphase layer with slow ionic conduction. The three-dimensional strain pattern within the particle is independent of cell voltage after disconnection, indicating that the particle is unable to redistribute lithium within its volume or to its neighbours. Understanding the disconnection process at the single particle level and the equilibrium or non-equilibrium state of nanoparticles is essential to improving performance of current and future electrochemical energy storage system

  1. The interaction of consecutive process steps in the manufacturing of lithium-ion battery electrodes with regard to structural and electrochemical properties (United States)

    Bockholt, Henrike; Indrikova, Maira; Netz, Andreas; Golks, Frederik; Kwade, Arno


    The individual steps in the electrode manufacturing process, e.g., conductive additives addition, mixing, and calendering, strongly affect the electrochemical and mechanical properties of the electrodes. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathode electrodes with conductive additive variations are fabricated using a reference and an intensive mixing process, and are subsequently calendered to different porosities. It is found that graphite reduces the pore size of NCM electrodes, in contrast to the carbon black that establishes additional nanoscale pores. Electrodes manufactured with reference mixing result in a porous carbon black network with good overall electric pathways, whereas those manufactured with intensive processing result in a dense carbon black network, leading to good short-range contacts, but a lack of long-range contacts. In this case, the addition of graphite as a conductive additive is identified to establish important additional long-range contacts. Due to the structural differences achieved by the compared processing routes, the calendering process can have a positive or negative impact on battery performance.

  2. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments (United States)

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  3. eDITORIAL 1/2010 - Sport in den Medien - Medien und Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Krucsay


    Full Text Available Die Fußball-Weltmeisterschaft in Südafrika wirft auch in den MEDIENIMPULSEn ihre Schatten voraus: Ein großes Sportereignis, gleichzeitig - wie alle Sportereignisse - ein riesiges Medienspektakel. Ein Widerspruch? Beileibe nicht Werden die Spiele in den südafrikanischen Stadien vor schätzungsweise 20.000 bis 60.000 Menschen pro Match ablaufen, wird die Zahl der ZuschauerInnen vor den Fernsehgeräten auf allen fünf Kontinenten an die 30 Milliarden erreichen (knapp über 26 Milliarden waren es bei der Weltmeisterschaft 2006. Aber nicht nur das: Die Fans vor den Bildschirmen werden durch Wiederholungen, Zeitlupen, Großaufnahmen und unterschiedliche Kamerapositionen viele Aspekte des Spiels sehen, die den BesucherInnen vor Ort verborgen bleiben (müssen. Berücksichtigt man weiters, dass Südafrika die Veranstaltung wohl in erster Linie aus politischen Gründen nationaler Werbung durchführt und dass andererseits die WM überhaupt nur durch exorbitant hohe Übertragungsrechte und durch Werbeeinnahmen, die sich abermals der weltweiten Aufmerksamkeit verdanken, finanzierbar ist, wird deutlich, wie sehr Sport und Medien, Ökonomie und Politik eine fast schon unentwirrbare Symbiose eingegangen sind. Diese Verbindung, die oft als "Sport-Medien-Komplex" bezeichnet wird, war für die Zeitschrift der Anlass, in diesem Schwerpunktheft einen medienwissenschaftlichen Blick auf den Sport und insbesondere den Fußball zu werfen.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi Lahoum


    Full Text Available A new strain of actinobacteria, designated ABH26, was isolated from a Saharan soil in the Adrar region (Algeria, by the dilution agar plating method using a chitin-vitamins B medium supplemented with polymyxin and penicillin. The morphological studies showed that this strain represents a member of the Saccharothrix genus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this strain had 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities ranging from 97.63% (with Saccharothrix violaceirubra NBRC 102064T to 99.86% (with Saccharothrix xinjiangensis NBRC 101911T. Furthermore, strain ABH26 presented a strong activity against mycotoxigenic and phytopathogenic fungi including Aspergillus carbonarius (M333, A. flavus (NRRL 3251, A. westerdijkiae (ATCC 3174, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini (Fol and F. solani (Fsol. Additionally, the strain exhibited an important antimicrobial activity against many strains of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans (M2, M3 and IPA200 and against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA 639c. Thus, four solvents (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol were used for the extraction of produced antibiotic compounds. The highest antimicrobial activities were obtained using the butanolic extract. The thin layer chromatography (TLC method showed two bioactive spots, named HAD1 and HAD2, which were reveled negatively by using chemical revelators (ninhydrin, naphtoresorcinol-sulfuric acid, ferrous iron chloride and formaldehyde-sulfuric. These results indicated the absence of amine group, sugar, hydroxamic acid, phenol and aromatic compound.

  5. Study of Water-Based Lithium Titanate Electrode Processing: The Role of pH and Binder Molecular Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Vieira Carvalho


    Full Text Available This work elucidates the manufacturing of lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12, LTO electrodes via the aqueous process using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, guar gum (GG or pectin as binders. To avoid aluminum current collector dissolution due to the rising slurries’ pH, phosphoric acid (PA is used as a pH-modifier. The electrodes are characterized in terms of morphology, adhesion strength and electrochemical performance. In the absence of phosphoric acid, hydrogen evolution occurs upon coating the slurry onto the aluminum substrate, resulting in the formation of cavities in the coated electrode, as well as poor cohesion on the current collector itself. Consequently, the electrochemical performance of the coated electrodes is also improved by the addition of PA in the slurries. At a 5C rate, CMC/PA-based electrodes delivered 144 mAh·g−1, while PA-free electrodes reached only 124 mAh·g−1. When GG and pectin are used as binders, the adhesion of the coated layers to the current collector is reduced; however, the electrodes show comparable, if not slightly better, electrochemical performance than those based on CMC. Full lithium-ion cells, utilizing CMC/PA-made Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2 (NMC cathodes and LTO anodes offer a stable discharge capacity of ~120 mAh·g−1(NMC with high coulombic efficiencies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Osofisan


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A comprehensive optimisation of the cement production process presents a problem since the input variables as well as the output variables are non-linear, interdependent and contain uncertainties. To arrive at a solution, a Fuzzy Logic controller has been designed to achieve a well-defined relationship between the main and vital variables through the instrumentality of a Fuzzy Model. The Fuzzy Logic controller has been simulated on a digital computer using MATLAB 5.0 Fuzzy Logic Tool Box, using data from a local cement production plant.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die omvattende optimisering van 'n proses wat sement vervaardig, word beskryf deur nie-linieêre inset- en uitsetveranderlikes wat onderling afhanklik is, en ook van onsekere aard is. Om 'n optimum oplossing te verkry, word 'n Wasigheidsmodel gebruik. Die model word getoets deur gebruik te maak van die MATLAB 5.0 Fuzzy Logic Tool Box en data vanaf 'n lokale sementvervaardigingsaanleg.

  7. Co/Ti co-substituted layered LiNiO2 prepared using a concentration gradient method as an effective cathode material for Li-ion batteries (United States)

    Ko, Hyoung Shin; Kim, Jea Han; Wang, Juan; Lee, Jong Dae


    The design of Li-ion batteries with high energy storage capacities and efficiencies is a subject of increased research interest, being of key importance for their large-scale applications and further commercialization. However, conventional Li-ion batteries are expensive and have stability-related concerns, which limit their practical applications. In our search for cheaper and safer Li-ion batteries, we use a concentration gradient method to prepare LiNi0.9Co0.1-xTixO2 (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) cathode materials surface-enriched with Co and Ti that exhibit decreased oxygen loss and improved structural stability. The corresponding crystal structures and morphologies are analyzed by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, with the Ni, Co, and Ti concentration distributions determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The material with the best performance (x = 0.04) exhibits a discharge capacity of 214 mAh g-1 in a charge/discharge voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V (vs. Li/Li+), and possesses an excellent 50-cycle capacity retention of 98.7%. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that partial substitution of Ni with the strongly oxophilic Ti solves the problem of oxygen loss observed in Ni-rich cathode materials such as LiNiO2.

  8. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Skóra


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test. Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air. The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL. It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein.

  9. Tim Rohrmann: Zwei Welten? Geschlechtertrennung in der Kindheit. Opladen u.a.: Budrich UniPress 2008 — Franz-Michael Konrad, Klaudia Schultheis: Kindheit. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer Verlag 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rendtorff


    Full Text Available Rohrmann legt im ersten Teil seines Buches eine sehr breite Literaturstudie zu geschlechtstypischen Themen, vor allem für den Elementarbereich, vor und entwickelt am Ende Perspektiven für Forschung und pädagogisches Handeln. Ihn interessiert dabei in erster Linie die Frage, ob die Professionellen die geschlechtliche Zusammensetzung von Kindergruppen steuern sollen und wie sie mit der bei Kindern verbreiteten Tendenz zur Bildung geschlechtergetrennter Gruppen umzugehen haben. Das Buch von Konrad/Schultheis dagegen ist eine „allgemeine pädagogische Einführung“ in die Kindheit, die erst im letzten Kapitel von der Tatsache der Geschlechtlichkeit von Kindern überrascht wird.In the first section of his book Rohrmann produces a very broad literary study of gender-typical themes, in particular for the primary level, and concludes by developing perspectives for research and pedagogical action. He is first and foremost interested in the question as to whether professionals should guide the gendered configuration of children’s groups and how they should approach the prevailing tendency of children to form separate groups divided along gender lines. The book by Konrad/Schultheis is, in contrast, a “general pedagogical introduction” to childhood that is surprising only in the final chapter when it approaches the actuality of children’s sexuality.

  10. Magie, Hexen und Strafverfolgung Magic, Witches, and Prosecution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker


    Full Text Available In der Reihe „Historische Einführungen“ des Campus Verlags versucht Johannes Dillinger, die Entwicklung von Magie- und Hexereivorstellungen vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart zu beschreiben. Die Hexenverfolgungen und -prozesse der Frühen Neuzeit und ihre Voraussetzungen nehmen dabei etwas mehr als die Hälfte der Gesamtdarstellung ein. Das Buch bietet in erster Linie eine Einführung in die neuere und neueste Sekundärliteratur und die dort besprochenen aktuellen Streitpunkte. In einem Teilabschnitt wird auch auf die Hexenverfolgung als Frauenverfolgung eingegangen und nach Ursachen für den hohen Frauenanteil unter den Verfolgten geforscht.Johannes Dillinger attempts to describe the development of the belief in magic and witches from the Middle Ages to today in his book published in the Campus Verlag series “Introductions to History.” Witch persecutions and prosecutions of the Early Modern period and their preconditions take up more than half of the overall study. In particular, the book provides an introduction to the newer and newest secondary literature and to those issues discussed in this literature. One section also approaches the persecution of witches as the persecution of women and searches for the reasons behind the high percentage of women among the persecuted.

  11. Superconcentrated electrolytes for a high-voltage lithium-ion battery (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Chiang, Ching Hua; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo


    Finding a viable electrolyte for next-generation 5 V-class lithium-ion batteries is of primary importance. A long-standing obstacle has been metal-ion dissolution at high voltages. The LiPF6 salt in conventional electrolytes is chemically unstable, which accelerates transition metal dissolution of the electrode material, yet beneficially suppresses oxidative dissolution of the aluminium current collector; replacing LiPF6 with more stable lithium salts may diminish transition metal dissolution but unfortunately encounters severe aluminium oxidation. Here we report an electrolyte design that can solve this dilemma. By mixing a stable lithium salt LiN(SO2F)2 with dimethyl carbonate solvent at extremely high concentrations, we obtain an unusual liquid showing a three-dimensional network of anions and solvent molecules that coordinate strongly to Li+ ions. This simple formulation of superconcentrated LiN(SO2F)2/dimethyl carbonate electrolyte inhibits the dissolution of both aluminium and transition metal at around 5 V, and realizes a high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite battery that exhibits excellent cycling durability, high rate capability and enhanced safety. PMID:27354162

  12. Impact of Selected LiPF6 Hydrolysis Products on the High Voltage Stability of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. (United States)

    Wagner, Ralf; Korth, Martin; Streipert, Benjamin; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Gallus, Dennis R; Brox, Sebastian; Amereller, Marius; Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora; Winter, Martin


    Diverse LiPF6 hydrolysis products evolve during lithium-ion battery cell operation at elevated operation temperatures and high operation voltages. However, their impact on the formation and stability of the electrode/electrolyte interfaces is not yet investigated and understood. In this work, literature-known hydrolysis products of LiPF6 dimethyl fluorophosphate (DMFP) and diethyl fluorophosphate (DEFP) were synthesized and characterized. The use of DMFP and DEFP as electrolyte additive in 1 M LiPF6 in EC:EMC (1:1, by wt) was investigated in LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/Li half cells. When charged to a cutoff potential of 4.6 V vs Li/Li+, the additive containing cells showed improved cycling stability, increased Coulombic efficiencies, and prolonged shelf life. Furthermore, low amounts (1 wt % in this study) of the aforementioned additives did not show any negative effect on the cycling stability of graphite/Li half cells. DMFP and DEFP are susceptible to oxidation and contribute to the formation of an effective cathode/electrolyte interphase as confirmed by means of electrochemical stability window determination, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of pristine and cycled electrodes, and they are supported by computational calculations.

  13. Blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) as an indicator of radioactive pollution of a forest ecosystem; Heidelbeere (Vaccinium myrtillus) als Indikator fuer die radioaktive Belastung eines Waldoekosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzl, K.; Hiesel, E.; Henrich, E.


    It was the aim of this project to find indicators within the forest ecosystem for pollution with artificial radionuclides. In the first line, the reference nuclide Cs-137 was examined. These biological indicators could be used quickly and comprehensively for analysis in the case of a possible repeated large-area contamination. In addition to mosses, lichens, ferns, various grasses, spruce needles, bark and wood, in particular bilberrry shrubs (Vaccinium myrtillus) were sampled repeatedly. The bilberry offers itself as a possible indicator plant (high incidence in the entire Austrian federal territory, simple sampling, deer feeding plant) and is also important as forest fruit for humans. (orig./EF) [Deutsch] Ziel dieses Projektes war es u.a., innerhalb des Waldoekosystems Indikatoren fuer die Belastung mit kuenstlichen Radionukliden (in erster Linie wurde das Leitnuklid Cs-137 untersucht) zu finden. Diese Bioindikatoren koennten bei einer etwaigen neuerlichen grossraeumigen Kontamination flaechendeckend rasch zur Analyse herangezogen werden. Neben Moosen, Flechten, Farnen, diversen Graesern, Fichtennadeln, Rinde und Holz wurden insbesondere Heidelbeerstauden (Vaccinium myrtillus) sehr zahlreich beprobt, da sich die Heidelbeeren als moegliche Indikatorpflanzen anbieten (hoher Verbreitungsgrad im gesamten oesterreichischen Bundesbebiet, einfache Probenahme, Aesungspflanzen) und auch als Waldfruechte fuer den Menschen von Bedeutung sind. (orig./EF)

  14. Effective Suppression of Dendritic Lithium Growth Using an Ultrathin Coating of Nitrogen and Sulfur Codoped Graphene Nanosheets on Polymer Separator for Lithium Metal Batteries. (United States)

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Kannan, Aravindaraj G; Kim, Dong-Won


    The enhanced stability of lithium metal is vital to the development of high energy density lithium batteries due to its higher specific capacity and low redox potential. Herein, we demonstrate that nitrogen and sulfur codoped graphene (NSG) nanosheets coated on a polyethylene separator stabilized the lithium electrode in lithium metal batteries by effectively suppressing dendrite growth and maintaining a uniform ionic flux on the metal surface. The ultrathin layer of NSG nanosheets also improved the dimensional stability of the polymer separator at elevated temperatures. In addition, the enhanced interfacial interaction between the NSG-coated separator and lithium metal via electrostatic attraction released the surface tension of lithium metal and suppressed the initiation of dendrite growth on lithium metal. As a result, the electrochemical performance of a lithium metal cell composed of a LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 positive electrode with an NSG-coated separator was remarkably improved as compared to the cell with an uncoated polyethylene separator.

  15. Facile and Reliable in Situ Polymerization of Poly(Ethyl Cyanoacrylate)-Based Polymer Electrolytes toward Flexible Lithium Batteries. (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Chai, Jingchao; Du, Huiping; Duan, Yulong; Xie, Guangwen; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei


    Polycyanoacrylate is a very promising matrix for polymer electrolyte, which possesses advantages of strong binding and high electrochemical stability owing to the functional nitrile groups. Herein, a facile and reliable in situ polymerization strategy of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) (PECA) based gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) via a high efficient anionic polymerization was introduced consisting of PECA and 4 M LiClO4 in carbonate solvents. The in situ polymerized PECA gel polymer electrolyte achieved an excellent ionic conductivity (2.7 × 10-3 S cm-1) at room temperature, and exhibited a considerable electrochemical stability window up to 4.8 V vs Li/Li+. The LiFePO4/PECA-GPE/Li and LiNi1.5Mn0.5O4/PECA-GPE/Li batteries using this in-situ-polymerized GPE delivered stable charge/discharge profiles, considerable rate capability, and excellent cycling performance. These results demonstrated this reliable in situ polymerization process is a very promising strategy to prepare high performance polymer electrolytes for flexible thin-film batteries, micropower lithium batteries, and deformable lithium batteries for special purpose.

  16. Development of complex hydride-based all-solid-state lithium ion battery applying low melting point electrolyte (United States)

    Suzuki, Shohei; Kawaji, Jun; Yoshida, Koji; Unemoto, Atsushi; Orimo, Shin-ichi


    A thermally durable all-solid-state lithium ion battery composed of a complex hydride, oxide electrolytes, and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 active material is developed. This battery exhibits a discharge capacity of 56 mAh g-1, and the tenth capacity retention ratio is 29% at 150 °C owing to the large contact resistance between the electrolyte layer and the composite positive electrode layer. This large contact resistance is reduced by introducing an adhesive layer comprised of a mixture of LiBH4 and LiNH2 that is easily melted by thermal treatment and fills the voids and pores at the interface between the two layers. As a result, repeated charge-discharge cycles are successfully demonstrated at 150 °C with a high discharge capacity and discharge capacity retention ratio. The first discharge capacity is enhanced to 114 mAh g-1 and the capacity retention ratio at the tenth cycle is improved to 71%. These results demonstrate that using an adhesive layer is an effective measure to reduce the contact resistance and thereby enhance the performance of the battery.

  17. Enabling LiTFSI-based electrolytes for safer lithium-ion batteries by using linear fluorinated carbonates as (Co)solvent. (United States)

    Kalhoff, Julian; Bresser, Dominic; Bolloli, Marco; Alloin, Fannie; Sanchez, Jean-Yves; Passerini, Stefano


    In this Full Paper we show that the use of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) as conducting salt in commercial lithium-ion batteries is made possible by introducing fluorinated linear carbonates as electrolyte (co)solvents. Electrolyte compositions based on LiTFSI and fluorinated carbonates were characterized regarding their ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability towards oxidation and with respect to their ability to form a protective film of aluminum fluoride on the aluminum surface. Moreover, the investigation of the electrochemical performance of standard lithium-ion anodes (graphite) and cathodes (Li[Ni1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 ]O2 , NMC) in half-cell configuration showed stable cycle life and good rate capability. Finally, an NMC/graphite full-cell confirmed the suitability of such electrolyte compositions for practical lithium-ion cells, thus enabling the complete replacement of LiPF6 and allowing the realization of substantially safer lithium-ion batteries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Fluorine-donating electrolytes enable highly reversible 5-V-class Li metal batteries. (United States)

    Suo, Liumin; Xue, Weijiang; Gobet, Mallory; Greenbaum, Steve G; Wang, Chao; Chen, Yuming; Yang, Wanlu; Li, Yangxing; Li, Ju


    Lithium metal has gravimetric capacity ∼10× that of graphite which incentivizes rechargeable Li metal batteries (RLMB) development. A key factor that limits practical use of RLMB is morphological instability of Li metal anode upon electrodeposition, reflected by the uncontrolled area growth of solid-electrolyte interphase that traps cyclable Li, quantified by the Coulombic inefficiency (CI). Here we show that CI decreases approximately exponentially with increasing donatable fluorine concentration of the electrolyte. By using up to 7 m of Li bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in fluoroethylene carbonate, where both the solvent and the salt donate F, we can significantly suppress anode porosity and improve the Coulombic efficiency to 99.64%. The electrolyte demonstrates excellent compatibility with 5-V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode and Al current collector beyond 5 V. As a result, an RLMB full cell with only 1.4× excess lithium as the anode was demonstrated to cycle above 130 times, at industrially significant loading of 1.83 mAh/cm2 and 0.36 C. This is attributed to the formation of a protective LiF nanolayer, which has a wide bandgap, high surface energy, and small Burgers vector, making it ductile at room temperature and less likely to rupture in electrodeposition.

  19. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Wrapped Nickel-Rich Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Young-Min; Park, Miji; Kim, Jongsik; Lee, Sanghun


    The encapsulation of Ni-rich cathode materials (LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2) for lithium ion batteries in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets is introduced to improve electrochemical performances. Using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, the active materials are completely wrapped with several rGO layers of ∼2 nm thickness. By virtue of the great electrical conductivity of graphene, the rGO-coated cathode materials exhibit much enhanced electrochemical performances of cycling property and rate capability. In addition, it is shown that the structural degradation of the active materials, which is from the rhombohedral layered structure (R3̅m) to the spinel (Fd3̅m) or rock-salt phase (Fm3̅m), is significantly reduced as well as delayed due to the protection of the active materials in the rGO layers from direct contact with electrolytes and the consequent suppression of side reactions.

  20. Einfluss des Internets auf das Informations-, Einkaufs- und Verkehrsverhalten (United States)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter

    Mit Daten aus eigenen Erhebungen können das einkaufsbezogene Informations- und Einkaufsverhalten im Zusammenhang mit den verkehrlichen Aspekten (Distanzen, Verkehrsmittel, Wegekopplungen) dargestellt werden. Die Differenzierung in die drei Produktkategorien des täglichen, mittelfristigen und des langfristigen Bedarfs berücksichtigt in erster Linie die Wertigkeit eines Gutes, die seine Erwerbshäufigkeit unmittelbar bestimmt. Der Einsatz moderner IKT wie das Internet eröffnet dem Endverbraucher neue Möglichkeiten bei Information und Einkauf. Die verkehrliche Relevanz von Online-Shopping wird deutlich, wenn man berücksichtigt, dass im Mittel rund 17% aller Online-Einkäufe, die die Probanden durchgeführt haben, Einkäufe in Ladengeschäften ersetzen. Dies gilt in verstärktem Maße für Online-Informationen: etwa die Hälfte hätte alternativ im stationären Einzelhandel stattgefunden. Da der Erwerb von Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs häufig nahräumlich und in relevantem Anteil nicht-motorisiert erfolgen kann, sind in diesem Segment - im Gegensatz zum mittel- und langfristigen Bedarf - nur geringe Substitutionseffekte zu beobachten.

  1. Integrated municipal wind power concepts; Windenergienutzung im staedtischen Verbund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbert, D.; Richert, F. [Ventis Energietechnik GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)


    The role of wind power in the industrial sector currently depends very much on its technical and economic integrability in existing conventional supply structures. The most important questions in this context relate to capacity effects, adapted operating methods of conventional power suppliers, and, most important of all, operational energy production costs. In some regions alternative energy supply concepts are not yet or not sufficiently available. However, these will nevertheless offer ways of installing energy systems with a large renewable segment. The chances of bringing such projects to fruition depend for one thing on the climate, which may either stimulate or deter from development work on renewables (wind power, solar energy), and for another, often in apparent opposition to the former, on the oftentimes poorly developed infrastructure and economic strength of the region in question. [Deutsch] Die Bedeutung der Windenergienutzung im industrialisierten Bereich ist derzeit verknuepft mit deren technischen und oekonomischen Integrationsfaehigkeit in bestehende, konventionelle Versorgungsstrukturen. Im Vordergrund steht hierbei die Klaerung der Fragestellungen nach Kapazitaetseffekten, angepassten Betriebsweisen konventioneller Stromerzeuger und, in erster Linie, betriebswirtschaftlichen Energieerzeugungskosten. Derzeit bieten die Regionen, in denen eine anderweitige Versorgung noch nicht oder in nicht ausreichendem Masse existieren Moeglichkeiten zur Installation von Energiesystemen mit hoher regenerativer Durchdringung. Fuer die Realisation solcher Projekte stehen sich haeufig die klimatischen Bedingungen, die einerseits z.T. die Ursache fuer den geringen Entwicklungsstand sind, andererseits aber auch guenstige Voraussetzungen fuer die Nutzung regenerativer Energien (Wind, Sonne) bieten, der meist schlechten Infrastruktur und der geringen Wirtschaftskraft gegenueber. (orig./MSK)

  2. Improving cycle life of layered lithium transition metal oxide (LiMO2) based positive electrodes for Li ion batteries by smart selection of the electrochemical charge conditions (United States)

    Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Evertz, Marco; Streipert, Benjamin; Wagner, Ralf; Nowak, Sascha; Cekic Laskovic, Isidora; Winter, Martin


    Increasing the specific energy of a lithium ion battery and maintaining its cycle life is a predominant goal and major challenge for electrochemical energy storage applications. Focusing on the positive electrode as the specific energy bottleneck, cycle life characteristics of promising layered oxide type active materials (LiMO2) has been thoroughly investigated. Comparing the variety of LiMO2 compositions, it could be shown that the ;Ni-rich; (Ni ≥ 60% for M in LiMO2) electrodes expectably revealed best performance compromises between specific energy and cycle life at 20 °C, but only LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC622) could also maintain sufficient cycle performance at elevated temperatures. Focusing on NMC622, it could be demonstrated that the applied electrochemical conditions (charge capacity, delithiation amount) in the formation cycles significantly influence the subsequent cycling performance. Moreover, the insignificant transition metal dissolution, demonstrated by means of total X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique, and unchanged lithiation degree in the discharged state, determined by the measurement of the Li+ content by means of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) technique, pointed to a delithiation (charge) hindrance capacity fade mechanism. Considering these insights, thoughtful modifications of the electrochemical charge conditions could significantly prolong the cycle life.

  3. Intrinsic origin of intra-granular cracking in Ni-rich layered oxide cathode materials. (United States)

    Min, Kyoungmin; Cho, Eunseog


    Mechanical degradation phenomena in layered oxide cathode materials during electrochemical cycling have limited their long-term usage because they deteriorate the structural stability and result in a poor capacity retention rate. Among them, intra-granular cracking inside primary particles progressively degrades the performance of the cathode but comprehensive understanding of its intrinsic origin is still lacking. In this study, the mechanical properties of the primary particle in a Ni-rich layered oxide cathode material (LiNi 0.8 Co 0.1 Mn 0.1 O 2 ) are investigated under tensile and compressive deformation towards both in-plane and out-of-plane directions within the density functional theory framework. The Young's modulus and maximum strength values indicate that the pristine structure is more vulnerable to tensile deformation than compression. In addition, delithiation significantly deteriorates the mechanical properties regardless of the direction of deformation. In particular, a substantial degree of anisotropy is observed, indicating that the mechanical properties in the out-of-plane direction are much weaker than those in the in-plane direction. Particular weakness in that direction is further confirmed using heterogeneously delithiated structures as well as by calculating the accumulated mechanical stress values inside during delithiation. A comparison of the mechanical properties of the structure with a lower Ni content (Ni = 33%) demonstrates that the Ni-rich material is slightly weaker and hence its intra-granular cracking could become accelerated during cycling.

  4. The storage degradation of an 18650 commercial cell studied using neutron powder diffraction (United States)

    Lee, Po-Han; Wu, She-huang; Pang, Wei Kong; Peterson, Vanessa K.


    Commercial 18650 lithium ion cells containing a blended positive electrode of layered LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 and spinel Li1.1Mn1.9O4 alongside a graphite negative electrode were stored at various depth-of-discharge (DoD) at 60 °C for 1, 2, 4, and 6 months. After storage, the cells were cycled at C/25 at 25 °C between 2.75 and 4.2 V for capacity determination and incremental capacity analysis (ICA). In addition to ICA analysis, the mechanism for capacity fade was investigated by combining the results of neutron powder diffraction under in-situ and operando conditions, in conjunction with post-mortem studies of the electrodes using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Among the cells, those stored at 25% DoD suffered the highest capacity fade due to their higher losses of active Li, NMC, and LMO than cells stored at other DoD. The cells stored at 0% DoD shows second high capacity fade because they exhibit the highest of active LMO and graphite anode among the stored cells and higher losses of active Li and NMC than cells stored at 50% DoD.

  5. Olivine-Based Blended Compounds as Positive Electrodes for Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien


    Full Text Available Blended cathode materials made by mixing LiFePO4 (LFP with LiMnPO4 (LMP or LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC that exhibit either high specific energy and high rate capability were investigated. The layered blend LMP–LFP and the physically mixed blend NMC–LFP are evaluated in terms of particle morphology and electrochemical performance. Results indicate that the LMP–LFP (66:33 blend has a better discharge rate than the LiMn1−yFeyPO4 with the same composition (y = 0.33, and NMC–LFP (70:30 delivers a remarkable stable capacity over 125 cycles. Finally, in situ voltage measurement methods were applied for the evaluation of the phase evolution of blended cathodes and gradual changes in cell behavior upon cycling. We also discuss through these examples the promising development of blends as future electrodes for new generations of Li-ion batteries.

  6. Úvodník letošního prvního čísla časopisu Bedrník

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kolářová


    Full Text Available Co je inteligentní využívání energie?Uspokojování základních energetických potřeb jednotlivců a společnosti, které: využívá co nejmenšího množství primární energie, zaručuje snížení energetických a ekonomických nákladů pro konečného uživatele, snižuje dopad na životní prostředí, zaručuje trvale udržitelnou správu energetických zdrojů a systémů v globálním měřítku. Tak ho popisuje brožurka střediska ekologické výchovy Sever k projektu Školy pro inteligentní využívání energie, který představuje pěknou příležitost – nabízí moderní metodiku vedení projektu, formou dějové linie.

  7. Über die des dialekts von Prekmurje in der volks – und Schriftsprache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilko Novak


    Full Text Available Das ca 1000 km2 umfangreiche Land Prekmurje (Übermurgebiet, zwischen der Mur und Raab (Rába, ist der nördlichste Teil der SR Slowenien. Weil das Land bis zum 12. 8. 1919 zu Ungarn gehörte, war es nationalpolitisch und kulturell vom übrigen Slowenentum in Österreich ganz abgetrennt. Die geringe literarische Tätigkeit - in erster Linie für religiöse, volkserbauliche und unterhaltsame Zwecke - konnte sich von 1715 weiter nur im einheimis.chen Dialekt entwickeln. So entstanden zuerst für die Evangelischen bestimmte Katechismen, Lasebücher und als Gipfel- ' punkt: die Übersetzung des Neuen Testaments von Števan Kuzmič (Nouvi Zákon ali Testamentom ••• Halle, 1771. An diese knüpften sich später die Psalmenübersetzung von Aleksander Terplan (1848, kirchliche Gesangbücher (von Mihál Bakoš 1789, Mihál Barla 1823, Jánoš Kardoš 1848', die auch das alte, zuerst im Grunde im kajkavischen Dialekt verfasste Liedergut in handschriftlichen Gesangbüchern (vom 17. Jh. weiter aufgenommen haben.

