WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybridoma cells producing

  1. Homologous recombination in hybridoma cells: heavy chain chimeric antibody produced by gene targeting.

    OpenAIRE

    Fell, H P; Yarnold, S; Hellström, I; Hellström, K E; Folger, K R

    1989-01-01

    We demonstrate that murine myeloma cells can efficiently mediate homologous recombination. The murine myeloma cell line J558L was shown to appropriately recombine two transfected DNA molecules in approximately 30% of cells that received and integrated intact copies of both molecules. This activity was then exploited to direct major reconstructions of an endogenous locus within a hybridoma cell line. Production of antigen-specific chimeric heavy chain was achieved by targeting the human IgG1 h...

  2. Thymidine secretion by hybridoma and myeloma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilsberg, Bjorn; Rise, Frode; Petersen, Dirk; Nissen-Meyer, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Secretion of thymidine appeared to be a common property of hybridoma and myeloma cells, but not of other cell types, which were tested. Of three hybridoma cell lines tested, all secreted thymidine in amounts resulting in the accumulation of thymidine to concentrations of 10-20 μM in the culture medium. Also three of five myeloma cell lines that were analyzed secrete thymidine, but none of the other cell types that were studied. Thymidine was purified to homogeneity (4 mg purified from 3 l of culture medium) and identified as such by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cells that secreted thymidine showed high resistance to the growth inhibitory effect of thymidine

  3. Enhancement of hybridoma formation, clonability and cell proliferation in a nanoparticle-doped aqueous environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnieli Ohad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isolation and production of human monoclonal antibodies is becoming an increasingly important pursuit as biopharmaceutical companies migrate their drug pipelines away from small organic molecules. As such, optimization of monoclonal antibody technologies is important, as this is becoming the new rate-limiting step for discovery and development of new pharmaceuticals. The major limitations of this system are the efficiency of isolating hybridoma clones, the process of stabilizing these clones and optimization of hybridoma cell secretion, especially for large-scale production. Many previous studies have demonstrated how perturbations in the aqueous environment can impact upon cell biology. In particular, radio frequency (RF irradiation of solutions can have dramatic effects on behavior of solutions, cells and in particular membrane proteins, although this effect decays following removal of the RF. Recently, it was shown that nanoparticle doping of RF irradiated water (NPD water produced a stabilized aqueous medium that maintained the characteristic properties of RF irradiated water for extended periods of time. Therefore, the ordering effect in water of the RF irradiation can now be studied in systems that required prolonged periods for analysis, such as eukaryotic cell culture. Since the formation of hybridoma cells involves the formation of a new membrane, a process that is affected by the surrounding aqueous environment, we tested these nanoparticle doped aqueous media formulations on hybridoma cell production. Results In this study, we tested the entire process of isolation and production of human monoclonal antibodies in NPD water as a means for further enhancing human monoclonal antibody isolation and production. Our results indicate an overall enhancement of hybridoma yield, viability, clonability and secretion. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that immortal cells proliferate faster whereas primary human fibroblasts

  4. Two-step freezing of hybridoma cells in 96-well microculture plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pĕknicová, J; Kristofová, H

    1985-01-01

    Stabile hybridoma cells, colonies of hybridoma cells 14 days after fusion of immune spleen and myeloma cells, myeloma cells and fibroblasts cultured in 96-well microculture plates were frozen by the method of two-step freezing. The culture medium was aspirated, and 50 microliter of the medium containing a cryoprotectant (5% dimethyl sulphoxide) was added for 10 min at room temperature. The plates were put into microtene bags, placed at -25 degrees C in a freezer for 30 min and then stored at -100 degrees C in liquid nitrogen vapour. Plates with cells were thawed rapidly in a 50 degree C water bath. After thawing the hybrid cells were viable and continued to produce the specific antibody.

  5. Human hybrid hybridoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  6. Metabolite-balancing techniques vs. 13C tracer experiments to determine metabolic fluxes in hybridoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonarius, H P; Timmerarends, B; de Gooijer, C D; Tramper, J

    The estimation of intracellular fluxes of mammalian cells using only mass balances of the relevant metabolites is not possible because the set of linear equations defined by these mass balances is underdetermined. In order to quantify fluxes in cyclic pathways the mass balance equations can be complemented with several constraints: (1) the mass balances of co-metabolites, such as ATP or NAD(P)H, (2) linear objective functions, (3) flux data obtained by isotopic-tracer experiments. Here, these three methods are compared for the analysis of fluxes in the primary metabolism of continuously cultured hybridoma cells. The significance of different theoretical constraints and different objective functions is discussed after comparing their resulting flux distributions to the fluxes determined using 13CO2 and 13C-lactate measurements of 1 - 13C-glucose-fed hybridoma cells. Metabolic fluxes estimated using the objective functions "maximize ATP" and "maximize NADH" are relatively similar to the experimentally determined fluxes. This is consistent with the observation that cancer cells, such as hybridomas, are metabolically hyperactive, and produce ATP and NADH regardless of the need for these cofactors. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Growth and production kinetics of human x mouse and mouse hybridoma cells at reduced temperature and serum content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borth, N; Heider, R; Assadian, A; Katinger, H

    1992-09-01

    The growth and production kinetics of a mouse hybridoma cell line and a human-mouse heterohybridoma were analyzed under conditions of reduced temperature and serum content. The mouse hybridoma P24 had a constant cell specific production rate and RNA content, while the heterohybridoma 3D6-LC4 showed growth associated production kinetics and an increased RNA content at higher growth rates. This behaviour of 3D6-LC4 cells can be explained by the unusual cell cycle kinetics of this line, which can be arrested in any phase under growth limiting conditions, so that a low growth rate does not result in a greater portion of high producing G1-phase cells. Substrate limitation changes the cell cycle distribution of this cell line to a greater extent than low temperature or serum content, which indicates that this stress factor exerts a greater physiological control than assumed.

  8. TNF-α production in NKT cell hybridoma is regulated by sphingosine-1-phosphate: implications for inflammation in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shiori; Iwaki, Soichiro; Kondo, Rie; Satoh, Masashi; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke; Mishima, Yuko; Yatomi, Yutaka; Furumoto, Tomoo; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Satoshi

    2014-06-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are unique T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigen and produce various cytokines. NKT cells accelerate atherosclerosis in mice. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid and regulates T-lymphocyte trafficking. We aimed to determine the effects of S1P on the production of proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, in NKT cell hybridomas and mouse NKT cells. NKT cell hybridomas and sorted mouse NKT cells were stimulated with S1P and α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), the major ligand to produce cytokines in NKT cells. TNF-α mRNA expression and protein production were determined by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Cell migration was assayed using chemotaxicell. Plasma S1P was measured using HPLC. Hybridomas expressed S1P receptors, S1P1, S1P2, and S1P4. S1P and α-GalCer increased TNF-α mRNA expression and protein production. S1P enhanced TNF-α induction by α-GalCer. S1P receptor antagonists decreased the TNF-α mRNA expression induced by S1P. FTY720, an immunosuppressive S1P receptor modulator, also decreased the TNF-α mRNA expression. The migration of NKT cell hybridomas was increased by S1P. FTY720 reduced the migration induced by S1P. S1P also increased the TNF-α mRNA expression in mouse NKT cells. Plasma TNF-α levels in patients with high plasma S1P (≥500 nmol/l) were higher than those in patients with low S1P (NKT cells and enhances TNF-α production. TNF-α overproduction may induce atherogenic inflammatory responses. S1P may serve as a novel therapeutic target for amelioration of vascular inflammatory diseases.

  9. CELLISA: reporter cell-based immunization and screening of hybridomas specific for cell surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter; Mesci, Aruz; Carlyle, James R

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for cell surface antigens are an invaluable tool to study immune receptor expression and function. Here, we outline a generalized reporter cell-based approach to the generation and high-throughput screening of mAbs specific for cell surface antigens. Termed CELLISA, this technology hinges upon the capture of hybridoma supernatants in mAb arrays that facilitate ligation of an antigen of interest displayed on BWZ reporter cells in the form of a CD3ζ-fusion chimeric antigen receptor (zCAR); in turn, specific mAb-mediated cross-linking of zCAR on BWZ cells results in the production of β-galactosidase enzyme (β-gal), which can be assayed colorimetrically. Importantly, the BWZ reporter cells bearing the zCAR of interest may be used for immunization as well as screening. In addition, serial immunizations employing additional zCAR- or native antigen-bearing cell lines can be used to increase the frequency of the desired antigen-specific hybridomas. Finally, the use of a cohort of epitope-tagged zCAR (e.g., zCAR(FLAG)) variants allows visualization of the cell surface antigen prior to immunization, and coimmunization using these variants can be used to enhance the immunogenicity of the target antigen. Employing the CELLISA strategy, we herein describe the generation of mAb directed against an uncharacterized natural killer cell receptor protein.

  10. Macroscopic Dynamic Modeling of Sequential Batch Cultures of Hybridoma Cells: An Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dewasme

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybridoma cells are commonly grown for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb. For monitoring and control purposes of the bioreactors, dynamic models of the cultures are required. However these models are difficult to infer from the usually limited amount of available experimental data and do not focus on target protein production optimization. This paper explores an experimental case study where hybridoma cells are grown in a sequential batch reactor. The simplest macroscopic reaction scheme translating the data is first derived using a maximum likelihood principal component analysis. Subsequently, nonlinear least-squares estimation is used to determine the kinetic laws. The resulting dynamic model reproduces quite satisfactorily the experimental data, as evidenced in direct and cross-validation tests. Furthermore, model predictions can also be used to predict optimal medium renewal time and composition.

  11. Novel high-throughput cell-based hybridoma screening methodology using the Celigo Image Cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haohai; Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Rice, William; Kassam, Nasim; Longhi, Maria Serena; Zhao, Haitao; Robson, Simon C; Gao, Wenda; Wu, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Hybridoma screening is a critical step for antibody discovery, which necessitates prompt identification of potential clones from hundreds to thousands of hybridoma cultures against the desired immunogen. Technical issues associated with ELISA- and flow cytometry-based screening limit accuracy and diminish high-throughput capability, increasing time and cost. Conventional ELISA screening with coated antigen is also impractical for difficult-to-express hydrophobic membrane antigens or multi-chain protein complexes. Here, we demonstrate novel high-throughput screening methodology employing the Celigo Image Cytometer, which avoids nonspecific signals by contrasting antibody binding signals directly on living cells, with and without recombinant antigen expression. The image cytometry-based high-throughput screening method was optimized by detecting the binding of hybridoma supernatants to the recombinant antigen CD39 expressed on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Next, the sensitivity of the image cytometer was demonstrated by serial dilution of purified CD39 antibody. Celigo was used to measure antibody affinities of commercial and in-house antibodies to membrane-bound CD39. This cell-based screening procedure can be completely accomplished within one day, significantly improving throughput and efficiency of hybridoma screening. Furthermore, measuring direct antibody binding to living cells eliminated both false positive and false negative hits. The image cytometry method was highly sensitive and versatile, and could detect positive antibody in supernatants at concentrations as low as ~5ng/mL, with concurrent K d binding affinity coefficient determination. We propose that this screening method will greatly facilitate antibody discovery and screening technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE INDUCES THE PRODUCTION OF DIAGNOSTIC MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY BY HYBRIDOMA CELLS AGAINST CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEK KEE CHUA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to screen and identify the potential inducers in maximizing the production of monoclonal antibody by hybridoma 192 cell line for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia diagnostic. There are nine inducers used in this research, namely lysozyme, aldolase, sodium butyrate, sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate, dimethyl sulfoxide, lipopolysaccharide, essential amino acids, and nonessential amino acids. Hybridoma 192 cell was cultured in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C and ˃80% humidity in the medium with different concentrations of inducer agents. The inducers were added at the beginning of the culture and the samples were taken after 72 h of culture. The performance of these inducer agents was assessed based on the maximum monoclonal antibody titer achieved using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Lipopolysaccharide was found to increase the maximum monoclonal antibody titer when supplemented at 8 to 12 µg/mL. After optimization using one-factor central composite design at this range, the optimum point was determined to be 8 µg/mL. Verification experiments shows that lipopolysaccharide enhanced the average specific monoclonal antibody production rate by 56% relative to control. In conclusion, lipopolysaccharide at 8 µg/mL is able to increase the monoclonal antibody specific production of hybridoma 192 cell line.

  13. Retention of CXCR4 in the endoplasmic reticulum blocks dissemination of a T cell hybridoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, I S; Ruuls-Van Stalle, L; Roos, E

    2001-07-01

    The dissemination of T cell hybridomas to multiple nonhematopoietic tissues is blocked by pertussis toxin, suggesting the involvement of a chemokine. To study whether this chemokine is SDF-1, we employed a strategy proposed previously for gene therapy of AIDS, whereby the SDF-1 receptor CXCR4 (also a coreceptor for HIV) is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and fails to reach the cell surface. We transfected SDF-1, carrying an ER retention sequence, into a T cell hybridoma. This altered chemokine is retained in the ER, where it binds CXCR4 and prevents the latter protein from reaching the surface. These cells failed to migrate toward SDF-1 or to invade fibroblast monolayers, although they could still migrate toward thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and invade TARC-treated monolayers. Furthermore, the ability of the transfected cells to disseminate to multiple organs upon intravenous injection into mice was abolished. This dissemination reflects the in vivo migration patterns of activated and memory T cells into nonhematopoietic tissues, which is thus likely to depend on CXCR4. Attempts to block CXCR4 function as a therapy for AIDS may affect this migration with consequences for T cell function. Our results also suggest a decisive role for CXCR4 in the dissemination of hematopoietic malignancies expressing this receptor.

  14. High-throughput screening of hybridoma supernatants using multiplexed fluorescent cell barcoding on live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mei; Chan, Brian M; Schow, Peter W; Chang, Wesley S; King, Chadwick T

    2017-12-01

    With current available assay formats using either immobilized protein (ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) or immunostaining of fixed cells for primary monoclonal antibody (mAb) screening, researchers often fail to identify and characterize antibodies that recognize the native conformation of cell-surface antigens. Therefore, screening using live cells has become an integral and important step contributing to the successful identification of therapeutic antibody candidates. Thus the need for developing high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies using live cells has become a major priority for therapeutic mAb discovery and development. We have developed a novel technique called Multiplexed Fluorescent Cell Barcoding (MFCB), a flow cytometry-based method based upon the Fluorescent Cell Barcoding (FCB) technique and the Luminex fluorescent bead array system, but is applicable to high-through mAb screens on live cells. Using this technique in our system, we can simultaneously identify or characterize the antibody-antigen binding of up to nine unique fluorescent labeled cell populations in the time that it would normally take to process a single population. This has significantly reduced the amount of time needed for the identification of potential lead candidates. This new technology enables investigators to conduct large-scale primary hybridoma screens using flow cytometry. This in turn has allowed us to screen antibodies more efficiently than before and streamline identification and characterization of lead molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined data preprocessing and multivariate statistical analysis characterizes fed-batch culture of mouse hybridoma cells for rational medium design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarasu, Suresh; Kim, Do Yun; Karimi, Iftekhar A; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2010-10-01

    We present an integrated framework for characterizing fed-batch cultures of mouse hybridoma cells producing monoclonal antibody (mAb). This framework systematically combines data preprocessing, elemental balancing and statistical analysis technique. Initially, specific rates of cell growth, glucose/amino acid consumptions and mAb/metabolite productions were calculated via curve fitting using logistic equations, with subsequent elemental balancing of the preprocessed data indicating the presence of experimental measurement errors. Multivariate statistical analysis was then employed to understand physiological characteristics of the cellular system. The results from principal component analysis (PCA) revealed three major clusters of amino acids with similar trends in their consumption profiles: (i) arginine, threonine and serine, (ii) glycine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, methionine, histidine and asparagine, and (iii) lysine, valine and isoleucine. Further analysis using partial least square (PLS) regression identified key amino acids which were positively or negatively correlated with the cell growth, mAb production and the generation of lactate and ammonia. Based on these results, the optimal concentrations of key amino acids in the feed medium can be inferred, potentially leading to an increase in cell viability and productivity, as well as a decrease in toxic waste production. The study demonstrated how the current methodological framework using multivariate statistical analysis techniques can serve as a potential tool for deriving rational medium design strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of antibodies against measles virions by use of the mouse hybridoma technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togashi, T; Oervell, C; Norrby, E [Kungliga Karolinska Mediko-Kirurgiska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Vartdal, F [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway)

    1981-01-01

    Mouse hybridoma cell lines were produced by fusion of P3 x 63 Ag8 mycloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with purified measles virions. About 60 per cent of single cell colonies in wells were found to produce measles antibodies as determined by a radioimmune assay. Selected measles antibody producing hybridoma cell lines were passaged intraperitoncally in mice and ascites fluids were collected. This material contained 20 - 200 times higher antibody titers than unconcentrated medium from hybridoma cell lines propagated in tissue culture. The ascites fluid antibody products of 23 hybridoma cell lines were characterized by different measles serological tests. Seventeen lines produced high titers of hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) and hemolysis-inhibition (HLI) antibodies. One hybridoma cell line produced Ig with low HI but high HLI activity and the remaining 5 hybridoma cell line products only carried HLI activity. Unexepctedly it was found in radioimmune precipitation assays that all hybridomas studied, including those showing HLI but no HI antibody activity, gave a selective precipitation of the 79 K measles hemagglutinin polypeptide. Radioimmune precipitation assays with sera from immunized animals showed that they contained high titers of antibodies precipitating the 79 K polypeptide but in addition also somewhat lower titers of antibodies precipitating the 60 K nucleoprotein, 40 K fusion and 36 K matrix polypeptides. Homogeneous Ig products carrying measles antibody activity were demonstrated by imprint immunoelectrophoresis of ascites materials.

  17. Production of antibodies against measles virions by use of the mouse hybridoma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, T.; Oervell, C.; Norrby, E.; Vartdal, F.

    1981-01-01

    Mouse hybridoma cell lines were produced by fusion of P3 x 63 Ag8 mycloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with purified measles virions. About 60 per cent of single cell colonies in wells were found to produce measles antibodies as determined by a radioimmune assay. Selected measles antibody producing hybridoma cell lines were passaged intraperitoncally in mice and ascites fluids were collected. This material contained 20 - 200 times higher antibody titers than unconcentrated medium from hybridoma cell lines propagated in tissue culture. The ascites fluid antibody products of 23 hybridoma cell lines were characterized by different measles serological tests. Seventeen lines produced high titers of hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) and hemolysis-inhibition (HLI) antibodies. One hybridoma cell line produced Ig with low HI but high HLI activity and the remaining 5 hybridoma cell line products only carried HLI activity. Unexepctedly it was found in radioimmune precipitation assays that all hybridomas studied, including those showing HLI but no HI antibody activity, gave a selective precipitation of the 79 K measles hemagglutinin polypeptide. Radioimmune precipitation assays with sera from immunized animals showed that they contained high titers of antibodies precipitating the 79 K polypeptide but in addition also somewhat lower titers of antibodies precipitating the 60 K nucleoprotein, 40 K fusion and 36 K matrix polypeptides. Homogeneous Ig products carrying measles antibody activity were demonstrated by imprint immunoelectrophoresis of ascites materials. (Author)

  18. Establishment and characterization of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell hybridomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) are an important model for studying the function of mucosal-type mast cells. In the present study, BMMCs were successfully immortalized by cell fusion using a hypoxanthine–aminopterin–thymidine medium-sensitive variant of P815 mouse mastocytoma (P815-6TgR) as a partner cell line. The established mouse mast cell hybridomas (MMCHs) expressed α, β, and γ subunits of high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor (FcεRI) and possessed cytoplasmic granules devoid of or partially filled with electron-dense material. Four independent MMCH clones continuously proliferated without supplemental exogenous IL-3 and showed a degranulation response on stimulation with IgE+antigen. Furthermore, histamine synthesis and release by degranulation were confirmed in MMCH-D5, a MMCH clone that showed the strongest degranulation response. MMCH-D5 exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase 2, and production of prostaglandin D 2 and leukotriene C 4 in response to IgE-induced stimulation. MMCH clones also expressed Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1, 2, 4, and 6 and showed elevated levels of TNF-α expression in response to stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. The MMCHs established using this method should be suitable for studies on FcεRI- and TLR-mediated effector functions of mast cells.

  19. Establishment and characterization of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell hybridomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, Takeshi, E-mail: tkawafb@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Integrated Department of Sciences of Functional Foods, Graduate School of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin (IL)-3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) are an important model for studying the function of mucosal-type mast cells. In the present study, BMMCs were successfully immortalized by cell fusion using a hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium-sensitive variant of P815 mouse mastocytoma (P815-6TgR) as a partner cell line. The established mouse mast cell hybridomas (MMCHs) expressed {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} subunits of high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor (Fc{epsilon}RI) and possessed cytoplasmic granules devoid of or partially filled with electron-dense material. Four independent MMCH clones continuously proliferated without supplemental exogenous IL-3 and showed a degranulation response on stimulation with IgE+antigen. Furthermore, histamine synthesis and release by degranulation were confirmed in MMCH-D5, a MMCH clone that showed the strongest degranulation response. MMCH-D5 exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and cyclooxygenase 2, and production of prostaglandin D{sub 2} and leukotriene C{sub 4} in response to IgE-induced stimulation. MMCH clones also expressed Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1, 2, 4, and 6 and showed elevated levels of TNF-{alpha} expression in response to stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. The MMCHs established using this method should be suitable for studies on Fc{epsilon}RI- and TLR-mediated effector functions of mast cells.

  20. Products of cells from gliomas: VIII. Multiple-well immunoperoxidase assay of immunoreactivity of primary hybridoma supernatants with human glioma and brain tissue and cultured glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, P E; Wahl, R L; Shakui, P; Jackson, G A; Letica, L H; Liebert, M; Taren, J A; Beierwaltes, W H; Hoff, J T

    1990-06-01

    To test the feasibility of primary screening of hybridoma supernatants against human glioma tissue, over 5000 combinations of hybridoma supernatants with glioma tissue, cultured glioma cells, and normal central neural tissue were screened with a new multiple-well (M-well) screening system. This is an immunoperoxidase assay system with visual endpoints for screening 20-30 hybridoma supernatants per single microscope slide. There were extensive differences between specificities to tissue and to cultured glioma cells when both were screened with M-wells and when cultured cells were screened with standard semi-automated fluorescence. Primary M-well screening with glioma tissue detected seven hybridoma supernatants that specifically identified parenchymal cells of glioma tissue and that were not detected with cultured cells. Immunoreactivities of individual supernatants for vascular components (nine supernatants), necrosis (five supernatants), and nuclei (three supernatants) were detected. Other supernatants bound multiple sites on glioma tissue and/or subpopulations of neurons and glia of normal tissue. The results show that primary screening with glioma tissue detects a number of different specificities of hybridoma supernatants to gliomas not detected by conventional screening with cultured cells. These are potentially applicable to diagnosis and therapy.

  1. Design and performance of a trickle-bed bioreactor with immobilized hybridoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H A; Scharer, J M; Bols, N C; Moo-Young, M

    1992-01-01

    A trickle-bed system employing inert matrices of vermiculite or polyurethane foam packed in the downcomer section of a split-flow air-lift reactor has been developed for hybridoma culture to enhance antibody productivity. This quiescent condition favoured occlusion and allowed the cells to achieve densities twelve fold greater (12.8 x 10(6) cells/ml reactor for polyurethane foam) than in free cell suspension. The reactor was operated in a cyclic batch mode whereby defined volumes of medium were periodically withdrawn and replaced with equal volumes of fresh medium. The pH of the medium was used as the indicator of the feeding schedule. Glucose, lactate and ammonia concentrations reached a stationary value after 5 days. With vermiculite packing, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) concentration of 2.4 mg/l was achieved after 12 days. The MAb concentration declined then increased to a value of 1.8 mg/l. In the polyurethane foam average monoclonal antibody (MAb) concentrations reached a stationary value of 1.1 mg/l in the first 20 days and increased to a new stationary state value of 2.1 mg/l for the remainder of the production. MAb productivity in the trickle-bed reactor was 0.3 mg/l.d (polyurethane foam) and 0.18 mg/l.d (vermiculite) in comparison to 0.12 mg/l.d for free cell suspension. This trickle-bed system seems to be an attractive way of increasing MAb productivity in culture.

  2. Reliable cloning of functional antibody variable domains from hybridomas and spleen cell repertoires employing a reengineered phage display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebber, A; Bornhauser, S; Burmester, J; Honegger, A; Willuda, J; Bosshard, H R; Plückthun, A

    1997-02-14

    A prerequisite for the use of recombinant antibody technologies starting from hybridomas or immune repertoires is the reliable cloning of functional immunoglobulin genes. For this purpose, a standard phage display system was optimized for robustness, vector stability, tight control of scFv-delta geneIII expression, primer usage for PCR amplification of variable region genes, scFv assembly strategy and subsequent directional cloning using a single rare cutting restriction enzyme. This integrated cloning, screening and selection system allowed us to rapidly obtain antigen binding scFvs derived from spleen-cell repertoires of mice immunized with ampicillin as well as from all hybridoma cell lines tested to date. As representative examples, cloning of monoclonal antibodies against a his tag, leucine zippers, the tumor marker EGP-2 and the insecticide DDT is presented. Several hybridomas whose genes could not be cloned in previous experimental setups, but were successfully obtained with the present system, expressed high amounts of aberrant heavy and light chain mRNAs, which were amplified by PCR and greatly exceeded the amount of binding antibody sequences. These contaminating variable region genes were successfully eliminated by employing the optimized phage display system, thus avoiding time consuming sequencing of non-binding scFv genes. To maximize soluble expression of functional scFvs subsequent to cloning, a compatible vector series to simplify modification, detection, multimerization and rapid purification of recombinant antibody fragments was constructed.

  3. Complete dissection of the Hb(64-76) determinant using T helper 1, T helper 2 clones, and T cell hybridomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evavold, B D; Williams, S G; Hsu, B L

    1992-01-01

    We have generated cloned Th1 cells, Th2 cells, and T cell hybridomas specific for the single immunogenic peptide from the beta-chain of murine hemoglobin (Hb(64-76)). The availability of these various types of T cells provided us an unique opportunity to examine and dissect the T cell response...... to an immunogenic peptide. A panel of altered Hb peptides was made by replacing each amino acid in the Hb peptide (positions 64-76) with a conservative amino acid substitution or an alanine. Although none of the eleven T cell clones and hybridomas tested exhibited the same pattern of reactivity to the substituted...... Hb peptides, some general features were identified for all T cell responses. The primary T cell contact residue of Hb(64-76) was shown to be asparagine 72. For every Hb(64-76) specific T cell, no activation was observed using a peptide containing the conservative substitution of a glutamine...

  4. Viability and proliferation of L929, tumour and hybridoma cells in the culture media containing sericin protein as a supplement or serum substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Cell cultures often require the addition of animal serum and other supplements. In this study, silk sericin, a bioactive protein, recovered from the waste of silk floss production was hydrolysed into three pepsin-degraded sericin peptides with different ranges of molecular mass. Normal animal cells, tumour cells and hybridoma cells were cultured systematically in FBS culture media containing sericin as a supplement or serum substitute. The culture test and microscopic observation of L929 cells showed that the smaller molecular weight of the degraded sericin is most suitable for cell culture. The cell culture results showed that with the degradation of sericin, for normal mouse fibroblast L929 cells, addition of 0.75 % sericin into FBS culture medium yields cell viability that is superior to FBS culture medium alone. When all serum was replaced by sericin, cell viability in the sericin medium could reach about one half of that in FBS medium. When in a medium containing a mixture of FBS: sericin (6:4, v/v), the cell culture effect is about 80 %. For the cultures of four tumour and one hybridoma cells, regardless of the molecular weight range, these degraded sericin peptides could substitute all serum in FBS media. The cell viability and proliferation of these tumour and hybridoma cells are equivalent or superior to that in FBS medium. In other words, cell viability and proliferation of these tumour and hybridoma cells in sericin media are more preferable to serum media. The mechanism of the sericin protein to promote cell growth and proliferation will be further investigated later.

  5. Distinct accessory cell requirements define two types of rat T cell hybridomas specific for unique determinants in the encephalitogenic 68-86 region of myelin basic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannie, M.D.; Paterson, P.Y.; Thomas, D.W.; Nairn, R.

    1990-01-01

    Six clonotypically unique T cell hybridomas from Lewis rats were used to study accessory cell activities required for class II MHC restricted T cell responses to the 68-86 encephalitogenic sequence of myelin basic protein (MBP). T cell hybrids which were cultured with GP68-86 68-86 sequence of guinea pig MBP (GPMBP) and naive splenocytes (SPL) were induced to produce IL-2 as measured by the CTLL indicator cell line. The hybrids were categorized into two subsets (designated THYB-1 and THYB-2), because two distinct subset-specific pathways of communication between accessory cells and T cells were involved in GPMBP-induced IL-2 production. These pathways were distinguished by the following six observations. First, when the duration of a pulse of SPL with GPMBP was lengthened from 1 to 4 h, these SPL lost their ability to induce IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet nevertheless retained full stimulatory activity for THYB-1 hybrids. Second, paraformaldehyde fixation of GPMBP-pulsed SPL abrogated an activity necessary for Ag-induced IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids. These fixed SPL were nevertheless able to stimulate THYB-1 hybrids, albeit to a lesser extent than viable unfixed SPL. Third, the addition of either cycloheximide, cytochalasin B, or 2-deoxyglucose to an Ag pulse of SPL with GPMBP dramatically inhibited the subsequent responses of THYB-2 hybrids yet had little or no effect upon the reactivity of THYB-1 hybrids. Fourth, thymocytes lacked necessary activities for GPMBP evoked IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet strongly promoted THYB-1 hybrid responses. Fifth, exposure of SPL to as little as 500 rad of gamma-irradiation markedly attenuated THYB-2 hybrid response to GPMBP but did not affect THYB-1 responses. Sixth, anti-GPMBP responses by THYB-2 hybrids were observed only in the presence of both radioresistant adherent SPL and a distinct population of radiosensitive nonadherent SPL

  6. Radically altered T cell receptor signaling in glycopeptide-specific T cell hybridoma induced by antigen with minimal differences in the glycan group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Nielsen, M; Gad, Monika

    2001-01-01

    A T cell hybridoma raised against the synthetic glycopeptide T(72)(Tn) was used to study whether the initial TCR signaling events are markedly different when the hybridoma is stimulated with glycopeptides closely related to the cognate glycopeptide antigen. T(72)(Tn) has an alpha-D-GalNAc group O......)(alpha-D-GlcNAc), which differs from T(72)(Tn) solely by the orientation of a hydroxy group in the carbohydrate structure, completely failed to induce detectable tyrosine phosphorylation and IL-2 secretion. APC pulsed with S(72)(Tn), which differs from T(72)(Tn) by not having a methyl group in the serine......-linked to the central threonine in the decapeptide VITAFTEGLK, and the hybridoma is known to be highly specific for this carbohydrate group. T(72)(Tn)-pulsed APC induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the TCR-zeta 21- and 23-kDa proteins and the downstream p42/44 MAP kinase and strong IL-2 secretion. APC pulsed with T(72...

  7. [Influence of low doses of ionizing radiation on tenascin expression in hybridoma cell systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunga, I N

    2003-01-01

    One of the achievements of the modern radiation ecology is the preparation and application of stable eukariotic cell lines to solve various problems occurring under exposure to ionizing radiation, especially to low doses. The detection of onco-fetal protein--tenascin in different embryonic and tumor cells of humans and animals supposes the probability of appropriate gene expression in lymphoid cells, including hybridomal cells. Using the immunochemical method, the study of tenascin expression in two mouse hybridomal lines was carried out. Tenascin was revealed in hybridomal lines MLC-1 and K-48. Further hybridomal cell lines were exposed to X-ray radiation (120 KV) with doses 2.10,15 cGy. The obtained results demonstrated the sensitivity of tenascin expression to low doses of ionizing radiation, that may be used as a convenient model of studying of genotoxic effects of various damaging ionizing agents on a cell level.

  8. Transfer plate radioassay using cell monolayers to detect anti-cell surface antibodies synthesized by lymphocyte hybridomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.D.; Eisenbarth, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    A solid phase [ 125 I] Protein A radioassay for anti-cell surface antibodies is described, which employs target cell monolayers cultured on fenestrated polyvinyl chloride 96-well plates ('transfer plates'). The calibrated aperture in the bottom of each well is small enough to retain fluid contents by surface tension during monolayer growth, but also permits fluid to enter the wells when transfer plate are lowered into receptacles containing washing buffer on test sera. To assay for antibodies directed against target cell surface antigens, transfer plates bearing monolayers are inserted into microculture plates with corresponding 96-well geometry, thereby simultaneously sampling 96 wells. This assay allows rapid screening of hundreds of hybrid cell colonies for production of antibodies with desired tissue specificity. (Auth.)

  9. Monoclonal antibodies based on hybridoma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagami, Hisanori; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsumoto, Kanta; Tomita, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    Based on the size and scope of the present global market for medicine, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a very promising future, with applications for cancers through autoimmune ailments to infectious disease. Since mAbs recognize only their target antigens and not other unrelated proteins, pinpoint medical treatment is possible. Global demand is dramatically expanding. Hybridoma technology, which allows production of mAbs directed against antigens of interest is therefore privileged. However, there are some pivotal points for further development to generate therapeutic antibodies. One is selective generation of human mAbs. Employment of transgenic mice producing human antibodies would overcome this problem. Another focus is recognition sites and conformational epitopes in antigens may be just as important as linear epitopes, especially when membrane proteins such as receptors are targeted. Recognition of intact structures is of critical importance for medical purposes. In this review, we describe patent related information for therapeutic mAbs based on hybridoma technology and also discuss new advances in hybridoma technology that facilitate selective production of stereospecific mAbs.

  10. A perfusion culture system using a stirred ceramic membrane reactor for hyperproduction of IgG2a monoclonal antibody by hybridoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haodi; Tang, Ya-Jie; Ohashi, Ryo; Hamel, Jean-François P

    2005-01-01

    A novel perfusion culture system for efficient production of IgG2a monoclonal antibody (mAb) by hybridoma cells was developed. A ceramic membrane module was constructed and used as a cell retention device installed in a conventional stirred-tank reactor during the perfusion culture. Furthermore, the significance of the control strategy of perfusion rate (volume of fresh medium/working volume of reactor/day, vvd) was investigated. With the highest increasing rate (deltaD, vvd per day, vvdd) of perfusion rate, the maximal viable cell density of 3.5 x 10(7) cells/mL was obtained within 6 days without any limitation and the cell viability was maintained above 95%. At lower deltaD's, the cell growth became limited. Under nutrient-limited condition, the specific cell growth rate (mu) was regulated by deltaD. During the nonlimited growth phase, the specific mAb production rate (qmAb) remained constant at 0.26 +/- 0.02 pg/cell x h in all runs. During the cell growth-limited phase, qmAb was regulated by deltaD within the range of 0.25-0.65 vvdd. Under optimal conditions, qmAb of 0.80 and 2.15 pg/cell x h was obtained during the growth-limited phase and stationary phase, respectively. The overall productivity and yield were 690 mg/L x day and 340 mg/L x medium, respectively. This study demonstrated that this novel perfusion culture system for suspension mammalian cells can support high cell density and efficient mAb production and that deltaD is an important control parameter to regulate and achieve high mAb production.

  11. Nitric oxide and bcl-2 mediated the apoptosis induced by nickel(II) in human T hybridoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Fuqin; Zhang Dongmei; Wang Xinchang; Chen Junhui

    2007-01-01

    Although effects of nickel(II) on the immune system have long been recognized, little is known about the effects of nickel(II) on the induction of apoptosis and related signaling events in T cells. In the present study, we investigated the roles and signaling pathways of nickel(II) in the induction of apoptosis in a human T cell line jurkat. The results showed that the cytotoxic effects of Ni involved significant morphological changes and chromosomal condensation (Hoechst 33258 staining). Analyses of hypodiploid cells and FITC-Annexin V and PI double staining showed significant increase of apoptosis in jurkat cells 6, 12 and 24 h after nickel(II) treatment. Flow cytometry analysis also revealed that the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) occurred concomitantly with the onset of NiCl 2 -induced apoptosis. Induction of apoptotic cell death by nickel was mediated by reduction of bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, nickel stimulated the generation of nitric oxide (NO). These results suggest that nickel(II) chloride induces jurkat cells apoptosis via nitric oxide generation, mitochondrial depolarization and bcl-2 suppression

  12. Cyclosporine A suppresses immunoglobulin G biosynthesis via inhibition of cyclophilin B in murine hybridomas and B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jisun; Choi, Tae Gyu; Ha, Joohun; Kim, Sung Soo

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglubulin G (IgG) is a major isotype of antibody, which is predominantly involved in immune response. The complete tetramer is needed to fold and assemble in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) prior to secretion from cells. Protein quality control guided by ER chaperons is most essential for full biological activity. Cyclophilin B (CypB) was initially identified as a high-affinity binding protein for the immunosuppressive drug Cyclosporine A (CsA). CsA suppresses organ rejection by halting productions of pro-inflammatory molecules in T cell and abolishes the enzymatic property of CypB that accelerates the folding of proteins by catalysing the isomerization of peptidyl-proline bonds in ER. Here, we reported that CsA significantly inhibited IgG biosynthesis at posttranslational level in antibody secreting cells. Moreover, CsA stimulated the extracellular secretion of CypB and induced ROS generation, leading to expressions of ER stress markers. In addition, the absence of intracellular CypB impaired the formation of ER multiprotein complex, which is most important for resisting ER stress. Interestingly, CsA interrupted IgG folding via occupying the PPIase domain of CypB in ER. Eventually, unfolded IgG is degraded via Herp-dependent ERAD pathway. Furthermore, IgG biosynthesis was really abrogated by inhibition of CypB in primary B cells. We established for the first time the immunosuppressive effect of CsA on B cells. Conclusively, the combined results of the current study suggest that CypB is a pivotal molecule for IgG biosynthesis in ER quality control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The development of methods for obtaining monoclonal antibody-producing cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Skowicki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are biomolecules of great scientific and practical significance. In contrast to polyclonal antibodies from immune sera, they are homogeneous and monospecific, since they are produced by hybridoma cells representing a clone arising from a single cell. The successful technology was described for the first time in 1975; the inventors were later awarded the Nobel Prize. Currently, mAbs are broadly used as a research tool, in diagnostics and medicine in particular for the treatment of cancer or in transplantology. About 47 therapeutics based on monoclonal antibodies are now available in the US and Europe, and the number is still growing. Production of monoclonal antibodies is a multistage, time-consuming and costly process. Growing demand for these molecules creates space for research focused on improvements in hybridoma technology. Lower costs, human labor, and time are important goals of these attempts. In this article, a brief review of current methods and their advances is given.

  14. Screening individual hybridomas by microengraving to discover monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunniyi, Adebola O; Story, Craig M; Papa, Eliseo; Guillen, Eduardo; Love, J Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The demand for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in biomedical research is significant, but the current methodologies used to discover them are both lengthy and costly. Consequently, the diversity of antibodies available for any particular antigen remains limited. Microengraving is a soft lithographic technique that provides a rapid and efficient alternative for discovering new mAbs. This protocol describes how to use microengraving to screen mouse hybridomas to establish new cell lines producing unique mAbs. Single cells from a polyclonal population are isolated into an array of microscale wells (~105 cells per screen). The array is then used to print a protein microarray, where each element contains the antibodies captured from individual wells. The antibodies on the microarray are screened with antigens of interest, and mapped to the corresponding cells, which are then recovered from their microwells by micromanipulation. Screening and retrieval require approximately 1–3 d (9–12 d including the steps for preparing arrays of microwells). PMID:19528952

  15. Effect of amino acid supplementation on titer and glycosylation distribution in hybridoma cell cultures-Systems biology-based interpretation using genome-scale metabolic flux balance model and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimonn, Thomas M; Park, Seo-Young; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Brorson, Kurt A; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2016-09-01

    Genome-scale flux balance analysis (FBA) is a powerful systems biology tool to characterize intracellular reaction fluxes during cell cultures. FBA estimates intracellular reaction rates by optimizing an objective function, subject to the constraints of a metabolic model and media uptake/excretion rates. A dynamic extension to FBA, dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA), can calculate intracellular reaction fluxes as they change during cell cultures. In a previous study by Read et al. (2013), a series of informed amino acid supplementation experiments were performed on twelve parallel murine hybridoma cell cultures, and this data was leveraged for further analysis (Read et al., Biotechnol Prog. 2013;29:745-753). In order to understand the effects of media changes on the model murine hybridoma cell line, a systems biology approach is applied in the current study. Dynamic flux balance analysis was performed using a genome-scale mouse metabolic model, and multivariate data analysis was used for interpretation. The calculated reaction fluxes were examined using partial least squares and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The results indicate media supplementation increases product yield because it raises nutrient levels extending the growth phase, and the increased cell density allows for greater culture performance. At the same time, the directed supplementation does not change the overall metabolism of the cells. This supports the conclusion that product quality, as measured by glycoform assays, remains unchanged because the metabolism remains in a similar state. Additionally, the DFBA shows that metabolic state varies more at the beginning of the culture but less by the middle of the growth phase, possibly due to stress on the cells during inoculation. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1163-1173, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Identification and verification of hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibody variable region sequences using recombinant DNA technology and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babrak, Lmar; McGarvey, Jeffery A; Stanker, Larry H; Hnasko, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Antibody engineering requires the identification of antigen binding domains or variable regions (VR) unique to each antibody. It is the VR that define the unique antigen binding properties and proper sequence identification is essential for functional evaluation and performance of recombinant antibodies (rAb). This determination can be achieved by sequence analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) transcripts obtained from a monoclonal antibody (MAb) producing hybridoma and subsequent expression of a rAb. However the polyploidy nature of a hybridoma cell often results in the added expression of aberrant immunoglobulin-like transcripts or even production of anomalous antibodies which can confound production of rAb. An incorrect VR sequence will result in a non-functional rAb and de novo assembly of Ig primary structure without a sequence map is challenging. To address these problems, we have developed a methodology which combines: 1) selective PCR amplification of VR from both the heavy and light chain IgG from hybridoma, 2) molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis and 3) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) on enzyme digests obtained from the purified IgG. Peptide analysis proceeds by evaluating coverage of the predicted primary protein sequence provided by the initial DNA maps for the VR. This methodology serves to both identify and verify the primary structure of the MAb VR for production as rAb. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Use of a solid-phase 3H-radioimmunoassay for the measurement of immunoglobulin produced in short-term cultures of antibody-secreting cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongini, P.K.A.; Heber-Katz, E.

    1982-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for assaying immunoglobulin produced from antibody-secreting myeloma, hybridoma and immune spleen cells is described. Specific antibody is detected by culturing antibody-producing cells on antigen-coated flexible polyvinylchloride microtiter wells, washing away the cells, and measuring the bound specific antibody with tritiated affinity-purified anti-isotype reagents. Antibody produced from 10 3 myeloma cells can be detected with as little as 4 h of incubation. With 24-48 h of incubation, antibody from as few as approximately 3-15 myeloma, hybridoma or immune spleen plaque-forming cells (PFC) can be detected. This culture-well RIA has certain distinct advantages over the hemolytic PFC assay and RIA assays in which antibody in culture supernatants is measured. (Auth.)

  18. Expression of the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in a Murine T- Cell Hybridoma: A Transmembrane Protein Tyrosine Kinase Can Synergize with the T-Cell Antigen Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    cells to 0.9 pM butyrate for 16 h increased limiting dilution as described (32). Flow cytometry confirmed EGFR modal log channel fluorescence for...1991) Cell 65, 281-291 demonstration that phosphatidyl-inositol pathway activation 9. Ullrich, A., Coussens, L., Hayflick , J. S., Dull, T. J., Gray, A

  19. Production of monoclonal antibody against Salmonella typhimurium by hybridoma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibuan, Adria P M; Sadi, Suharni

    1998-01-01

    In this research S.typhimurium killed by irradiation was used as antigen was prepared by exposing the bacteria to gamma rays from 60 Cobalt source with the dose of 2.5 kGy, Specific lymphocyte cell were obtained by immunizing 3 months old Balb-C mice with the antigen. the immunizations were done by subcutan route with the interval of 2 weeks. The hybridoma cells were made by fussing the specific lymphocyte cells with the myeloma cells. It was found that the animals (immunization + irradiation with a low dose of I Gy ) yielded monoclonal antibody with higher value (5.15 mg/ml) than the control animals (3.25 mg/ml). (author)

  20. A luminescent hybridoma-based biosensor for rapid detection of V. cholerae upon induction of calcium signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Parichehr; Sajedi, Reza H; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Zeinoddini, Mehdi; Bakhshi, Bita

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a hybridoma based biosensor was developed for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 which converts the antibody-antigen binding to bioluminescence light. After investigation on hybridoma performance, the biosensor was constructed by transfecting specific hybridoma cells with aequorin reporter gene and the bioluminescence activities of stable biosensor were measured. The sensitivity of biosensor was as few as 50 CFU/ml and it showed no responses to other entric bacteria. Moreover, the response time of biosensor was estimated in 7th second which means this method is considerably faster than many available detection assays. In addition, this biosensor was successfully applied to V. cholerae detection in environmental samples with no significant loss in sensitivity, demonstrating our proposed biosensor provides a sensitive and reliable method for detection of V. cholerae in natural samples. The application of whole hybridoma cell directly as a sensing element in biosensor construction which mentioned for the first time in present study suggests that hybridoma cells could provide a valuable tool for future studies in both basic and diagnostic sciences and could be considered as a fast and specific sensing element for detection of other pathogens in different applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. From hybridomas to a robust microalgal-based production platform: molecular design of a diatom secreting monoclonal antibodies directed against the Marburg virus nucleoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Franziska; Maurer, Michael; Brockmann, Björn; Mayer, Christian; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Kelterbaum, Anne; Becker, Stephan; Maier, Uwe G

    2017-07-27

    The ideal protein expression system should provide recombinant proteins in high quality and quantity involving low production costs only. However, especially for complex therapeutic proteins like monoclonal antibodies many challenges remain to meet this goal and up to now production of monoclonal antibodies is very costly and delicate. Particularly, emerging disease outbreaks like Ebola virus in Western Africa in 2014-2016 make it necessary to reevaluate existing production platforms and develop robust and cheap alternatives that are easy to handle. In this study, we engineered the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum to produce monoclonal IgG antibodies against the nucleoprotein of Marburg virus, a close relative of Ebola virus causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high fatality rates in humans. Sequences for both chains of a mouse IgG antibody were retrieved from a murine hybridoma cell line and implemented in the microalgal system. Fully assembled antibodies were shown to be secreted by the alga and antibodies were proven to be functional in western blot, ELISA as well as IFA studies just like the original hybridoma produced IgG. Furthermore, synthetic variants with constant regions of a rabbit IgG and human IgG with optimized codon usage were produced and characterized. This study highlights the potential of microalgae as robust and low cost expression platform for monoclonal antibodies secreting IgG antibodies directly into the culture medium. Microalgae possess rapid growth rates, need basically only water, air and sunlight for cultivation and are very easy to handle.

  2. Producing Newborn Synchronous Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Helmstetter, Charles E.; Thornton, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    A method and bioreactor for the continuous production of synchronous (same age) population of mammalian cells have been invented. The invention involves the attachment and growth of cells on an adhesive-coated porous membrane immersed in a perfused liquid culture medium in a microgravity analog bioreactor. When cells attach to the surface divide, newborn cells are released into the flowing culture medium. The released cells, consisting of a uniform population of synchronous cells are then collected from the effluent culture medium. This invention could be of interest to researchers investigating the effects of the geneotoxic effects of the space environment (microgravity, radiation, chemicals, gases) and to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies involved in research on aging and cancer, and in new drug development and testing.

  3. Simple rapid methods for freezing hybridomas in 96-well microculture plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, D E; Price, P J

    1983-04-15

    Macroscopic hybridoma colonies were frozen and recovered in a good state of viability in 96-well microculture plates using 2 freezing procedures. These methods offer convenient and rapid means of preserving hybridomas and will permit laboratories developing monoclonal antibodies to distribute workloads to more manageable levels without discarding possibly valuable hybridomas.

  4. Cultivating Insect Cells To Produce Recombinant Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Glenn; Goodwin, Thomas; Prewett, Tacey; Andrews, Angela; Francis, Karen; O'Connor, Kim

    1996-01-01

    Method of producing recombinant proteins involves growth of insect cells in nutrient solution in cylindrical bioreactor rotating about cylindrical axis, oriented horizontally and infecting cells with viruses into which genes of selected type cloned. Genes in question those encoding production of desired proteins. Horizontal rotating bioreactor preferred for use in method, denoted by acronym "HARV", described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662).

  5. Cells and methods for producing fatty alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F.; Youngquist, Tyler J.

    2017-07-18

    Recombinant cells and methods for improved yield of fatty alcohols. The recombinant cells harbor a recombinant thioesterase gene, a recombinant acyl-CoA synthetase gene, and a recombinant acyl-CoA reductase gene. In addition, a gene product from one or more of an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, an enoyl-CoA hydratase gene, a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, and a 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase gene in the recombinant cells is functionally deleted. Culturing the recombinant cells produces fatty alcohols at high yields.

  6. Method and cell lines for the production of monoclonal antibodies to human glycophorin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigbee, W.L.; Fong, S.S.N.; Jensen, R.H.; Vanderlaan, M.

    Cloned mouse hybridoma cell lines have been established which continuously produce antibodies that differentiate between the M and N forms of human glycophorin A. These antibodies have potential application as human blood group reagents, as markers for terminally differentiated erythroid cells and as immunofluorescent labels of somatically variant human erythrocytes.

  7. Inhibition of mannosidase in hybridomas yields monoclonal antibodies with greater capacity for carbohydrate labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonson, R.B.; Ultee, M.E.; Long, C.G.; Gillette, R.W.; McKearn, T.J.; Rodwell, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Labeling an antibody site specifically through its carbohydrate residues preserves more of its antigen-binding activity than does labeling through protein moieties. To boost the amount of immunoglobulin G carbohydrate capable of being labeled, we treated hybridoma cells with a mannosidase inhibitor, deoxymannojirimycin (dMM). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed formation of a glycoprotein with high mannose content, in that endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H 3.2.1.96) could digest the antibody from the dMM-treated cells, but not from control cultures. Carbohydrate analysis confirmed this conclusion, indicating that the antibody from the dMM-treated cells had twice as much mannose as did the control antibody. The glucosamine content of the treated-cells' antibodies was half that of the control, and no additional carbohydrate residues were detectable in the antibodies secreted by the dMM-treated cells. We conjugated both the dMM and control antibodies through their carbohydrate to a chelator. In labeling, the dMM antibody conjugate incorporated approximately threefold as much 111 In isotope as the control conjugate. The two labeled antibodies were injected into mice and showed similar organ distributions

  8. Enzyme immunoassay for rabies antibody in hybridoma culture fluids and its application to differentiation of street and laboratory strains of rabies virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J S; Sumner, J W; Roumillat, L F

    1984-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive enzyme immunoassay is described for detecting rabies antibody in hybridoma culture fluids. Glass fiber filter disks were used to immobilize gamma-irradiated mouse neuroblastoma cells infected with street or laboratory strains of rabies virus. Bound rabies-specific antibody was detected by reaction with horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G. The assay was performed in a 96-well filtration device developed by Cleveland et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. ...

  9. Developmental fate of hematopoietic stem cells: the study of individual hematopoietic clones at the level of antigen-responsive B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olovnikova, Natalia I; Drize, Nina J; Ershler, Maxim A; Nifontova, Irina N; Belkina, Elena V; Nikolaeva, Tatiana N; Proskurina, Natalia V; Chertkov, Joseph L

    2003-01-01

    We have shown previously that hematopoiesis in mice reconstituted with retrovirally marked hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is provided by multiple, mainly short-lived clones, as measured by retroviral insertion site analysis of individual spleen colony-forming unit (CFU-S)-derived colonies. However, the CFU-S is the relatively early progenitor and the contribution of each CFU-S in the steady-state hematopoiesis is uncertain. Here, we have studied the fate of individual mature B cells, as well as CFU-S, representing the progeny of retrovirally transduced marrow-repopulating cells (MRC). B-cells-generated hybridomas and CFU-S-derived colonies were used to determine the clonal composition of hematolymphopoiesis at the single-cell level. Bone marrow (BM) cells and splenocytes (approximately 1/3-1/2 of spleen at a time) from mice reconstituted with retrovirally marked syngeneic BM cells were repeatedly collected at 3, 10, and 16 months post-transplant. The percentage of retrovirally marked CFU-S and B-cell-produced hybridomas was about 50% at 3 months and decreased to 10-15% at 10 months after reconstitution in spite of stable degree of chimerism. The clonal origin of BM-derived CFU-S and spleen-derived B-cell hybridomas was detected by Southern blot analysis. Overall, DNA obtained from 159 retrovirally marked spleen colonies, 287 hybridomas and 43 BM samples were studied. Multiple simultaneously functioning clones of MRC-derived B cells were observed. The same individual clones among hybridomas and CFU-S were identified in three out of 11 mice. Thus, hematopoiesis is generated by multiple hematopoietic clones some of which can simultaneously contribute to both mature lymphoid cells and myeloid progenitors. These data establish that the stem cell compartment functions by continuously producing progeny, which fully but transiently repopulate all lineages.