  8. Morphology, Molecular Genetics, and Bioacoustics Support Two New Sympatric Xenophrys Toads (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) in Southeast China (United States)

    Wang, Yingyong; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Jianhuan; Zhou, Zhixin; Chen, Guoling; Liu, Yang


    Given their recent worldwide declines and extinctions, characterization of species-level diversity is of critical importance for large-scale biodiversity assessments and conservation of amphibians. This task is made difficult by the existence of cryptic species complexes, species groups comprising closely related and morphologically analogous species. The combination of morphology, genetic, and bioacoustic analyses permits robust and accurate species identification. Using these methods, we discovered two undescribed Xenophrys species, namely Xenophrys lini sp. nov. and Xenophrys cheni sp. nov. from the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains, southeast China. These two new species can be reliably distinguished from other known congeners by morphological and morphometric differences, distinctness in male advertisement calls, and substantial genetic distances (>3.6%) based on the mitochondrial 16s and 12s rRNA genes. The two new species, together with X. jinggangensis, are sympatric in the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains but may be isolated altitudinally and ecologically. Our study provides a first step to help resolve previously unrecognized cryptic biodiversity and provides insights into the understanding of Xenophrys diversification in the mountain complexes of southeast China. PMID:24714161

  9. Current and Prospective Li-Ion Battery Recycling and Recovery Processes (United States)

    Heelan, Joseph; Gratz, Eric; Zheng, Zhangfeng; Wang, Qiang; Chen, Mengyuan; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan


    The lithium ion (Li-ion) battery industry has been growing exponentially since its initial inception in the late 20th century. As battery materials evolve, the applications for Li-ion batteries have become even more diverse. To date, the main source of Li-ion battery use varies from consumer portable electronics to electric/hybrid electric vehicles. However, even with the continued rise of Li-ion battery development and commercialization, the recycling industry is lagging; approximately 95% of Li-ion batteries are landfilled instead of recycled upon reaching end of life. Industrialized recycling processes are limited and only capable of recovering secondary raw materials, not suitable for direct reuse in new batteries. Most technologies are also reliant on high concentrations of cobalt to be profitable, and intense battery sortation is necessary prior to processing. For this reason, it is critical that a new recycling process be commercialized that is capable of recovering more valuable materials at a higher efficiency. A new technology has been developed by the researchers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute which is capable of recovering LiNi x Mn y Co z O2 cathode material from a hydrometallurgical process, making the recycling system as a whole more economically viable. By implementing a flexible recycling system that is closed-loop, recycling of Li-ion batteries will become more prevalent saving millions of pounds of batteries from entering the waste stream each year.

  10. Evoluţia diversităţii structurale şi compoziţionale a arboretelor cu ajutorul indicelui UMF: un studiu de caz la nivel de unitate de producţie[The evolution of stand structural and compositional diversity assessed with the UMF index: A case study at production unit level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Catalin Burlui


    Full Text Available In this article we present the UMF index (Uneven-aged, Mixed, Forest an index because the forest management, whose values are determined easily, data from management planning are the main support. The study was conducted in the Suha Mare area from Mălini, Suceava county. Wet analyzed stand descriptions for all stands for two periods (1956, 1995, using structural and site characteristics required by index. Data were obtained from management plans of the studied forest area. The index values were calculated for each stand, and its value for the total forest area was determined by summing the values calculated for stand, weighted by stand area. Index values vary between the two periods analyzed (1956, 1995, there are differences from a subplot to another, which is explained by the different treatments applied, the number of tree species and the structural heterogeneity, but also - for 1995 - by functional zoning that changed the forest management. UMF index is a good tool to determine structural and compositional diversity of a given area, using data from forest management plans. The results can be analyzed for longer periods of time and may indicate the direction of evolution of an area in relation with anthropogenic changes: from even-aged structure to uneven-aged, from monocultures to mixed stands.

  11. Correlation of aging and thermal stability of commercial 18650-type lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Börner, M.; Friesen, A.; Grützke, M.; Stenzel, Y. P.; Brunklaus, G.; Haetge, J.; Nowak, S.; Schappacher, F. M.; Winter, M.


    Established safety of lithium ion batteries is key for the vast diversity of applications. The influence of aging on the thermal stability of individual cell components and complete cells is of particular interest. Commercial 18650-type lithium ion batteries based on LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2/C are investigated after cycling at different temperatures. The variations in the electrochemical performance are mainly attributed to aging effects on the anode side considering the formation of an effective solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) during cycling at 45 °C and a thick decomposition layer on the anode surface at 20 °C. The thermal stability of the anodes is investigated including the analysis of the evolving gases which confirmed the severe degradation of the electrolyte and active material during cycling at 20 °C. In addition, the presence of metallic lithium deposits could strongly affect the thermal stability. Thermal safety tests using quasi-adiabatic conditions show variations in the cells response to elevated temperatures according to the state-of-charge, i.e. a reduced reactivity in the discharged state. Furthermore, it is revealed that the onset of exothermic reactions correlates with the thermal stability of the SEI, while the thermal runaway is mainly attributed to the decomposition of the cathode and the subsequent reactions with the electrolyte.

  12. [4,4‧-bi(1,3,2-dioxathiolane)] 2,2‧-dioxide: A novel cathode additive for high-voltage performance in lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Sukeun; Hwang, Eui-Hyung; Kwon, Young-Gil; Lee, Young-Gi; Cho, Kuk Young


    High-voltage operation of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is a facile approach to obtaining high specific energy density, especially for LiNi0·5Mn0·3Co0·2O2 (NMC532) cathodes currently used in mid- and large-sized energy storage devices. However, high-voltage charging (>4.3 V) is accompanied by a rapid capacity fade over long cycles due to severe continuous electrolyte decomposition and instability at the cathode surface. In this study, the sulfite-based compound, [4,4‧-bi(1,3,2-dioxathiolane)] 2,2‧-dioxide (BDTD) is introduced as a novel electrolyte additive to enhance electrochemical performances of alumina-coated NMC532 cathodes cycled in the voltage range of 3.0-4.6 V. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and AC impedance of cells reveal that BDTD preferentially oxidizes prior to the electrolyte solvents and forms stable film layers on to the cathode surface, preventing increased impedance caused by repeated electrolyte solvent decomposition in high-voltage operation. The cycling performance of the Li/NMC532 half-cell using an electrolyte of 1.0 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate (3/7, in volume) can be improved by adding a small amount of BDTD into the electrolyte. BDTD enables the usage of sulfite-type additives for cathodes in high-voltage operation.

  13. In situ strain evolution during a disconnection event in a battery nanoparticle. (United States)

    Ulvestad, Andrew; Clark, Jesse N; Singer, Andrej; Vine, David; Cho, H M; Harder, Ross; Meng, Ying Shirley; Shpyrko, Oleg G


    Lithium ion batteries are the dominant form of energy storage in mobile devices, increasingly employed in transportation, and likely candidates for renewable energy storage and integration into the electrical grid. To fulfil their powerful potential, electrodes with increased capacity, faster charge rates, and longer cycle life must be developed. Understanding the mechanics and chemistry of individual nanoparticles under in situ conditions is a crucial step to improving performance and mitigating damage. Here we reveal three-dimensional strain evolution within a single nanoparticle of a promising high voltage cathode material, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, under in situ conditions. The particle becomes disconnected during the second charging cycle. This is attributed to the formation of a cathode electrolyte interphase layer with slow ionic conduction. The three-dimensional strain pattern within the particle is independent of cell voltage after disconnection, indicating that the particle is unable to redistribute lithium within its volume or to its neighbours. Understanding the disconnection process at the single particle level and the equilibrium or non-equilibrium state of nanoparticles is essential to improving performance of current and future electrochemical energy storage systems.

  14. Technology and management. How technological sciences see themselves; Technologie und Management. Zum Selbstverstaendnis der Technikwissenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spur, G.


    This book addresses mainly to representatives of economy, science and also policy, who are responsable for their actions in engineering. It should impart to their actions self image also as rules and regulatory guides to success. As technological oriented guide theory technology management aims at goal-directed utilization of engineering. Doing technology management demands to understand the definitions of technology and management. However engineering, technology and engineering science are not exactly to differentiate. Also it is difficult to classify engineering science. This book will contribute usefully on this and stimulate fruitfully the advancing discussions on the self image of science engineering.(GL) [Deutsch] Das vorliegende Buch richtet sich in erster Linie an Vertreter der Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft aber auch der Politik, die in ihrem Wirken fuer Technik verantwortlich sind. Es sollen Grundlagen zum Selbstverstaendnis ihrer Handlungsprozesse, aber auch Regeln und Leitlinien zum Erfolg vermittelt werden. Als technologieorientierte Fuehrungslehre strebt Technologiemanagement die zielgerichtete Nutzanwendung von Technik an. Wer Technologiemanagement betreibt, muss allerdings wissen, was unter Technologie und Management zu verstehen ist. Jedoch bilden Technik, Technologie und Technikwissenschaft ein Begriffsgemenge unklarer Abgrenzung. Ebenso schwierig erscheint der Versuch einer Einteilung der Technikwissenschaft. Hierzu will dieses Buch einen foerderlichen Beitrag leisten und die auf unterschiedlichen Ebenen fortschreitende Diskussion in bezug auf das Selbstverstaendnis der Technikwissenschaft fruchtbar beleben. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of structural and thermal stability in the positive electrode for sulfide-based all-solid-state lithium batteries (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Otoyama, Misae; Mori, Yota; Mori, Shigeo; Morimoto, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro


    Sulfide-based all-solid-state batteries using a non-flammable inorganic solid electrolyte are promising candidates as a next-generation power source owing to their safety and excellent charge-discharge cycle characteristics. In this study, we thus focus on the positive electrode and investigated structural stabilities of the interface between the positive electrode active material LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) and the 75Li2S·25P2S5 (LPS) glass electrolyte after charge-discharge cycles via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To evaluate the thermal stability of the fabricated all-solid-state cell, in-situ TEM observations for the positive electrode during heating are conducted. As a result, structural and morphological changes are detected in the LPS glasses. Thus, exothermal reaction present in the NMC-LPS composite positive electrode after the initial charging is attributable to the crystallization of LPS glasses. On the basis of a comparison with crystallization behavior in single LPS glasses, the origin of exothermal reaction in the NMC-LPS composites is discussed.

  16. Early insights into the genome sequence of Uromyces fabae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eLink


    Full Text Available Uromyces fabae is a major pathogen of broad bean, Vicia faba. U. fabae has served as a model among rust fungi to elucidate the development of infection structures, expression and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and gene expression. Using U. fabae, enormous progress was made regarding nutrient uptake and metabolism and in the search for secreted proteins and effectors. Here, we present results from a genome survey of U. fabae. Paired end Illumina sequencing provided 53 Gb of data. An assembly gave 59,735 scaffolds with a total length of 216 Mb. K-mer analysis estimated the genome size to be 329 Mb. Of a representative set of 23,153 predicted proteins we could annotate 10,209, and predict 599 secreted proteins. Clustering of the protein set indicates families of highly likely effectors. We also found new homologs of RTP1p, a prototype rust effector. The U. fabae genome will be an important resource for comparative analyses with U. appendiculatus and P. pachyrhizi and provide information regarding the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Uromyces with respect to other rust fungi already sequenced, namely Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, Melampsora lini, and Melampsora larici-populina.

  17. Real-time mass spectroscopy analysis of Li-ion battery electrolyte degradation under abusive thermal conditions (United States)

    Gaulupeau, B.; Delobel, B.; Cahen, S.; Fontana, S.; Hérold, C.


    The lithium-ion batteries are widely used in rechargeable electronic devices. The current challenges are to improve the capacity and safety of these systems in view of their development to a larger scale, such as for their application in electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries use organic solvents because of the wide operating voltage. The corresponding electrolytes are usually based on combinations of linear, cyclic alkyl carbonates and a lithium salt such as LiPF6. It has been reported that in abusive thermal conditions, a catalytic effect of the cathode materials lead to the formation fluoro-organics compounds. In order to understand the degradation phenomenon, the study at 240 °C of the interaction between positive electrode materials (LiCoO2, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4) and electrolyte in dry and wet conditions has been realized by an original method which consists in analyzing by mass spectrometry in real time the volatile molecules produced. The evolution of specific gases channels coupled to the NMR reveal the formation of rarely discussed species such as 2-fluoroethanol and 1,4-dioxane. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of water or other protic impurities greatly influence their formation.

  18. Combined Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy/Inductively Coupled Plasma Analysis As Diagnostics for Soluble Manganese Species from Mn-Based Positive Electrode Materials in Li-ion Cells. (United States)

    Shilina, Yuliya; Ziv, Baruch; Meir, Aviv; Banerjee, Anjan; Ruthstein, Sharon; Luski, Shalom; Aurbach, Doron; Halalay, Ion C


    Manganese dissolution from positive electrodes significantly reduces the durability of lithium-ion batteries. Knowledge of dissolution rates and oxidation states of manganese ions is essential for designing effective mitigation measures for this problem. We show that electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) combined with atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma (ICP) can determine both manganese dissolution rates and relative Mn(3+) amounts, by comparing the correlation between EPR and AAS/ICP data for Mn(2+) standards with that for samples containing manganese cations dissolved from active materials (LiMn2O4 (LMO) and LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 (LNMO)) into the same electrolyte solution. We show that Mn(3+), and not Mn(2+), is the dominant species dissolved from LMO, while Mn(2+) is predominant for LNMO. Although the dissolution rate of LMO varies significantly for the two investigated materials, due to particle morphology and the presence of Cr in one of them, the Mn speciation appears independent of such details. Thus, the relative abundance of dissolved manganese ions in various oxidation states depends mainly on the overall chemical identity of the active material (LMO vs LNMO). We demonstrate the relevance of our methodology for practical batteries with data for graphite-LMO cells after high-temperature cycling or stand at 4.2 V.

  19. Toward practical all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and safety: Comparative study for electrodes fabricated by dry- and slurry-mixing processes (United States)

    Nam, Young Jin; Oh, Dae Yang; Jung, Sung Hoo; Jung, Yoon Seok


    Owing to their potential for greater safety, higher energy density, and scalable fabrication, bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASLBs) employing deformable sulfide superionic conductors are considered highly promising for applications in battery electric vehicles. While fabrication of sheet-type electrodes is imperative from the practical point of view, reports on relevant research are scarce. This might be attributable to issues that complicate the slurry-based fabrication process and/or issues with ionic contacts and percolation. In this work, we systematically investigate the electrochemical performance of conventional dry-mixed electrodes and wet-slurry fabricated electrodes for ASLBs, by varying the different fractions of solid electrolytes and the mass loading. This information calls for a need to develop well-designed electrodes with better ionic contacts and to improve the ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes. As a scalable proof-of-concept to achieve better ionic contacts, a premixing process for active materials and solid electrolytes is demonstrated to significantly improve electrochemical performance. Pouch-type 80 × 60 mm2 all-solid-state LiNi0·6Co0·2Mn0·2O2/graphite full-cells fabricated by the slurry process show high cell-based energy density (184 W h kg-1 and 432 W h L-1). For the first time, their excellent safety is also demonstrated by simple tests (cutting with scissors and heating at 110 °C).

  20. Chemical and structural stability of lithium-ion battery electrode materials under electron beam. (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M; Doeff, Marca M; Xin, Huolin L


    The investigation of chemical and structural dynamics in battery materials is essential to elucidation of structure-property relationships for rational design of advanced battery materials. Spatially resolved techniques, such as scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM), are widely applied to address this challenge. However, battery materials are susceptible to electron beam damage, complicating the data interpretation. In this study, we demonstrate that, under electron beam irradiation, the surface and bulk of battery materials undergo chemical and structural evolution equivalent to that observed during charge-discharge cycling. In a lithiated NiO nanosheet, a Li2CO3-containing surface reaction layer (SRL) was gradually decomposed during electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) acquisition. For cycled LiNi(0.4)Mn(0.4)Co(0.18)Ti(0.02)O2 particles, repeated electron beam irradiation induced a phase transition from an layered structure to an rock-salt structure, which is attributed to the stoichiometric lithium and oxygen removal from 3a and 6c sites, respectively. Nevertheless, it is still feasible to preserve pristine chemical environments by minimizing electron beam damage, for example, using fast electron imaging and spectroscopy. Finally, the present study provides examples of electron beam damage on lithium-ion battery materials and suggests that special attention is necessary to prevent misinterpretation of experimental results.

  1. Novel synthetic approach for 1, 4-dihydroxyanthraquinone and the development of its Lithiated salts as anode material for aqueous rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Gurukar, Suresh Shivappa


    The influence of organic electrode materials in the field of lithium ion battery is becoming a keen interest for the present generation scientists. Here we are reporting a novel method of synthesis of electrode material by the combination of sono-chemical and thermal methods. The advantages of organic active material towards lithium ion battery are of core interest of this study. The structural confirmations are by FT-IR, 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF Mass Spectroscopy and powder XRD data. The electrochemical properties of Lithiated-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone were studied using electrochemical-techniques such as Cyclic Voltammetry, Galvanostatic Cyclic Potential Limitation and Potentiostatic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The satisfactory results towards stability of active species in the aqueous media, reasonable discharge capacity with 0.9 V average voltages and agreeable cycling performance during charge-discharge process with reproducibility are achieved. For the construction of the full cell, the anode material was coupled with the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a cathode material.

  2. In-house fabrication and testing capabilities for Li and Li-ion 18650 cells (United States)

    Nagasubramanian, G.


    For over 10 years Sandia Labs have been involved in an US DOE-funded program aimed at developing electric vehicle batteries for transportation applications. Currently this program is called "Advanced Battery Research (ABR)." In this effort we were preparing 18650 cells with electrodes supplied by or purchased from private companies for thermal abuse and electrical characterization studies. Lately, we are coating our own electrodes, building cells and evaluating performance. This paper describes our extensive in-house facilities for slurry making, electrode coating, cell winding etc. In addition, facilities for electrical testing and thermal abuse will be described. This facility allows us to readjust our focus quickly to the changing demands of the still evolving ABR program. Additionally, we continue to make cells for our internal use. We made several 18650 cells both primary (Li-CFx) and secondary (Li-ion) and evaluated performance. For example Li-CFx cells gave ~2.9Ahr capacity at room temperature. Our high voltage Li-ion cells consisting of carbon anode and cathode based on LiNi 0.4Mn 0.3Co 0.3O2 in organic electrolytes exhibited reproducible behavior and gave capacity on the order of 1Ahr. Performance of Li-ion cells at different temperatures and thermal abuse characteristics will be presented.

  3. Graphite Recycling from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Rothermel, Sergej; Evertz, Marco; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Qi, Xin; Grützke, Martin; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha


    The present work reports on challenges in utilization of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)-an increasingly important aspect associated with a significantly rising demand for electric vehicles (EVs). In this context, the feasibility of anode recycling in combination with three different electrolyte extraction concepts is investigated. The first method is based on a thermal treatment of graphite without electrolyte recovery. The second method additionally utilizes a subcritical carbon-dioxide (subcritical CO2 )-assisted electrolyte extraction prior to thermal treatment. And the final investigated approach uses supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 ) as extractant, subsequently followed by the thermal treatment. It is demonstrated that the best performance of recycled graphite anodes can be achieved when electrolyte extraction is performed using subcritical CO2 . Comparative studies reveal that, in the best case, the electrochemical performance of recycled graphite exceeds the benchmark consisting of a newly synthesized graphite anode. As essential efforts towards electrolyte extraction and cathode recycling have been made in the past, the electrochemical behavior of recycled graphite, demonstrating the best performance, is investigated in combination with a recycled LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 cathode. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. German S3-Guideline: Rectovaginal fistula [Deutsche S3-Leitlinie: Rektovaginale Fistel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ommer, Andreas


    Ursachen stellen Entbindungstraumata, lokale Infektionen und Eingriffe am Rektum dar. Rektovaginale Fisteln bei chronisch-entzündlichen Darmerkrankungen werden in dieser Leitlinie nicht behandelt.Methode: Es wurde ein systematisches Review der Literatur durchgeführt. Ergebnisse: Die Diagnose einer rektovaginalen Fistel ergibt sich aus Anamnese und klinischer Untersuchung. Andere pathologische Veränderungen sollten durch Zusatzuntersuchungen (Endoskopie, Endosonographie, Schichtuntersuchung ausgeschlossen werden. Eine Beurteilung der Sphinkterfunktion ist für die Planung des operativen Vorgehens (Frage der simultanen Sphinkterrekonstruktion sinnvoll.Eine persistierende rektovaginale Fistel kann in der Regel nur durch eine Operation zur Ausheilung gebracht werden. Es wurden verschiedene Operationsverfahren mit niedrigem Evidenzniveau beschrieben. Am häufigsten ist das transrektale Vorgehen mit endorektaler Naht. Der transperineale Zugang kommt in erster Linie bei simultaner Schließmuskelrekonstruktion zur Anwendung. Bei rezidivierenden Fisteln kann durch die Interposition von körpereigenem Gewebe (Martius-Lappen, M.gracilis ein Verschluss erzielt werden. In neuen Studien wurde auch ein Verschluss durch Einbringen von Biomaterialien vorgestellt. Bei höher gelegenen Fisteln kommen auch abdominelle Verfahren zur Anwendung. Häufiger als bei der Behandlung von Analfisteln ist bei der rektovaginalen Fistel eine Stomaanlage erforderlich. Je nach Ätiologie (v.a. Rektumresektion wurde bei einem Teil der Patientinnen bereits ein Stoma im Rahmen der Primäroperation angelegt. Die Indikation zur Stomaanlage sollte sich in erster Linie nach dem Ausmaß des lokalen Defektes und der daraus resultierenden Belastung der betroffenen Frau richten.Schlussfolgerung: In dieser klinischen Leitlinie werden zum ersten Mal in Deutschland Richtlinien für die Behandlung der rektovaginalen Fisteln basierend auf einer systematischen Literaturanalyse vorgestellt. Aufgrund des niedrigen

  5. Pharmacologic Rhythm Control versus Rate Control in Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Gladys


    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF with atrial fibrillation (AF is correlated with worse prognosis requiring special approach.Rate control has been the first line of treatment in cases of HF and HF. On the other hand, rhythm controlhas been proven to be effective in returning sinus rhythm resulting in better prognosis for patients with HFbut not HF. Its role in cocurring cases of HF and AF is not fully understood. Thus, this study aims to analysewhether pharmacologic rhythm control can be applied to cases of HF and AF to reduce mortality. A searchwas conducted via PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, and Cochrane Database on January 2016. One study wasselected after filtering process by inclusion and exclusion criteria and critical appraisal was performed. It wasfound that there was rhythm control and rate control do no have favouring effect towards mortality shown byRR 1.03 (95% CI 0.90-1.17, p=0.69. Rate control has protective effect towards hospitalizations by RR of 0.92(95% CI 0.86 – 0.98, p=0.008, NNT=19. To conclude, rhythm control is not superior to rate control in reducingmortality and rate control should be still be considered as first line treatment of HF and AF. Keywords: heart failure, pharmacologic rhythm control, rate control, atrial fibrillation   Farmakologis Rhythm Control Dibandingkan dengan Rate Control padaKasus Gagal Jantung dan Atrial Fibrilasi Abstrak Gagal jantung dengan atrial fibrilasi berhubungan dengan prognosis yang lebih buruk dan membutuhkanpenanganan khusus. Saat ini strategi rate control merupakan terapi lini pertama pada kasus gagal jantungdan atrial fibrilasi. Rhythm control memberikan prognosis yang lebih baik pada pasien gagal jantung denganmengembalikan sinus ritme. Kegunaan rhythm control pada kasus gagal jantung dan atrial fibrilasi sampaisaat ini belum sepenuhnya dimengerti. Tujuan studi ini adalah menelaah apakah terapi farmakologis rhythmcontrol dapat menurunkan mortalitas gagal jantung dan atrial fibrilasi. Pencarian data

  6. Editorial zum Tagungsband: Spannungsfelder und blinde Flecken. Medienpädagogik zwischen Emanzipationsanspruch und Diskursvermeidung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kommer


    und Selbstermächtigung orientierte Linie, die sich in ausserschulischen Settings subjekt- und ressourcenorientiert die Medien als Instrumente subversiver Strategien und/oder der Identitätskonstruktion angeeignet hat. Oft nur bedingt an diese anschlussfähig ist eine schulpädagogische Linie, die ihren Ausgang bei der ‹Film- und Medienerziehung› genommen hat und inzwischen stärker auf Kompetenzerwerb fokussiert. Daneben findet sich dann noch eine (vielfältig ausdifferenzierte ‹Mediendidaktik›, die immer wieder technologie-euphorisch innovatives Lernen versprochen hat. Positiv gewendet, zeigt bereits diese kleine Skizze, dass die Medienpädagogik als erziehungswissenschaftliche Disziplin darauf verweisen kann, wie intensiv Theoriebildung, Forschung und Praxis gegenwärtig in einem breiten Spektrum von Ansätzen, Forschungsschwerpunkten und ‹Schulen› vollzogen wird. Das Fach ist also sehr lebendig – erscheint aber aus der Perspektive externer Beobachter möglicherweise auch als diffus.

  7. Energy storage improvement through material science approaches (United States)

    Kelly, Brandon Joseph

    A need for improved energy storage is apparent for the improvement of our society. Lithium ion batteries are one of the leading energy storage technologies being researched today. These batteries typically utilize coupled reduction/oxidation reactions with intercalation reactions in crystalline metal oxides with lithium ions as charge carriers to produce efficient and high power energy storage options. The cathode material (positive electrode) has been an emphasis in the recent research as it is currently the weakest link of the battery. Several systems of cathode materials have been studied with different structures and chemical makeup, all having advantages and disadvantages. One focus of the research presented below was creating a low cost and high performance cathode material by creating a composite of the low cost spinel structured LiMn2O4 and the higher capacity layered structure materials. Two compositional diagrams were used to map out the composition space between end members which include two dimensional layer structured LiCoO 2, LiNiO2, LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 and three dimensional spinel structured LiMn2O4. Several compositions in each composition map were electrochemically tested and structurally characterized in an attempt to discover a high performance cathode material with a lower cost precursor. The best performing composition in each system shows the desired mixed phase of the layered and spinel crystal structures, yielding improved performance versus the individual end member components. The surrounding compositions were then tested in order to find the optimum composition and performance. The best performing composition was 0.2LiCoO 2•0.7LiNi0.8Co0.2O2•0.1LiMn 2O4 and yielded a specific capacity of 182mAh/g. Another promising area of chemical energy storage is in the storage of hydrogen gas in chemical hydrides. Hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel in a variety of applications as a viable method for storing and transporting energy. Currently, the

  8. Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance Characteristics of Cr-Co-Mo Alloys Designed for Prosthetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustyn-Pieniążek J.


    Full Text Available W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań mikroskopowych dwóch stopów: Co-Cr-Mo i Co-Cr-W-Mo wraz z ilościową ana- lizą punktową składu chemicznego przy wykorzystaniu mikroanalizatora rentgenowskiego EDS. W ramach pracy wykonano również badania odporności korozyjnej stopów w środowisku sztucznej śliny. Mikrostruktura badanych stopów miała budowę dendrytyczną. W przestrzeniach międzydendrytycznych występowała eutektyka składająca się z węglików stopowych i auste- nitu kobaltowego. Osnowę dendrytyczną stanowił roztwór stały chromu, molibdenu i węgla w kobalcie (yCo, zaś wydzielenia występujące w obszarach międzydendrytycznych były bogate w Cr i Mo - w przypadku stopu Co-Cr-Mo oraz W i Mo - w przypadku stopu Co-Cr-W-Mo. Analizowane materiały wykazywały zbliżone przebiegi krzywych polaryzacji. Z otrzymanych wartości potencjału bezprądowego oraz na podstawie szerokiego obszaru pasywacji tych stopów można wnioskować o ich wysokiej odporności korozyjnej w badanym środowisku.

  9. Is die ortodoksie se verstaan van die sondeval belemmerend vir die gesprek tussen teologie en natuurwetenskap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag


    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel is betoog dat die Gereformeerde Ortodoksie se begrip van die sondeval ’n  belemmering  was  vir  die  gesprek  tussen  teologie  en  natuurwetenskap.  Die  rede hiervoor was dat dit ten eerste ’n bepaalde verstaan van liniêre tyd nahou en ten tweede dat dit ’n bonatuurlike ingryp veronderstel het. Albei hierdie aspekte het die debat onnodig problematiseer. Die argument is ontwikkel deur eerstens die probleem te definieer, gevolg deur ’n uiteensetting van die standpunte van Augustinus en Calvyn onderskeidelik oor die sondeval. As ’n heuristiese sleutel is die konsepte van infralapsarisme en supralapsarisme aangewend om die tema te ontleed. Die artikel is afgesluit met die oortuiging dat die imago Dei ’n beliggaamde menslike persoon is wat biologies in die geskiedenis in terme van selfbewussyn en morele verantwoordelikheid ontluik het. Is the Orthodoxy’s notion of the Fall inhibitory for the dialogue between theology and science? In this article it was argued that the Reformed Orthodoxy’s interpretation of the Fall had become an impediment in the dialogue between theology and science. The reason was that it assumed firstly a specific understanding of linear time and secondly a metaphysical intervention. Both events were unnecessarily problematising the debate. The argument was deployed by stating the problem, followed by an exposition of the views of Augustine and Calvin on the Fall. As a heuristic key, the concepts of infralapsarism and supralapsarism were applied respectively to analyse the topic. The article concluded with the conviction that the imago Dei is an embodied human person that had biologically emerged in history as a center of self-awareness, and moral responsibility.

  10. Uptake of Carbamazepine by rhizomes and endophytic bacteria of Phragmites australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres eSauvetre


    Full Text Available Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic and mood-stabilizing drug which is used widely in Europe and North America. In the environment, it is found as a persistent and recalcitrant conta¬mi-nant, being one of the most prominent hazardous pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs in effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. Phragmites australis is one of the species with both, the highest potential of detoxification and phytoremediation. It has been used successfully in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Recently, the identification of endophytic micro¬organisms from different plant species growing in contaminated sites has provided a list of candidates which could be used as bio-inoculants for bioremediation of difficult compounds. In this study, Phragmites australis plants were exposed to 5 mg/L of carbamazepine. After 9 days the plants had removed 90% of the initial concentration. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from these plants and further characterized. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the majority of these isolates belong to three groups: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Carbamazepine uptake and plant growth promoting (PGP traits were analyzed among the isolates. Ninety percent of the isolates produce indole acetic acid (IAA and all of them possess at least one of the PGP traits tested. One isolate identified as Chryseobacterium taeanense combines good carbamazepine uptake and all of the PGP traits. Rhizobium daejeonense can remove carbamazepine and produces 23 µg/mL of IAA. Diaphorobacter nitroreducens and Achromobacter mucicolens are suitable for carbamazepine removal while both, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas lini show high siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. Alone or in combination, these isolates might be applied as inoculates in constructed wetlands in order to enhance the phyto-remediation of carbamazepine during wastewater

  11. Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs; Eignung von Thermolumineszenz-, Chemilumineszenz-, ESR- und Viskositaetsmessungen zur Identifizierung strahlenbehandelter Arzneidrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuettler, C.; Gebhardt, G.; Stock, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.


    Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary`s thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Eignung von Chemilumineszenz-, ESR-, Thermolumineszenz- und Viskositaetsmessungen als Nachweismethode fuer die Behandlung von Arzneidrogen mit ionisierenden Strahlen wurde an Anis, Baldrianwurzel, Baerentraubenblaettern, Birkenblaettern, Bockshornsamen, Cayennepfeffer, Faulbaumrinde, Fenchel, Hagebuttenschalen, Huflattichblaettern

  12. Pulsed sonication for alumina coatings on high-capacity oxides: Performance in lithium-ion cells (United States)

    Pol, Vilas G.; Li, Yan; Dogan, Fulya; Secor, Ethan; Thackeray, Michael M.; Abraham, Daniel P.