  10. NREL Scientists Report First Solar Cell Producing More Electrons In

    Science.gov (United States)

    measured in operating quantum dot solar cells at low light intensity; these cells showed significant power Photocurrent Than Solar Photons Entering Cell | News | NREL NREL Scientists Report First Solar Cell Producing More Electrons In Photocurrent Than Solar Photons Entering Cell News Release: NREL

  11. Composition of Mineral Produced by Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volponi, A A; Gentleman, E; Fatscher, R; Pang, Y W Y; Gentleman, M M; Sharpe, P T

    2015-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different dental tissues have been described to have osteogenic/odontogenic-like differentiation capacity, but little attention has been paid to the biochemical composition of the material that each produces. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to analyze the mineralized materials produced in vitro by different dental cell populations, and we compared them with the biochemical composition of native dental tissues. We show that different dental stem cell populations produce materials that differ in their mineral and matrix composition and that these differ from those of native dental tissues. In vitro, BCMP (bone chip mass population), SCAP (stem cells from apical papilla), and SHED (stem cells from human-exfoliated deciduous teeth) cells produce a more highly mineralized matrix when compared with that produced by PDL (periodontal ligament), DPA (dental pulp adult), and GF (gingival fibroblast) cells. Principal component analyses of Raman spectra further demonstrated that the crystallinity and carbonate substitution environments in the material produced by each cell type varied, with DPA cells, for example, producing a more carbonate-substituted mineral and with SCAP, SHED, and GF cells creating a less crystalline material when compared with other dental stem cells and native tissues. These variations in mineral composition reveal intrinsic differences in the various cell populations, which may in turn affect their specific clinical applications. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  12. IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0517 TITLE: IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Simon P. Hogan PhD...IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Yui Hsi Wang, Sunil...threatening anaphylaxis. We have identified a novel multi-functional IL-9-producing mucosal mast cells (MMC9s) that produce large amounts of IL-9, IL

  13. Targeting development of incretin-producing cells increases insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Natalia; Reimann, Frank; van Es, Johan H

    2015-01-01

    the number of intestinal L cells, which produce GLP-1, is an alternative strategy to augment insulin responses and improve glucose tolerance. Blocking the NOTCH signaling pathway with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine increased the number of L cells in intestinal organoid-based mouse and human culture...... of the development of incretin-producing cells in the intestine has potential as a therapeutic strategy to improve glycemic control....

  14. Design and Generation of Humanized Single-chain Fv Derived from Mouse Hybridoma for Potential Targeting Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantasup, Kannika; Chantima, Warangkana; Sangma, Chak; Poomputsa, Kanokwan; Dharakul, Tararaj

    2015-12-01

    Single-chain variable antibody fragments (scFvs) are attractive candidates for targeted immunotherapy in several human diseases. In this study, a concise humanization strategy combined with an optimized production method for humanizing scFvs was successfully employed. Two antibody clones, one directed against the hemagglutinin of H5N1 influenza virus, the other against EpCAM, a cancer biomarker, were used to demonstrate the validity of the method. Heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) variable regions of immunoglobulin genes from mouse hybridoma cells were sequenced and subjected to the construction of mouse scFv 3-D structure. Based on in silico modeling, the humanized version of the scFv was designed via complementarity-determining region (CDR) grafting with the retention of mouse framework region (FR) residues identified by primary sequence analysis. Root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) value between mouse and humanized scFv structures was calculated to evaluate the preservation of CDR conformation. Mouse and humanized scFv genes were then constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. Using this method, we successfully generated humanized scFvs that retained the targeting activity of their respective mouse scFv counterparts. In addition, the humanized scFvs were engineered with a C-terminal cysteine residue (hscFv-C) for site-directed conjugation for use in future targeting applications. The hscFv-C expression was extensively optimized to improve protein production yield. The protocol yielded a 20-fold increase in production of hscFv-Cs in E. coli periplasm. The strategy described in this study may be applicable in the humanization of other antibodies derived from mouse hybridoma.

  15. [Monoclonal antibodies ICO-02 to blast cell antigens in patients with chronic myeloleukemia in blast crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, A Iu

    1984-01-01

    Mice were immunized with blood cells of a patient with chronic granulocytic leukemia, and their cells were subsequently used for the preparation of hybridoma ICO-02. This hybridoma is continuously producing monoclonal antibodies which reacted with cells in 4 out of 13 patients with blastic crisis of chronic granulocytic leukemia and in 6 out of 38 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Antibodies reacted with blast cells in 2 out of 3 patients with undifferentiated blastic crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia and in 2 out of 5 patients with lymphoid variant of blastic crisis of chronic granulocytic leukemia. Cells of 6 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia which reacted with the monoclonal antibodies had immunological markers of T lymphocytes bone-marrow precursors. Monoclonal antibodies did not react with cells of blood and bone marrow from healthy people and from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute myelomonocytic leukemia, acute monoblastic leukemia and lymphosarcoma.

  16. Host cells and methods for producing isoprenyl alkanoates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taek Soon; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-12-01

    The invention provides for a method of producing an isoprenyl alkanoate in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses an enzyme capable of catalyzing the esterification of an isoprenol and a straight-chain fatty acid, such as an alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) or lipase, under a suitable condition so that the isoprenyl alkanoate is produced.

  17. Human Cells as Platform to Produce Gamma-Carboxylated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Bomfim, Aline; de Freitas, Marcela Cristina Corrêa; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; de Sousa Russo, Elisa Maria

    2018-01-01

    The gamma-carboxylated proteins belong to a family of proteins that depend on vitamin K for normal biosynthesis. The major representative gamma-carboxylated proteins are the coagulation system proteins, for example, factor VII, factor IX, factor X, prothrombin, and proteins C, S, and Z. These molecules have harbored posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation and gamma-carboxylation, and for this reason they need to be produced in mammalian cell lines. Human cells lines have emerged as the most promising alternative to the production of gamma-carboxylated proteins. In this chapter, the methods to generate human cells as a platform to produce gamma-carboxylated proteins, for example the coagulation factors VII and IX, are presented. From the cell line modification up to the vitamin K adaptation of the produced cells is described in the protocols presented in this chapter.

  18. Screening hybridomas for anabolic androgenic steroids by steroid analog antigen microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongwu; Chen, Guangyu; Bian, Yongzhong; Xing, Cenzan; Ding, Xue; Zhu, Mengliang; Xun, Yiping; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Yabin; Li, Shaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, dozens of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are forbidden in the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, however, despite extensive investigation, there are still lots of AAS without corresponding monoclonal antibodies. A steroid analog antigen microarray made up of ten AAS was fabricated to screen the hybridoma and it was found an original unsuccessful clone turned out to be a candidate anti-boldenone antibody, without any cross-reactions with endogenous AAS or 44 different AAS standard reference materials tested. Our findings suggested that steroid analog antigen microarray could be a promising tool to screen and characterize new applications of antibodies for structure analogs, and this also exhibits the potential to fast identify effective epitopes of hybridomas in a single assay.

  19. Mast Cells Produce a Unique Chondroitin Sulfate Epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Brooke L; Whitelock, John M; O'Grady, Robert; Caterson, Bruce; Lord, Megan S

    2016-02-01

    The granules of mast cells contain a myriad of mediators that are stored and protected by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains that decorate proteoglycans. Whereas heparin is the GAG predominantly associated with mast cells, mast cell proteoglycans are also decorated with heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate (CS). This study investigated a unique CS structure produced by mast cells that was detected with the antibody clone 2B6 in the absence of chondroitinase ABC digestion. Mast cells in rodent tissue sections were characterized using toluidine blue, Leder stain and the presence of mast cell tryptase. The novel CS epitope was identified in rodent tissue sections and localized to cells that were morphologically similar to cells chemically identified as mast cells. The rodent mast cell-like line RBL-2H3 was also shown to express the novel CS epitope. This epitope co-localized with multiple CS proteoglycans in both rodent tissue and RBL-2H3 cultured cells. These findings suggest that the novel CS epitope that decorates mast cell proteoglycans may play a role in the way these chains are structured in mast cells. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  20. Mucin-producing signet ring cell adenoma of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulwani Hanni

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Signet ring cell adenoma of the thyroid, though rare, is well documented. This change is chiefly due to intracellular accumulation of thyroglobulin that appears mucinous. Awareness of this entity is important as it may closely simulate a metastatic mucin-secreting signet ring cell carcinoma. Although the mucinous material in signet ring cells has been reported to stain positive with thyroglobulin, in some cases it may not be so. We herein describe a rare case of a 46-year-old man who was hypothyroid and the mass removed from the thyroid showed a mucin-producing signet ring cell adenoma of the thyroid.

  1. Host cells and methods for producing diacid compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, Eric J.; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Dietrich, Jeffrey A.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-04-24

    The present invention provides for a method of producing one or more fatty acid derived dicarboxylic acids in a genetically modified host cell which does not naturally produce the one or more derived fatty acid derived dicarboxylic acids. The invention provides for the biosynthesis of dicarboxylic acid ranging in length from C3 to C26. The host cell can be further modified to increase fatty acid production or export of the desired fatty acid derived compound, and/or decrease fatty acid storage or metabolism.

  2. AAVS1-Targeted Plasmid Integration in AAV Producer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuxia; Frederick, Amy; Martin, John M; Scaria, Abraham; Cheng, Seng H; Armentano, Donna; Wadsworth, Samuel C; Vincent, Karen A

    2017-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) producer cell lines are created via transfection of HeLaS3 cells with a single plasmid containing three components (the vector sequence, the AAV rep and cap genes, and a selectable marker gene). As this plasmid contains both the cis (Rep binding sites) and trans (Rep protein encoded by the rep gene) elements required for site-specific integration, it was predicted that plasmid integration might occur within the AAVS1 locus on human chromosome 19 (chr19). The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration in AAVS1 might be correlated with vector yield. Plasmid integration sites within several independent cell lines were assessed via Southern, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and PCR analyses. In the Southern analyses, the presence of fragments detected by both rep- and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that for several mid- and high-producing lines, plasmid DNA had integrated into the AAVS1 locus. Analysis with puroR and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that integration in AAVS1 was a more widespread phenomenon. High-producing AAV2-secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) lines (masterwell 82 [MW82] and MW278) were evaluated via FISH using probes specific for the plasmid, AAVS1, and a chr19 marker. FISH analysis detected two plasmid integration sites in MW278 (neither in AAVS1), while a total of three sites were identified in MW82 (two in AAVS1). An inverse PCR assay confirmed integration within AAVS1 for several mid- and high-producing lines. In summary, the FISH, Southern, and PCR data provide evidence of site-specific integration of the plasmid within AAVS1 in several AAV producer cell lines. The data also suggest that integration in AAVS1 is a general phenomenon that is not necessarily restricted to high producers. The results also suggest that plasmid integration within the AAVS1 locus is not an absolute requirement for a high vector yield.

  3. Anti-tumor therapy with macroencapsulated endostatin producer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Danielle B; Chammas, Roger; Malavasi, Natália V; da Costa, Patrícia L N; Chura-Chambi, Rosa M; Balduino, Keli N; Morganti, Ligia

    2010-03-02

    Theracyte is a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane macroencapsulation system designed to induce neovascularization at the tissue interface, protecting the cells from host's immune rejection, thereby circumventing the problem of limited half-life and variation in circulating levels. Endostatin is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Continuous delivery of endostatin improves the efficacy and potency of the antitumoral therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether recombinant fibroblasts expressing endostatin encapsulated in Theracyte immunoisolation devices can be used for delivery of this therapeutic protein for treatment of mice bearing B16F10 melanoma and Ehrlich tumors. Mice were inoculated subcutaneously with melanoma (B16F10 cells) or Ehrlich tumor cells at the foot pads. Treatment began when tumor thickness had reached 0.5 mm, by subcutaneous implantation of 107 recombinant encapsulated or non-encapsulated endostatin producer cells. Similar melanoma growth inhibition was obtained for mice treated with encapsulated or non-encapsulated endostatin-expressing cells. The treatment of mice bearing melanoma tumor with encapsulated endostatin-expressing cells was decreased by 50.0%, whereas a decrease of 56.7% in tumor thickness was obtained for mice treated with non-encapsulated cells. Treatment of Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice with non-encapsulated endostatin-expressing cells reduced tumor thickness by 52.4%, whereas lower tumor growth inhibition was obtained for mice treated with encapsulated endostatin-expressing cells: 24.2%. Encapsulated endostatin-secreting fibroblasts failed to survive until the end of the treatment. However, endostatin release from the devices to the surrounding tissues was confirmed by immunostaining. Decrease in vascular structures, functional vessels and extension of the vascular area were observed in melanoma microenvironments. This study indicates that immunoisolation devices containing endostatin

  4. Investigation of intratumoural and peritumoural lymphatics expressed by podoplanin and LYVE-1 in the hybridoma-induced tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, RC; Eshita, Y; Kato, S

    2007-01-01

    Tumour-associated lymphatics contribute to a key component of metastatic spread, however, the biological interaction of tumour cells with intratumoural and peritumoural lymphatics (ITLs and PTLs) has remained unclear. To address this important issue, we have focused on the morphological and molecular aspects of newly formed lymphatics (lymphangiogenesis) and pre-existing lymphatics in the intratumoural and peritumoural tissues by using a hybridoma-induced tumour model. In the present study, ITLs with very high vessel density within the tumour mass showed small and flattened contours that varied from non-solid-to-solid tumours, whereas PTLs were relatively disorganized and tortuous, and packed with a cluster of tumour cells at the tumour periphery. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) both in ITLs and PTLs were expressed with LYVE-1 and podoplanin in various tumour tissues, in which initial lymphatics were extremely extended and dilated. The tumour cells were frequently detected adhering to or penetrating lymphatic walls, especially near the open junctions. In the metastatic tissues, lymphangiogenic vasculatures occurred within the tumour matrix, and collecting PTLs represented abnormal twisty valve leaflets. The Western blot and RT-PCR analysis showed local variations of LEC proliferating potentials and lymphatic involvement in metastasis by a distinct profile of the protein and mRNA expression by LYVE-1, podoplanin, Prox-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-3 (VEGFR-3). These findings indicated that both ITLs and PTLs, including enlarged pre-existing and newly formed lymphatics, may play a crucial role in metastasis with an active tumour cell adhesion, invasion, migration and implantation. PMID:17696907

  5. Anti-tumor therapy with macroencapsulated endostatin producer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balduino Keli N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theracyte is a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane macroencapsulation system designed to induce neovascularization at the tissue interface, protecting the cells from host's immune rejection, thereby circumventing the problem of limited half-life and variation in circulating levels. Endostatin is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Continuous delivery of endostatin improves the efficacy and potency of the antitumoral therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether recombinant fibroblasts expressing endostatin encapsulated in Theracyte immunoisolation devices can be used for delivery of this therapeutic protein for treatment of mice bearing B16F10 melanoma and Ehrlich tumors. Results Mice were inoculated subcutaneously with melanoma (B16F10 cells or Ehrlich tumor cells at the foot pads. Treatment began when tumor thickness had reached 0.5 mm, by subcutaneous implantation of 107 recombinant encapsulated or non-encapsulated endostatin producer cells. Similar melanoma growth inhibition was obtained for mice treated with encapsulated or non-encapsulated endostatin-expressing cells. The treatment of mice bearing melanoma tumor with encapsulated endostatin-expressing cells was decreased by 50.0%, whereas a decrease of 56.7% in tumor thickness was obtained for mice treated with non-encapsulated cells. Treatment of Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice with non-encapsulated endostatin-expressing cells reduced tumor thickness by 52.4%, whereas lower tumor growth inhibition was obtained for mice treated with encapsulated endostatin-expressing cells: 24.2%. Encapsulated endostatin-secreting fibroblasts failed to survive until the end of the treatment. However, endostatin release from the devices to the surrounding tissues was confirmed by immunostaining. Decrease in vascular structures, functional vessels and extension of the vascular area were observed in melanoma microenvironments. Conclusions This study indicates that

  6. A fast and simple dot-immunobinding assay for quantifiction of mouse immunoglobulins in hybridoma culture supernatants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sulimenko, Tetyana; Dráber, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 289, - (2004), s. 89-95 ISSN 0022-1759 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5052301; GA MŠk LN00A026; GA MŠk 1P04OE158 Keywords : dot-immunobinding assay * hybridoma culture superntatants * mouse immunoglobulins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2004

  7. Luminal epithelial cells within the mammary gland can produce basal cells upon oncogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, S M; Haricharan, S; Johnston, A N; Toneff, M J; Reddy, J P; Dong, J; Bu, W; Li, Y

    2016-03-17

    In the normal mammary gland, the basal epithelium is known to be bipotent and can generate either basal or luminal cells, whereas the luminal epithelium has not been demonstrated to contribute to the basal compartment in an intact and normally developed mammary gland. It is not clear whether cellular heterogeneity within a breast tumor results from transformation of bipotent basal cells or from transformation and subsequent basal conversion of the more differentiated luminal cells. Here we used a retroviral vector to express an oncogene specifically in a small number of the mammary luminal epithelial cells and tested their potential to produce basal cells during tumorigenesis. This in-vivo lineage-tracing work demonstrates that luminal cells are capable of producing basal cells on activation of either polyoma middle T antigen or ErbB2 signaling. These findings reveal the plasticity of the luminal compartment during tumorigenesis and provide an explanation for cellular heterogeneity within a cancer.

  8. A modified method of insulin producing cells' generation from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubak, Paweł; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Putowski, Lechosław

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a result of autoimmune destruction of pancreatic insulin producing β-cells and so far it can be cured only by insulin injection, by pancreas transplantation, or by pancreatic islet cells' transplantation. The methods are, however, imperfect and have a lot of disadvantages. Therefore new solutions are needed. The best one would be the use of differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, we investigated the potential of the bone marrow-derived MSCs line for in vitro differentiation into insulin producing cells (IPSs). We applied an 18-day protocol to differentiate MSCs. Differentiating cells formed cell clusters some of which resembled pancreatic islet-like cells. Using dithizone we confirmed the presence of insulin in the cells. What is more, the expression of proinsulin C-peptide in differentiated IPCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. For the first time, we investigated the influence of growth factors' concentration on IPCs differentiation efficiency. We have found that an increase in the concentration of growth factors up to 60 ng/mL of β-FGF/EGF and 30 ng/mL of activin A/β-cellulin increases the percentage of IPCs. Further increase of growth factors does not show any increase of the percentage of differentiated cells. Our findings suggest that the presented protocol can be adapted for differentiation of insulin producing cells from stem cells.

  9. Establishment of immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines able to produce enucleated red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Kurita

    Full Text Available Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs is a standard and indispensable therapy in current clinical practice. In vitro production of RBCs offers a potential means to overcome a shortage of transfusable RBCs in some clinical situations and also to provide a source of cells free from possible infection or contamination by microorganisms. Thus, in vitro production of RBCs may become a standard procedure in the future. We previously reported the successful establishment of immortalized mouse erythroid progenitor cell lines that were able to produce mature RBCs very efficiently. Here, we have developed a reliable protocol for establishing immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines that are able to produce enucleated RBCs. These immortalized cell lines produce functional hemoglobin and express erythroid-specific markers, and these markers are upregulated following induction of differentiation in vitro. Most importantly, these immortalized cell lines all produce enucleated RBCs after induction of differentiation in vitro, although the efficiency of producing enucleated RBCs remains to be improved further. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the feasibility of using immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines as an ex vivo source for production of enucleated RBCs.

  10. Control of epithelial cell function by interleukin-22-producing RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanos, Stephanie L; Vonarbourg, Cedric; Mortha, Arthur; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    It is rapidly emerging that the defence system of innate lymphocytes is more diverse than previously recognized. In addition to natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, and natural helper cells have now been identified. LTi cells are developmentally dependent on the orphan transcription factor RORγt and instruct lymph node development during embryogenesis. More recently, it has become evident, that in addition to their role for lymph organ development, LTi cells are also potent producers of cytokines such as interleukin-22 (IL-22) and IL-17 in adult mice. In addition to LTi cells, another RORγt-dependent innate lymphocyte subset co-expressing RORγt and NK cell receptors (NKRs) has been identified. These NKR+ RORγt+ cells are also potent producers of IL-22 but it is unclear whether they are part of the NK cell or LTi cell lineage. This review will highlight recent progress in understanding development and function of innate IL-22-producing lymphocyte subsets. PMID:21391996

  11. Quantification of residual host cell DNA in adenoviral vectors produced on PER.C6 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, Linda; Koel, Björn; Weggeman, Miranda; Goudsmit, Jaap; Havenga, Menzo; Marzio, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors for gene therapy and vaccination are routinely prepared on cultures of immortalized cells, allowing the production of vector batches of high titer and consistent quality. Quantification of residual DNA from the producing cell line is part of the purity tests for

  12. Insulin-producing cells generated from dedifferentiated human pancreatic beta cells expanded in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger A Russ

    Full Text Available Expansion of beta cells from the limited number of adult human islet donors is an attractive prospect for increasing cell availability for cell therapy of diabetes. However, attempts at expanding human islet cells in tissue culture result in loss of beta-cell phenotype. Using a lineage-tracing approach we provided evidence for massive proliferation of beta-cell-derived (BCD cells within these cultures. Expansion involves dedifferentiation resembling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Epigenetic analyses indicate that key beta-cell genes maintain open chromatin structure in expanded BCD cells, although they are not transcribed. Here we investigated whether BCD cells can be redifferentiated into beta-like cells.Redifferentiation conditions were screened by following activation of an insulin-DsRed2 reporter gene. Redifferentiated cells were characterized for gene expression, insulin content and secretion assays, and presence of secretory vesicles by electron microscopy. BCD cells were induced to redifferentiate by a combination of soluble factors. The redifferentiated cells expressed beta-cell genes, stored insulin in typical secretory vesicles, and released it in response to glucose. The redifferentiation process involved mesenchymal-epithelial transition, as judged by changes in gene expression. Moreover, inhibition of the EMT effector SLUG (SNAI2 using shRNA resulted in stimulation of redifferentiation. Lineage-traced cells also gave rise at a low rate to cells expressing other islet hormones, suggesting transition of BCD cells through an islet progenitor-like stage during redifferentiation.These findings demonstrate for the first time that expanded dedifferentiated beta cells can be induced to redifferentiate in culture. The findings suggest that ex-vivo expansion of adult human islet cells is a promising approach for generation of insulin-producing cells for transplantation, as well as basic research, toxicology studies, and drug

  13. Extrinsic Factors Involved in the Differentiation of Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. Y. Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with many debilitating complications. Treatment of diabetes mellitus mainly revolves around conventional oral hypoglycaemic agents and insulin replacement therapy. Recently, scientists have turned their attention to the generation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs from stem cells of various sources. To date, many types of stem cells of human and animal origins have been successfully turned into IPCs in vitro and have been shown to exert glucose-lowering effect in vivo. However, scientists are still faced with the challenge of producing a sufficient number of IPCs that can in turn produce sufficient insulin for clinical use. A careful choice of stem cells, methods, and extrinsic factors for induction may all be contributing factors to successful production of functional beta-islet like IPCs. It is also important that the mechanism of differentiation and mechanism by which IPCs correct hyperglycaemia are carefully studied before they are used in human subjects.

  14. Efficient Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Hsiu Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem (ES cells are a potential source of a variety of differentiated cells for cell therapy, drug discovery, and toxicology screening. Here, we present an efficacy strategy for the differentiation of mouse ES cells into insulin-producing cells (IPCs by a two-step differentiation protocol comprising of (i the formation of definitive endoderm in monolayer culture by activin A, and (ii this monolayer endoderm being induced to differentiate into IPCs by nicotinamide, insulin, and laminin. Differentiated cells can be obtained within approximately 7 days. The differentiation IPCs combined application of RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunofluorescence to characterize phenotypic and functional properties. In our study, we demonstrated that IPCs produced pancreatic transcription factors, endocrine progenitor marker, definitive endoderm, pancreatic β-cell markers, and Langerhans α and δ cells. The IPCs released insulin in a manner that was dose dependent upon the amount of glucose added. These techniques may be able to be applied to human ES cells, which would have very important ramifications for treating human disease.

  15. Programmed Cell Death and Postharvest Deterioration of Horticultural Produce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Iakimova, E.T.

    2010-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a process where cells or tissues are broken down in an orderly and predictable manner, whereby nutrients are re-used by other cells, tissues or plant parts. The process of (petal) senescence shows many similarities to autophagic PCD in animal cells including a massive

  16. Generation of insulin-producing cells from gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sung Ho; Heo, Young Tae [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Uhm, Sang Jun [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hoon Taek, E-mail: htl3675@konkuk.ac.kr [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-09

    A major problem in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus is the limited availability of alternative sources of insulin-producing cells for islet transplantation. In this study, we investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) treatments of gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells (gSDSCs) on their reprogramming and subsequent differentiation into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). We isolated SDSCs from the ear skin of a gnotobiotic pig. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed stem-cell markers Oct-4, Sox-2, and CD90; nestin expression also increased significantly. The cells could differentiate into IPCs after treatments with activin-A, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and nicotinamide. After 15 days in the differentiation medium, controlled gSDSCs began expressing endocrine progenitor genes and proteins (Ngn3, Neuro-D, PDX-1, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, and insulin). The IPCs showed increased insulin synthesis after glucose stimulation. The results indicate that stem cells derived from the skin of gnotobiotic pigs can differentiate into IPCs under the appropriate conditions in vitro. Our three-stage induction protocol could be applied without genetic modification to source IPCs from stem cells in the skin of patients with diabetes for autologous transplantation.

  17. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived erythropoietin-producing cells ameliorate renal anemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Hirofumi; Kasahara, Tomoko; Katagiri, Naoko; Hoshina, Azusa; Mae, Shin-Ichi; Kotaka, Maki; Toyohara, Takafumi; Rahman, Asadur; Nakano, Daisuke; Niwa, Akira; Saito, Megumu K; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Nishiyama, Akira; Osafune, Kenji

    2017-09-27

    The production of erythropoietin (EPO) by the kidneys, a principal hormone for the hematopoietic system, is reduced in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), eventually resulting in severe anemia. Although recombinant human EPO treatment improves anemia in patients with CKD, returning to full red blood cell production without fluctuations does not always occur. We established a method to generate EPO-producing cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) by modifying previously reported hepatic differentiation protocols. These cells showed increased EPO expression and secretion in response to low oxygen conditions, prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing enzyme inhibitors, and insulin-like growth factor 1. The EPO protein secreted from hiPSC-derived EPO-producing (hiPSC-EPO) cells induced the erythropoietic differentiation of human umbilical cord blood progenitor cells in vitro. Furthermore, transplantation of hiPSC-EPO cells into mice with CKD induced by adenine treatment improved renal anemia. Thus, hiPSC-EPO cells may be a useful tool for clarifying the mechanisms of EPO production and may be useful as a therapeutic strategy for treating renal anemia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. Generation of insulin-producing cells from gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sung Ho; Heo, Young Tae; Uhm, Sang Jun; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2010-01-01

    A major problem in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus is the limited availability of alternative sources of insulin-producing cells for islet transplantation. In this study, we investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) treatments of gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells (gSDSCs) on their reprogramming and subsequent differentiation into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). We isolated SDSCs from the ear skin of a gnotobiotic pig. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed stem-cell markers Oct-4, Sox-2, and CD90; nestin expression also increased significantly. The cells could differentiate into IPCs after treatments with activin-A, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and nicotinamide. After 15 days in the differentiation medium, controlled gSDSCs began expressing endocrine progenitor genes and proteins (Ngn3, Neuro-D, PDX-1, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, and insulin). The IPCs showed increased insulin synthesis after glucose stimulation. The results indicate that stem cells derived from the skin of gnotobiotic pigs can differentiate into IPCs under the appropriate conditions in vitro. Our three-stage induction protocol could be applied without genetic modification to source IPCs from stem cells in the skin of patients with diabetes for autologous transplantation.

  19. Human Liver Cells Expressing Albumin and Mesenchymal Characteristics Give Rise to Insulin-Producing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Meivar-Levy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the pancreatic lineage in the liver has been suggested as a potential autologous cell replacement therapy for diabetic patients. Transcription factors-induced liver-to-pancreas reprogramming has been demonstrated in numerous species both in vivo and in vitro. However, human-derived liver cells capable of acquiring the alternate pancreatic repertoire have never been characterized. It is yet unknown whether hepatic-like stem cells or rather adult liver cells give rise to insulin-producing cells. Using an in vitro experimental system, we demonstrate that proliferating adherent human liver cells acquire mesenchymal-like characteristics and a considerable level of cellular plasticity. However, using a lineage-tracing approach, we demonstrate that insulin-producing cells are primarily generated in cells enriched for adult hepatic markers that coexpress both albumin and mesenchymal markers. Taken together, our data suggest that adult human hepatic tissue retains a substantial level of developmental plasticity, which could be exploited in regenerative medicine approaches.

  20. Generation of high-yield insulin producing cells from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian, Arefeh; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Abroun, Saeid; Pourpak, Zahra; Allahverdi, Amir; Soleimani, Masoud

    2014-07-01

    Allogenic islet transplantation is a most efficient approach for treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, the scarcity of islets and long term need for an immunosuppressant limits its application. Recently, cell replacement therapies that generate of unlimited sources of β cells have been developed to overcome these limitations. In this study we have described a stage specific differentiation protocol for the generation of insulin producing islet-like clusters from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). This specific stepwise protocol induced differentiation of hMSCs into definitive endoderm, pancreatic endoderm and pancreatic endocrine cells that expressed of sox17, foxa2, pdx1, ngn3, nkx2.2, insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and glut2 transcripts respectively. In addition, immunocytochemical analysis confirmed protein expression of the above mentioned genes. Western blot analysis discriminated insulin from proinsulin in the final differentiated cells. In derived insulin producing cells (IPCs), secreted insulin and C-peptide was in a glucose dependent manner. We have developed a protocol that generates effective high-yield human IPCs from hBM-MSCs in vitro. These finding suggest that functional IPCs generated by this procedure can be used as a cell-based approach for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  1. Imbalance between IL-17A-Producing Cells and Regulatory T Cells during Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune responses and inflammation are key elements in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke (IS. Although the involvement of IL-17A in IS has been demonstrated using animal models, the involvement of IL-17A and IL-17-secreting T cell subsets in IS patients has not been verified, and whether the balance of Treg/IL-17-secreting T cells is altered in IS patients remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that the proportion of peripheral Tregs and the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β were reduced in patients with IS compared with controls using flow cytometry (FCM, real-time PCR, and ELISA assays. However, the proportions of Th17 and γδ T cells, the primary IL-17A-secreting cells, increased dramatically, and these effects were accompanied by increases in the levels of IL-17A, IL-23, IL-6, and IL-1β in IS patients. These studies suggest that the increase in IL-17A-producing cells and decrease in Treg cells might contribute to the pathogenesis of IS. Manipulating the balance between Tregs and IL-17A-producing cells might be helpful for the treatment of IS.

  2. High-throughput screening of monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall glycans by hierarchical clustering of their carbohydrate microarray binding profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; Marcus, Susan E.; Haeger, Ash

    2008-01-01

    Antibody-producing hybridoma cell lines were created following immunisation with a crude extract of cell wall polymers from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to rapidly screen the specificities of individual monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), their binding to microarrays containing 50 cell wall...... investigated using subsequent immunochemical and biochemical analyses and two novel mAbs are described in detail. mAb LM13 binds to an arabinanase-sensitive pectic epitope and mAb LM14, binds to an epitope occurring on arabinogalactan-proteins. Both mAbs display novel patterns of recognition of cell walls...

  3. Characterisation of insulin-producing cells differentiated from tonsil derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Ye-Ryung; Park, Woo-Jae; Kim, Han Su; Jung, Sung-Chul; Woo, So-Youn; Jo, Inho; Ryu, Kyung-Ha; Park, Joo-Won

    2015-01-01

    Tonsil-derived (T-) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) display mutilineage differentiation potential and self-renewal capacity and have potential as a banking source. Diabetes mellitus is a prevalent disease in modern society, and the transplantation of pancreatic progenitor cells or various stem cell-derived insulin-secreting cells has been suggested as a novel therapy for diabetes. The potential of T-MSCs to trans-differentiate into pancreatic progenitor cells or insulin-secreting cells has not yet been investigated. We examined the potential of human T-MSCs to trans-differentiate into pancreatic islet cells using two different methods based on β-mercaptoethanol and insulin-transferin-selenium, respectively. First, we compared the efficacy of the two methods for inducing differentiation into insulin-producing cells. We demonstrated that the insulin-transferin-selenium method is more efficient for inducing differentiation into insulin-secreting cells regardless of the source of the MSCs. Second, we compared the differentiation potential of two different MSC types: T-MSCs and adipose-derived MSCs (A-MSCs). T-MSCs had a differentiation capacity similar to that of A-MSCs and were capable of secreting insulin in response to glucose concentration. Islet-like clusters differentiated from T-MSCs had lower synaptotagmin-3, -5, -7, and -8 levels, and consequently lower secreted insulin levels than cells differentiated from A-MSCs. These results imply that T-MSCs can differentiate into functional pancreatic islet-like cells and could provide a novel, alternative cell therapy for diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    that Stat6-/- BM progenitors in sensitized wild type recipients that were competent in GFP- CD4+ST2+TH2 and ILC2s ( innate lymphoid cells ) generation, and...report demonstrated that type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) lack cell lineage markers and have the potential to pro- duce IL-9 (Wilhelm et al., 2011...Fujii, H., and Koyasu, S. (2010). Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) lymphoid cells . Nature 463, 540–544

  5. Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Damjanov, A; Weiss, J

    1986-01-01

    During mouse pregnancy, uterine stromal cells transform into morphologically distinct decidual cells under the influence of the implanting embryo and a proper hormonal environment. Mechanical stimulation of hormonally primed uterine stromal cells leads to the same morphologic alterations. The dec......During mouse pregnancy, uterine stromal cells transform into morphologically distinct decidual cells under the influence of the implanting embryo and a proper hormonal environment. Mechanical stimulation of hormonally primed uterine stromal cells leads to the same morphologic alterations....... Mouse decidual cells isolated from 6- to 7-day pregnant uteri explanted in vitro continue to synthesize basement-membrane-like extracellular matrix. Using immunohistochemistry and metabolic labeling followed by immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and fluorography, it was shown that the decidual cells...... to undergo pseudodecidualization. We thus showed that stromal cells from pregnant and nonpregnant mouse uteri synthesize significant amounts of basement-membrane components in vitro, and hence could serve as a good model for the study of normal basement-membrane components....

  6. Antibody-Mediated Neutralization of the Exotoxin Mycolactone, the Main Virulence Factor Produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Dangy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycolactone, the macrolide exotoxin produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans, causes extensive tissue destruction by inducing apoptosis of host cells. In this study, we aimed at the production of antibodies that could neutralize the cytotoxic activities of mycolactone.Using the B cell hybridoma technology, we generated a series of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for mycolactone from spleen cells of mice immunized with the protein conjugate of a truncated synthetic mycolactone derivative. L929 fibroblasts were used as a model system to investigate whether these antibodies can inhibit the biological effects of mycolactone. By measuring the metabolic activity of the fibroblasts, we found that anti-mycolactone mAbs can completely neutralize the cytotoxic activity of mycolactone.The toxin neutralizing capacity of anti-mycolactone mAbs supports the concept of evaluating the macrolide toxin as vaccine target.

  7. Cross-reacting and heterospecific monoclonal antibodies produced against arabis mosaic nepovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, E A; Stace-Smith, R

    1992-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against arabis mosaic nepovirus (AMV). A hybridoma screening procedure was applied which involved the testing of culture supernatants, before the hybridomas were cloned to single cell lines, for their reaction with eight nepoviruses [AMV, cherry leafroll virus (CLRV), grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), peach rosette mosaic virus, raspberry ringspot virus (RRSV), tobacco ringspot virus, tomato black ring virus (TBRV) and tomato ringspot virus]. In addition to AMV-specific MAbs, this screening technique has allowed the selection of two cross-reacting MAbs: one reacting with AMV and GFLV, and one reacting with AMV and RRSV. This is the first report of MAbs cross-reacting with these nepoviruses. In addition, five heterospecific MAbs (HS-MAbs) could be selected: two reacting with RRSV, two with CLRV and one with TBRV. The usefulness of the screening technique that was applied for the selection of cross-reacting MAbs and HS-MAbs, and the potential use of such antibodies are discussed.

  8. Structural characterization of proteoglycans produced by testicular peritubular cells and Sertoli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, M.K.; Fritz, I.B.

    1985-01-01

    The structural characteristics of proteoglycans produced by seminiferous peritubular cells and by Sertoli cells are defined. Peritubular cells secrete two proteoglycans designated PC I and PC II. PC I is a high molecular mass protein containing chondroitin glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains (maximum 70 kDa). PC II has a protein core of 45 kDa and also contains chondroitin GAG chains (maximum 70 kDa). Preliminary results imply that PC II may be a degraded or processed form of PC I. Sertoli cells secrete two different proteoglycans, designated SC I and SC II. SC I is a large protein containing both chondroitin (maximum 62 kDa) and heparin (maximum 15 kDa) GAG chains. Results obtained suggest that this novel proteoglycan contains both chondroitin and heparin GAG chains bound to the same core protein. SC II has a 50-kDa protein core and contains chondroitin (maximum 25 kDa) GAG chains. A proteoglycan obtained from extracts of Sertoli cells is described which contains heparin (maximum 48 kDa) GAG chains. In addition, Sertoli cells secrete a sulfoprotein, SC III, which is not a proteoglycan. The stimulation by follicle-stimulating hormone of the incorporation of [ 35 S]SO 2 ) -4 ) into moieties secreted by Sertoli cells is shown to represent an increased production or sulfation of SC III, and not an increased production or sulfation of proteoglycans. Results are discussed in relation to the possible functions of proteoglycans in the seminiferous tubule

  9. Differentiation, distribution and gammadelta T cell-driven regulation of IL-22-producing T cells in tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Yao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation, distribution and immune regulation of human IL-22-producing T cells in infections remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated in a nonhuman primate model that M. tuberculosis infection resulted in apparent increases in numbers of T cells capable of producing IL-22 de novo without in vitro Ag stimulation, and drove distribution of these cells more dramatically in lungs than in blood and lymphoid tissues. Consistently, IL-22-producing T cells were visualized in situ in lung tuberculosis (TB granulomas by confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry, indicating that mature IL-22-producing T cells were present in TB granuloma. Surprisingly, phosphoantigen HMBPP activation of Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells down-regulated the capability of T cells to produce IL-22 de novo in lymphocytes from blood, lung/BAL fluid, spleen and lymph node. Up-regulation of IFNgamma-producing Vgamma2Vdelta2 T effector cells after HMBPP stimulation coincided with the down-regulated capacity of these T cells to produce IL-22 de novo. Importantly, anti-IFNgamma neutralizing Ab treatment reversed the HMBPP-mediated down-regulation effect on IL-22-producing T cells, suggesting that Vgamma2Vdelta2 T-cell-driven IFNgamma-networking function was the mechanism underlying the HMBPP-mediated down-regulation of the capability of T cells to produce IL-22. These novel findings raise the possibility to ultimately investigate the function of IL-22 producing T cells and to target Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells for balancing potentially hyper-activating IL-22-producing T cells in severe TB.

  10. Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells produce chimeric offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Franklin D; Terlouw, Steve L; Kwon, Dae Jin; Mumaw, Jennifer L; Dhara, Sujoy K; Hasneen, Kowser; Dobrinsky, John R; Stice, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Ethical and moral issues rule out the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in chimera studies that would determine the full extent of their reprogrammed state, instead relying on less rigorous assays such as teratoma formation and differentiated cell types. To date, only mouse iPSC lines are known to be truly pluripotent. However, initial mouse iPSC lines failed to form chimeric offspring, but did generate teratomas and differentiated embryoid bodies, and thus these specific iPSC lines were not completely reprogrammed or truly pluripotent. Therefore, there is a need to address whether the reprogramming factors and process used eventually to generate chimeric mice are universal and sufficient to generate reprogrammed iPSC that contribute to chimeric offspring in additional species. Here we show that porcine mesenchymal stem cells transduced with 6 human reprogramming factors (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4, LIN28, and C-MYC) injected into preimplantation-stage embryos contributed to multiple tissue types spanning all 3 germ layers in 8 of 10 fetuses. The chimerism rate was high, 85.3% or 29 of 34 live offspring were chimeras based on skin and tail biopsies harvested from 2- to 5-day-old pigs. The creation of pluripotent porcine iPSCs capable of generating chimeric offspring introduces numerous opportunities to study the facets significantly affecting cell therapies, genetic engineering, and other aspects of stem cell and developmental biology.

  11. Cytokine-producing T cell subsets in human leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, Kåre

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania specific Th1/Th2 cells have been identified in humans as well as in mice. There is a correlation between the clinical outcome of the infection and the cytokine response profile. Generally, the production of Th2 cytokines leads to severe infection, whereas the production of Th1 cytokine...

  12. Integrating Wind And Solar With Hydrogen Producing Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The often proposed solution for the fluctuating wind energy supply is the conversion of the surplus of wind energy into hydrogen by means of electrolysis. In this paper a patented alternative is proposed consisting of the integration of wind turbines with internal reforming fuel-cells, capable of

  13. Transplants of cells engineered to produce GABA suppress spontaneous seizures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thompson, K. W.; Suchomelová, Lucie

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2004), s. 4-12 ISSN 0013-9580 Grant - others:VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System Research Service(US) MREP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : cell transplantation * epilepsy * seizures Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.329, year: 2004

  14. Cyanobacteria as Cell Factories to Produce Plant Secondary Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Yong; He, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria represent a promising platform for the production of plant secondary metabolites. Their capacity to express plant P450 proteins, which have essential functions in the biosynthesis of many plant secondary metabolites, makes cyanobacteria ideal for this purpose, and their photosynthetic capability allows cyanobacteria to grow with simple nutrient inputs. This review summarizes the advantages of using cyanobacteria to transgenically produce plant secondary metabolites. Some techniq...

  15. Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve induces IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Gyu Jeon

    Full Text Available Specific intestinal microbiota has been shown to induce Foxp3(+ regulatory T cell development. However, it remains unclear how development of another regulatory T cell subset, Tr1 cells, is regulated in the intestine. Here, we analyzed the role of two probiotic strains of intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve in T cell development in the intestine. B. breve, but not L. casei, induced development of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells that express cMaf, IL-21, and Ahr in the large intestine. Intestinal CD103(+ dendritic cells (DCs mediated B. breve-induced development of IL-10-producing T cells. CD103(+ DCs from Il10(-/-, Tlr2(-/-, and Myd88(-/- mice showed defective B. breve-induced Tr1 cell development. B. breve-treated CD103(+ DCs failed to induce IL-10 production from co-cultured Il27ra(-/- T cells. B. breve treatment of Tlr2(-/- mice did not increase IL-10-producing T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Thus, B. breve activates intestinal CD103(+ DCs to produce IL-10 and IL-27 via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway thereby inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the large intestine. Oral B. breve administration ameliorated colitis in immunocompromised mice given naïve CD4(+ T cells from wild-type mice, but not Il10(-/- mice. These findings demonstrate that B. breve prevents intestinal inflammation through the induction of intestinal IL-10-producing Tr1 cells.

  16. Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve induces IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seong Gyu; Kayama, Hisako; Ueda, Yoshiyasu; Takahashi, Takuya; Asahara, Takashi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Tsuji, Noriko M; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Ma, Ji Su; Kusu, Takashi; Okumura, Ryu; Hara, Hiromitsu; Yoshida, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nomoto, Koji; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Specific intestinal microbiota has been shown to induce Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell development. However, it remains unclear how development of another regulatory T cell subset, Tr1 cells, is regulated in the intestine. Here, we analyzed the role of two probiotic strains of intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve in T cell development in the intestine. B. breve, but not L. casei, induced development of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells that express cMaf, IL-21, and Ahr in the large intestine. Intestinal CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) mediated B. breve-induced development of IL-10-producing T cells. CD103(+) DCs from Il10(-/-), Tlr2(-/-), and Myd88(-/-) mice showed defective B. breve-induced Tr1 cell development. B. breve-treated CD103(+) DCs failed to induce IL-10 production from co-cultured Il27ra(-/-) T cells. B. breve treatment of Tlr2(-/-) mice did not increase IL-10-producing T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Thus, B. breve activates intestinal CD103(+) DCs to produce IL-10 and IL-27 via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway thereby inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the large intestine. Oral B. breve administration ameliorated colitis in immunocompromised mice given naïve CD4(+) T cells from wild-type mice, but not Il10(-/-) mice. These findings demonstrate that B. breve prevents intestinal inflammation through the induction of intestinal IL-10-producing Tr1 cells.

  17. Targeting of histamine producing cells by EGCG: a green dart against inflammation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Esther; Medina, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Urdiales, José Luis

    2010-09-01

    The human body is made of some 250 different cell types. From them, only a small subset of cell types is able to produce histamine. They include some neurons, enterochromaffin-like cells, gastrin-containing cells, mast cells, basophils, and monocytes/macrophages, among others. In spite of the reduced number of these histamine-producing cell types, they are involved in very different physiological processes. Their deregulation is related with many highly prevalent, as well as emergent and rare diseases, mainly those described as inflammation-dependent pathologies, including mastocytosis, basophilic leukemia, gastric ulcer, Crohn disease, and other inflammatory bowel diseases. Furthermore, oncogenic transformation switches some non-histamine-producing cells to a histamine producing phenotype. This is the case of melanoma, small cell lung carcinoma, and several types of neuroendocrine tumors. The bioactive compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, has been shown to target histamine-producing cells producing great alterations in their behavior, with relevant effects on their proliferative potential, as well as their adhesion, migration, and invasion potentials. In fact, EGCG has been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory, anti-tumoral, and anti-angiogenic effects and to be a potent inhibitor of the histamine-producing enzyme, histidine decarboxylase. Herein, we review the many specific effects of EGCG on concrete molecular targets of histamine-producing cells and discuss the relevance of these data to support the potential therapeutic interest of this compound to treat inflammation-dependent diseases.

  18. Differentiation of insulin-producing cells from human neural progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Hori

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Success in islet-transplantation-based therapies for type 1 diabetes, coupled with a worldwide shortage of transplant-ready islets, has motivated efforts to develop renewable sources of islet-replacement tissue. Islets and neurons share features, including common developmental programs, and in some species brain neurons are the principal source of systemic insulin. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we show that brain-derived human neural progenitor cells, exposed to a series of signals that regulate in vivo pancreatic islet development, form clusters of glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells (IPCs. During in vitro differentiation of neural progenitor cells with this novel method, genes encoding essential known in vivo regulators of pancreatic islet development were expressed. Following transplantation into immunocompromised mice, IPCs released insulin C-peptide upon glucose challenge, remained differentiated, and did not form detectable tumors. CONCLUSION: Production of IPCs solely through extracellular factor modulation in the absence of genetic manipulations may promote strategies to derive transplantable islet-replacement tissues from human neural progenitor cells and other types of multipotent human stem cells.

  19. From Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Insulin-Producing Cells: Comparison between Bone Marrow- and Adipose Tissue-Derived Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Mahmoud M; Zakaria, Mahmoud M; Refaie, Ayman F; Abdel-Rahman, Engy A; Reda, Asmaa M; Ali, Sameh S; Khater, Sherry M; Ashamallah, Sylvia A; Ismail, Amani M; Ismail, Hossam El-Din A; El-Badri, Nagwa; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs), for their differentiation potentials to form insulin-producing cells. BM-MSCs were obtained during elective orthotopic surgery and AT-MSCs from fatty aspirates during elective cosmetics procedures. Following their expansion, cells were characterized by phenotyping, trilineage differentiation ability, and basal gene expression of pluripotency genes and for their metabolic characteristics. Cells were differentiated according to a Trichostatin-A based protocol. The differentiated cells were evaluated by immunocytochemistry staining for insulin and c-peptide. In addition the expression of relevant pancreatic endocrine genes was determined. The release of insulin and c-peptide in response to a glucose challenge was also quantitated. There were some differences in basal gene expression and metabolic characteristics. After differentiation the proportion of the resulting insulin-producing cells (IPCs), was comparable among both cell sources. Again, there were no differences neither in the levels of gene expression nor in the amounts of insulin and c-peptide release as a function of glucose challenge. The properties, availability, and abundance of AT-MSCs render them well-suited for applications in regenerative medicine. Conclusion . BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs are comparable regarding their differential potential to form IPCs. The availability and properties of AT-MSCs render them well-suited for applications in regenerative medicine.

  20. From Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Insulin-Producing Cells: Comparison between Bone Marrow- and Adipose Tissue-Derived Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Gabr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs, for their differentiation potentials to form insulin-producing cells. BM-MSCs were obtained during elective orthotopic surgery and AT-MSCs from fatty aspirates during elective cosmetics procedures. Following their expansion, cells were characterized by phenotyping, trilineage differentiation ability, and basal gene expression of pluripotency genes and for their metabolic characteristics. Cells were differentiated according to a Trichostatin-A based protocol. The differentiated cells were evaluated by immunocytochemistry staining for insulin and c-peptide. In addition the expression of relevant pancreatic endocrine genes was determined. The release of insulin and c-peptide in response to a glucose challenge was also quantitated. There were some differences in basal gene expression and metabolic characteristics. After differentiation the proportion of the resulting insulin-producing cells (IPCs, was comparable among both cell sources. Again, there were no differences neither in the levels of gene expression nor in the amounts of insulin and c-peptide release as a function of glucose challenge. The properties, availability, and abundance of AT-MSCs render them well-suited for applications in regenerative medicine. Conclusion. BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs are comparable regarding their differential potential to form IPCs. The availability and properties of AT-MSCs render them well-suited for applications in regenerative medicine.

  1. Programmed death-1 receptor suppresses γ-IFN producing NKT cells in human tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amar; Dey, Aparajit Ballav; Mohan, Anant; Mitra, Dipendra Kumar

    2014-05-01

    IFN-γ biased Th1 effector immune response is crucial for containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Various T cell subsets with regulatory function dictate the generation of Th1 like cells. NKT cells are a specialized T cell subset known to be activated early in immune response and control T cell response via release of immunoregulatory cytokines like IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10. M. tuberculosis, with abundance of its cell wall lipids may potently activate NKT cells resulting in cytokine production and PD-1 expression. In this study, among 49 treatment naive active pulmonary tuberculosis patients, we found a higher percentage of PD1(+) NKT cells correlating with sputum bacillary load. Furthermore, blocking PD-1 increased the number of IFN-γ producing NKT cells by inhibiting their apoptosis. Moreover, peripheral frequency of NKT cells declined with therapy suggesting their role in host T cell response. In this study, we concluded that PD-1 preferentially induces apoptosis of IFN-γ producing NKT cells while sparing NKT cells that produce IL-4. Such a polarized NKT cell function may impose a Th2 bias on the ensuing effector T cell response leading to inefficient clearance of M. tuberculosis. Inhibiting PD-1 may therefore alter the T cell response in favor of the host by rescuing type 1 NKT cells from apoptosis and boosting Th1 effector T cell functions against M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Single Chain Variable Fragments Produced in Escherichia coli against Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Y Ozaki

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a prevalent pathological condition frequently associated to the colonization of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC strains, known to be endemic in developing countries. These strains can produce two enterotoxins associated with the manifestation of clinical symptoms that can be used to detect these pathogens. Although several detection tests have been developed, minimally equipped laboratories are still in need of simple and cost-effective methods. With the aim to contribute to the development of such diagnostic approaches, we describe here two mouse hybridoma-derived single chain fragment variable (scFv that were produced in E. coli against enterotoxins of ETEC strains.Recombinant scFv were developed against ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT and heat-stable toxin (ST, from previously isolated hybridoma clones. This work reports their design, construction, molecular and functional characterization against LT and ST toxins. Both antibody fragments were able to recognize the cell-interacting toxins by immunofluorescence, the purified toxins by ELISA and also LT-, ST- and LT/ST-producing ETEC strains.The developed recombinant scFvs against LT and ST constitute promising starting point for simple and cost-effective ETEC diagnosis.