    High-capacity xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Ni, Mn, Co) oxides show relatively rapid performance degradation when cycled at voltages >4.5 V vs. Li/Li+. Previous research has indicated that modifying the oxide surfaces with coatings, such as alumina, reduces cell impedance rise and improves capacity retention. In this article, we demonstrate pulsed-sonication as a rapid and effective approach for coating alumina on Li1.2Ni0.175Mn0.525Co0.1O2 (0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.44Mn0.31Co0.25O2) particles. Oxide integrity and morphology is maintained after the sonochemical process and subsequent heat-treatment. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) X-ray elemental maps show uniform coating of all secondary particles. 27Al Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR data confirm the presence of alumina and mainly indicate octahedral aluminum occupancy in a six-coordinate environment with oxygen. Full cells containing electrodes with the alumina-coated particles demonstrate lower initial impedance rise and better capacity retention during extended cycling to high voltages. However, the coating has a negligible effect on the voltage hysteresis and voltage fade behavior displayed by these oxides. The various data indicate that the pulsed sonochemical technique is a viable approach for coating oxide particles. The methodology described herein can easily be extended beyond alumina to include coatings such as AlF3, MgO, and MgF2.

  13. Pulsed sonication for alumina coatings on high-capacity oxides: Performance in lithium-ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pol, Vilas G.; Li, Yan; Dogan, Fulya; Secor, Ethan; Thackeray, Michael M.; Abraham, Daniel P.


    High-capacity xLi2MnO3•(1-x)LiMO2 (M=Ni, Mn, Co) oxides show relatively rapid performance degradation when cycled at voltages >4.5V vs. Li/Li+. Previous research has indicated that modifying the oxide surfaces with coatings, such as alumina, reduces cell impedance rise and improves capacity retention. In this article, we demonstrate pulsed-sonication as a rapid and effective approach for coating alumina on Li1.2Ni0.175Mn0.525Co0.1O2 (0.5Li2MnO3•0.5LiNi0.44Mn0.31Co0.25O2) particles. Oxide integrity and morphology is maintained after the sonochemical process and subsequent heat-treatment. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) X-ray elemental maps show uniform coating of all secondary particles. 27Al Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR data confirm the presence of alumina and mainly indicate octahedral aluminum occupancy in a six-coordinate environment with oxygen. Full cells containing electrodes with the alumina-coated particles demonstrate lower initial impedance rise and better capacity retention during extended cycling to high voltages. However, the coating has a negligible effect on the voltage hysteresis and voltage fade behavior displayed by these oxides. The various data indicate that the pulsed sonochemical technique is a viable approach for coating oxide particles. The methodology described herein can easily be extended beyond alumina to include coatings such as AlF3, MgO, and MgF2.

  14. Microbial successions are associated with changes in chemical profiles of a model refrigerated fresh pork sausage during an 80-day shelf life study. (United States)

    Benson, Andrew K; David, Jairus R D; Gilbreth, Stefanie Evans; Smith, Gordon; Nietfeldt, Joseph; Legge, Ryan; Kim, Jaehyoung; Sinha, Rohita; Duncan, Christopher E; Ma, Junjie; Singh, Indarpal


    Fresh pork sausage is produced without a microbial kill step and therefore chilled or frozen to control microbial growth. In this report, the microbiota in a chilled fresh pork sausage model produced with or without an antimicrobial combination of sodium lactate and sodium diacetate was studied using a combination of traditional microbiological methods and deep pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. In the untreated system, microbial populations rose from 10(2) to 10(6) CFU/g within 15 days of storage at 4°C, peaking at nearly 10(8) CFU/g by day 30. Pyrosequencing revealed a complex community at day 0, with taxa belonging to the Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Clostridia. During storage at 4°C, the untreated system displayed a complex succession, with species of Weissella and Leuconostoc that dominate the product at day 0 being displaced by species of Pseudomonas (P. lini and P. psychrophila) within 15 days. By day 30, a second wave of taxa (Lactobacillus graminis, Carnobacterium divergens, Buttiauxella brennerae, Yersinia mollaretti, and a taxon of Serratia) dominated the population, and this succession coincided with significant chemical changes in the matrix. Treatment with lactate-diacetate altered the dynamics dramatically, yielding a monophasic growth curve of a single species of Lactobacillus (L. graminis), followed by a uniform selective die-off of the majority of species in the population. Of the six species of Lactobacillus that were routinely detected, L. graminis became the dominant member in all samples, and its origins were traced to the spice blend used in the formulation. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Das biochemische Rezidiv beim Prostatakarzinom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauchenwald M


    Full Text Available Als biochemisches Rezidiv (BCR wird der Wiederanstieg des nach kurativer Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms (PCa abgefallenen PSA-Werts bezeichnet. Der PSA-Verlauf nach kurativer Therapie ist von der primären Behandlungsmethode abhängig, weshalb auch unterschiedliche Definitionen dafür vorliegen. Der Verlauf selbst scheint prognostische Bedeutung zu haben. Ein Wiederanstieg des PSA-Werts geht der klinischen Progression voraus, wodurch frühzeitig eine Therapie eingeleitet werden kann. Der ideale Zeitpunkt für eine Sekundärbehandlung ist allerdings noch ungenügend definiert. Fast die Hälfte der BCR treten innerhalb der ersten 2 Jahre, ¾ innerhalb der ersten 5 Jahre nach Primärtherapie auf. Als Risikofaktoren für einen BCR werden ein primäres Tumorstadium ≥ T2c, PSA 15, Samenblaseninvasion, Lymphknotenbefall sowie Gleason-Score ≥ 8 angesehen. Von klinischer Bedeutung ist vor allem die Unterscheidung zwischen lokoregionärem und systemischem Rezidiv. Hierzu werden als Parameter neben dem primären Tumorstadium und Gleason-Score das posttherapeutische Intervall und die PSA-Dynamik empfohlen. Als diagnostische Maßnahmen erscheinen nur die Skelettszintigraphie und die Positronenemissionstomographie mit Acetat- oder Cholintracern und diese ebenfalls nur bei entsprechend hohen PSA-Werten sinnvoll. Therapeutisch kommt nach primärer Radikaloperation und Verdacht auf einen lokalen Progress in erster Linie die Salvagebestrahlung zur Anwendung, nach primärer Radiatio wird allerdings vorwiegend die hormonelle Manipulation einer Salvageoperation oder alter“nativen lokaltherapeutischen Maßnahmen vorgezogen.

  16. Wide-Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiuyan; Jiao, Shuhong; Luo, Langli; Ding, Michael S.; Zheng, Jianming; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Wang, Chong-Min; Xu, Kang; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu


    Formulating electrolytes with solvents of low freezing points and high dielectric constants is a direct approach to extend the service temperature range of lithium (Li)-ion batteries (LIBs), for which propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), methyl butyrate (MB) are excellent candidates. In this work, we report such low temperature electrolyte formulations by optimizing the content of ethylene carbonate (EC) in the EC-PC-EMC ternary solvent system with LiPF6 salt and CsPF6 additive. An extended service temperature range from 40°C to 60°C was obtained in LIBs with lithium nickel cobalt aluminum mixed oxide (LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2, NCA) as cathode and graphite as anode. The discharge capacities at low temperatures and the cycle life at room and elevated temperatures were systematically investigated in association with the ionic conductivity and phase transition behaviors. The most promising electrolyte formulation was identified as 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC-PC-EMC (1:1:8 by wt.) with 0.05 M CsPF6, which was demonstrated in both coin cells of graphite||NCA and 1 Ah pouch cells of graphite||LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2. This optimized electrolyte enables excellent wide-temperature performances, as evidenced by the 68% capacity retention at 40C and C/5 rate, and nearly identical stable cycle life at room and elevated temperatures up to 60C.

  17. Aktualne poglądy na znaczenie neutrofilów w reumatoidalnym zapaleniu stawów. Wciąż neutrofile czy może już mikrofagi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gajewski


    Full Text Available Poglądy na rolę neutrofilów w procesie zapalnym na przestrzeniostatnich lat uległy fundamentalnym zmianom. Neutrofile sąkrótko żyjącymi, finalnie zróżnicowanymi fagocytami. Ponieważw wyniku kontaktu z patogenem ulegają szybkiej aktywacji, nazywanesą często pierwszą linią obrony organizmu. Zaktywowaneneutrofile żyją już bardzo krótko, ulegając apoptozie (kamikazecells. W reumatoidalnym zapaleniu stawów neutrofile mogą byćfagocytowane przez makrofagi, tworząc charakterystyczne komórkiReitera. Ostatnio wykazano, że migracja neutrofilów do tkanekhamuje proces apoptozy, a tym samym ich przedłużająca się aktywnośćmoże skutkować znacznym wydłużeniem czasu trwania procesuzapalnego. Ponadto wykazano, że neutrofile nie są komórkamijedynie biernie odpowiadającymi na zewnętrzne sygnały, aleodgrywają aktywną rolę w inicjacji i regulacji procesu zapalnegopoprzez wydzielanie prozapalnych cytokin, ekspresję receptorówMHC klasy II, a tym samym biorą udział w aktywacji i kontroli aktywnościlimfocytów T. Wykazano istotne znaczenie neutrofilóww patogenezie takich chorób, jak przewlekła obturacyjna chorobapłuc, choroba Behçeta czy zapalenia stawów. Komórki te, w kontekścienajnowszej wiedzy o ich roli, powinny w przyszłości staćsię ważnym celem nowych terapii reumatoidalnego zapaleniastawów.

  18. A Lithium-Ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Prepared using an Environmentally Friendly Process. (United States)

    Mueller, Franziska; Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-Tae; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R Jürgen; Passerini, Stefano


    A new lithium-ion battery chemistry is presented based on a conversion-alloying anode material, a carbon-coated Fe-doped ZnO (TMO-C), and a LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. Both electrodes were fabricated using an environmentally friendly cellulose-based binding agent. The performance of the new lithium-ion battery was evaluated with a conventional, carbonate-based electrolyte (ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate-1 m lithium hexafluorophosphate, EC:DEC 1 m LiPF6 ) and an ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte (N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-0.2 m lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI), respectively. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests revealed a reduced rate capability of the TMO-C/Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI/NMC full-cell compared to the organic electrolyte, but the coulombic efficiency was significantly enhanced. Moreover, the IL-based electrolyte substantially improves the safety of the system due to a higher thermal stability of the formed anodic solid electrolyte interphase and the IL electrolyte itself. While the carbonate-based electrolyte shows sudden degradation reactions, the IL exhibits a slowly increasing heat flow, which does not constitute a serious safety risk. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Adiponitrile-Lithium Bis(trimethylsulfonyl)imide Solutions as Alkyl Carbonate-free Electrolytes for Li4Ti5O12(LTO)/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2(NMC) Li-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Farhat, Douaa; Ghamouss, Fouad; Maibach, Julia; Edström, Kristina; Lemordant, Daniel


    Recently, dinitriles (NC(CH 2 ) n CN) and especially adiponitrile (ADN, n=4) have attracted attention as safe electrolyte solvents owing to their chemical stability, high boiling points, high flash points, and low vapor pressure. The good solvation properties of ADN toward lithium salts and its high electrochemical stability (≈6 V vs. Li/Li + ) make it suitable for safer Li-ions cells without performance loss. In this study, ADN is used as a single electrolyte solvent with lithium bis(trimethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). This electrolyte allows the use of aluminium collectors as almost no corrosion occurs at voltages up to 4.2 V. The physicochemical properties of the ADN-LiTFSI electrolyte, such as salt dissolution, conductivity, and viscosity, were determined. The cycling performances of batteries using Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO) as the anode and LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 (NMC) as the cathode were determined. The results indicate that LTO/NMC batteries exhibit excellent rate capabilities with a columbic efficiency close to 100 %. As an example, cells were able to reach a capacity of 165 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C and a capacity retention of more than 98 % after 200 cycles at 0.5 C. In addition, electrodes analyses by SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy after cycling confirming minimal surface changes of the electrodes in the studied battery system. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Contents of selected macroelements in soils, potatoes and fodder beets at variable soil reaction / Zawartość wybranych makroelementów w glebach oraz w ziemniakach i burakach pastewnych przy zmiennym odczynie gleby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogóż Antoni


    Full Text Available Celem przeprowadzonych badañ było określenie koncentracji wybranych makroelementów w glebie i w roślinach okopowych (ziemniakach i burakach pastewnych przy zmiennym odczynie gleby. Zmiany wartości pH w badanych glebach decydowały o zawartości tych pierwiastków w formach rozpuszczalnych oznaczanych w HCl o stężeniu 0,1 mol·dm-3. Analiza statystyczna wykazała dodatnią zależność pomiędzy wartością pH gleb a zawartością wapnia i magnezu w formie zbliżonej do ogólnej oraz zawartością rozpuszczalnych form fosforu, wapnia i magnezu. Zawartość badanych makroelementów, tj. fosforu, wapnia, magnezu w uprawianych burakach pastewnych oraz ziemniakach zależała od zasobności i form, w jakiej badane pierwiastki występują w glebie, a także od gatunku oraz analizowanej części rośliny. Wraz ze wzrostem wartości pH gleb stwierdzano zwiększenie zawartości fosforu i zmniejszenie zawartości magnezu w korzeniach i częściach nadziemnych buraków. Zawartość wapnia w korzeniach uległa zwiększeniu wraz ze wzrostem wartości pH gleb, natomiast kierunek zmian zawartości tego pierwiastka w ogonkach i blaszkach liściowych buraków nie był jednoznaczny. W bulwach ziemniaków stwierdzono nieznaczne obniżenie się zawartości badanych pierwiastków wraz ze wzrostem wartości pH gleb.

  1. Skull base tumors; Tumoren der Schaedelbasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Naumann, N.; Grunwald, I.; Reith, W. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie des Universitaetsklinikums des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Nabhan, A.; Shariat, K. [Neurochirurgische Klinik des Universitaetsklinikums des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany)


    Modern imaging techniques have great importance in the diagnosis and therapy of skull-base pathologies. Many of these lesions, especially in relation to their specific location, can be evaluated using CT and MR imaging. Tumors commonly found in the anterior skull base include carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, esthesioneuroblastoma and meningioma. In the central cranial fossa, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, metastases, meningioma, pituitary adenoma and neurinoma have to be considered. The most common neoplasms of the posterior skull base, including the CP angle, are neurinoma, meningioma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, chordoma and paraganglioma. One major task of imaging is the evaluation of the exact tumor extent as well as its relationship to the neighboring neurovascular structures. The purpose of this review is to recapitulate the most important anatomical landmarks of the skull base. The typical imaging findings of the most common tumors involving the skull base are also presented. (orig.) [German] Die moderne Bildgebung hat einen besonderen Stellenwert bei der Diagnostik und Therapie von Schaedelbasispathologien. Zahlreiche Laesionen koennen anhand ihrer CT- und MRT-Befunde, insbesondere unter Beruecksichtigung ihrer genauen Lokalisation, artdiagnostisch eingeordnet werden. Im Bereich der vorderen Schaedelbasis sind v. a. Karzinome, Rhabdomyosarkome, Aesthesioneuroblastome und Meningeome vorzufinden. Im Bereich der mittleren Schaedelbasis ist in erster Linie an nasopharyngeale Karzinome, Karzinommetastasen, Meningeome, Hypophysenadenome und Neurinome zu denken. Zu den haeufigsten Tumoren der hinteren Schaedelgrube, unter Einschluss des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels, gehoeren Neurinome, Meningeome, nasopharyngeale Karzinome, Karzinommetastasen, Chordome und Paragangliome. Eine wichtige Aufgabe der Schnittbildgebung liegt in der Bestimmung der exakten Tumorausdehnung und in der Beurteilung der Lagebeziehung des Tumors zu den komplexen anatomischen Strukturen wie Hirnnerven und


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Kristin


    Diabetes mellitus (DM merupakan penyakit kronis yang menyebabkan sekitar 1,5 juta kematian pada tahun 2012 menurut Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO. DM tipe 2 (DMT2 banyaknya 90% dari keseluruhan DM di seluruh dunia. Prevalensi DMT2 meningkat karena obesitas. Pedoman klinis merekomendasikan penggunaan metformin sebagai pengobatan lini pertama kecuali ada kontraindikasi, maka bisa diikuti dengan penambahan 1 atau 2 OADs, seperti sulfonilurea (SU, inhibitor alpha-glucosidase, atau thiazolidinediones (TZD. Baru-baru ini, obat baru golongan dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4 inhibitor telah ditambahkan ke algoritma pengobatan. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4 inhibitor inhibitor adalah kelas obat antidiabetes oral yang menghambat DPP-4 enzim. Sitagliptin, saxagliptin, vildagliptin dan linagliptin yang merupakan golongan dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor tersedia untuk pengobatan diabetes tipe 2 di Indonesia dan banyak negara lainnya. DPP-4 inhibitor memiliki khasiat glikemik yang setara. DPP-4 inhibitor menghasilkan peningkatan moderat hemoglobin terglikasi (A1C. Namun uji coba head-to-head jumlahnya terbatas, dan tidak ada data tentang penggunaan penggunaan jangka panjang (lebih dari dua tahun keamanan, kematian, komplikasi diabetes, atau kualitas-hidup pasien. Meskipun DPP-inhibitor tidak digunakan sebagai terapi awal untuk mayoritas pasien dengan diabetes tipe 2, DPP-4 inhibitor dapat digunakan sebagai terapi tambahan di tipe 2 pasien diabetes yang tidak toleran, ada kontraindikasi, atau tidak terkontrol dengan penggunaan metformin, sulfonilurea, atau thiazolidinediones. Peran sebenarnya dari DPP-4 inhibitor di antara beberapa obat lainnya untuk DMT2 tidak begitu jelas. Hanya ada sejumlah kecil studi jangka panjang pada DPP-4 inhibitor menilai penurunan glikemik, kemanjuran, kejadian kardiovaskular, kematian, atau keamanan. Pada pasien dengan gagal ginjal (perkiraan laju filtrasi glomerulus [eGFR] <30 mL / menit kronis dapat menggunakan DPP-4 inhibitor, linagliptin

  3. A high resolution Late Glacial to Holocene record of climatic and environmental change in the Mediterranean from Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) (United States)

    Lacey, Jack; Francke, Alexander; Leng, Melanie; Vane, Chris; Wagner, Bernd


    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is one of the world's oldest lakes and is renowned for its high degree of biological diversity. It is the target site for the ICDP SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) project, an international research initiative to study the links between geology, environment and the evolution of endemic taxa. In 2011 a 10-meter core was recovered from the western shore of Lake Ohrid adjacent to the Lini Peninsula. Here we present high-resolution stable isotope and geochemical data from this core through the Late Glacial to Holocene to reconstruct past climate and hydrology (TIC, δ18Ocalcite, δ13Ccalcite) as well as the terrestrial and aquatic vegetation response to climate (TOC, TOC/N, δ13Corganic, Rock-Eval pyrolysis). The data identify 3 main zones: (1) the Late Glacial-Holocene transition represented by low TIC, TOC and higher isotope values, (2) the early to mid-Holocene characterised by higher TOC, TOC/N and lower δ18Ocalcite, and (3) the late Holocene which shows a marked decrease in TIC and TOC. In general there is an overall trend of increasing δ18Ocalcite from 9 ka to present, suggesting progressive aridification through the Holocene, which is consistent with previous records from Lake Ohrid and the wider Mediterranean region. Several proxies show commensurate excursions that imply the impact of short-term climate oscillations, such as the 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age. This is the best-dated and highest resolution archive of Late Glacial and Holocene climate from Lake Ohrid and confirms the overriding influence of the North Atlantic in the north-eastern Mediterranean. The data presented set the context for the SCOPSCO project cores recovered in spring-summer 2013 dating back into the Lower Pleistocene, and will act as a recent calibration to reconstruct climate and hydrology over the entire lake history.

  4. Batch and column studies of adsorption of Li, Ni and Br by a reference sand for contaminant transport experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others


    A processed quartz sand (Wedron 510), mined from the St. Peter sandstone, has been characterized by a variety of chemical and physical methods for use as a reference porous media in transport model validation experiments. Wedron 510 sand was used in an intermediate-scale experiment involving migration of Ni, Li and Br through a 6-m high x 3-m diameter caisson. Ni and Li adsorption/desorption, and Li/Ni site-competition experiments yielded information on the importance of the trace mineral phases to adsorption of Li and Ni by the sand. The presence of an iron hydroxide coating similar to goethite on the sand grains is suggested by visual observation and leaching experiments. Kaolinite was identified by SEM and XRD as a significant trace mineral phase in the sand and occurs as small particles coating the sand grains. Quartz, the predominant constituent of the sand by weight, does not appear to contribute significantly to the adsorption properties of the sand. Qualitatively, the adsorption properties of the sand can be adequately modeled as a two-mineral system (goethite and kaolinite). The studies described in this report should provide a basis for understanding transport of Ni, Li and Br through porous media similar to the reference sand. Techniques were developed for obtaining parameter values for surface complexation and kinetic adsorption models for the sand and its mineral components. These constants can be used directly in coupled hydrogeochemical transport codes. The techniques should be useful for characterization of other natural materials and elements in high-level nuclear waste in support of coupled hydrogeochemical transport calculations for Yucca Mountain.

  5. Privatiserung von Geschichte. Probleme einer differenzierten Aufarbeitung History of war as a private affair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birthe Kundrus


    Full Text Available Ausgangspunkt der Untersuchung von Vera Neumann ist die These, daß im Krieg Erlebtes und Erlittenes in den Wiederaufbau- und Wirtschaftswunderjahren Westdeutschlands einem Thematisierungstabu unterlegen sei. Anhand von 50 Interviews, die in den 80er Jahren im Rahmen des von Lutz Niethammer geleiteten Projekts „Lebensgeschichte und Sozialgeschichte im Ruhrgebiet 1930–1960“ (LUSIR entstanden sind und die sie jetzt anhand der Tonbandprotokolle und Abschriften ein zweites Mal auswertet, möchte die Historikerin diese Verschüttungen aufspüren. Im Anschluß an Niethammers These der „Privatisierung von Geschichte“ will sie zeigen, daß seelische und körperliche Kriegsfolgen wie Deprivations- und Überlastungsgefühle, der Verlust von Angehörigen und Kriegsbeschädigungen „privatisiert“, d.h. an die Familien übertragen wurden. Dort seien dann in erster Linie die weiblichen Familienmitglieder mit der Versorgungs- und Pflegearbeit konfrontiert worden. An vier Fallbeispiele schließt sich eine detaillierte Auswertung des gesamten Interviewmaterials an. Diesen Teilen folgt ein Abschnitt zur staatlichen Kriegsopferversorgung in der frühen Bundesrepublik.Vera Neumann’s ‘book examines the question, how German women and men dealt with traumatic experiences of World War II in the years of the “German Miracle”. It argues that the emotional and financial strainth due to the war were “privatized” in the families, where especially the women had to master the various problems. Its main sources are interviews, which were made during the eighties by the LUSIR-project.

  6. Shutdown potential adjustment of modified carbene adducts as additives for lithium ion battery electrolytes (United States)

    Janssen, Pia; Streipert, Benjamin; Krafft, Roman; Murmann, Patrick; Wagner, Ralf; Lewis-Alleyne, Lesley; Röschenthaler, Gerd-Volker; Winter, Martin; Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora


    To improve the intrinsic safety of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) by preventing cells from a thermal runaway, we studied two carbene adduct electrolyte additives. The recently synthesized compounds (1,3-dimethylimidazolidin-2-μm-trifluoroborate (NHC-BF3) and 1,3-dimethylimidazolidin-2-μm-tetrafluorotrifluoromethylphosphate (NHC-PF4CF3)) were investigated on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC111) electrodes in Li metal and Li-ion cell setups as overcharge protection shutdown additives in 1M LiPF6 in EC:DEC (3:7, by wt.) electrolyte. By varying the NHC-ligand (-BF3, -PF5, -PF4CF3) in the molecule, the shutdown potential of the investigated carbene adduct electrolyte additives can be tailored for specific applications with different cut-off potentials. NHC-BF3 was identified as a promising candidate for the application with NMC111 electrodes up to 4.4 V vs. Li/Li+, whereas the carbene adduct NHC-PF4CF3 is ideal for the high-voltage application with the NMC-based electrode up to 4.6 V vs. Li/Li+. Next to electrochemical investigations in NMC111/Li and NMC111/graphite cells, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were performed to verify the presence of a decomposition layer on the cathode, responsible for the shutdown effect. Furthermore, it has been proven that the investigated electrolyte additives have no influence on the cell performance under normal conditions in both, Li metal and Li-ion cell setups.

  7. Combined application of numerical simulation models and fission tracks analysis in order to determine the history of temperature, subsidence and lifting of sedimentary basins. A case study from the Ruhr Coal basin inWest Germany; Die kombinierte Anwendung numerischer Simulationsmodelle und Spaltspurenuntersuchungen zur Entschluesselung der Temperatur-, Subsidenz- und Hebungsgeschichte von Sedimentbecken - Ein Fallbeispiel aus dem Ruhrkohlenbecken Westdeutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karg, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel und organische Geochemie; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Bueker, C. [Univ. Bern (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Geologie


    The Ruhr Coal basin is one of the globally best known sedimentary basins. According to classical, established the Ruhr Basin is a typical foreland molasse basins. The thermal history (heating and cooling) and the structural and sedimentary development since the formation of the basin, i.e. subsidence and lifting and erosion are of the first importance for the potential formation of hydrocarbons. In order to quantify these processes, two-dimensional numerical simulation models (based on geological and seismological sections) of the Ruhr basin were developed from which one could conclude the heat flow at the time of maximum basin depth after variscis orogenesis, maximum temperatures of individual strata sections and thickness of eroded strata. The PetroMod program package of the company IES/Juelich was used for these analyses. Finite-element-grids enable mathematican mapping and reconstruction of complex geological structures and processes. The models on temperature history are calibrated by comparing measured and calculated carbonification (vitrinite reflection) data. (orig./MSK). [Deutsch] Das Ruhrkohlenbecken stellt weltweit eines der am besten erforschten Sedimentbecken dar. Nach klassischen und etablierten Beckenmodellen kann das Ruhrbecken als typisches Vorlandmolassebecken angesehen werden. Besonders relevant fuer die potentielle Bildung von Kohlenwasserstoffen sind in erster Linie die thermische Geschichte (Aufheizung und Abkuehlung) sowie die strukturelle und sedimentaere Entwicklung seit der Beckenbildung, sprich Versenkungs-, Hebungs- und Erosionsprozesse. Um solche Prozesse zu quantifizieren, wurden im Ruhrbecken zweidimensionale (d.h. auf der Grundlage von geologischen und seismischen Sektionen) numerische Simulationsmodelle entwickelt, die Aufschluss ueber Waermefluesse zur Zeit der maximalen Beckeneintiefung im Anschluss an die variszische Orogenese, erreichte Maximaltemperaturen einzelner Schichtglieder sowie die Maechtigkeit erodierter Schichten im

  8. Study on the reversible capacity loss of layered oxide cathode during low-temperature operation (United States)

    Li, Yiyang; Qian, Kun; He, Yan-Bing; Kaneti, Yusuf Valentino; Liu, Dongqing; Luo, Dan; Li, Hai; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu


    In this study, commercial Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2/graphite (NCM/C) lithium-ion batteries were cycled at -10 °C under different current rates ranging from 0.2 C to 1C. Electrochemical measurements and post-mortem analysis were performed to identify the root causes of the degradation in the electrochemical performance of the cells. The results reveal that apart from the increase of lithium plating on the anode, there is a considerable and abnormal capacity loss on the NCM cathode with the increase in current rate. The different degradation mechanisms including the loss of lithium inventory (LLI) and the specific capacity loss of NCM material (LAM) during cycling at -10 °C were analyzed quantitatively. It is shown that the evolution trend of LLI with the increase in current rate (8.6%, 35.0%, 55.8% for 0.2 C, 0.5 C and 1 C respectively) corresponds closely to that of the capacity loss of the full-cells (8.6%, 45.5%, 63.6% for 0.2 C, 0.5 C and 1 C, respectively), which is different to the trend of LAM (7.2%, 8.8%, 22.3% for 0.2 C, 0.5 C and 1 C, respectively). Further analysis by XRD and HR-TEM clearly indicates that the crystallinity of the hexagonal layered structure of NCM was greatly impaired after low-temperature cycling at -10 °C, and spinel phase can be observed among the layered structure.