  3. Porcine platelet lysate as a supplement for animal cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldén, Anna; Gonzalez, Lorena; Persson, Anna; Christensson, Kerstin; Holmqvist, Olov

    2007-01-01

    A novel supplementation of cell growth media based on a porcine platelet lysate was developed for culture of animal-derived cells. The platelet lysate was produced from porcine blood and contained lysate of platelets and plasma components. It showed satisfactory microbiological integrity and it carried only low amount of endotoxins (platelet lysate supported well proliferation of Vero (African green monkey transformed kidney epithelial cells), Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and hybridoma cells comparable to fetal bovine serum (FBS). Platelet lysate shows promise as a viable choice over FBS as it can be produced in large quantities, high lot-to-lot consistency and with an attractive price structure. Furthermore it is a strong alternative to FBS for ethical reasons. It is expected that it can be used as a general supplementation for most animal cells for research studies on the proliferation of cells and their expression of products. PMID:19002989

  4. Transformation of Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Cells into Insulin Producing Cells after Treatment with Sunitinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hun Ohn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of severe hypoglycemia after sunitinib treatment for pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. We describe the initial clinical presentation, laboratory results, pathologic findings, and managment in a patient with a nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma with liver metastases who developed life threatening hypoglycemia after 2 months of sunitinib therapy. A 46-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with loss of consciousness from hypoglycemia. Serum C-peptide and insulin levels at fasting state revealed that the hypoglycemia resulted from endogenous hyperinsulinemia. She had been diagnosed with nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma based on a biopsy of metastatic cervical lymph node and was being treated with sunitinib, a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Immunohistochemical stain of the metastatic liver mass demonstrated that the initially nonfunctioning neuroendocrine carcinoma cells had changed into insulin-producing cells after sunitinib therapy. Transarterial chemoembolization of the liver masses and systemic chemotherapy with streptozotocin/adriamycin relieved the hypoglycemia. A nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma was transformed into an insulin-producing tumor after treatment with sunitinib, causing endogenous hyperinsulinemia and severe hypoglycemia.

  5. Electrochemically Produced Graphene for Microporous Layers in Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafabadi, Amin Taheri; Leeuwner, Magrieta J; Wilkinson, David P; Gyenge, Előd L

    2016-07-07

    The microporous layer (MPL) is a key cathodic component in proton exchange membrane fuel cells owing to its beneficial influence on two-phase mass transfer. However, its performance is highly dependent on material properties such as morphology, porous structure, and electrical resistance. To improve water management and performance, electrochemically exfoliated graphene (EGN) microsheets are considered as an alternative to the conventional carbon black (CB) MPLs. The EGN-based MPLs decrease the kinetic overpotential and the Ohmic potential loss, whereas the addition of CB to form a composite EGN+CB MPL improves the mass-transport limiting current density drastically. This is reflected by increases of approximately 30 and 70 % in peak power densities at 100 % relative humidity (RH) compared with those for CB- and EGN-only MPLs, respectively. The composite EGN+CB MPL also retains the superior performance at a cathode RH of 20 %, whereas the CB MPL shows significant performance loss. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Polarized Th2 like cells, in the absence of Th0 cells, are responsible for lymphocyte produced IL-4 in high IgE-producer schistosomiasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares-Silveira Alda

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resistance to re-infection with S. mansoni is correlated with high levels of anti-soluble adult worm antigens (SWAP IgE. Although it has been shown that IL-4 and IL-5 are crucial in establishing IgE responses in vitro, the active in vivo production of these cytokines by T cells, and the degree of polarization of Th2 vs. Th0 in human schistosomiasis is not known. To address this question, we determined the frequency of IL-4 and IFN-γ or IL-5 and IL-2 producing lymphocytes from schistosomiasis patients with high or low levels of IgE anti-SWAP. Results Our analysis showed that high and low IgE-producers responded equally to schistosomiasis antigens as determined by proliferation. Moreover, patients from both groups displayed similar percentages of circulating lymphocytes. However, high IgE-producers had an increased percentage of activated CD4+ T cells as compared to the low IgE-producers. Moreover, intracellular cytokine analysis, after short-term stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs, showed that IgE high-producers display an increase in the percentage of T lymphocytes expressing IL-4 and IL-5 as compared to IgE low-responders. A coordinate control of the frequency of IL-4 and IL-5 producing lymphocytes in IgE high, but not IgE low-responders, was observed. Conclusions High IgE phenotype human schistosomiasis patients exhibit a coordinate regulation of IL-4 and IL-5 producing cells and the lymphocyte derived IL-4 comes from true polarized Th2 like cells, in the absence of measurable Th0 cells as measured by co-production of IL-4 and IFN-γ.

  7. Marking and quantifying IL-17A-producing cells in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April E Price

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-17A plays an important role in host defense against a variety of pathogens and may also contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, precise identification and quantification of the cells that produce this cytokine in vivo have not been performed. We generated novel IL-17A reporter mice to investigate expression of IL-17A during Klebsiella pneumoniae infection and during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, conditions previously demonstrated to potently induce IL-17A production. In both settings, the majority of IL-17A was produced by non-CD4(+ T cells, particularly γδ T cells, but also invariant NKT cells and other CD4(-CD3ε(+ cells. As measured in dual-reporter mice, IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells greatly outnumbered IL-17A-producing Th17 cells throughout both challenges. Production of IL-17A by cells from unchallenged mice or by non-T cells under any condition was not evident. Administration of IL-1β and/or IL-23 elicited rapid production of IL-17A by γδ T cells, invariant NKT cells and other CD4(-CD3ε(+ cells in vivo, demonstrating that these cells are poised for rapid cytokine production and likely comprise the major sources of this cytokine during acute immunologic challenges.

  8. Origin of Matrix-Producing Cells That Contribute to Aortic Fibrosis in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Montaniel, Kim Ramil C; Saleh, Mohamed A; Xiao, Liang; Chen, Wei; Owens, Gary K; Humphrey, Jay D; Majesky, Mark W; Paik, David T; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K; Madhur, Meena S; Harrison, David G

    2016-02-01

    Various hypertensive stimuli lead to exuberant adventitial collagen deposition in large arteries, exacerbating blood pressure elevation and end-organ damage. Collagen production is generally attributed to resident fibroblasts; however, other cells, including resident and bone marrow-derived stem cell antigen positive (Sca-1(+)) cells and endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, can produce collagen and contribute to vascular stiffening. Using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, we found that adventitial Sca-1(+) progenitor cells begin to produce collagen and acquire a fibroblast-like phenotype in hypertension. We also found that bone marrow-derived cells represent more than half of the matrix-producing cells in hypertension, and that one-third of these are Sca-1(+). Cell sorting and lineage-tracing studies showed that cells of endothelial origin contribute to no more than one fourth of adventitial collagen I(+) cells, whereas those of vascular smooth muscle lineage do not contribute. Our findings indicate that Sca-1(+) progenitor cells and bone marrow-derived infiltrating fibrocytes are major sources of arterial fibrosis in hypertension. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition likely also contributes, albeit to a lesser extent and pre-existing resident fibroblasts represent a minority of aortic collagen-producing cells in hypertension. This study shows that vascular stiffening represents a complex process involving recruitment and transformation of multiple cells types that ultimately elaborate adventitial extracellular matrix. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. The B cell death function of obinutuzumab-HDEL produced in plant (Nicotiana benthamiana L. is equivalent to obinutuzumab produced in CHO cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Won Lee

    Full Text Available Plants have attracted attention as bio-drug production platforms because of their economical and safety benefits. The preliminary efficacy of ZMapp, a cocktail of antibodies produced in N. benthamiana (Nicotiana benthamiana L., suggested plants may serve as a platform for antibody production. However, because the amino acid sequences of the Fab fragment are diverse and differences in post-transcriptional processes between animals and plants remain to be elucidated, it is necessary to confirm functional equivalence of plant-produced antibodies to the original antibody. In this study, Obinutuzumab, a third generation anti-CD20 antibody, was produced in N. benthamiana leaves (plant-obinutuzumab and compared to the original antibody produced in glyco-engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells (CHO-obinutuzumab. Two forms (with or without an HDEL tag were generated and antibody yields were compared. The HDEL-tagged form was more highly expressed than the non-HDEL-tagged form which was cleaved in the N-terminus. To determine the equivalence in functions of the Fab region between the two forms, we compared the CD20 binding affinities and direct binding induced cell death of a CD20-positive B cells. Both forms showed similar CD20 binding affinities and direct cell death of B cell. The results suggested that plant-obinutuzumab was equivalent to CHO-obinutuzumab in CD20 binding, cell aggregation, and direct cell death via binding. Therefore, our findings suggest that Obinutuzumab is a promising biosimilar candidate that can be produced efficiently in plants.

  10. Redox regulation of stress signals: possible roles of dendritic stellate TRX producer cells (DST cell types).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodoi, Junji; Nakamura, Hajime; Masutani, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX) is a 12 kDa protein with redox-active dithiol (Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys) in the active site. TRX is induced by a variety of stresses including viral infection and inflammation. The promoter sequences of the TRX gene contain a series of stress-responsive elements including ORE, ARE, XRE, CRE and SP-1. TRX promotes DNA binding of transcription factors such as NF-kappaB, AP-1 and p53. TRX interacts with target proteins modulating the activity of those proteins. We have identified TRX binding protein-2 (TBP-2), which was identical to vitamin D3 up-regulated protein 1 (VDUP1). Potential action of TBP-2/VDUP1 as a redox-sensitive tumor suppressor will be discussed. There is accumulating evidence for the involvement of TRX in the protection against infectious and inflammatory disorders. We will discuss the role of TRX-dependent redox regulation of the host defense mechanism, in particular its relation to the emerging concept of constitutive and/or inducible TRX on special cell types with dendritic and stellate morphology in the immune, endocrine and nervous systems, which we provisionally designate as dendritic stellate TRX producer cells (DST cell types).

  11. The regulation of function, growth and survival of GLP-1-producing L-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Holst, Jens Juul; Kappe, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    that regulate the growth, survival and function of these cells are largely unknown. We recently showed that prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the fatty acid palmitate induced lipotoxic effects, similar to those operative in insulin-producing cells, in an in vitro model of GLP-1-producing cells...... absorption and disposal, as well as cell proliferation and survival. In Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) reduced plasma levels of GLP-1 have been observed, and plasma levels of GLP-1, as well as reduced numbers of GLP-1 producing cells, have been correlated to obesity and insulin resistance. Increasing endogenous...... secretion of GLP-1 by selective targeting of the molecular mechanisms regulating secretion from the L-cell has been the focus of much recent research. An additional and promising strategy for enhancing endogenous secretion may be to increase the L-cell mass in the intestinal epithelium, but the mechanisms...

  12. Differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells into insulin-producing clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaer, Anahita; Azarpira, Negar; Vahdati, Akbar; Karimi, Mohammad Hosein; Shariati, Mehrdad

    2015-02-01

    In diabetes mellitus type 1, beta cells are mostly destroyed; while in diabetes mellitus type 2, beta cells are reduced by 40% to 60%. We hope that soon, stem cells can be used in diabetes therapy via pancreatic beta cell replacement. Induced pluripotent stem cells are a kind of stem cell taken from an adult somatic cell by "stimulating" certain genes. These induced pluripotent stem cells may be a promising source of cell therapy. This study sought to produce isletlike clusters of insulin-producing cells taken from induced pluripotent stem cells. A human-induced pluripotent stem cell line was induced into isletlike clusters via a 4-step protocol, by adding insulin, transferrin, and selenium (ITS), N2, B27, fibroblast growth factor, and nicotinamide. During differentiation, expression of pancreatic β-cell genes was evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; the morphologic changes of induced pluripotent stem cells toward isletlike clusters were observed by a light microscope. Dithizone staining was used to stain these isletlike clusters. Insulin produced by these clusters was evaluated by radio immunosorbent assay, and the secretion capacity was analyzed with a glucose challenge test. Differentiation was evaluated by analyzing the morphology, dithizone staining, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunocytochemistry. Gene expression of insulin, glucagon, PDX1, NGN3, PAX4, PAX6, NKX6.1, KIR6.2, and GLUT2 were documented by analyzing real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Dithizone-stained cellular clusters were observed after 23 days. The isletlike clusters significantly produced insulin. The isletlike clusters could increase insulin secretion after a glucose challenge test. This work provides a model for studying the differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells to insulin-producing cells.

  13. IL-17-producing NKT cells depend exclusively on IL-7 for homeostasis and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, K E; Kim, H-O; Kyparissoudis, K; Corpuz, T M; Pinget, G V; Uldrich, A P; Brink, R; Belz, G T; Cho, J-H; Godfrey, D I; Sprent, J

    2014-09-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T cells that rapidly recognize pathogens and produce cytokines that shape the ensuing immune response. IL-17-producing NKT cells are enriched in barrier tissues, such as the lung, skin, and peripheral lymph nodes, and the factors that maintain this population in the periphery have not been elucidated. Here we show that NKT17 cells deviate from other NKT cells in their survival requirements. In contrast to conventional NKT cells that are maintained by IL-15, RORγt(+) NKT cells are IL-15 independent and instead rely completely on IL-7. IL-7 initiates a T-cell receptor-independent (TCR-independent) expansion of NKT17 cells, thus supporting their homeostasis. Without IL-7, survival is dramatically impaired, yet residual cells remain lineage committed with no downregulation of RORγt evident. Their preferential response to IL-7 does not reflect enhanced signaling through STAT proteins, but instead is modulated via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. The ability to compete for IL-7 is dependent on high-density IL-7 receptor expression, which would promote uptake of low levels of IL-7 produced in the non-lymphoid sites of lung and skin. This dependence on IL-7 is also reported for RORγt(+) innate lymphoid cells and CD4(+) Th17 cells, and suggests common survival requirements for functionally similar cells.

  14. Generation of a lentiviral vector producer cell clone for human Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Wielgosz

    Full Text Available We have developed a producer cell line that generates lentiviral vector particles of high titer. The vector encodes the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS protein. An insulator element has been added to the long terminal repeats of the integrated vector to limit proto-oncogene activation. The vector provides high-level, stable expression of WAS protein in transduced murine and human hematopoietic cells. We have also developed a monoclonal antibody specific for intracellular WAS protein. This antibody has been used to monitor expression in blood and bone marrow cells after transfer into lineage negative bone marrow cells from WAS mice and in a WAS negative human B-cell line. Persistent expression of the transgene has been observed in transduced murine cells 12–20 weeks following transplantation. The producer cell line and the specific monoclonal antibody will facilitate the development of a clinical protocol for gene transfer into WAS protein deficient stem cells.

  15. Pleural mesothelial cells promote expansion of IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells in tuberculous pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Zhou, Q; Yang, W B; Xiong, X Z; Du, R H; Zhang, J C

    2013-05-01

    IL-17-producing CD8(+) T lymphocytes (Tc17 cells) have recently been detected in many cancers and autoimmune diseases. However, the possible implication of Tc17 cells in tuberculous pleural effusion remains unclarified. In this study, distribution and phenotypic features of Tc17 cells in both tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) and peripheral blood from patients with tuberculosis were determined. The effects of proinflammatory cytokines and local accessory cells (pleural mesothelial cells) on Tc17 cell expansion were also explored. We found that TPE contained more Tc17 cells than the blood. Compared with IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) T cells, Tc17 cells displayed higher expression of chemokine receptors (CCRs) and lower expression of cytotoxic molecules. In particularly, Tc17 cells in TPE exhibited high expression levels of CCR6, which could migrate in response to CCL20. Furthermore, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, or their various combinations could promote Tc17 cell expansion from CD8(+) T cells, whereas the proliferative response of Tc17 cells to above cytokines was lower than that of Th17 cells. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) were able to stimulate Tc17 cell expansion via cell contact in an IL-1β/IL-6/IL-23 independent fashion. Thus this study demonstrates that Tc17 cells marks a subset of non-cytotoxic, CCR6(+) CD8(+) T lymphocytes with low proliferative capacity. The overrepresentation of Tc17 cells in TPE may be due to Tc17 cell expansion stimulated by pleural proinflammatory cytokines and to recruitment of Tc17 cells from peripheral blood. Additionally, PMCs may promote the production of IL-17 by CD8(+) T cells at sites of TPE via cell-cell interactions.

  16. Development of a high-titer retrovirus producer cell line capable of gene transfer into rhesus monkey hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodine, D.M.; McDonagh, K.T.; Brandt, S.J.; Ney, P.A.; Agricola, B.; Byrne, E.; Nienhuis, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    Retroviral-mediated gene transfer into primitive hematopoietic cells has been difficult to achieve in large-animal models. The authors have developed an amphotropic producer clone that generates >10 10 recombinant retroviral particles (colony-forming units) per ml of culture medium. Autologous rhesus monkey bone marrow cells were cocultured with either high or low titer producer clones for 4-6 days and reinfused into sublethally irradiated animals. The proviral genome was detected in blood and bone-marrow cells from all three animals reconstituted with cells cocultured with the high-titer producer cells. In contrast, three animals reconstituted with bone marrow cocultured with the low-titer producer clone exhibited no evidence of gene transfer

  17. An experimental and theoretical approach to the study of the photoacoustic signal produced by cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pérez Solano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The distinctive spectral absorption characteristics of cancer cells make photoacoustic techniques useful for detection in vitro and in vivo. Here we report on our evaluation of the photoacoustic signal produced by a series of monolayers of different cell lines in vitro. Only the melanoma cell line HS936 produced a detectable photoacoustic signal in which amplitude was dependent on the number of cells. This finding appears to be related to the amount of melanin available in these cells. Other cell lines (i.e. HL60, SK-Mel-1, T47D, Hela, HT29 and PC12 exhibited values similar to a precursor of melanin (tyrosinase, but failed to produce sufficient melanin to generate a photoacoustic signal that could be distinguished from background noise. To better understand this phenomenon, we determined a formula for the time-domain photoacoustic wave equation for a monolayer of cells in a non-viscous fluid on the thermoelastic regime. The theoretical results showed that the amplitude and profile of the photoacoustic signal generated by a cell monolayer depended upon the number and distribution of the cells and the location of the point of detection. These findings help to provide a better understanding of the factors involved in the generation of a photoacoustic signal produced by different cells in vitro and in vivo.

  18. AIDS Kaposi sarcoma-derived cells produce and respond to interleukin 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, S.A.; Rezai, A.R.; Salazar-Gonzalez, J.F.; Meyden, M.V.; Stevens, R.H.; Mitsuyasu, R.T.; Martinez-Maza, O.; Logan, D.M.; Taga, Tetsuya; Hirano, Toshio; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    1990-01-01

    Cell lines derived from Kaposi sarcoma lesions of patients with AIDS (AIDS-KS cells) produce several cytokines, including an endothelial cell growth factor, interleukin 1β, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Since exposure to human immunodeficiency virus increases interleukin 6 (IL-6) production in monocytes and endothelial cells produce IL-6, the authors examined IL-6 expression and response in AIDS-KS cell lines and IL-6 expression in AIDS Kaposi sarcoma tissue. The AIDS-KS cell lines (N521J and EKS3) secreted large amounts of immunoreactive and biologically active IL-6. The authors found both IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6-R) RNA by slot blot hybridization analysis of AIDS-KS cells. The IL-6-R was functional, as [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation by AIDS-KS cells increased significantly after exposure to human recombinant IL-6 (hrIL-6) at >10 units/ml. When AIDS-KS cells (EKS3) were exposed to IL-6 antisense oligonucleotide, cellular proliferation decreased by nearly two-thirds, with a corresponding decrease in the production of IL-6. These results show that both IL-6 and IL-6-R are produced by AIDS-KS cells and that IL-6 is required for optimal AIDS-KS cell proliferation, and they suggest that IL-6 is an autocrine growth factor for AIDS-KS cells

  19. Quantitative studies of the gastrin-producing cells of the human antrum. A methodological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H O; Halken, S; Lorentzen, M

    1980-01-01

    The antral gastrin-producing cells (G-cells) have been identified by the indirect immunoperoxidase technique in two antrum preparations removed due to a recurrent duodenal and gastric ulcer. Morphometric principles were applied to the G-cells with determination of their volume density, numerical....... A method for estimating the total G-cell population and the total G-cell volume in the antrum was developed. In the antrum removed due to a gastric ulcer the number of G-cells was 190 x 10(6) and their total volume 176 mm3....

  20. Ontogeny and localization of the cells produce IL-2 in healthy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mutsumi; Seki, Yoichi; Iwai, Kazuyuki; Ko, Iei; Martin, Alicia; Tsuji, Noriko; Miyagawa, Shuji; Love, Robert B; Iwashima, Makio

    2013-03-01

    IL-2 is a growth factor for activated T cells and is required for maintenance of naturally arising regulatory T cells (nTregs). Mice defective in IL-2/IL-2 receptor signaling pathways have impaired nTregs and suffer from lymphoproliferative disorders, suggesting that IL-2 is present and functional in healthy animals. However, the cellular source of IL-2 is currently unknown. To determine which cells produce IL-2 in healthy animals, we established mice carrying cre gene knock in at the il-2 locus (termed IL-2(cre)). When IL-2(cre) mice were crossed with EGFP reporter mice, EGFP was exclusively expressed by a fraction of CD4 T cells present in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. Live imaging of IL-2(cre) mice that carry the luciferase reporter showed concentrated localization of luciferase(+) cells in Peyer's patches. These cells were not observed in new born mice but appeared within 3days after birth. Reduction of antigen receptor repertoire by transgene expression reduced their number, indicating that recognition of environmental antigens is necessary for generation of these IL-2 producers in healthy animals. A substantial fraction of EGFP(+) cells also produce IL-10 and IFN-γ, a characteristic profile of type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1). The data suggest that a group of Tr1 cells have addition roles in immune homeostasis by producing IL-2 along with other cytokines and help maintaining Tregs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Insulin-Producing Endocrine Cells Differentiated In Vitro From Human Embryonic Stem Cells Function in Macroencapsulation Devices In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulnick, Alan D; Ambruzs, Dana M; Moorman, Mark A; Bhoumik, Anindita; Cesario, Rosemary M; Payne, Janice K; Kelly, Jonathan R; Haakmeester, Carl; Srijemac, Robert; Wilson, Alistair Z; Kerr, Justin; Frazier, Mauro A; Kroon, Evert J; D'Amour, Kevin A

    2015-10-01

    The PEC-01 cell population, differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), contains pancreatic progenitors (PPs) that, when loaded into macroencapsulation devices (to produce the VC-01 candidate product) and transplanted into mice, can mature into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells and other pancreatic endocrine cells involved in glucose metabolism. We modified the protocol for making PEC-01 cells such that 73%-80% of the cell population consisted of PDX1-positive (PDX1+) and NKX6.1+ PPs. The PPs were further differentiated to islet-like cells (ICs) that reproducibly contained 73%-89% endocrine cells, of which approximately 40%-50% expressed insulin. A large fraction of these insulin-positive cells were single hormone-positive and expressed the transcription factors PDX1 and NKX6.1. To preclude a significant contribution of progenitors to the in vivo function of ICs, we used a simple enrichment process to remove remaining PPs, yielding aggregates that contained 93%-98% endocrine cells and 1%-3% progenitors. Enriched ICs, when encapsulated and implanted into mice, functioned similarly to the VC-01 candidate product, demonstrating conclusively that in vitro-produced hESC-derived insulin-producing cells can mature and function in vivo in devices. A scaled version of our suspension culture was used, and the endocrine aggregates could be cryopreserved and retain functionality. Although ICs expressed multiple important β cell genes, the cells contained relatively low levels of several maturity-associated markers. Correlating with this, the time to function of ICs was similar to PEC-01 cells, indicating that ICs required cell-autonomous maturation after delivery in vivo, which would occur concurrently with graft integration into the host. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects approximately 1.25 million people in the U.S. alone and is deadly if not managed with insulin injections. This paper describes the production of insulin-producing cells in vitro and a new

  2. Enhanced production and isotope enrichment of recombinant glycoproteins produced in cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, David; Goodyear, Abbey; Ni, DaQun; Walton, Wendy J.; Rolle, Myron; Hare, Joan T.; Logan, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    NMR studies of post-translationally modified proteins are complicated by the lack of an efficient method to produce isotope enriched recombinant proteins in cultured mammalian cells. We show that reducing the glucose concentration and substituting glutamate for glutamine in serum-free medium increased cell viability while simultaneously increasing recombinant protein yield and the enrichment of non-essential amino acids compared to culture in unmodified, serum-free medium. Adding dichloroacetate, a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor, further improves cell viability, recombinant protein yield, and isotope enrichment. We demonstrate the method by producing partially enriched recombinant Thy1 glycoprotein from Lec1 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using U- 13 C-glucose and 15 N-glutamate as labeled precursors. This study suggests that uniformly 15 N, 13 C-labeled recombinant proteins may be produced in cultured mammalian cells starting from a mixture of labeled essential amino acids, glucose, and glutamate.

  3. Enhanced production and isotope enrichment of recombinant glycoproteins produced in cultured mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelton, David; Goodyear, Abbey [Florida State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Ni, DaQun; Walton, Wendy J.; Rolle, Myron; Hare, Joan T. [Florida State University, Institute of Molecular Biophysics (United States); Logan, Timothy M., E-mail: tlogan@fsu.ed [Florida State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)

    2010-10-15

    NMR studies of post-translationally modified proteins are complicated by the lack of an efficient method to produce isotope enriched recombinant proteins in cultured mammalian cells. We show that reducing the glucose concentration and substituting glutamate for glutamine in serum-free medium increased cell viability while simultaneously increasing recombinant protein yield and the enrichment of non-essential amino acids compared to culture in unmodified, serum-free medium. Adding dichloroacetate, a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor, further improves cell viability, recombinant protein yield, and isotope enrichment. We demonstrate the method by producing partially enriched recombinant Thy1 glycoprotein from Lec1 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using U-{sup 13}C-glucose and {sup 15}N-glutamate as labeled precursors. This study suggests that uniformly {sup 15}N,{sup 13}C-labeled recombinant proteins may be produced in cultured mammalian cells starting from a mixture of labeled essential amino acids, glucose, and glutamate.

  4. Cerebellar stem cells do not produce neurons and astrocytes in adult mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Xin; Guan, Wuqiang; Yu, Yong-Chun; Fu, Yinghui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • No new neurons and astrocytes are generated in adult mouse cerebellum. • Very few mash1 + or nestin + stem cells exist, and most of them are quiescent. • Cell proliferation rate is diversified among cerebellar regions and decreases over time. - Abstract: Although previous studies implied that cerebellar stem cells exist in some adult mammals, little is known about whether these stem cells can produce new neurons and astrocytes. In this study by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, we found that there are abundant BrdU + cells in adult mouse cerebellum, and their quantity and density decreases significantly over time. We also found cell proliferation rate is diversified in different cerebellar regions. Among these BrdU + cells, very few are mash1 + or nestin + stem cells, and the vast majority of cerebellar stem cells are quiescent. Data obtained by in vivo retrovirus injection indicate that stem cells do not produce neurons and astrocytes in adult mouse cerebellum. Instead, some cells labeled by retrovirus are Iba1 + microglia. These results indicate that very few stem cells exist in adult mouse cerebellum, and none of these stem cells contribute to neurogenesis and astrogenesis under physiological condition

  5. Potential in a single cancer cell to produce heterogeneous morphology, radiosensitivity and gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadayuki; Ishikawa, Ken-ichi; Kawai, Seiko; Koyama-Saegusa, Kumiko; Ishikawa, Atsuko; Imai, Takashi; Shimada, Yutaka; Inazawa, Johji

    2005-01-01

    Morphologically heterogeneous colonies were formed from a cultured cell line (KYSE70) established from one human esophageal carcinoma tissue. Two subclones were separated from a single clone (clone 13) of KYSE70 cells. One subclone (clone 13-3G) formed mainly mounding colonies and the other (clone 13-6G) formed flat, diffusive colonies. X-irradiation stimulated the cells to dedifferentiate from the mounding state to the flat, diffusive state. Clone 13-6G cells were more radiosensitive than the other 3 cell lines. Clustering analysis for gene expression level by oligonucleotide microarray demonstrated that in the radiosensitive clone 13-6G cells, expression of genes involved in cell adhesion was upregulated, but genes involved in the response to DNA damage stimulus were downregulated. The data demonstrated that a single cancer cell had the potential to produce progeny heterogeneous in terms of morphology, radiation sensitivity and gene expression, and irradiation enhanced the dedifferentiation of cancer cells. (author)

  6. From the Cover: Cell-replacement therapy for diabetes: Generating functional insulin-producing tissue from adult human liver cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Tamar; Shternhall, Keren; Meivar-Levy, Irit; Blumenfeld, Tamar; Cohen, Hamutal; Skutelsky, Ehud; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Barshack, Iris; Goldberg, Iris; Pri-Chen, Sarah; Ben-Dor, Lya; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Karasik, Avraham; Shimon, Ilan; Mor, Eytan; Ferber, Sarah

    2005-05-01

    Shortage in tissue availability from cadaver donors and the need for life-long immunosuppression severely restrict the large-scale application of cell-replacement therapy for diabetic patients. This study suggests the potential use of adult human liver as alternate tissue for autologous beta-cell-replacement therapy. By using pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) and soluble factors, we induced a comprehensive developmental shift of adult human liver cells into functional insulin-producing cells. PDX-1-treated human liver cells express insulin, store it in defined granules, and secrete the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner. When transplanted under the renal capsule of diabetic, immunodeficient mice, the cells ameliorated hyperglycemia for prolonged periods of time. Inducing developmental redirection of adult liver offers the potential of a cell-replacement therapy for diabetics by allowing the patient to be the donor of his own insulin-producing tissue. pancreas | transdifferentiation

  7. Interleukin 4-producing CD4+ T cells in the skin of cats with allergic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosje, P J; Dean, G A; Willemse, T; Rutten, V P M G; Thepen, T

    2002-03-01

    Lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis has a cellular infiltrate and a CD4/CD8 ratio comparable to that in humans with atopic dermatitis. CD4+ helper T cells and in particular cells belonging to the Th2 subset play an important role in disease pathogenesis in humans. We investigated the cytokine pattern of CD4+ T cells in situ, with special emphasis on the putative presence of cells producing interleukin 4 (IL4), in cats with allergic dermatitis. Immunohistochemical procedures were used to determine that CD4+ T cells in lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis can produce IL4, as occurs in humans. Lesional and nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis had significantly more IL4+ T cells (P = 0.001) than did skin of healthy control cats. Double staining indicated that all IL4+ cells were positive for pan-T or CD4 markers. Double labeling for mast cell chymase and IL4 stained primarily different cells. Western blotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the antibody against human IL4 and a feline recombinant IL4. These results indicate that IL4 is primarily produced by CD4+ T cells and is also present in clinically uninvolved skin, indicating a role in the pathogenesis of allergic dermatitis in cats.

  8. Increased frequencies of IL-31-producing T cells are found in chronic atopic dermatitis skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szegedi, Krisztina; Kremer, Andreas E.; Kezic, Sanja; Teunissen, Marcel B. M.; Bos, Jan D.; Luiten, Rosalie M.; Res, Pieter C.; Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-31 has been associated with pruritus, a characteristic feature of atopic dermatitis (AD). Local T cell responses may be responsible for the increased level of IL-31 mRNA observed in AD. We investigated the frequency of IL-31-producing T cells in AD lesions, as well as their cytokine

  9. Gene probes to detect cross-culture contamination in hormone producing cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuba, I; Lernmark, A; Madsen, Ole Dragsbæk

    1988-01-01

    hamster insulin gene. Karyotyping confirmed the absence of human chromosomes in the Clone-16 cells while sizes, centromere indices, and banding patterns were identical to Syrian hamster fibroblasts. We conclude that the insulin-producing Clone-16 cells are of Syrian hamster origin and demonstrate...

  10. Radiation pretreatment of cellulosic wastes and immobilization of cells producing cellulase for their conversion to glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1988-01-01

    Radiation pretreatment of cellulosic wastes such as saw dust and chaff was studied by using electron beam accelerator, in which irradiation effect was increased by increasing irradiation dose and dose rate, by after heating irradiated materials at 100∼140deg C, and by irradiation in the addition of alkaline solution. Trichoderma reesei cells producing cellulase were immobilized by using fibrous porous carrier obtained from radiation polymerization. The filter paper, cellobiose, and CMC activities in the immobilized growing cells were higher than those in free cells. The activity in the immobilized cells obtained with hydrophobic carrier was higher than that obtained with hydrophilic one. Durability of the immobilized cells was examined by repeated batch culture. It was found that the enzyme solution produced in the culture of the immobilized cells can hydrolyze effectively saw dust pretreated by radiation. (author)

  11. Autophagy is essential for the differentiation of porcine PSCs into insulin-producing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lipeng; Yang, Hong; Cui, Yanhua; Xu, Shuanshuan; Sun, Fen; Tian, Na; Hua, Jinlian; Peng, Sha

    2017-07-01

    Porcine pancreatic stem cells (PSCs) are seed cells with potential use for diabetes treatment. Stem cell differentiation requires strict control of protein turnover and lysosomal digestion of organelles. Autophagy is a highly conserved process that controls the turnover of organelles and proteins within cells and contributes to the balance of cellular components. However, whether autophagy plays roles in PSC differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we successfully induced porcine PSCs into insulin-producing cells and found that autophagy was activated during the second induction stage. Inhibition of autophagy in the second stage resulted in reduced differentiational efficiency and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Moreover, the expression of active β-catenin increased while autophagy was activated but was suppressed when autophagy was inhibited. Therefore, autophagy is essential to the formation of insulin-producing cells, and the effects of autophagy on differentiation may be regulated by canonical Wnt signalling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Generation of a transplantable erythropoietin-producer derived from human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoo, Takashi; Fukui, Akira; Matsumoto, Kei; Ohashi, Toya; Sado, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Hideaki; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Okabe, Masataka; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2008-06-15

    Differentiation of autologous stem cells into functional transplantable tissue for organ regeneration is a promising regenerative therapeutic approach for cancer, diabetes, and many human diseases. Yet to be established, however, is differentiation into tissue capable of producing erythropoietin (EPO), which has a critical function in anemia. We report a novel EPO-producing organ-like structure (organoid) derived from human mesenchymal stem cells. Using our previously established relay culture system, a human mesenchymal stem cell-derived, human EPO-competent organoid was established in rat omentum. The organoid-derived levels of human EPO increased in response to anemia induced by rapid blood withdrawal. In addition, the presence of an organoid in rats suppressed for native (rat) EPO production enhanced recovery from anemia when compared with control animals lacking the organoid. Together these results confirmed the generation of a stem cell-derived organoid that is capable of producing EPO and sensitive to physiological regulation.

  13. Contamination of infectious RD-114 virus in vaccines produced using non-feline cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Sato, Eiji; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    All domestic cats have a replication-competent endogenous retrovirus, termed RD-114 virus, in their genome and several feline cell lines produce RD-114 viruses. Recently, we found that a portion of live attenuated feline and canine vaccines produced using feline cell lines was contaminated with infectious RD-114 viruses. In this study, we expanded our survey and examined canine vaccines produced using 'non-feline' cell lines. Consequently, we found two vaccines containing RD-114 viral RNA by reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time RT-PCR. We also confirmed the presence of infectious RD-114 virus in the vaccines by the LacZ marker rescue assay and PCR to detect proviral DNA in TE671 cells (human rhabdomyosarcoma cells) inoculated with the vaccines. It is impossible to investigate the definitive cause of contamination with RD-114 virus; however, we suspect that a seed canine parvovirus type 2 was contaminated with RD-114 virus, because many canine parvoviruses have been isolated and attenuated using feline cell lines. To exclude RD-114 virus from live attenuated vaccines, we must pay attention to the contamination of seed viruses with RD-114 virus in addition to avoiding feline cell lines producing RD-114 virus when manufacturing vaccines. Copyright © 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus produces membrane-derived vesicles that induce host cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamata Gurung

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria produce outer membrane vesicles that play a role in the delivery of virulence factors to host cells. However, little is known about the membrane-derived vesicles (MVs produced by gram-positive bacteria. The present study examined the production of MVs from Staphylococcus aureus and investigated the delivery of MVs to host cells and subsequent cytotoxicity. Four S. aureus strains tested, two type strains and two clinical isolates, produced spherical nanovesicles during in vitro culture. MVs were also produced during in vivo infection of a clinical S. aureus isolate in a mouse pneumonia model. Proteomic analysis showed that 143 different proteins were identified in the S. aureus-derived MVs. S. aureus MVs were interacted with the plasma membrane of host cells via a cholesterol-rich membrane microdomain and then delivered their component protein A to host cells within 30 min. Intact S. aureus MVs induced apoptosis of HEp-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas lysed MVs neither delivered their component into the cytosol of host cells nor induced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, this study is the first report that S. aureus MVs are an important vehicle for delivery of bacterial effector molecules to host cells.

  15. Reversal of hyperglycemia in mice by using human expandable insulin-producing cells differentiated from fetal liver progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalzman, Michal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Giri, Ranjit K.; Berkovich, Irina; Sappal, Baljit S.; Karnieli, Ohad; Zern, Mark A.; Fleischer, Norman; Efrat, Shimon

    2003-06-01

    Beta-cell replacement is considered to be the most promising approach for treatment of type 1 diabetes. Its application on a large scale is hindered by a shortage of cells for transplantation. Activation of insulin expression, storage, and regulated secretion in stem/progenitor cells offers novel ways to overcome this shortage. We explored whether fetal human progenitor liver cells (FH) could be induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells after expression of the pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) gene, which is a key regulator of pancreatic development and insulin expression in beta cells. FH cells possess a considerable replication capacity, and this was further extended by introduction of the gene for the catalytic subunit of human telomerase. Immortalized FH cells expressing Pdx1 activated multiple beta-cell genes, produced and stored considerable amounts of insulin, and released insulin in a regulated manner in response to glucose. When transplanted into hyperglycemic immunodeficient mice, the cells restored and maintained euglycemia for prolonged periods. Quantitation of human C-peptide in the mouse serum confirmed that the glycemia was normalized by the transplanted human cells. This approach offers the potential of a novel source of cells for transplantation into patients with type 1 diabetes.

  16. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce immunosuppressive IL-10-producing Th1 cells via the Notch pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Katrin; Rudolph, Christine; Neumann, Christian; Janke, Marko; Amsen, Derk; Scheffold, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Under homeostasis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) shift intrahepatic T-cell responses towards tolerance. However, the role of LSECs in the regulation of T-cell-induced liver inflammation is less clear. Here, we studied the capacity of LSECs to modulate pro-inflammatory Th1-cell

  17. Interleukin 17-producing γδT cells promote hepatic regeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Raghavendra; Graffeo, Christopher S; Gulati, Rishabh; Jamal, Mohsin; Narayan, Suchithra; Zambirinis, Constantinos P; Barilla, Rocky; Deutsch, Michael; Greco, Stephanie H; Ochi, Atsuo; Tomkötter, Lena; Blobstein, Reuven; Avanzi, Antonina; Tippens, Daniel M; Gelbstein, Yisroel; Van Heerden, Eliza; Miller, George

    2014-08-01

    Subsets of leukocytes synergize with regenerative growth factors to promote hepatic regeneration. γδT cells are early responders to inflammation-induced injury in a number of contexts. We investigated the role of γδT cells in hepatic regeneration using mice with disruptions in Tcrd (encodes the T-cell receptor δ chain) and Clec7a (encodes C-type lectin domain family 7 member a, also known as DECTIN1). We performed partial hepatectomies on wild-type C57BL/6, CD45.1, Tcrd(-/-), or Clec7a(-/-) mice. Cells were isolated from livers of patients and mice via mechanical and enzymatic digestion. γδT cells were purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. In mice, partial hepatectomy up-regulated expression of CCL20 and ligands of Dectin-1, which was associated with recruitment and activation of γδT cells and their increased production of interleukin (IL)-17 family cytokines. Recruited γδT cells induced production of IL-6 by antigen-presenting cells and suppressed expression of interferon gamma by natural killer T cells, promoting hepatocyte proliferation. Absence of IL-17-producing γδT cells or deletion of Dectin-1 prevented development of regenerative phenotypes in subsets of innate immune cells. This slowed liver regeneration and was associated with reduced expression of regenerative growth factors and cell cycle regulators. Conversely, exogenous administration of IL-17 family cytokines or Dectin-1 ligands promoted regeneration. More broadly, we found that γδT cells are required for inflammatory responses mediated by IL-17 and Dectin-1. γδT cells regulate hepatic regeneration by producing IL-22 and IL-17, which have direct mitogenic effects on hepatocytes and promote a regenerative phenotype in hepatic leukocytes, respectively. Dectin-1 ligation is required for γδT cells to promote hepatic regeneration. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Generation of insulin-producing human mesenchymal stem cells using recombinant adeno-associated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Park, Si-Nae; Suh, Hwal

    2007-02-28

    The purpose of current experiment is the generation of insulin-producing human mesenchymal stem cells as therapeutic source for the cure of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is generally caused by insulin deficiency accompanied by the destruction of islet beta-cells. In various trials for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, cell-based gene therapy using stem cells is considered as one of the most useful candidate for the treatment. In this experiment, human mesenchymal stem cells were transduced with AAV which is containing furin-cleavable human preproinsulin gene to generate insulin-producing cells as surrogate beta-cells for the type 1 diabetes therapy. In the rAAV production procedure, rAAV was generated by transfection of AD293 cells. Human mesenchymal stems cells were transduced using rAAV with a various multiplicity of infection. Transduction of recombinant AAV was also tested using beta-galactosidse expression. Cell viability was determined by using MTT assay to evaluate the toxicity of the transduction procedure. Expression and production of Insulin were tested using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Secretion of human insulin and C-peptide from the cells was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Production of insulin and C-peptide from the test group represented a higher increase compared to the control group. In this study, we examined generation of insulin-producing cells from mesenchymal stem cells by genetic engineering for diabetes therapy. This work might be valuable to the field of tissue engineering for diabetes treatment.

  19. Purification and characterization of a bioactive alpha-fetoprotein produced by HEK-293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bo; Peng, Guoqing; Feng, Haipeng; Li, Wei; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wang, Qiaoyun; Xie, Xieju; Zhu, Mingyue; Li, Mengsen

    2017-08-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a biomarker that is used to diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and can promote malignancy in HCC. AFP is an important target in the treatment of liver cancer. To obtain enough AFP to screen for AFP inhibitors, we expressed and purified AFP in HEK-293 cells. In the present study, we produced AFP in the cells and harvested highly pure rAFP (or recombinant expression AFP in HEK-293 cells). We also analysed the bioactivity of rAFP and found that rAFP promoted growth of the human HCC cells, antagonize paclitaxel inhibition of HCC cell proliferation, suppress expression of active caspase-3, and promote expression of Ras and survivin. This study provides a method to produce significant amounts of AFP for use in biochemical assays and functional studies and to screen AFP inhibitors for use in HCC therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Generation of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line Producing Recombinant Human Glucocerebrosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Juliana Branco; Morganti, Ligia; Moro, Ana Maria; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Serrano, Solange Maria de Toledo; Raw, Isaias; Ho, Paulo Lee

    2012-01-01

    Impaired activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCR) results in the inherited metabolic disorder known as Gaucher disease. Current treatment consists of enzyme replacement therapy by administration of exogenous GCR. Although effective, it is exceptionally expensive, and patients worldwide have a limited access to this medicine. In Brazil, the public healthcare system provides the drug free of charge for all Gaucher's patients, which reaches the order of $ 84 million per year. However, the production of GCR by public institutions in Brazil would reduce significantly the therapy costs. Here, we describe a robust protocol for the generation of a cell line producing recombinant human GCR. The protein was expressed in CHO-DXB11 (dhfr−) cells after stable transfection and gene amplification with methotrexate. As expected, glycosylated GCR was detected by immunoblotting assay both as cell-associated (~64 and 59 kDa) and secreted (63–69 kDa) form. Analysis of subclones allowed the selection of stable CHO cells producing a secreted functional enzyme, with a calculated productivity of 5.14 pg/cell/day for the highest producer. Although being laborious, traditional methods of screening high-producing recombinant cells may represent a valuable alternative to generate expensive biopharmaceuticals in countries with limited resources. PMID:23091360

  1. Generation of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line Producing Recombinant Human Glucocerebrosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Branco Novo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCR results in the inherited metabolic disorder known as Gaucher disease. Current treatment consists of enzyme replacement therapy by administration of exogenous GCR. Although effective, it is exceptionally expensive, and patients worldwide have a limited access to this medicine. In Brazil, the public healthcare system provides the drug free of charge for all Gaucher’s patients, which reaches the order of $ 84 million per year. However, the production of GCR by public institutions in Brazil would reduce significantly the therapy costs. Here, we describe a robust protocol for the generation of a cell line producing recombinant human GCR. The protein was expressed in CHO-DXB11 (dhfr− cells after stable transfection and gene amplification with methotrexate. As expected, glycosylated GCR was detected by immunoblotting assay both as cell-associated (~64 and 59 kDa and secreted (63–69 kDa form. Analysis of subclones allowed the selection of stable CHO cells producing a secreted functional enzyme, with a calculated productivity of 5.14 pg/cell/day for the highest producer. Although being laborious, traditional methods of screening high-producing recombinant cells may represent a valuable alternative to generate expensive biopharmaceuticals in countries with limited resources.

  2. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce immunosuppressive IL-10-producing Th1 cells via the Notch pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Katrin; Rudolph, Christine; Neumann, Christian; Janke, Marko; Amsen, Derk; Scheffold, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Under homeostasis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) shift intrahepatic T-cell responses towards tolerance. However, the role of LSECs in the regulation of T-cell-induced liver inflammation is less clear. Here, we studied the capacity of LSECs to modulate pro-inflammatory Th1-cell differentiation in mice. Using in vitro co-culture systems and subsequent cytokine analysis, we showed that LSECs induced high amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in developing Th1 cells. These LSEC-stimulated Th1 cells had no pro-inflammatory capacity in vivo but instead actively suppressed an inflammatory Th1-cell-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Blockage of IL-10 signaling in vivo inhibited immunosuppressive activity of LSEC-stimulated Th1 cells. We identified the Notch pathway as a mechanism how LSECs trigger IL-10 expression in Th1 cells. LSECs expressed high levels of the Delta-like and Jagged family of Notch ligands and induced expression of the Notch target genes hes-1 and deltex-1 in Th1 cells. Blockade of Notch signaling selectively inhibited IL-10 induction in Th1 cells by LSECs. Our findings suggest that LSEC-induced IL-10 expression in Th1 cells via the Notch pathway may contribute to the control of hepatic inflammatory immune responses by induction of a self-regulatory mechanism in pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Host cell capable of producing enzymes useful for degradation of lignocellulosic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los, Alrik Pieter; Sagt, Cornelis Maria Jacobus; Schoonneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Damveld, Robbertus Antonius

    2017-08-22

    The invention relates to a host cell comprising at least four different heterologous polynucleotides chosen from the group of polynucleotides encoding cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is capable of producing the at least four different enzymes chosen from the group of cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is a filamentous fungus and is capable of secretion of the at least four different enzymes. This host cell can suitably be used for the production of an enzyme composition that can be used in a process for the saccharification of cellulosic material.

  4. Host cell capable of producing enzymes useful for degradation of lignocellulosic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Alrik Pieter; Sagt, Cornelis Maria Jacobus; Schooneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Damveld, Robbertus Antonius

    2015-08-18

    The invention relates to a host cell comprising at least four different heterologous polynucleotides chosen from the group of polynucleotides encoding cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is capable of producing the at least four different enzymes chosen from the group of cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, wherein the host cell is a filamentous fungus and is capable of secretion of the at least four different enzymes. This host cell can suitably be used for the production of an enzyme composition that can be used in a process for the saccharification of cellulosic material.

  5. Ebola virus-like particles produced in insect cells exhibit dendritic cell stimulating activity and induce neutralizing antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Ling; Lin Jianguo; Sun Yuliang; Bennouna, Soumaya; Lo, Michael; Wu Qingyang; Bu Zhigao; Pulendran, Bali; Compans, Richard W.; Yang Chinglai

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant baculoviruses (rBV) expressing Ebola virus VP40 (rBV-VP40) or GP (rBV-GP) proteins were generated. Infection of Sf9 insect cells by rBV-VP40 led to assembly and budding of filamentous particles from the cell surface as shown by electron microscopy. Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced by coinfection of Sf9 cells with rBV-VP40 and rBV-GP, and incorporation of Ebola GP into VLPs was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Recombinant baculovirus infection of insect cells yielded high levels of VLPs, which were shown to stimulate cytokine secretion from human dendritic cells similar to VLPs produced in mammalian cells. The immunogenicity of Ebola VLPs produced in insect cells was evaluated by immunization of mice. Analysis of antibody responses showed that most of the GP-specific antibodies were of the IgG2a subtype, while no significant level of IgG1 subtype antibodies specific for GP was induced, indicating the induction of a Th1-biased immune response. Furthermore, sera from Ebola VLP immunized mice were able to block infection by Ebola GP pseudotyped HIV virus in a single round infection assay, indicating that a neutralizing antibody against the Ebola GP protein was induced. These results show that production of Ebola VLPs in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses represents a promising approach for vaccine development against Ebola virus infection

  6. A hepatocellular carcinoma cell line producing mature hepatitis B viral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellig, Yakov; Almogy, Gidon; Galun, Eithan; Ketzinel-Gilad, Mali

    2004-01-01

    Current in vitro models for hepatitis B virus (HBV) are based on human hepatoblastoma cell lines transfected with HBV genome. The objective of this work was to develop an in vitro, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-based system supporting HBV full replication and producing mature viral particles. The FLC4 human HCC cell line was stably transfected with a plasmid carrying a head-to-tail dimer of the adwHBV genome. One of the clones, FLC4A10 II , exhibited prolonged expression of HBV, as was demonstrated by secreted levels of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA in the culture medium of the growing cells. Furthermore, the cells produced HBV particles that were detected by a cesium chloride density gradient performed on the culture medium. Analysis by Southern blot revealed that HBV DNA has integrated into the FLC4A10 II cell genome. The presence of HBV in the FLC4A10 II cells did not cause alterations in cell morphology and the cells continued to resemble mature hepatocytes. They do exhibit a high mitotic activity. The new HBV stably transfected cell line, FLC4A10 II , can serve as an important tool for further exploration of HBV host-pathogen interaction, viral life cycle, and for assessing new antiviral agents

  7. A Rapid Culture Technique Produces Functional Dendritic-Like Cells from Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer immunotherapeutic strategies involving dendritic cells (DC as vaccines rely upon the adoptive transfer of DC loaded with exogenous tumour-peptides. This study utilized human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells as progenitors from which functional dendritic-like antigen presenting cells (DLC were generated, that constitutively express tumour antigens for recognition by CD8+ T cells. DLC were generated from AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3 using rapid culture techniques and appropriate cytokines. DLC were evaluated for their cell-surface phenotype, antigen uptake and ability to stimulate allogeneic responder cell proliferation, and production of IFN-γ; compared with DC derived from normal human PBMC donors. KG-1 and MUTZ-3 DLC increased expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR, and MUTZ-3 DLC downregulated CD14 and expressed CD1a. Importantly, both KG-1 and MUTZ-3-derived DLC promoted proliferation of allogeneic responder cells more efficiently than unmodified cells; neither cells incorporated FITC-labeled dextran, but both stimulated IFN-γ production from responding allogeneic CD8+ T cells. Control DC produced from PBMC using the FastDC culture also expressed high levels of critical cell surface ligands and demonstrated good APC function. This paper indicates that functional DLC can be cultured from the AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3, and FastDC culture generates functional KG-1 DLC.

  8. [In vitro generation of insulin-producing cells from the neonatal rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohu; Huang, Haiyan; Liu, Xirong; Xia, Hongxia; Li, Mincai

    2015-03-01

    To observe the differentiation of the neonatal rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into insulin-producing cells and detect the expressions of insulin, pancreatic duodenal homebox-1 (PDX-1) and nestin. MSCs were isolated from the neonatal rats and cultured in the modified medium composed of 10 μg/L human epidermal growth factor (EGF), 10 μg/L basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), 10 μg/L hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), 10 μg/L human B cell regulin, 20 mmol/L nicotinamide and 20 g/L B27. After the induction, the mRNA expressions of insulin, PDX-1 and nestin were examined by reverse transcription-PCR, and the insulin, PDX-1 and nestin protein levels were detected by immunocytochemistry. The insulin and PDX-1 mRNA expressions increased and the nestin mRNA expression decreased in the differentiation of the neonatal rat MSCs into insulin-producing cells. The nestin, PDX-1 and insulin proteins were co-expressed in insulin-producing cells. MSCs can be induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells.

  9. B Cells and B Cell Blasts Withstand Cryopreservation While Retaining Their Functionality for Producing Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Fecher

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In individuals who have once developed humoral immunity to an infectious/foreign antigen, the antibodies present in their body can mediate instant protection when the antigen re-enters. Such antigen-specific antibodies can be readily detected in the serum. Long term humoral immunity is, however, also critically dependent on the ability of memory B cells to engage in a secondary antibody response upon re-exposure to the antigen. Antibody molecules in the body are short lived, having a half-life of weeks, while memory B cells have a life span of decades. Therefore, the presence of serum antibodies is not always a reliable indicator of B cell memory and comprehensive monitoring of humoral immunity requires that both serum antibodies and memory B cells be assessed. The prevailing view is that resting memory B cells and B cell blasts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC cannot be cryopreserved without losing their antibody secreting function, and regulated high throughput immune monitoring of B cell immunity is therefore confined to—and largely limited by—the need to test freshly isolated PBMC. Using optimized protocols for freezing and thawing of PBMC, and four color ImmunoSpot® analysis for the simultaneous detection of all immunoglobulin classes/subclasses we show here that both resting memory B cells and B cell blasts retain their ability to secrete antibody after thawing, and thus demonstrate the feasibility of B cell immune monitoring using cryopreserved PBMC.

  10. B Cells and B Cell Blasts Withstand Cryopreservation While Retaining Their Functionality for Producing Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecher, Philipp; Caspell, Richard; Naeem, Villian; Karulin, Alexey Y; Kuerten, Stefanie; Lehmann, Paul V

    2018-05-31

    In individuals who have once developed humoral immunity to an infectious/foreign antigen, the antibodies present in their body can mediate instant protection when the antigen re-enters. Such antigen-specific antibodies can be readily detected in the serum. Long term humoral immunity is, however, also critically dependent on the ability of memory B cells to engage in a secondary antibody response upon re-exposure to the antigen. Antibody molecules in the body are short lived, having a half-life of weeks, while memory B cells have a life span of decades. Therefore, the presence of serum antibodies is not always a reliable indicator of B cell memory and comprehensive monitoring of humoral immunity requires that both serum antibodies and memory B cells be assessed. The prevailing view is that resting memory B cells and B cell blasts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cannot be cryopreserved without losing their antibody secreting function, and regulated high throughput immune monitoring of B cell immunity is therefore confined to-and largely limited by-the need to test freshly isolated PBMC. Using optimized protocols for freezing and thawing of PBMC, and four color ImmunoSpot ® analysis for the simultaneous detection of all immunoglobulin classes/subclasses we show here that both resting memory B cells and B cell blasts retain their ability to secrete antibody after thawing, and thus demonstrate the feasibility of B cell immune monitoring using cryopreserved PBMC.

  11. In vitro generation of functional insulin-producing cells from lipoaspirated human adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Buang, Mohamad Lizan; Seng, Heng Kien; Chung, Lee Han; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering strategy has been considered as an alternative treatment for diabetes mellitus due to lack of permanent pharmaceutical treatment and islet donors for transplantation. Various cell lines have been used to generate functional insulin-producing cells (IPCs) including progenitor pancreatic cell lines, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), umbilical cord blood stem cells (UCB-SCs), adult bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), and adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Human ADSCs from lipoaspirated abdominal fat tissue was differentiated into IPCs following a two-step induction protocol based on a combination of alternating high and low glucose, nicotinamide, activin A and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) for a duration of 3 weeks. During differentiation, histomorphological changes of the stem cells towards pancreatic β-islet characteristics were observed via light microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Dithizone (DTZ) staining, which is selective towards IPCs, was used to stain the new islet-like cells. Production of insulin hormone by the cells was analyzed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas its hormonal regulation was tested via a glucose challenge test. Histomorphological changes of the differentiated cells were noted to resemble pancreatic β-cells, whereas DTZ staining positively stained the cells. The differentiated cells significantly produced human insulin as compared to the undifferentiated ADSCs, and its production was increased with an increase of glucose concentration in the culture medium. These initial data indicate that human lipoaspirated ADSCs have the potential to differentiate into functional IPCs, and could be used as a therapy to treat diabetes mellitus in the future. Copyright © 2012 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Heat Shock Protein 47: A Novel Biomarker of Phenotypically Altered Collagen-Producing Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Takashi; Nazneen, Arifa; Al-Shihri, Abdulmonem A.; Turkistani, Khadijah A.; Razzaque, Mohammed S.

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) is a collagen-specific molecular chaperone that helps the molecular maturation of various types of collagens. A close association between increased expression of HSP47 and the excessive accumulation of collagens is found in various human and experimental fibrotic diseases. Increased levels of HSP47 in fibrotic diseases are thought to assist in the increased assembly of procollagen, and thereby contribute to the excessive deposition of collagens in fibrotic areas. Currently, there is not a good universal histological marker to identify collagen-producing cells. Identifying phenotypically altered collagen-producing cells is essential for the development of cell-based therapies to reduce the progression of fibrotic diseases. Since HSP47 has a single substrate, which is collagen, the HSP47 cellular expression provides a novel universal biomarker to identify phenotypically altered collagen-producing cells during wound healing and fibrosis. In this brief article, we explained why HSP47 could be used as a universal marker for identifying phenotypically altered collagen-producing cells

  13. Neuropharmacological and neuroprotective activities of some metabolites produced by cell suspension culture of Waltheria americana Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo, Jorge; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Gutiérrez, María Del Carmen; Arellano-García, Jesús; León-Rivera, Ismael; Perea-Arango, Irene

    2017-10-01

    Waltheria americana is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat some nervous system disorders. The aims of the present study were to isolate and determine the neuropharmacological and neurprotective activities of metabolites produced by a cell suspension culture of Waltheria americana. Submerged cultivation of W. americana cells provided biomass. A methanol-soluble extract (WAsc) was obtained from biomass. WAsc was fractionated yielding the chromatographic fractions 4WAsc-H 2 O and WAsc-CH 2 Cl 2 . For the determination of anticonvulsant activity in vivo, seizures were induced in mice by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). Neuropharmacological activities (release of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and neuroprotection) of chromatographic fractions were determined by in vitro histological analysis of brain sections of mice post mortem. Fraction 4WAsc-H 2 O (containing saccharides) did not produce neuronal damage, neurodegeneration, interstitial tissue edema, astrocytic activation, nor cell death. Pretreatment of animals with 4WAsc-H 2 O and WAsc-CH 2 Cl 2 from W. americana cell suspensions induced an increase in: GABA release, seizure latency, survival time, neuroprotection, and a decrease in the degree of severity of tonic/tonic-clonic convulsions, preventing PTZ-induced death of up to 100% of animals of study. Bioactive compounds produced in suspension cell culture of W. americana produce neuroprotective and neuropharmacological activities associated with the GABAergic neurotransmission system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Bone marrow stromal cells spontaneously produce Flt3-ligand: influence of ionizing radiations and cytokine stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertho, Jean Marc; Demarquay, Christelle; Mouiseddine, Moubarak; Douenat, Noémie; Stefani, Johanna; Prat, Marie; Paquet, François

    2008-08-01

    To define the ability of human bone marrow (BM) stromal cells to produce fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3)-ligand (FL), and the effect of irradiation, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) or tumour growth factor beta (TGFbeta) on FL production. Primary BM stromal cell cultures were irradiated at 2-10 Gy or were stimulated with TNFalpha or TGFbeta1. The presence of FL was tested in culture supernatants and in cell lysate. The presence of a membrane-bound form of FL and the level of gene expression were also tested. Primary BM stromal cells spontaneously released FL. This production was increased by TNFalpha but not by TGFbeta1 or by irradiation. Chemical induction of osteoblastic differentiation from BM stromal cells also induced an increase in FL release. Our results suggest that the observed increase in FL concentration after in vivo irradiation is an indirect effect. The possible implication of BM stromal cells in these mechanisms is discussed.

  15. High numbers of IL-2-producing CD8+ T cells during viral infection: correlation with stable memory development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2002-01-01

    that IL-2-producing cells appear slightly delayed compared with the majority of IFN-gamma producing cells, and the relative frequency of the IL-2-producing subset increases with transition into the memory phase. In contrast to acute immunizing infection, few IL-2-producing cells are generated during...... chronic LCMV infection. Furthermore, in MHC class II-deficient mice, which only transiently control LCMV infection, IL-2-producing CD8+ T cells are initially generated, but by 4 weeks after infection this subset has nearly disappeared. Eventually the capacity to produce IFN-gamma also becomes impaired...

  16. Stable producer cell lines for adeno-associated virus (AAV) assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadeuf, Gilliane; Salvetti, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Stable producer cell lines containing both the rep and cap genes and recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors can be infected with a helper virus to provide reliable and efficient production of rAAV stocks. However, the development of these cell lines is time-consuming. The procedure described here is therefore recommended only for studies requiring the production of high amounts of rAAV, such as preclinical studies performed in large animals.

  17. De Novo Formation of Insulin-Producing “Neo-β Cell Islets” from Intestinal Crypts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to interconvert terminally differentiated cells could serve as a powerful tool for cell-based treatment of degenerative diseases, including diabetes mellitus. To determine which, if any, adult tissues are competent to activate an islet β cell program, we performed an in vivo screen by expressing three β cell “reprogramming factors” in a wide spectrum of tissues. We report that transient intestinal expression of these factors—Pdx1, MafA, and Ngn3 (PMN—promotes rapid conversion of intestinal crypt cells into endocrine cells, which coalesce into “neoislets” below the crypt base. Neoislet cells express insulin and show ultrastructural features of β cells. Importantly, intestinal neoislets are glucose-responsive and able to ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Moreover, PMN expression in human intestinal “organoids” stimulates the conversion of intestinal epithelial cells into β-like cells. Our results thus demonstrate that the intestine is an accessible and abundant source of functional insulin-producing cells.

  18. Designer exosomes produced by implanted cells intracerebrally deliver therapeutic cargo for Parkinson's disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Ryosuke; Bojar, Daniel; Rizzi, Giorgio; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; El-Baba, Marie Daoud; Saxena, Pratik; Ausländer, Simon; Tan, Kelly R; Fussenegger, Martin

    2018-04-03

    Exosomes are cell-derived nanovesicles (50-150 nm), which mediate intercellular communication, and are candidate therapeutic agents. However, inefficiency of exosomal message transfer, such as mRNA, and lack of methods to create designer exosomes have hampered their development into therapeutic interventions. Here, we report a set of EXOsomal transfer into cells (EXOtic) devices that enable efficient, customizable production of designer exosomes in engineered mammalian cells. These genetically encoded devices in exosome producer cells enhance exosome production, specific mRNA packaging, and delivery of the mRNA into the cytosol of target cells, enabling efficient cell-to-cell communication without the need to concentrate exosomes. Further, engineered producer cells implanted in living mice could consistently deliver cargo mRNA to the brain. Therapeutic catalase mRNA delivery by designer exosomes attenuated neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation in in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease, indicating the potential usefulness of the EXOtic devices for RNA delivery-based therapeutic applications.

  19. Human B cells produce chemokine CXCL10 in the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Soren T; Salman, Ahmed M; Ruhwald, Morten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of B cells in human host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is still controversial, but recent evidence suggest that B cell follicle like structures within the lung may influence host responses through regulation of the local cytokine environment. A candid......BACKGROUND: The role of B cells in human host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is still controversial, but recent evidence suggest that B cell follicle like structures within the lung may influence host responses through regulation of the local cytokine environment...

  20. CD4(+) T cells producing interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22 and interferon-? are major effector T cells in nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyring Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Løvendorf, Marianne B

    2013-01-01

    the frequencies of CD4(+) , CD8(+) and γδ T cells producing IL-17, IL-22 and interferon (IFN)-γ in the blood and skin from nickel-allergic patients. Patients/materials/methods Blood samples were collected from 14 patients and 17 controls, and analysed by flow cytometry. Biopsies were taken from 5 patients and 6......-allergic patients, there was massive cellular infiltration dominated by CD4(+) T cells producing IL-17, IL-22 and IFN-γ in nickel-challenged skin but not in vehicle-challenged skin. Conclusion CD4(+) T cells producing IL-17, IL-22 and IFN-γ are important effector cells in the eczematous reactions of nickel......Background It has been suggested that interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 play important roles in the elicitation of human allergic contact dermatitis; however, the frequencies of T cell subtypes producing IL-17 and IL-22 in human allergic contact dermatitis are unknown. Objectives To determine...

  1. Platelet lysates produced from expired platelet concentrates support growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mjoll Jonsdottir-Buch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells are promising candidates in regenerative cell therapy. Conventional culture methods involve the use of animal substances, specifically fetal bovine serum as growth supplement. Since the use of animal-derived products is undesirable for human applications, platelet lysates produced from human platelets are an attractive alternative. This is especially true if platelet lysates from already approved transfusion units at blood banks can be utilized. The purpose of this study was to produce human platelet lysates from expired, blood bank-approved platelet concentrates and evaluate their use as growth supplement in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured with one of three culture supplements; fetal bovine serum, lysates from freshly prepared human platelet concentrates, or lysates from expired human platelet concentrates. The effects of these platelet-derived culture supplements on basic mesenchymal stem cell characteristics were evaluated. All cultures maintained the typical mesenchymal stem cell surface marker expression, trilineage differentiation potential, and the ability to suppress in vitro immune responses. However, mesenchymal stem cells supplemented with platelet lysates proliferated faster than traditionally cultured cells and increased the expression of the osteogenic marker gene RUNX-2; yet no difference between the use of fresh and expired platelet concentrates was observed. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that human platelet lysates produced from expired platelet concentrates can be used as an alternative to fetal bovine serum for mesenchymal stem cell culture to the same extent as lysates from fresh platelets.

  2. Effect of combined treatment with preoperative. gamma. -therapy on function of gastrin producing cells in patients with gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdov, B A; Vedzizheva, T B; Bassalyk, L S; Zagrebin, V M [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Nauchnyj Tsentr)

    1982-04-01

    It is stated that preoperative irradiation with the dose of 20 Gy doesn't produce any considerable effect on function of the extragastric gastrin producing cells. Despite the decrease of reserve potentialities of gastrin producing cells in patients with stomach cancer the basal level of gastrin in the group of gastric cancer patients on the whole is higher than in practically healthy people. Radiotherapy results in the pronounced inhiibition of gastrin synthesis and secretion of gastrin producing cells.

  3. RNA-Seq Highlights High Clonal Variation in Monoclonal Antibody Producing CHO Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Camila A.; Marcellin, Esteban; Palfreyman, Robin W.

    2018-01-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing technologies has opened new opportunities to better characterize complex eukaryotic cells. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells play a primary role in therapeutic protein production, with currently five of the top ten blockbuster drugs produced in CHO......-regulation of genes encoding secreted glycoproteins is found to be the most significant change. The large number of significant differences even between subclones challenges the notion of identifying and manipulating a few key genes to generate high production CHO cell lines....

  4. Multiple growth hormone-binding proteins are expressed on insulin-producing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, A; Billestrup, N; Thorn, N A

    1989-01-01

    The insulin-producing rat islet tumor cell line, RIN-5AH, expresses somatogen binding sites and responds to GH by increased proliferation and insulin production. Affinity cross-linking shows that RIN-5AH cells contain two major GH-binding subunits of Mr 100-130K (110K), which appear to exist as d....... It is concluded that the RIN-5AH cells have multiple GH-binding proteins which may mediate signals for either proliferation and/or insulin production....

  5. [Renal cell carcinoma producing erythrocytosis due to inappropriate production of erythropoietin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Gimeno, M M; Vicario-Bermúdez, J M; Fonseca-López, Ch; Caballero-Castro, J P; Zabala-López, S I; Sánchez-Elipe, M A; González-Gómez, N

    2013-01-01

    Erythrocytosis, or polycythaemia, is an increase, in absolute terms, of the erythrocyte mass. The most common solid tumour related to this phenomenon is renal cell carcinoma, which can produce erythrocytosis by increasing erythropoietin production. About 30% of symptomatic renal cell carcinomas are diagnosed due to the appearance of a paraneoplastic syndrome. Polycythaemia is one of these. Surgery, (radical or partial nephrectomy), is the treatment of choice in renal cell carcinoma and helps to keep the erythrocytosis situation under control. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Perivascular Adipose Tissue Harbors Atheroprotective IgM-Producing B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Srikakulapu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue surrounding major arteries (Perivascular adipose tissue or PVAT has long been thought to exist to provide vessel support and insulation. Emerging evidence suggests that PVAT regulates artery physiology and pathology, such as, promoting atherosclerosis development through local production of inflammatory cytokines. Yet the immune subtypes in PVAT that regulate inflammation are poorly characterized. B cells have emerged as important immune cells in the regulation of visceral adipose tissue inflammation and atherosclerosis. B cell-mediated effects on atherosclerosis are subset-dependent with B-1 cells attenuating and B-2 cells aggravating atherosclerosis. While mechanisms whereby B-2 cells aggravate atherosclerosis are less clear, production of immunoglobulin type M (IgM antibodies is thought to be a major mechanism whereby B-1 cells limit atherosclerosis development. B-1 cell-derived IgM to oxidation specific epitopes (OSE on low density lipoproteins (LDL blocks oxidized LDL-induced inflammatory cytokine production and foam cell formation. However, whether PVAT contains B-1 cells and whether atheroprotective IgM is produced in PVAT is unknown. Results of the present study provide clear evidence that the majority of B cells in and around the aorta are derived from PVAT. Interestingly, a large proportion of these B cells belong to the B-1 subset with the B-1/B-2 ratio being 10-fold higher in PVAT relative to spleen and bone marrow. Moreover, PVAT contains significantly greater numbers of IgM secreting cells than the aorta. ApoE−/− mice with B cell-specific knockout of the gene encoding the helix-loop-helix factor Id3, known to have attenuated diet-induced atherosclerosis, have increased numbers of B-1b cells and increased IgM secreting cells in PVAT relative to littermate controls. Immunostaining of PVAT on human coronary arteries identified fat associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs harboring high numbers of B cells, and flow

  7. Wnt signaling requires retromer-dependent recycling of MIG-14/Wntless in Wnt-producing cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, P.T.; Lorenowicz, M.J.; Silhankova, M.; Coudreuse, D.Y.M.; Betist, M.C.; Korswagen, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Wnt proteins are secreted signaling molecules that play a central role in development and adult tissue homeostasis. We have previously shown that Wnt signaling requires retromer function in Wnt-producing cells. The retromer is a multiprotein complex that mediates endosome-to-Golgi transport of

  8. Bet-hedging in bacteriocin producing Escherichia coli populations: the single cell perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Bihter; Toubiana, David; van Vliet, Simon; Inglis, R. Fredrik; Shnerb, Nadav; Gillor, Osnat

    2017-02-01

    Production of public goods in biological systems is often a collaborative effort that may be detrimental to the producers. It is therefore sustainable only if a small fraction of the population shoulders the cost while the majority reap the benefits. We modelled this scenario using Escherichia coli populations producing colicins, an antibiotic that kills producer cells’ close relatives. Colicin expression is a costly trait, and it has been proposed that only a small fraction of the population actively expresses the antibiotic. Colicinogenic populations were followed at the single-cell level using time-lapse microscopy, and showed two distinct, albeit dynamic, subpopulations: the majority silenced colicin expression, while a small fraction of elongated, slow-growing cells formed colicin-expressing hotspots, placing a significant burden on expressers. Moreover, monitoring lineages of individual colicinogenic cells showed stochastic switching between expressers and non-expressers. Hence, colicin expressers may be engaged in risk-reducing strategies—or bet-hedging—as they balance the cost of colicin production with the need to repel competitors. To test the bet-hedging strategy in colicin-mediated interactions, competitions between colicin-sensitive and producer cells were simulated using a numerical model, demonstrating a finely balanced expression range that is essential to sustaining the colicinogenic population.

  9. ANGPTL4 is produced by entero-endocrine cells in the human intestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alex, S.; Lichtenstein, L.L.; Dijk, W.; Mensink, R.P.; Tan, N.S.; Kersten, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Gut hormones produced by entero-endocrine cells (EEC) located throughout the gastrointestinal tract play a major role in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4, also referred to as fasting induced adipose factor) is a secreted factor involved in regulation of

  10. Skin-infiltrating, interleukin-22-producing T cells differentiate pediatric psoriasis from adult psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoro, Kelly M; Hitraya-Low, Maria; Taravati, Keyon; Sandoval, Priscila Munoz; Kim, Esther; Sugarman, Jeffrey; Pauli, Mariela L; Liao, Wilson; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2017-09-01

    Evidence from adult psoriasis studies implicates an imbalance between regulatory and effector T cells, particularly T H -17-producing T cells, in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Little is known about the immunopathology of psoriasis in children. We sought to functionally characterize the inflammatory cell profiles of psoriatic plaques from pediatric patients and compare them with healthy, age-matched controls and adult psoriasis patients. Skin samples from pediatric psoriasis patients and healthy controls were analyzed by multiparameter flow cytometry to determine the dominant immune cell subsets present and cytokines produced. Lesional tissue from pediatric psoriasis patients had significantly increased interleukin (IL) 22 derived from CD4 + and CD8 + cells compared with the tissues from healthy pediatric controls and adult psoriasis patients. Tissue from pediatric psoriasis patients had significantly less elevation of IL-17 derived from CD4 + and CD8 + cells compared with the tissue from adult psoriasis patients. In contrast with the lesions from adult patients, lesional skin in pediatric patients with psoriasis did not have increases in regulatory T cells. This is a pilot study, thus the sample size is small. Significant differences in IL-17 and IL-22 expression were observed in the pediatric psoriasis patients compared with pediatric healthy controls and adult psoriasis patients. IL-22 might be relevant in the pathogenesis of pediatric psoriasis and represents a potential treatment target unique to pediatric psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Virus-like particle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus produced in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells is distinctive from that produced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueh, Chare Li; Yong, Chean Yeah; Masoomi Dezfooli, Seyedehsara; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Soon Guan; Tan, Wen Siang

    2017-03-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) is a virus native to giant freshwater prawn. Recombinant MrNV capsid protein has been produced in Escherichia coli, which self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs). However, this recombinant protein is unstable, degrading and forming heterogenous VLPs. In this study, MrNV capsid protein was produced in insect Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells through a baculovirus system. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the recombinant protein produced by the insect cells self-assembled into highly stable, homogenous VLPs each of approximately 40 nm in diameter. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the VLPs produced in Sf9 cells were highly antigenic and comparable to those produced in E. coli. In addition, the Sf9 produced VLPs were highly stable across a wide pH range (2-12). Interestingly, the Sf9 produced VLPs contained DNA of approximately 48 kilo base pairs and RNA molecules. This study is the first report on the production and characterization of MrNV VLPs produced in a eukaryotic system. The MrNV VLPs produced in Sf9 cells were about 10 nm bigger and had a uniform morphology compared with the VLPs produced in E. coli. The insect cell production system provides a good source of MrNV VLPs for structural and immunological studies as well as for host-pathogen interaction studies. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:549-557, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. BDNF, produced by a TPO-stimulated megakaryocytic cell line, regulates autocrine proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Shogo [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Nagasawa, Ayumi; Masuda, Yuya; Tsunematsu, Tetsuya [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Hayasaka, Koji; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Shimizu, Chikara [Division of Laboratory and Transfusion Medicine, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Ozaki, Yukio [Department of Clinical and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi (Japan); Moriyama, Takanori, E-mail: moriyama@hs.hokuda.ac.jp [Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has been thought that BDNF is not produced in the megakaryocytic lineage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEG-01 produces BDNF upon TPO stimulation and regulates its proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF accelerates proliferation of MEG-01 in an autocrine manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF may be an autocrine MEG-CSF, which regulates megakaryopoiesis. -- Abstract: While human platelets release endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) upon activation, a previous report on MEG-01, a megakaryocytic cell line, found no trace of BDNF production, and the pathophysiological function of platelet BDNF has remained elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate that MEG-01 produces BDNF in the presence of TPO and that this serves to potentiate cell proliferation. Our in vitro findings suggest that BDNF regulates MEG-01 proliferation in an autocrine manner, and we suggest that BDNF may be a physiological autocrine regulator of megakaryocyte progenitors.

  13. BDNF, produced by a TPO-stimulated megakaryocytic cell line, regulates autocrine proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shogo; Nagasawa, Ayumi; Masuda, Yuya; Tsunematsu, Tetsuya; Hayasaka, Koji; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Shimizu, Chikara; Ozaki, Yukio; Moriyama, Takanori

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► It has been thought that BDNF is not produced in the megakaryocytic lineage. ► MEG-01 produces BDNF upon TPO stimulation and regulates its proliferation. ► BDNF accelerates proliferation of MEG-01 in an autocrine manner. ► BDNF may be an autocrine MEG-CSF, which regulates megakaryopoiesis. -- Abstract: While human platelets release endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) upon activation, a previous report on MEG-01, a megakaryocytic cell line, found no trace of BDNF production, and the pathophysiological function of platelet BDNF has remained elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate that MEG-01 produces BDNF in the presence of TPO and that this serves to potentiate cell proliferation. Our in vitro findings suggest that BDNF regulates MEG-01 proliferation in an autocrine manner, and we suggest that BDNF may be a physiological autocrine regulator of megakaryocyte progenitors.

  14. Evidence for paracrine/autocrine regulation of GLP-1-producing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappe, Camilla; Zhang, Qimin; Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), secreted from gut L cells upon nutrient intake, forms the basis for novel drugs against type 2 diabetes (T2D). Secretion of GLP-1 has been suggested to be impaired in T2D and in conditions associated with hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. Further, recent...... studies support lipotoxicity of GLP-1-producing cells in vitro. However, little is known about the regulation of L-cell viability/function, the effects of insulin signaling, or the potential effects of stable GLP-1 analogs and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. We determined effects of insulin...... as well as possible autocrine action of GLP-1 on viability/apoptosis of GLP-1-secreting cells in the presence/absence of palmitate, while also assessing direct effects on function. The studies were performed using the GLP-1-secreting cell line GLUTag, and palmitate was used to simulate hyperlipidemia. Our...

  15. Identification of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ T cells following PMA stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K; Bruunsgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of T cells with phorbol esters, such as phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), induces downregulation of CD4, making unambiguous identification of this subset difficult. In this study, the kinetics of intracellular expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and downmodulation of surface CD4...... were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after PMA stimulation. The number of IFN-gamma-producing cells increased within a 4-h period while the fluorescence intensity of the CD4(+) cell population decreased, and the two phenomena were correlated (n = 9; p = 0.01). Our data suggest...... that intracellular staining of CD4 together with cytokine staining will make identification of CD4(+) cells possible and facilitate the procedure of intracellular staining of cytokines....

  16. Inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by osteoblast-like cells genetically engineered to produce interleukin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kazuki; Kishida, Tsunao; Ejima, Akika; Yamamoto, Kenta; Fujii, Wataru; Murakami, Ken; Seno, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Aihiro; Kohno, Masataka; Oda, Ryo; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kawahito, Yutaka; Mazda, Osam

    2015-01-16

    Bone destruction at inflamed joints is an important complication associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interleukin-10 (IL-10) may suppress not only inflammation but also induction of osteoclasts that play key roles in the bone destruction. If IL-10-producing osteoblast-like cells are induced from patient somatic cells and transplanted back into the destructive bone lesion, such therapy may promote bone remodeling by the cooperative effects of IL-10 and osteoblasts. We transduced mouse fibroblasts with genes for IL-10 and Runx2 that is a crucial transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation. The IL-10-producing induced osteoblast-like cells (IL-10-iOBs) strongly expressed osteoblast-specific genes and massively produced bone matrix that were mineralized by calcium phosphate in vitro and in vivo. Culture supernatant of IL-10-iOBs significantly suppressed induction of osteoclast from RANKL-stimulated Raw264.7 cells as well as LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokine by macrophages. The IL-10-iOBs may be applicable to novel cell-based therapy against bone destruction associated with RA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Matrix stiffness and oxigen tension modulate epigenetic conversion of mouse dermal fibroblasts into insulin producing cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Zenobi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In vivo, cells are surrounded by a three-dimensional (3-D organization of supporting matrix, neighboring cells and a gradient of chemical and mechanical signals (Antoni, et al., 2015. However, the present understanding of many biological processes is mainly based on two-dimensional (2-D systems that typically provides a static environment. In the present study, we tested two different 3-D culture systems and apply them to the epigenetic conversion of mouse dermal fibroblasts into insulin producing-cells (Pennarossa, et al., 2013; Brevini, et al., 2015, combining also the use of two oxygen tensions. In particular, cells were differentiated using the Polytetrafluoroethylene micro-bioreactor (PTFE and the Polyacrylamide (PAA gels with different stiffness (1 kPa; 4 kPa, maintained either in the standard 20% or in the more physiological 5% oxygen tensions. Standard differentiation performed on plastic substrates was assessed as a control. Cell morphology (Fig.1A, insulin expression and release were analyzed to evaluate the role of both stiffness and oxygen tension in the process. The results obtained showed that 1 kPa PAA gel and PTFE system induced a significantly higher insulin expression and release than plastic and 4 kPa PAA gel, especially in low oxygen condition (Fig.1B. Furthermore, comparing the efficiency of the two systems tested, 1 kPa PAA gel ensured a higher insulin transcription than PTFE (Fig.1C. Recent studies show the direct influence of substrates on lineage commitment and cell differentiation (Engler, et al., 2006; Evans, et al., 2009. The evidence here presented confirm that the use of an appropriate stiffness (similar to the pancreatic tissue, combined with a physiological oxygen tension, promote β-cell differentiation, with beneficial effects on cell functional activity and insulin release. The present results highlight the importance of 3-D cell rearrangement and oxigen tension to promote in vitro epigenetic conversion of

  18. Differentiation of PDX1 gene-modified human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-producing cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongmei; Wang, Juan; Gao, Yangjun; Zhang, Yuan

    2011-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have significant advantages over other stem cell types, and greater potential for immediate clinical application. MSCs would be an interesting cellular source for treatment of type 1 diabetes. In this study, MSCs from human umbilical cord were differentiated into functional insulin-producing cells in vitro by introduction of the pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor 1 (PDX1) and in the presence of induction factors. The expressions of cell surface antigens were detected by flow cytometry. After induction in an adipogenic medium or an osteogenic medium, the cells were observed by Oil Red O staining and alkaline phosphatase staining. Recombinant adenovirus carrying the PDX1 gene was constructed and MSCs were infected by the recombinant adenovirus, then treated with several inducing factors for differentiation into islet β-like cells. The expression of the genes and protein related to islet β-cells was detected by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Insulin and C-peptide secretion were assayed. Our results show that the morphology and immunophenotype of MSCs from human umbilical cord were similar to those present in human bone marrow. The MSCs could be induced to differentiate into osteocytes and adipocytes. After induction by recombined adenovirus vector with induction factors, MSCs were aggregated and presented islet-like bodies. Dithizone staining of these cells was positive. The genes' expression related to islet β-cells was found. After induction, insulin and C-peptide secretion in the supernatant were significantly increased. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that PDX1 gene-modified human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells could be differentiated into insulin-producing cells in vitro.

  19. Extrinsic factors promoting insulin producing cell-differentiation and insulin expression enhancement-hope for diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Shruti

    2013-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be an autoimmune disorder leading to destruction of beta-cells resulting in to a loss of blood sugar control. Attempts using many pharmacological compositions including exogenous insulin have failed to show tight control of glycemia and associated manifestations. Stem cells are considered a potential tool for the supply of insulin-producing cells (IPC) generation in vitro. Stem cell differentiation in to pancreatic lineages requires influence of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Application of islet growth factors is considered to be potential for enhancement of beta-cell replication, function and survival. Use of certain extrinsic factors is known to facilitate expression of transcription factors known to be important for beta-cell differentiation and production of insulin enabling IPC generation. Hierarchies of secreted signals and transcription factors have been identified by studies from several laboratories that guide cell differentiation in to IPC. This knowledge provides insights for in vitro IPC differentiation from stem cells. Current advancement in medical knowledge promises an insulin independency for DM patients. The review sheds light on few specific extrinsic factors which facilitate differentiation of stem cells in to IPC in vitro have been discussed; which can be proven as a potential therapeutic option for treatment of DM and associated diseases.

  20. B-cell exposure to self-antigen induces IL-10 producing B cells as well as IL-6- and TNF-α-producing B-cell subsets in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Anina; Kristensen, Birte; Hansen, Bjarke E

    2012-01-01

    Human B cells are able to secrete IL-10 after stimulation with mitogens, but their ability to produce IL-10 and regulate T-cell responses after stimulation with self-antigens is unclear. We co-cultured thyroglobulin-pulsed B cells from healthy donors with autologous T cells and observed production...... of IL-10 and TGF-β, in addition to TNF-α and IL-6. Pulsing with foreign antigen, tetanus toxoid (TT), induced a Th1-response with minimal IL-10 production. After thyroglobulin-pulsing, 1.10±0.50% of B cells and 1.00±0.20% of CD4(+) T cells produced IL-10, compared to 0.29±0.19% of B cells (P=0.01) and 0.......13±0.15% of CD4(+) T cells (P=0.006) following TT-pulsing. Thyroglobulin-stimulated, IL-10-secreting B cells were enriched within CD5(+) and CD24(high) cells. While thyroglobulin-pulsed B cells induced only modest proliferation of CD4(+) T cells, B cells pulsed with TT induced vigorous proliferation. Thus, B...

  1. Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin Producing Cells by Using A Lentiviral Vector Carrying PDX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdi, Amir; Abroun, Saied; Jafarian, Arefeh; Soleimani, Masoud; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Eskandari, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Type I diabetes is an immunologically-mediated devastation of insulin producing cells (IPCs) in the pancreatic islet. Stem cells that produce β-cells are a new promising tool. Adult stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self renewing multi potent cells showing capabilities to differentiate into ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal tissues. Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor 1 (PDX1) is a master regulator gene required for embryonic development of the pancreas and is crucial for normal pancreatic islets activities in adults. We induced the over-expression of the PDX1 gene in human bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) by Lenti-PDX1 in order to generate IPCs. Next, we examine the ability of the cells by measuring insulin/c-peptide production and INSULIN and PDX1 gene expressions. After transduction, MSCs changed their morphology at day 5 and gradually differentiated into IPCs. INSULIN and PDX1 expressions were confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunostaining. IPC secreted insulin and C-peptide in the media that contained different glucose concentrations. MSCs differentiated into IPCs by genetic manipulation. Our result showed that lentiviral vectors could deliver PDX1 gene to MSCs and induce pancreatic differentiation.

  2. Generation of a monoclonal antibody against the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked protein Rae-1 using genetically engineered tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiemiao; Vien, Long T; Xia, Xueqing; Bover, Laura; Li, Shulin

    2014-02-04

    Although genetically engineered cells have been used to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against numerous proteins, no study has used them to generate mAbs against glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. The GPI-linked protein Rae-1, an NKG2D ligand member, is responsible for interacting with immune surveillance cells. However, very few high-quality mAbs against Rae-1 are available for use in multiple analyses, including Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. The lack of high-quality mAbs limits the in-depth analysis of Rae-1 fate, such as shedding and internalization, in murine models. Moreover, currently available screening approaches for identifying high-quality mAbs are excessively time-consuming and costly. We used Rae-1-overexpressing CT26 tumor cells to generate 60 hybridomas that secreted mAbs against Rae-1. We also developed a streamlined screening strategy for selecting the best anti-Rae-1 mAb for use in flow cytometry assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and immunostaining. Our cell line-based immunization approach can yield mAbs against GPI-anchored proteins, and our streamlined screening strategy can be used to select the ideal hybridoma for producing such mAbs.

  3. B-cell infiltration and frequency of cytokine producing cells differ between localized and disseminated human cutaneous leishmaniases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MGS Vieira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Biopsies from human localized cutaneous lesions (LCL n = 7 or disseminated lesions (DL n = 8 cases were characterized according to cellular infiltration,frequency of cytokine (IFN-g, TNF-alpha or iNOS enzyme producing cells. LCL, the most usual form of the disease with usually one or two lesions, exhibits extensive tissue damage. DL is a rare form with widespread lesions throughout the body; exhibiting poor parasite containment but less tissue damage. We demonstrated that LCL lesions exhibit higher frequency of B lymphocytes and a higher intensity of IFN-gamma expression. In both forms of the disease CD8+ were found in higher frequency than CD4+ T cells. Frequency of TNF-alpha and iNOS producing cells, as well as the frequency of CD68+ macrophages, did not differ between LCL and DL. Our findings reinforce the link between an efficient control of parasite and tissue damage, implicating higher frequency of IFN-gamma producing cells, as well as its possible counteraction by infiltrated B cells and hence possible humoral immune response in situ.

  4. IL-9-producing cells in the development of IgE-mediated food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shik, Dana; Tomar, Sunil; Lee, Jee-Boong; Chen, Chun-Yu; Smith, Andrew; Wang, Yui-Hsi

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy is a harmful immune reaction driven by uncontrolled type 2 immune responses. Considerable evidence demonstrates the key roles of mast cells, IgE, and TH2 cytokines in mediating food allergy. However, this evidence provides limited insight into why only some, rather than all, food allergic individuals are prone to develop life-threatening anaphylaxis. Clinical observations suggest that patients sensitized to food through the skin early in life may later develop severe food allergies. Aberrant epidermal thymic stromal lymphopoietin and interleukin (IL) 33 production and genetic predisposition can initiate an allergic immune response mediated by dendritic cells and CD4 + TH2 cells in inflamed skin. After allergic sensitization, intestinal IL-25 and food ingestion enhance concerted interactions between type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and CD4 + TH2 cells, which perpetuate allergic reactions from the skin to the gut. IL-4 and cross-linking of antigen/IgE/FcεR complexes induce emigrated mast cell progenitors to develop into the multi-functional IL-9-producing mucosal mast cells, which produce prodigious amounts of IL-9 and mast cell mediators to drive intestinal mastocytosis in an autocrine loop. ILC2s and TH9 cells may also serve as alternative cellular sources of IL-9 to augment the amplification of intestinal mastocytosis, which is the key cellular checkpoint in developing systemic anaphylaxis. These findings provide a plausible view of how food allergy develops and progresses in a stepwise manner and that atopic signals, dietary allergen ingestion, and inflammatory cues are fundamental in promoting life-threatening anaphylaxis. This information will aid in improving diagnosis and developing more effective therapies for food allergy-triggered anaphylaxis.

  5. Induced ICER Iγ down-regulates cyclin A expression and cell proliferation in insulin-producing β cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Akari; Weir, Gordon C.; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2005-01-01

    We have previously found that cyclin A expression is markedly reduced in pancreatic β-cells by cell-specific overexpression of repressor inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER Iγ) in transgenic mice. Here we further examined regulatory effects of ICER Iγ on cyclin A gene expression using Min6 cells, an insulin-producing cell line. The cyclin A promoter luciferase assay showed that ICER Iγ directly repressed cyclin A gene transcription. In addition, upon ICER Iγ overexpression, cyclin A mRNA levels markedly decreased, thereby confirming an inhibitory effect of ICER Iγ on cyclin A expression. Suppression of cyclin A results in inhibition of BrdU incorporation. Under normal culture conditions endogenous cyclin A is abundant in these cells, whereas ICER is hardly detectable. However, serum starvation of Min6 cells induces ICER Iγ expression with a concomitant very low expression level of cyclin A. Cyclin A protein is not expressed unless the cells are in active DNA replication. These results indicate a potentially important anti-proliferative effect of ICER Iγ in pancreatic β cells. Since ICER Iγ is greatly increased in diabetes as well as in FFA- or high glucose-treated islets, this effect may in part exacerbate diabetes by limiting β-cell proliferation

  6. Inaccurate DNA synthesis in cell extracts of yeast producing active human DNA polymerase iota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Alena V; Grabow, Corinn; Gening, Leonid V; Tarantul, Vyacheslav Z; Tahirov, Tahir H; Bessho, Tadayoshi; Pavlov, Youri I

    2011-01-31

    Mammalian Pol ι has an unusual combination of properties: it is stimulated by Mn(2+) ions, can bypass some DNA lesions and misincorporates "G" opposite template "T" more frequently than incorporates the correct "A." We recently proposed a method of detection of Pol ι activity in animal cell extracts, based on primer extension opposite the template T with a high concentration of only two nucleotides, dGTP and dATP (incorporation of "G" versus "A" method of Gening, abbreviated as "misGvA"). We provide unambiguous proof of the "misGvA" approach concept and extend the applicability of the method for the studies of variants of Pol ι in the yeast model system with different cation cofactors. We produced human Pol ι in baker's yeast, which do not have a POLI ortholog. The "misGvA" activity is absent in cell extracts containing an empty vector, or producing catalytically dead Pol ι, or Pol ι lacking exon 2, but is robust in the strain producing wild-type Pol ι or its catalytic core, or protein with the active center L62I mutant. The signature pattern of primer extension products resulting from inaccurate DNA synthesis by extracts of cells producing either Pol ι or human Pol η is different. The DNA sequence of the template is critical for the detection of the infidelity of DNA synthesis attributed to DNA Pol ι. The primer/template and composition of the exogenous DNA precursor pool can be adapted to monitor replication fidelity in cell extracts expressing various error-prone Pols or mutator variants of accurate Pols. Finally, we demonstrate that the mutation rates in yeast strains producing human DNA Pols ι and η are not elevated over the control strain, despite highly inaccurate DNA synthesis by their extracts.

  7. Inaccurate DNA synthesis in cell extracts of yeast producing active human DNA polymerase iota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena V Makarova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian Pol ι has an unusual combination of properties: it is stimulated by Mn(2+ ions, can bypass some DNA lesions and misincorporates "G" opposite template "T" more frequently than incorporates the correct "A." We recently proposed a method of detection of Pol ι activity in animal cell extracts, based on primer extension opposite the template T with a high concentration of only two nucleotides, dGTP and dATP (incorporation of "G" versus "A" method of Gening, abbreviated as "misGvA". We provide unambiguous proof of the "misGvA" approach concept and extend the applicability of the method for the studies of variants of Pol ι in the yeast model system with different cation cofactors. We produced human Pol ι in baker's yeast, which do not have a POLI ortholog. The "misGvA" activity is absent in cell extracts containing an empty vector, or producing catalytically dead Pol ι, or Pol ι lacking exon 2, but is robust in the strain producing wild-type Pol ι or its catalytic core, or protein with the active center L62I mutant. The signature pattern of primer extension products resulting from inaccurate DNA synthesis by extracts of cells producing either Pol ι or human Pol η is different. The DNA sequence of the template is critical for the detection of the infidelity of DNA synthesis attributed to DNA Pol ι. The primer/template and composition of the exogenous DNA precursor pool can be adapted to monitor replication fidelity in cell extracts expressing various error-prone Pols or mutator variants of accurate Pols. Finally, we demonstrate that the mutation rates in yeast strains producing human DNA Pols ι and η are not elevated over the control strain, despite highly inaccurate DNA synthesis by their extracts.

  8. Health status and productive performance of somatic cell cloned cattle and their offspring produced in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinya; Nagai, Takashi

    2008-02-01

    Since the first somatic cell cloned calves were born in Japan in 1998, more than 500 cloned cattle have been produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and many studies concerning cloned cattle and their offspring have been conducted in this country. However, most of the results have been published in Japanese; thus, the data produced in this country is not well utilized by researchers throughout the world. This article reviews the 65 reports produced by Japanese researchers (62 written in Japanese and 3 written in English), which employed 171 clones and 32 offspring, and categorizes them according to the following 7 categories: (1) genetic similarities and muzzle prints, (2) hematology and clinical chemistry findings, (3) pathology, (4) growth performance, (5) reproductive performance, (6) meat production performance and (7) milk production performance. No remarkable differences in health status or reproductive performance were found among conventionally bred cattle, somatic cell cloned cattle surviving to adulthood and offspring of somatic cell cloned cattle. Similarities in growth performance and meat quality were observed between nuclear donor cattle and their clones. The growth curves of the offspring resembled those of their full siblings.

  9. Gamma-radiation produces abnormal Bergmann fibers and ectopic granule cells in mouse cerebellar cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inouye, Minoru; Hayasaka, Shizu; Funahashi, Atsushi; Yamamura, Hideki

    1992-01-01

    Morphological changes in Bergmann glial fibers in the developing cerebellar cortex produced by exposure to gamma-rays were investigated in association with ectopic granule cells. Six-day-old mice that had been exposed to 3 Gy of gamma-radiation were killed 6 hours after exposure or at 7 through 30 days of age. Their cerebella were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for glial fibrillary acidic protein in Bergmann fibers. Extensive cell death took place in the external granular layer (EGL) of the cerebellum from 6 through 24 hours after exposure. This led to the thinning of the EGL and a decrease in the number of migrating cells in the molecular layer. The number of Bergmann cells was not decreased, but the fibers in the molecular layer were distorted; whereas, in the control these fibers were straight and perpendicular to the pial surface. The EGL began to recover 2 days after exposure, and abnormally oriented migrating cells were seen. At 17 days of age, some cell clustering was observed in the molecular layer of the irradiated cerebellum. Distortion of the Bergmann fibers was marked in regions where ectopic granule cells appeared at 30 days of age. These findings suggest that the distortion of Bergmann fibers leads to the production of ectopic granule cells after exposure to gamma-radiation. (author)

  10. New cell line development for antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary cells using split green fluorescent protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yeon-Gu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The establishment of high producer is an important issue in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell culture considering increased heterogeneity by the random integration of a transfected foreign gene and the altered position of the integrated gene. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS-based cell line development is an efficient strategy for the selection of CHO cells in high therapeutic protein production. Results An internal ribosome entry site (IRES was introduced for using two green fluorescence protein (GFP fragments as a reporter to both antibody chains, the heavy chain and the light chain. The cells co-transfected with two GFP fragments showed the emission of green fluorescence by the reconstitution of split GFP. The FACS-sorted pool with GFP expression had a higher specific antibody productivity (qAb than that of the unsorted pool. The qAb was highly correlated with the fluorescence intensity with a high correlation coefficient, evidenced from the analysis of median GFP and qAb in individual selected clones. Conclusions This study proved that the fragment complementation for split GFP could be an efficient indication for antibody production on the basis of high correlation of qAb with reconstitution of GFP. Taken together, we developed an efficient FACS-based screening method for high antibody-producing CHO cells with the benefits of the split GFP system.

  11. [Cloning goat producing human lactoferrin with genetically modified donor cells selected by single or dual markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Liyou; Yuan, Yuguo; Yu, Baoli; Yang, Tingjia; Cheng, Yong

    2012-12-01

    We compared the efficiency of cloning goat using human lactoferrin (hLF) with genetically modified donor cells marked by single (Neo(r)) or double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers. Single marker expression vector (pBLC14) or dual markers expression vector (pAPLM) was delivered to goat fetal fibroblasts (GFF), and then the transgenic GFF was used as donor cells to produce transgenic goats. Respectively, 58.8% (20/34) and 86.7% (26/30) resistant cell lines confirmed the transgenic integration by PCR. Moreover, pAPLM cells lines were subcultured with several passages, only 20% (6/30) cell lines was observed fluorescence from each cell during the cell passage. Somatic cell nuclear transfer using the donor cells harbouring pBLC14 or pAPLM construct, resulting in a total of 806 reconstructed embryos, a pregnancy rate at 35 d (53.8%, 39.1%) and 60 d (26.9%, 21.7%), and an offspring birth rate (1.9%, 1.4%) with 5 and 7 newborn cloned goats, respectively. Transgene was confirmed by PCR and southern-blot in all cloned offspring. There were no significant differences at the reconstructed embryo fusion rates, pregnancy rates and the birth rate (P > 0.05) between single and double markers groups. The Neo(r)/GFP double markers could improve the reliability for accurately and efficiently selecting the genetically modified donor cells. No adverse effect was observed on the efficiency of transgenic goat production by SCNT using somatic cells transfected with double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers vector.

  12. Embryonic stem-like cells derived from in vitro produced bovine blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Regina Leal de Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the derivation of bovine embryonic stem-like (ES-like cells from the inner cell mass (ICM of in vitro produced blastocysts. The ICMs were mechanically isolated and six out of seventeen (35% ICMs could attach to a monolayer of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF. Ten days after, primary outgrowths were mechanically dissected into several small clumps and transferred to a new MEF layer. Cells were further propagated and passaged by physical dissociation over a 60 days period. The pluripotency of the bovine ES-like cells was confirmed by RT-PCR of Oct-4 and STAT-3 gene markers. The colonies were weakly stained for alkaline phosphatase and the mesoderm and endoderm differentiation gene markers such as GATA-4 and Flk-1, respectively, were not expressed. Embryoid bodies were spontaneously formed at the seventh passage. Results showed that bovine ES-like cells could be obtained and passaged by mechanical procedures from the fresh in vitro produced blastocysts.

  13. Ultrastructural changes produced in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells by ultraviolet-visible radiation in the presence of melanins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, P.J.; Pawlowski, A.; Persad, S.D.; Menon, I.A.; Haberman, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in the presence of pheomelanin, i.e., red hair melanin (RHM), has been reported to produce extensive cell lysis. Irradiation in the presence of eumelanin, i.e., black hair melanin (BHM), or irradiation in the absence of either type of melanin did not produce this effect. We observed that RHM particles penetrated the cell membrane without apparent structural damage to the cell or the cell membrane. Irradiation of the cells in the absence of melanin did not produce any changes in the ultrastructure of the cells. Incubation of the cells in the dark in the presence of RHM produced only minor structural, mainly cytoplasmic changes. Irradiation of the cells in the presence of RHM produced extensive ultrastructural changes prior to complete cell lysis; these changes were more severe than the effects of incubation of the cells in the dark in the presence of RHM. When the cells incubated in the dark or irradiated in the presence of latex particles or either one of the eumelanins particles, viz. BHM or synthetic dopa melanin, these particles did not penetrate into the cells or produce any ultrastructural changes. These particles were in fact not even ingested by the cells.

  14. HCV Specific IL-21 Producing T Cells but Not IL-17A Producing T Cells Are Associated with HCV Viral Control in HIV/HCV Coinfection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya A MacParland

    Full Text Available Decreased hepatitis C virus (HCV clearance, faster cirrhosis progression and higher HCV RNA levels are associated with Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV coinfection. The CD4+ T helper cytokines interleukin (IL-21 and IL-17A are associated with virus control and inflammation, respectively, both important in HCV and HIV disease progression. Here, we examined how antigen-specific production of these cytokines during HCV mono and HIV/HCV coinfection was associated with HCV virus control.We measured HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A production by transwell cytokine secretion assay in PBMCs from monoinfected and coinfected individuals. Viral control was determined by plasma HCV RNA levels.In acutely infected individuals, those able to establish transient/complete HCV viral control tended to have stronger HCV-specific IL-21-production than non-controllers. HCV-specific IL-21 production also correlated with HCV viral decline in acute infection. Significantly stronger HCV-specific IL-21 production was detected in HAART-treated coinfected individuals. HCV-specific IL-17A production was not associated with lower plasma HCV RNA levels in acute or chronic HCV infection and responses were stronger in HIV coinfection. HCV-specific IL-21/ IL-17A responses did not correlate with microbial translocation or fibrosis. Exogenous IL-21 treatment of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells from monoinfected individuals enhanced their function although CD8+ T cells from coinfected individuals were somewhat refractory to the effects of IL-21.These data show that HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A-producing T cells are induced in HIV/HCV coinfection. In early HIV/HCV coinfection, IL-21 may contribute to viral control, and may represent a novel tool to enhance acute HCV clearance in HIV/HCV coinfected individuals.

  15. γδ T cells producing interleukin-17A regulate adipose regulatory T cell homeostasis and thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlgruber, Ayano C; Gal-Oz, Shani T; LaMarche, Nelson M; Shimazaki, Moto; Duquette, Danielle; Nguyen, Hung N; Mina, Amir I; Paras, Tyler; Tavakkoli, Ali; von Andrian, Ulrich; Banks, Alexander S; Shay, Tal; Brenner, Michael B; Lynch, Lydia

    2018-05-01

    γδ T cells are situated at barrier sites and guard the body from infection and damage. However, little is known about their roles outside of host defense in nonbarrier tissues. Here, we characterize a highly enriched tissue-resident population of γδ T cells in adipose tissue that regulate age-dependent regulatory T cell (T reg ) expansion and control core body temperature in response to environmental fluctuations. Mechanistically, innate PLZF + γδ T cells produced tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL) 17 A and determined PDGFRα + and Pdpn + stromal-cell production of IL-33 in adipose tissue. Mice lacking γδ T cells or IL-17A exhibited decreases in both ST2 + T reg cells and IL-33 abundance in visceral adipose tissue. Remarkably, these mice also lacked the ability to regulate core body temperature at thermoneutrality and after cold challenge. Together, these findings uncover important physiological roles for resident γδ T cells in adipose tissue immune homeostasis and body-temperature control.