  9. Venous interventions. Pt. 1. Techniques and lower torso thromboses; Venoese Interventionen. T. 1. Interventionstechniken und Thrombosen der Bein- und Beckenvenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamper, L.; Altenburg, A.; Mansour, M.; Haage, P. [Universitaetsklinik Witten/Herdecke, Klinik fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Helios Klinikum Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Krueger, K. [Vivantes Humboldt-Klinikum, Institut fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie, Berlin (Germany); Reimer, P. [Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Universitaet Freiburg, Radiologie Gefaesszentrum Karlsruhe, Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Venous thrombosis is one of the most common vascular diseases. Without treatment, pulmonary embolism is a potentially life-threatening complication. Long-term complications are chronic venous insufficiency and post-thrombotic syndrome. Medical anticoagulation is currently the standard therapy, since it prevents appositional thrombus growth although it usually can not prevent the development of post-thrombotic syndrome. The structure of the thrombotic material often leads to partial recanalisation with residual stenosis. Early and sufficient systemic thrombolysis with adequate concentration may achieve disintegration of the thrombus and preservation of venous valve function. Supplementary to conservative therapy, local catheter thrombolysis is possible even in cases with contraindications for a systemic thrombolysis therapy. Additional interventional techniques reduce the required concentration of the thrombolytic. Venous stenosis can be treated by balloon angioplasty and stent implantation. This article reviews the different percutaneous treatment options as well as their application and usefulness in thrombosis of the lower torso. (orig.) [German] Venoese Thrombosen zaehlen zu den haeufigsten Gefaesserkrankungen. Unbehandelt koennen sie zu lebensbedrohlichen Lungenarterienembolien fuehren. Spaetfolgen sind chronisch venoese Insuffizienz und postthrombotisches Syndrom. Die medikamentoese Antikoagulation ist derzeit die Standardtherapie, sie verhindert in erster Linie ein appositionelles Thrombuswachstum, kann aber die Entstehung eines postthrombotischen Syndroms meist nicht verhindern. Durch die Thrombusorganisation kommt es haeufig zu einer partiellen Rekanalisation mit Residualstenosen und Klappenfunktionsstoerung. Die systemische Thrombolyse kann bei zeitnahem Einsatz und ausreichender Konzentration eine Thrombusaufloesung mit Klappenfunktionserhalt bewirken. Als Ergaenzung zur konventionellen Therapie ist die lokale Katheterthrombolyse auch bei

  10. Update on chemoinfusion and chemo-embolization treatments; Update Chemoperfusion und -embolisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubienski, A.; Simon, M.; Lubienski, K.; Gellissen, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Luebeck (Germany); Hoffmann, R.T.; Jakobs, T.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Helmberger, T. [Staedtisches Klinikum Muenchen GmbH, Klinikum Bogenhausen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)


    In the last two decades image-guided interventional catheterizations and percutaneous ablative regional treatment procedures have revolutionized the therapy of nonresectable primary and secondary liver tumours. A distinction is made between chemoablative procedures and thermo- and radioablative procedures. The main chemoablative interventions are transarterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC; hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy) and transarterial (chemo-)embolization (TACE/TAE). The object of the transarterial treatment procedures is to deliver the highest possible concentration of a chemotherapy agent or combination of chemotherapy agents directly into the tumour by way of the blood vessels supplying it, while at the same time keeping the systemic effects of the drugs as small as possible. Transarterial chemoperfusion to the liver can be applied in the treatment of all primary and secondary hepatic tumours, but the main indications are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastases from colorectal primary tumours. (orig.) [German] Bildgesteuerte katheterinterventionelle und perkutan-ablative regionale Therapieverfahren haben in den letzten 2 Jahrzehnten in nichtresektablen Situationen die Therapie primaerer und sekundaerer Lebertumoren revolutioniert. Basierend auf dem zugrunde liegenden Prinzip werden chemoablative Verfahren von thermo- und radioablativen Verfahren unterschieden. Zu den chemoablativen interventionellen Verfahren gehoeren in erster Linie die transarterielle Chemoperfusion ('HAIC, hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy') und die transarterielle (Chemo-)Embolisation (TACE/TAE). Ziel der transarteriellen Therapieverfahren ist es, eine maximale Konzentration eines Chemotherapeutikums oder einer Kombination von Chemotherapeutika direkt ueber die versorgenden Tumorgefaesse in den Tumor zu geben und gleichzeitig die systemischen Wirkungen der Medikamente zu minimieren. Das Einsatzgebiet der transarteriellen Chemoperfusion an der Leber umfasst

  11. Microbial Successions Are Associated with Changes in Chemical Profiles of a Model Refrigerated Fresh Pork Sausage during an 80-Day Shelf Life Study (United States)

    David, Jairus R. D.; Gilbreth, Stefanie Evans; Smith, Gordon; Nietfeldt, Joseph; Legge, Ryan; Kim, Jaehyoung; Sinha, Rohita; Duncan, Christopher E.; Ma, Junjie; Singh, Indarpal


    Fresh pork sausage is produced without a microbial kill step and therefore chilled or frozen to control microbial growth. In this report, the microbiota in a chilled fresh pork sausage model produced with or without an antimicrobial combination of sodium lactate and sodium diacetate was studied using a combination of traditional microbiological methods and deep pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. In the untreated system, microbial populations rose from 102 to 106 CFU/g within 15 days of storage at 4°C, peaking at nearly 108 CFU/g by day 30. Pyrosequencing revealed a complex community at day 0, with taxa belonging to the Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Clostridia. During storage at 4°C, the untreated system displayed a complex succession, with species of Weissella and Leuconostoc that dominate the product at day 0 being displaced by species of Pseudomonas (P. lini and P. psychrophila) within 15 days. By day 30, a second wave of taxa (Lactobacillus graminis, Carnobacterium divergens, Buttiauxella brennerae, Yersinia mollaretti, and a taxon of Serratia) dominated the population, and this succession coincided with significant chemical changes in the matrix. Treatment with lactate-diacetate altered the dynamics dramatically, yielding a monophasic growth curve of a single species of Lactobacillus (L. graminis), followed by a uniform selective die-off of the majority of species in the population. Of the six species of Lactobacillus that were routinely detected, L. graminis became the dominant member in all samples, and its origins were traced to the spice blend used in the formulation. PMID:24928886


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis


    Full Text Available AbstrakFaktor risiko infeksi Helicobacter pylori adalah tinggal di negara berkembang, kondisi sosial ekonomi yang rendah, jumlah anggota keluarga yang banyak, etnik dan genetik. Tatalaksana dan diagnosis Helicobacter pylori belum memuaskan karena adanya resistensi antibiotik pada pasien Helicobacter pylori. Kami melaporkan seorang pasien perempuan usia 8 tahun 6 bulan yang terinfeksi Helicobacter pylori. Diagnosis ditegakkan berdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan fisik, dan hasil laboratorium. Pasien diduga terinfeksi Helicobacter pylori karena mengalami nyeri perut berulang. Dari laboratorium didapatkan serologi IgG Helicobacter pylori positif. Pada hasil endoskopi biopsi ditemukan kuman Helicobacter pylori. Pasien mendapat therapi eradikasi lini pertama untuk infeksi Helicobacter pylori yaitu amoksisilin, klaritromisin dan omeprazol selama dua minggu. Setelah dua minggu pengobatan keluhan pasien tidak ada.Kata kunci: Helicobacter pylori, anak, nyeri perut berulangAbstractRisk factors for acquiring Helicobacter pylori infection include residency of developing country, poor socioeconomic conditions, crowded family, and possibly an ethnic or genetic as predispositions. The diagnosis and management Helicobacter pylori has not been satisfied yet, however, there is problem of increasing resistancy antibiotic due to Helicobacter pylori. Objective: We report a 8 year and 6 month old girl who suffered from Helicobacter pylori. The diagnosis was based on history, clinical finding, and laboratory work-up. Suspicion on the presence of Helicobacter pylori was started when the girl had recurrent abdominal pain. Serology IgG Helicobacter pylori was positive and we had done endoscopic examination and biopsy. Therapy this patient was first line eradication Helicobacter pylori which give amoxicillin, clarithromycin and omeprazole for two weeks. There are no sympthoms after two weeks therapyKey word: Helicobacter pylori, children, recurrent abdominal pain

  13. Under Familiar Fire: Making Decisions During the “Kivu Crisis” 2008 in Goma, DR Congo Unter vertrautem Feuer: Entscheidungsfindung während der “Kivu-Krise” in Goma, DR Kongo, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Oldenburg


    Full Text Available This paper explores the decision-making processes used by the inhabitants of Goma during the Kivu Crisis in October 2008. The paper’s aim is twofold: After providing a short history of the October 2008 events, it seeks in the empirical part to distinguish and clarify the role of rumours and narratives in the setting of violent conflict as well as to analyse their impact on decision-making processes. As the epistemological interest lies more on the people who stay rather than those who flee, in the second part the paper argues that the practice of routinization indicates a conscious tactic whose purpose is to counter the non-declared state of exception in Goma. Routinization is defined as a means of establishing order in everyday life by referring to narratives based on lived experiences. Die Autorin des Beitrags untersucht Entscheidungsfindungsprozesse der Einwohner von Goma während der Kivu-Krise im Oktober 2008. Nach einer kurzen Geschichte der Ereignisse wird im empirischen Teil des Beitrags die Rolle von Gerüchten und Erzählungen für die gesellschaftliche Szenerie gewaltsamer Konflikte aufgezeigt und voneinander abgegrenzt und ihre jeweilige Bedeutung für Entscheidungsfindungsprozesse analysiert. Da sich das Forschungsinteresse der Autorin in erster Linie auf den Teil der Bevölkerung richtet, der am Ort des Geschehens bleibt, und weniger auf den, der sich zur Flucht entscheidet, wird im zweiten Teil des Beitrags die Praxis der Routinisierung hervorgehoben, eine bewusste Strategie der Betroffenen, um mit dem nicht-deklarierten Ausnahmezustand in Goma umzugehen. Routinisierung wird als Mittel definiert, die alltägliche Ordnung aufrechtzuerhalten, indem man auf Erzählungen gelebter Erfahrung zurückgreift.

  14. „Geschichte des Mitmachens“ oder Opferdiskurs. Frauen als Autorinnen von Kriegsliteratur “History of Participation” or Victim Discourse: Women as Authors of War Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Gehrig


    Full Text Available Cordula Mahr ermöglicht mit ihrer Untersuchung von 70 Autobiographien deutscher Frauen einen Blick auf die „Heimatfront“, ein Blick, der bisher in einer vornehmlich männlich besetzten Kriegsliteratur, die Krieg in erster Linie als Fronterlebnis definiert, vernachlässigt wurde. Die Autorin konzentriert sich auf die Passagen der Autobiographien, die sich direkt auf den Zweiten Weltkrieg beziehen, und berücksichtigt ausschließlich nach 1960 erschienene Texte. In den Darstellungen überwiegt in Bezug auf den Krieg und den Nationalsozialismus das Selbstverständnis als Geschädigte und Leidtragende. Nur sieben Frauen schreiben in ihren Autobiographien auch ihre „Geschichte des Mitmachens”. Mahrs Untersuchung gibt gerade durch diese Auffälligkeit Anlass, auch über formale Strukturmerkmale der Autobiographie nachzudenken, z. B. darüber, ob diese eventuell eine Selbstdarstellung als Opfer begünstigen.Cordula Mahr’s examination of 70 autobiographies of German women provides insight into the “home front,” insight that till now has been neglected in male-dominated war literature, which defines war first and foremost as an experience of the front. The author concentrates on passages in autobiographies that refer to the World War II directly and takes into account only those texts that appeared before 1960. Self-images as the marred and the suffering woman with respect to war and to National Socialism dominate the descriptions. Only seven women include their own “history of participation” in their autobiographies. Mahr’s study also incites a consideration of the formal structural features of the autobiography, for example, whether the structures may potentially aid the construction of a self-portrait as victim.

  15. Improving the electrochemical performances of Li-rich Li1.20Ni0.13Co0.13Mn0.54O2 through a cooperative doping of Na+ and PO43- with Na3PO4 (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Ning, De; Zheng, Lirong; Zhang, Qinghua; Gu, Lin; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Jicheng; Franz, Alexandra; Schumacher, Gerhard; Liu, Xiangfeng


    Li-rich layered oxide cathodes suffer from poor rate capability, voltage decay and inferior cycling stability. Herein, we propose a novel synergistic strategy to improve the electrochemical performances of Li-rich Li1.20Ni0.13Co0.13Mn0.54O2 by the co-doping of Na+ and PO43-. The co-doping of Na+ for Li and PO43- for Mn is simultaneously achieved using Na3PO4 as a dopant. The co-doping of Na+ and PO43- not only enhances the high-rate performance (106.4 mAhg-1@10C) and capacity retention (93.8%@1C@100 cycles) but also mitigates the voltage decay owing to the synergistic effect of Na+ and PO43- co-doping. The synergistic mechanism is unraveled based on neutron diffraction, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ex-situ X-ray absorption spectra, ex-situ X-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. The co-doping of Na+ and PO43- enlarges the interlayer spacing and suppresses Li/Ni mixing which increases Li+ diffusivity and enhances the rate capability. Meanwhile, the co-doping of Na+ and PO43- shrinks the thickness of the slabs, weakens the TM-O covalency and alleviates the volume change in the charge/discharge process which improves the layered structure stability and the cycling performances. This study presents some new insights into designing high performance cathode materials through a cooperative modulation of different crystal sites doping.

  16. Laser printing and femtosecond laser structuring of electrode materials for the manufacturing of 3D lithium-ion micro-batteries (United States)

    Smyrek, P.; Kim, H.; Zheng, Y.; Seifert, H. J.; Piqué, A.; Pfleging, W.


    Recently, three-dimensional (3D) electrode architectures have attracted great interest for the development of lithium-ion micro-batteries applicable for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), sensors, and hearing aids. Since commercial available micro-batteries are mainly limited in overall cell capacity by their electrode footprint, new processing strategies for increasing both capacity and electrochemical performance have to be developed. In case of such standard microbatteries, two-dimensional (2D) electrode arrangements are applied with thicknesses up to 200 μm. These electrode layers are composed of active material, conductive agent, graphite, and polymeric binder. Nevertheless, with respect to the type of active material, the active material to conductive agent ratio, and the film thickness, such thick-films suffer from low ionic and electronic conductivities, poor electrolyte accessibility, and finally, limited electrochemical performance under challenging conditions. In order to overcome these drawbacks, 3D electrode arrangements are under intense investigation since they allow the reduction of lithium-ion diffusion pathways in between inter-digitated electrodes, even for electrodes with enhanced mass loadings. In this paper, we present how to combine laser-printing and femtosecond laser-structuring for the development of advanced 3D electrodes composed of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 (NMC). In a first step, NMC thick-films were laser-printed and calendered to achieve film thicknesses in the range of 50 μm - 80 μm. In a second step, femtosecond laser-structuring was carried out in order to generate 3D architectures directly into thick-films. Finally, electrochemical cycling of laser-processed films was performed in order to evaluate the most promising 3D electrode designs suitable for application in long life-time 3D micro-batteries.

  17. Disturbance of serotonin 5HT{sub 2} receptors in remitted patients suffering from hereditary depressive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larisch, R.; Vosberg, H.; Tosch, M.; Mueller-Gaertner, H.W. [Kliniken fuer Nuklearmedizin der Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany); Klimke, A.; Gaebel, W. [Kliniken fuer Psychiatrie der Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany); Mayoral, F.; Rivas, F. [Psychiatrische Klinik des Hospital Civil Carlos Haya, Malaga (Spain); Hamacher, K.; Coenen, H.H. [Inst. fuer Nuklearchemie des Forschungszentrums Juelich GmbH (Germany); Herzog, H.R. [Inst. fuer Medizin des Forschungszentrums Juelich GmbH (Germany)


    Aim: The characteristics of 5HT{sub 2} receptor binding were investigated in major depression in vivo using positron emission tomography and the radioligand F-18-altanserin. Methods: Twelve patients from families with high loading of depression living in a geographically restricted region were examined and compared with normal control subjects. At the time of the PET measurement all patients were remitted; in some of them remission was sustained by antidepressive medication. Binding potential was assessed by Logan's graphical analysis method. Results: The binding of F-18-altanserin was about 38% lower in patients than in healthy controls (p<0.001). A multiple regression analysis revealed that this difference was mainly induced by depression rather than by medication. Conclusions: The data suggest that 5HT{sub 2} receptors are altered in depression. We present evidence for a reduction of the receptor density, which might be usable as trait marker of subjects susceptible for depressive illness. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die 5HT{sub 2}-Rezeptorbindung bei depressiven Patienten in vivo mit der Positronen-Emissionstomographie und dem Radioliganden F-18-Altanserin. Methoden: Zwoelf Patienten aus Familien mit hoher Inzidenz fuer Depressionen, die in einer geographisch abgeschlossenen Region leben, wurden untersucht und mit gesunden Kontrollpersonen verglichen. Zum Zeitpunkt der PET-Messung waren alle Patienten klinisch remittiert, was bei einigen den Einsatz von Antidepressiva erforderlich machte. Das Bindungspotenzial wurde mit Logans graphischer Methode bestimmt. Ergebnisse: Die Altanserinbindung war bei den Patienten um ca. 38% niedriger als bei den Kontrollpersonen (p<0,001). Eine multiple Regressionsanalyse zeigte, dass dieser Unterschied in erster Linie durch die Erkrankung und nicht durch Praemedikation hervorgerufen wurde. Schlussfolgerung: Die Studie zeigt, dass die 5HT{sub 2}-Rezeptoren an der Depression beteiligt sind. Die

  18. Atomic Resolution Structural and Chemical Imaging Revealing the Sequential Migration of Ni, Co, and Mn upon the Battery Cycling of Layered Cathode. (United States)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Chongmin


    Layered lithium transition metal oxides (LTMO) are promising candidate cathode materials for next-generation high-energy density lithium ion battery. The challenge for using this category of cathode is the capacity and voltage fading, which is believed to be associated with the layered structure disordering, a process that is initiated from the surface or solid-electrolyte interface and facilitated by transition metal (TM) reduction and oxygen vacancy formation. However, the atomic level dynamic mechanism of such a layered structure disordering is still not fully clear. In this work, utilizing atomic resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), we map, for the first time at atomic scale, the spatial evolution of Ni, Co and Mn in a cycled LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 layered cathode. In combination with atomic level structural imaging, we discovered the direct correlation of TM ions migration behavior with lattice disordering, featuring the residing of TM ions in the tetrahedral site and a sequential migration of Ni, Co, and Mn upon the increased lattice disordering of the layered structure. This work highlights that Ni ions, though acting as the dominant redox species in many LTMO, are labile to migrate to cause lattice disordering upon battery cycling, while the Mn ions are more stable as compared with Ni and Co and can act as pillar to stabilize layered structure. Direct visualization of the behavior of TM ions during the battery cycling provides insight for designing of cathode with high structural stability and correspondingly a superior performance.

  19. Atomic Resolution Structural and Chemical Imaging Revealing the Sequential Migration of Ni, Co, and Mn upon the Battery Cycling of Layered Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Chongmin


    Layered lithium transition metal oxides (LTMO) are promising candidate cathode materials for next generation high energy density lithium ion battery. The challenge for using this category of cathode is the capacity and voltage fading, which is believed to be associated with the layered structure disordering, a process that is initiated from the surface or solid-electrolyte interface and facilitated by transition metal (TM) reduction and oxygen vacancy formation. However, the atomic level dynamic mechanism of such a layered structure disordering is still not fully clear. In this work, utilizing atomic resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), we map, for the first time at atomic scale, the spatial evolution of Ni, Co and Mn in a cycled LiNi1/3M1/3Co1/3O2 layered cathode. In combination with atomic level structural imaging, we discovered the direct correlation of TM ions migration behavior with lattice disordering, featuring the residing of TM ions in the tetrahedral site and a sequential migration of Ni, Co, and Mn upon the increased lattice disordering of the layered structure. This work highlights that Ni ions, though acting as the dominant redox species in many LTMO, are labile to migrate to cause lattice disordering upon battery cycling; while the Mn ions are more stable as compared with Ni and Co and can act as pillar to stabilize layered structure. Direct visualization of the behavior of TM ions during the battery cycling provides insight for designing of cathode with structural stability and correspondingly a superior performance.

  20. Studies on the turnover and properties of dump groundwaters in brown coal mining areas and possibilities of influencing them. Final report; Untersuchungen zum Stoffumsatz und zur Beschaffenheit der Kippengrundwaesser in Braunkohlebergbaugebieten und Moeglichkeiten zu deren Beeinflussung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzur, J.; Liebner, F.; Liebner, C.; Welzel, H.P.; Hettrich, K.


    Only 6 days after the increase in pH with water saturation the concentration of iron in the pore water of the T1 sediment had dropped to a low value, 70% of which was accounted for by Fe(II). This is probably due to the almost complete precipitation of Fe(III) caused by the high pH values. Compared with the untreated variant the lowering of pH in the further course of the experiment led to a slight Fe(III) mobilisation and hence, through interaction with other reduction processes, to erratic changes in the share of Fe(II) in total Fe. Although this sediment showed a relatively low iron concentration a comparison showed that higher pH values and incubation temperatures have an influence on microbial iron reduction. [German] Im Porenwasser des Sedimentes T1 lag Eisen bereits 6 Tage nach pH-Erhoehung und Wassersaettigung nur noch in geringer Konzentration und zu ueber 70% als Fe(II) vor. Dies ist vermutlich in erster Linie auf die nahezu vollstaendige Ausfaellung von Fe(III) infolge der hohen pH-Werte zurueckzufuehren. Im weiteren Versuchsverlauf fuehrte das Absinken der pH-Werte zu einer im Vergleich zur unbehandelten Variante geringfuegigen Fe(III)-Mobilisierung und damit in Wechselwirkung mit ablaufenden Reduktionsprozessen zu unstetigen Veraenderungen in den Anteilen Fe(II) an Fe{sub ges}. Obwohl in diesem Sediment nur vergleichsweise niedrige Eisenkonzentrationen vorliegen, ergab ein Vergleich, dass hoehere pH-Werte und Inkubationtemperaturen die mikrobielle Eisenreduktion beeinflussen. (orig.)

  1. Enhanced Raman Scattering from NCM523 Cathodes Coated with Electrochemically Deposited Gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornheim, Adam; Maroni, Victor A.; He, Meinan; Gosztola, David J.; Zhang, Zhengcheng


    Materials with the general composition LiMO2, where M is a mix of nickel, cobalt, and manganese, have been studied extensively as cathodes for lithium-based electrochemical cells. Some compositions, like LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523), have already found application in commercial lithium-ion batteries. Pre-test and post-test analyses of these types of cathodes have benefited greatly from the use of Raman spectroscopy. Specifically, Raman spectroscopy can be used to investigate the phonons of the LiMO2 lattice. This is particularly useful for studies of the LiMO2 after it has been formed into the type of polymer-bonded laminate from which typical battery cathodes are cut. One of the problems that occurs in such studies is that the scattering from the LiMO2 phase gets progressively weaker as the nickel content increases. NCM523 poses one example of this behavior owing to the fact that half of the transition metal content is nickel. In this study we show that the intensity of the Raman scattering from the NCM523 phonons can be significantly increased by electroplating clusters of sub-micron gold particles on NCM523-containing laminate structures. The gold appears to plate somewhat selectively on the NCM523 particles in randomly sized clusters. These clusters stimulate the Raman scattering from the NCM523 to varying extents that can reach nearly 100 times the scattering intensity from uncoated pristine laminates.

  2. Pemikiran Suksesi Dalam Politik Islam Masa Pra Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazro'atus Sa'adah


    Abstrak: Pemikiran politik Islam muncul setelah Islam melalui Nabi Muhammad SAW berhasil membentuk sebuah ummat baru, dari peralihan kekuasaan kerajaan/kesukuan kepada Nabi yang kemudian kepada umat. Nabi Muhammad dinilai berhasil dalam mengatur komunitas barunya yang dikendalikan oleh ajarannya dalam seluruh lini kehidupan. Persoalan muncul kemudian setelah beliau wafat, yang akhirnya memunculkan pemikiran tentang suksesi. Artikel ini akan membahas tentang mengapa terjadi suksesi setelah Nabi Muhammad SAW wafat, bagaimana pemikiran para tokoh politik Islam masa pra modern terkait dengan suksesi, dan apa kontribusi pemikiran suksesi ini terhadap politik Islam di Indonesia. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan sejarah, ditemukan bahwa Nabi Muhammad tidak menetapkan siapa yang akan menggantikannya, dan ketika beliau wafat (632 M, para sahabat memilih seorang pemimpin (imam/khalifah. Masa pemerintahan Abu Bakar, Umar dan Usman banyak terjadi perselisihan yang awalnya terkait kepentingan agama namun berkembang menjadi kepentingan politik. Ketika Ali bin Abi Talib diangkat sebagai khalifah, konflik politik berkepanjangan berkaitan dengan pembunuhan Usman, menjadikan timbulnya perang jamal antara Aisyah dan Ali. Pada masa ini perbedaan kepentingan aqidah dipolitisir lebih jauh menjadi sebuah kepentingan politik. Dinamika politik ini kemudian melahirkan mazhab politik Islam klasik yang terbagi dalam tiga mazhab besar yaitu Sunni, Syi'ah dan Khawarij, yang darinya muncul istilah-istilah khilafah, imamah, ahlul halli wal aqdi, bay’ah, walayah dan lain-lain. Dari ketiga mazhab politik ini, kemudian muncul ide pemikiran politik Islam yang sangat kompleks dan berkepanjangan dari para tokoh politik Islam pra modern yang banyak dipengaruhi oleh filosof Yunani. Di Indonesia, pemikiran suksesi dalam politik Islam masa pra modern ini pernah diwacanakan. Namun untuk pemilihan kepala Negara belum terealisasi mengingat Indonesia bukan Negara Islam.

  3. Organic-Acid-Assisted Fabrication of Low-Cost Li-Rich Cathode Material (Li[Li1/6Fe1/6Ni1/6Mn1/2]O-2) for Lithium-Ion Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Taolin; Chen, Shi; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Huiming; Wu, Tianpin; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Chen, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil


    A novel Li-rich cathode Li[Li1/6Fe1/6Ni1/6Mn1/2]O-2 (0.4Li(2)MnO(3-)0.6LiFe(1/3)Ni(1/3)Mn(1/3)O(2)) was synthesized by a solgel method, which uses citric acid (SC), tartaric acid (ST), or adipic acid (SA) as a chelating agent. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by various methods. X-ray diffraction showed that single-phase materials are formed mainly with typical alpha-NaFeO2 layered structure (R3 m), and the SC sample has the lowest Li/Ni cation disorder. The morphological study indicated homogeneous primary particles in good distribution size (100 nm) with small aggregates. The Fe, Ni, and Mn valences were determined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis. In coin cell tests, the initial reversible discharge capacity of an SA electrode was 289.7 mAh g(-1) at the 0.1C rate in the 1.54.8 V voltage range, while an SC electrode showed a better cycling stability with relatively high capacity retention. At the 2C rate, the SC electrode can deliver a discharge capacity of 150 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles. Differential capacity vs voltage curves were employed to further investigate the electrochemical reactions and the structural change process during cycling. This low-cost, Fe-based compound prepared by the solgel method has the potential to be used as the high capacity cathode material for Liion batteries.

  4. Conservative treatment and rehabilitation of shoulder problems; Konservative Therapie und Rehabilitation von Schulterbeschwerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paternostro-Sluga, T.; Zoech, C. [Klinik fuer Physikalische Medizin und Rehabilitation, Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Medizinischen Universitaet Wien (Austria)


    beeinflussbar. Die Ergotherapie zielt auf die Verbesserung funktioneller Bewegungsablaeufe in Alltag und Beruf unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Ergonomie. Die Elektrotherapie wird in erster Linie zur Schmerztherapie eingesetzt. Die Stosswellen- und Ultraschalltherapie zeigen bei der kalzifizierenden Tendinitis gute Behandlungserfolge. Ein durch konservative Therapiemassnahmen gut zu beeinflussendes Beschwerdebild ist das subakromiale Impingementsyndrom. (orig.)

  5. Transfer of reaction-technical findings from pilot-scale nitrogen elimination to technical-scale organic packed beds; Uebertragung von reaktionstechnischen Erkenntnissen an Pilotanlagen zur Stickstoffentfernung auf grosstechnische Biofestbettanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ante, A.; Brambach, R. [Lurgi Bamag GmbH, Butzbach (Germany)


    Organic packed beds offer some process engineering advantages: first of all an enormously high turnover rate per unit of space, low temperature dependence and, because of the flow pipe characteristics, the possibility to achieve very low effluent concentrations. In addition, the filtration effect binds solids, hence the concentration of solids in the effluent is very low. The formation of biofilm enhances this filter effect. Decisive kinetic parameters for nitrification systems are the rated temperature, the ratio of COD to N, and peak loads. For denitrification the design parameters are, beside temperature, loading with solids, the specific surface of the carrier material and filtration speed. In extensive investigations process variants were studied. They enhance the rate of turnover of nitrification with the aid of auxiliaries or through oxygen enrichment of process air to such an extent as to permit aimed buffering of peak ammonium freights. This constitutes a process-technical solution to one of the gravest drawbacks of packed-bed technology. (orig.) [German] Biofestbettanlagen bieten einige verfahrenstechnische Vorteile, in erster Linie eine enorm hohe Raumumsatzleistung, eine geringere Temperaturabhaengigkeit und aufgrund der Stroemungsrohrcharakteristik die Moeglichkeit sehr geringe Ablaufkonzentrationen zu erreichen. Zudem ist mit der Filtration aufgrund der Filterwirkung eine sehr geringe Feststoffkonzentration im Ablauf verbunden. Diese Filterwirkung wird durch die Ausbildung des Biofilmes noch untestuetzt. Die entscheidenden kinetischen Auslegungsgroessen fuer die Nitrifikation sind die Auslegungstemperatur, das CSB:N-Verhaeltnis sowie die Spitzenbelastungen. Fuer die Denitrifikation stellen neben der Temperatur, die Feststoffbeladung, die spezifische Oberflaeche des Traegermaterials sowie die Filtergeschwindigkeit die Auslegungsparameter dar. Durch umfangreiche Untersuchungen wurden Verfahrensvarianten erforscht, welche durch den Einsatz von

  6. Cu2Sb thin film electrodes prepared by pulsed laser deposition f or lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Seung-Wan; Reade, Ronald P.; Cairns, Elton J.; Vaughey, Jack T.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Striebel, Kathryn A.


    Thin films of Cu2Sb, prepared on stainless steel and copper substrates with a pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature, have been evaluated as electrodes in lithium cells. The electrodes operate by a lithium insertion/copper extrusion reaction mechanism, the reversibility of which is superior when copper substrates are used, particularly when electrochemical cycling is restricted to the voltage range 0.65-1.4 V vs. Li/Li+. The superior performance of Cu2Sb films on copper is attributed to the more active participation of the extruded copper in the functioning of the electrode. The continual and extensive extrusion of copper on cycling the cells leads to the isolation of Li3Sb particles and a consequent formation of Sb. Improved cycling stability of both types of electrodes was obtained when cells were cycled between 0.65 and 1.4 V. A low-capacity lithium-ion cell with Cu2Sb and LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes, laminated from powders, shows excellent cycling stability over the voltage range 3.15 - 2.2 V, the potential difference corresponding to approximately 0.65-1.4 V for the Cu2Sb electrode vs. Li/Li+. Chemical self-discharge of lithiated Cu2Sb electrodes by reaction with the electrolyte was severe when cells were allowed to relax on open circuit after reaching a lower voltage limit of 0.1 V. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formed on Cu2Sb electrodes after cells had been cycled between 1.4 and 0.65 V vs. Li/Li+ was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy; the SEI layer contributes to the large irreversible capacity loss on the initial cycle of these cells. The data contribute to a better understanding of the electrochemical behavior of intermetallic electrodes in rechargeable lithium batteries.

  7. Modular soft x-ray spectrometer for applications in energy sciences and quantum materials (United States)

    Chuang, Yi-De; Shao, Yu-Cheng; Cruz, Alejandro; Hanzel, Kelly; Brown, Adam; Frano, Alex; Qiao, Ruimin; Smith, Brian; Domning, Edward; Huang, Shih-Wen; Wray, L. Andrew; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Chiou, Jaw-Wern; Pong, Way-Faung; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric; Reininger, Ruben; Yang, Wanli; Guo, Jinghua; Duarte, Robert; Hussain, Zahid


    Over the past decade, the advances in grating-based soft X-ray spectrometers have revolutionized the soft X-ray spectroscopies in materials research. However, these novel spectrometers are mostly dedicated designs, which cannot be easily adopted for applications with diverging demands. Here we present a versatile spectrometer design concept based on the Hettrick-Underwood optical scheme that uses modular mechanical components. The spectrometer's optics chamber can be used with gratings operated in either inside or outside orders, and the detector assembly can be reconfigured accordingly. The spectrometer can be designed to have high spectral resolution, exceeding 10 000 resolving power when using small source (˜1 μ m) and detector pixels (˜5 μ m) with high line density gratings (˜3000 lines/mm), or high throughput at moderate resolution. We report two such spectrometers with slightly different design goals and optical parameters in this paper. We show that the spectrometer with high throughput and large energy window is particularly useful for studying the sustainable energy materials. We demonstrate that the extensive resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) map of battery cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can be produced in few hours using such a spectrometer. Unlike analyzing only a handful of RIXS spectra taken at selected excitation photon energies across the elemental absorption edges to determine various spectral features like the localized dd excitations and non-resonant fluorescence emissions, these features can be easily identified in the RIXS maps. Studying such RIXS maps could reveal novel transition metal redox in battery compounds that are sometimes hard to be unambiguously identified in X-ray absorption and emission spectra. We propose that this modular spectrometer design can serve as the platform for further customization to meet specific scientific demands.

  8. Functionality Selection Principle for High Voltage Lithium-ion Battery Electrolyte Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chi-Cheung; He, Meinan [Department; Peebles, Cameron; Zeng, Li; Tornheim, Adam; Liao, Chen; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jie; Wang, Yan [Department; Zhang, Zhengcheng


    A new class of electrolyte additives based on cyclic fluorinated phosphate esters was rationally designed and identified as being able to stabilize the surface of a LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC532) cathode when cycled at potentials higher than 4.6 V vs Li+/Li. Cyclic fluorinated phosphates were designed to incorporate functionalities of various existing additives to maximize their utilization. The synthesis and characterization of these new additives are described and their electrochemical performance in a NMC532/graphite cell cycled between 4.6 and 3.0 V are investigated. With 1.0 wt % 2-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane 2-oxide (TFEOP) in the conventional electrolyte the NMC532/graphite cell exhibited much improved capacity retention compared to that without any additive. The additive is believed to form a passivation layer on the surface of the cathode via a sacrificial polymerization reaction as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonsance (NMR) analysis results. The rational pathway of a cathode-electrolyte-interface formation was proposed for this type of additive. Both experimental results and the mechanism hypothesis suggest the effectiveness of the additive stems from both the polymerizable cyclic ring and the electron-withdrawing fluorinated alkyl group in the phosphate molecular structure. The successful development of cyclic fluorinated phosphate additives demonstrated that this new functionality selection principle, by incorporating useful functionalities of various additives into one molecule, is an effective approach for the development of new additives.