  16. ADAM12 produced by tumor cells rather than stromal cells accelerates breast tumor progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohlich, Camilla; Nehammer, Camilla; Albrechtsen, Reidar

    2011-01-01

    that ADAM12 deficiency reduces breast tumor progression in the PyMT model. However, the catalytic activity of ADAM12 appears to be dispensable for its tumor-promoting effect. Interestingly, we demonstrate that ADAM12 endogenously expressed in tumor-associated stroma in the PyMT model does not influence......Expression of ADAM12 is low in most normal tissues, but is markedly increased in numerous human cancers, including breast carcinomas. We have previously shown that overexpression of ADAM12 accelerates tumor progression in a mouse model of breast cancer (PyMT). In the present study, we found...... hypothesized, however, that the tumor-associated stroma may stimulate ADAM12 expression in tumor cells, based on the fact that TGF-ß1 stimulates ADAM12 expression and is a well-known growth factor released from tumor-associated stroma. TGF-ß1 stimulation of ADAM12-negative Lewis lung tumor cells induced ADAM12...

  17. Distinct cytokines balance the development of regulatory T cells and interleukin-10-producing regulatory B cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holáň, Vladimír; Zajícová, Alena; Javorková, Eliška; Trošan, Peter; Chudíčková, Milada; Pavlíková, M.; Krulová, Magdaléna

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 4 (2014), s. 577-586 ISSN 0019-2805 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT14102; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/1568; GA ČR GAP304/11/0653 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Autoregulation * B cells * Cytokines Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 3.795, year: 2014

  18. Electroendocytosis is driven by the binding of electrochemically produced protons to the cell's surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadav Ben-Dov

    Full Text Available Electroendocytosis involves the exposure of cells to pulsed low electric field and is emerging as a complementary method to electroporation for the incorporation of macromolecules into cells. The present study explores the underlying mechanism of electroendocytosis and its dependence on electrochemical byproducts formed at the electrode interface. Cell suspensions were exposed to pulsed low electric field in a partitioned device where cells are spatially restricted relative to the electrodes. The cellular uptake of dextran-FITC was analyzed by flow cytometery and visualized by confocal microscopy. We first show that uptake occurs only in cells adjacent to the anode. The enhanced uptake near the anode is found to depend on electric current density rather than on electric field strength, in the range of 5 to 65 V/cm. Electrochemically produced oxidative species that impose intracellular oxidative stress, do not play any role in the stimulated uptake. An inverse dependence is found between electrically induced uptake and the solution's buffer capacity. Electroendocytosis can be mimicked by chemically acidifying the extracellular solution which promotes the enhanced uptake of dextran polymers and the uptake of plasmid DNA. Electrochemical production of protons at the anode interface is responsible for inducing uptake of macromolecules into cells exposed to a pulsed low electric field. Expanding the understanding of the mechanism involved in electric fields induced drug-delivery into cells, is expected to contribute to clinical therapy applications in the future.

  19. Generation of glucose-responsive, insulin-producing cells from human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakar, Kamalaveni R; Domínguez-Bendala, Juan; Molano, R Damaris; Pileggi, Antonello; Villate, Susana; Ricordi, Camillo; Inverardi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    We sought to assess the potential of human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSCs) to derive insulin-producing, glucose-responsive cells. We show here that differentiation protocols based on stepwise culture conditions initially described for human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) lead to differentiation of cord blood-derived precursors towards a pancreatic endocrine phenotype, as assessed by marker expression and in vitro glucose-regulated insulin secretion. Transplantation of these cells in immune-deficient animals shows human C-peptide production in response to a glucose challenge. These data suggest that human cord blood may be a promising source for regenerative medicine approaches for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  20. VH repertoire in progeny of long term lymphoid-cultured cells used to reconstitute immunodeficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, K.A.; Timson, L.K.; Witte, O.N.

    1989-01-01

    VH gene utilization in the progeny of long term lymphoid-cultured cells used for reconstitution of severe combined immunodeficient mice under varying conditions was determined. Hybridomas made from the spleens of these animals were evaluated for clonality and donor origin and a panel of 146 independent hybridomas were subsequently examined for VH expression. Hybridomas derived from the spleens of SCID mice reconstituted with fresh cells, used as a control, utilized VH families in proportion to their numerical representation in the genome. However, hybridomas from the spleens of mice reconstituted with long term cultured cells utilized a predominance of the two VH gene families most proximal to JH, characteristic of cells early in B lymphocyte development. Coinjection of thymocytes with cultured fetal liver cells, to provide good levels of T lymphocytes, did not alter this pattern of VH utilization. Irradiation (3 Gy) of the mice before cultured cell injection, which leads to more complete reconstitution of the B cell compartment, was effective in removing this bias in the VH repertoire. Hybridomas derived from these mice expressed their VH genes more in proportion to family size, characteristic of cells later in B lymphocyte development. In this manner, long term lymphoid-cultured cells can be used to study the transitions that occur in VH repertoire expression which appear to be mediated by either B lymphocyte developmental microenvironment or population size

  1. Mitochondrial Respiration in Insulin-Producing β-Cells: General Characteristics and Adaptive Effects of Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hals, Ingrid K; Bruerberg, Simon Gustafson; Ma, Zuheng; Scholz, Hanne; Björklund, Anneli; Grill, Valdemar

    2015-01-01

    To provide novel insights on mitochondrial respiration in β-cells and the adaptive effects of hypoxia. Insulin-producing INS-1 832/13 cells were exposed to 18 hours of hypoxia followed by 20-22 hours re-oxygenation. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry in both intact and permeabilized cells, in the latter after establishing three functional substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration (SUIT) protocols. Concomitant measurements included proteins of mitochondrial complexes (Western blotting), ATP and insulin secretion. Intact cells exhibited a high degree of intrinsic uncoupling, comprising about 50% of oxygen consumption in the basal respiratory state. Hypoxia followed by re-oxygenation increased maximal overall respiration. Exploratory experiments in peremabilized cells could not show induction of respiration by malate or pyruvate as reducing substrates, thus glutamate and succinate were used as mitochondrial substrates in SUIT protocols. Permeabilized cells displayed a high capacity for oxidative phosphorylation for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in relation to maximum capacity of electron transfer. Previous hypoxia decreased phosphorylation control of complex I-linked respiration, but not in complex II-linked respiration. Coupling control ratios showed increased coupling efficiency for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in hypoxia-exposed cells. Respiratory rates overall were increased. Also previous hypoxia increased proteins of mitochondrial complexes I and II (Western blotting) in INS-1 cells as well as in rat and human islets. Mitochondrial effects were accompanied by unchanged levels of ATP, increased basal and preserved glucose-induced insulin secretion. Exposure of INS-1 832/13 cells to hypoxia, followed by a re-oxygenation period increases substrate-stimulated respiratory capacity and coupling efficiency. Such effects are accompanied by up-regulation of mitochondrial complexes also in pancreatic islets

  2. Virus-producing cells determine the host protein profiles of HIV-1 virion cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Upon HIV entry into target cells, viral cores are released and rearranged into reverse transcription complexes (RTCs), which support reverse transcription and also protect and transport viral cDNA to the site of integration. RTCs are composed of viral and cellular proteins that originate from both target and producer cells, the latter entering the target cell within the viral core. However, the proteome of HIV-1 viral cores in the context of the type of producer cells has not yet been characterized. Results We examined the proteomic profiles of the cores purified from HIV-1 NL4-3 virions assembled in Sup-T1 cells (T lymphocytes), PMA and vitamin D3 activated THP1 (model of macrophages, mMΦ), and non-activated THP1 cells (model of monocytes, mMN) and assessed potential involvement of identified proteins in the early stages of infection using gene ontology information and data from genome-wide screens on proteins important for HIV-1 replication. We identified 202 cellular proteins incorporated in the viral cores (T cells: 125, mMΦ: 110, mMN: 90) with the overlap between these sets limited to 42 proteins. The groups of RNA binding (29), DNA binding (17), cytoskeleton (15), cytoskeleton regulation (21), chaperone (18), vesicular trafficking-associated (12) and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-associated proteins (9) were most numerous. Cores of the virions from SupT1 cells contained twice as many RNA binding proteins as cores of THP1-derived virus, whereas cores of virions from mMΦ and mMN were enriched in components of cytoskeleton and vesicular transport machinery, most probably due to differences in virion assembly pathways between these cells. Spectra of chaperones, cytoskeletal proteins and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway components were similar between viral cores from different cell types, whereas DNA-binding and especially RNA-binding proteins were highly diverse. Western blot analysis showed that within the group of overlapping proteins, the level of

  3. Anticancer Effects of Geopropolis Produced by Stingless Bees on Canine Osteosarcoma Cells In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Cinegaglia, Naiara Costa; Bersano, Paulo Ricardo Oliveira; Ara?jo, Maria Jos? Abigail Mendes; B?falo, Michelle Cristiane; Sforcin, Jos? Maur?cio

    2013-01-01

    Geopropolis is produced by indigenous stingless bees from the resinous material of plants, adding soil or clay. Its biological properties have not been investigated, such as propolis, and herein its cytotoxic action on canine osteosarcoma (OSA) cells was evaluated. OSA is a primary bone neoplasm diagnosed in dogs being an excellent model in vivo to study human OSA. spOS-2 primary cultures were isolated from the tumor of a dog with osteosarcoma and incubated with geopropolis, 70% ethanol (geop...

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells derived in vitro transdifferentiated insulin-producing cells: A new approach to treat type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Dave

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is largely related to an innate defect in the immune system culminating in a loss of self-tolerance and destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells. Currently, there is no definitive cure for T1DM. Insulin injection does not mimic the precise regulation of β-cells on glucose homeostasis, leading long term to the development of complications. Stem cell therapy is a promising approach and specifically mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs offer a promising possibility that deserves to be explored further. MSCs are multipotent, nonhematopoietic progenitors. They have been explored as an treatment option in tissue regeneration as well as potential of in vitro transdifferentiation into insulin-secreting cells. Thus, the major therapeutic goals for T1DM have been achieved in this way. The regenerative capabilities of MSCs have been a driving force to initiate studies testing their therapeutic effectiveness; their immunomodulatory properties have been equally exciting; which would appear capable of disabling immune dysregulation that leads to β-cell destruction in T1DM. Furthermore, MSCs can be cultured under specially defined conditions, their transdifferentiation can be directed toward the β-cell phenotype, and the formation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs can be targeted. To date, the role of MSCs-derived IPC in T1DM-a unique approach with some positive findings-have been unexplored, but it is still in its very early phase. In this study, a new approach of MSCs-derived IPCs, as a potential therapeutic benefit for T1DM in experimental animal models as well as in humans has been summarized.

  5. CD4+FOXP3+ cells produce IL-10 in the spleens of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira; de Andrade, Mariana M C; Melo, Larissa M; Perosso, Juliana; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri O; Munari, Danisio P; Lima, Valéria M F

    2014-05-28

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by intracellular parasites of the genus Leishmania that affect humans and several animal species. Dogs are one of the main urban reservoirs of the parasite and play a central role in the transmission cycle to humans via sandflies. Studies concerning the immune response in dogs with VL have demonstrated that protective immunity is associated with cellular immune response, while disease progression is associated with humoral response and IL-10 and TGF-β production. The study aimed to evaluate IL-10 and TGF-β production by regulatory T (Treg) cells in the blood and spleen of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania spp. and correlate this with parasite load. Five healthy dogs and 29 dogs with proven infection were selected for the study group. Real-time PCR was used to quantify parasite load and confirm infection by Leishmania spp. Treg cells producing IL-10 and TGF-β were quantified using flow cytometry. An increase in IL-10 production by Treg cells was verified in the spleen of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania spp. Concurrently, a decrease in the total number of T cells in these dogs was verified compared with healthy dogs. No association was determined between parasite load and the percentage of spleen Treg cells producing IL-10 and TGF-β. These findings suggest that Treg cells are an important source of IL-10 in the spleen, participating in immune response modulation, while the reduced percentage of these cells in infected dogs could be attributed to persistent immune activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal of Cadmium and Zinc from Soil using Immobilized Cell of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charoon Sarin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized biosurfactant producing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis TP8 and Pseudomonas fluorescens G7 were assessed for survival in heavy metal contaminated soil and for their ability to remove cadmium and zinc from contaminated soil. P. fluorescens G7 was considered to be a good candidate for bioremediation of heavy metals because of its high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for each heavy metal and because of the obviously increased numbers of cell surviving after incubation in the heavy metal contaminated soil up to 4 weeks. The results of soil remediation showed that approximately 19% of Zn and 16.7% of Cd could be removed by this immobilized biosurfactant producing bacteria after incubation for 2 weeks. The results confirm the potential applicability of the immobilized biosurfactant producing bacteria for heavy metal bioremediation.

  7. miR-375 induces human decidua basalis-derived stromal cells to become insulin-producing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaer, Anahita; Azarpira, Negar; Vahdati, Akbar; Karimi, Mohammad Hosein; Shariati, Mehrdad

    2014-09-01

    This paper focuses on the development of renewable sources of isletreplacement tissue for the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus. Placental tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising source for regenerative medicine due to their plasticity and easy availability. They have the potential to differentiate into insulin-producing cells. miR-375 is a micro RNA that is expressed in the pancreas and involved in islet development. Human placental decidua basalis MSCs (PDB-MSCs) were cultured from full-term human placenta. The immunophenotype of the isolated cells was checked for CD90, CD105, CD44, CD133 and CD34 markers. The MSCs (P3) were chemically transfected with hsa-miR-375. Total RNA was extracted 4 and 6 days after transfection. The expressions of insulin, NGN3, GLUT2, PAX4, PAX6, KIR6.2, NKX6.1, PDX1, and glucagon genes were evaluated using real-time qPCR. On day 6, we tested the potency of the clusters in response to the high glucose challenge and assessed the presence of insulin and NGN3 proteins via immunocytochemistry. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that more than 90% of the cells were positive for CD90, CD105 and CD44 and negative for CD133 and CD34. Morphological changes were followed from day 2. Cell clusters formed during day 6. Insulin-producing clusters showed a deep red color with DTZ. The expression of pancreatic-specific transcription factors increased remarkably during the four days after transfection and significantly increased on day 7. The clusters were positive for insulin and NGN3 proteins, and C-peptide and insulin secretion increased in response to changes in the glucose concentration (2.8 mM and 16.7 mM). In conclusion, the MSCs could be programmed into functional insulin-producing cells by transfection of miR-375.

  8. Detection of cyclobutane thymine dimers in DNA of human cells with monoclonal antibodies raised against a thymine dimer-containing tetranucleotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roza, L; Wulp, K.J.M. van der; MacFarlane, S J; Lohman, P H.M.; Baan, R A

    1988-11-01

    A hybrid cell line (hybridoma) has been isolated after fusion between mouse-plasmacytoma cells and spleen cells from mice immunized with a thymine dimer-containing tetranucleotide coupled to a carrier protein. Monoclonal antibodies produced by this hybridoma were characterized by testing the effect of various inhibitors in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The antibodies have a high specificity for thymine dimers in single-stranded DNA or poly(dT), but do not bind UV-irradiated d(TpC)/sub 5/. Less binding is observed with short thymine dimer-containing sequences. In vitro treatment of UV-irradiated DNA with photoreactivating enzyme in the presence of light, or with Micrococcus luteus UV-endonuclease results in disappearance of antigenicity. Antibody-binding to DNA isolated from UV-irradiated human fibroblasts (at 254 nm) is linear with dose. Removal of thymine dimers in these cells during a post-irradiation incubation, as detected with the antibodies, is fast initially but the rate rapidly decreases (about 50% residual dimers at 20 h after 10 J/m/sup 2/). The induction of thymine dimers in human skin irradiated with low doses of UV-B, too, was demonstrated immunochemically, by ELISA as well as by quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy.

  9. Simulation study of a PEM fuel cell system fed by hydrogen produced by partial oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdogan, S [Marmara University, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey); Ersoz, A; Olgun, H [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Energy Systems and Environmental Research Institute, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    Within the frame of sustainable development, efficient and clean, if possible zero emission energy production technologies are of utmost importance in various sectors such as utilities, industry, households and transportation. Low-temperature fuel cell systems are suitable for powering transportation systems such as automobiles and trucks in an efficient and low-emitting manner. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems constitute the most promising low temperature fuel cell option being developed globally. PEM fuel cells generate electric power from air and hydrogen or from a hydrogen rich gas via electrochemical reactions. Water and waste heat are the only by-products of PEM fuel cells. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based common transportation fuels such as gasoline and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells. Hydrogen rich gases can be produced from conventional transportation fuels via various reforming technologies. Steam reforming, partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming are the three major reforming technologies. In this paper, we discuss the results of a simulation study for a PEM fuel cell with partial oxidation. The Aspen HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Two liquid hydrocarbon fuels have been selected to investigate the effect of average molecular weights of hydrocarbons, on the fuel processing efficiency. The overall system efficiency depends on the fuel preparation and fuel cell efficiencies as well as on the heat integration within the system. It is desired to investigate the overall system efficiencies for net electrical power production at 100 kW considering bigger scale transport applications. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel preparation system operating parameters and PEM fuel cell polarization curve characteristics all affect the overall system efficiency. (authors)

  10. Release kinetics and cell viability of ibuprofen nanocrystals produced by melt-emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A R; Dias-Ferreira, J; Cabral, C; Garcia, M L; Souto, E B

    2018-06-01

    The clinical use of poorly water-soluble drugs has become a big challenge in pharmaceutical development due to the compromised bioavailability of the drugs in vivo. Nanocrystals have been proposed as a formulation strategy to improve the dissolution properties of these drugs. The benefits of using nanocrystals in drug delivery, when compared to other nanoparticles, are related to their production facilities, simple structure, and suitability for a variety of administration routes. High pressure homogenization (HPH) is the most promising production process, which can be employed at low or high temperatures. Ibuprofen nanocrystals with a mean size below 175 nm, and polydispersity below 0.18, have been produced by melt-emulsification, followed by HPH. Two nanocrystal formulations, differing on the surfactant composition, have been produced, their in vitro ibuprofen release tested in Franz diffusion cells and adjusted to several kinetic models (zero order, first order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Baker-Lonsdale and Weibull model). Cell viability was assessed at 3, 6 and 24 h of incubation on human epithelial colorectal cells (Caco-2) by AlamarBlue ® colorimetric assay. For both formulations, Caco-2 cells viability was dependent on the drug concentration and time of exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Investigation of emergency capacities for occupational hazard accidents in silicon solar cell producing enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D D; Xu, J N; Zhu, B L

    2016-11-20

    Objective: To investigate and analyze the influential factors of occupational hazard acci-dents, emergency facilities and emergency management in Silicon solar cell producing enterprises, then to pro-vide scientific strategies. Methods: The methods of occupationally healthy field investigating, inspecting of ven-tilation effectiveness, setup of emergency program and wearing chemical suit were used. Results: The mainly occupational hazard accidents factors in the process of Silicon solar cell producing included poisoning chemi-cals, high temperature, onizing radiation and some workplaces. The poisoning chemicals included nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, chlorine, phos-phorus oxychloride, phosphorus pentoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, silane, and so on; the workplaces in-cluded the area of producing battery slides and auxiliary producing area. Among the nine enterprises, gas detec-tors were installed in special gas supplying stations and sites, but the height, location and alarmvalues of gas detectors in six enterprises were not according with standard criteria; emergency shower and eyewash equip-ment were installed in workplaces with strong corrosive chemicals, but the issues of waste water were not solved; ventilation systems were set in the workplaces with ammonia and silane, but not qualified with part lo-cations and parameters in two enterprises; warehouses with materials of acid, alkali, chemical ammonia and phosphorus oxychloride were equipped with positive - pressure air respirator resuscitator and emergency cabi-nets, but with insufficient quantity in seven enterprises and expiration in part of products. The error rate of set-up emergency program and wearing chemical cloth were 30%~100% and 10%~30%, respectively. Among the nine enterprises, there were emergency rescue plans for dangerous chemical accidents, but without profession-al heatstroke and irradiation accident emergency plans

  12. Phenotypic and genomic analysis of serotype 3 Sabin poliovirus vaccine produced in MRC-5 cell substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alirezaie, Behnam; Taqavian, Mohammad; Aghaiypour, Khosrow; Esna-Ashari, Fatemeh; Shafyi, Abbas

    2011-05-01

    The cell substrate has a pivotal role in live virus vaccines production. It is necessary to evaluate the effects of the cell substrate on the properties of the propagated viruses, especially in the case of viruses which are unstable genetically such as polioviruses, by monitoring the molecular and phenotypical characteristics of harvested viruses. To investigate the presence/absence of mutation(s), the near full-length genomic sequence of different harvests of the type 3 Sabin strain of poliovirus propagated in MRC-5 cells were determined. The sequences were compared with genomic sequences of different virus seeds, vaccines, and OPV-like isolates. Nearly complete genomic sequencing results, however, revealed no detectable mutations throughout the genome RNA-plaque purified (RSO)-derived monopool of type 3 OPVs manufactured in MRC-5. Thirty-six years of experience in OPV production, trend analysis, and vaccine surveillance also suggest that: (i) different monopools of serotype 3 OPV produced in MRC-5 retained their phenotypic characteristics (temperature sensitivity and neuroattenuation), (ii) MRC-5 cells support the production of acceptable virus yields, (iii) OPV replicated in the MRC-5 cell substrate is a highly efficient and safe vaccine. These results confirm previous reports that MRC-5 is a desirable cell substrate for the production of OPV. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Polymorphous silicon thin films produced in dusty plasmas: application to solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Chaabane, N; Kharchenko, A V; Tchakarov, S

    2004-01-01

    We summarize our current understanding of the optimization of PIN solar cells produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition from silane-hydrogen mixtures. To increase the deposition rate, the discharge is operated under plasma conditions close to powder formation, where silicon nanocrystals contribute to the deposition of so-called polymorphous silicon thin films. We show that the increase in deposition rate can be achieved via an accurate control of the plasma parameters. However, this also results in a highly defective interface in the solar cells due to the bombardment of the P-layer by positively charged nanocrystals during the deposition of the I-layer. We show that decreasing the ion energy by increasing the total pressure or by using silane-helium mixtures allows us to increase both the deposition rate and the solar cells efficiency, as required for cost effective thin film photovoltaics

  14. New strategies to produce and detect singlet oxygen in a cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gollmer, Anita

    2012-01-01

    of the general methodology to generate and detect singlet oxygen is currently of great importance in order to better understand the roles played by singlet oxygen in photo-induced cell death. From a mechanistic perspective, experiments performed at the level of a single cell provide unique insight......Singlet oxygen, the first excited electronic state of molecular oxygen, plays a major role in oxygen-dependent photo-induced cell death. In such systems, singlet oxygen is generally produced in a photosensitized process wherein light is absorbed by a molecule (the so-called sensitizer) which......, and that is the perspective of this study. Although the direct optical detection of singlet oxygen by its near IR phosphorescence is the ideal way to monitor this species, it suffers from the problem of weak signal intensity. Fluorescent probes can be a more sensitive way to detect singlet oxygen. The photochemical behavior...

  15. Completely ES cell-derived mice produced by tetraploid complementation using inner cell mass (ICM deficient blastocysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duancheng Wen

    Full Text Available Tetraploid complementation is often used to produce mice from embryonic stem cells (ESCs by injection of diploid (2n ESCs into tetraploid (4n blastocysts (ESC-derived mice. This method has also been adapted to mouse cloning and the derivation of mice from induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. However, the underlying mechanism(s of the tetraploid complementation remains largely unclear. Whether this approach can give rise to completely ES cell-derived mice is an open question, and has not yet been unambiguously proven. Here, we show that mouse tetraploid blastocysts can be classified into two groups, according to the presence or absence of an inner cell mass (ICM. We designate these as type a (presence of ICM at blastocyst stage or type b (absence of ICM. ESC lines were readily derived from type a blastocysts, suggesting that these embryos retain a pluripotent epiblast compartment; whereas the type b blastocysts possessed very low potential to give rise to ESC lines, suggesting that they had lost the pluripotent epiblast. When the type a blastocysts were used for tetraploid complementation, some of the resulting mice were found to be 2n/4n chimeric; whereas when type b blastocysts were used as hosts, the resulting mice are all completely ES cell-derived, with the newborn pups displaying a high frequency of abdominal hernias. Our results demonstrate that completely ES cell-derived mice can be produced using ICM-deficient 4n blastocysts, and provide evidence that the exclusion of tetraploid cells from the fetus in 2n/4n chimeras can largely be attributed to the formation of ICM-deficient blastocysts.

  16. GM-CSF-Producing Th Cells in Rats Sensitive and Resistant to Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Pilipović, Ivan; Vujnović, Ivana; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Petrović, Raisa; Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Leposavić, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Given that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is identified as the key factor to endow auto-reactive Th cells with the potential to induce neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models, the frequency and phenotype of GM-CSF-producing (GM-CSF+) Th cells in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and spinal cord (SC) of Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats immunized for EAE were examined. The generation of neuroantigen-specific GM-CSF+ Th lymphocytes was impaired in dLNs of AO rats (relatively resistant to EAE induction) compared with their DA counterparts (susceptible to EAE) reflecting impaired CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation and less supportive of GM-CSF+ Th cell differentiation dLN cytokine microenvironment. Immunophenotyping of GM-CSF+ Th cells showed their phenotypic heterogeneity in both strains and revealed lower frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ+, IL-17+IFN-γ-, and IL-17-IFN-γ+ cells accompanied by higher frequency of IL-17-IFN-γ- cells among them in AO than in DA rats. Compared with DA, in AO rats was also found (i) slightly lower surface density of CCR2 (drives accumulation of highly pathogenic GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cells in SC) on GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 lymphocytes from dLNs, and (ii) diminished CCL2 mRNA expression in SC tissue, suggesting their impaired migration into the SC. Moreover, dLN and SC cytokine environments in AO rats were shown to be less supportive of GM-CSF+IFN-γ+ Th17 cell differentiation (judging by lower expression of mRNAs for IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23/p19). In accordance with the (i) lower frequency of GM-CSF+ Th cells in dLNs and SC of AO rats and their lower GM-CSF production, and (ii) impaired CCL2 expression in the SC tissue, the proportion of proinflammatory monocytes among peripheral blood cells and their progeny (CD45hi cells) among the SC CD11b+ cells were reduced in AO compared with DA rats. Collectively, the results indicate that the strain specificities in efficacy of several mechanisms

  17. Lagooning microbial fuel cells: A first approach by coupling electricity-producing microorganisms and algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobato, Justo; González del Campo, Araceli; Fernández, Francisco J.; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An algae cathode of a MFC has been used without artificial mediators or catalysts. • To perform a lagooning wastewater treatment coupled with energy-producing MFC. • The producing electricity operates under day/night irradiation cycles, is shown. - Abstract: The paper focused on the start-up and performance characterisation of a new type of microbial fuel cell (MFC), in which an algae culture was seeded in the cathodic chamber to produce the oxygen required to complete the electrochemical reactions of the MFC, thus circumventing the need for a mechanical aerator. The system did not use mediators or high cost catalysts and it can be started-up easily using a straightforward three-stage procedure. The start-up consists of the separate production of the electricity-producing microorganisms and the algae cultures (stage I), replacement of the mechanical aeration system by the algae culture (stage II) and a change in the light dosage from a continuous input to a dynamic day/night profile. The MFC was operated under a regime of 12 h light and 12 h dark and was also operated in batch and continuous substrate-feeding modes. The same cell voltage was achieved when the cathode compartment was operated with air supplied by aerators, which means that this configuration can perform as well as the traditional one. The results also show the influence of both the organic load and light irradiation on electricity production and demonstrate that this type MFC is a robust and promising technology that can be considered as a first approach to perform a lagooning wastewater treatment with microbial fuel cells

  18. Drinking water purification by electrosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide in a power-producing PEM fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Winton; Bonakdarpour, Arman; Gyenge, Előd; Wilkinson, David P

    2013-11-01

    The industrial anthraquinone auto-oxidation process produces most of the world's supply of hydrogen peroxide. For applications that require small amounts of H2 O2 or have economically difficult transportation means, an alternate, on-site H2 O2 production method is needed. Advanced drinking water purification technologies use neutral-pH H2 O2 in combination with UV treatment to reach the desired water purity targets. To produce neutral H2 O2 on-site and on-demand for drinking water purification, the electroreduction of oxygen at the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell operated in either electrolysis (power consuming) or fuel cell (power generating) mode could be a possible solution. The work presented here focuses on the H2 /O2 fuel cell mode to produce H2 O2 . The fuel cell reactor is operated with a continuous flow of carrier water through the cathode to remove the product H2 O2 . The impact of the cobalt-carbon composite cathode catalyst loading, Teflon content in the cathode gas diffusion layer, and cathode carrier water flowrate on the production of H2 O2 are examined. H2 O2 production rates of up to 200 μmol h(-1)  cmgeometric (-2) are achieved using a continuous flow of carrier water operating at 30 % current efficiency. Operation times of more than 24 h have shown consistent H2 O2 and power production, with no degradation of the cobalt catalyst. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Intraportal injection of insulin-producing cells generated from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells decreases blood glucose level in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Jiun; Wang, Hwai-Shi; Lin, Chi-Hung; Weng, Zen-Chung; Chen, Tien-Hua; Shyu, Jia-Fwu

    2014-01-01

    We studied the process of trans-differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) into insulin-producing cells. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model was used to study the effect of portal vein transplantation of these insulin-producing cells on blood sugar levels. The BM-MSCs were differentiated into insulin-producing cells under defined conditions. Real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry and glucose challenge were used to evaluate in vitro differentiation. Flow cytometry showed that hBM-MSCs were strongly positive for CD44, CD105 and CD73 and negative for hematopoietic markers CD34, CD38 and CD45. Differentiated cells expressed C-peptide as well as β-cells specific genes and hormones. Glucose stimulation increased C-peptide secretion in these cells. The insulin-producing, differentiated cells were transplanted into the portal vein of STZ-induced diabetic rats using a Port-A catheter. The insulin-producing cells were localized in the liver of the recipient rat and expressed human C-peptide. Blood glucose levels were reduced in diabetic rats transplanted with insulin-producing cells. We concluded that hBM-MSCs could be trans-differentiated into insulin-producing cells in vitro. Portal vein transplantation of insulin-producing cells alleviated hyperglycemia in diabetic rats.

  20. Putative porcine embryonic stem cell lines derived from aggregated four-celled cloned embryos produced by oocyte bisection cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriboon, Chawalit; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Kere, Michel; Chen, Chun-Da; Chen, Lih-Ren; Chen, Chien-Hong; Tu, Ching-Fu; Lo, Neng-Wen; Ju, Jyh-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to isolate ES cell lines using inner cell masses from high-quality cloned porcine blastocysts. After being seeded onto feeders, embryos had better (P cloned embryos (62.8, 42.6 and 12.8% vs. 76.2, 55.2 and 26.2%, respectively) compared to the non-aggregated group (41.6, 23.4 and 3.9%). Effects of feeder types (STO vs. MEF) and serum sources (FBS vs. KSR) on extraction of cloned embryo-derived porcine ES cells were examined. More (17.1%) ntES cell lines over Passage 3 were generated in the MEF/KSR group. However, ntES cells cultured in KSR-supplemented medium had a low proliferation rate with defective morphology, and eventually underwent differentiation or apoptosis subsequently. Approximately 26.1, 22.7 and 35.7% of primary colonies were formed after plating embryos in DMEM, DMEM/F12 and α-MEM media, respectively. Survival rates of ntES cells cultured in α-MEM, DMEM and DMEM/F12 were 16.7, 4.3 and 6.8%, respectively (P > 0.05). We further examined the beneficial effect of TSA treatment of 3× aggregated cloned embryos on establishment of ntES cell lines. Primary colony numbers and survival rates of ntES cells beyond passage 3 were higher (P cells, remaining undifferentiated over 25 passages, had alkaline phosphatase activity and expressed ES specific markers Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex01. Moreover, these ntES cells successfully differentiated into embryoid bodies (EBs) that expressed specific genes of all three germ layers after being cultured in LIF-free medium. In conclusion, we have successfully derived putative porcine ntES cells with high efficiency from quality cloned embryos produced by embryo aggregation, and optimized the ES cell culture system suitable for establishing and maintaining ntES cell lines in undifferentiated state.

  1. Anticancer Effects of Geopropolis Produced by Stingless Bees on Canine Osteosarcoma Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara Costa Cinegaglia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geopropolis is produced by indigenous stingless bees from the resinous material of plants, adding soil or clay. Its biological properties have not been investigated, such as propolis, and herein its cytotoxic action on canine osteosarcoma (OSA cells was evaluated. OSA is a primary bone neoplasm diagnosed in dogs being an excellent model in vivo to study human OSA. spOS-2 primary cultures were isolated from the tumor of a dog with osteosarcoma and incubated with geopropolis, 70% ethanol (geopropolis solvent, and carboplatin after 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Cell viability was analyzed by the crystal violet method. Geopropolis was efficient against canine OSA cells in a dose- and time-dependent way, leading to a distinct morphology compared to control. Geopropolis cytotoxic action was exclusively due to its constituents since 70% ethanol (its solvent had no effect on cell viability. Carboplatin had no effect on OSA cells. Geopropolis exerted a cytotoxic effect on canine osteosarcoma, and its introduction as a possible therapeutic agent in vivo could be investigated, providing a new contribution to OSA treatment.

  2. Anticancer effects of geopropolis produced by stingless bees on canine osteosarcoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinegaglia, Naiara Costa; Bersano, Paulo Ricardo Oliveira; Araújo, Maria José Abigail Mendes; Búfalo, Michelle Cristiane; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2013-01-01

    Geopropolis is produced by indigenous stingless bees from the resinous material of plants, adding soil or clay. Its biological properties have not been investigated, such as propolis, and herein its cytotoxic action on canine osteosarcoma (OSA) cells was evaluated. OSA is a primary bone neoplasm diagnosed in dogs being an excellent model in vivo to study human OSA. spOS-2 primary cultures were isolated from the tumor of a dog with osteosarcoma and incubated with geopropolis, 70% ethanol (geopropolis solvent), and carboplatin after 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Cell viability was analyzed by the crystal violet method. Geopropolis was efficient against canine OSA cells in a dose- and time-dependent way, leading to a distinct morphology compared to control. Geopropolis cytotoxic action was exclusively due to its constituents since 70% ethanol (its solvent) had no effect on cell viability. Carboplatin had no effect on OSA cells. Geopropolis exerted a cytotoxic effect on canine osteosarcoma, and its introduction as a possible therapeutic agent in vivo could be investigated, providing a new contribution to OSA treatment.

  3. Repression of COUP-TFI Improves Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation into Insulin-Producing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular mechanisms that regulate insulin expression in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs can provide clues on how to stimulate the differentiation of bmMSCs into insulin-producing cells (IPCs, which can be used as a therapeutic approach against type 1 diabetes (T1D. As repression factors may inhibit differentiation, the efficiency of this process is insufficient for cell transplantation. In this study, we used the mouse insulin 2 (Ins2 promoter sequence and performed a DNA affinity precipitation assay combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the transcription factor, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcriptional factor I (COUP-TFI. Functionally, bmMSCs were reprogrammed into IPCs via COUP-TFI suppression and MafA overexpression. The differentiated cells expressed higher levels of genes specific for islet endocrine cells, and they released C-peptide and insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Transplantation of IPCs into streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice caused a reduction in hyperglycemia. Mechanistically, COUP-TFI bound to the DR1 (direct repeats with 1 spacer element in the Ins2 promoter, thereby negatively regulating promoter activity. Taken together, the data provide a novel mechanism by which COUP-TFI acts as a negative regulator in the Ins2 promoter. The differentiation of bmMSCs into IPCs could be improved by knockdown of COUP-TFI, which may provide a novel stem cell-based therapy for T1D. Keywords: siRNAs, differentiation, stem cell transplantation, diabetes, mesenchymal stem cells

  4. HCN Producing Bacteria Enable Sensing Of Non-Bioavailable Hg Species by the Whole Cell Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, M.; Rijavec, T.; Koron, N.; Lapanje, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bacteria play an important role in Hg transformation reactions. The production of cyanide (HCN) and other secondary metabolites seems to be key elements involved in these transformations. Current hypotheses link the role of HCN production to growth inhibition of nonHCN producing competitor organisms (role of an antimicrobial agent). Our past investigations showed that HCN production did not correlate with antimicrobial activity and since pK value of HCN is very high (pK = 9,21), it can be expected that most of the produced HCN is removed from the microenvironment. This way, the expected inhibitory concentrations can hardly be reached. Accordingly, we proposed a new concept, where the ability of complexation of transient metals by HCN served as a regulation process for the accessibility of micro-elements. In our study, we focused on the presence of HCN producing bacteria and carried it out in the Hg contaminated environment connected to the Idrija Mercury Mine, Slovenia. We characterised the isolates according to the presence of Hg resistance (HgR), level of HCN production and genetic similarities. In laboratory setups, using our merR whole cell based biosensor, we determined the transformation of low bioavailable Hg0 and HgS forms into bioavailable Hg by these HCN producing bacteria. We observed that HgR strains producing HCN had the highest impact on increased Hg bioavailability. In the proposed ecological strategy HgR HCN producing bacteria increase their competitive edge over non-HgR competitors through the increase of Hg toxicity. Due to their activity, Hg is made available to other organisms as well and thus enters into the ecosystem. Finally, using some of the characteristics of bacteria (e.g. Hg resistance genetic elements), we developed a fully automated sensing approach, combining biosensorics and mechatronics, to measure the bioavailability of Hg in situ.

  5. A novel method for producing target cells and assessing cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in outbred hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendinelli Mauro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytotoxic T lymphocytes play a crucial role in the immunological control of microbial infections and in the design of vaccines and immunotherapies. Measurement of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity requires that the test antigen is presented by target cells having the same or compatible class I major hystocompatibility complex antigens as the effector cells. Conventional assays use target cells labeled with 51chromium and infer cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity by measuring the isotope released by the target cells lysed following incubation with antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This assay is sensitive but needs manipulation and disposal of hazardous radioactive reagents and provides a bulk estimate of the reporter released, which may be influenced by spontaneous release of the label and other poorly controllable variables. Here we describe a novel method for producing target in outbred hosts and assessing cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity by flow cytometry. Results The method consists of culturing skin fibroblasts, immortalizing them with a replication defective clone of simian virus 40, and finally transducing them with a bicistronic vector encoding the target antigen and the reporter green fluorescent protein. When used in a flow cytometry-based assay, the target cells obtained with this method proved valuable for assessing the viral envelope protein specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in domestic cats acutely or chronically infected with feline immunodeficiency virus, a lentivirus similar to human immunodeficiency virus and used as animal model for AIDS studies. Conclusion Given the versatility of the bicistronic vector used, its ability to deliver multiple and large transgenes in target cells, and its extremely wide cell specificity when pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope protein, the method is potentially exploitable in many animal species.

  6. Bioelectrochemical Haber-Bosch Process: An Ammonia-Producing H2 /N2 Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Ross D; Cai, Rong; Abdellaoui, Sofiene; Leech, Dónal; De Lacey, Antonio L; Pita, Marcos; Minteer, Shelley D

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogenases are the only enzymes known to reduce molecular nitrogen (N 2 ) to ammonia (NH 3 ). By using methyl viologen (N,N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) to shuttle electrons to nitrogenase, N 2 reduction to NH 3 can be mediated at an electrode surface. The coupling of this nitrogenase cathode with a bioanode that utilizes the enzyme hydrogenase to oxidize molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) results in an enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) that is able to produce NH 3 from H 2 and N 2 while simultaneously producing an electrical current. To demonstrate this, a charge of 60 mC was passed across H 2  /N 2 EFCs, which resulted in the formation of 286 nmol NH 3  mg -1 MoFe protein, corresponding to a Faradaic efficiency of 26.4 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Leaf-cutting ant fungi produce cell wall degrading pectinase complexes reminiscent of phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiøtt, Morten; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Roepstorff, Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-12-31

    Leaf-cutting (attine) ants use their own fecal material to manure fungus gardens, which consist of leaf material overgrown by hyphal threads of the basidiomycete fungus Leucocoprinus gongylophorus that lives in symbiosis with the ants. Previous studies have suggested that the fecal droplets contain proteins that are produced by the fungal symbiont to pass unharmed through the digestive system of the ants, so they can enhance new fungus garden growth. We tested this hypothesis by using proteomics methods to determine the gene sequences of fecal proteins in Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ants. Seven (21%) of the 33 identified proteins were pectinolytic enzymes that originated from the fungal symbiont and which were still active in the fecal droplets produced by the ants. We show that these enzymes are found in the fecal material only when the ants had access to fungus garden food, and we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to show that the expression of six of these enzyme genes was substantially upregulated in the fungal gongylidia. These unique structures serve as food for the ants and are produced only by the evolutionarily advanced garden symbionts of higher attine ants, but not by the fungi reared by the basal lineages of this ant clade. Pectinolytic enzymes produced in the gongylidia of the fungal symbiont are ingested but not digested by Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants so that they end up in the fecal fluid and become mixed with new garden substrate. Substantial quantities of pectinolytic enzymes are typically found in pathogenic fungi that attack live plant tissue, where they are known to breach the cell walls to allow the fungal mycelium access to the cell contents. As the leaf-cutting ant symbionts are derived from fungal clades that decompose dead plant material, our results suggest that their pectinolytic enzymes represent secondarily evolved adaptations that are convergent to those normally found in phytopathogens.

  8. Leaf-cutting ant fungi produce cell wall degrading pectinase complexes reminiscent of phytopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boomsma Jacobus J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leaf-cutting (attine ants use their own fecal material to manure fungus gardens, which consist of leaf material overgrown by hyphal threads of the basidiomycete fungus Leucocoprinus gongylophorus that lives in symbiosis with the ants. Previous studies have suggested that the fecal droplets contain proteins that are produced by the fungal symbiont to pass unharmed through the digestive system of the ants, so they can enhance new fungus garden growth. Results We tested this hypothesis by using proteomics methods to determine the gene sequences of fecal proteins in Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ants. Seven (21% of the 33 identified proteins were pectinolytic enzymes that originated from the fungal symbiont and which were still active in the fecal droplets produced by the ants. We show that these enzymes are found in the fecal material only when the ants had access to fungus garden food, and we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to show that the expression of six of these enzyme genes was substantially upregulated in the fungal gongylidia. These unique structures serve as food for the ants and are produced only by the evolutionarily advanced garden symbionts of higher attine ants, but not by the fungi reared by the basal lineages of this ant clade. Conclusions Pectinolytic enzymes produced in the gongylidia of the fungal symbiont are ingested but not digested by Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants so that they end up in the fecal fluid and become mixed with new garden substrate. Substantial quantities of pectinolytic enzymes are typically found in pathogenic fungi that attack live plant tissue, where they are known to breach the cell walls to allow the fungal mycelium access to the cell contents. As the leaf-cutting ant symbionts are derived from fungal clades that decompose dead plant material, our results suggest that their pectinolytic enzymes represent secondarily evolved adaptations that are convergent to

  9. Insulin-Producing Cells Differentiated from Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro Ameliorate Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xin

    Full Text Available The two major obstacles in the successful transplantation of islets for diabetes treatment are inadequate supply of insulin-producing tissue and immune rejection. Induction of the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs into insulin-producing cells (IPCs for autologous transplantation may alleviate those limitations.hMSCs were isolated and induced to differentiate into IPCs through a three-stage differentiation protocol in a defined media with high glucose, nicotinamide, and exendin-4. The physiological characteristics and functions of IPCs were then evaluated. Next, about 3 × 10(6 differentiated cells were transplanted into the renal sub-capsular space of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic nude mice. Graft survival and function were assessed by immunohistochemistry, TUNEL staining and measurements of blood glucose levels in the mice.The differentiated IPCs were characterized by Dithizone (DTZ positive staining, expression of pancreatic β-cell markers, and human insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation. Moreover, 43% of the IPCs showed L-type Ca2+ channel activity and similar changes in intracellular Ca2+ in response to glucose stimulation as that seen in pancreatic β-cells in the process of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Transplantation of functional IPCs into the renal subcapsular space of STZ-induced diabetic nude mice ameliorated the hyperglycemia. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that transplanted IPCs sustainably expressed insulin, c-peptide, and PDX-1 without apparent apoptosis in vivo.IPCs derived from hMSCs in vitro can ameliorate STZ-induced diabetic hyperglycemia, which indicates that these hMSCs may be a promising approach to overcome the limitations of islet transplantation.

  10. [DNA-dependent DNA polymerase induced by herpes virus papio (HVP) in producing cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'iachenko, A G; Beriia, L Ia; Matsenko, L D; Kakubava, V V; Kokosh, L V

    1980-11-01

    A new DNA polymerase was found in the cells of suspension lymphoblastoid cultures, which produce lymphotropic baboon herpes virus (HVP). The enzyme was isolated in a partially purified form. In some properties the enzyme differs from other cellular DNA polymerases. The HVP-induced DNA polymerase has the molecular weight of 1,6 x 10(5) and sedimentation coefficient of about 8S. The enzyme is resistant to high salt concentrations and N-ethylmaleimide, but shows a pronounced sensitivity to phosphonoacetate. The enzyme effectively copies "activated" DNA and synthetic deoxyribohomopolymers. The attempts to detect the DNA polymerase activity in HVP virions were unsuccessful.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Viruses from Clinical Respiratory Samples Producing Unidentified Cytopathic Effects in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Boivin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA method was performed to identify a virus in 17 clinical respiratory samples producing uncharacterized cytopathic effects in LLC-MK2 cells. Sequence analysis of 600-1600 bp amplicons allowed the identification of six viruses (one influenza C, two parechovirus-3 and three cardioviruses. Genomic sequences of the cardioviruses showed similarities with those of the recently-described Saffold virus strain although significant variation was present in the viral surface EF and CD loops. These results demonstrate the usefulness of SISPA for identifying emerging viruses and also known viruses not easily identified by standard virological methods.

  12. Effective chikungunya virus-like particle vaccine produced in insect cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W Metz

    Full Text Available The emerging arthritogenic, mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV causes severe disease in humans and represents a serious public health threat in countries where Aedes spp mosquitoes are present. This study describes for the first time the successful production of CHIKV virus-like particles (VLPs in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. This well-established expression system is rapidly scalable to volumes required for epidemic responses and proved well suited for processing of CHIKV glycoproteins and production of enveloped VLPs. Herein we show that a single immunization with 1 µg of non-adjuvanted CHIKV VLPs induced high titer neutralizing antibody responses and provided complete protection against viraemia and joint inflammation upon challenge with the Réunion Island CHIKV strain in an adult wild-type mouse model of CHIKV disease. CHIKV VLPs produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses thus represents as a new, safe, non-replicating and effective vaccine candidate against CHIKV infections.

  13. Role of adipose tissue derived stem cells differentiated into insulin producing cells in the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Mona G; Embaby, Azza S; Karam, Rehab A; Amer, Marwa G

    2018-05-15

    Generation of new β cells is an important approach in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM). Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) might be one of the best sources for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Therefore, this work aimed to test the possible role of transplanted insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from ADSCs in treatment of streptozotocin (STZ) induced type I DM in rats. Type 1 DM was induced by single intra peritoneal injection with STZ (50 mg/kg BW). Half of the diabetic rats were left without treatment and the other half were injected with differentiated IPCs directly into the pancreas. ADSCs were harvested, cultured and identified by testing their phenotypes through flow cytometry. They were further subjected to differentiation into IPCs using differentiation medium. mRNA expression of pancreatic transcription factors (pdx1), insulin and glucose transporter-2 genes by real time PCR was done to detect the cellular differentiation and confirmed by stimulated insulin secretion. The pancreatic tissues from all groups were examined 2 months after IPC transplantation and were subjected to histological, Immunohistochemical and morphometric study. The differentiated IPCs showed significant expression of pancreatic β cell markers and insulin secretion in glucose dependent manner. Treatment with IPCs induced apparent regeneration, diffused proliferated islet cells and significant increase in C-peptide immune reaction. We concluded that transplantation of differentiated IPCs improved function and morphology of Islet cells in diabetic rats. Consequently, this therapy option may be a promising therapeutic approach to patient with type 1 DM if proven to be effective and safe. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mesenchymal stem cells and differentiated insulin producing cells are new horizons for pancreatic regeneration in type I diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domouky, Ayat M; Hegab, Ashraf S; Al-Shahat, Amal; Raafat, Nermin

    2017-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus has become the third human killer following cancer and cardiovascular disease. Millions of patients, often children, suffer from type 1 diabetes (T1D). Stem cells created hopes to regenerate damaged body tissues and restore their function. This work aimed at clarifying and comparing the therapeutic potential of differentiated and non-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a new line of therapy for T1D. 40 Female albino rats divided into group I (control): 10 rats and group II (diabetic), III and IV, 10 rats in each, were injected with streptozotocin (50mg/kg body weight). Group III (MSCs) were transplanted with bone marrow derived MSCs from male rats and group IV (IPCs) with differentiated insulin producing cells. Blood and pancreatic tissue samples were taken from all rats for biochemical and histological studies. MSCs reduced hyperglycemia in diabetic rats on day 15 while IPCs normalizes blood glucose level on day 7. Histological and morphometric analysis of pancreas of experimental diabetic rats showed improvement in MSCs-treated group but in IPCs-treated group, β-cells insulin immunoreactions were obviously returned to normal, with normal distribution of β-cells in the center and other cells at the periphery. Meanwhile, most of the pathological lesions were still detected in diabetic rats. MSCs transplantation can reduce blood glucose level in recipient diabetic rats. IPCs initiate endogenous pancreatic regeneration by neogenesis of islets. IPCs are better than MSCs in regeneration of β-cells. So, IPCs therapy can be considered clinically to offer a hope for patients suffering from T1D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Generation of insulin-producing cells from rat mesenchymal stem cells using an aminopyrrole derivative XW4.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jingfeng; Huang, Wei; Yu, Wanwan; Xiong, Wei; Mula, Ramanjaneya V R; Zou, Hongbin; Yu, Yongping

    2014-02-05

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), a multisystem disease with both biochemical and anatomical/structural consequences, is a major health concern worldwide. Pancreatic islet transplantation provides a promising treatment for T1DM. However, the limited availability of islet tissue or new sources of insulin producing cells (IPCs) that are responsive to glucose hinder this promising approach. Though slow, the development of pancreatic beta-cell lines from rodent or human origin has been steadily progressing. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent, culture-expanded, non-hematopoietic cells that are currently being investigated as a novel cellular therapy. The in vitro differentiation potential of IPCs has raised hopes for a treatment of clinical diseases associated with autoimmunity. We screened for small molecules that induce pancreatic differentiation of IPCs. There are some compounds which showed positive effects on the DTZ staining. The aminopyrrole derivative compound XW4.4 which shows the best activity among them was found to induce pancreatic differentiation of rat MSCs (rMSCs). The in vitro studies indicated that treatment of rMSCs with compound XW4.4 resulted in differentiated cells with characteristics of IPCs including islet-like clusters, spherical, grape-like morphology, insulin secretion, positive for dithizone, glucose stimulation and expression of pancreatic endocrine cell marker genes. The data has also suggested that hepatocyte nuclear factor 3β (HNF 3β) may be involved in pancreatic differentiation of rMSCs when treated with XW4.4. Results indicate that XW4.4 induced rMSCs support the efforts to derive functional IPCs and serve as a means to alleviate limitations surrounding islet cell transplantation in the treatment of T1DM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lipofection of insulin-producing RINm5F cells: methodological improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Andreea; Welsh, Nils

    2007-01-01

    Cationic lipid/DNA-complexes have been widely used as gene transfer vectors because they are less toxic and immunogenic than viral vectors. The aim of the present study was to improve and characterize lipofection of an insulin-producing cell line. We compared the transfection efficiency of seven commercially available lipid formulations (Lipotaxi, SuperFect, Fugene, TransFast, Dosper, GenePORTER and LipofectAMINE) by flow cytometry analysis of GFP-expression. In addition, we have determined the influences of centrifugation, serum and a nuclear localization signal peptide on the lipofection efficiency. We observed that two lipid formulations, GenePORTER and LipofectAMINE, were able to promote efficient gene transfer in RINm5F cells. However, GenePORTER exhibited the important advantage of being able to transfect cells in the presence of serum and with less cytotoxicity than LipofectAMINE. LipofectAMINE-induced RINm5F cell death could partially be counteracted by TPA, forskolin or fumonisin beta(1). Finally, both centrifugation and a nuclear localization signal peptide increased transfection efficiency.

  17. Characterization and Inducing Melanoma Cell Apoptosis Activity of Mannosylerythritol Lipids-A Produced from Pseudozyma aphidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Fan

    Full Text Available Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs are natural glycolipid biosurfactants which have potential applications in the fields of food, cosmetic and medicine. In this study, MELs were produced from vegetable oil by Pseudozyma aphidis. Their structural data through LC/MS, GC/MS and NMR analysis revealed that MEL-A with two acetyls was the major compound and the identified homologs of MEL-A contained a length of C8 to C14 fatty acid chains. This glycolipid exhibited a surface tension of 27.69 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration (CMC, self-assembling into particles in the water solution. It was observed to induce cell growth-inhibition and apoptosis of B16 melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as cause cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Further quantitative RT-PCR analysis and western blotting revealed an increasing tendency of both mRNA and protein expressions of Caspase-12, CHOP, GRP78 and Caspase-3, and a down-regulation of protein Bcl-2. Combined with the up regulation of signaling IRE1 and ATF6, it can be speculated that MEL-A-induced B16 melanoma cell apoptosis was associated with the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS.

  18. Whole-Cell Biocatalysis for Producing Ginsenoside Rd from Rb1 Using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Seockmo; You, Hyun Ju; Park, Myeong Soo; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-07-28

    Ginsenosides are the major active ingredients in ginseng used for human therapeutic plant medicines. One of the most well-known probiotic bacteria among the various strains on the functional food market is Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Biocatalytic methods using probiotic enzymes for producing deglycosylated ginsenosides such as Rd have a growing significance in the functional food industry. The addition of 2% cellobiose (w/v) to glucose-free de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broths notably induced β-glucosidase production from L. rhamnosus GG. Enzyme production and activity were optimized at a pH, temperature, and cellobiose concentration of 6.0, 40°C, and 2% (w/v), respectively. Under these controlled conditions, β-glucosidase production in L. rhamnosus GG was enhanced by 25-fold. Additionally, whole-cell homogenates showed the highest β-glucosidase activity when compared with disrupted cell suspensions; the cell disruption step significantly decreased the β-glucosidase activity. Based on the optimized enzyme conditions, whole-cell L. rhamnosus GG was successfully used to convert ginsenoside Rb1 into Rd.

  19. Experimental investigation of solid oxide fuel cells using biomass gasification producer gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norheim, Arnstein

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this thesis is theoretical and experimental investigations related to utilisation of biomass gasification producer gases as fuel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). Initial fundamental steps towards a future system of combined heat and power production based on biomass gasification and SOFC are performed and include: 1) Theoretical modeling of the composition of biomass gasification producer gases. 2) Experimental investigation of SOFC performance using biomass gasification producer gas as fuel. 3) Experimental investigation of SOFC performance using biomass gasification producer gas containing high sulphur concentration. The modeling of the composition of gasifier producer gas was performed using the program FactSage. The main objective was to investigate the amount and speciation of trace species in the producer gases as several parameters were varied. Thus, the composition at thermodynamic equilibrium of sulphur, chlorine, potassium, sodium and compounds of these were established. This was done for varying content of the trace species in the biomass material at different temperatures and fuel utilisation i.e. varying oxygen content in the producer gas. The temperature interval investigated was in the range of normal SOFC operation. It was found that sulphur is expected to be found as H2S irrespective of temperature and amount of sulphur. Only at very high fuel utilisation some S02 is formed. Important potassium containing compounds in the gas are gaseous KOH and K. When chlorine is present, the amount of KOH and K will decrease due to the formation of KCI. The level of sodium investigated here was low, but some Na, NaOH and NaCl is expected to be formed. Below a certain temperature, condensation of alkali rich carbonates may occur. The temperature at which condensation begins is mainly depending on the amount of potassium present; the condensation temperature increases with increasing potassium content. In the first experimental work

  20. Recombinant Nox4 cytosolic domain produced by a cell or cell-free base systems exhibits constitutive diaphorase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong, E-mail: mvchuong@yahoo.fr [GREPI AGIM FRE 3405 CNRS-UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Zhang, Leilei [GREPI AGIM FRE 3405 CNRS-UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Lhomme, Stanislas; Mouz, Nicolas [PX' Therapeutics, MINATEC/Batiment de Haute Technologie, Grenoble (France); Lenormand, Jean-Luc [HumProTher Laboratory, TheReX/TIMC-IMAG UMR 5525 CNRS UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier, UFR de Medecine, Domaine de la Merci, 38706 La Tronche (France); Lardy, Bernard; Morel, Francoise [GREPI AGIM FRE 3405 CNRS-UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A comparison of two bacterial cell and cell-free protein expression systems is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soluble and active truncated Nox4 proteins are produced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nox4 has a constitutive diaphorase activity which is independent of cytosolic factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isoform Nox4B is unable to initiate the first electronic transfer step. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of Nox4 oxidase activity. -- Abstract: The membrane protein NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase Nox4 constitutively generates reactive oxygen species differing from other NADPH oxidases activity, particularly in Nox2 which needs a stimulus to be active. Although the precise mechanism of production of reactive oxygen species by Nox2 is well characterized, the electronic transfer throughout Nox4 remains unclear. Our study aims to investigate the initial electronic transfer step (diaphorase activity) of the cytosolic tail of Nox4. For this purpose, we developed two different approaches to produce soluble and active truncated Nox4 proteins. We synthesized soluble recombinant proteins either by in vitro translation or by bacteria induction. While proteins obtained by bacteria induction demonstrate an activity of 4.4 {+-} 1.7 nmol/min/nmol when measured against iodonitro tetrazolium chloride and 20.5 {+-} 2.8 nmol/min/nmol with cytochrome c, the soluble proteins produced by cell-free expression system exhibit a diaphorase activity with a turn-over of 26 {+-} 2.6 nmol/min/nmol when measured against iodonitro tetrazolium chloride and 48 {+-} 20.2 nmol/min/nmol with cytochrome c. Furthermore, the activity of the soluble proteins is constitutive and does not need any stimulus. We also show that the cytosolic tail of the isoform Nox4B lacking the first NADPH binding site is unable to demonstrate any diaphorase activity pointing out the

  1. The stimulation of EL-4 cells to produce interleukin-2 and its potential use in immunocytotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasek, W.; Steer, S.; Clothier, R.; Balls, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of EL-4 thymoma cells to produce interleukin-2 (IL-2) following exposure to phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and Concanavalin A (Con A) has been studied in vitro using medium containing either 10% or 1% fetal calf serum (FCS). The potent stimulatory effect of PMA on IL-2 production by EL-4 cells has been confirmed by measuring 3H-thymidine incorporation by the IL-2-dependent T cell line, CTLL-2, in the presence of conditioned medium (CM) from stimulated cultures. EL-4 cells produced several times more IL-2 when cultured in medium containing 10% FCS than when only 1% FCS was present. Added together, PMA and Con A acted synergistically in some EL-4 cell cultures. The ability of E:-4 cells to produce IL-2 was maintained after further incubation without stimulants. CM with IL-2 activity from stimulated EL-4 cells could prove useful in immunotoxicity testing

  2. Generation of clinical grade dendritic cells with capacity to produce biologically active IL-12p70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigalke Iris

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For optimal T cell activation it is desirable that dendritic cells (DCs display peptides within MHC molecules as signal 1, costimulatory molecules as signal 2 and, in addition, produce IL-12p70 as signal 3. IL-12p70 polarizes T cell responses towards CD4+ T helper 1 cells, which then support the development of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We therefore developed new maturation cocktails allowing DCs to produce biologically active IL-12p70 for large-scale cancer vaccine development. Methods After elutriation of leukapheresis products in a closed bag system, enriched monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for six days to generate immature DCs that were then matured with cocktails, containing cytokines, interferon-gamma, prostaglandin E2, and a ligand for Toll-like receptor 8, with or without poly (I:C. Results Mature DCs expressed appropriate maturation markers and the lymph node homing chemokine receptor, CCR7. They retained full maturity after culture for two days without maturation cocktails and following cryopreservation. TLR ligand stimulation induced DCs capable of secreting IL-12p70 in primary cultures and after one day of coculture with CD40L-expressing fibroblasts, mimicking an encounter with T cells. DCs matured with our new cocktails containing TLR8 ligand, with or without poly (I:C, induced alloresponses and stimulated virus-specific T cells after peptide-pulsing. DCs matured in cocktails containing TLR8 ligand without poly (I:C could also be loaded with RNA as a source of antigen, whereas DCs matured in cocktails containing poly (I:C were unable to express proteins following RNA transfer by electroporation. Conclusion Our new maturation cocktails allowed easy DC harvesting, stable maturation and substantial recoveries of mature DCs after cryopreservation. Our procedure for generating DCs is easily adaptable for GMP-compliance and yields IL-12p70-secreting DCs suitable for development of cancer vaccines using

  3. Pneumococcal infections in humans are associated with increased apoptosis and trafficking of type 1 cytokine-producing T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, Kåre; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Skinhøj, Peter

    2002-01-01

    , little is known regarding the T-cell response during in vivo infections in humans. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that activated T cells producing type 1 cytokines were engaged in the host response to pneumococcal infections. The phenotype and function of T cells were studied in 22...

  4. Activation of ribosomal RNA genes in porcine embryos produced in vitro or by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Bolette; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; Jakobsen, Anne Sørig

    2007-01-01

    The onset of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis occurs during the second half of the third cell cycle, that is, at the four-cell stage, in porcine embryos developed in vivo. In the present study the onset of rRNA synthesis was investigated in porcine embryos produced in vitro (IVP) or by somatic cell...

  5. Anode microbial communities produced by changing from microbial fuel cell to microbial electrolysis cell operation using two different wastewaters

    KAUST Repository

    Kiely, Patrick D.; Cusick, Roland; Call, Douglas F.; Selembo, Priscilla A.; Regan, John M.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Conditions in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) differ from those in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) due to the intrusion of oxygen through the cathode and the release of H2 gas into solution. Based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, anode communities in reactors fed acetic acid decreased in species richness and diversity, and increased in numbers of Geobacter sulfurreducens, when reactors were shifted from MFCs to MECs. With a complex source of organic matter (potato wastewater), the proportion of Geobacteraceae remained constant when MFCs were converted into MECs, but the percentage of clones belonging to G. sulfurreducens decreased and the percentage of G. metallireducens clones increased. A dairy manure wastewater-fed MFC produced little power, and had more diverse microbial communities, but did not generate current in an MEC. These results show changes in Geobacter species in response to the MEC environment and that higher species diversity is not correlated with current. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Regulation of allergic airway inflammation by adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells preferentially producing IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Masaya; Doi, Kana; Tsutsumi, Tatsuya; Fujii, Shinya; Kishima, Maki; Nishimura, Kazuma; Kuroda, Ikue; Tanahashi, Yu; Yuasa, Rino; Kinjo, Toshihiko; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Mizutani, Nobuaki; Nabe, Takeshi

    2017-10-05

    Anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy for asthma has mainly depended on the inhalation of glucocorticoids, which non-specifically suppress immune responses. If the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 can be induced by a specific antigen, asthmatic airway inflammation could be suppressed when individuals are exposed to the antigen. The purpose of this study was to develop cellular immunotherapeutics for atopic diseases using IL-10-producing CD4 + T cells. Spleen cells isolated from ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were cultured with the antigen, OVA and growth factors, IL-21, IL-27 and TGF-β for 7 days. After the 7-day culture, the CD4 + T cells were purified using a murine CD4 magnetic beads system. When the induced CD4 + T cells were stimulated by OVA in the presence of antigen-presenting cells, IL-10 was preferentially produced in vitro. When CD4 + T cells were adoptively transferred to OVA-sensitized mice followed by intratracheal OVA challenges, IL-10 was preferentially produced in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in vivo. IL-10 production coincided with the inhibition of eosinophilic airway inflammation and epithelial mucus plugging. Most of the IL-10-producing CD4 + T cells were negative for Foxp3 and GATA-3, transcription factors of naturally occurring regulatory T cells and Th2 cells, respectively, but double positive for LAG-3 and CD49b, surface markers of inducible regulatory T cells, Tr1 cells. Collectively, most of the induced IL-10-producing CD4 + T cells could be Tr1 cells, which respond to the antigen to produce IL-10, and effectively suppressed allergic airway inflammation. The induced Tr1 cells may be useful for antigen-specific cellular immunotherapy for atopic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Metal chloride-treated graphene oxide to produce high-performance polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun-Su; Noh, Yong-Jin; Kwon, Sung-Nam; Na, Seok-In, E-mail: nsi12@jbnu.ac.kr [Professional Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics and Polymer Materials Fusion Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deokjin-dong, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ye-Jin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok-Soon, E-mail: sskim@kunsan.ac.kr [Department of Nano and Chemical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Jeollabuk-do 753-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Wook [Soft Innovative Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-13

    We introduce a simple but effective graphene oxide (GO) modification with metal chloride treatments to produce high-performance polymer solar cells (PSCs). The role of various metal chlorides on GO and their effects on device performances of PSCs was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, and current-voltage measurement studies demonstrated that metal chloride can induce a p-doping effect and increase the GO work-function, thus resulting in an improved built-in potential and interfacial resistance in PSCs. The resultant PSCs with metal chloride exhibited improved device efficiency than those with the neat GO. Furthermore, with the metal chloride-doped GO, we finally achieved an excellent PSC-efficiency of 6.58% and a very desirable device stability, which constitute a highly similar efficiency but much better PSC life-time to conventional device with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). This study could be a valuable way to produce various PEDOT:PSS alternatives and beneficial for producing high-performance and cost-efficient polymeric devices.

  8. Hydrogen evolution in enzymatic photoelectrochemical cell using modified seawater electrolytes produced by membrane desalination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyunku; Yoon, Jaekyung [Hydrogen Energy Research Center, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Bae, Sanghyun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, 234 Maeji-ri, Hungub-myun, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220-710 (Korea); Kim, Chunghwan; Kim, Suhan [Korea Institute of Water and Environment, K-Water, 462-1 Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-730 (Korea)

    2009-09-15

    In the near future, potential water shortages are expected to occur all over the world and this problem will have a significant influence on the availability of water for water-splitting processes, such as photocatalysis and electrolysis, as well as for drinking water. For this reason, it has been suggested that seawater could be used as an alternative for the various water industries including hydrogen production. Seawater contains a large amount of dissolved ion components, thus allowing it to be used as an electrolyte in photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems for producing hydrogen. Especially, the concentrate (retentate) stream shows higher salinity than the seawater fed to the membrane desalination process, because purified water (fresh water) is produced as the permeate stream and the waste brine is more concentrated than the original seawater. In this study, we investigated the hydrogen evolution rate in a photoelectrochemical system, including the preparation and characterization of an anodized tubular TiO{sub 2} electrode (ATTE) as both the photoanode and the cathode with the assistance of an immobilized hydrogenase enzyme and an external bias (solar cell), and the use of various qualities of seawater produced by membrane desalination processes as the electrolyte. The results showed that the rate of hydrogen evolution obtained using the nanofiltration (NF) retentate in the PEC system is ca. 105 {mu}mol/cm{sup 2} h, showing that this is an effective seawater electrolyte for hydrogen production, the optimum amount of enzyme immobilized on the cathode is ca. 3.66 units per geometrical unit area (1 cm x 1 cm), and the optimum external external bias supplied by the solar cell is 2.0 V. (author)

  9. Increased IL-35 producing Tregs and CD19+IL-35+ cells are associated with disease progression in leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarique, Mohd; Saini, Chaman; Naqvi, Raza Ali; Khanna, Neena; Rao, D N

    2017-03-01

    The clinical forms of leprosy consist of a spectrum that reflects the host's immune response to the M. leprae; it provides an ideal model to study the host pathogen interaction and immunological dysregulation in humans. IL-10 and TGF-β producing Tregs are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression and M. leprae specific T cells anergy. In leprosy, involvement of IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs remain unstudied. To study the role of IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs in the human leprosy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from leprosy patients were isolated and stimulated with M. leprae antigen (MLCwA) for 48h. Intracellular cytokine IL-35 was evaluated in CD4 + CD25 + Tregs, CD19 + cells by FACS. Expression of PD-1 on CD4 + CD25 + Tregs, CD19 + cells and its ligand (PD-L1) on B cells, CD11c cells were evaluated by flow cytometry (FACS). Serum IL-35 level was estimated by ELISA. The frequency of IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs cells were found to be high in leprosy patients (pleprosy patients. This study point out a shift in our understanding of the immunological features that mediate and regulate the immune suppression and the disease progression in leprosy patients with a new paradigm (IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs) that is beyond TGF-β and IL-10 producing Treg cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MRC5 and QU-DB bystander cells can produce bystander factors and induce radiation bystander effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation damages initiated by radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE are not limited to the first or immediate neighbors of the irradiated cells, but the effects have been observed in the cells far from the irradiation site. It has been postulated that bystander cells, by producing bystander factors, are actively involved in the propagation of bystander effect in the regions beyond the initial irradiated site. Current study was planned to test the hypothesis. MRC5 and QU-DB cell lines were irradiated, and successive medium transfer technique was performed to induce bystander effects in two bystander cell groups. Conditioned medium extracted from the target cells was transferred to the bystander cells (first bystander cells. After one hour, conditioned medium was substituted by fresh medium. Two hours later, the fresh medium was transferred to a second group of non-irradiated cells (second bystander cells. Micronucleated cells (MC were counted to quantify damages induced in the first and second bystander cell groups. Radiation effect was observed in the second bystander cells as well as in the first ones. Statistical analyses revealed that the number of MC in second bystander subgroups was significantly more than the corresponding value observed in control groups, but in most cases it was equal to the number of MC observed in the first bystander cells. MRC5 and QU-DB bystander cells can produce and release bystander signals in the culture medium and affect non-irradiated cells. Therefore, they may contribute to the RIBE propagation.

  11. Role of pancreatic polypeptide as a market of transplanted insulin-producing fetal pig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, B E; Tabiin, M T; Casamento, F M; Yao, M; Georges, P; Amaratunga, A; Pinto, A N

    2001-01-01

    Transplantation of insulin-producing fetal pancreatic tissue into diabetic recipients has been shown to normalize blood glucose levels after several months. This time period is required for the growth and maturation of the fetal tissue so insulin levels cannot be used as a marker of graft function while the beta-cell is immature. Therefore, we have examined the use of another pancreatic endocrine hormone, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), to monitor graft function. The cell that produces this hormone has been shown to be the first mature endocrine cell in the fetal pancreas. Fetal pig pancreatic tissue, both in the form of 1 mm3 explants and islet-like cell clusters (ICCs), was transplanted into immunodeficient SCID mice and the levels of PP and insulin were measured in plasma and in the graft for up to 12 weeks. PP was detected in the untransplanted explants (0.58 pmol/mg) and ICCs (0.06 pmol/ICC) and the PP to insulin ratio was 2.7% and 5.8%, respectively. PP (but not porcine C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion) was detectable in the plasma of SCID mice from 4 days to 3 weeks after transplantation, but not thereafter. The highest values were obtained at 4 days to 1 week. In the grafted tissue PP and insulin were present at all time points and the ratio of PP to insulin was 59%, 87%, 75%, 56%, 7%, 8%, and 7% at 4 days, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks, respectively. The decline in PP levels 3 weeks after transplantation was associated with beta-cell development in the graft. PP was also secreted by fetal pig pancreatic explants transplanted into diabetic NOD/SCID mice, with plasma levels measurable in the first week after the tissue was grafted. In immunocompetent BALB/c mice transplanted with the tissue, PP was detectable in plasma for 2 days after transplantation but not at 4 days, when cellular rejection commenced, or thereafter. We conclude that plasma PP levels can be used as a marker of the viability of fetal porcine pancreatic tissue in the first 3 weeks after

  12. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, R., E-mail: roberto.martini@imec.be [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A. [Department of Physics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Poortmans, J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Universiteit Hasselt, Martelarenlaan 42, B-3500 Hasselt (Belgium)

    2014-10-27

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  13. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, R.; Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A.; Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I.; Poortmans, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  14. Case Report: Nodule Development From Subcapsular Aldosterone-Producing Cell Clusters Causes Hyperaldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Koshiro; Seki, Tsugio; Kurihara, Isao; Yokota, Kenichi; Omura, Masao; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Shibata, Hirotaka; Kosaka, Takeo; Oya, Mototsugu; Suematsu, Makoto; Mukai, Kuniaki

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that the human adrenal cortex remodels to form subcapsular aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs). Some APCCs were recently found to carry aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA)-associated somatic mutations in ion channel/pump genes, which implied that APCCs produce aldosterone autonomously and are an origin of APA. However, there has been no report describing an APCC-to-APA transitional lesion. A histological examination revealed unilateral multiple adrenocortical micronodules in the adrenals of two patients with primary aldosteronism (PA). Based on immunohistochemistry for aldosterone synthase, some of the micronodules were identified as possible APCC-to-APA transitional lesions (pAATLs; a tentative term used in this manuscript), which consisted of a subcapsular APCC-like portion and an inner micro-APA-like (mAPA-like) portion without an apparent histological border. Genomic DNA samples prepared from pAATL histological sections were analyzed by next-generation sequencing for the known APA-associated mutations. The mAPA-like portions from two of the three large pAATLs examined harbored mutations (KCNJ5 [p.G151R] in pAATL 3 and ATP1A1 [p.L337M] in pAATL 7), whereas their corresponding APCC-like portions did not, suggesting their role in the formation of mAPA. Another lesion carried novel mutations in ATP1A1 (p.Ile322_Ile325del and p.Ile327Ser) in both the mAPA-like and APCC-like portions, thereby supporting these portions having a clonal origin. A novel aldosterone-producing pathology, pAATL that causes unilateral PA, was detected in the adrenals of two patients. Next-generation sequencing analyses of the large pAATLs suggested that the introduction of APA-associated mutations in the ion channel/pump genes may be involved in the development of mAPA from existing APCCs.

  15. Do we really need to differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-producing cells for attenuation of the autoimmune responses in type 1 diabetes: immunoprophylactic effects of precursors to insulin-producing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshu; Rani, Rajni

    2017-07-12

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial autoimmune disorder where pancreatic beta cells are lost before the clinical manifestations of the disease. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or MSCs differentiated into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) have yielded limited success when used therapeutically. We have evaluated the immunoprophylactic potentials of precursors to insulin-producing cells (pIPCs) and IPCs in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice to ask a basic question: do we need to differentiate MSCs into IPCs or will pIPCs suffice to attenuate autoimmune responses in T1D? Bone marrow-derived MSCs from Balb/c mice were characterized following the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) guidelines. MSCs cultured in high-glucose media for 11 to 13 passages were characterized for the expression of pancreatic lineage genes using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of the PDX1 gene in pIPCs was assessed using Western blot and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Triple-positive MSCs were differentiated into IPCs using a three-step protocol after sorting them for cell surface markers, i.e. CD29, CD44, and SCA-1. Nonobese diabetic mice were administered pIPCs, IPCs, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) into the tail vein at weeks 9 or 10 and followed-up for 29-30 weeks for fasting blood glucose levels. Two consecutive blood sugar levels of more than 250 mg/dl were considered diabetic. MSCs grown in high-glucose media for 11 to 13 passages expressed genes of the pancreatic lineage such as PDX1, beta2, neurogenin, PAX4, Insulin, and glucagon. Furthermore, Western blot and FACS analysis for PDX-1, a transcription factor necessary for beta cell maturation, confirmed that these cells were precursors of insulin-producing cells (pIPCs). NOD mice administered with pIPCs were better protected from developing diabetes with a protective efficacy of 78.4% (p cells seem to have better potential to arrest autoimmune response in type 1 diabetes when

  16. Chromate-reducing activity of Hansenula polymorpha recombinant cells over-producing flavocytochrome b₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutok, Oleh; Broda, Daniel; Smutok, Halyna; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2011-04-01

    b(2) and direct electron transfer from the enzyme to the electrode surface. The application of the chromate-reducing ability of FC b(2)-over-producing recombinant cells of H. polymorpha toward chromate bioremediation and the construction of cells-based biosensor for chromate monitoring in the environment are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of interleukin-17-producing Vγ2+ γδ T cells is reduced by ICOS signaling in the thymus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Terkild Brink; Schmidt, Jonas Damgård; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné

    2016-01-01

    . In this study, we have investigated the role of inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS) on the development of γδ T cells. We show that ICOS is expressed by a population of immature Vγ2+CD45RBlow γδ T cells predisposed to interleukin-17 (IL-17) production. We found that treatment with ICOS specific antibodies...... drastically reduces fetal development of IL-17-producing γδ T cells by agonistic actions, and that ICOS deficient mice have a significant increase in the population of IL-17-producing Vγ2+ γδ T cells in the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes and skin and exhibit exacerbated sensitization responses to 2......,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that development of IL-17-producing Vγ2+ γδ T cells is reduced by ICOS signaling in the thymus....

  18. Interferon-¿- and tumour necrosis factor-a-producing cells in humans who are immune to cutaneous leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K; Theander, T G; Hviid, L

    1999-01-01

    Individuals infected with Leishmania major usually acquire immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study we have investigated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated by Leishmania antigens in two groups of Sudanese individuals, one with a history of cutaneous leishmaniasis and one...... leishmaniasis produced significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha than cells from individuals without a history of the disease. Similar levels of IL-10 were found in the two groups. Flow cytometric analysis revealed high numbers of CD3+ cells producing IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, and only a few CD3......+ cells containing IL-10, in the PBMC cultures from the individuals with a history of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Interferon-gamma and TNF-alpha were predominantly produced by CD4+ T cells rather than CD8+ T cells. The results suggest that cellular immunity against cutaneous leishmaniasis is mediated...

  19. The morpho-functional parameters of rat pituitary hormone producing cells after genistein treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trifunović

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens are a diverse group of steroid–like compounds that occur naturally in many plants. There are various types of phytoestrogens, including the best-researched isoflavones which are commonly found in soy. The consumption of soy products has many health benefits, including protection against breast cancer, prostate cancer, menopausal symptoms, heart disease and osteoporosis. In contrast, use of hormonally active compounds-isoflavones may unfortunately interfere with the endocrine system and can have far-reaching consequences. Genistein, the most abundant soy-bean derived isoflavone, possesses a ring system similar to estrogens and acts through an estrogen receptor (ER-mediated mechanism, by increasing or decreasing the transcription of ER-dependent target genes. Also, genistein can act on cells through ER non-dependent mechanisms, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The neuroendocrine systems are responsible for the control of homeostatic processes in the body, including reproduction, growth, metabolism and energy balance, and stress responsiveness. It is well known, that estrogen is important for development of the neuroendocrine system in both sexes. At the pituitary level, estrogen is known to affect the regulation of all hormone producing (HP cells, by direct and/or indirect mechanisms. Due to structural and functional resemblance to estrogen, the question may arise of whether and how genistein affects the morphofunctional features of pituitary HP cells. This review deals with the consequences of genistein’s effects on morphological, stereological and hormonal features of HP cells within the anterior pituitary gland. Transparency on this issue is needed because isoflavones are presently highly consumed. Inter alia, genistein as well as other isoflavones, are present in various dietary supplements and generally promoted as an accepted alternative to estrogen replacement therapy. Potential isoflavone biomedical exploitation is not

  20. Metabolic reprogramming for producing energy and reducing power in fumarate hydratase null cells from hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youfeng Yang

    Full Text Available Fumarate hydratase (FH-deficient kidney cancer undergoes metabolic remodeling, with changes in mitochondrial respiration, glucose, and glutamine metabolism. These changes represent multiple biochemical adaptations in glucose and fatty acid metabolism that supports malignant proliferation. However, the metabolic linkages between altered mitochondrial function, nucleotide biosynthesis and NADPH production required for proliferation and survival have not been elucidated. To characterize the alterations in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the pentose phosphate pathways (PPP that either generate NADPH (oxidative or do not (non-oxidative, we utilized [U-(13C]-glucose, [U-(13C,(15N]-glutamine, and [1,2- (13C2]-glucose tracers with mass spectrometry and NMR detection to track these pathways, and measured the oxygen consumption rate (OCR and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR of growing cell lines. This metabolic reprogramming in the FH null cells was compared to cells in which FH has been restored. The FH null cells showed a substantial metabolic reorganization of their intracellular metabolic fluxes to fulfill their high ATP demand, as observed by a high rate of glucose uptake, increased glucose turnover via glycolysis, high production of glucose-derived lactate, and low entry of glucose carbon into the Krebs cycle. Despite the truncation of the Krebs cycle associated with inactivation of fumarate hydratase, there was a small but persistent level of mitochondrial respiration, which was coupled to ATP production from oxidation of glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate through to fumarate. [1,2- (13C2]-glucose tracer experiments demonstrated that the oxidative branch of PPP initiated by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity is preferentially utilized for ribose production (56-66% that produces increased amounts of ribose necessary for growth and NADPH. Increased NADPH is required to drive reductive carboxylation of α-ketoglutarate and fatty acid

  1. Generation of insulin-producing cells from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: comparison of three differentiation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Mahmoud M; Zakaria, Mahmoud M; Refaie, Ayman F; Khater, Sherry M; Ashamallah, Sylvia A; Ismail, Amani M; El-Badri, Nagwa; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Many protocols were utilized for directed differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to form insulin-producing cells (IPCs). We compared the relative efficiency of three differentiation protocols. Human bone marrow-derived MSCs (HBM-MSCs) were obtained from three insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic patients. Differentiation into IPCs was carried out by three protocols: conophylline-based (one-step protocol), trichostatin-A-based (two-step protocol), and β -mercaptoethanol-based (three-step protocol). At the end of differentiation, cells were evaluated by immunolabeling for insulin production, expression of pancreatic endocrine genes, and release of insulin and c-peptide in response to increasing glucose concentrations. By immunolabeling, the proportion of generated IPCs was modest ( ≃ 3%) in all the three protocols. All relevant pancreatic endocrine genes, insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, were expressed. There was a stepwise increase in insulin and c-peptide release in response to glucose challenge, but the released amounts were low when compared with those of pancreatic islets. The yield of functional IPCs following directed differentiation of HBM-MSCs was modest and was comparable among the three tested protocols. Protocols for directed differentiation of MSCs need further optimization in order to be clinically meaningful. To this end, addition of an extracellular matrix and/or a suitable template should be attempted.

  2. Fibronectin and laminin promote differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into insulin producing cells through activating Akt and ERK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou Shih-Hwa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Islet transplantation provides a promising cure for Type 1 diabetes; however it is limited by a shortage of pancreas donors. Bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs offer renewable cells for generating insulin-producing cells (IPCs. Methods We used a four-stage differentiation protocol, containing neuronal differentiation and IPC-conversion stages, and combined with pellet suspension culture to induce IPC differentiation. Results Here, we report adding extracellular matrix proteins (ECM such as fibronectin (FN or laminin (LAM enhances pancreatic differentiation with increases in insulin and Glut2 gene expressions, proinsulin and insulin protein levels, and insulin release in response to elevated glucose concentration. Adding FN or LAM induced activation of Akt and ERK. Blocking Akt or ERK by adding LY294002 (PI3K specific inhibitor, PD98059 (MEK specific inhibitor or knocking down Akt or ERK failed to abrogate FN or LAM-induced enhancement of IPC differentiation. Only blocking both of Akt and ERK or knocking down Akt and ERK inhibited the enhancement of IPC differentiation by adding ECM. Conclusions These data prove IPC differentiation by MSCs can be modulated by adding ECM, and these stimulatory effects were mediated through activation of Akt and ERK pathways.

  3. Generation of Insulin-Producing Cells from Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Comparison of Three Differentiation Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Gabr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Many protocols were utilized for directed differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs to form insulin-producing cells (IPCs. We compared the relative efficiency of three differentiation protocols. Methods. Human bone marrow-derived MSCs (HBM-MSCs were obtained from three insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic patients. Differentiation into IPCs was carried out by three protocols: conophylline-based (one-step protocol, trichostatin-A-based (two-step protocol, and β-mercaptoethanol-based (three-step protocol. At the end of differentiation, cells were evaluated by immunolabeling for insulin production, expression of pancreatic endocrine genes, and release of insulin and c-peptide in response to increasing glucose concentrations. Results. By immunolabeling, the proportion of generated IPCs was modest (≃3% in all the three protocols. All relevant pancreatic endocrine genes, insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, were expressed. There was a stepwise increase in insulin and c-peptide release in response to glucose challenge, but the released amounts were low when compared with those of pancreatic islets. Conclusion. The yield of functional IPCs following directed differentiation of HBM-MSCs was modest and was comparable among the three tested protocols. Protocols for directed differentiation of MSCs need further optimization in order to be clinically meaningful. To this end, addition of an extracellular matrix and/or a suitable template should be attempted.

  4. Dismantling of a hot cell-block and the treatment of the produced concrete bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rompf, U.; Brielmayer, M.; Graf, A.; Stutz, U.; Ambos, F.

    2003-01-01

    A building with hot cells had been operated in Karlstein/Main from 1968 to 1989 in order to perform check-ups at radiated fuel rods and nuclear components. The operation of the system was stopped after an operation period of approximately 20 years. The core part of the building to be disassembled is a U-shaped hot cell-block with nine individual cells, partly consisting of heavy reinforced concrete, located in the ground floor (fig. 1 and fig. 2). The major part of the cells was covered with 10 mm steel plate and provided with approx. 1,400 openings of all different kinds. The wall thickness of the cells was between 0.90 m and 1.10 m. Under these conditions a successful decontamination at the ''existing building structure'' was not possible. Therefore, the non-supporting structures of the hot cell-block were removed in individual blocks by means of sawing and the remaining walls and floors were peeled by using the diamond rope sawing technique. The dismantling took 17 months. A re-treatment of the produced concrete blocks (235 blocks, approx. 970 Mg) to reduce the radioactive waste to a minimum was performed at the Research Centre Karlsruhe, Central Decontamination Department (HDB). The Target of the concrete bar treatment at HDB is to reduce the volume of radioactive waste to a minimum and to add the major part of the concrete bars to harmless utilisation. To achieve the same, initially the more contaminated parts of the bars without openings, such as tubes, cable or ventilating shafts, are removed by means of wire cutting and packed into a KONRAD-Container as radioactive waste. The remaining bar is decontaminated by means of sandblasting and afterwards, following successful release measurement, released from the scope of the regulations under the Atomic Energy. Bars with openings are crushed into small pieces by means of the remote-controlled chisel excavator, in order to separate the individual kinds of material. The rubble is packed into drums and measured by

  5. CCR6 is expressed on an IL-10-producing, autoreactive memory T cell population with context-dependent regulatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivino, Laura; Gruarin, Paola; Häringer, Barbara; Steinfelder, Svenja; Lozza, Laura; Steckel, Bodo; Weick, Anja; Sugliano, Elisa; Jarrossay, David; Kühl, Anja A; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Abrignani, Sergio; Sallusto, Federica; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Geginat, Jens

    2010-03-15

    Interleukin (IL)-10 produced by regulatory T cell subsets is important for the prevention of autoimmunity and immunopathology, but little is known about the phenotype and function of IL-10-producing memory T cells. Human CD4(+)CCR6(+) memory T cells contained comparable numbers of IL-17- and IL-10-producing cells, and CCR6 was induced under both Th17-promoting conditions and upon tolerogenic T cell priming with transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. In normal human spleens, the majority of CCR6(+) memory T cells were in the close vicinity of CCR6(+) myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), and strikingly, some of them were secreting IL-10 in situ. Furthermore, CCR6(+) memory T cells produced suppressive IL-10 but not IL-2 upon stimulation with autologous immature mDCs ex vivo, and secreted IL-10 efficiently in response to suboptimal T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation with anti-CD3 antibodies. However, optimal TCR stimulation of CCR6(+) T cells induced expression of IL-2, interferon-gamma, CCL20, and CD40L, and autoreactive CCR6(+) T cell lines responded to various recall antigens. Notably, we isolated autoreactive CCR6(+) T cell clones with context-dependent behavior that produced IL-10 with autologous mDCs alone, but that secreted IL-2 and proliferated upon stimulation with tetanus toxoid. We propose the novel concept that a population of memory T cells, which is fully equipped to participate in secondary immune responses upon recognition of a relevant recall antigen, contributes to the maintenance of tolerance under steady-state conditions.

  6. A method of producing a multilayer barrier structure for a solid oxide fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of producing a multilayer barrier structure for a solid oxide cell stack, comprising the steps of: - providing a metal interconnect, wherein the metal interconnect is a ferritic stainless steel layer; - applying a first metal oxide layer on said metal...... oxide; and - reacting the metal oxide in said first metal oxide layer with the metal of said metal interconnect during the SOC-stack initialisation, and a solid oxide stack comprising an anode contact layer and support structure, an anode layer, an electrolyte layer, a cathode layer, a cathode contact...... layer, a metallic interconnect, and a multilayer barrier structure which is obtainable by the above method and through an initialisation step, which is carried out under controlled conditions for atmosphere composition and current load, which depends on the layer composition facilitating the formation...

  7. Characterization of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Producing Coagulation Factor VIII Using Multi-omics Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Christian Schrøder

    The first public draft of a genome from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was published in 2011, an entire decade after the first draft of the human genome. This publication of a relevant CHO reference genome, in combination with the fact that the cost for DNA sequencing has dropped more than 10...... using omics tools. A wide range of methods were applied including whole-genome sequencing, targeted genome sequencing, mRNA sequencing, miRNA sequencing and mass spectrometry based shotgun proteomics on a number of clones in order to get a more holistic picture of the inner workings of these CHO...... transfectants. From the whole-genome sequencing of two CHO genomes (CHO DXB11 and the FVIII producing transfectant: F435) it was observed that roughly 20% of the genes in the genome were haploid and roughly 10% had a copy number of three or higher indicating extensive rearrangements compared to the Chinese...

  8. Radiation-produced electron migration along 5-bromouracil-substituted DNA in cells and in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    Results of work by other investigators support the theory of charge migration in DNA. Charge transfer between nucleotides and electron and energy migration in solid state DNA have been detected, but no previous experiments have demonstrated charge migration in aqueous solutions of DNA or in DNA inside an E. coli cell. Such experiments were performed by substituting different amounts of 5-bromouracil (BU) for thymine in E. coli DNA and assaying for the amount of bromide given off from the reaction of bromouracil with hydrated electrons produced by ionizing radiation to form uracil-5-yl radicals and free bromide. By varying the amount of BU incorporated in the DNA, the average distance between the BU bases was varied, and because the number of BU/electron reactions was monitored by the amount of bromide released, the maximum average electron migration distance along the BU-DNA was estimated. Charge migration was demonstrated, and the maximum average electron migration distance in aqueous solutions of BU-DNA was measured to be 8 to 10 base distances (assuming only intrastrand migration). Only 11 to 16% of the electrons produced attacked BU-DNA in aqueous solution, and only 1% resulted in bromide release from BU-DNA inside E. coli. Charge migration was demonstrated in BU-DNA inside E. coli, and the maximum average migration distance was measured to be 5 to 6 base distances

  9. Direct Sensing of Nutrients via a LAT1-like Transporter in Drosophila Insulin-Producing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Manière

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary leucine has been suspected to play an important role in insulin release, a hormone that controls satiety and metabolism. The mechanism by which insulin-producing cells (IPCs sense leucine and regulate insulin secretion is still poorly understood. In Drosophila, insulin-like peptides (DILP2 and DILP5 are produced by brain IPCs and are released in the hemolymph after leucine ingestion. Using Ca2+-imaging and ex vivo cultured larval brains, we demonstrate that IPCs can directly sense extracellular leucine levels via minidiscs (MND, a leucine transporter. MND knockdown in IPCs abolished leucine-dependent changes, including loss of DILP2 and DILP5 in IPC bodies, consistent with the idea that MND is necessary for leucine-dependent DILP release. This, in turn, leads to a strong increase in hemolymph sugar levels and reduced growth. GDH knockdown in IPCs also reduced leucine-dependent DILP release, suggesting that nutrient sensing is coupled to the glutamate dehydrogenase pathway.

  10. Method of producing exfoliated graphite composite compositions for fuel cell flow field plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-04-08

    A method of producing an electrically conductive composite composition, which is particularly useful for fuel cell bipolar plate applications. The method comprises: (a) providing a supply of expandable graphite powder; (b) providing a supply of a non-expandable powder component comprising a binder or matrix material; (c) blending the expandable graphite with the non-expandable powder component to form a powder mixture wherein the non-expandable powder component is in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the powder mixture; (d) exposing the powder mixture to a temperature sufficient for exfoliating the expandable graphite to obtain a compressible mixture comprising expanded graphite worms and the non-expandable component; (e) compressing the compressible mixture at a pressure within the range of from about 5 psi to about 50,000 psi in predetermined directions into predetermined forms of cohered graphite composite compact; and (f) treating the so-formed cohered graphite composite to activate the binder or matrix material thereby promoting adhesion within the compact to produce the desired composite composition. Preferably, the non-expandable powder component further comprises an isotropy-promoting agent such as non-expandable graphite particles. Further preferably, step (e) comprises compressing the mixture in at least two directions. The method leads to composite plates with exceptionally high thickness-direction electrical conductivity.

  11. Radiation-produced electron migration along 5-bromouracil-substituted DNA in cells and in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    Results of work by other investigators support the theory of charge migration in DNA. Charge transfer between nucleotides and electron and energy migration in solid state DNA have been detected, but no previous experiments have demonstrated charge migration in aqueous solutions of DNA or in DNA inside an E. coli cell. Such experiments were performed by substituting different amounts of 5-bromouracil (BU) for thymine in E. coli DNA and assaying for the amount of bromide given off from the reaction of bromouracil with hydrated electrons produced by ionizing radiation to form uracil-5-yl radicals and free bromide. By varying the amount of BU incorporated in the DNA, the average distance between the BU bases was varied, and because the number of BU/electron reactions was monitored by the amount of bromide released, the maximum average electron migration distance along the BU-DNA was estimated. Hydrated electrons, e/sub aq/, were shown to react with BU in BU-DNA with the resultant release of bromide with G(-BR - ) = 0.519 +- 0.062. OH radicals were half as reactive as e/sub aq/ toward producing bromide from BU-DNA. O 2 , which has been shown to transfer charge to BU in aqueous solution, did not transfer charge to BU-DNA. The CO 2 radical was shown to cause the release of bromide from BU-DNA at least as effectively as e/sub aq/. Charge migration was demonstrated, and the maximum average electron migration distance in aqueous solutions of BU-DNA was measured to be 8 to 10 base distances (assuming only intrastrand migration). Only 11% to 16% of the electrons produced attacked BU-DNA in aqueous solution, and only 1% resulted in bromide release from BU-DNA inside E. coli. Charge migration was demonstrated in BU-DNA inside E. coli., and the maximum average migration distance was measured to be 5 to 6 base distances

  12. Spider Silk Fibers Spun from Soluble Recombinant Silk Produced in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaris, Anthoula; Arcidiacono, Steven; Huang, Yue; Zhou, Jiang-Feng; Duguay, François; Chretien, Nathalie; Welsh, Elizabeth A.; Soares, Jason W.; Karatzas, Costas N.

    2002-01-01

    Spider silks are protein-based ``biopolymer'' filaments or threads secreted by specialized epithelial cells as concentrated soluble precursors of highly repetitive primary sequences. Spider dragline silk is a flexible, lightweight fiber of extraordinary strength and toughness comparable to that of synthetic high-performance fibers. We sought to ``biomimic'' the process of spider silk production by expressing in mammalian cells the dragline silk genes (ADF-3/MaSpII and MaSpI) of two spider species. We produced soluble recombinant (rc)-dragline silk proteins with molecular masses of 60 to 140 kilodaltons. We demonstrated the wet spinning of silk monofilaments spun from a concentrated aqueous solution of soluble rc-spider silk protein (ADF-3; 60 kilodaltons) under modest shear and coagulation conditions. The spun fibers were water insoluble with a fine diameter (10 to 40 micrometers) and exhibited toughness and modulus values comparable to those of native dragline silks but with lower tenacity. Dope solutions with rc-silk protein concentrations >20% and postspinning draw were necessary to achieve improved mechanical properties of the spun fibers. Fiber properties correlated with finer fiber diameter and increased birefringence.

  13. CEA-producing urothelial cell carcinoma with metastasis presenting as a rectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsin Yang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study of a 61-year-old male who presented with difficult defecation for 1 month. A circumferential submucosal rectal tumor was noted on a digital rectal examination and colonoscopy. Laboratory examination revealed high serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA; 43.75 ng/mL and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9; 11,790 U/mL. In addition, tumor biopsies revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the rectum with intact mucosa. The patient had history of advanced stage-T2 urothelial cell carcinoma of bladder, which had been downstaged to T0 by neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy 1 year prior. After investigating the initial bladder tumor specimens, a small portion of the tumor with high CEA expression comparable to the submucosal rectal tumor was found. The size of the tumor was reduced and the levels of the tumor markers decreased after administering FOLFIRI chemotherapy targeted at the adenocarcinoma. Although neoadjuvant chemotherapy may have a selective pressure to eliminate most urothelial cell carcinoma, physicians should be aware that it can lead to rectal metastasis via CEA-producing components.

  14. Human Adrenocortical Remodeling Leading to Aldosterone-Producing Cell Cluster Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshiro Nishimoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The immunohistochemical detection of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 and steroid 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1 has enabled the identification of aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs in the subcapsular portion of the human adult adrenal cortex. We hypothesized that adrenals have layered zonation in early postnatal stages and are remodeled to possess APCCs over time. Purposes. To investigate changes in human adrenocortical zonation with age. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed adrenal tissues prepared from 33 autopsied patients aged between 0 and 50 years. They were immunostained for CYP11B2 and CYP11B1. The percentage of APCC areas over the whole adrenal area (AA/WAA, % and the number of APCCs (NOA, APCCs/mm2 were calculated by four examiners. Average values were used in statistical analyses. Results. Adrenals under 11 years old had layered zona glomerulosa (ZG and zona fasciculata (ZF without apparent APCCs. Some adrenals had an unstained (CYP11B2/CYP11B1-negative layer between ZG and ZF, resembling the rat undifferentiated cell zone. Average AA/WAA and NOA correlated with age, suggesting that APCC development is associated with aging. Possible APCC-to-APA transitional lesions were incidentally identified in two adult adrenals. Conclusions. The adrenal cortex with layered zonation remodels to possess APCCs over time. APCC generation may be associated with hypertension in adults.

  15. Optimizing Immobilized Enzyme Performance in Cell-Free Environments to Produce Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfort, Georges [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Grimaldi, Joseph J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2015-01-27

    Limitations on biofuel production using cell culture (Escherichia coli, Clostridium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, brown microalgae, blue-green algae and others) include low product (alcohol) concentrations (≤0.2 vol%) due to feedback inhibition, instability of cells, and lack of economical product recovery processes. To overcome these challenges, an alternate simplified biofuel production scheme was tested based on a cell-free immobilized enzyme system. Using this cell free system, we were able to obtain about 2.6 times higher concentrations of iso-butanol using our non-optimized system as compared with live cell systems. This process involved two steps: (i) converts acid to aldehyde using keto-acid decarboxylase (KdcA), and (ii) produces alcohol from aldehyde using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with a cofactor (NADH) conversion from inexpensive formate using a third enzyme, formate dehydrogenase (FDH). To increase stability and conversion efficiency with easy separations, the first two enzymes were immobilized onto methacrylate resin. Fusion proteins of labile KdcA (fKdcA) were expressed to stabilize the covalently immobilized KdcA. Covalently immobilized ADH exhibited long-term stability and efficient conversion of aldehyde to alcohol over multiple batch cycles without fusions. High conversion rates and low protein leaching were achieved by covalent immobilization of enzymes on methacrylate resin. The complete reaction scheme was demonstrated by immobilizing both ADH and fKdcA and using FDH free in solution. The new system without in situ removal of isobutanol achieved a 55% conversion of ketoisovaleric acid to isobutanol at a concentration of 0.5 % (v/v). Further increases in titer will require continuous removal of the isobutanol using our novel brush membrane system that exhibits a 1.5 fold increase in the separation factor of isobutanol from water versus that obtained for commercial silicone rubber membranes. These bio-inspired brush membranes are based on the

  16. CD4 T cells play important roles in maintaining IL-17-producing γδ T-cell subsets in naive animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Jeong-Su; Visperas, Anabelle; O'Brien, Rebecca L; Min, Booki

    2012-04-01

    A proportional balance between αβ and γδ T-cell subsets in the periphery is exceedingly well maintained by a homeostatic mechanism. However, a cellular mechanism underlying the regulation remains undefined. We recently reported that a subset of developing γδ T cells spontaneously acquires interleukin (IL)-17-producing capacity even within naive animals through a transforming growth factor (TGF)β1-dependent mechanism, thus considered 'innate' IL-17-producing cells. Here, we report that γδ T cells generated within αβ T cell (or CD4 T cell)-deficient environments displayed altered cytokine profiles; particularly, 'innate' IL-17 expression was significantly impaired compared with those in wild-type mice. Impaired IL-17 production in γδ T cells was directly related to CD4 T-cell deficiency, because depletion of CD4 T cells in wild-type mice diminished and adoptive CD4 T-cell transfer into T-cell receptor β-/- mice restored IL-17 expression in γδ T cells. CD4 T cell-mediated IL-17 expression required TGFβ1. Moreover, Th17 but not Th1 or Th2 effector CD4 T cells were highly efficient in enhancing γδ T-cell IL-17 expression. Taken together, our results highlight a novel CD4 T cell-dependent mechanism that shapes the generation of IL-17+ γδ T cells in naive settings.

  17. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma with fetal gut differentiation: a rare case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wei-Ting; Liu, Chia-Hao; Lai, Chiung-Ru; Chen, Yi-Jen; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Wang, Peng-Hui

    2018-06-22

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a useful tumor marker for ovarian germ cell tumors, particularly yolk sac tumor (YST). It is valuable for both diagnosis and further follow-up. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) rarely secretes AFP, especially for clear cell type and in the postmenopausal women. Based on the limited knowledge about AFP-producing clear cell type EOC, a case and literature review on this topic is extensively reviewed. We report a 55-year-old postmenopausal woman experienced vaginal spotting for one month, and serum level of AFP was 60,721 ng/ml initially. Histological examination was clear cell type EOC. Tumor cells revealed strong immunoreactivity for glypican-3 (GPC3) and AFP and weak for hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 beta (HNF-1 beta), but negative for CD30, making the diagnosis of AFP-producing clear cell type EOC with fetal gut differentiation in focal areas, FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) IIIc. Although the patient underwent an intensive treatment, including optimal debulking surgery and multi-agent chemotherapy, the patient died of disease. To provide a better understanding of clinical and molecular characteristics of the AFP-producing clear cell type EOC, we conducted a systematic literature review. A total of three papers described the AFP-producing clear cell type EOC are available. The overall survival rate of these cases, including the current case is 50%. Although immunohistochemical examination is not always needed in routine for the diagnosis of clear cell type EOC, to distinguish from other tumors, especially germ cell tumors, or to provide the better way to monitor therapeutic response or to evaluate the disease status, immunostaining, including GPC3, HNF-1 beta, CD30, cytokeratin 7 or 20, and AFP is taken into account. Due to rarity, the appropriate chemotherapy regimen and the biological behavior of AFP-producing clear cell type EOC are still unclear.

  18. Detection of specific antibody producing cells in porcine colostrum by in ovo translation of their mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortbeek-Jacobs, N.; Donk, H. van der

    1978-01-01

    An improved method is described for the determination of antibody producing cells in sows colostrum. The test system comprises in ovo translation of mRNA from swine colostral cells and analysis of the translation products by radioimmunoassay with specific antibodies and antigen. (C.F.)

  19. The glycolipid sulfatide protects insulin-producing cells against cytokine-induced apoptosis, a possible role in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeske-Nielsen, A; Dalgaard, L T; Månsson, Sven-Erik

    2010-01-01

    these is NO production. The glycosphingolipid sulfatide is present in ß-cells in the secretory granules in varying amounts and is secreted together with insulin. We now investigate whether sulfatide is able to protect insulin-producing cells against the pro-apoptotic effect of interleukin-1ß, interferon-¿ and tumour...