  9. Specialization for resistance in wild host-pathogen interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke eBarrett


    Full Text Available Properties encompassed by host-pathogen interaction networks have potential to give valuable insight into the evolution of specialization and coevolutionary dynamics in host-pathogen interactions. However, network approaches have been rarely utilized in previous studies of host and pathogen phenotypic variation. Here we applied quantitative analyses to eight networks derived from spatially and temporally segregated host (Linum marginale and pathogen (Melampsora lini populations. First, we found that resistance strategies are highly variable within and among networks, corresponding to a spectrum of specialist and generalist resistance types being maintained within all networks. At the individual level, specialization was strongly linked to partial resistance, such that partial resistance was effective against a greater number of pathogens compared to full resistance. Second, we found that all networks were significantly nested. There was little support for the hypothesis that temporal evolutionary dynamics may lead to the development of nestedness in host-pathogen infection networks. Rather, the common patterns observed in terms of nestedness suggests a universal driver (or multiple drivers that may be independent of spatial and temporal structure. Third, we found that resistance networks were significantly modular in two spatial networks, clearly reflecting spatial and ecological structure within one of the networks. We conclude that (1 overall patterns of specialization in the networks we studied mirror evolutionary trade-offs with the strength of resistance; (2 that specific network architecture can emerge under different evolutionary scenarios; and (3 network approaches offer great utility as a tool for probing the evolutionary and ecological genetics of host-pathogen interactions.

  10. Sexuelle Gewalt in Besatzungsalltag und Vernichtungskrieg Sexual Violence in Daily Life of Occupation and War of Extermination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Schneider


    Full Text Available Als Grundlage für ihre Analyse des Umgangs der Wehrmacht mit sexueller Gewalt im Zweiten Weltkrieg dienen Birgit Beck die Akten militärgerichtlicher Verfahren. Das Thema wird von der Autorin in die Geschichte der sexuellen Gewalt in Kriegen von der Frühen Neuzeit bis zur Gegenwart eingeordnet. Ziel ist die Überprüfung geschichts- und sozialwissenschaftlicher Annahmen über die Ursachen sexueller Gewalt im Krieg am konkreten historischen Beispiel. Die Gründe für die militärgerichtliche Verfolgung sexueller Gewalt – die nur einen Bruchteil der Verfahren insgesamt darstellt – sieht Beck in erster Linie in übergeordneten militärischen Verhaltensvorgaben, dem Männerbild der Wehrmacht und dem Schutz der deutschen „Volksgemeinschaft“ begründet; für einen systematischen Einsatz sexueller Gewalt durch die Wehrmacht bieten die untersuchten Verfahren keine ausreichenden Belege.Birgit Beck uses the files of military court actions as the foundation for her analysis of the way in which the German armed forces dealt with sexual violence during the Second World War. She locates the topic on the timeline of the history of sexual violence in war from the early modern era to the present. The goal is the review of historical and social scientific assumptions about the causes of sexual violence in war. The author sees the reasons for the military court’s persecution of sexual violence—which only presents a miniscule portion of the entire proceedings—first and foremost in the extremely ordered military behavioral guidelines, which account for both the male image of the armed forces and the protection of the German “community of folk.” Clues as to a systematic deployment of sexual violence by the German armed forces cannot, according to Beck, be derived from the proceedings.

  11. Problems with the factor analysis of items: Solutions based on item response theory and item parcelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon P. De Bruin


    Full Text Available The factor analysis of items often produces spurious results in the sense that unidimensional scales appear multidimensional. This may be ascribed to failure in meeting the assumptions of linearity and normality on which factor analysis is based. Item response theory is explicitly designed for the modelling of the non-linear relations between ordinal variables and provides a strong alternative to the factor analysis of items. Items may also be combined in parcels that are more likely to satisfy the assumptions of factor analysis than do the items. The use of the Rasch rating scale model and the factor analysis of parcels is illustrated with data obtained with the Locus of Control Inventory. The results of these analyses are compared with the results obtained through the factor analysis of items. It is shown that the Rasch rating scale model and the factoring of parcels produce superior results to the factor analysis of items. Recommendations for the analysis of scales are made. Opsomming Die faktorontleding van items lewer dikwels misleidende resultate op, veral in die opsig dat eendimensionele skale as meerdimensioneel voorkom. Hierdie resultate kan dikwels daaraan toegeskryf word dat daar nie aan die aannames van lineariteit en normaliteit waarop faktorontleding berus, voldoen word nie. Itemresponsteorie, wat eksplisiet vir die modellering van die nie-liniêre verbande tussen ordinale items ontwerp is, bied ’n aantreklike alternatief vir die faktorontleding van items. Items kan ook in pakkies gegroepeer word wat meer waarskynlik aan die aannames van faktorontleding voldoen as individuele items. Die gebruik van die Rasch beoordelingskaalmodel en die faktorontleding van pakkies word aan die hand van data wat met die Lokus van Beheervraelys verkry is, gedemonstreer. Die resultate van hierdie ontledings word vergelyk met die resultate wat deur ‘n faktorontleding van die individuele items verkry is. Die resultate dui daarop dat die Rasch

  12. Intramolecular interaction influences binding of the Flax L5 and L6 resistance proteins to their AvrL567 ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ravensdale

    Full Text Available L locus resistance (R proteins are nucleotide binding (NB-ARC leucine-rich repeat (LRR proteins from flax (Linum usitatissimum that provide race-specific resistance to the causal agent of flax rust disease, Melampsora lini. L5 and L6 are two alleles of the L locus that directly recognize variants of the fungal effector AvrL567. In this study, we have investigated the molecular details of this recognition by site-directed mutagenesis of AvrL567 and construction of chimeric L proteins. Single, double and triple mutations of polymorphic residues in a variety of AvrL567 variants showed additive effects on recognition strength, suggesting that multiple contact points are involved in recognition. Domain-swap experiments between L5 and L6 show that specificity differences are determined by their corresponding LRR regions. Most positively selected amino acid sites occur in the N- and C-terminal LRR units, and polymorphisms in the first seven and last four LRR units contribute to recognition specificity of L5 and L6 respectively. This further confirms that multiple, additive contact points occur between AvrL567 variants and either L5 or L6. However, we also observed that recognition of AvrL567 is affected by co-operative polymorphisms between both adjacent and distant domains of the R protein, including the TIR, ARC and LRR domains, implying that these residues are involved in intramolecular interactions to optimize detection of the pathogen and defense signal activation. We suggest a model where Avr ligand interaction directly competes with intramolecular interactions to cause activation of the R protein.

  13. Mountain biking. Breezy ups and traumatic downs; Mountainbiking. Luftige Hoehen und traumatische Tiefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)


    For more than two decades the popularity of mountain biking as a national pastime as well as a competitive sport has been undiminished. However, its related risks are not monitored as closely as those, for example, of skiing. The injuries caused by mountain biking are specific and cannot be compared with those caused by other cycling sports. This is due not only to the characteristics of the terrain but also to the readiness to assume a higher risk compared to cycle racing. The particular value of radiology is in the acute trauma setting. Most often musculoskeletal lesions must be examined and digital radiography and MRI are the most useful techniques. Severe trauma of the cranium, face, spine, thorax and abdomen are primarily evaluated with CT, particularly in dedicated trauma centers. Therefore, radiology can play a role in the rapid diagnosis and optimal treatment of the trauma-related injuries of mountain biking. Thus, the unnecessarily high economical damage associated with mountain biking can be avoided. (orig.) [German] Mountainbiking erfreut sich seit mehr als 2 Jahrzehnten sowohl im Breiten- als auch Wettkampfsport einer ungebrochenen Popularitaet. Die assoziierten Risiken werden allerdings nicht mit derselben Aufmerksamkeit beobachtet wie etwa jene des Skisports. Die Verletzungen beim Mountainbiking sind spezifisch und nicht mit den Verletzungen vergleichbar, die bei anderen Radsportarten entstehen. Dies ist z. T. durch die Besonderheiten des Terrains und z. T. durch eine im Vergleich zum Rennradfahren hoehere Risikobereitschaft zu erklaeren. Die Radiologie hat ihren Stellenwert besonders in der Akutdiagnostik. Hier beschaeftigt sie sich v. a. mit muskuloskelettalen Verletzungen und setzt in erster Linie auf die digitale Projektionsradiographie und die MRT. Zur Evaluierung schwerer Verletzungen des Kopfs, der Wirbelsaeule, des Thorax und des Abdomens wird die CT bevorzugt, insbesondere in dezidierten Traumazentren. Damit kann die Radiologie ihren Teil

  14. B-Zell-Lymphome der Haut - Pathogenese, Diagnostik und Therapie. (United States)

    Nicolay, Jan P; Wobser, Marion


    Primär kutane B-Zell-Lymphome (PCBCL) beschreiben reifzellige lymphoproliferative Erkrankungen der B-Zell-Reihe, die primär die Haut betreffen. Die Biologie und der klinische Verlauf der einzelnen PCBCL-Subtypen variieren untereinander stark und unterscheiden sich grundsätzlich von primär nodalen und systemischen B-Zell-Lymphomen. Primär kutane Marginalzonenlymphome (PCMZL) und primäre kutane follikuläre Keimzentrumslymphome (PCFCL) werden auf Grund ihres unkomplizierten Verlaufs und ihrer exzellenten Prognose zu den indolenten PCBCL gezählt. Demgegenüber stellen die diffus großzelligen B-Zell-Lymphome, hauptsächlich vom Beintyp (DLBCL, LT) die aggressiveren PCBCL-Varianten mit schlechterer Prognose dar. Für die Ausbreitungsdiagnostik und die Therapieentscheidung sind eine genaue histologische und immunhistochemische Klassifizierung sowie der Ausschluss einer systemischen Beteiligung in Abgrenzung zu nodalen oder systemischen Lymphomen notwendig. Die Diagnostik sollte dabei durch molekularbiologische Untersuchungen unterstützt werden. Therapeutisch stehen für die indolenten PCBCL primär operative und radioonkologische Maßnahmen im Vordergrund sowie eine Systemtherapie mit dem CD20-Antikörper Rituximab bei disseminiertem Befall. Die aggressiveren Varianten sollten in erster Linie mit Kombinationen aus Rituximab und Polychemotherapieschemata wie z. B. dem CHOP-Schema oder Modifikationen davon behandelt werden. Auf Grund der in allen seinen Einzelheiten noch nicht vollständig verstandenen Pathogenese und Biologie sowie des begrenzten Therapiespektrums der PCBCL besteht hier, speziell beim DLBCL, LT, noch erheblicher Forschungsbedarf. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Seed oil composition of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile from Iran / Skład oleju z nasion Acacia nilotica (L. Delile rosnącej w Iranie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasian Karim


    Full Text Available Wstęp: Acacia nilotica (L. Delile należy do rodziny Fabaceae, podrodziny Mimosoideae; otrzymuje się z niej gumę arabską. W południowym Iranie są spożywane pieczone młode strąki i nasiona tej rośliny Cel: Badano skład oleju z dojrzałych nasion A. nilotica zebranych z naturalnych stanowisk na południu Iranu w celu określenia jego przydatności do spożycia przez ludzi i zwierzęta. Metody: Wyekstrahowany olej analizowano metodą chromatografii gazowej sprzężonej ze spektrometrią mas (GC/MS. Wyniki: Zawartość oleju w jadalnych nasionach wynosiła 3.4% (v/w świeżej masy. Olej zawierał rzadko spotykany fitosterol, sześć kwasów tłuszczowych, dziewięć węgolwodorów i jeden diterpenoid; związki te stanowiły łącznie około 83.5% oleju. Głównymi składnikami oleju były: fitosterol, 26-ethylcholesta-5,25(Z-dien-3.β-ol (20.8% oraz nasycone i nienasycone kwasy tłuszczowe. Zawartość pozostałych składników nie przekroczyła 5%. Wniosek: Olej z nasion omawianego gatunku może być nowym naturalnym środkiem odżywczym dla ludzi.

  16. Evaluation of veterinary findings in wild birds - inquested in relation to the program advanced by the Land Niedersachsen: `Scientific investigations on the effects of pollutants on the avifauna of Niedersachsen`; Auswertung veterinaermedizinischer Befunde bei Wildvoegeln - erhoben im Rahmen des vom Land Niedersachsen gefoerderten Programmes: Wissenschaftliche Untersuchung ueber die Auswirkung von Schadstoffen auf die Vogelwelt Niedersachsens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, W.


    Causes of mortality of wild birds basing on post mortem findings of 2386 free-living birds from 118 home-bred specimen had been evaluated including pathological, bacteriological mycologic and virologic results. Only in cases of primar intoxications the additional available chemical results were consulted. Leading causes of mortality in all orders were traumata. Oil-contaminations were of main importance in charadriiformes (20%). Infections were mainly caused by different parasites and microorganisms, which caused 16% of deaths and often correlated with non-infectious influences as e.g. oil-pollution or climate factors. The frequencies of certain parasitic and microbial agents and certain organic changes in birds, which were divided into an incidental found group and a reference group (14 specimen), was evaluated and compared to statements from other publishers. The importance of mortality factors not only of civilising but also of natural infectious or non-infectious origin to the birds examined were discussed. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Auswertung der Mortalitaetsfaktoren bei Wildvoegeln basiert auf zwischen 1978 - 1986 an 2386 freilebenden Voegeln aus 118 einheimischen Spezies erhobenen Befunden, bestehend aus Ergebnissen pathologisch-anatomischer, bakteriologischer, mykologischer und virologischer Untersuchungen. Darueberhinaus verfuegbare chemische Analysenergebnisse wurden nur in Faellen primaerer Intoxikationen herangezogen. Traumata waren in allen Ordnungen haeufigste Todesursache. Bei Charadriiformes folgten Oelkontaminationen (20%). Infektionen wurden in erster Linie durch mehrere parasitaere und mikrobielle Erreger zugleich verursacht (16%). Sie standen haeufig in Zusammenhang mit nicht infektioesen Einfluessen wie Oelkontamination oder Witterung. Unter Einbeziehung einer 14 Spezies umfassenden Referenzgruppe wurde das Spektrum parasitaerer und mikrobieller Krankheitserreger sowie die Haeufigkeit verschiedener Organveraenderungen ausgewertet und

  17. Behavior of Lithium Metal Anodes under Various Capacity Utilization and High Current Density in Lithium Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Shuhong; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Xing; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cao, Ruiguo; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu


    Lithium (Li) metal batteries (LMBs) are regarded as the most promising power sources for electric vehicles. Besides the Li dendrite growth and low Li Coulombic efficiency, how to well match Li metal anode with a high loading (normally over 3.0 mAh cm-2) cathode is another key challenge to achieve the real high energy density battery. In this work, we systematically investigate the effects of the Li metal capacity usage in each cycle, manipulated by varying the cathode areal loading, on the stability of Li metal anode and the cycling performance of LMBs using the LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) cathode and an additive-containing dual-salt/carbonate-solvent electrolyte. It is demonstrated that the Li||NMC cells show decent long-term cycling performance even with NMC areal capacity loading up to ca. 4.0 mAh cm-2 and at a charge current density of 1.0 mA cm-2. The increase of the Li capacity usage in each cycle causes variation in the components of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on Li metal anode and generates more ionic conductive species from this electrolyte. Further study reveals for the first time that the degradation of Li metal anode and the thickness of SEI layer on Li anode show linear relationship with the areal capacity of NMC cathode. Meanwhile, the expansion rate of consumed Li and the ratio of SEI thickness to NMC areal loading are kept almost the same value with increasing cathode loading, respectively. These fundamental findings provide new perspectives on the rational evaluation of Li metal anode stability for the development of rechargeable LMBs.

  18. Structural evolution of NM (Ni and Mn) lithium-rich layered material revealed by in-situ electrochemical Raman spectroscopic study (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Xin; Li, Bing; Liu, Bo; Liu, Bi-Ju; Zhao, Jin-Bao; Ren, Bin


    Li-rich layered materials are one of promising candidates of cathode materials for energy storage in electric vehicles (EVs) due to their high energy density. The practical application of these materials relies on the in-depth understanding of the crystal structures and reaction mechanisms during the electrochemical processes to overcome the potential decay issue. In this work, in-situ electrochemical Raman spectroscopy has been developed and used to investigate the structural evolution of the Li-rich layered material (0.5LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2·0.5Li2MnO3). An electrochemical Raman spectroscopic cell with an excellent air-tightness and optical signal collection efficiency has been designed and used for in-situ investigation of the NM Li-rich material during the very first two electrochemical cycles. We found that the reactions of Ni2+ to Ni3+ and Ni3+ to Ni4+ appearing in the potential range of from 3.70 V to 4.45 V show a good reversibility. The in-situ Raman spectra after the first two electrochemical cycles also indicate the activation of Li2MnO3 changes the ionic local coordination structure and increases the ionic disorder of the pristine NM Li-rich layered material. This structural change has a great impact on the subsequent electrochemical cycles. The in-situ Raman spectroscopy results can help to improve the performance of NM Li-rich layered materials.

  19. Villem Reiman ja eesti vana kirjakeel / Villem Reiman und das ältere Schriftestnische

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valve-Liivi Kingisepp


    Full Text Available Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird auf einen Aspekt des vielfältigen Lebenswerkes der nationalen Koryphäe Villem Reiman (1861–1917 – die Publikation der alten estnischsprachigen Texte und deren Kommentare – eingegangen. Zugleich wird eine Übersicht über die Tätigkeit der Forschungsgruppe für die altestnische Schriftsprache des Instituts für estnische und allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Tartu bei der weiteren Bearbeitung und Analyse der Texte, die von Reiman präsentiert wurden, gegeben. Es werden in erster Linie die deutschsprachigen Aufsätze aus der Feder von Villem Reiman betrachtet. Am bedeutendsten davon sind die ausführlichen Einleitungen zu den gedruckten Predigten von Georg Müller und den gedruckten Kirchenbüchern von Joachim Rossihnius, die als Verhandlungen der Gelehrten Estnischen Gesellschaft [Õpetatud Eesti Seltsi toimetised] in den Jahren 1891 und 1898 erschienen sind. Aus den Texten der oben genannten Autoren haben die Mitglieder der Forschungsgruppe für die altestnische Schriftsprache die Untersuchungen „Georg Mülleri jutluste sõnastik“ [Das Vokabular der Predigten von Georg Müller] (2000 und „Joachim Rossihniuse kirikumanuaalide leksika“ [Lexik der Kirchenmanuale von Joachim Rossihnius] (2002 zusammengestellt.Des Weiteren werden in der vorliegenden Abhandlung die ältesten Archivfunde zu den estnischsprachigen Texten, die auf Anregung Villem Reimans in Druck gegeben und kommentiert wurden, präsentiert. Diese Archivfunde wurden von den Forschern der alten Schriftsprache im Sammelband „Eesti keele vanimad tekstid ja sõnastik“ [Die ältesten Texte und das älteste Vokabular der estnischen Sprache] (1997 zusammengefasst.Dank Villem Reiman wurden die Texte aus der Entstehungszeit des estnischsprachigen gedruckten Wortes den Zeitgenossen zugänglich gemacht. Reimans Abhandlungen über die alte Schriftsprache sind für die heutigen Forscher sehr wertvolle Quellen bei der Darstellung der

  20. Der pädagogische Körper. Perspektiven für den Religionsunterricht als körperlichem Geschehen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Feichtinger


    Full Text Available ENGLISH: The importance of the body and human corporeality for pedagogic questions has been constantly reflected in phenomenological and alternative traditions of pedagogy. Still, these concepts have regularly focused on the students’ corporeality and how to integrate their corporeality in learning processes. It seems though, that it should be a primary aim to reflect on the corporeality of the teachers first. Current debates on ‘presence’ and the important role of the teacher as an authentic person implicitly deal with questions of the body: self-perception, appearance, body language, voice, health etc. are important corporeal dimensions of pedagogic processes und demand a corresponding self-competency. Especially a religious education that relies on an integral Christian anthropology is able to and should seize the mantle in these matters when it comes to the education of religious pedagogues, also considering the corporeal dimension of learning and teaching. DEUTSCH: Die Bedeutung des Körpers / der Körperlichkeit für das pädagogische Geschehen wurde vor allem in phänomenologisch- und alternativ-pädagogischen Traditionen reflektiert, während die Thematik im Mainstream nur unzureichend abgehandelt wurde. Aber auch da, wo auf den Körper Bezug genommen wird, ist in erster Linie jener der SchülerInnen im Blick. Dabei scheint es zunächst notwendig, die Körperlichkeit der Lehrperson intensiver zu reflektieren. Die aktuellen Debatten um ‚Präsenz‘ sowie die wichtige Rolle der Lehrperson als authentischer Persönlichkeit basieren wesentlich, wenn auch nicht explizit, auf Fragestellungen, die das körperliche Erleben der Lehrperson betreffen: Selbstwahrnehmung, Auftreten, Körpersprache, Stimme, Gesundheit uvm. sind körperliche Dimensionen des pädagogischen Prozesses und verlangen von der Lehrperson eine entsprechende Selbstkompetenz. Gerade eine Religionspädagogik, die ein ganzheitliches christliches Menschenbild vertritt, kann

  1. Investigation of the Storage Behavior of Shredded Lithium-Ion Batteries from Electric Vehicles for Recycling Purposes. (United States)

    Grützke, Martin; Krüger, Steffen; Kraft, Vadim; Vortmann, Britta; Rothermel, Sergej; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha


    Shredding of the cells is often the first step in lithium-ion battery (LIB) recycling. Thus, LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC)/graphite lithium-ion cells from a field-tested electric vehicle were shredded and transferred to tinplate or plastic storage containers. The formation of hazardous compounds within, and being released from, these containers was monitored over 20 months. The tinplate cans underwent fast corrosion as a result of either residual charge in the active battery material, which could not fully be discharged because of contact loss to the current collector, or redox reactions between the tinplate surface and metal parts of the shredded material. The headspace compositions of the containers were investigated at room temperature and 150 °C using headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). Samples of the waste material were also collected using microwave-assisted extraction and the extracts were analyzed over a period of 20 months using ion chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS). LiPF6 was identified as a conducting salt, whereas dimethyl carbonate, ethyl methyl carbonate, and ethylene carbonate were the main solvent components. Cyclohexylbenzene was also detected, which is an additive for overcharge protection. Diethyl carbonate, fluoride, difluorophosphate and several ionic and non-ionic alkyl (fluoro)phosphates were also identified. Importantly, dimethyl fluorophosphate (DMFP) and diethyl fluorophosphate (DEFP) were quantified using HS-GC-MS through the use of an internal standard. DMFP, DEFP, and related compounds are known as chemical warfare agents, and the presence of these materials is of great interest. In the case of this study, these hazardous materials are present but in manageable low concentrations. Nonetheless, the presence of such compounds and their potential release during an accident that may occur during shredding or recycling of large amounts of LIB waste should be considered. © 2015

  2. Roman Policies towards Antiochus III and the Greeks from Winter 197/196 B.C. to Autumn 196 B.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutschmann, Eike Hellmut


    Full Text Available In the Second Macedonian War (200-196 B.C., the res publica reduced the strength of the enemy King Philip V apparently to establish a new political order in Southern Balkans: Assumedly a pro-Roman balance of forces should prevail there, untainted by influence of another major power. A particular senatorial policy towards the Greeks probably did not exist before the fighting in Hellas came to an end in summer 197 B.C. In the same year, the Seleucid king Antiochus III brought large parts of the west coast of Asia Minor under control and set about crossing the Hellespont. Rome subsequently stylized itself as the guardian of freedom for the Greeks living in Hellas and Asia Minor. The statesmen of the res publica could have perceived Antiochus’ expansion as a threat to the mentioned new order. Therefore, the Roman Policy of Freedom was possibly applied primarily to take action against the Seleucid king. Die res publica verminderte im Zweiten Makedonischen Krieg (200-196 a.c. die Macht des gegnerischen Königs Philipp V - anscheinend um eine neue politische Ordnung im südlichen Balkanraum zu etablieren: Vermutlich sollte dort ein romfreundliches Kräftegleichgewicht vorherrschen, auf das keine andere Großmacht Einfluß hat. Eine speziell an die Griechen gerichtete Politik seitens des römischen Senats gab es wahrscheinlich nicht vor Ende der Kampfhandlungen in Hellas im Sommer 197 a.c. In dem Jahr erweiterte der seleukidische König Antiochos III. seinen Einflussbereich auf große Teile der kleinasiatischen Westküste und schickte sich an, den Hellespont zu überqueren. Rom stilisierte sich in der Folgezeit zum Freiheitsgarant der in Hellas und Kleinasien lebenden Griechen. Antiochos Expansion könnte von den Staatsmännern der res publica als Bedrohung der genannten neuen Ordnung angesehen worden sein. Demzufolge wurde die römische Freiheitspolitik möglicherweise in erster Linie angewendet, um gegen den seleukidischen König vorzugehen.

  3. Kadmium in Valsbaai: moniteringspotensiaal van die mariene slak, Oxystele tigrina (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koot Reinecke


    Full Text Available n Opname is onderneem van die kadmiumvlakke in die tussengetygebied van Valsbaai, Suid-Afrika. Kadmiumkonsentrasies is seisoenaal bepaal in die water en sediment in verskillende lokaliteite. Die metings is oor ’n periode van een jaar gedoen deur seisoenaal monsters te versamel by ses verskillende versamelpunte in en een buite die baai. Dit is met behulp van atoom-absorpsiespektrofotometrie ontleed vir kadmium en die hoogste kontaminasievlakke is by die noordelike kusstreek gevind tussen Strand en Muizenberg waar die digsbevolkte gebiede en die eeste industriële aktiwiteit voorkom. Betekenisvolle variasie in konsentrasies van kadmium het seisoenaal en ruimtelik voorgekom. Die gemiddelde konsentrasies in die water en sediment was in sommige gevalle effens hoër as die vlakke wat deur die Suid-Afrikaanse waterkwalitetis-riglyne aanbeveel is. Kadmiumkonsentrasies is ook in versamelde eksemplare van die mariene slak Oxystele tigrina vir verskillende seisoene vir drie lokaliteite bepaal. Laboratoriumeksperimente is uitgevoer om die opname, akkumulasie en verlies van kadmium in verskillende organe van die tussen-getyslak, Oxystele tigrina te ondersoek. Weefselspesifi eke kadmiumkonsentrasies in kontrole- sowel as blootgestelde lewende eksemplare is vergelyk oor ’n blootstellingsperiode van veertien dae. Die eksperimentele slakke is aan twee subletale konsentrasies van onderskeidelik 0.20 en 0.40 µg/ml watergedraagde kadmium in die vorm van CdCl 2 blootgestel. Die proefdiere is gereeld gemonitor en kadmiumkonsentrasies is in verskillende organe, na suurvertering, atoomabsorpsie-spektrofotometries bepaal. Die resultate het ’n algemene toename van kadmium in die liggame van die slakke uitgewys. Kadmium is in variërende konsentrasies in alle weefsel gevind. ’n Ongeveer liniêre patroon van akkumulasie het aangetoon dat die metaal waarskynlik nie deur O. tigrina gereguleer is nie. Die metaal se teenwoordigheid het verskil tussen die sagteweefsel

  4. Eine neue Alternative für die Prävention und Therapie postmenopausaler Erkrankungen, insbesondere des metabolischen Syndroms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuttke W


    Full Text Available Viele postmenopausale, aber in zunehmendem Maße auch junge Frauen und Männer werden übergewichtig. Heute werden 2 Fetttypen unterschieden: der gynoide Birnentyp mit großen glutealen Fettdepots und der androide Apfeltyp mit viel viszeralem Fett. Das metabolische Syndrom entwickelt sich bei übergewichtigen bzw. fettleibigen Menschen in erster Linie durch Bildung großer viszeraler Fettdepots. Diese Patienten gehören also zu den Apfeltypen mit großen androiden Fettdepots, oder platt ausgedrückt: Sie haben einen „Bierbauch“. Bei übergewichtigen Frauen liegt in der Regel ein Mischtyp vor. Die viszeralen Fettzellen dieser Menschen sezernieren große Mengen an proinflammatorischen Zytokinen, welche den gesamten Körper in einen chronisch entzündlichen Zustand versetzen. Der daraus resultierende hohe oxidative Stress und die Zytokine führen zu einer Hyperlipidämie und es folgen Hypertonie und Arteriosklerose. Auch Insulinrezeptoren werden desensibilisiert und es entwickelt sich ein Typ-2-Diabetes. Das metabolische Syndrom hat aber nicht nur negative Auswirkungen auf das Herz-Kreislaufsystem, sondern auch auf die Muskulatur, da auch hier schädliche Fettzellen akkumulieren und den Aufbau von Muskelfasern hemmen. Fettzellen im Knochenmark und Fettzotten in Gelenken schädigen durch die dort sezernierten Zytokine die knochen- und knorpelaufbauenden Osteo- und Chondroblasten, sodass sich eine Osteoporose entwickelt und die sich durch Übergewicht anbahnende Arthrose gefördert wird. Ecdyson unterbindet den Aufbau von Fettzellen. Deshalb ist Ecdyson in der Lage, den Anteil an Körperfett zu reduzieren und dabei gleichzeitig die Muskelmenge und -kraft zu steigern. Ecdyson kommt in Spinat vor. In Kombination mit Substanzen, welche bekanntermaßen Knochen, Knorpel oder Arterien schützen, wie Kalzium, Vitamin D oder Antioxidanzien, verhindert oder reduziert ein Ecdyson-haltiges Spinatpräparat die Entwicklung des metabolischen Syndroms, einer

  5. Inoculación de rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal en tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. afrodita en invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Espinosa Palomeque


    Full Text Available La producción de los cultivos agrícolas, entre otros factores, es impactada por el clima, el suelo, el agua y los microorganismos rizosféricos. De estos últimos, las rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal (RPCV, desempeñan funciones importantes para las plantas como es la producción de reguladores del crecimiento vegetal y disminuir o prevenir los efectos de microorganismos f itopatógenos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la inoculación de tres RPCV: Bacillus spp., Aeromonas spp., y Pseudomonas lini Delorme, utilizando dos sustratos: 1 compost+arena de río+perlita; y 2 arena de río; y como testigos ambos sustratos sin RPCV (lo que dio un total de 8 tratamientos, sobre el rendimiento y calidad de frutos de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Afrodita desarrollado bajo condiciones de invernadero. El diseño experimental utilizado fue bloques completamente al azar con cinco repeticiones, con arreglo factorial 2 × 4, los factores fueron: A sustratos y B RPCV. Las variables evaluadas en fruto fueron: diámetro polar y ecuatorial, espesor de pericarpio, contenido de sólidos solubles, firmeza, fenoles totales y capacidad antioxidante, así como rendimiento total. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente por análisis de varianza y las comparaciones de medias mediante la prueba de DMS 0.05%. Los frutos del tratamiento T1 (50 compost + 40 arena de río + 10 perlita + Bacillus spp. presentaron los mayores diámetros polar y ecuatorial, contenido de sólidos solubles, firmeza, contenido de fenoles totales y capacidad antioxidante, 6.54 cm, 5.50 cm, 5.94 ºBrix, 12.54 N, 51.70 mg de AG 100 g-1 FF y 66.68 µM Trolox g-1 FF, respectivamente; en comparación con el resto de los tratamientos. La aplicación de RPCV y la utilización de sustratos a base de compost podrían ser una alternativa de manejo en la producción de tomate en invernadero para incrementar el rendimiento y la calidad nutracéutica de los