  20. Downregulation of IL-17-producing T cells is associated with regulatory T cell expansion and disease progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Memarian, Ali; Asgarian-Omran, Hossein; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Sarrafnejad, Abdolfattah; Shokri, Fazel

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the immunobiology of interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing T cells and regulatory T cells (Treg) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In this study, the frequencies of Th17, Tc17, and CD39(+) Treg cells were enumerated in peripheral T cells isolated from 40 CLL patients and 15 normal subjects by flow cytometry. Our results showed a lower frequency of Th17 and Tc17 cells in progressive (0.99 ± 0.12 % of total CD3(+)CD4(+) cells; 0.44 ± 0.09 % of total CD8(+) cells) compared to indolent patients (1.57 ± 0.24 %, p = 0.042; 0.82 ± 0.2 %, p = 0.09) and normal subjects (1.78 ± 0.2 %, p = 0.003; 0.71 ± 0.09 %, p = 0.04). Decrease in IL-17-producing T cells was associated with CD39(+) Treg cells expansion. Variation of IL-17-producing cells and Treg cells in indolent and progressive patients was neither associated to the expression levels of Th1- and Th2-specific transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 nor to the frequencies of IFN-γ and IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells in a selected number of samples. Additionally, suppressive potential of CD4(+) Treg was similar in CLL patients and normal subjects. Our data indicate that progression of CLL is associated with downregulation of IL-17-producing T cells and expansion of Treg cells, implying contribution of these subsets of T cells in the progression of CLL.

  1. Pancreatic Stellate Cells Have Distinct Characteristics From Hepatic Stellate Cells and Are Not the Unique Origin of Collagen-Producing Cells in the Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Gen; Taura, Kojiro; Iwaisako, Keiko; Asagiri, Masataka; Ito, Shinji; Koyama, Yukinori; Tanabe, Kazutaka; Iguchi, Kohta; Satoh, Motohiko; Nishio, Takahiro; Okuda, Yukihiro; Ikeno, Yoshinobu; Yoshino, Kenji; Seo, Satoru; Hatano, Etsuro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2017-10-01

    The origin of collagen-producing myofibroblasts in pancreatic fibrosis is still controversial. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), which have been recognized as the pancreatic counterparts of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), are thought to play an important role in the development of pancreatic fibrosis. However, sources of myofibroblasts other than PSCs may exist because extensive studies of liver fibrosis have uncovered myofibroblasts that did not originate from HSCs. This study aimed to characterize myofibroblasts in an experimental pancreatic fibrosis model in mice. We used transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein via the collagen type I α1 promoter and induced pancreatic fibrosis with repetitive injections of cerulein. Collagen-producing cells that are negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein (ie, not derived from PSCs) exist in the pancreas. Pancreatic stellate cells had different characteristics from those of HSCs in a very small possession of vitamin A using mass spectrometry and a low expression of lecithin retinol acyltransferase. The microstructure of PSCs was entirely different from that of HSCs using flow cytometry and electron microscopy. Our study showed that characteristics of PSCs are different from those of HSCs, and myofibroblasts in the pancreas might be derived not only from PSCs but also from other fibrogenic cells.

  2. Impact of aldosterone-producing cell clusters on diagnostic discrepancies in primary aldosteronism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometani, Mitsuhiro; Yoneda, Takashi; Aono, Daisuke; Karashima, Shigehiro; Demura, Masashi; Nishimoto, Koshiro; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Takeda, Yoshiyu

    2018-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation is recommended in adrenal vein sampling (AVS) for primary aldosteronism (PA) to improve the AVS success rate. However, this method can confound the subtype diagnosis. Gene mutations or pathological characteristics may be related to lateralization by AVS. This study aimed to compare the rate of diagnostic discrepancy by AVS pre- versus post-ACTH stimulation and to investigate the relationship between this discrepancy and findings from immunohistochemical and genetic analyses of PA. We evaluated 195 cases of AVS performed in 2011–2017. All surgical specimens were analyzed genetically and immunohistochemically. Based on the criteria, AVS was successful in 158 patients both pre- and post-ACTH; of these patients, 75 showed diagnostic discrepancies between pre- and post-ACTH. Thus, 19 patients underwent unilateral adrenalectomy, of whom 16 had an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) that was positive for CYP11B2 immunostaining. Of them, 10 patients had discordant lateralization between pre- and post-ACTH. In the genetic analysis, the rate of somatic mutations was not significantly different between APA patients with versus without a diagnostic discrepancy. In the immunohistochemical analysis, CYP11B2 levels and the frequency of aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) in APAs were almost identical between patients with versus without a diagnostic discrepancy. However, both the number and summed area of APCCs in APAs were significantly smaller in patients with concordant results than in those whose diagnosis changed to bilateral PA post-ACTH stimulation. In conclusion, lateralization by AVS was affected by APCCs in the adjacent gland, but not by APA-related factors such as somatic gene mutations. PMID:29899838

  3. Three-dimensional WS2 nanosheet networks for H2O2 produced for cell signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Quan, Yingzhou; Zhang, Yueyu; Jiang, Min; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M.; Kong, Biao; An, Tiance; Wang, Wenshuo; Xia, Limin; Gong, Xingao; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important molecular messenger for cellular signal transduction. The capability of direct probing of H2O2 in complex biological systems can offer potential for elucidating its manifold roles in living systems. Here we report the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) WS2 nanosheet networks with flower-like morphologies on a variety of conducting substrates. The semiconducting WS2 nanosheets with largely exposed edge sites on flexible carbon fibers enable abundant catalytically active sites, excellent charge transfer, and high permeability to chemicals and biomaterials. Thus, the 3D WS2-based nano-bio-interface exhibits a wide detection range, high sensitivity and rapid response time for H2O2, and is capable of visualizing endogenous H2O2 produced in living RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and neurons. First-principles calculations further demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of probing H2O2 is attributed to the efficient and spontaneous H2O2 adsorption on WS2 nanosheet edge sites. The combined features of 3D WS2 nanosheet networks suggest attractive new opportunities for exploring the physiological roles of reactive oxygen species like H2O2 in living systems.Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important molecular messenger for cellular signal transduction. The capability of direct probing of H2O2 in complex biological systems can offer potential for elucidating its manifold roles in living systems. Here we report the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) WS2 nanosheet networks with flower-like morphologies on a variety of conducting substrates. The semiconducting WS2 nanosheets with largely exposed edge sites on flexible carbon fibers enable abundant catalytically active sites, excellent charge transfer, and high permeability to chemicals and biomaterials. Thus, the 3D WS2-based nano-bio-interface exhibits a wide detection range, high sensitivity and rapid response time for H2O2, and is capable of visualizing endogenous H2O2 produced in

  4. Three-Dimensional Environment Sustains Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation into Platelet-Producing Megakaryocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyk-Nivau, Audrey; Poirault-Chassac, Sonia; Gandrille, Sophie; Derkaoui, Sidi-Mohammed; Kauskot, Alexandre; Letourneur, Didier; Le Visage, Catherine; Baruch, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) differentiate into megakaryocytes (MK), whose function is to release platelets. Attempts to improve in vitro platelet production have been hampered by the low amplification of MK. Providing HSC with an optimal three-dimensional (3D) architecture may favor MK differentiation by mimicking some crucial functions of the bone marrow structure. To this aim, porous hydrogel scaffolds were used to study MK differentiation from HSC as well as platelet production. Flow cytometry, qPCR and perfusion studies showed that 3D was suitable for longer kinetics of CD34+ cell proliferation and for delayed megakaryocytic differentiation far beyond the limited shelf-life observed in liquid culture but also increased production of functional platelets. We provide evidence that these 3D effects were related to 1) persistence of MK progenitors and precursors and 2) prolongation of expression of EKLF and c-myb transcription factors involved in early MK differentiation. In addition, presence of abundant mature MK with increased ploidy and impressive cytoskeleton elongations was in line with expression of NF-E2 transcription factor involved in late MK differentiation. Platelets produced in flow conditions were functional as shown by integrin αIIbβ3 activation following addition of exogenous agonists. This study demonstrates that spatial organization and biological cues synergize to improve MK differentiation and platelet production. Thus, 3D environment constitutes a powerful tool for unraveling the physiological mechanisms of megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis in the bone marrow environment, potentially leading to an improved amplification of MK and platelet production.

  5. Effect of KCNJ5 Mutations on Gene Expression in Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas and Adrenocortical Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Silvia; Hattangady, Namita G.; Nishimoto, Koshiro; Mantero, Franco; Rubin, Beatrice; Cicala, Maria Verena; Pezzani, Raffaele; Auchus, Richard J.; Ghayee, Hans K.; Shibata, Hirotaka; Kurihara, Isao; Williams, Tracy A.; Giri, Judith G.; Bollag, Roni J.; Edwards, Michael A.; Isales, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Primary aldosteronism is a heterogeneous disease that includes both sporadic and familial forms. A point mutation in the KCNJ5 gene is responsible for familial hyperaldosteronism type III. Somatic mutations in KCNJ5 also occur in sporadic aldosterone producing adenomas (APA). Objective: The objective of the study was to define the effect of the KCNJ5 mutations on gene expression and aldosterone production using APA tissue and human adrenocortical cells. Methods: A microarray analysis was used to compare the transcriptome profiles of female-derived APA samples with and without KCNJ5 mutations and HAC15 adrenal cells overexpressing either mutated or wild-type KCNJ5. Real-time PCR validated a set of differentially expressed genes. Immunohistochemical staining localized the KCNJ5 expression in normal adrenals and APA. Results: We report a 38% (18 of 47) prevalence of KCNJ5 mutations in APA. KCNJ5 immunostaining was highest in the zona glomerulosa of NA and heterogeneous in APA tissue, and KCNJ5 mRNA was 4-fold higher in APA compared with normal adrenals (P APA with and without KCNJ5 mutations displayed slightly different gene expression patterns, notably the aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2) was more highly expressed in APA with KCNJ5 mutations. Overexpression of KCNJ5 mutations in HAC15 increased aldosterone production and altered expression of 36 genes by greater than 2.5-fold (P APA, and our data suggest that these mutations increase expression of CYP11B2 and NR4A2, thus increasing aldosterone production. PMID:22628608

  6. Identification of 5-hydroxytryptamine-producing cells by detection of fluorescence in paraffin-embedded tissue sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kaneko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT produced by enterochromaffin (EC cells is an important enteric mucosal signaling ligand and has been implicated in several gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and functional disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. The present study reports a new, simple and rapid visualization method of 5-HT-producing EC cells utilizing detection of autofluorescence in paraffin-embedded tissue sections after formalin fixation. In human samples, there was a high incidence of autofluorescence+ cells in the 5-HT+ cells in the pyloric, small intestinal and colonic glands, while co-localization was lacking between autofluorescence+ and gastrin+ cells in the pyloric and small intestinal glands. Autofluorescence+ EC cells were detected in the colon of mice and rats. Autofluorescence+ cells were also observed in 5-HT+ β cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans in pregnant mice, while non-pregnant mouse pancreatic islet cells showed no 5-HT immunoreactivity or autofluorescence. These results suggest that autofluorescence+ cells are identical to 5-HT+ cells, and the source of autofluorescence may be 5-HT itself or molecules related to its synthesis or degradation. This autofluorescence signal detection method may be applicable for monitoring of inflammatory status of inflammatory bowel diseases in both the experimental and clinical settings.

  7. Peripheral blood CD161+ T cells from asthmatic patients are activated during asthma attack and predominantly produce IFN-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hernández, Y; Pedraza-Sánchez, S; Blandón-Vijil, V; del Río-Navarro, B E; Vaughan, G; Moreno-Lafont, M; Escobar-Gutiérrez, A

    2007-04-01

    In humans, T cells expressing the CD161 molecule NKR-P1A constitute around 20% of the circulating CD3(+) cells and are potentially immunoregulatory in several diseases. Their role in asthma is not well known, but they could participate in asthma attacks. To determinate whether activation of CD161(+) T cells and their cytokine production correlate with clinical status of asthma, we analysed blood samples from asthma attack patients (AAP) and stable asthma patients (SAP) in comparison with healthy non-atopic controls (HC). There was a significant higher baseline expression of CD69 on T cells from AAP and the difference was more notorious on CD161(+) T cells; upregulation of CD69 was observed on both CD161(-) and CD161(+) T cells driven by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus crude extract, whereas polyclonal stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin predominantly induced IFN-gamma but no IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by CD161(+) T cells in all groups; upon polyclonal stimulation, there were more CD161(+) T cells producing IFN-gamma and less CD161(-) T cells producing this cytokine, contrasting with the opposite results observed in SAP and HC groups. Our results indicate that, during asthma attack, CD161(+) T cells are activated and are able to produce predominantly IFN-gamma but no Th2 cytokines. We hypothesize that during an asthma attack, IFN-gamma produced by CD161(+) T cells could help to reestablish the Th1/Th2 equilibrium. These observations may contribute to the understanding of the immune mechanisms involved in asthma attacks.

  8. Development of Methods to Isolate Recombinant Antibodies Against Prostate Cancer Antigens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Myron

    2000-01-01

    .... Appropriate materials, which include prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines, tissue specimens from radical prostacetomies, and hybridomas producing antibodies specific for pro static antigens have been procured...

  9. Characterization of recombinant human erythropoietin produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Arakawa, T.; Strickland, T.W.; Yphantis, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of recombinant human erythropoietin were examined. This protein, produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells, showed a conformation apparently identical with the natural product isolated from human urine when examined by circular dichroism, UV absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Sedimentation equilibrium experiments showed the recombinant erythropoietin preparation to be essentially a single macromolecular component with a molecular weight of 30,400 and a carbohydrate content of 39%. The Stokes radius of recombinant erythropoietin was estimated to be 32 A from gel filtration, much larger than the 20-A radius calculated for a sphere of the observed molecular weight. This difference may be ascribed to the extensive glycosylation. The fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra showed that the luminescent tryptophan(s) is (are) solvent-exposed and can be quenched by I - and acrylamide but not by Cs + . On acid titration, the recombinant erythropoietin showed a conformational transition with a midpoint of pH 4.1. This suggests that the net charges on the protein moiety rather than on the whole molecule play a role in protein structure stability

  10. Control of infectious mortality due to carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcina, A; Baldan, R; Marasco, V; Cichero, P; Bondanza, A; Noviello, M; Piemontese, S; Soliman, C; Greco, R; Lorentino, F; Giglio, F; Messina, C; Carrabba, M; Bernardi, M; Peccatori, J; Moro, M; Biancardi, A; Nizzero, P; Scarpellini, P; Cirillo, D M; Mancini, N; Corti, C; Clementi, M; Ciceri, F

    2017-01-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) infections are an emerging cause of death after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In allogeneic transplants, mortality rate may rise up to 60%. We retrospectively evaluated 540 patients receiving a transplant from an auto- or an allogeneic source between January 2011 and October 2015. After an Institutional increase in the prevalence of KPC-Kp bloodstream infections (BSI) in June 2012, from July 2012, 366 consecutive patients received the following preventive measures: (i) weekly rectal swabs for surveillance; (ii) contact precautions in carriers (iii) early-targeted therapy in neutropenic febrile carriers. Molecular typing identified KPC-Kp clone ST512 as the main clone responsible for colonization, BSI and outbreaks. After the introduction of these preventive measures, the cumulative incidence of KPC-Kp BSI (P=0.01) and septic shocks (P=0.01) at 1 year after HSCT was significantly reduced. KPC-Kp infection-mortality dropped from 62.5% (pre-intervention) to 16.6% (post-intervention). Day 100 transplant-related mortality and KPC-Kp infection-related mortality after allogeneic HSCT were reduced from 22% to 10% (P=0.001) and from 4% to 1% (P=0.04), respectively. None of the pre-HSCT carriers was excluded from transplant. These results suggest that active surveillance, contact precautions and early-targeted therapies, may efficiently control KPC-Kp spread and related mortality even after allogeneic HSCT.

  11. Mass-produced multi-walled carbon nanotubes as catalyst supports for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In Young; Park, Ki Chul; Jung, Yong Chae; Lee, Sun Hyung; Song, Sung Moo; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Kim, Yong Jung; Endo, Morinobu

    2011-01-01

    Commercially mass-produced multi-walled carbon nanotubes, i.e., VGNF (Showa Denko Co.), were applied to support materials for platinum-ruthenium (PtRu) nanoparticles as anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells. The original VGNFs are composed of high-crystalline graphitic shells, which hinder the favorable surface deposition of the PtRu nanoparticles that are formed via borohydride reduction. The chemical treatment of VGNFs with potassium hydroxide (KOH), however, enables highly dispersed and dense deposition of PtRu nanoparticles on the VGNF surface. This capability becomes more remarkable depending on the KOH amount. The electrochemical evaluation of the PtRu-deposited VGNF catalysts showed enhanced active surface areas and methanol oxidation, due to the high dispersion and dense deposition of the PtRu nanoparticles. The improvement of the surface deposition states of the PtRu nanoparticles was significantly due to the high surface area and mesorporous surface structure of the KOH-activated VGNFs.

  12. TNFR2 expression on CD25hiFOXP3+ T cells induced upon TCR stimulation of CD4 T cells identifies maximal cytokine-producing effectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chindu eGovindaraj

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we show that CD25hiTNFR2+ cells can be rapidly generated in vitro from circulating CD4 lymphocytes by polyclonal stimuli anti-CD3 in the presence of anti-CD28. The in vitro induced CD25hiTNFR2+ T cells express a conventional Treg phenotype FOXP3+CTLA4+CD127lo/-, but produce effector and immunoregulatory cytokines including IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-g. These induced CD25hiTNFR2+ T cells do not suppress target cell proliferation, but enhance it instead. Thus the CD25hiTNFR2+ phenotype induced rapidly following CD3/28 cross linking of CD4 T cells identifies cells with maximal proliferative and effector cytokine producing capability. The in vivo counterpart of this cell population may play an important role in immune response initiation.

  13. An immunofluorescence assay for extracellular matrix components highlights the role of epithelial cells in producing a stable, fibrillar extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar S. Qureshi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Activated fibroblasts are considered major drivers of fibrotic disease progression through the production of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM in response to signals from damaged epithelial and inflammatory cells. Nevertheless, epithelial cells are capable of expressing components of the ECM, cross-linking enzymes that increase its stability and are sensitive to factors involved in the early stages of fibrosis. We therefore wanted to test the hypothesis that epithelial cells can deposit ECM in response to stimulation in a comparable manner to fibroblasts. We performed immunofluorescence analysis of components of stable, mature extracellular matrix produced by primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells and renal fibroblasts in response to cytokine stimulation. Whilst fibroblasts produced a higher basal level of extracellular matrix components, epithelial cells were able to deposit significant levels of fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV in response to cytokine stimulation. In response to hypoxia, epithelial cells showed an increase in collagen IV deposition but not in response to the acute stress stimuli aristolochic acid or hydrogen peroxide. When epithelial cells were in co-culture with fibroblasts we observed significant increases in the level of matrix deposition which could be reduced by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β blockade. Our results highlight the role of epithelial cells acting as efficient producers of stable extracellular matrix which could contribute to renal tubule thickening in fibrosis.

  14. High oxygen condition facilitates the differentiation of mouse and human pluripotent stem cells into pancreatic progenitors and insulin-producing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Farzana; Kaitsuka, Taku; Raeed, Jamiruddin Mohd; Wei, Fan-Yan; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Akagi, Tadayuki; Yokota, Takashi; Kume, Shoen; Tomizawa, Kazuhito

    2014-04-04

    Pluripotent stem cells have potential applications in regenerative medicine for diabetes. Differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells has been achieved using various protocols. However, both the efficiency of the method and potency of differentiated cells are insufficient. Oxygen tension, the partial pressure of oxygen, has been shown to regulate the embryonic development of several organs, including pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we tried to establish an effective method for the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into insulin-producing cells by culturing under high oxygen (O2) conditions. Treatment with a high O2 condition in the early stage of differentiation increased insulin-positive cells at the terminus of differentiation. We found that a high O2 condition repressed Notch-dependent gene Hes1 expression and increased Ngn3 expression at the stage of pancreatic progenitors. This effect was caused by inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α protein level. Moreover, a high O2 condition activated Wnt signaling. Optimal stage-specific treatment with a high O2 condition resulted in a significant increase in insulin production in both mouse embryonic stem cells and human iPSCs and yielded populations containing up to 10% C-peptide-positive cells in human iPSCs. These results suggest that culturing in a high O2 condition at a specific stage is useful for the efficient generation of insulin-producing cells.

  15. Differentiation of IL-17-Producing Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Requires Expression of the Transcription Factor c-Maf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhang-Sian Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available c-Maf belongs to the large Maf family of transcription factors and plays a key role in the regulation of cytokine production and differentiation of TH2, TH17, TFH, and Tr1 cells. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells can rapidly produce large quantity of TH-related cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17A upon stimulation by glycolipid antigens, such as α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer. However, the role of c-Maf in iNKT cells and iNKT cells-mediated diseases remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that α-GalCer-stimulated iNKT cells express c-Maf transcript and protein. By using c-Maf-deficient fetal liver cell-reconstituted mice, we further show that c-Maf-deficient iNKT cells produce less IL-17A than their wild-type counterparts after α-GalCer stimulation. While c-Maf deficiency does not affect the development and activation of iNKT cells, c-Maf is essential for the induction of IL-17-producing iNKT (iNKT17 cells by IL-6, TGF-β, and IL-1β, and the optimal expression of RORγt. Accordingly, c-Maf-deficient iNKT17 cells lose the ability to recruit neutrophils into the lungs. Taken together, c-Maf is a positive regulator for the expression of IL-17A and RORγt in iNKT17 cells. It is a potential therapeutic target in iNKT17 cell-mediated inflammatory disease.

  16. IL-22 is mainly produced by IFNγ-secreting cells but is dispensable for host protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Behrends

    Full Text Available Anti-inflammatory treatment of autoimmune diseases is associated with an increased risk of reactivation tuberculosis (TB. Besides interleukin (IL-17A, IL-22 represents a classical T helper (TH17 cytokine and shares similar pathological effects in inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis or arthritis. Whereas IL-17A supports protective immune responses during mycobacterial infections, the role of IL-22 after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is yet poorly characterized. Therefore, we here characterize the cell types producing IL-22 and the protective function of this cytokine during experimental TB in mice. Like IL-17A, IL-22 is expressed early after infection with Mtb in an IL-23-dependent manner. Surprisingly, the majority of IL-22-producing cells are not positive for IL-17A but have rather functional characteristics of interferon-gamma-producing TH1 cells. Although we found minor differences in the number of naive and central memory T cells as well as in the frequency of TH1 and polyfunctional T cells in mice deficient for IL-22, the absence of IL-22 does not affect the outcome of Mtb infection. Our study revealed that although produced by TH1 cells, IL-22 is dispensable for protective immune responses during TB. Therefore, targeting of IL-22 in inflammatory disease may represent a therapeutic approach that does not incur the danger of reactivation TB.

  17. Superoxide produced in the matrix of mitochondria enhances methylmercury toxicity in human neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailloux, Ryan J.; Yumvihoze, Emmanuel; Chan, Hing Man, E-mail: laurie.chan@uottawa.ca

    2015-12-15

    The mechanism of intracellular metabolism of methylmercury (MeHg) is not fully known. It has been shown that superoxide (O{sub 2}·{sup −}), the proximal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by mitochondria, is responsible for MeHg demethylation. Here, we investigated the impact of different mitochondrial respiratory inhibitors, namely rotenone and antimycin A, on the O{sub 2}·{sup −} mediated degradation of MeHg in human neuroblastoma cells SH-K-SN. We also utilized paraquat (PQ) which generates O{sub 2}·{sup −} in the mitochondrial matrix. We found that the cleavage of the carbon-metal bond in MeHg was highly dependent on the topology of O{sub 2}·{sup −} production by mitochondria. Both rotenone and PQ, which increase O{sub 2}·{sup −} in the mitochondrial matrix at a dose-dependent manner, enhanced the conversion of MeHg to inorganic mercury (iHg). Surprisingly, antimycin A, which prompts emission of O{sub 2}·{sup −} into the intermembrane space, did not have the same effect even though antimycin A induced a dose dependent increase in O{sub 2}·{sup −} emission. Rotenone and PQ also enhanced the toxicity of sub-toxic doses (0.1 μM) MeHg which correlated with the accumulation of iHg in mitochondria and depletion of mitochondrial protein thiols. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MeHg degradation is mediated by mitochondrial O{sub 2}·{sup −}, specifically within the matrix of mitochondria when O{sub 2}·{sup −} is in adequate supply. Our results also show that O{sub 2}·{sup −} amplifies MeHg toxicity specifically through its conversion to iHg and subsequent interaction with protein cysteine thiols (R-SH). The implications of our findings in mercury neurotoxicity are discussed herein. - Highlights: • Superoxide produced in the matrix of mitochondria degrades MeHg. • Superoxide produced in intermembrane space does not degrade MeHg. • Matrix-generated superoxide enhances Hg toxicity by converting MeHg to iHg.

  18. In vitro oocyte culture and somatic cell nuclear transfer used to produce a live-born cloned goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkoshi, Katsuhiro; Takahashi, Seiya; Koyama, Shin-Ichiro; Akagi, Satoshi; Adachi, Noritaka; Furusawa, Tadashi; Fujimoto, Jun-Ichiro; Takeda, Kumiko; Kubo, Masanori; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Tokunaga, Tomoyuki

    2003-01-01

    The use of an in vitro culture system was examined for production of somatic cells suitable for nuclear transfer in the goat. Goat cumulus-oocyte complexes were incubated in tissue culture medium TCM-199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 20 h. In vitro matured (IVM) oocytes were enucleated and used as karyoplast recipients. Donor cells obtained from the anterior pituitary of an adult male were introduced into the perivitelline space of enucleated IVM oocytes and fused by an electrical pulse. Reconstituted oocytes were cultured in chemically defined medium for 9 days. Two hundred and twenty-eight oocytes (70%) were fused with donor cells. After in vitro culture, seven somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) oocytes (3%) developed to the blastocyst stage. SCNT embryos were transferred to the oviducts of recipient females (four 8-cell embryos per female) or uterine horn (two blastocysts per female). One male clone (NT1) was produced at day 153 from an SCNT blastocyst and died 16 days after birth. This study demonstrates that nuclear transferred goat oocytes produced using an in vitro culture system could develop to term and that donor anterior pituitary cells have the developmental potential to produce term offspring. In this study, it suggested that the artificial control of endocrine system in domestic animal might become possible by the genetic modification to anterior pituitary cells.

  19. Viable calves produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using meiotic-blocked oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bem, Tiago H C; Chiaratti, Marcos R; Rochetti, Raquel; Bressan, Fabiana F; Sangalli, Juliano R; Miranda, Moysés S; Pires, Pedro R L; Schwartz, Kátia R L; Sampaio, Rafael V; Fantinato-Neto, Paulo; Pimentel, José R V; Perecin, Felipe; Smith, Lawrence C; Meirelles, Flávio V; Adona, Paulo R; Leal, Cláudia L V

    2011-10-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has had an enormous impact on our understanding of biology and remains a unique tool for multiplying valuable laboratory and domestic animals. However, the complexity of the procedure and its poor efficiency are factors that limit a wider application of SCNT. In this context, oocyte meiotic arrest is an important option to make SCNT more flexible and increase the number of cloned embryos produced. Herein, we show that the use of butyrolactone I in association with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to arrest the meiotic division for 24 h prior to in vitro maturation provides bovine (Bos indicus) oocytes capable of supporting development of blastocysts and full-term cloned calves at least as efficiently as nonarrested oocytes. Furthermore, the procedure resulted in cloned blastocysts with an 1.5- and twofold increase of POU5F1 and IFNT2 expression, respectively, which are well-known markers of embryonic viability. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was diminished by prematuration in immature oocytes (718,585±34,775 vs. 595,579±31,922, respectively, control and treated groups) but was unchanged in mature oocytes (522,179±45,617 vs. 498,771±33,231) and blastocysts (816,627±40,235 vs. 765,332±51,104). To our knowledge, this is the first report of cloned offspring born to prematured oocytes, indicating that meiotic arrest could have significant implications for laboratories working with SCNT and in vitro embryo production.

  20. Astaxanthin-producing green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: from single cell to high value commercial products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahfuzur Rahman Shah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many species of microalgae have been used as source of nutrient rich food, feed and health promoting compounds. Among the commercially important microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered as super anti-oxidant. Natural astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis has significantly greater antioxidant capacity than the synthetic one. Astaxanthin has important applications in the nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and aquaculture industries. Thanks to many researches it is now evident, that astaxanthin can significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help human body maintain a healthy state. With extraordinary potency and increase in demand, astaxanthin is one of the high-value microalgal products of the future. Thus, this comprehensive review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology, biochemical composition, biosynthesis and astaxanthin accumulation in the cells of H. pluvialis and its wide range of applications for humans and animals. In this paper, important and recent developments ranging from cultivation, harvest and postharvest bio-processing technologies to metabolic control and genetic engineering are reviewed in detail, focusing on biomass and astaxanthin production from this biotechnologically important microalga. Simultaneously, critical bottlenecks and major challenges in commercial scale production; current and prospective global market of H. pluvialis derived astaxanthin are also presented in a critical manner. A new biorefinery concept for H. pluvialis has been also suggested to guide towards economically sustainable approach for microalgae cultivation and processing. This report could serve as a useful guide to present current status of knowledge in the field and highlight key areas for future development of H. pluvialis astaxanthin technology and its large scale commercial implementation.

  1. Novel whole-cell Reporter Assay for Stress-Based Classification of Antibacterial Compounds Produced by Locally Isolated Bacillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Nithya, Vadakedath; Halami, Prakash M.

    2012-01-01

    Reporter bacteria are beneficial for the rapid and sensitive screening of cultures producing peptide antibiotics, which can be an addition or alternative to the established antibiotics. This study was carried out to validate the usability of specific reporter strains for the target mediated identification of antibiotics produced by native Bacillus spp. isolated from different food sources. During preliminary classification, cell wall stress causing Bacillus isolates were screened by using rep...

  2. Gold nanoparticles produced in situ mediate bioelectricity and hydrogen production in a microbial fuel cell by quantized capacitance charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-02-01

    Oppan quantized style: By adding a gold precursor at its cathode, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) is demonstrated to form gold nanoparticles that can be used to simultaneously produce bioelectricity and hydrogen. By exploiting the quantized capacitance charging effect, the gold nanoparticles mediate the production of hydrogen without requiring an external power supply, while the MFC produces a stable power density. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Is Produced by Emiliania huxleyi Coccolith-Bearing Cells and Triggers a Physiological Response in Bald Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeeuw, Leen; Khey, Joleen; Bramucci, Anna R; Atwal, Harjot; de la Mata, A Paulina; Harynuk, James; Case, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an auxin produced by terrestrial plants which influences development through a variety of cellular mechanisms, such as altering cell orientation, organ development, fertility, and cell elongation. IAA is also produced by bacterial pathogens and symbionts of plants and algae, allowing them to manipulate growth and development of their host. They do so by either producing excess exogenous IAA or hijacking the IAA biosynthesis pathway of their host. The endogenous production of IAA by algae remains contentious. Using Emiliania huxleyi, a globally abundant marine haptophyte, we investigated the presence and potential role of IAA in algae. Homologs of genes involved in several tryptophan-dependent IAA biosynthesis pathways were identified in E. huxleyi. This suggests that this haptophyte can synthesize IAA using various precursors derived from tryptophan. Addition of L-tryptophan to E. huxleyi stimulated IAA production, which could be detected using Salkowski's reagent and GC × GC-TOFMS in the C cell type (coccolith bearing), but not in the N cell type (bald). Various concentrations of IAA were exogenously added to these two cell types to identify a physiological response in E. huxleyi. The N cell type, which did not produce IAA, was more sensitive to it, showing an increased variation in cell size, membrane permeability, and a corresponding increase in the photosynthetic potential quantum yield of Photosystem II (PSII). A roseobacter (bacteria commonly associated with E. huxleyi) Ruegeria sp. R11, previously shown to produce IAA, was co-cultured with E. huxleyi C and N cells. IAA could not be detected from these co-cultures, and even when stimulated by addition of L-tryptophan, they produced less IAA than axenic C type culture similarly induced. This suggests that IAA plays a novel role signaling between different E. huxleyi cell types, rather than between a bacteria and its algal host.

  4. Comprehensive characterization of glutamine synthetase-mediated selection for the establishment of recombinant CHO cells producing monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noh, Soo Min; Shin, Seunghyeon; Min Lee, Gyun

    2018-01-01

    To characterize a glutamine synthetase (GS)-based selection system, monoclonal antibody (mAb) producing recombinant CHO cell clones were generated by a single round of selection at various methionine sulfoximine (MSX) concentrations (0, 25, and 50 μM) using two different host cell lines (CHO-K1...... and GS-knockout CHO). Regardless of the host cell lines used, the clones selected at 50 μM MSX had the lowest average specific growth rate and the highest average specific production rates of toxic metabolic wastes, lactate and ammonia. Unlike CHO-K1, high producing clones could be generated...... in the absence of MSX using GS-knockout CHO with an improved selection stringency. Regardless of the host cell lines used, the clones selected at various MSX concentrations showed no significant difference in the GS, heavy chain, and light chain gene copies (P > 0.05). Furthermore, there was no correlation...

  5. Characteristics of cells producing stimulator for the proliferation of colony forming unit-spleen (CFU-S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Manaf Ali; Wright, E.G.; Riches, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of stimulator for haemopoietic stem cell (CFU-S) proliferation in regenerating bone marrow was assayed by incubating the conditioned medium (CM) prepared from bone marrow with quiescent CFU-S from normal bone marrow. The percentage of CFU-S normal bone marrow in DNA synthesis increased more than 30 percent after incubating with CM of 4.5 Gy regenerating bone marrow. Stimulator was also present in bone marrow of mice at 9.0 Gy whole body X-irradiation. However the conditioned medium prepared from regenerating bone marrow without Fc and Ia-2k cells failed to increase the percentage of CFU-S in DNA synthesis. On the other hand, elimination of Thy 1.2 positive cells with complement cytolysis did not affect the ability of regenerating bone marrow to produce stimulator. These observations suggest that the stimulator producing cells are radio-resistant, Thy 1.2 negative, Fc and Ia-2k positive

  6. Derivation of Insulin Producing Cells From Human Endometrial Stromal Stem Cells and Use in the Treatment of Murine Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaria, Xavier; Massasa, Efi E; Feng, Yuzhe; Wolff, Erin; Taylor, Hugh S

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic islet cell transplantation is an effective approach to treat type 1 diabetes, however the shortage of cadaveric donors and limitations due to rejection require alternative solutions. Multipotent cells derived from the uterine endometrium have the ability to differentiate into mesodermal and ectodermal cellular lineages, suggesting the existence of mesenchymal stem cells in this tissue. We differentiated human endometrial stromal stem cells (ESSC) into insulin secreting cells using ...

  7. Superoxide produced by Kupffer cells is an essential effector in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Manabu; Nakashima, Masahiro; Habu, Yoshiko; Shono, Satoshi; Uchida, Takefumi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Seki, Shuhji

    2008-12-01

    Although concanavalin A (Con-A)-induced experimental hepatitis is thought to be induced by activated T cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and cytokines, precise mechanisms are still unknown. In the current study, we investigated the roles of Kupffer cells, NKT cells, FasL, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and superoxide in Con-A hepatitis in C57BL/6 mice. Removal of Kupffer cells using gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3)) from the liver completely inhibited Con-A hepatitis, whereas increased serum TNF and IFN-gamma levels were not inhibited at all. Unexpectedly, anti-FasL antibody pretreatment did not inhibit Con-A hepatitis, whereas it inhibited hepatic injury induced by a synthetic ligand of NKT cells, alpha-galactosylceramide. Furthermore, GdCl(3) pretreatment changed neither the activation-induced down-regulation of NK1.1 antigens as well as T cell receptors of NKT cells nor the increased expression of the CD69 activation antigen of hepatic T cells. CD68(+) Kupffer cells greatly increased in proportion in the early phase after Con-A injection; this increase was abrogated by GdCl(3) pretreatment. Anti-TNF antibody (Ab) pretreatment did not inhibit the increase of Kupffer cells, but it effectively suppressed superoxide/reactive oxygen production from Kupffer cells and the resulting hepatic injury. Conversely, depletion of NKT cells in mice by NK1.1 Ab pretreatment did suppress both the increase of CD68(+) Kupffer cells and Con-A hepatitis. Consistently, the diminution of oxygen radicals produced by Kupffer cells by use of free radical scavengers greatly inhibited Con-A hepatitis without suppressing cytokine production. However, adoptive transfer experiments also indicate that a close interaction/cooperation of Kupffer cells with NKT cells is essential for Con-A hepatitis. Superoxide produced by Kupffer cells may be the essential effector in Con-A hepatitis, and TNF and NKT cells support their activation and superoxide production.

  8. Detection of Transketolase in Bone Marrow—Derived Insulin-Producing Cells: Benfotiamine Enhances Insulin Synthesis and Glucose Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Seh-Hoon; Witek, Rafal P.; Bae, Si-Hyun; Darwiche, Houda; Jung, Youngmi; Pi, Liya; Brown, Alicia; Petersen, Bryon E.

    2009-01-01

    Adult bone marrow (BM)-derived insulin-producing cells (IPCs) are capable of regulating blood glucose levels in chemically induced hyperglycemic mice. Using cell transplantation therapy, fully functional BM-derived IPCs help to mediate treatment of diabetes mellitus. Here, we demonstrate the detection of the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme, transketolase (TK), in BM-derived IPCs cultured under high-glucose conditions. Benfotiamine, a known activator of TK, was not shown to affect the prolife...

  9. GM-CSF and IL-4 produced by NKT cells inversely regulate IL-1β production by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sehee; Jeong, Dongjin; Oh, Sae Jin; Ahn, Jiye; Lee, Seung Hyo; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are distinct T cell subset that link innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-1β, produced by various immune cells, plays a key role in the regulation of innate immunity in vivo. However, it is unclear whether NKT cells regulate IL-1β production by macrophages. To address this, we co-cultured NKT cells and peritoneal macrophages in the presence of TCR stimulation and inflammasome activators. Among cytokines secreted from NKT cells, GM-CSF enhanced IL-1β production by macrophages via regulating LPS-mediated pro-IL-1β expression and NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation, whereas IL-4 enhanced M2-differentiation of macrophages and decreased IL-1β production. Together, our findings suggest the NKT cells have double-sided effects on IL-1β-mediated innate immune responses by producing IL-4 and GM-CSF. These findings may be helpful for a comprehensive understanding of NKT cell-mediated regulatory mechanisms of the pro-inflammatory effects of IL-1β in inflammatory diseases in vivo. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cholesterol negatively regulates IL-9-producing CD8+ T cell differentiation and antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingzhe; Bi, Enguang; Huang, Chunjian; Lu, Yong; Xue, Gang; Guo, Xing; Wang, Aibo; Yang, Maojie; Qian, Jianfei; Dong, Chen; Yi, Qing

    2018-05-09

    CD8 + T cells can be polarized into IL-9-secreting (Tc9) cells. We previously showed that adoptive therapy using tumor-specific Tc9 cells generated stronger antitumor responses in mouse melanoma than classical Tc1 cells. To understand why Tc9 cells exert stronger antitumor responses, we used gene profiling to compare Tc9 and Tc1 cells. Tc9 cells expressed different levels of cholesterol synthesis and efflux genes and possessed significantly lower cholesterol content than Tc1 cells. Unique to Tc9, but not other CD8 + or CD4 + T cell subsets, manipulating cholesterol content in polarizing Tc9 cells significantly affected IL-9 expression and Tc9 differentiation and antitumor response in vivo. Mechanistic studies showed that IL-9 was indispensable for Tc9 cell persistence and antitumor effects, and cholesterol or its derivatives inhibited IL-9 expression by activating liver X receptors (LXRs), leading to LXR Sumoylation and reduced p65 binding to Il9 promoter. Our study identifies cholesterol as a critical regulator of Tc9 cell differentiation and function. © 2018 Ma et al.

  11. Bovine conceptus of Bos indicus produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenesis present morphological variations since the blastocyst stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.D. Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In cattle, embryo development is characterized by the appearance of two distinct cell layers, the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass. The latter will undergo differentiation to form the embryonic disc consisting of the epiblast and hypoblast. The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally characterize the bovine embryo from different in vitro production techniques, with emphasis on trophectoderm and inner cell mass cells. Bovine embryos on day 7 (conception = D1 of pregnancy, derived via in vitro production techniques, were fixed for light and transmission electron microscopy processing. Results suggested that embryos produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cells and parthenogenesis showed significant changes in macroscopic and microscopic structure. Size was reduced, and the inner cell mass had no defined shape. Furthermore, organelles responsible for the absorption processes, communication, growth, and cellular metabolism were fewer and had changes in shape, when compared to results in embryos produced by in vitrofertilization. We concluded that embryos produced by parthenogenesis and SCNT exhibit morphological differences when compared with IVF embryos, such as undeveloped blastocoel, poorly defined distribution of ICM, and morphological differences in organelles.

  12. Estimation by limiting dilution analysis of human IL 2-secreting T cells: detection of IL 2 produced by single lymphokine-secreting T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vie, H.; Miller, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    We present here a culture method for the estimation, in human blood, of the number of lymphocytes that can respond to mitogen by producing interleukin 2 (IL 2). T cells are cultured at limiting dilutions with PHA or Con A in the presence of Epstein Barr virus-transformed human lymphoblastoid cells (EB-LCL), and supernatants are tested 3 days later for IL 2 content by a cell proliferation assay. The distribution of negative wells follows the expected Poisson single-hit relationship, suggesting that the assay is sensitive to single cells of a single limiting cell type. On average, 16.3% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells can produce IL 2 in such clonal cultures (mean of 12 determinations; SD = 5.6%). Surprisingly, irradiation (up to 2000 rad) of the titrated responder cell population diminishes the estimated frequencies by less than 50%. The ability to detect IL 2 levels in cultures containing only a single, nonproliferating T lymphocyte allows us to estimate the amount of IL 2 generated by an individual effector cell during a 3-day culture interval after mitogen stimulation. The average responding, irradiated T cell generates 0.92 pg of IL 2 (median) within 3 days. The method presented provides a straightforward way to provide independent estimates of responding cell number and of lymphokine production per cell in a variety of clinical situations

  13. Drug-resistant colon cancer cells produce high carcinoembryonic antigen and might not be cancer-initiating cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-chung; Ling, Qing-Dong; Yu, Wan-Chun; Hung, Chunh-Ming; Kao, Ta-Chun; Huang, Yi-Wei; Higuchi, Akon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the higher levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) secreted by the LoVo human colon carcinoma cells in a medium containing anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells were analyzed by subcutaneously xenotransplanting them into mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the drug-resistant cells isolated in this study were cancer-initiating cells, known also as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Methods The production of CEA was investigated in LoVo cells that were cultured with 0–10 mM of anticancer drugs, and we evaluated the increase in CEA production by the LoVo cells that were stimulated by anticancer drug treatment. The expression of several CSC markers in LoVo cells treated with anticancer drugs was also evaluated. Following anticancer drug treatment, LoVo cells were injected subcutaneously into the flanks of severe combined immunodeficiency mice in order to evaluate the CSC fraction. Results Production of CEA by LoVo cells was stimulated by the addition of anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells expressed lower levels of CSC markers, and LoVo cells treated with any of the anticancer drugs tested did not generate tumors within 8 weeks from when the cells were injected subcutaneously into severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These results suggest that the drug-resistant LoVo cells have a smaller population of CSCs than the untreated LoVo cells. Conclusion Production of CEA by LoVo cells can be stimulated by the addition of anticancer drugs. The drug-resistant subpopulation of LoVo colon cancer cells could stimulate the production of CEA, but these cells did not act as CSCs in in vivo tumor generation experiments. PMID:23818760

  14. CD90-positive cells, an additional cell population, produce laminin α2 upon transplantation to dy3k/dy3k mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, So-ichiro; Yamamoto, Yukiko; Segawa, Masashi; Sakamoto, Kenta; Nakajima, Mari; Sato, Masaki; Morikawa, Daisuke; Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Laminin α2 is a component of skeletal and cardiac muscle basal lamina. A defect of the laminin α2 chain leads to severe congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) in humans and dy/dy mice. Myogenic cells including myoblasts, myotubes, and myofibers in skeletal muscle are a possible source of the laminin α2 chain, and myogenic cells are thus proposed as a cell source for congenital muscular dystrophy therapy. However, we observed production of laminin α2 in non-myogenic cells of normal mice, and we could enrich these laminin α2-producing cells in CD90 + cell fractions. Intriguingly, the number of CD90 + cells increased dramatically during skeletal muscle regeneration in mice. This fraction did not include myogenic cells but exhibited a fibroblast-like phenotype. Moreover, these cells were resident in skeletal muscle, not derived from bone marrow. Finally, the production of laminin α2 in CD90 + cells was not dependent on fusion with myogenic cells. Thus, CD90 + cells are a newly identified additional cell fraction that increased during skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo and could be another cell source for therapy for lama2-deficient muscular dystrophy

  15. Antigen-specific human NKT cells from tuberculosis patients produce IL-21 to help B cells for the production of immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changyou; Li, Zitao; Fu, Xiaoying; Yu, Sifei; Lao, Suihua; Yang, Binyan

    2015-10-06

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells from mouse and human play an important role in the immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the function of CD3(+)TCRvβ11(+) NKT cells at the local site of M. tuberculosis infection remains poorly defined. In the present study, we found that after stimulation with M. tuberculosis antigens, NKT cells isolated from tuberculosis (TB) pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMCs) produced IL-21 and other cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-17. IL-21-expressing NKT cells in PFMCs displayed effector memory phenotype, expressing CD45RO(high)CD62L(low)CCR7(low). Moreover, NKT cells expressed high levels of CXCR5 and all of IL-21-expressing NKT cells co-expressed CXCR5. The frequency of BCL-6-expression was higher in IL-21-expressing but not in non-IL-21-expressing CD3(+)TCRvβ11(+) NKT cells. Sorted CD3(+)TCRvβ11(+) NKT cells from PFMCs produced IFN-γ and IL-21 after stimulation, which expressed CD40L. Importantly, CD3(+)TCRvβ11(+) NKT cells provided help to B cells for the production of IgG and IgA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CD3(+)TCRvβ11(+) NKT cells from a local site of M. tuberculosis infection produce IL-21, express CXCR5 and CD40L, help B cells to secrete IgG and IgA, and may participate in local immune responses against M. tuberculosis infection.

  16. Multinucleated Giant Cancer Cells Produced in Response to Ionizing Radiation Retain Viability and Replicate Their Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmik Mirzayans

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Loss of wild-type p53 function is widely accepted to be permissive for the development of multinucleated giant cells. However, whether therapy-induced multinucleation is associated with cancer cell death or survival remains controversial. Herein, we demonstrate that exposure of p53-deficient or p21WAF1 (p21-deficient solid tumor-derived cell lines to ionizing radiation (between 2 and 8 Gy results in the development of multinucleated giant cells that remain adherent to the culture dish for long times post-irradiation. Somewhat surprisingly, single-cell observations revealed that virtually all multinucleated giant cells that remain adherent for the duration of the experiments (up to three weeks post-irradiation retain viability and metabolize 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT, and the majority (>60% exhibit DNA synthesis. We further report that treatment of multinucleated giant cells with pharmacological activators of apoptosis (e.g., sodium salicylate triggers their demise. Our observations reinforce the notion that radiation-induced multinucleation may reflect a survival mechanism for p53/p21-deficient cancer cells. With respect to evaluating radiosensitivity, our observations underscore the importance of single-cell experimental approaches (e.g., single-cell MTT as the creation of viable multinucleated giant cells complicates the interpretation of the experimental data obtained by commonly-used multi-well plate colorimetric assays.

  17. Adhesion of yeast cells on surface of polymers produced by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhaoxin; Takehisa, Masaaki; Xie Zongchuan.

    1995-01-01

    The adhesion of yeast (Saccharomyces formesences) cells on polymers was studied thermodynamically. The polymers were laminally prepared by means of radiation polymerization. By measuring contact angles, we calculated dispersion component and polar component of surface free energy of the polymers and the cells, and interfacial free energy between the polymer and the cells. Then interfacial free energy change of the cell adhesion to surface of the polymer was evaluated. The adhesion behavior of yeast cells on the polymers was observed by optical microscope. From above results, we conclude that the initial adhesion of the cells is related to the surface free energy of the polymer, but the irreversible adhesion may be close to the polar component in surface free energy. The high polar component is favourable the irreversible adhesion of yeast cells. (author)

  18. A study of ethanol production of yeast cells immobilized with polymer carrier produced by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhaoxin; Fujimura, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    Polymer carriers, poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate(HEA)-methoxy polyethylene glycol methylacrylate (M-23G)) and poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate(HEA)-glycidyl methylacrylate (GMA)) used for the immobilization of yeast cells were prepared by radiation polymerization at low temperature. Yeast cells were immobilized through adhesion and multiplication of yeast cells. The ethanol productivity of immobilized yeast cells with these carriers was related to the monomer composition of polymers and the optimum monomer composition was 20%:10% in poly(HEA-M-23G) and 17%:6% in poly(HEA-GMA). In this case, the ethanol productivity of immobilized yeast cells was about 4 times that of cells in free system. The relationship between the activity of immobilized yeast cells and the water content of the polymer carrier were also discussed. (author)

  19. Modeling single cell antibody excretion on a biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanovic, Ivan; Baumgartner, W.; van der Velden, T.J.G.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.

    2016-01-01

    We simulated, using Comsol Multiphysics, the excretion of antibodies by single hybridoma cells and their subsequent binding on a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) sensor. The purpose was to confirm that SPRi is suitable to accurately quantify antibody (anti-EpCAM) excretion. The model showed

  20. Ethanol exposure disrupts extraembryonic microtubule cytoskeleton and embryonic blastomere cell adhesion, producing epiboly and gastrulation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnalee Sarmah

    2013-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD occurs when pregnant mothers consume alcohol, causing embryonic ethanol exposure and characteristic birth defects that include craniofacial, neural and cardiac defects. Gastrulation is a particularly sensitive developmental stage for teratogen exposure, and zebrafish is an outstanding model to study gastrulation and FASD. Epiboly (spreading blastomere cells over the yolk cell, prechordal plate migration and convergence/extension cell movements are sensitive to early ethanol exposure. Here, experiments are presented that characterize mechanisms of ethanol toxicity on epiboly and gastrulation. Epiboly mechanisms include blastomere radial intercalation cell movements and yolk cell microtubule cytoskeleton pulling the embryo to the vegetal pole. Both of these processes were disrupted by ethanol exposure. Ethanol effects on cell migration also indicated that cell adhesion was affected, which was confirmed by cell aggregation assays. E-cadherin cell adhesion molecule expression was not affected by ethanol exposure, but E-cadherin distribution, which controls epiboly and gastrulation, was changed. E-cadherin was redistributed into cytoplasmic aggregates in blastomeres and dramatically redistributed in the extraembryonic yolk cell. Gene expression microarray analysis was used to identify potential causative factors for early development defects, and expression of the cell adhesion molecule protocadherin-18a (pcdh18a, which controls epiboly, was significantly reduced in ethanol exposed embryos. Injecting pcdh18a synthetic mRNA in ethanol treated embryos partially rescued epiboly cell movements, including enveloping layer cell shape changes. Together, data show that epiboly and gastrulation defects induced by ethanol are multifactorial, and include yolk cell (extraembryonic tissue microtubule cytoskeleton disruption and blastomere adhesion defects, in part caused by reduced pcdh18a expression.

  1. A monoclonal IgM directed against immunodominant catalase B of cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus exerts anti-A. fumigatus activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ashok K; Kumar, Rohitashw; Kumar, Awanit; Shukla, Praveen K

    2009-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, a ubiquitous fungus, has been reported to cause human diseases like allergic pulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma and invasive infection. Limited spectrum and emergence of resistance has become a serious problem with available antifungals. Therefore, an alternative approach is required for successful treatment of mycoses. In the present study, immunogenic protein profile of A. fumigatus cell wall was generated using two-dimensional-gel electrophoresis and three hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs; IgM) were selected after fusion experiments. Of these three MAbs, MAb-7 exhibited potent in vitro inhibitory activity, which was confirmed by MTT assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and immuno-fluorescence studies, and the protein was identified as catalase B using MALDI-TOF-MS.

  2. Regulation of hemopoiesis: inhibitors and stimulators produced by a murine bone marrow stromal cell line (H-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Miller, M.E.; Garnett, H.; Harigaya, K.