  6. Harninkontinenz des Mannes: Medikamentöse Therapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madersbacher H


    Onuf eine Anreicherung von Serotonin und Noradrenalin und führt so zu einer verbesserten Tonisierung des quergestreiften Schließmuskels. Bei Frauen bewirkt Duloxetin eine signifikante Verbesserung der Harnbelastungsinkontinenz, entsprechende Studien beim Mann stehen noch aus. Die Tonisierung des glattmuskulären Sphinkteranteiles durch Alphaadrenergika scheiterte bisher an der mangelnden Selektivität und den damit verbundenen kardiovaskulären Nebenwirkungen. Eine erste Studie mit dem selektiven "Alpha-1A/1Ladrenoceptor partial agonist" zeigt ebenfalls eine Besserung der Belastungsinkontinenz mit minimalen kardiovaskulären Nebenwirkungen. Ob und inwieweit diese Substanzen auch bei der in erster Linie durch eine Sphinkterläsion bedingten Belastungsinkontinenz des Mannes wirken, bleibt abzuwarten.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primayanti Primayanti


    Full Text Available Based on Government Regulation No. 40 Year 2007 on Perum ANTARA do fund public services (public service obligation / PSO in the field of government information. ANTARA position is also very strategic in the middle of the fight-laden media industry interests. Also, the need to get in the news media with the retail product line strategy while maintaining the main products for the media.Results of this study showed that the press area of public service obligations (PSO-Field Press includes a number of products and services that news text, photo news, and TV news. In line with government policies and programs, also set a number of themes that frame the products and services fields PSO Press.PSO and Field Releases can be interpreted as the government's efforts to maintain control and domination of the media life, given the strategic function of political economy of media. A contradiction was born. On the one hand, the government wants to adopt the principles of the liberal press, on the other hand maintain government policies in the media sector as opposed to the spirit of libertarianism. Berdasarkan Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 40 Tahun 2007 tentang Perum LKBN ANTARA dilakukan dana pelayanan umum (public service obligation/PSO di bidang informasi dari pemerintah. Posisi LKBN ANTARA juga sangat strategis di tengah pertarungan industri media yang sarat kepentingan. Juga, perlunya kantor berita masuk media ritel dengan strategi lini produk dengan tetap mempertahankan produk utama untuk media.Hasil penelitian ini menujukkan bahwa kewajiban pelayanan umum bidang pers (PSO-Bidang Pers tersebut mencakup sejumlah produk dan layanan yaitu berita teks, berita foto, dan berita TV. Agar sejalan dengan program dan kebijakan pemerintah, ditetapkan pula sejumlah tema yang membingkai produk dan layanan PSO Bidang Pers.PSO Bidang Pers dapat dimaknai sebagai upaya pemerintah yang ingin mempertahankan kontrol dan dominasinya terhadap kehidupan media, mengingat begitu

  8. Relationship between Depth of Soil Moisture Assessment and Turgidity of Coffee Plant in Selected Agroclimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Erwiyono


    Full Text Available Observation on the relationship between the depth of soil moisture assessment and turgidity of coffee plant has been carried out at 3 different agroclimates by survey method, i.e. Andungsari experimental station (Andosol soil type, >1.000 m asl. high, and rainfall type of C, Sumberasin experimental station (yellowish-red Mediterranean soil type, 450-500 m asl. high, and rainfall type of C, and Kaliwining experimental station (low humic glei soil type, 45 m asl. high, and rainfall type of D in order to assess the depth of soil moisture through soil profile influencing turgidity of coffee plants at three different agroclimates. The method of assessment is by fitting the relationship between the depth of soil moisture assessment and turgidity of coffee plant and their determination coefficients through the period of dry season up to early rainy season. Plant turgidity is evaluated from its relative water contents of the leaves sampled periodically at the same time as observation of soil moisture content. Plant turgidity is affected by soil moisture condition up to a certain depth which looks to be typical of the agroclimates. At Andungsari experimental station (high land it is necessary to assess soil moisture through the soil profile up to 100 cm deep in order to evaluate water stress of the plants; inversely, at Kaliwining experimental station in order to evaluate water stress of the plants it is just justified from the soil moisture condition of the soil surface layers (0-25 cm. Whereas at Sumberasin experimental station water stress of the plants could be predicted from soil moisture assessment of the surface layer depth or through the deeper layers of the soil profile either. Andungsari-1 and Lini S-795 clones are more resistant to drought than Kartika-2 clone at Andisol soil type with C rainfall type and elevation > 1000 m asl. BP-308 clone showed its response as relatively resistant to drought at yellowish red Mediterranean soil type with C

  9. A structural study of solid electrolyte interface on negative electrode of lithium-Ion battery by electron microscopy. (United States)

    Matsushita, Tadashi; Watanabe, Jiro; Nakao, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Seiichi


    For the last decades, the performance of the lithium-ion battery (LIB) has been significantly improved and its applications have been expanding rapidly. However, its performance has yet to be enhanced.In the lithium-ion battery development, it is important to elucidate the electrode structure change in detail during the charge and discharge cycling. In particular, solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed by decomposition of the electrolytes on the graphite negative electrode surface should play an important role for battery properties. Therefore, it is essential to control the structure and composition of SEI to improve the battery performance. Here, we conducted a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) study to elucidate the structures of the SEI during the charge and discharge process using LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 [1] cathode and graphite anode. [2] Since SEI is a lithium-containing compound with high activity, it was observed without being exposed to the atmosphere. The electrodes including SEI were sampled after dismantling batteries with cutoff voltages of 3V and 4.2V for the charge process and 3V for the discharge process. Fig.1 shows SEM images of the graphite electrode surface during the charge and discharge process. The change of the SEI structure during the process was clearly observed. Further, TEM images showed that the SEI grew thicker during the charge process and becomes thinner when discharged. These results with regard to the reversible SEI structure could give a new insight for the battery development.jmicro;63/suppl_1/i21/DFU056F1F1DFU056F1Fig. 1.SEM images of the graphite electrode surface:(a) before charge process;(b) with charge-cutoff voltage of 3.0V; (c) with charge-cutoff voltage of 4.2V; (d) with discharge-cutoff voltage of 3.0V. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  10. Solution Synthesis of Iodine-Doped Red Phosphorus Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes. (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Chung; Tseng, Kuan-Wei; Tuan, Hsing-Yu


    Red phosphorus (RP) is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its earth abundance and a high theoretical capacity of 2596 mA h g-1. Although RP-based anodes for lithium-ion batteries have been reported, they were all in the form of carbon-P composites, including P-graphene, P-graphite, P-carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and P-carbon black, to improve P's extremely low conductivity and large volume change during cycling process. Here, we report the large-scale synthesis of red phosphorus nanoparticles (RPNPs) with sizes ranging from 100 to 200 nm by reacting PI3 with ethylene glycol in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in ambient environment. Unlike the insulator behavior of commercial RP (conductivity of <10 -12 S m-1), the conductivity of RPNPs is between 2.62 × 10-3 and 1.81 × 10-2 S m-1, which is close to that of semiconductor germanium (1.02 × 10-2 S m-1), and 2 orders of magnitude higher than silicon (5.35 × 10-4 S m-1). Around 3-5 wt % of iodine-doping was found in RPNPs, which was speculated as the key to significantly improve the conductivity of RPNPs. The significantly improved conductivity of RPNPs and their uniform colloidal nanostructures enable them to be used solely as active materials for LIBs anodes. The RPNPs electrodes exhibit a high specific capacity of 1700 mA h g-1 (0.2 C after 100 cycles, 1 C = 2000 mA g-1), long cycling life (∼900 mA h g-1 after 500 cycles at 1 C), and outstanding rate capability (175 mA h g-1 at the charge current density of 120 A g-1, 60 C). Moreover, as a proof-of-concept example, pouch-type full cells using RPNPs anodes and Li(Ni0.5Co0.3Mn0.2)O2 (NCM-532) cathodes were assembled to show their practical uses.

  11. Artifact reduction in bolus-enhanced spiral CT of pulmonary arteries using a saline push; Artefaktreduzierung bei der Lungenemboliediagnostik mittels Spiral-CT unter Verwendung eines Kochsalzbolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, N.; Kauczor, H.U.; Heussel, C.P.; Ries, B.G.; Thelen, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie


    Kontrastmittelkonzentrationen in der Vena cava superior hervorgerufen wurden, wurden anhand einer subjektiven 4-Punkteskala und Dichtemessungen fuer unterschiedliche Lokalisationen (rechtet Pulmonalarterie, Pars basalis, Truncus anterior und die rechten Oberlappenpulmonalarterien) bewertet. Ergebnisse: die Artefakthaeufigkeit lag in Gruppe 1 nahezu doppelt so hoch wie in Gruppe 2. Der Unterschied war signifikant (p<0,05) fuer 4 der 6 ausgewerteten Gefae paragraph abschnitte. Anhand der Dichtemessung konnte fuer Gruppe 2 eine deutlich konstantere Untersuchungsqualitaet dokumentiert werden. Schlussfolgerung: das vorgestellte Untersuchungsprotokoll bietet eine signifikante Artefaktreduzierung, welche in erster Linie auf einem Auswascheffekt des Kontrastmittels aus der Vena cava superior beruht. (orig.)

  12. Optimized Li-Ion Electrolytes Containing Fluorinated Ester Co-Solvents (United States)

    Prakash, G. K. Surya; Smart, Marshall; Smith, Kiah; Bugga, Ratnakumar


    A number of experimental lithium-ion cells, consisting of MCMB (meso-carbon microbeads) carbon anodes and LiNi(0.8)Co(0.2)O2 cathodes, have been fabricated with increased safety and expanded capability. These cells serve to verify and demonstrate the reversibility, low-temperature performance, and electrochemical aspects of each electrode as determined from a number of electrochemical characterization techniques. A number of Li-ion electrolytes possessing fluorinated ester co-solvents, namely trifluoroethyl butyrate (TFEB) and trifluoroethyl propionate (TFEP), were demonstrated to deliver good performance over a wide temperature range in experimental lithium-ion cells. The general approach taken in the development of these electrolyte formulations is to optimize the type and composition of the co-solvents in ternary and quaternary solutions, focusing upon adequate stability [i.e., EC (ethylene carbonate) content needed for anode passivation, and EMC (ethyl methyl carbonate) content needed for lowering the viscosity and widening the temperature range, while still providing good stability], enhancing the inherent safety characteristics (incorporation of fluorinated esters), and widening the temperature range of operation (the use of both fluorinated and non-fluorinated esters). Further - more, the use of electrolyte additives, such as VC (vinylene carbonate) [solid electrolyte interface (SEI) promoter] and DMAc (thermal stabilizing additive), provide enhanced high-temperature life characteristics. Multi-component electrolyte formulations enhance performance over a temperature range of -60 to +60 C. With the need for more safety with the use of these batteries, flammability was a consideration. One of the solvents investigated, TFEB, had the best performance with improved low-temperature capability and high-temperature resilience. This work optimized the use of TFEB as a co-solvent by developing the multi-component electrolytes, which also contain non

  13. Optimized Li-Ion Electrolytes Containing Triphenyl Phosphate as a Flame-Retardant Additive (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Krause, Frederick C.


    A number of future NASA missions involving the exploration of the Moon and Mars will be human-rated and thus require high-specific-energy rechargeable batteries that possess enhanced safety characteristics. Given that Li-ion technology is the most viable rechargeable energy storage device for near-term applications, effort has been devoted to improving the safety characteristics of this system. There is also a strong desire to develop Li-ion batteries with improved safety characteristics for terrestrial applications, most notably for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) automotive applications. Therefore, extensive effort has been devoted recently to developing non-flammable electrolytes to reduce the flammability of the cells/battery. A number of electrolyte formulations have been developed, including systems that (1) incorporate greater concentrations of the flame-retardant additive (FRA); (2) use di-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl carbonate (DTFEC) as a co-solvent; (3) use 2,2,2- trifluoroethyl methyl carbonate (TFEMC); (4) use mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) as a co-solvent and/or a replacement for ethylene carbonate in the electrolyte mixture; and (5) utilize vinylene carbonate as a "SEI promoting" electrolyte additive, to build on the favorable results previously obtained. To extend the family of electrolytes developed under previous work, a number of additional electrolyte formulations containing FRAs, most notably triphenyl phosphate (TPP), were investigated and demonstrated in experimental MCMB (mesocarbon micro beads) carbon- LiNi(0.8)Co(0.2)O2 cells. The use of higher concentrations of the FRA is known to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte solution, thus, a concentration range was investigated (i.e., 5 to 20 percent by volume). The desired concentration of the FRA is the highest amount tolerable without adversely affecting the performance in terms of reversibility, ability to operate over a wide temperature range, and

  14. [Plants and pathogenic agents, a refined and dangerous relationship: the example of fungi]. (United States)

    Esquerré-Tugayé, M T


    Plant-fungus interactions are highly diverse, either being beneficial to the host plant such as those leading to mycorhizal symbiosis, or very detrimental when leading to severe diseases. Since the beginning of agriculture, improvement of plant resistance to pathogens has remained a major challenge. Breeding for resistance, first conducted empirically in the past centuries, was then performed on a more theoretical basis after the statement of heredity laws by Mendel at the end of the XIXth century. As a result, most cultivated species contain various cultivars whose resistance or susceptibility to a given pathogen species depend on their interaction with various races of that pathogen. Such highly specific race-cultivar systems are particularly suited for understanding the molecular dialogue which underlies compatible (host susceptible/pathogen virulent) or incompatible (host resistant/pathogen avirulent) interactions. During the twentieth century, one of the major events that paved the way for future research was the statement by Flor [1946, 1947] of the gene-for-gene concept. Studying inheritance of the disease phenotype in the interaction between flax and Melampsora lini he showed that resistance in the host and avirulence in the pathogen are dictated by single dominant genes which correspond one to one, i.e. one resistance gene for one avirulence gene. The fact that incompatibility may depend on the presence of only one resistance (R) gene in the host and one avirulence (Avr) gene in the pathogen was fully confirmed about 40 years later. Molecular genetics and complementation experiments have allowed to isolate numerous R and Avr genes from various plant-pathogen systems, and to verify the gene-for-gene concept. These studies have enlightened the elicitor/receptor concept, formerly introduced to account for the specificity of the compatible and incompatible interactions. The present knowledge of R and Avr genes also allows to predict how such genes have evolved

  15. Genome-Wide Annotation and Comparative Analysis of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Basidiomycete Biotrophic Plant Pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehlohonolo Benedict Qhanya

    Full Text Available Fungi are an exceptional source of diverse and novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s, heme-thiolate proteins, with catalytic versatility. Agaricomycotina saprophytes have yielded most of the available information on basidiomycete P450s. This resulted in observing similar P450 family types in basidiomycetes with few differences in P450 families among Agaricomycotina saprophytes. The present study demonstrated the presence of unique P450 family patterns in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens that could possibly have originated from the adaptation of these species to different ecological niches (host influence. Systematic analysis of P450s in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens belonging to three different orders, Agaricomycotina (Armillaria mellea, Pucciniomycotina (Melampsora laricis-populina, M. lini, Mixia osmundae and Puccinia graminis and Ustilaginomycotina (Ustilago maydis, Sporisorium reilianum and Tilletiaria anomala, revealed the presence of numerous putative P450s ranging from 267 (A. mellea to 14 (M. osmundae. Analysis of P450 families revealed the presence of 41 new P450 families and 27 new P450 subfamilies in these biotrophic plant pathogens. Order-level comparison of P450 families between biotrophic plant pathogens revealed the presence of unique P450 family patterns in these organisms, possibly reflecting the characteristics of their order. Further comparison of P450 families with basidiomycete non-pathogens confirmed that biotrophic plant pathogens harbour the unique P450 families in their genomes. The CYP63, CYP5037, CYP5136, CYP5137 and CYP5341 P450 families were expanded in A. mellea when compared to other Agaricomycotina saprophytes and the CYP5221 and CYP5233 P450 families in P. graminis and M. laricis-populina. The present study revealed that expansion of these P450 families is due to paralogous evolution of member P450s. The presence of unique P450 families in these organisms serves as evidence of how a host

  16. Electrochemical Characteristics of Layered Transition Metal Oxide Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries: Surface, Bulk Behavior, and Thermal Properties. (United States)

    Tian, Chixia; Lin, Feng; Doeff, Marca M


    Layered lithium transition metal oxides, in particular, NMCs (LiNi x Co y Mn z O 2 ) represent a family of prominent lithium ion battery cathode materials with the potential to increase energy densities and lifetime, reduce costs, and improve safety for electric vehicles and grid storage. Our work has focused on various strategies to improve performance and to understand the limitations to these strategies, which include altering compositions, utilizing cation substitutions, and charging to higher than usual potentials in cells. Understanding the effects of these strategies on surface and bulk behavior and correlating structure-performance relationships advance our understanding of NMC materials. This also provides information relevant to the efficacy of various approaches toward ensuring reliable operation of these materials in batteries intended for demanding traction and grid storage applications. In this Account, we start by comparing NMCs to the isostructural LiCoO 2 cathode, which is widely used in consumer batteries. Effects of changing the metal content (Ni, Mn, Co) upon structure and performance of NMCs are briefly discussed. Our early work on the effects of partial substitution of Al, Fe, and Ti for Co on the electrochemical and bulk structural properties is then covered. The original aim of this work was to reduce the Co content (and thus the raw materials cost) and to determine the effect of the substitutions on the electrochemical and bulk structural properties. More recently, we have turned to the application of synchrotron and advanced microscopy techniques to understand both bulk and surface characteristics of the NMCs. Via nanoscale-to-macroscale spectroscopy and atomically resolved imaging techniques, we were able to determine that the surfaces of NMC undergo heterogeneous reconstruction from a layered structure to rock salt under a variety of conditions. Interestingly, formation of rock salt also occurs under abuse conditions. The surface

  17. Der Gott und die Götter bei Arnobius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Maver


    Full Text Available Der Aufsatz ist der Schrift Adversus nationes des afrikanischen Apologeten Arnobius von Sicca gewidmet. Besonders behandelt wird dabei das Gottheitsbild des Afrikaners, das sehr eigentümliche Züge zeigt. In der Einführung werden zuerst wenige, hauptsächlich von Hieronymus überlieferte Details aus dem Leben des ehemaligen Rhetors geschildert. Dann werden seine wichtigsten (heidnische wie christliche Quellen, die schon seit langem im Rampenlicht der Forschung stehen, kürzlich erörtert. Dabei wird auch seine fast schon legendäre Unkenntnis der Bibel, besonders des Alten Testaments, erwähnt, die nicht ohne Folgen für sein Werk bleibt. Einige Sätze sind schließlich auch der Rezeption seiner Schrift in späteren Jahrhunderten gewidmet. Den Hauptteil der Abhandlung bildet die Behandlung des Gottheitsbildes bei Arnobius. Es wird hervorgehoben, dass auch in diesem Punkt bei dem Afrikaner keine Systematik erwartet werden darf. Denn sein Hauptanliegen ist, was von manchen Forschern in Vergangenheit verkannt wurde, nicht in erster Linie eine Apologie seines neuen Glaubens, sondern vielmehr eine Abrechnung mit der heidnischen Religion, ganz besonders mit dem heidnischen Gottesdienst. Mit dieser Abrechnung versucht er, die Vorwürfe der heidnischen Umwelt, das Christentum sei an den Unheil in der Welt schuld, zu entschärfen. Demselben Ziel dient auch seine Behauptung, die (wahre Gottheit kann nicht zornig sein, weshalb er eine starke Trennung zwischen Gott und Menschen schildert und sich dabei sogar auf die Ansichten des Lukrez stützt. Deshalb ist auch seine Anthropologie recht eigentümlich und der Mensch wird in ihr fast vollständig degradiert, was auch eine gute Grundlage für die spätere Demontage der heidnischen Götter im Rahmen einer euchemeristischen Mythenkritik bildet. Was die Existenz der heidnischen Götter betrifft, neigt der Afrikaner der Meinung zu, sie existierten zwar, wurden aber von der höchsten Gottheit geschaffen, und

  18. Photovoltaic systems. A guide for electricians, roofers, projecting engineers and architects; Photovoltaische Anlagen. Leitfaden fuer Elektriker, Dachdecker, Fachplaner, Architekten und Bauherren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselhuhn, R.; Berger, F.; Hasenoehrl, G.; Morsch, R.; Quaschning, V.; Rauscher, S.; Seltmann, T.; Hartmann, U.


    can-polluting and sustainable power supply will rely heavily on photovoltaic systems. Experience has shown that the development of PV systems cannot be assured without careful, high-quality planning dimensioning, installation, commissioning and maintenance. This guide contains comprehensive information on all aspects of PV systems. It addresses architects, projecting engineers, builder-owners, electricians and roofers, as well as decision-makers on state and community level with the intention of informing them on the latest state of the art. Contents: 1. Functional principles, design, characteristics and properties of components, modules and current inverters; 2. in situ analysis and site analysis; 3. shading analysis; 4. Optimal planning, dimensioning and design; 5. simulation programmes; 6. installation, commissioning, failure detection and maintenance; 7. assembly systems and integration options; 8. funding programmes. To facilitate updating, the book is in the form of a loose-leaf collection. [German] Fuer eine klimavertraegliche und nachhaltige zukuenftige Energieversorgung Deutschlands ist der massive Ausbau der Photovoltaik unabdingbar. Die Rahmenbedingungen fuer einen solchen Ausbau sind geschaffen, der Markt befindet sich zur Zeit im Umbruch. In Deutschland werden von einem solchen Ausbau in erster Linie netzgekoppelte PV-Anlagen betroffen sein. Die Erfahrungen mit der Performance solcher Anlagen (1.000-Daecher-Programm, Programm Sonne in der Schule, Schweizer Foerderprogramm etc.) haben allerdings gezeigt, dass ohne eine sorgfaeltige und auf hohem Niveau stehende Planung, Dimensionierung, Installation, Inbetriebnahme und Wartung der optimale Ertrag und damit der Beitrag zum Klimaschutz nicht gewaehrleistet werden kann. Aus diesen Gruenden ist es notwendig und sinnvill, Architekten, Planern, Bauherren, Installationsbetrieben (sowohl Elektrikern als auch Dachdeckern) und last but not least den Entscheidungstraegern in Laendern und Kommunen ein

  19. Defining the Nation: National Identity in South Sudanese Media Discourse Eine Nation definieren: Die nationale Identität im südsudanesischen Mediendiskurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Frahm


    Full Text Available This article examines debates about national identity in the media landscape of post-referendum and post-independence South Sudan. Having never existed as a sovereign state and with its citizens being a minority group in Sudan, collective action among South Sudanese has historically been shaped in response to external pressures: in particular, the aggressive nation-building pursued by successive Khartoum governments that sought to Arabize and Islamize the South. Today, in the absence of a clear-cut enemy, it is a major challenge for South Sudan to devise a common identity that unites the putative nation beyond competing loyalties to ethnicity, tribe and family. Analysing opinion pieces from South Sudanese online media and placing them in the context of contemporary African nationalism, this article gives an initial overview of the issues that dominate the public debate on national identity: fear of tribalism and regionalism, commemoration of the liberation struggle, language politics, and the role of Christianity.Dieser Artikel widmet sich den Debatten, die in südsudanesischen Medien von der Nachreferendumszeit bis einige Monate nach der Unabhängigkeit über die nationale Identität geführt wurden. Der Südsudan hatte nie als souveräner Staat existiert und innerhalb des Sudan hatten die Südsudanesen eine Minderheit gebildet. In der Geschichte war gemeinschaftliches Handeln der Südsudanesen in erster Linie als Reaktion auf Druck von außen in Erscheinung getreten, insbesondere im Zusammenhang mit Arabisierungs- und Islamisierungsbestrebungen von Regierungen in Khartum. Heute fehlt ein eindeutiges Feindbild. Daher ist der Entwurf einer gemeinsamen Identität, die das Land über konkurrierende Loyalitäten zu Stamm, Ethnie oder Familie hinweg zu einen vermag, eine große Herausforderung für den Südsudan. Auf der Grundlage von Meinungsäußerungen in südsudanesischen Online-Zeitungen, die er zum „neuen“ afrikanischen

  20. Genome-Wide Annotation and Comparative Analysis of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Basidiomycete Biotrophic Plant Pathogens. (United States)

    Qhanya, Lehlohonolo Benedict; Matowane, Godfrey; Chen, Wanping; Sun, Yuxin; Letsimo, Elizabeth Mpholoseng; Parvez, Mohammad; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Syed, Khajamohiddin


    Fungi are an exceptional source of diverse and novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), heme-thiolate proteins, with catalytic versatility. Agaricomycotina saprophytes have yielded most of the available information on basidiomycete P450s. This resulted in observing similar P450 family types in basidiomycetes with few differences in P450 families among Agaricomycotina saprophytes. The present study demonstrated the presence of unique P450 family patterns in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens that could possibly have originated from the adaptation of these species to different ecological niches (host influence). Systematic analysis of P450s in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens belonging to three different orders, Agaricomycotina (Armillaria mellea), Pucciniomycotina (Melampsora laricis-populina, M. lini, Mixia osmundae and Puccinia graminis) and Ustilaginomycotina (Ustilago maydis, Sporisorium reilianum and Tilletiaria anomala), revealed the presence of numerous putative P450s ranging from 267 (A. mellea) to 14 (M. osmundae). Analysis of P450 families revealed the presence of 41 new P450 families and 27 new P450 subfamilies in these biotrophic plant pathogens. Order-level comparison of P450 families between biotrophic plant pathogens revealed the presence of unique P450 family patterns in these organisms, possibly reflecting the characteristics of their order. Further comparison of P450 families with basidiomycete non-pathogens confirmed that biotrophic plant pathogens harbour the unique P450 families in their genomes. The CYP63, CYP5037, CYP5136, CYP5137 and CYP5341 P450 families were expanded in A. mellea when compared to other Agaricomycotina saprophytes and the CYP5221 and CYP5233 P450 families in P. graminis and M. laricis-populina. The present study revealed that expansion of these P450 families is due to paralogous evolution of member P450s. The presence of unique P450 families in these organisms serves as evidence of how a host

  1. Synthesis and electrochemistry of cubic rocksalt Li-Ni-Ti-O compounds in the phase diagram of LiNiO 2-LiTiO 2-Li[Li 1/3Ti 2/3]O 2 (United States)

    Zhang, Lianqi; Noguchi, Hideyuki; Li, Decheng; Muta, Takahisa; Wang, Xiaoqing; Yoshio, Masaki; Taniguchi, Izumi

    On the basis of extreme similarity between the triangle phase diagrams of LiNiO 2-LiTiO 2-Li[Li 1/3Ti 2/3]O 2 and LiNiO 2-LiMnO 2-Li[Li 1/3Mn 2/3]O 2, new Li-Ni-Ti-O series with a nominal composition of Li 1+ z/3Ni 1/2- z/2Ti 1/2+ z/6O 2 (0 ≤ z ≤ 0.5) was designed and attempted to prepare via a spray-drying method. XRD identified that new Li-Ni-Ti-O compounds had cubic rocksalt structure, in which Li, Ni and Ti were evenly distributed on the octahedral sites in cubic closely packed lattice of oxygen ions. They can be considered as the solid solution between cubic LiNi 1/2Ti 1/2O 2 and Li[Li 1/3Ti 2/3]O 2 (high temperature form). Charge-discharge tests showed that Li-Ni-Ti-O compounds with appropriate compositions could display a considerable capacity (more than 80 mAh g -1 for 0.2 ≤ z ≤ 0.27) at room temperature in the voltage range of 4.5-2.5 V and good electrochemical properties within respect to capacity (more than 150 mAh g -1 for 0 ≤ z ≤ 0.27), cycleability and rate capability at an elevated temperature of 50 °C. These suggest that the disordered cubic structure in some cases may function as a good host structure for intercalation/deintercalation of Li +. A preliminary electrochemical comparison between Li 1+ z/3Ni 1/2- z/2Ti 1/2+ z/6O 2 (0 ≤ z ≤ 0.5) and Li 6/5Ni 2/5Ti 2/5O 2 indicated that charge-discharge mechanism based on Ni redox at the voltage of >3.0 V behaved somewhat differently, that is, Ni could be reduced to +2 in Li 1+ z/3Ni 1/2- z/2Ti 1/2+ z/6O 2 while +3 in Li 6/5Ni 2/5Ti 2/5O 2. Reduction of Ti 4+ at a plateau of around 2.3 V could be clearly detected in Li 1+ z/3Ni 1/2- z/2Ti 1/2+ z/6O 2 with 0.27 ≤ z ≤ 0.5 at 50 °C after a deep charge associated with charge compensation from oxygen ion during initial cycle.

  2. Capability of a SOFC-APU to optimise the fuel consumption of motor vehicles; Potenzial einer SOFC-APU bei der Verbrauchsoptimierung von Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegelmann, Christian B.


    recuperating function) and in numerous driving cycles. The evaluated SOFC-APU has a nominal power of 1.5 kW (orig.) [German] Bei der Analyse des Energiesystems Kraftfahrzeug werden in dieser Arbeit verschiedene Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten einer SOFC-APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) zur Reduktion des Kraftstoffverbrauchs identifiziert. Neben der reinen Stromversorgung kann die APU Funktionen wie Motor- Stopp-Automatik (MSA) oder elektrisches Fahren (Hybridfahrzeug) unterstuetzen. Des weiteren erzeugt eine SOFC-APU Abwaerme auf einem hohen Temperaturniveau. Die Abwaerme kann zum Heizen des Fahrgastraums oder zur Vorwaermung des Verbrennungsmotors verwendet werden. Fuer die Bewertung der Einsparpotenziale wurden mehrere Methoden betrachtet. Eine einfache Abschaetzung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs ueber mittlere Wirkungsgrade und Leistungen ist bereits ausreichend, um die Haupteinfluesse zu identifizieren und zu bewerten. Die Einsparpotenziale einer SOFC-APU haengen in erster Linie von drei Faktoren ab, dem Startup-Verbrauch der APU, der Betriebsdauer und der angeforderten elektrischen Leistung. Eine kalte APU muss zunaechst auf eine Betriebstemperatur von 700 C bis 800 C erwaermt werden. Dieser Aufheizvorgang benoetigt Energie, so dass zunaechst ein Mehrverbrauch besteht. Erst nach laengerer Betriebsdauer kompensiert sich dieser Mehrverbrauch durch die hohe Effizienz der SOFC-APU. Die Dauer ist stark abhaengig von der elektrischen Leistung. Bei hoeherer elektrischer Leistung besteht prinzipiell eine hoehere Einsparrate durch die APU. Besonders interessant ist eine APU bei Standanwendungen mit hohem Energiebedarf, da hier durch die APU ein Betrieb des Verbrennungsmotors im extremen Teillastbereich vermieden wird. Bei einer 30-minuetigen Standklimatisierung koennen so z.B. Kraftstoffeinsparung von ca. 36 % erreicht werden, inklusive Startup-Verbrauch. Waehrend der Fahrt sind Einsparpotenziale beim Kraftstoffverbrauch nur bei betriebsbereiter APU oder bei laengerer Betriebsdauer zu erwarten. Der

  3. Über dieses Heft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editors / Herausgeber


    Full Text Available Die Erforschung von Computerspielen hat sich in den letzten Jahren zu einem wichtigen Bereich der transmedialen Narratologie entwickelt. Am Anfang dieser Entwicklung stand jedoch eine Grundsatzdiskussion über die Berechtigung narratologischer Analysen von Computerspielen: In der sogenannten ‚Ludologie vs. Narratologie‘-Debatte, die seit Ende der 1990er Jahre in der Computerspielforschung geführt wurde, bezweifelte die Seite der Ludologen vehement, dass eine erzähltheoretische Betrachtung von Computerspielen den Besonderheiten des Mediums gerecht werden kann. Die Spezifik des Mediums, so die Ludologen, läge vielmehr in der spielenden Interaktion des Spielers mit dem Medium, für deren Erfassung spieltheoretische Konzepte besser geeignet seien als erzähltheoretische Analysekategorien. Inzwischen hat sich die Ansicht durchgesetzt, dass die ‚Ludologie vs. Narratologie‘-Debatte im Zusammenhang mit der Etablierung der Game Studies als eigenständiger Disziplin zu sehen ist und die deutliche Abgrenzung der Ludologen von der Erzählforschung in erster Linie institutionelle Gründe hatte. Aber die Gegenüberstellung der ludischen und der narrativen Elementen des Computerspiels wurde nicht grundsätzlich verworfen, sondern erfährt in der aktuellen Forschung eine Weiterentwicklung. Dies verdeutlichen die beiden ersten Beiträge in diesem Heft, die das Verhältnis von Interaktivität und Narrativität im Computerspielen untersuchen. Kai Matuszkiewicz führt zur Beschreibung des Verhältnisses von narrativen und interaktiven Elementen im Computerspiel das Hybridkonzept der Internarrativität ein. Internarrativität ist dabei das Potential eines Computerspiels, vom Spieler sowohl als Spiel als auch als Erzählung aktualisiert werden zu können, und sie ist um so größer, je ausgewogener das Verhältnis von Narrativität und Interaktivität ist. Auch Ralph Müller betrachtet Narrativität und Interaktivität als gradationsfähige Eigenschaften

  4. Ion-beam enhanced etching for the 3D structuration of lithium niobate; Ionenstrahlverstaerktes Aetzen fuer die 3D-Strukturierung von Lithiumniobat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gischkat, Thomas


    Lithiumniobat (LiNbO{sub 3}). Hierbei wird der Ansatz der Erhoehung der nasschemischen Aetzrate infolge der Bestrahlung mit energiereichen Ionen verfolgt. Diese Methode ist sehr Erfolg versprechend fuer die Realisierung von Mikro- und Nanostrukturen mit senkrechten Strukturwaenden sowie geringen Rauheiten. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit bestand darin, die Grundlagen zur Realisierung von dreidimensionalen Mikro- und Nanostrukturen (z.B.: Schichtsysteme und photonische Kristalle) in LiNbO{sub 3} mit hoher optischer Qualitaet zu bilden und an ausgewaehlten Beispielen zu demonstrieren. Voraussetzungen fuer den Erfolg der IBEE-Strukturierungstechnik ist in erster Linie das Verstaendnis der Defektbildung unter Ionenbestrahlung sowie die strahlungsinduzierten Strukturaenderungen im Kristall und die damit verbundene Aenderung der chemischen Resistenz. Hierfuer wurde die Defektbildung in Abhaengigkeit von der Ionenmasse, der Ionenenergie und der Bestrahlungstemperatur untersucht. Thermisch induzierte Einfluesse und Effekte auf die Strahlenschaedigung, wie sie in Zwischenschritten bei der komplexen Prozessierung auftreten koennen, muessen bekannt sein und wurden mittels nachtraeglicher Temperaturbehandlung studiert. Die Ergebnisse aus den Defektuntersuchungen wurden anschliessend fuer die Herstellung von Mikro- und Nanostrukturen in LiNbO{sub 3} verwendet. Gezeigt wird die Realisierung von lateralen Strukturen mit nahezu senkrechten Strukturwaenden sowie die Realisierung von duennen Membranen und Schlitzen. Die anschliessende Kombination von lateraler Strukturierung mit der Herstellung von duennen Membranen und Schlitzen erlaubt die dreidimensionale Strukturierung von LiNbO{sub 3}. Dies wird exemplarisch fuer einen Mikroresonator und fuer einen 2D-photonischen Kristall mit darunter liegendem Luftschlitz gezeigt. (orig.)

  5. The systems psychodynamic leadership coaching experiences of nursing managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landa Terblanche


    Full Text Available The mostly linear and mechanistic nature of the nursing manager role is rapidly becoming more dynamic and systemic. The change involves task and people management within a constantly changing organisational identity, taking up multiple leadership roles, having to authorise oneself and others in a complex matrix system, and managing conscious and unconscious psychological boundaries within and between conflicting systems. The aim of this study was to describe the systems psychodynamic learning experiences of nursing managers during leadership coaching. The coaching task was to provide learning opportunities to the individual leader, towards gaining insight into conscious and unconscious leadership dynamics in terms of anxiety, task, role, authorisation, boundaries and identity. A qualitative research design was used. Six nursing managers attended ten leadership coaching sessions over ten weeks. Field notes and reflective essays were analysed using systems psychodynamic discourse analysis. The findings indicated clarity and authorisation in the participants’ primary task and normative roles; anxiety and de-authorisation in their experiential and phenomenal roles; anxiety in boundary management related to the misuse of power by others; and the continuous exploration of their leadership role identity towards achieving integration. Participants’ learning experiences were evaluated in terms of criteria for organisational learning, after which a general hypothesis was formulated.


    Die meestal liniêre en meganistiese aard van die verpleegbestuursrol is vinnig besig om na ’n meer dinamiese en sistemiese rol te verander. Die verandering behels taak- en mensbestuur binne 'n steeds veranderende organisasie-identiteit, waar 'n verskeidenheid rolle opgeneem word, die self en ander in 'n komplekse matrikssisteem bemagtig word, en waartydens bewuste en onbewuste sielkundige grense in en tussen botsende sisteme bestuur

  6. Selection and examination of types of waste relevant to underground disposal. Final report; Auswahl und Untersuchung UTD-relevanter Abfallarten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, C. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Tieflagerung; Brasser, T. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Tieflagerung; Bahadir, M. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik; Fischer, R. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik; Lorenz, W. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik; Petersen, C. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik


    Kenntnisse ueber den Abfall selbst, die geologisch-hydrogeologischen Verhaeltnisse des Deponieraumes und seiner Umgebung sowie der zukuenftigen Entwicklung des gesamten Deponiesystems. Die Langzeitsicherheit jeder Untertagedeponie (sinngemaess auch jeder sonstigen untertaegigen Verbringung von Stoffen) ist dabei in erster Linie davon abhaengig, ob auf das Wirtsgestein und dei darin abgelagerten Abfaelle Wasser oder waessrige Loesungen einwirken koennen, in welchem Umfang dadurch Umloeseprozesse und/oder eine Schadstoffmobilisierung resultieren koennen und letztlich, ob Beeintraechtigungen der Barrieren sowie eine Ausbreitung von Schadstoffen in der naeheren und weiteren Umgebung einer Untertagedeponie moeglich sind. Hierzu muessen insbesondere die Abfaelle selbst sowie deren Reaktionsvermoegen mit fluiden Komponenten in geologischen Systemen bekannt sein und erforderlichenfalls untersucht und bewertet werden. Der vorliegende Abschlussbericht ist in diesem Zusammenhang als Beitrag zur Schaffung der notwendigen Datenbasis fuer UTD-relevante Abfallarten ausgerichtet. Damit konnten wichtige Aussagen zum Abfallaufkommen selbst und den zu beruecksichtigenden Abfallinhaltsstoffen ermittelt, wie auch eine Abschaetzung deren Gefaehrdungspotentials vorgenommen werden und als Grundlage fuer weiterfuehrende Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten dienen. (orig./SR)

  7. Record of palaeoenvironmental changes in the Mid-Polish Basin during the Valanginian Event (United States)

    Morales, Chloé; Kujau, Ariane; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Mutterlose, Joerg; Spangenberg, Jorge; Adatte, Thierry; Ploch, Isabela; Föllmi, Karl B.


    closed to the early-late Valanginian boundary. This is associated to a decoupling of the δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg, which is interpreted as a change in atmospheric pCO2. References Erba, E., Bartolini, A. and Larson, L.R. (2004) Valanginian Weissert oceanic anoxic event. Geology, 32, 149-152. Föllmi, K.B., Bodin, S., Godet, A., Linder, P. and van de Schootbrugge, B. (2007) Unlocking paleo-environmental information from Early Cretaceous shelf sediments in the Helvetic Alps: stratigraphy is the key! Swiss journal of geosciences, 100, 349-369. Kujau, A., Heimhofer, U., Ostertag-Henning, C., Gréselle, B. and Mutterlose, J. (2012) No evidence for anoxia during the Valanginian carbon isotope event - an organic-geochemical study from the Vocontian Basin, SE France. Global and Planetary Change, doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.04.007. Weissert, H., Lini, A., Föllmi, K.B. and Kuhn, O. (1998) Correlation of Early Cretaceous carbon isotope stratigraphy and platform drowning events: a possible link? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 137, 189-203. Westermann, S., Caron, M., Fiet, N., Fleitmann, D., Matera, V., Adatte, T. and Föllmi, K.B. (2010) Evidence for oxic conditions during oceanic anoxic event 2 in the northern Tethyan pelagic realm. Cretaceous Research.

  8. Dampak Digital Game Terhadap Perkembangan Sosial Budaya Masyarakat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Bastian


    Full Text Available Abstrak Sejarah panjang perkembangan game menjadi digital game saat ini ikut membawa perkembangan di berbagai lini kehidupan manusia. Jika dahulu game hanya dikenal sebagai media hiburan dalam waktu luang, kini digital game telah menjadi sebuah kebutuhan utama masyarakat dalam keseharian. Di berbagai aktivitasnya, digital game selalu mewarnai kehidupan sosial dan budaya masyarakat, khususnya para remaja. Sebagai dampaknya muncul wacana negatif sebagai budaya baru yang merusak seperti membuat kecanduan, memberi efek emosi yang negatif kepada pemain, dan sebagainya. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk memberikan sebuah pandangan baru tentang bagaimana fenomena tersebut terjadi. Apakah dampak digital game sebenarnya yang terjadi di masyarakat dan bagaimana hal itu terjadi. Melalui observasi, wawancara, dan studi literatur terhadap pengguna aktif digital game didapatkan data perkembangan digital game di kehidupan masyarakat saat ini. Selanjutnya data dianalisis melalui pendekatan teori kebutuhan Maslow, teori interaksi sosial, dan teori perkembangan budaya masyarakat modern. Sebagai hasilnya digital game telah menjadi ciri masyarakat modern yang dinantikan perkembangan dan kehadirannya sebagai sebuah kebutuhan baru bersosialisasi. Digital game sebagai media komunikasi yang secara simbolik menawarkan simulasi kenyataan yang membuat penggunanya betah untuk berlama-lama memainkannya. Kata Kunci: digital game, sosial, budaya, masyarakat Abstract The long history of game development involving the development of today’s digital games ignites the development of various sectors of human life. If the first game was only known as a medium of entertainment in leisure time, now, digital games have become society’s major necessity in everyday life. In many activities, digital games always spark the social and cultural life of society, especially the youths. As a result, negative discourse appears as a new destructive culture. It creates addiction

  9. Radiological diagnosis of lung diseases; Radiodiagnostik der Lunge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, H.U.; Heussel, C.P.; Thelen, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie


    Radiological cross-sectional imaging modalities, particularly computed tomography (CT) have become the mainstays for diagnosing lung disease in recent years. These enable morphological visualization of pathological processes with the greatest possible spatial resolution. Modern technical developments and complementary strategies have led to new applications and new functional assessments which need to be reviewed together with state-of-the-art techniques in nuclear imaging. The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism using spiral CT angiography and magnetic resonance (MR) angiography certainly belongs in this category. CT has become the an alternative modality of first choice, and it is also challenging pulmonary angiography as the gold standard. Direct visualization of patent pulmonary arteries and thromboembolic material is complemented by that of effects on the pulmonary parenchyma and right heart function; it also provides perfusion studies and MR-based flow measurement to assess hemodynamic compromise. Ventilation studies have long been a domain of nuclear imaging, and new techniques for the direct visualization of ventilation are emerging from recent developments in the field of MR imaging, for example, using hyperpolarized inert gases. New functional parameters of ventilation can be derived from these studies. For the diagnosis of metabolically active disease, such as tumor and pneumonia, CT offers very high sensitivity, for example, in screening for intrapulmonary nodules using low-dose CT and in the early detection of pulmonary infiltrates in high-risk patients. Especially for characterizing pulmonary nodules there is a need to combine nuclear medicine techniques, such as in positron-emission tomography. (orig.) [German] Die radiologischen Schnittbildverfahren, insbesondere die CT, haben sich innerhalb kurzer Zeit einen herausragenden Stellenwert in der Diagnostik von Lungenerkrankungen erworben. Dies umfasst in erster Linie die morphologische Darstellung

  10. Equity and globalisation. On the necessity of equitable, sustainable global energy and resource policies; Gerechtigkeit und Globalisierung. Zur Notwendigkeit einer gerechten und nachhaltigen globalen Energie- und Ressourcenpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Anja


    - direkt oder indirekt - immer mehr Bereiche des menschlichen Lebens; ausserdem werden immer mehr negative Auswirkungen der in Zusammenhang mit der Globalisierung stehenden menschlichen Praktiken spuerbar - und zwar vor allem fuer die aermeren, aber auch fuer zukuenftige Menschen. Da es ein wesentliches Charakteristikum der Globalisierung darstellt, dass sich ihr - bzw. praeziser gesagt: den negativen Auswirkungen der in ihrem Namen begangenen Handlungen - niemand zu entziehen vermag, ergibt sich daraus ein grosses, globales Gerechtigkeitsproblem. Besonders deutlich laesst sich dies am Beispiel der gegenwaertigen globalen Energie- und Ressourcenpolitik belegen. Wichtigstes Desiderat der Arbeit ist daher die Suche nach einer gerechteren und nachhaltigeren Art von Globalisierung als derjenigen, die gegenwaertig praktiziert wird. Hierfuer - so zeigt die politische Philosophie der internationalen Beziehungen - ist in erster Linie ein international verbindliches Regelwerk bzw. eine verbindliche Rahmenordnung erforderlich, da anderenfalls, so lehrt die gegenwaertige Realitaet, mit extrem geringer Wirkungskraft zu rechnen ist. Eine solche Verbindlichkeit ist bereits des oefteren gefordert worden - sie beschraenkt sich jedoch bis dato in aller Regel auf eine reine zwischenstaatliche Friedensordnung; prominentestes Werk dieser Richtung ist nach wie vor dasjenige von John Rawls. Da eine solche Theorie der komplexer gewordenen Realitaet der Globalisierung jedoch nicht mehr angemessen ist, werden von den wenigen hierueber hinausgehenden Ansaetzen die bekannteren - teils aus einer kritischen Auseinandersetzung mit dem Werk von Rawls hervorgegangenen, aber bewusst auch einige weniger bekannte vorgestellt und kritisch auf ihre praktische Brauchbarkeit untersucht, so dass am Ende ein neuer Entwurf zu einer verbindlichen globalen Rahmenordnung fuer Umwelt, Wirtschaft und Frieden stehen kann. (orig.)

  11. Medizinstudierende Eltern – die Dichotomie der Erfahrungswelten [Parents Studying Medicine – the dichotomy of studying with a family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iden, Kirstin


    beleuchtet. Der spezielle Fokus liegt auf den Themen „Studium mit Kind“ sowie „familiengerechte Hochschule“, welche in Deutschland in der letzten Dekade sehr präsent sowohl in der Hochschulforschung als auch im akademischen Alltag sind. Hier versucht die Arbeitsstelle „Individuelle Studienbegleitung“ am FB Medizin der Goethe-Universität durch ein neues Beratungs- und Servicekonzept mit wissenschaftlicher Begleitforschung den individuellen Studienverläufen gerecht zu werden und den Studienerfolg zu fördern.Methoden: In erster Linie stammen die hier beschriebenen Erfahrungen der Medizinstudierenden mit Kind aus qualitativen Leitfadeninterviews (Stand April 2010, die im Rahmen des Modellprojektes Teilzeitstudium Medizin durchgeführt wurden. Ergänzend wurden die Studienergebnisse des Fachbereichs Medizin der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main herangezogen und eine Literaturanalyse einbezogen.Ergebnisse: Als Ergebnis kann festgehalten werden, dass die bereits seit mehreren Jahren erhobenen Forderungen und gewünschten Unterstützungsleistungen zwar zum Teil umgesetzt, aber noch nicht ausreichend an allen Fachbereichen implementiert wurden. Somit ist die aktuelle Situation von Studierenden mit Kindern in der Medizin nach wie vor schwierig und stellt für alle Beteiligten eine große Herausforderung dar.Lösungsansatz: Im Rahmen der Arbeitsstelle „Individuelle Studienbegleitung“ konnte im November 2009 das „Modellprojekt Teilzeitstudium Medizin“ aufgebaut werden. Nur durch neue, unkonventionelle und innovative Ideen kann man die Sicherstellung der medizinischen Ausbildung erreichen und die heutige heterogene Studierendenschaft adäquat ansprechen sowie Studierende erfolgreich durch ihr Studium begleiten.

  12. Strukturell-organisatorische Entwicklung und Etablierung eines interdisziplinären Trainingszentrums für klinisch-praktische Fertigkeiten [Structural and organizational development and establishment of an interdisciplinary Skills Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dott, Wolfgang


    Full Text Available [english] Background: Besides theoretical knowledge, medical students have to acquire different skills during their medical education, which are essential especially for the physician’s routine practice. In July 2005 an interdisciplinary skills lab was set up at the Medical Faculty of the RWTH Aachen University. Financial and personnel resources for the structural and organizational development of the skills lab were obtained first from a faculty fund for innovative teaching concepts, and later from student fees. Methods: Elements of project management necessary for the skills lab were defined in advance: Development of a methodological concept, definition of content and selection of skills, provision of infrastructural necessities (rooms, media, staff, creation of a pilot course concept, definition of milestones, acquisition of powerful faculty partners for further support, implementation of courses within the ongoing curricula, and evaluation of individual courses and the entire concept. Results: The project management steps defined in advance were retrospectively proven necessary and important for the establishment of a minimum infrastructure in terms of spatial and human resources and for the implementation of the methodological concept. During the 2008 summer semester, a total of 709 students in 133 faculty courses and about 900 students in curricular courses used the skills lab. Conclusion: Three years on, the interdisciplinary skills lab offers a wide range of courses in which students can learn, train, and optimize their practical skills. The experiences gained in designing and organizing the program are essential for the further structural and methodological/didactic development of the skills lab.[german] Hintergrund: Neben theoretischem Wissen müssen Medizinstudierende Fertigkeiten unterschiedlichster Art erwerben, die nicht nur für die praktischen Ausbildungsteile im Studium, sondern in erster Linie für das tägliche

  13. Aktuelle Technik der Bruststraffung beim Mann nach Gewichtsverlust [Modern technique in male breast contouring after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoff, Alexander


    Full Text Available [english] The morbid adiposity and its medical consequences demonstrates a growing problem of our current prosperous society. Due to a significant improvement of bariatric techniques and a reduplication of adipose patients during the 20 century, the number of patients, who present to plastic surgeons with a new degree of suffering, has been growing steadily. Initially, the female patients were in the majority, which has been more balanced nowadays.The male breast is a body region that primarily symbolizes masculinity and strenght. In male patients after massive weight loss, this body region remains as an extremly deflated breast envelope without any sign of possible retraction. The plastic surgeon may choose from different single or combinated ltechniques, which are indicated depending on the local and adjacent tissue characteristics.We are presenting our modified technique of male breast reshaping, referring to the technique of Aly, except for a NAC transposition on a central pedicle. The central pedicle is hereby preserved from resection after tremendous liposuction. This central pedicle technique allows a safe and uncomplicated NAC transposition with significant advantages compared to free NAC-Transposition techniques in terms of aesthetical and functional outcome. [german] Die morbide Adipositas mit ihren Langzeitfolgen ist ein zunehmendes Problem unserer heutigen Wohlstandsgesellschaft. Mit einer Verdoppelung der betroffenen Patienten im Laufe des 20. Jahrhunderts ist gleichzeitig durch rasante Verbesserung der bariatrischen Eingriffe auch die Zahl der Patienten signifikant und stetig gestiegen, die sich nach massiver Gewichtsreduktion nun mit neuem Leidensdruck beim Plastischen Chirurgen vorstellen. Hierbei ist die anfängliche Überzahl der weiblichen Patienten in ein ausgewogenes Verhältnis der betroffenen Geschlechter übergegangen. Die männliche Brust, eine Körperregion, die in erster Linie Männlichkeit und Stärke symbolisiert und


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik WRÓBEL

    Full Text Available Badania terenowe, prowadzone w latach 2010-2016, w dolinach rzecznych polskiej części Karpat oraz w Kotlinie Sandomierskiej i w przylegającym do niej odcinku doliny Wisły, miały za zadanie uzupełnić, wiedzę o występowaniu inwazyjnych gatunków roślin (inwaderów w najsilniej przekształconych dolinach rzecznych, a w szczególności określić typy zabudowy dolin rzecznych, sprzyjające rozprzestrzenianiu się tych gatunków. Przeanalizowano 118 transektów zlokalizowanych zarówno w regionach górskich, podgórskich i nizinnych, w odcinkach uregulowanych jak i nieuregulowanych dolin rzecznych, cieków o różnej wielkości. Wyodrębniono główne typy/kategorie zabudowy, łączące w sobie: obiekty hydrotechniczne i przeciwpowodziowe, w tym obwałowania, umocnienia brzegowe i ostrogi korytowe (I, mieszkalną i usługową zabudowę śródmiejską (II, drogowe i kolejowe linie komunikacyjne, w tym mosty (III, wyrobiska górnicze, zabudowę produkcyjną, wydobywczą, magazynową i towarzyszącą (IV, zabudowę rozproszoną, ogródki działkowe (V oraz odrębne place, parkingi i składowiska (VI. Na częściach transektów, obejmujących różne formy zabudowy, najczęściej zanotowano występowanie Solidago gigantea / S. canadensis (46, Impatiens glandulifera (30, Echinocystis lobata (22, Robinia pseudoacacia (17, Helianthus tuberosus (15 i Impatiens parviflora (15. Największa liczba stanowisk gatunków inwazyjnych w relacji do wszystkich ich stwierdzeń została zanotowana na różnego rodzaju budowlach hydrotechnicznych, w tym na umocnieniach brzegowych różnego typu. Obserwacje prowadzone w zakresie wpływu inwestycji regulacyjnych na szatę roślinną wskazują, że nie ma istotnych różnic co do zastosowanych sposobów zabudowy umocnieniowej brzegów, które można byłoby uznać za bardziej przyjazne środowisku. W każdym przypadku następuje pozostawianie odkrytego podłoża i promowanie wkraczania inwaderów.

  15. Combination of lightweight elements and nanostructured materials for batteries. (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Cheng, Fangyi


    In a society that increasingly relies on mobile electronics, demand is rapidly growing for both primary and rechargeable batteries that power devices from cell phones to vehicles. Existing batteries utilize lightweight active materials that use electrochemical reactions of ions such as H(+), OH(-) and Li(+)/Mg(2+) to facilitate energy storage and conversion. Ideal batteries should be inexpensive, have high energy density, and be made from environmentally friendly materials; batteries based on bulk active materials do not meet these requirements. Because of slow electrode process kinetics and low-rate ionic diffusion/migration, most conventional batteries demonstrate huge gaps between their theoretical and practical performance. Therefore, efforts are underway to improve existing battery technologies and develop new electrode reactions for the next generation of electrochemical devices. Advances in electrochemistry, surface science, and materials chemistry are leading to the use of nanomaterials for efficient energy storage and conversion. Nanostructures offer advantages over comparable bulk materials in improving battery performance. This Account summarizes our progress in battery development using a combination of lightweight elements and nanostructured materials. We highlight the benefits of nanostructured active materials for primary zinc-manganese dioxide (Zn-Mn), lithium-manganese dioxide (Li-Mn), and metal (Mg, Al, Zn)-air batteries, as well as rechargeable lithium ion (Li-ion) and nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. Through selected examples, we illustrate the effect of structure, shape, and size on the electrochemical properties of electrode materials. Because of their numerous active sites and facile electronic/ionic transfer and diffusion, nanostructures can improve battery efficiency. In particular, we demonstrate the properties of nanostructured active materials including Mg, Al, Si, Zn, MnO(2), CuV(2)O(6), LiNi(0.8)Co(0.2)O(2), LiFePO(4), Fe(2)O(3

  16. Die Veränderung der Grenzen in einer transnationalen Gebietskörperschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Denni


    konfliktreichen Linie der Trennung während des deutsch-französischen Krieges von 1870-1871 zu einer friedvollen und integrierten Grenzzone innerhalb der Europäischen Union. Die Vereinbarung von 2005 über die Gründung des Eurodistrikts Straßburg-Ortenau sieht sogar die Überwindung politischer und sozialer Grenzen vor, indem langfristig eine Fusion der beiden benachbarten Gebietskörperschaften angestrebt wird. Obwohl diese Vereinbarung zu einer Verstärkung der grenzüberschreitenden Zusammenarbeit geführt hat, sind viele juristische, politische und soziale Fragen noch ungeklärt. Auch die Bürger der Grenzregion sind bisher nur unzureichend in den Entwicklungsprozess des Eurodistrikts einbezogen worden. Es ist daher noch ein langer Weg zu beschreiten, ehe der Rhein nicht mehr die Grenze zwischen Frankreich und Deutschland darstellt, sondern einen Bindestrich zwischen beiden Ländern.

  17. Procesy patologiczne w mózgu podczas jego niedokrwienia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Justyna Kacperska


    Full Text Available Udar mózgu (stroke jest obecnie jedną z najczęstszych przyczyn zgonów i trwałego kalectwa. Udar niedokrwienny mózgu (ischaemic stroke, IS jest niebezpieczną chorobą nie tylko ze względu na dużą śmiertelność, ale również z powodu niepełnosprawności u pacjentów, którzy go przeżywają (około 76% przypadków. Jest to niejednorodna jednostka chorobowa, będąca zespołem objawów ogniskowych powstałych w wyniku niedokrwienia lub krwotoku do tkanki mózgowej spowodowanych wieloma różnymi przyczynami. Rozróżniamy dwa typy udarów mózgowych: krwotoczne i niedokrwienne. Udary krwotoczne stanowią 15% wszystkich udarów, pozostałe 80% to udary niedokrwienne. Udar mózgu jest chorobą ogólnoustrojową, głównie wynikającą z patologii naczyniowej. Ogromną rolę odgrywa tu miażdżyca i mechanizmy z nią związane. Proces chorobowy dotyczy całego organizmu, a nie tylko naczyń mózgowych. Z punktu widzenia patologii udar niedokrwienny mózgu jest dynamicznie rozwijającym się procesem neurodegeneracyjnym, który prowadzi do śmierci komórek (cell death. Oprócz uszkodzenia naczyniopochodnego choroba ta indukuje komórkowo-molekularną odpowiedź immunologiczną ośrodkowego układu nerwowego i układu naczyniowego, ukierunkowaną na rozwój reakcji zapalnej. Aktywowane komórki mózgu, a także komórki układu naczyniowego zaangażowane są w syntezę różnych molekuł, cytokin, chemokin, cząsteczek adhezyjnych oraz enzymów prozapalnych. Ciągle rośnie liczba doniesień potwierdzających duże znaczenie czynników zapalnych w rozwoju udaru niedokrwiennego mózgu. W procesie tym znaczącą rolę odgrywa bariera krew-mózg. Na poziomie komórkowym mikroglej stanowi główną linię nadzoru immunologicznego nad ośrodkowym układem nerwowym, odpowiedzialną za indukcję reakcji zapalnej w udarze mózgu. W udarze mózgu następuje gwałtowna zmiana ekspresji cytokin, które ujawniają neurodegeneracyjny efekt

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Three-dimensional Microstructure of Li-ion Battery Electrodes (United States)

    Liu, Zhao

    Li-ion batteries (LIBs) have attracted considerable attention in the past two decades due to their widespread applications in portable electronics, and their growing use in electric vehicles and large-scale grid storage. Increasing battery energy density and powder density while maintaining long life, along with battery safety, are the biggest challenges that limit their further development. Various approaches with materials and chemistry have been employed to improve performance. However, one less-studied aspect that also impacts performance is the electrode microstructure. In particular, three-dimensional (3D) electrode microstructural data for LIB electrodes, which were not widely available prior to this thesis, can provide important input for understanding and improving LIB performance. The focus of this thesis is to apply 3D tomographic techniques, together with electrochemical performance data, to obtain LIB microstructure-performance correlations. Two advanced 3D structural analysis techniques, focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) nanotomography, are used to quantify LIB electrode microstructure. 3D characterization of LIB electrode microstructure is used to obtain a deeper understanding of mechanisms that limit LIB performance. Microstructural characterization before and after cycling is used to explore capacity loss mechanisms. It is hoped that the results can guide electrode microstructures design to improve performance and stability. Two types of commercial electrodes, LiCoO2 and LiCoO 2/Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2, are studied using FIB-SEM and TXM. Both methods were found to be applicable to quantifying the oxide particle microstructure, including volume fraction, surface area, and particle size distribution, and results agreed well. However, structural inhomogeneity found in these commercial samples, limited the capability to resolve microstructural changes during cycling. In order to also quantify

  19. Veteres igitur primique Romani: das römische Königreich und die römische Republik in der frühen lateinischen christlichen Apologetik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Maver


    Full Text Available Der Aufsatz behandelt die Thematisierung der Ereignisse und Personen aus der Frühzeit der römischen Geschichte bei den christlichen Apologeten Tertullian, Minucius Felix und Arnobius. Obwohl eine verhältnismäßig systematische Schilderung des römischen Königreiches und der römischen Republik im lateinischen apologetischen Schrifttum erst am Anfang des 5. Jahrhunderts mit den beiden grossen Werken des Augustinus und Orosius gab, konnte sie sich in vielen Hinsichten auf etliche Themen und Ideen, die bereits bei den Vorgängern aus dem 3. und 4. Jahrhundert Aufmerksamkeit fanden, stutzen.  Dabei zeigt wenigstens der erste Blick zwei bedeutende Merkmale des Umgangs der frühen Lateinisch schreibenden Apologeten mit der Frühzeit Roms. Erstens ist das Königreich – ganz besonders die ersten beiden Könige – besser vertreten als die Republik, und zweitens beherrscht die negative Beurteilung dieser Epoche das Bild. Das kann kaum verwundern, denn die Frühzeit der römischen Geschichte war ja auch der Ursprung der Mehrheit der kultischen Vorschriften, die christliche Apologeten zu bekämpfen versuchten. Außerdem bildeten die Beispiele aus dieser Zeit das Rückgrat des berühmten römischen Credo, das die besondere Verbindung zwischen Rom und seinen Göttern zu beweisen schien.   Trotzdem konnte, wie sich in der Abhandlung zunehmend zeigt, insbesondere die Epoche der römischen Republik durchaus auch eine Menge an positiv verwendbaren Beispielen für die Apologeten liefern. Sie sind zwar nicht so auffällig wie die negativen Seiten des Anfangs Roms und wirken vielmals äußerst zufallsbedingt und willkürlich.  Dennoch kann man etliche Gebiete aussondern, wo die Apologeten (vor allem republikanische Themen vermehrt einsetzen. Zuerst bewunderten auch sie die angebliche moralische Überlegenheit und moralische Strenge der frühen Römer. Diese Linie, die auch die Treue der Heiden ihrer Zeit zu den Sitten der Vorfahren in Frage stellen

  20. Assortative mating and directional or stabilizing selection for a non-linear function of traits in Tribolium. (United States)

    Campo, J L; Gil, M G


    significativa para el valor agregado y sus dos caracteres componentes. Había una ventaja consistente aunque no significativa para el apareamiento clasificado, siendo la respuesta media para valor agregado y longitud de pupa 1.15 veces mayor en la línea A. En el experimento 2, el criterio de selección era el cuadrado de la desviación con respecto a la media de longitud de pupa (selección estabilizante); ambas líneas no mostraron ningún cambio significativo en longitud de pupa. La varianza fenotípica tuvo una disminución significativa debida a una reducción de la varianza genética, siendo estos cambios similares en ambas líneas. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Assortative Paarung, gerichtete oder stabilisierende Selektion für nicht-lineare Funktion von Merkmalen in Triboleum Assortative oder Zufallspaarung nach gerichteter Selektion in beiden Richtungen für nicht-lineare Merkmale (Versuch 1) oder stabilisierende für Puppenlänge (Versuch 2) wurden über 5 Generationen bei Triboleum castaneum (A bzw. R), mit je 3 Wiederholungen und 25% Remonte, durchgeführt. In Versuch 1 sollten adultes Gewicht und 1. und 2. Potenz der Puppenlänge gesteigert werden. A und R Linien ergaben signifikante Selektionserfolge für Gesamtwert (184 ± 6 bezw. 161 ± 14), Puppenlänge (0,74 ± 02, 0.64 ± 05) und adultes Gewicht (0.74 ± 03 und 0.78 ± 0.12). Obwohl Linie A nicht statistisch signifikant überlegen war, zeigte sich durchgehend überlegenheit gegenüber R Linien, im Durchschnitt 1,15 mal. In Versuch 2 zeigte keine der beiden Linien Veränderungen der Puppenlänge, aber die Varianz nahm signifikant ab wegen Verminderung der Varianz zwischen Familien, deren Abnahme in der zufalls- und in der assortativ gepaarten Linie gleich groß war. RÉSUMÉ: Accouplement classé et sélection directionelle o stabilisant pour une fonction no lineal chez Tribolium Deux lingnées de Tribolium castaneum on été soumis a sélection directionelle par un index no lineal (Expérience 1) o stabilisant pour la

  1. Estimation of the genetic correlations between twisted legs and growth or conformation traits in broiler chickens. (United States)

    Bihan-Duval, E L; Beaumont, C; Colleau, J J


    inciter à surveiller l'impact sur l'incidence des varus des fortes pressions de sélection appliquées actuellement sur les caractères de conformation. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Genetische Korrelationen zwischen verbogenen Füßen und Wachstums- und Formmerkmalen in Broilern Genetische Korrelationen zwischen 2 Arten von Beindeformationen, Valgus und Varus Angulationen, und einigen Wachtums- und Formmerkmalen wurden bei zwei kommerziellen Broiler Herkünften geschätzt, 14 264 Hühner beiderlei Geschlechter wurden in Linie A auf Beinfehler bei 6 Wochen Alter und Körpergewicht bei 3 (BW3) und 6 Wochen (BW6) untersucht, in Linie B 8 164 Tiere, wo aber auch Brustwinkel (BRA) und Brustfleisch (BRM) von ca. 70% der Hähne erhoben worden ist. Das für die genetische Analyse von Valgus und Varus Deformationen entwickelte multinomiale logit Modell wurde für die gemeinsame Analyse eines ungeordneten kategorischen Merkmals und einer kontinuierlichen Variablen erweitert. Dieses unterstellt Kompetition zwischen latenter Anfälligkeiten für verschiedene Deformationen und lineare Beziehung zu kontinuierlich verteilter Leistung. Lokationsparameter wurden mittels "Maximum A Posteriori" Ansatz und Dispersionsparameter mittels "Maximum Marginaler Likelihood" unter Verwendung von 'tilde-hat' Approximation geschätzt. Das genetische Modell berücksichtigte Vater-, maternale Großvater- und Muttertier-innerhalb der letzteren-Wirkungen. Beindeformationen zeigen mittlere Heritabilitätswerte, 0.22 für Valgus and Varus aus Vater/maternalem Großvater Komponenten, 0.37 bez. 0.29 aus der Muttertierkomponente. Mit Ausnahme von BRA waren Heritabilitätswerte für Wachstum- und Formmerkmale aus S/MGS-Komponenten (0.18-0.47) kleiner als die aus Muttertierkomponenten (0.41-0.63). Genetische Korrelationen zwischen letzeren und Anfällikeiten waren sehr niedrig: zwischen BW3 und Valgus und Varus -0.03 bzw. -0.05, BW6 +0.05 und 0.01. Simulation zeigte, daß die niedrigen Werte kaum auf negative R

  2. A Middle-Late Devonian fish fauna from the Sierra de Perijá, western Venezuela, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Young


    palaeomagnetic data. Es wird eine neue devonische Fischfauna aus dem Gebiet zwischen Caño Colorado und Rio Socuy, Sierra de Perijá, beschrieben. Die Funde stammen aus zwei Lokalitäten und mehreren Horizonten innerhalb der Campo Chico Formation, die auf Grundlage von Untersuchungen der Pflanzen- und Sporenfunde dem Zeitabschnitt Givetium-Frasnium zugeordnet werden. Placodermen sind durch den Antiarchen Bothriolepis perija n. sp. häufig vertreten. Sie sind mit Arten der Aztec-Fischfauna von Viktoria Land, Antarktis, verwandt. Ein zweiter Antiarche, der Venezuelepis mingui n. g. n. sp. ist eng mit einer Spezies aus der Antarktis verwandt, die ebenfalls dieser neuen Gattung zugeschrieben wird. Fragmentarische Reste eines phyllolepiden Placodermen weisen Ähnlichkeiten mit der Gattung Austrophyllolepis aus dem Südosten Australiens auf. Wirbel eines Chondrichthyer werden vorläufig den Antarctilamnidae zugeschrieben. Acanthodir-Reste schließen das weitverbreitete Taxon Machaeracanthus ein. Osteichthyer sind durch Schuppen und Zähne osteolepider Sarcopterygier und Dipnoi vertreten. Andere Schuppen, denen die Cosminschicht fehlt, gehören vermutlich zu einem anderen Haupttaxon. Damit ist durch diese Fauna der erste Nachweis für das Vorkommen der drei Hauptfischgruppen Antiarchi, phyllolepide Placodermi und Dipnoi im Devon Südamerikas erbracht. Sie sind auch auf den meisten anderen Kontinenten weit verbreitet. Obwohl Invertebraten und Pflanzen aus derselben Zeit sehr denen aus dem Osten Nordamerikas ähneln, weisen die endemischen Elemente in der Fischfauna auf eine Affinität zu Gondwana hin. Phyllolepide Placodermen sind im Givetium-Frasnianium Australiens verbreitet, aber erst aus dem Famennium in der Nordhemisphere bekannt. Das Auftreten eines neuen Phyllolepiden weitet den Vorkommensbereich über die nördliche Linie des paläozoischen Gondwanas hinaus aus. Alter und Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen dieser neuen Fischfauna stimmen mit dem Modell der biotischen Verbreitung

  3. Enhancing Near Zero Volt Storage Tolerance of Lithium-ion Batteries (United States)

    Crompton, Kyle R.

    discharge measurements were performed and show that double layer capacitance likely plays a major role in determining the behavior of electrode potentials during near zero volt storage. To further the viability of the anode pre-lithiation method in LiCoO2/MCMB cells, stabilization coatings on the cathode materials are being investigated to increase the tolerance of the cathode to the low potentials it may experience during near zero volt storage of an RLE lithium ion cell. Results show that an AlPO4 coating prevents cation exhange in the cathode crystal structure and substantially increases the cathode's resilience to low electrochemical potentials. Investigations into applying anode pre-lithiation to cells utilizing LiNiCoAlO2 (NCA) cathodes have also been initiated and found to maintain the anode potential below the copper dissolution potential during near zero volt storage. RLE NCA/MCMB cells showed strong recharge performance and improved rate capability retention over a conventional NCA/MCMB cell after ten, 3-day near zero volt storage periods. Scale up of reversible lithium management to NCA/MCMB x3450 pouch cells was achieved using bath lithium addition and rendered a cell that retained 100% of its discharge performance after a 14 day period at near zero volts under fixed load. The near zero volt storage tolerance of lithium ion cells utilizing an advanced, high energy density lithium rich cathode material (0.49Li2MnO3˙0.51LiNi 0.37Co0.24Mn0.39O2 or HE5050) has also been studied and found to be high at room temperature without the need for anode pre-lithiation. HE5050/MCMB cells maintained 100% of their discharge capacity after five, 3-day and five, 7-day near zero volt storage periods at room temperature. HE5050/MCMB also maintained 99% of their discharge capacity after two, 3-day near zero volt storage periods at 40°C. The high first cycle loss and lower intercalation potential of the HE5050 cathode lead to the anode potential remaining <2.8 V vs. Li/Li+ during

  4. Environmental limitation on fitness: Reproduction of laboratory mice in benign and stressful ("tropical") conditions. (United States)

    Beilharz, R G; Mitpaiboon, K


    particular environment. Each environment selects animals that optimally allocate environmental resources there. Problems arise when inappropriate genetic settings cause phenotypes to misallocate metabolic resources. In relatively difficult environments productive animals, including successful transgenics, allocate insufficient resources to fitness. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Begrenzung der Fitneß durch die Umwelt: Reproduktion von Labormäusen in günstigen und schwierigen ("tropischen") Bedingungen Im Normalfall soll die Umwelt der Fitneß eine obere Grenze setzen. Diese Begrenzung führt zu Selektion auf mittlere "Optimalwerte" bei alien wichtigen Merkmalen. Wir untersuchten die Fortpflanzung von Labormäusen in entweder normaler oder heißer Umwelt. Aus einer an erstere angepaßten, nichtingezüchteten Linie wurden 30 Männchen mit 150 Weibchen zweimal verpaart (beim zweiten Mal neu randomisiert) um die Versuchstiere zu erzeugen. Individuen aus jedem Wurf wurden zufallsmäßig an die zwei Umwelten verteilt, worin sie ab 3 Wochen aufgezogen wurden. Im Alter zwischen 9 und 12 Wochen wurden sie zufallsmäßig 1:1 verpaart bis die Paare Zeit für zwei Würfe gehabt hatten. An 354 und 362 Paaren im normalen und heißen Zimmer wurden Daten ihrer Reproduktion erhoben. Alle lebendgeborenen Jungen wurden bis 3 Wochen alt verfolgt. In beiden Umwelten wurden Durchschnittswerte der einzelnen Merkmale, phänotypische Korrelationen wichtiger Merkmale, und Heritabilitätswerte der Merkmale errechnet. Starke negative Korrelationen zwischen Anzahl der Jungen im Wurf und Gewicht der einzelnen Jungen im Wurf, in beiden Umwelten, zeigen daß Fitneß auch in normalen Laborverhältnissen begrenzt war. Alle quantitativen Maße der Würfe waren beträchtlich niedriger im heißen Raum, was zeigt, daß diese Umwelt mehr Streß bot. Jedoch die Größe und Überlebensrate der einzelnen Jungen im heißen Raum wurden nicht beeinträchtigt. Diese adaptive Anpassung an schwierige Bedingungen könnte einmalig bei

  5. Redisposition of phoma-like anamorphs in Pleosporales. (United States)

    de Gruyter, J; Woudenberg, J H C; Aveskamp, M M; Verkley, G J M; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W


    , Verkley & Crous, Subplenodomus Gruyter, Verkley & Crous. New species: Aposphaeria corallinolutea Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Paraconiothyrium maculicutis Verkley & Gruyter. New combinations: Coniothyrium carteri (Gruyter & Boerema) Verkley & Gruyter, C. dolichi (Mohanty) Verkley & Gruyter, C. glycines (R.B. Stewart) Verkley & Gruyter, C. multiporum (V.H. Pawar, P.N. Mathur & Thirum.) Verkley & Gruyter, C. telephii (Allesch.) Verkley & Gruyter, Heterospora (Boerema, Gruyter & Noordel.) Gruyter, Verkley & Crous, H. chenopodii (Westend.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, H. dimorphospora (Speg.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Leptosphaeria errabunda (Desm.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, L. etheridgei (L.J. Hutchison & Y. Hirats.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, L. macrocapsa (Trail) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, L. pedicularis (Fuckel) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, L. rubefaciens (Togliani) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, L. sclerotioides (Sacc.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, L. sydowii (Boerema, Kesteren & Loer.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, L. veronicae (Hollós) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Medicopsis romeroi (Borelli) Gruyter, Verkley & Crous, Nigrograna mackinnonii (Borelli) Gruyter, Verkley & Crous, Paraconiothyrium flavescens (Gruyter, Noordel. & Boerema) Verkley & Gruyter, Paracon. fuckelii (Sacc.) Verkley & Gruyter, Paracon. fusco-maculans (Sacc.) Verkley & Gruyter, Paracon. lini (Pass.) Verkley & Gruyter, Paracon. tiliae (F. Rudolphi) Verkley & Gruyter, Paraleptosphaeria dryadis (Johanson) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Paralept. macrospora (Thüm.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Paralept. nitschkei (Rehm ex G. Winter) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Paralept. orobanches (Schweinitz: Fr.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Paralept. praetermissa (P. Karst.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plenodomus agnitus (Desm.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. biglobosus (Shoemaker & H. Brun) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. chrysanthemi (Zachos, Constantinou & Panag.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen

  6. Petroleum genesis in the central Upper Rhine Graben and its relavance for the reconstruction of migration history and storage rock diagnosis; Zur Herkunft der Erdoele im mittleren Oberrheingraben und ihre Bedeutung fuer die Rekonstruktion der Migrationsgeschichte und der Speichergesteinsdiagenese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruss, D.


    Zuordnungen und Eingrenzungen: Das Posidonienschiefer - Keupersandstein Erdoelsystem erstreckt sich ueber das gesamte Grabengebiet suedlich von Heidelberg; das Pechelbronner Schichten - Pechelbronner Schichten Erdoelsystem beschraenkt sich auf den westlichen Grabenbereich; das Septarienton - Cyrenen-Mergel Erdoelsystem beinhaltet die gesamte Grabenbreite suedlich einer Linie Landau-Heidelberg; das Untere Hydrobien-Schichten - Obere Hydrobien-Schichten Erdoelsystem schiesslich hat eine enge, lokal begrenzte Verbreitung im Zentralen, noerdlichen Untersuchungsgebiet. Sedimentpetrographische und -petrophysikalische Untersuchungen ermoeglichten die Rekonstruktion des Diageneseverlaufs in verschiedenen Traeger- bzw. Speichergesteinen. Es zeigte sich jedoch, dass die diagenetischen Prozesse in den einzelnen Schichtgliedern auf ein tektonisch kontrolliertes Wechselspiel von physikalischen Ablaeufen und chemischen Eigenschaften zurueckzufuehren sind. (orig.) (abstract truncated)

  7. Environmental change during the Late Berriasian - Early Valanginian: a prelude to the late Early Valanginian carbon-isotope event? (United States)

    Morales, Chloé; Schnyder, Johann; Spangenberg, Jorge; Adatte, Thierry; Westermann, Stephane; Föllmi, Karl


    The Valanginian period is well known for a positive excursion in marine and terrestrial δ13C records, which has been interpreted as the consequence of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle (Lini et al., 1992; Erba et al., 2004). In contrast to the positive δ13C excursions of the Early Aptian and latest Cenomanian, marine organic-rich sediments have only been recognized from a few localities (van de Schootbrugge et al., 2003; Reboulet et al., 2003; Gröcke et al., 2005; Westermann et al., in press). The δ13C excursion began in the late Early Valanginian (campylotoxus ammonite zone) and gradually ended during the Late Valanginian. It is associated with a phase of widespread carbonate-platform drowning on the shelf (Föllmi et al., 1994) and a decline in calcareous nannofossils in the pelagic realm (Erba et al., 2004). As a triggering mechanism, numerous authors invoke the formation of the Parañà-Etendeka flood basalt. The correlation of this episode with the Valanginian δ13C event depends, however, on the absolute ages attributed to the Valanginian stage. The recent geological timescale by Ogg et al. (2008) shows that the major eruptional phase occurred during the Late Valanginian. This may imply that the late Early Valanginian δ13C event resulted from a combination of different factors. Important paleoenvironmental change occurred already in the latest Berriasian and earliest Valanginian, prior to the positive δ13C excursion. An increase in nutrient input near the onset of the δ13C excursion (campylotoxus ammonite zone), which may be considered as a trigger of the carbon cycle perturbation, has been identified in different studies, (Hennig, 2003; Duchamp-Alphonse et al., 2007; Bornemann & Mutterlose, 2008). Heterozoan faunal associations became dominant since the Early Valanginian on the northern Tethyan Helvetic platform and may indicate the beginning of sea-water eutrophication (Föllmi et al., 2007). Clay assemblages in the Tethys and Western

  8. Παρατηρήσεις σχετικά με το ταξίδι της επιστροφής του Λιουτπράνδου

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    . Jedes von diesen Schifflein wurde von 3-4 Schiffern bedient, während sich ihre Aufnahmefähigkeit auf 14-15 Leute (die Seeleute eingeschlossen belief. Daher mußte ein Teil der Legation parallel zur Küste zu Fuß ziehen (23. - 25.11.. Als beide Teile der Legation sich wieder an der Mündung des Phidares vereinigten, ergriffen die Schiffer die Flucht!Diese merkwürdige Reaktion legt die Vermutung nahe, daß es sich hierbei um die sog. Exkussatoi des Dromos handelte, d. h. jene Bürger, die Steuer¬freiheit genossen, dafür aber unentgeltliche Dienste den Postbehörden leisten mußten. Es ist demnach als wahrscheinlich anzunehmen, daß zwischen Naupaktos und Korfu eine Linie des «Demosios Dromos» existierte, die nur lokalen Charakter hatte, da die Byzantiner für die Beförderung der Briefe von und nach Europa auf venezianische Dienste angewiesen waren.Nun konnte sich die ganze Legation einschiffen; die Führung der Schiffe übernahmen notwendigerweise Leute aus ihren Reihen, wahrscheinlich Venezianer. Die Schifflein steuerten einen küstennahen Kurs, um dann etwa in der Höhe des gutgeschützten Meerbusens von Dragameston Kurs auf Leukatas, die Südspitze von Leukas, zu nehmen. Von dort segelten sie an der Ostküste der Insel entlang. Die Fahrt von der Phidares-Mündung bis zur Inselhauptstadt dauerte 4 Tage (2.- 6. 12. 968. Die Geschwindigkeit betrug ungefähr 1 km. Ungefähr so langsam verlief auch die Fahrt zwischen Leukas und Korfu (14.-18. 12. 968. Die Überfahrt mit einem Handelsschiff nach Otranto erfolgte am 8. Januar 969, wahrscheinlich von Akrokeraunia aus.  

  9. Advanced Nanofiber-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes (United States)

    Toprakci, Ozan

    composite nanofibers were synthesized by using a combination of sol-gel and electrospinning. During the material preparation, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was used as an electrospinning media and a carbon source. LiFePO 4 precursor materials and/or conductive materials (carbon nanotubes and graphene) and PAN were dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide separately and they were mixed before electrospinning. LiFePO4 precursor/PAN fibers were heat treated, during which LiFePO4 precursor transformed to energy-storage LiFePO4 material and PAN was converted to carbon. The surface morphology, microstructure and electrochemical performance of the materials were analyzed. Compared with conventional powder based positive electrodes, the novel LiFePO4/C composite nanofiber cathodes possess better electrochemical performance. Furthermore, the newly developed LiFePO 4/C composite nanofibers are easy to fabricate, highly controllable, and can be used in practical Lithium-ion battery applications. In addition to LiFePO4, more recent efforts have been directed to mixed form of layered lithiummetal oxides (Li-Ni-Mn-Co). Nickel and manganese are of importance because of their lower cost, safety and higher abundance in nature. These new cathodes offer noticeable improvement in the capacity and cycling behavior. In these cathodes, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn 1/3O2 attracted significant interest because of its good electrochemical properties such as high capacity, prolonged cycling life, and so on. On the other hand, it has some disadvantages such as instability at high voltages and high current densities. To overcome these problems, synthesis of layered Li-rich composite materials such as xLi2MnO3˙(1-x)LiCo 1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 can be a promising approach. In this study, various xLi2MnO3˙(1-x)LiCo 1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) composite cathode materials were prepared by a one-step sol-gel route. Morphology, microstructure and electrochemical behavior of these cathode materials were evaluated. The

  10. Development of Nano-structured Electrode Materials for High Performance Energy Storage System (United States)

    Huang, Zhendong

    Systematic studies have been done to develop a low cost, environmental-friendly facile fabrication process for the preparation of high performance nanostructured electrode materials and to fully understand the influence factors on the electrochemical performance in the application of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) or supercapacitors. For LIBs, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) with a 1D porous structure has been developed as cathode material. The tube-like 1D structure consists of inter-linked, multi-facet nanoparticles of approximately 100-500nm in diameter. The microscopically porous structure originates from the honeycomb-shaped precursor foaming gel, which serves as self-template during the stepwise calcination process. The 1D NCM presents specific capacities of 153, 140, 130 and 118mAh·g-1 at current densities of 0.1C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C, respectively. Subsequently, a novel stepwise crystallization process consisting of a higher crystallization temperature and longer period for grain growth is employed to prepare single crystal NCM nanoparticles. The modified sol-gel process followed by optimized crystallization process results in significant improvements in chemical and physical characteristics of the NCM particles. They include a fully-developed single crystal NCM with uniform composition and a porous NCM architecture with a reduced degree of fusion and a large specific surface area. The NCM cathode material with these structural modifications in turn presents significantly enhanced specific capacities of 173.9, 166.9, 158.3 and 142.3mAh·g -1 at 0.1C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C, respectively. Carbon nanotube (CNT) is used to improve the relative low power capability and poor cyclic stability of NCM caused by its poor electrical conductivity. The NCM/CNT nanocomposites cathodes are prepared through simply mixing of the two component materials followed by a thermal treatment. The CNTs were functionalized to obtain uniformly-dispersed MWCNTs in the NCM matrix. The electrochemical

  11. Comparing the anti-inflammatory effects of Simvastatin and Rosuvastatin by measuring IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels using a murinic caecal ligation and puncture induced sepsis model / Compararea efectelor anti-inflamatoare ale Simvastatinei și Rosuvastatinei măsurând nivelele serice ale IL-1β, IL-6 si TNF-α folosind un model de sepsis la șobolan indus prin ligatură și puncție cecală

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărginean M Mihai


    Full Text Available Introducere: Sepsisul este o boala caracterizată printr-un răspuns sistemic inflamator cauzat o infecție care poate evolua către sepsis sever și șoc septic. Această patologie ridică mari probleme la nivel global din cauza mortalității ridicate (care în anumite situații atinge 30% precum și din cauza încarcăturii financiare mari. Sepsisul se caracterizează prin declasnșarea unor căi imune pro-inflamatorii cu rol de apărare a organismului dar care ulterior se dovedesc a fi extrem de dezajantajoase. Deși antibioterapia, resuscitarea volemică, terapia vasopresoare și controlul sursei de infecție rămân strategiile recomandate în tratamentul sepsisului, date publicate recent propun statinele ca o noua linie de tratament. Aceste medicamente au fost introduse în practica clinică datorită efectului hipocolesterolemiant însă inhibarea reductazei HMG-CoA și a biosintezei colesterolului induce o serie de efecte mai puțin studiate denumite generic pleiotrope: anti-inflamatoare, antitrombotice, imunomodulatoare și antioxidante. Obiective: În cadrul acestui experiment ne-am propus să evaluăm și să comparăm efectul antiinflamator al Simvastatinei și Rosuvastatinei măsurând nevelele serice ale IL-1β, IL-6 și TNF-α folosind un model consacrat de sepsis la șobolan. Metode: Am alcătuit patru grupuri (C, n=7; SEP, SV, RV, n=8. Statinele au fost administrate în două doze cu 18 și 3 ore înaintea intervenției chirurgicale. Sepsisul a fost obținut prin tehnica ligaturării și puncției cecale. De la fiecare subiect au fost recoltate eșantioane de sânge prin puncție venoasă în zilele 1, 4, 7 și 14 (ultimele eșantioane au fost obținute prin puncție cardiacă. Au fost analizați următorii parametrii: hemoleucograma, Procalcitonina, IL-1β, IL-6 și TNF-α. Rezultate: Numărul total al leucocitelor a fost mai mare pentru grupul septic dar netratat. Procalcitonina a fost reacționată în toate grupurile

  12. “Ay, But Droma Pkhirdyom”: The Gypsy and the Road (Self-Identity in Soviet and Post-Soviet Gypsy Literature in the Russian Cultural and Political Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valentinovna Kuglerova


    ście kulturowym i politycznym Cyganie zawsze byli szczególną mniejszością w Rosji. Z jednej strony Rosjanie podziwiali bezdomność  Cyganów i ich pragnienie wolności. Cyganie stanowili swego rodzaju alter ego Rosjan: byli tacy, jakimi ci ostatni być chcieli, ale nie ośmielali się. Z drugiej zaś nawet w stosunkowo liberalnych czasach caratu traktowano ich jako ludzi drugiej kategorii, nie wspominając o sowieckich deportacjach. Wędrowny Cygan denerwował szczególnie, tak więc władze zawsze starały się ich osiedlać. Postawy Cyganów także były dwuznaczne (ścisła opozycja Gadziowie/Romi i jednocześnie zjawisko „chorału” osiadłych Cyganów, łączącego kultury rosyjską i cygańską. Ujawnia to główną cechę tożsamości cygańskiej: pragnienie ruchliwości, zależność – ale tylko w drodze, co zderzało się z dwoistą postawą rosyjskiej większości. Ową cechę jak też dwuznaczną postawę wobec niej można uznać za zasadniczy rys radzieckiej i postradzieckiej literatury cygańskiej. Około 1938 roku (zanim skończyło się wspieranie mniejszości narodowych w radzieckiej literaturze cygańskiej występowały dwie główne linie narracyjne: narracja o złej kapitalistycznej przeszłości (wykorzystywanie „chorałowych” Cyganów, którzy zostali wyprowadzeni z drogi przez Rosjan: M. Iljinsko oraz opisywanie wspaniałej rzeczywistości radzieckiej – kiedy to szczęśliwi Cyganie pracują i osiedlani są w kołchozach (M. Bezludzko. Taki obraz nowego radzieckiego Cygana ma źródła w obrazie bezdomności (ze względu na negowanie epoki radzieckiej i gloryfikację czasów carskich, co pokazuje szczegółowa analiza tekstów.

  13. An unbiased infrared H2 search for embedded flows from young stars in Orion A (United States)

    Stanke, Thomas


    against further collapse. Gasausströmungen, oft in der Form hoch kollimierter Jets, sind ein allgegenwärtiges Phänomen bei der Geburt neuer Sterne. Emission von stossangeregtem molekularem Wasserstoff bei Wellenlängen im nahen Infrarotbereich ist ein Merkmal ihrer Existenz und auch in eingebetteten, im Optischen obskurierten Ausströmungen generell gut zu beobachten. In dieser Arbeit werden die Resultate einer von Auswahleffekten freien, empfindlichen, grossflächigen Suche nach solchen Ausströmungen von Protosternen in der v=1-0 S(1) Linie molekularen Wasserstoffs bei einer Wellenlänge von 2.12 µm vorgestellt. Die Durchmusterung umfasst eine Fläche von etwa einem Quadratgrad in der Orion A Riesenmolekülwolke. Weitere Daten aus einem grossen Wellenlängenbereich werden benutzt, um die Quellen der Ausströmungen zu identifizieren. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, eine Stichprobe von Ausströmungen zu bekommen, die so weit wie möglich frei von Auswahleffekten ist, um die typischen Eigenschaften protostellarer Ausströmungen und deren Entwicklung festzustellen, sowie um die Rückwirkung der Ausströmungen auf die umgebende Wolke zu untersuchen. Das erste Ergebnis ist, dass Ausströmungen in Sternentstehungsgebieten tatsächlich sehr häufig sind: mehr als 70 Jet-Kandidaten werden identifiziert. Die meisten zeigen eine sehr irreguläre Morphologie anstelle regulärer oder symmetrischer Strukturen. Dies ist auf das turbulente, klumpige Medium zurückzuführen, in das sich die Jets hineinbewegen. Die Ausrichtung der Jets ist zufällig verteilt. Insbesondere gibt es keine bevorzugte Ausrichtung der Jets parallel zum grossräumigen Magnetfeld in der Wolke. Das legt nahe, dass die Rotations- und Symmetrieachse in einem protostellaren System durch zufällige, turbulente Bewegung in der Wolke bestimmt wird. Mögliche Ausströmungsquellen werden für 49 Jets identifiziert; für diese wird der Entwicklungsstand und die bolometrische Leuchtkraft abgeschätzt. Die Jetlänge und

  14. On flora semantics in house names found in Vidzeme: materials contained in the 1826 counting of souls in Vidzeme province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilga Jansone


    semantics, i. e., ābele ‘apple tree’, and upene ‘black-currant’. The next sub-group of house names based on flora semantics comprises those based on names of cereals. This is one of the most widely occurring flora semantics sub-groups and contains 58 entries, or 10,1% of all house names based on flora semantics, i. e., auzas ‘oats’, rudzi ‘rye’, mieži ‘barley’, kvieši ‘wheat’, griķi ‘buckwheat’. House names have been found based on terms of 6 legumes, which represents 1% of all house names based on flora semantics, i. e., zirnis ‘pea’, pupa, ‘bean’. Names of common vegetables are the basis for a considerable number of house names. i. e. 53 instances are recorded, representing 9.2% of all house names derived from flora semantics, i. e., rutks, ruduks ‘radish’, kāposts ‘cabbage’, rācenis ‘turnip’, sīpols ‘onion’, ķiploks ‘garlic’, kālis ‘swede’, gurķis ‘cucumber’. House names also derive from terms of widely-cultivated plants such as kaņepes ‘hemp’, apiņi ‘hops’ and lini ‘flax’. These have been the basis for 40 house names, which represent 7% of all hose names based on flora semantics. House names are also based on the names of cultivated and wild herbal plants, and of garden weeds. 47 such cases have been recorded, corresponding to 8.2% of all house names based on flora semantics, i. e., dadzis ‘thistle’, āboliņš ‘clover’, and amoliņš ‘sweet clover’, dille ‘dill’, grīslis ‘sedge’, smilga ‘bent grass’, usne ‘creeping thistle’, pienene ‘dandelion’, pērkones ‘charlocks’, niedre ‘reed’, skosta ‘horse-tail’, vībotne ‘mugwart’. A total of 32 house names based on three flower terms, roze ‘rose’, magone ‘poppy’ and astere ‘aster’ have been recorded; this represents 5.6% of all house names based on flora semantics. The majority (26 of these house names are based on terms of roses. A number of house names in Vidzeme appear to be