    1982-01-01

    A murine cell line (H-1) probably derived from the adventitial reticular cell has been isolated and preserved. This line produces: (1) CSF; (2) a labile inhibitor of CFU-c proliferation with preferential action on granulopoiesis; (3) PGE; (4) proliferation inhibitors of BFU-E and GEMM; and (5) suppression of entry of CFU-S into DNA synthesis in vitro. It is postulated that the adventitial reticular cell (ARC) may play a major regulatory role in hemopoiesis through intramedullary production of the factors described. The nature of the signals that activate the genes in the ARC which are coded for the factors described is not known

  3. Lactic acid-producing yeast cells having nonfunctional L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome C oxidoreductase cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew [Boston, MA; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Highland Ranch, CO; Hause, Benjamin Matthew [Currie, MN; Van Hoek, Pim [Camarillo, CA; Dundon, Catherine Asleson [Minneapolis, MN

    2012-03-20

    Yeast cells having an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene ae modified by reducing L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity in the cell. This leads to reduced consumption of lactate by the cell and can increase overall lactate yields in a fermentation process. Cells having the reduced L- or D-lactate:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase activity can be screened for by resistance to organic acids such as lactic or glycolic acid.

  4. Abnormalities in iNKT cells are associated with impaired ability of monocytes to produce IL-10 and suppress T-cell proliferation in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Anjali; Kendrick, Yvonne R; McMichael, Andrew J; Ho, Ling-Pei

    2014-07-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder characterized by marked T-cell expansion of T helper 1 (Th1) cells. The cause of T-cell overactivity is unknown. We hypothesized that interleukin-10 (IL-10) production by a yet undefined cell type might be defective, resulting in loss of regulation of T-cell activity. Focusing on IL-10-producing monocytes, we first showed that monocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of corticosteroid-naïve sarcoidosis patients (n = 51) produced less IL-10 compared to controls, and were less able to suppress T-cell proliferation. In addition, monocytic IL-10 production correlated negatively with disease activity score. As invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are known to both interact with monocytes and be reduced in sarcoidosis patients, we then asked whether iNKT-specific defects might be responsible for this reduced IL-10 production. We found that greater numbers of circulating iNKT cells was associated with higher IL-10 production. Moreover, iNKT cells enhanced monocytic IL-10 production in vitro. Defective IL-10 production and T-cell suppression by sarcoidosis monocytes could be restored following their coculture with iNKT cells, in a CD1d- and cell contact-dependent process. We suggest that reduced iNKT-cell numbers in sarcoidosis may lead to impaired monocytic IL-10 production and unchecked T-cell expansion in sarcoidosis. These findings provide fresh insight into the mechanism of sarcoidosis disease, and interaction between iNKT cells and monocytes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Increased biological activity of deglycosylated recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor produced by yeast or animal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moonen, P.; Mermod, J.J.; Ernst, J.F.; Hirschi, M.; DeLamarter, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) produced by several recombinant sources including Escherichia coli, yeast, and animal cells was studied. Recombinant animal cells produced hGM-CSF in low quantities and in multiple forms of varying size. Mammalian hGM-CSF was purified 200,000-fold using immunoaffinity and lectin chromatography. Partially purified proteins produced in yeast and mammalian cells were assayed for the effects of deglycosylation. Following enzymatic deglycosylation, immunoreactivity was measured by radioimmunoassay and biological activity was measured in vitro on responsive human primary cells. Removal of N-linked oligosaccharides from both proteins increased their immunoreactivities by 4- to 8-fold. Removal of these oligosaccharides also increased their specific biological activities about 20-fold, to reach approximately the specific activity of recombinant hGM-CSF from E. coli. The E. coli produced-protein-lacking any carbohydrate- had by far the highest specific activity observed for the recombinant hGM-CSFs

  6. Distinct and nonredundant in vivo functions of TNF produced by T cells and macrophages/neutrophils: Protective and deleterious effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grivennikov, Sergei I.; Tumanov, Alexei V.; Liepinsh, Dmitry J.; Kruglov, Andrei A.; Marakusha, Boris I.; Shakhov, Alexander N.; Murakami, Takaya; Drutskaya, Ludmila N.; Förster, Irmgard; Clausen, Björn E.; Tessarollo, Lino; Ryffel, Bernhard; Kuprash, Dmitry V.; Nedospasov, Sergei A.

    2005-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, TNFalpha) is implicated in various pathophysiological processes and can be either protective, as in host defense, or deleterious, as in autoimmunity or toxic shock. To uncover the in vivo functions of TNF produced by different cell types, we generated mice with TNF

  7. Aging-dependent decline of IL-10 producing B cells coincides with production of antinuclear antibodies but not rheumatoid factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Kornelis S M; Lorencetti, Pedro G; Abdulahad, Wayel H; Horst, Gerda; Huitema, Minke; Roozendaal, Caroline; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Boots, Annemieke M H

    2016-03-01

    Aging is associated with development of autoimmunity. Loss of B cell tolerance in the elderly is suggested by an increased prevalence of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs) and rheumatoid factors (RFs). Accumulating evidence indicates that B cells also impact autoimmunity via secretion of cytokines. So far, few studies have directly assessed the effect of aging on the latter B cell function. Here, we determined if and how human aging influences the production of cytokines by B cells. In a cross-sectional study, we found that absolute numbers of circulating B cells were similar in 31 young (ages 19-39) and 73 old (age ≥ 60) individuals. Numbers of transitional B cells (CD19(+)CD27(-)CD38(High)CD24(High)) were decreased in old individuals, whereas numbers of naive and memory B cell subsets were comparable in young and old individuals. Short-term in vitro stimulation of whole blood samples revealed that numbers of B cells capable of producing TNF-α were similar in young and old individuals. In contrast, B cells capable of IL-10 production were decreased in old subjects. This decline of IL-10(+) B cells was observed in old individuals that were ANA positive, and in those that were negative for both ANAs and RFs. However, IL-10(+) B cells were remarkably well retained in the circulation of old subjects that were RF positive. Thus, pro-inflammatory TNF-α(+) B cells are retained in the elderly, whereas IL-10(+) B cells generally decline. In addition, our findings indicate that IL-10(+) B cells may differentially impact the development of ANAs and RFs in the elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal and fetal mechanisms of B cell regulation during pregnancy: human Chorionic Gonadotropin stimulates B cells to produce IL-10 while alpha-fetoprotein drives them into apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Fettke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal immune tolerance towards the fetus is an essential requisite for pregnancy. While T cell functions are well documented, little is known about the participation of B cells. We have previously suggested that IL-10 producing B cells are involved in pregnancy tolerance in mice and humans. By employing murine and human systems, we report now that fetal trophoblasts positively regulate the generation of IL-10 producing B cells. We next studied the participation of hormones produced by the placenta as well as the fetal protein alpha-fetoprotein (AFP in B cell modulation. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG, but not progesterone, estrogen or a combination of both, was able to promote changes in B cell phenotype and boost their IL-10 production, which was abolished after blocking hCG. The hCG-induced B cell phenotype was not associated with augmented galactosylation, sialylation or fucosylation of IgG subclasses in their Fc. In vitro, hCG induced the synthesis of asymmetrically glycosylated antibodies in their Fab region. Interestingly, AFP had dual effects depending on the concentration. At concentrations corresponding to maternal serum levels, it did not modify the phenotype or IL-10 secretion of B cells. At fetal concentrations, however, AFP was able to drive B cells into apoptosis, which may indicate a protective mechanism to avoid maternal B cells to reach the fetus.Our data suggests that the fetus secrete factors that promote a pregnancy-friendly B cell phenotype, unraveling interesting aspects of B cell function and modulation by pregnancy hormones and fetal proteins.

  9. GM-CSF produced by non-hematopoietic cells is required for early epithelial cell proliferation and repair of injured colonic mucosa1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Laia; McAllister, Christopher S.; Lakhdari, Omar; Minev, Ivelina; Shenouda, Steve; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    GM-CSF is a growth factor that promotes the survival and activation of macrophages and granulocytes, and dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and survival in vitro. The mechanism by which exogenous GM-CSF ameliorates the severity of Crohn’s disease in humans and colitis in murine models has been considered mainly to reflect its activity on myeloid cells. We used GM-CSF deficient (GM-CSF−/−) mice to probe the functional role of endogenous host-produced GM-CSF in a colitis model induced after injury to the colon epithelium. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) at doses that resulted in little epithelial damage and mucosal ulceration in wild type (WT) mice resulted in marked colon ulceration and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF−/− mice. Colon crypt epithelial cell proliferation in vivo was significantly decreased in GM-CSF−/− mice at early times after DSS injury. This was paralleled by decreased expression of crypt epithelial cell genes involved in cell cycle, proliferation, and wound healing. Decreased crypt cell proliferation and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF−/− mice were rescued by exogenous GM-CSF, indicating the lack of a developmental abnormality in the epithelial cell proliferative response in those mice. Non-hematopoietic cells and not myeloid cells produced the GM-CSF important for colon epithelial proliferation after DSS-induced injury as revealed by bone marrow chimera and DC depletion experiments, with colon epithelial cells being the cellular source of GM-CSF. Endogenous epithelial cell produced GM-CSF has a novel non-redundant role in facilitating epithelial cell proliferation and ulcer healing in response to injury of the colon crypt epithelium. PMID:23325885

  10. Drug-resistant colon cancer cells produce high carcinoembryonic antigen and might not be cancer-initiating cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hsin-chung Lee,1,2 Qing-Dong Ling,1,3 Wan-Chun Yu,4 Chunh-Ming Hung,4 Ta-Chun Kao,4 Yi-Wei Huang,4 Akon Higuchi3–51Graduate Institute of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, 2Department of Surgery, Cathay General Hospital, Da'an District, Taipei, 3Cathay Medical Research Institute, Cathay General Hospital, Hsi-Chi City, Taipei, 4Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Reproduction, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Okura, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: We evaluated the higher levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA secreted by the LoVo human colon carcinoma cells in a medium containing anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells were analyzed by subcutaneously xenotransplanting them into mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the drug-resistant cells isolated in this study were cancer-initiating cells, known also as cancer stem cells (CSCs.Methods: The production of CEA was investigated in LoVo cells that were cultured with 0–10 mM of anticancer drugs, and we evaluated the increase in CEA production by the LoVo cells that were stimulated by anticancer drug treatment. The expression of several CSC markers in LoVo cells treated with anticancer drugs was also evaluated. Following anticancer drug treatment, LoVo cells were injected subcutaneously into the flanks of severe combined immunodeficiency mice in order to evaluate the CSC fraction.Results: Production of CEA by LoVo cells was stimulated by the addition of anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells expressed lower levels of CSC markers, and LoVo cells treated with any of the anticancer drugs tested did not generate tumors within 8 weeks from when the cells were injected subcutaneously into severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These results suggest that the drug-resistant LoVo cells have a smaller population of CSCs than the

  11. Comprehensive characterization of glutamine synthetase-mediated selection for the establishment of recombinant CHO cells producing monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Soo Min; Shin, Seunghyeon; Lee, Gyun Min

    2018-03-29

    To characterize a glutamine synthetase (GS)-based selection system, monoclonal antibody (mAb) producing recombinant CHO cell clones were generated by a single round of selection at various methionine sulfoximine (MSX) concentrations (0, 25, and 50 μM) using two different host cell lines (CHO-K1 and GS-knockout CHO). Regardless of the host cell lines used, the clones selected at 50 μM MSX had the lowest average specific growth rate and the highest average specific production rates of toxic metabolic wastes, lactate and ammonia. Unlike CHO-K1, high producing clones could be generated in the absence of MSX using GS-knockout CHO with an improved selection stringency. Regardless of the host cell lines used, the clones selected at various MSX concentrations showed no significant difference in the GS, heavy chain, and light chain gene copies (P > 0.05). Furthermore, there was no correlation between the specific mAb productivity and these three gene copies (R 2  ≤ 0.012). Taken together, GS-mediated gene amplification does not occur in a single round of selection at a MSX concentration up to 50 μM. The use of the GS-knockout CHO host cell line facilitates the rapid generation of high producing clones with reduced production of lactate and ammonia in the absence of MSX.

  12. Herpes simplex virus produces larger plaques when assayed on ultraviolet irradiated CV1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coohill, T.P.; Babich, M.A.; Taylor, W.D.; Snipes, W.

    1980-01-01

    Plaque development for either untreated or UV treated irradiated Herpes simplex virus Type 1 was faster when assayed on UV irradiated CV1 cells. This Large Plaque Effect only occurred if a minimum delay of 12h between cell irradiation and viral inoculation was allowed. Shorter delays gave plaques that were smaller than controls (unirradiated virus-unirradiated cells). The effect was maximal for a 48-h delay and remained unchanged for delays as long as 84h. The effect was greatest for cell exposures of 10Jm -2 . (author)

  13. Intracellular proteins produced by mammalian cells in response to environmental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goochee, Charles F.; Passini, Cheryl A.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the response of mammalian cells to environmental stress is examined by reviewing results of studies where cultured mouse L cells and baby hamster kidney cells were exposed to heat shock and the synthesis of heat-shock proteins and stress-response proteins (including HSP70, HSC70, HSP90, ubiquitin, and GRP70) in stressed and unstressed cells was evaluated using 2D-PAGE. The intracellular roles of the individual stress response proteins are discussed together with the regulation of the stress response system.

  14. Transgenic mice produced by retroviral transduction of male germ-line stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nagano, Makoto; Brinster, Clayton J.; Orwig, Kyle E.; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Avarbock, Mary R.; Brinster, Ralph L.

    2001-01-01

    Male germ-line stem cells are the only cell type in postnatal mammals that have the capability to self-renew and to contribute genes to the next generation. Genetic modification of these cells would provide an opportunity to study the biology of their complex self-renewal and differentiation processes, as well as enable the generation of transgenic animals in a wide range of species. Although retroviral vectors have been used as an efficient method to introduce genes into a variety of cell ty...

  15. Glycoprofiling effects of media additives on IgG produced by CHO cells in fed-batch bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Fan, Yuzhou; Wagtberg Sen, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are mainly produced by heterogonous expression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The glycosylation profile of the mAbs has major impact on the efficacy and safety of the drug and is therefore an important parameter to control during production. In this......Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are mainly produced by heterogonous expression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The glycosylation profile of the mAbs has major impact on the efficacy and safety of the drug and is therefore an important parameter to control during production....... In this study, the effect on IgG N-glycosylation from feeding CHO cells with eight glycosylation precursors during cultivation was investigated. The study was conducted in fed-batch mode in bioreactors with biological replicates to obtain highly controlled and comparable conditions. We assessed charge...

  16. The acute effects of ionizing radiation on DNA synthesis and the development of antibody-producing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.; Olsen, I.; Cramp, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Ionizing radiation inhibited the development of specific haemolysin-producing cells (PFC) and depressed the incorporation of ( 3 H) thymidine by rabbit spleen explants responding to SRC in the culture medium. In contrast to these effects, the rates of incorporation of precursors for protein and RNA synthesis were much less affected. The depression of ( 3 H) thymidine incorporation was found to result from a quantitative reduction of new DNA synthesis, without any change in the proportion of labelled cells, at any time after irradiation. The DNA synthesis occurring in these cells preparing to develop antibody-producing capacity was thus radio-sensitive, but the exact nature of the defect resulting from exposure to radiation requires further study. (orig.)

  17. Role of Blimp-1 in programing Th effector cells into IL-10 producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Christian; Heinrich, Frederik; Neumann, Katrin; Junghans, Victoria; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin; Ahlers, Jonas; Janke, Marko; Rudolph, Christine; Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine; Kühl, Anja A.; Heimesaat, Markus M.; Esser, Charlotte; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Radbruch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Secretion of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL) 10 by effector T cells is an essential mechanism of self-limitation during infection. However, the transcriptional regulation of IL-10 expression in proinflammatory T helper (Th) 1 cells is insufficiently understood. We report a crucial role for the transcriptional regulator Blimp-1, induced by IL-12 in a STAT4-dependent manner, in controlling IL-10 expression in Th1 cells. Blimp-1 deficiency led to excessive inflammation during Toxoplasma gondii infection with increased mortality. IL-10 production from Th1 cells was strictly dependent on Blimp-1 but was further enhanced by the synergistic function of c-Maf, a transcriptional regulator of IL-10 induced by multiple factors, such as the Notch pathway. We found Blimp-1 expression, which was also broadly induced by IL-27 in effector T cells, to be antagonized by transforming growth factor (TGF) β. While effectively blocking IL-10 production from Th1 cells, TGF-β shifted IL-10 regulation from a Blimp-1–dependent to a Blimp-1–independent pathway in IL-27–induced Tr1 (T regulatory 1) cells. Our findings further illustrate how IL-10 regulation in Th cells relies on several transcriptional programs that integrate various signals from the environment to fine-tune expression of this critical immunosuppressive cytokine. PMID:25073792

  18. High cell density cultures produced by internal retention: application in continuous ethanol fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Carola Pérez

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol has provoked great interest due to its potential as an alternative fuel. Nevertheless, fermentation processes must be developed by increasing the low volumetric productivity achieved in conventional cultures (batch or continuous to make this product become economically competitive. This can be achieved by using techniques leading to high cell concentration and reducing inhibition by the end-product. One of the frequently employed methods involves cell recycling. This work thus developed a membrane reactor incorporating a filtration module with 5 u,m stainless steel tubular units inside a 3L stirred jar fermenter for investigating its application in continuous ethanol production. The effects of cell concentration and transmembrane pressure difference on permeate flux were evaluated for testing the filtration module's performance. The internal cell retention system was operated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae continuous culture derived from sucrose, once fermentation conditions had been selected (30 °C, 1.25 -1.75 vvm, pH 4.5. Filter unit permeability was maintained by applying pulses of air. More than 97% of the grown cells were retained in the fermenter, reaching 51 g/L cell concentration and 8.51 g/L.h average ethanol productivity in culture with internal cell retention; this was twice that obtained in a conventional continuous culture. Key words: Membrane reactor, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alcoholic fermentation, cell recycling.

  19. Expression of the growth hormone receptor gene in insulin producing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Annette; Billestrup, N; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1990-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) plays a dual role in glucose homeostasis. On the one hand, it exerts an insulin antagonistic effect on the peripheral tissue, on the other hand, it stimulates insulin biosynthesis and beta-cell proliferation. The expression of GH-receptors on the rat insulinoma cell line RIN-5...

  20. The response of high and low polyamine producing cell lines to aluminum and calcium stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridev Mohapatra; Smita Cherry; Rakesh Minocha; Rajtilak Majumdar; Palaniswamy Thangavel; Stephanie Long; Subhash C. Minocha

    2010-01-01

    The diamine putrescine (Put) has been shown to accumulate in tree leaves in response to high Al and low Ca in the soil, leading to the suggestion that this response may provide a physiological advantage to leaf cells under conditions of Al stress. The increase in Put is reversed by Ca supplementation in the soil. Using two cell lines of poplar (Populus nigra...

  1. Escherichia coli producing colibactin triggers premature and transmissible senescence in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Secher

    Full Text Available Cellular senescence is an irreversible state of proliferation arrest evoked by a myriad of stresses including oncogene activation, telomere shortening/dysfunction and genotoxic insults. It has been associated with tumor activation, immune suppression and aging, owing to the secretion of proinflammatory mediators. The bacterial genotoxin colibactin, encoded by the pks genomic island is frequently harboured by Escherichia coli strains of the B2 phylogenetic group. Mammalian cells exposed to live pks+ bacteria exhibit DNA-double strand breaks (DSB and undergo cell-cycle arrest and death. Here we show that cells that survive the acute bacterial infection with pks+ E. coli display hallmarks of cellular senescence: chronic DSB, prolonged cell-cycle arrest, enhanced senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal activity, expansion of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear foci and senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. This was accompanied by reactive oxygen species production and pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and proteases secretion. These mediators were able to trigger DSB and enhanced SA-β-Gal activity in bystander recipient cells treated with conditioned medium from senescent cells. Furthermore, these senescent cells promoted the growth of human tumor cells. In conclusion, the present data demonstrated that the E. coli genotoxin colibactin induces cellular senescence and subsequently propel bystander genotoxic and oncogenic effects.

  2. Lysine deacetylases are produced in pancreatic beta cells and are differentially regulated by proinflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, M; Christensen, D P; Rasmussen, D N

    2010-01-01

    Cytokine-induced beta cell toxicity is abrogated by non-selective inhibitors of lysine deacetylases (KDACs). The KDAC family consists of 11 members, namely histone deacetylases HDAC1 to HDAC11, but it is not known which KDAC members play a role in cytokine-mediated beta cell death. The aim...

  3. Small intestinal eosinophils regulate Th17 cells by producing IL-1 receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Reiko; Lee, Eun-Jung; Jang, Min Seong; Jeun, Eun-Ji; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Park, Areum; Yun, Chang Ho; Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, You-Me; Seoh, Ju-Young; Jung, YunJae; Surh, Charles D; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho

    2016-04-04

    Eosinophils play proinflammatory roles in helminth infections and allergic diseases. Under steady-state conditions, eosinophils are abundantly found in the small intestinal lamina propria, but their physiological function is largely unexplored. In this study, we found that small intestinal eosinophils down-regulate Th17 cells. Th17 cells in the small intestine were markedly increased in the ΔdblGATA-1 mice lacking eosinophils, and an inverse correlation was observed between the number of eosinophils and that of Th17 cells in the small intestine of wild-type mice. In addition, small intestinal eosinophils suppressed the in vitro differentiation of Th17 cells, as well as IL-17 production by small intestinal CD4(+)T cells. Unlike other small intestinal immune cells or circulating eosinophils, we found that small intestinal eosinophils have a unique ability to constitutively secrete high levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), a natural inhibitor of IL-1β. Moreover, small intestinal eosinophils isolated from IL-1Ra-deficient mice failed to suppress Th17 cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that small intestinal eosinophils play a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by regulating Th17 cells via production of IL-1Ra. © 2016 Sugawara et al.

  4. Autoreactive T cells in MRL/Mpr-lpr/lpr mice. Characterization of the lymphokines produced and analysis of antigen-presenting cells required

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, K.M.; Ju, S.T.; Lu, C.Y.; Sy, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Lymph node cells from 4-wk-old MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice, but not from MRL/Mp-+/+ mice, when cultured in vitro for 5 to 7 days, will spontaneously proliferate and produce IL-2. We examined the expression of several cell surface Ag on lymph node cells from MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice before and after in vitro culture. There is an increase in the expression of Thy-1, L3T4, IL-2R, T cell activating protein, T cell receptor, and T3 complex on the surface of cultured cells. Cultured cells produced IL-3, IFN-gamma, and small but detectable amounts of IL-1 in addition to IL-2. Gamma irradiation of APC from young MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice or treatment of APC with a mAb (J11D) and C, completely abrogated their stimulatory capacity. These experiments suggest that B cells are the predominant APC responsible in the activation of autoreactive T cells in MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice. Lymph node cells from C57BL/6-lpr/lpr or C3H-lpr/lpr mice were unable to spontaneously proliferate or produce IL-2. Lymph node cells from (MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr x C57BL/6-lpr/lpr) F1 mice or (C3H-lpr/lpr x MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr) F1 mice did proliferate and produced IL-2 after in vitro culture. Using T cells from these F1 animals and APC from each parental haplotype, we found that APC from MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice induced more proliferation and greater amounts of IL-2, when compared to APC from F1 animals. APC from C57BL6-lpr/lpr mice or C3H-lpr/lpr were unable to induce spontaneous proliferation and IL-2 production. Therefore, B cells from MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice appear to possess unique features that enable them to activate autoreactive T cells more effectively than B cells from other mice bearing the lpr/lpr gene

  5. Coilin phosphomutants disrupt Cajal body formation, reduce cell proliferation and produce a distinct coilin degradation product.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunamys I Carrero

    Full Text Available Coilin is a nuclear phosphoprotein that accumulates in Cajal bodies (CBs. CBs participate in ribonucleoprotein and telomerase biogenesis, and are often found in cells with high transcriptional demands such as neuronal and cancer cells, but can also be observed less frequently in other cell types such as fibroblasts. Many proteins enriched within the CB are phosphorylated, but it is not clear what role this modification has on the activity of these proteins in the CB. Coilin is considered to be the CB marker protein and is essential for proper CB formation and composition in mammalian cells. In order to characterize the role of coilin phosphorylation on CB formation, we evaluated various coilin phosphomutants using transient expression. Additionally, we generated inducible coilin phosphomutant cell lines that, when used in combination with endogenous coilin knockdown, allow for the expression of the phosphomutants at physiological levels. Transient expression of all coilin phosphomutants except the phosphonull mutant (OFF significantly reduces proliferation. Interestingly, a stable cell line induced to express the coilin S489D phosphomutant displays nucleolar accumulation of the mutant and generates a N-terminal degradation product; neither of which is observed upon transient expression. A N-terminal degradation product and nucleolar localization are also observed in a stable cell line induced to express a coilin phosphonull mutant (OFF. The nucleolar localization of the S489D and OFF coilin mutants observed in the stable cell lines is decreased when endogenous coilin is reduced. Furthermore, all the phosphomutant cells lines show a significant reduction in CB formation when compared to wild-type after endogenous coilin knockdown. Cell proliferation studies on these lines reveal that only wild-type coilin and the OFF mutant are sufficient to rescue the reduction in proliferation associated with endogenous coilin depletion. These results emphasize

  6. Reduced levels of SCD1 accentuate palmitate-induced stress in insulin-producing β-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovsepyan Meri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 is an ER resident enzyme introducing a double-bond in saturated fatty acids. Global knockout of SCD1 in mouse increases fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity which makes the animal resistant to diet-induced obesity. Inhibition of SCD1 has therefore been proposed as a potential therapy of the metabolic syndrome. Much of the work has focused on insulin target tissue and very little is known about how reduced levels of SCD1 would affect the insulin-producing β-cell, however. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate how reduced levels of SCD1 affect the β-cell. Results Insulin-secreting MIN6 cells with reduced levels of SCD1 were established by siRNA mediated knockdown. When fatty acid oxidation was measured, no difference between cells with reduced levels of SCD1 and mock-transfected cells were found. Also, reducing levels of SCD1 did not affect insulin secretion in response to glucose. To investigate how SCD1 knockdown affected cellular mechanisms, differentially regulated proteins were identified by a proteomic approach. Cells with reduced levels of SCD1 had higher levels of ER chaperones and components of the proteasome. The higher amounts did not protect the β-cell from palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis. Instead, rise in levels of p-eIF2α and CHOP after palmitate exposure was 2-fold higher in cells with reduced levels of SCD1 compared to mock-transfected cells. Accordingly, apoptosis rose to higher levels after exposure to palmitate in cells with reduced levels of SCD1 compared to mock-transfected cells. Conclusions In conclusion, reduced levels of SCD1 augment palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis in the β-cell, which is an important caveat when considering targeting this enzyme as a treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  7. Six cloned calves produced from adult fibroblast cells after long-term culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Chikara; Yamakuchi, Hiroshi; Todoroki, Junichi; Mizoshita, Kazunori; Tabara, Norio; Barber, Michele; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2000-01-01

    Cloning whole animals with somatic cells as parents offers the possibility of targeted genetic manipulations in vitro such as “gene knock-out” by homologous recombination. However, such manipulation requires prolonged culture of nuclear donor cells. Previous successes in cloning have been limited to the use of cells collected either fresh or after short-term culture. Therefore, demonstration of genetic totipotency of cells after prolonged culture is pivotal to combining site-specific genetic manipulations and cloning. Here we report birth of six clones of an aged (17-year-old) Japanese Black Beef bull using ear skin fibroblast cells as nuclear donor cells after up to 3 months of in vitro culture (10–15 passages). We observed higher developmental rates for embryos derived from later passages (10 and 15) as compared with those embryos from an early passage (passage 5). The four surviving clones are now 10–12 months of age and appear normal, similar to their naturally reproduced peers. These data show that fibroblasts of aged animals remain competent for cloning, and prolonged culture does not affect the cloning competence of adult somatic donor cells. PMID:10655472

  8. Immobilization of cellulose producing cells (sporotrichum cellulophilum) using irradiated rice husk as a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lina, M.R.; Tamada, M.; Kumakura, M.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment to study the effect of irradiated rice husk as a substrate on cellulase production of free and immobilized cells of S. cellulophium was carried out. Radiation pretreatment of rice husk was done using electron beam accelerator (Dynamitron IEA 3000-25,2), with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 MGy. The substrate used in cellulase production of free and immobilized cells were cellulose powder as a standard, and 1.0 MGy irradiated rice husk. Concentrations of cellulose powder for free and immobilized cells were 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8% (w/v). Irradiated rice husk concentrations for free cells were 3, 6, 9, 15, and 24% (w/v), whereas for immobilized cells were 3, 6, and 9% (w/v). Results showed that glucose concentration in 1.0 MGy irradiated rice husk was the highest of all irradiated and unirradiated rice husks. The GPA (glucose production activity) values used of free immobilized cells of S. cellulophium in medium containing 1.0 MGy irradiated rice husk were about 50% lower than in cellulose powder medium. Cellulase solution resulted by immobilized cells, either in cellulose powder or in irradiated rice husk media, were clear and did not contain mycelium. (authors). 7 refs, 7 figs

  9. Metabolic stress responses in Drosophila are modulated by brain neurosecretory cells that produce multiple neuropeptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Kahsai

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, neurosecretory cells that release peptide hormones play a prominent role in the regulation of development, growth, metabolism, and reproduction. Several types of peptidergic neurosecretory cells have been identified in the brain of Drosophila with release sites in the corpora cardiaca and anterior aorta. We show here that in adult flies the products of three neuropeptide precursors are colocalized in five pairs of large protocerebral neurosecretory cells in two clusters (designated ipc-1 and ipc-2a: Drosophila tachykinin (DTK, short neuropeptide F (sNPF and ion transport peptide (ITP. These peptides were detected by immunocytochemistry in combination with GFP expression driven by the enhancer trap Gal4 lines c929 and Kurs-6, both of which are expressed in ipc-1 and 2a cells. This mix of colocalized peptides with seemingly unrelated functions is intriguing and prompted us to initiate analysis of the function of the ten neurosecretory cells. We investigated the role of peptide signaling from large ipc-1 and 2a cells in stress responses by monitoring the effect of starvation and desiccation in flies with levels of DTK or sNPF diminished by RNA interference. Using the Gal4-UAS system we targeted the peptide knockdown specifically to ipc-1 and 2a cells with the c929 and Kurs-6 drivers. Flies with reduced DTK or sNPF levels in these cells displayed decreased survival time at desiccation and starvation, as well as increased water loss at desiccation. Our data suggest that homeostasis during metabolic stress requires intact peptide signaling by ipc-1 and 2a neurosecretory cells.

  10. Rhabdomyosarcoma cells show an energy producing anabolic metabolic phenotype compared with primary myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashi Richard M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional status of a cell is expressed in its metabolic activity. We have applied stable isotope tracing methods to determine the differences in metabolic pathways in proliferating Rhabdomysarcoma cells (Rh30 and human primary myocytes in culture. Uniformly 13C-labeled glucose was used as a source molecule to follow the incorporation of 13C into more than 40 marker metabolites using NMR and GC-MS. These include metabolites that report on the activity of glycolysis, Krebs' cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Results The Rh30 cells proliferated faster than the myocytes. Major differences in flux through glycolysis were evident from incorporation of label into secreted lactate, which accounts for a substantial fraction of the glucose carbon utilized by the cells. Krebs' cycle activity as determined by 13C isotopomer distributions in glutamate, aspartate, malate and pyrimidine rings was considerably higher in the cancer cells than in the primary myocytes. Large differences were also evident in de novo biosynthesis of riboses in the free nucleotide pools, as well as entry of glucose carbon into the pyrimidine rings in the free nucleotide pool. Specific labeling patterns in these metabolites show the increased importance of anaplerotic reactions in the cancer cells to maintain the high demand for anabolic and energy metabolism compared with the slower growing primary myocytes. Serum-stimulated Rh30 cells showed higher degrees of labeling than serum starved cells, but they retained their characteristic anabolic metabolism profile. The myocytes showed evidence of de novo synthesis of glycogen, which was absent in the Rh30 cells. Conclusion The specific 13C isotopomer patterns showed that the major difference between the transformed and the primary cells is the shift from energy and maintenance metabolism in the myocytes toward increased energy and anabolic metabolism for proliferation in the Rh30 cells

  11. Human CD40 ligand-expressing type 3 innate lymphoid cells induce IL-10-producing immature transitional regulatory B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlósi, Zsolt I; Kovács, Nóra; van de Veen, Willem; Kirsch, Anna Isabella; Fahrner, Heinz Benedikt; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Rebane, Ana; Stanic, Barbara; Palomares, Oscar; Rückert, Beate; Menz, Günter; Akdis, Mübeccel; Losonczy, György; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2017-09-20

    Type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are involved in maintenance of mucosal homeostasis; however, their role in immunoregulation has been unknown. Immature transitional regulatory B (itBreg) cells are innate-like B cells with immunosuppressive properties, and the in vivo mechanisms by which they are induced have not been fully clarified. We aimed to investigate the ILC3-B-cell interaction that probably takes place in human tonsils. ILC3s were isolated from peripheral blood and palatine tonsils, expanded, and cocultured with naive B cells. Tonsillar ILC3s and regulatory B cells were visualized with immunofluorescence histology. ILC3 frequencies were measured in tonsil tissue of allergic and nonallergic patients and in peripheral blood of allergic asthmatic patients and healthy control subjects. A mutually beneficial relationship was revealed between ILC3s and B cells: ILC3s induced IL-15 production in B cells through B cell-activating factor receptor, whereas IL-15, a potent growth factor for ILC3s, induced CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression on circulating and tonsillar ILC3s. IL-15-activated CD40L + ILC3s helped B-cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation of IL-10-secreting, PD-L1-expressing functional itBreg cells in a CD40L- and B cell-activating factor receptor-dependent manner. ILC3s and regulatory B cells were in close connection with each other in palatine tonsils. ILC3 frequency was reduced in tonsil tissue of allergic patients and in peripheral blood of allergic asthmatic patients. Human CD40L + ILC3s provide innate B-cell help and are involved in an innate immunoregulatory mechanism through induction of itBreg cell differentiation, which takes place in palatine tonsils in vivo. This mechanism, which can contribute to maintenance of immune tolerance, becomes insufficient in allergic diseases. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to antigens on human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemia blast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miterev, G.Yu.; Burova, G.F.; Puzhitskaya, M.S.; Danilevich, S.V.; Bulycheva, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe the production of two mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to antigenic determinants of the surface membranes of human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemic blast cells. The degree of lymphocyte stimulation was estimated from incorporation of 3 H-thymidine with parallel microculture. Monoclonal antibodies of supernatants of hybridoma cultures shown here reacted in both immunofluorescence test and cytotoxicity test with surface membrane antigens on the majority of neutrophils and PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects, but did not give positive reactions with unactivated lymphocytes, adherent monocytes, erythrocytes, and alloantigen-stimulated lymphocytes

  13. Monoclonal antibodies to antigens on human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemia blast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miterev, G.Yu.; Burova, G.F.; Puzhitskaya, M.S.; Danilevich, S.V.; Bulycheva, T.I.

    1987-11-01

    The authors describe the production of two mouse hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to antigenic determinants of the surface membranes of human neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes, and acute leukemic blast cells. The degree of lymphocyte stimulation was estimated from incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine with parallel microculture. Monoclonal antibodies of supernatants of hybridoma cultures shown here reacted in both immunofluorescence test and cytotoxicity test with surface membrane antigens on the majority of neutrophils and PHA-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects, but did not give positive reactions with unactivated lymphocytes, adherent monocytes, erythrocytes, and alloantigen-stimulated lymphocytes.

  14. Strontium ranelate changes the composition and crystal structure of the biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, William; Campos, Andrea P C; Martins Ferreira, Erlon H; San Gil, Rosane A S; Rossi, Alexandre M; Farina, Marcos

    2014-09-01

    We evaluate the effects of strontium ranelate on the composition and crystal structure of the biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures, a system that gave us the advantage of obtaining mineral samples produced exclusively during treatment. Cells were treated with strontium ranelate at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.5 mM Sr(2+). Mineral substances were isolated and analyzed by using a combination of methods: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid-state (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The minerals produced in all cell cultures were typical bone-like apatites. No changes occurred in the local structural order or crystal size of the minerals. However, we noticed several relevant changes in the mineral produced under 0.5 mM Sr(2+): (1) increase in type-B CO3 (2-) substitutions, which often lead to the creation of vacancies in Ca(2+) and OH(-) sites; (2) incorporation of Sr(2+) by substituting slightly less than 10 % of Ca(2+) in the apatite crystal lattice, resulting in an increase in both lattice parameters a and c; (3) change in the PO4 (3-) environments, possibly because of the expansion of the lattice; (4) the Ca/P ratio of this mineral was reduced, but its (Ca+Sr)/P ratio was the same as that of the control, indicating that its overall cation/P ratio was preserved. Thus, strontium ranelate changes the composition and crystal structure of the biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures.

  15. Hsp65-producing Lactococcus lactis prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice by inducing CD4+LAP+ regulatory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Rafael M.; Oliveira, Rafael P.; Medeiros, Samara R.; Gomes-Santos, Ana C.; Alves, Andrea C.; Loli, Flávia G.; Guimarães, Mauro A.F.; Amaral, Sylvia S.; da Cunha, André P.; Weiner, Howard L.; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Faria, Ana M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) participate in the cellular response to stress and they are hiperexpressed in inflammatory conditions. They are also known to play a major role in immune modulation, controlling, for instance, autoimmune responses. In this study, we showed that oral administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that produces and releases LPS-free Hsp65 prevented the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. This was confirmed by the reduced inflammatory cell infiltrate and absence of injury signs in the spinal cord. The effect was associated with reduced IL-17 and increased IL-10 production in mesenteric lymph node and spleen cell cultures. Hsp65-producing-L. lactis-fed mice had a remarkable increase in the number of natural and inducible CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4+LAP+ (Latency-associated peptide) Tregs - which express the membrane-bound TGF-β - in spleen, inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes as well as in spinal cord. Moreover, many Tregs co-expressed Foxp3 and LAP. In vivo depletion of LAP+ cells abrogated the effect of Hsp65-producing L. lactis in EAE prevention and worsened disease in medium-fed mice. Thus, Hsp65-L.lactis seems to boost this critical regulatory circuit involved in controlling EAE development in mice. PMID:22939403

  16. Innate invariant NKT cells recognize Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages, produce interferon-gamma, and kill intracellular bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Sada-Ovalle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellular immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb requires a coordinated response between the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system, resulting in a type 1 cytokine response, which is associated with control of infection. The contribution of innate lymphocytes to immunity against Mtb remains controversial. We established an in vitro system to study this question. Interferon-gamma is produced when splenocytes from uninfected mice are cultured with Mtb-infected macrophages, and, under these conditions, bacterial replication is suppressed. This innate control of bacterial replication is dependent on CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT cells, and their activation requires CD1d expression by infected macrophages as well as IL-12 and IL-18. We show that iNKT cells, even in limiting quantities, are sufficient to restrict Mtb replication. To determine whether iNKT cells contribute to host defense against tuberculosis in vivo, we adoptively transferred iNKT cells into mice. Primary splenic iNKT cells obtained from uninfected mice significantly reduce the bacterial burden in the lungs of mice infected with virulent Mtb by the aerosol route. Thus, iNKT cells have a direct bactericidal effect, even in the absence of synthetic ligands such as alpha-galactosylceramide. Our finding that iNKT cells protect mice against aerosol Mtb infection is the first evidence that CD1d-restricted NKT cells mediate protection against Mtb in vivo.

  17. Hypothiocyanite produced by human and rat respiratory epithelial cells inactivates extracellular H1N2 influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Aaron; Pang, Lan; Hanson, Jarod; Dlugolenski, Daniel; Streich, Rebecca; Lafontaine, Eric R; Nagy, Tamás; Tripp, Ralph A; Rada, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study whether an extracellular, oxidative antimicrobial mechanism inherent to tracheal epithelial cells is capable of inactivating influenza H1N2 virus. Epithelial cells were isolated from tracheas of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Both primary human and rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells were differentiated in air-liquid interface cultures. A/swine/Illinois/02860/09 (swH1N2) influenza A virions were added to the apical side of airway cells for 1 h in the presence or absence of lactoperoxidase or thiocyanate. Characterization of rat epithelial cells (morphology, Duox expression) occurred via western blotting, PCR, hydrogen peroxide production measurement and histology. The number of viable virions was determined by plaque assays. Statistical difference of the results was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Our data show that rat tracheobronchial epithelial cells develop a differentiated, polarized monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance, mucin production and expression of dual oxidases. Influenza A virions are inactivated by human and rat epithelial cells via a dual oxidase-, lactoperoxidase- and thiocyanate-dependent mechanism. Differentiated air-liquid interface cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells provide a novel model to study airway epithelium-influenza interactions. The dual oxidase/lactoperoxidase/thiocyanate extracellular oxidative system producing hypothiocyanite is a fast and potent anti-influenza mechanism inactivating H1N2 viruses prior to infection of the epithelium.

  18. Application of proton exchange membrane fuel cells for the monitoring and direct usage of biohydrogen produced by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oncel, S.; Vardar-Sukan, F. [Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-01-01

    Photo-biologically produced hydrogen by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is integrated with a proton exchange (PEM) fuel cell for online electricity generation. To investigate the fuel cell efficiency, the effect of hydrogen production on the open circuit fuel cell voltage is monitored during 27 days of batch culture. Values of volumetric hydrogen production, monitored by the help of the calibrated water columns, are related with the open circuit voltage changes of the fuel cell. From the analysis of this relation a dead end configuration is selected to use the fuel cell in its best potential. After the open circuit experiments external loads are tested for their effects on the fuel cell voltage and current generation. According to the results two external loads are selected for the direct usage of the fuel cell incorporating with the photobioreactors (PBR). Experiments with the PEM fuel cell generate a current density of 1.81 mA cm{sup -2} for about 50 h with 10 {omega} load and 0.23 mA cm{sup -2} for about 80 h with 100 {omega} load. (author)

  19. Commitment to glycolysis sustains survival of NO-producing inflammatory dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Bart; Amiel, Eyal; van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.; Freitas, Tori C.; Chott, Robert; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Pearce, Erika L.; Pearce, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    TLR agonists initiate a rapid activation program in dendritic cells (DCs) that requires support from metabolic and bioenergetic resources. We found previously that TLR signaling promotes aerobic glycolysis and a decline in oxidative phosphorylation (OXHPOS) and that glucose restriction prevents

  20. Lengthening the lifetime of roll-to-roll produced polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    the knowledge of the degradation mechanisms involved in roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells. While only a part of the experiments have directly involved roll-to-roll coated devices, most of the work is applicable to coated devices. The first part of the dissertation is devoted to the study of in......The field of polymer solar cells is a field with an exponential growth in the number of published papers. It is a field defined by a set of challenges including; efficiency, stability and processability. Before all of these challenges have been addressed; polymer solar cells...... will not be a commercial success. This dissertation is devoted primarily to the study of the stability of polymer solar cells, and more specifically to designing and verifying experimental techniques, procedures, and automated solutions to stability tests and characterization. The goal of the project was to expand...

  1. Extracellular vesicles mediate signaling between the aqueous humor producing and draining cells in the ocular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Natalie; Avissar, Sofia; Beit-Yannai, Elie

    2017-01-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling is associated with glaucoma pathogenesis and intraocular pressure (IOP) regulation. Our goal was to gain insight into the influence of non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (NPCE)-derived exosomes on Wnt signaling by trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. The potential impact of exosomes on Wnt signaling in the ocular drainage system remains poorly understood. Exosomes isolated from media collected from cultured NPCE cells by differential ultracentrifugation were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS), and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), sucrose density gradient migration and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cellular target specificity of the NPCE-derived exosomes was investigated by confocal microscopy-based monitoring of the uptake of DiD-labeled exosomes over time, as compared to uptake by various cell lines. Changes in Wnt protein levels in TM cells induced by NPCE exosomes were evaluated by Western blot. Exosomes derived from NPCE cells were purified and detected as small rounded 50-140 nm membrane vesicles, as defined by DLS, NTA, TRPS and TEM. Western blot analysis indicated that the nanovesicles were positive for classic exosome markers, including Tsg101 and Alix. Isolated nanoparticles were found in sucrose density fractions typical of exosomes (1.118-1.188 g/mL sucrose). Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated time-dependent specific accumulation of the NPCE-derived exosomes in NTM cells. Other cell lines investigated hardly revealed any exosome uptake. We further showed that exosomes induced changes in Wnt signaling protein expression in the TM cells. Western blot analysis further revealed decreased phosphorylation of GKS3β and reduced β-catenin levels. Finally, we found that treatment of NTM cells with exosomes resulted in a greater than 2-fold decrease in the level of β-catenin in the cytosolic fraction. In contrast, no remarkable difference in the amount of

  2. An extracellular DNA mediated bystander effect produced from low dose irradiated endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermakov, Aleksei V., E-mail: avePlato@mail.ru [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Konkova, Marina S.; Kostyuk, Svetlana V.; Smirnova, Tatiana D.; Malinovskaya, Elena M.; Efremova, Liudmila V.; Veiko, Natalya N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    The human umbilical vein endothelial cells culture was exposed to X-ray radiation in a low dose of 10 cGy. The fragments of extracellular genomic DNA (ecDNA{sup R}) were isolated from the culture medium after the short-term incubation. A culture medium of unirradiated endothelial cells was then supplemented with ecDNA{sup R}, followed by analysing the cells along the series of parameters (bystander effect). The exposed cells and bystander endotheliocytes showed similar response to low doses: approximation of the 1q12 loci of chromosome 1 and their transposition into the cellular nucleus, change in shape of the endotheliocytic nucleus, activation of the nucleolus organizing regions (NORs), actin polymerization, and an elevated level of DNA double-stranded breaks. Following blockade of TLR9 receptors with oligonucleotide-inhibitor or chloroquine in the bystander cells these effects - except of activation of NORs - on exposure to ecDNA{sup R} disappeared, with no bystander response thus observed. The presence of the radiation-induced apoptosis in the bystander effect being studied suggests a possibility for radiation-modified ecDNA fragments (i.e., stress signaling factors) to be released into the culture medium, whereas inhibition of TLR9 suggests the binding these ligands to the recipient cells. A similar DNA-signaling pathway in the bystander effect we previously described for human lymphocytes. Integrity of data makes it possible to suppose that a similar signaling mechanism which we demonstrated for lymphocytes (humoral system) might also be mediated in a monolayer culture of cells (cellular tissue) after the development of the bystander effect in them and transfer of stress signaling factors (ecDNA{sup R}) through the culture medium.

  3. An extracellular DNA mediated bystander effect produced from low dose irradiated endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, Aleksei V.; Konkova, Marina S.; Kostyuk, Svetlana V.; Smirnova, Tatiana D.; Malinovskaya, Elena M.; Efremova, Liudmila V.; Veiko, Natalya N.

    2011-01-01

    The human umbilical vein endothelial cells culture was exposed to X-ray radiation in a low dose of 10 cGy. The fragments of extracellular genomic DNA (ecDNA R ) were isolated from the culture medium after the short-term incubation. A culture medium of unirradiated endothelial cells was then supplemented with ecDNA R , followed by analysing the cells along the series of parameters (bystander effect). The exposed cells and bystander endotheliocytes showed similar response to low doses: approximation of the 1q12 loci of chromosome 1 and their transposition into the cellular nucleus, change in shape of the endotheliocytic nucleus, activation of the nucleolus organizing regions (NORs), actin polymerization, and an elevated level of DNA double-stranded breaks. Following blockade of TLR9 receptors with oligonucleotide-inhibitor or chloroquine in the bystander cells these effects - except of activation of NORs - on exposure to ecDNA R disappeared, with no bystander response thus observed. The presence of the radiation-induced apoptosis in the bystander effect being studied suggests a possibility for radiation-modified ecDNA fragments (i.e., stress signaling factors) to be released into the culture medium, whereas inhibition of TLR9 suggests the binding these ligands to the recipient cells. A similar DNA-signaling pathway in the bystander effect we previously described for human lymphocytes. Integrity of data makes it possible to suppose that a similar signaling mechanism which we demonstrated for lymphocytes (humoral system) might also be mediated in a monolayer culture of cells (cellular tissue) after the development of the bystander effect in them and transfer of stress signaling factors (ecDNA R ) through the culture medium.

  4. NIGERLYSINTM, HEMOLYSIN PRODUCED BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER, CAUSES LETHALITY OF PRIMARY RAT CORTICAL NEURONAL CELLS IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus niger produced a proteinaceous hemolysin, nigerlysinTM when incubated on sheep's blood agar at both 23° C and 37°C. Nigerlysin was purified from tryptic soy broth culture filtrate. Purified nigerlysin has a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa, with an...

  5. Interleukin-16-producing NK cells and T-cells in the blood of tobacco smokers with and without COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anders Andersson,1,* Carina Malmhäll,2,* Birgitta Houltz,1 Sara Tengvall,1 Margareta Sjöstrand,2 Ingemar Qvarfordt,1 Anders Lindén,3 Apostolos Bossios2 1Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Krefting Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 3Unit for Lung and Airway Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Long-term exposure to tobacco smoke causes local inflammation in the airways that involves not only innate immune cells, including NK cells, but also adaptive immune cells such as cytotoxic (CD8+ and helper (CD4+ T-cells. We have previously demonstrated that long-term tobacco smoking increases extracellular concentration of the CD4+-recruiting cytokine interleukin (IL-16 locally in the airways. Here, we hypothesized that tobacco smoking alters IL-16 biology at the systemic level and that this effect involves oxygen free radicals (OFR.Methods: We quantified extracellular IL-16 protein (ELISA and intracellular IL-16 in NK cells, T-cells, B-cells, and monocytes (flow cytometry in blood samples from long-term tobacco smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and in never-smokers. NK cells from healthy blood donors were stimulated with water-soluble tobacco smoke components (cigarette smoke extract with or without an OFR scavenger (glutathione in vitro and followed by quantification of IL-16 protein.Results: The extracellular concentrations of IL-16 protein in blood did not display any substantial differences between groups. Notably, intracellular IL-16 protein was detected in all types of blood leukocytes. All long-term smokers displayed

  6. Immobilization of yeast cells with ionic hydrogel produced by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhaoxin; Fujimura, T.

    1990-01-01

    The mixture of an ionic monomer of 2-acrylamido 2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid and a series of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate monomer were polymerized at-78 deg C with 60 Co γ-rays and were used for immobilization of yeast cells. The immobilized yeast cells with these carriers had higher ethanol productivity than that without any carriers. The yield of ethanol with poly TBAS-14G carrier was the highest, and increased by 3.5 times compared with the free yeast cells. It was found that the ethanol yield increased with the increase of the glycol number in polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The state of the immobilized cells was observed with microscope and it was found that the difference in the ethanol productivity was mainly due to the difference in the internal structure and the properties of polymer carrier. It was considered that the polymer carrier had a proper hydrophilicity, swelling ability, cation in the surface and porousity in the internal structure for immobilizing yeast cells

  7. The use of fluorescence microscopy and image analysis for rapid detection of non-producing revertant cells of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Katja; Lang, Imke; Enke, Heike; Grohme, Diana; Frohme, Marcus

    2015-04-17

    Ethanol production via genetically engineered cyanobacteria is a promising solution for the production of biofuels. Through the introduction of a pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase direct ethanol production becomes possible within the cells. However, during cultivation genetic instability can lead to mutations and thus loss of ethanol production. Cells then revert back to the wild type phenotype. A method for a rapid and simple detection of these non-producing revertant cells in an ethanol producing cell population is an important quality control measure in order to predict genetic stability and the longevity of a producing culture. Several comparable cultivation experiments revealed a difference in the pigmentation for non-producing and producing cells: the accessory pigment phycocyanin (PC) is reduced in case of the ethanol producer, resulting in a yellowish appearance of the culture. Microarray and western blot studies of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 confirmed this PC reduction on the level of RNA and protein. Based on these findings we developed a method for fluorescence microscopy in order to distinguish producing and non-producing cells with respect to their pigmentation phenotype. By applying a specific filter set the emitted fluorescence of a producer cell with a reduced PC content appeared orange. The emitted fluorescence of a non-producing cell with a wt pigmentation phenotype was detected in red, and dead cells in green. In an automated process multiple images of each sample were taken and analyzed with a plugin for the image analysis software ImageJ to identify dead (green), non-producing (red) and producing (orange) cells. The results of the presented validation experiments revealed a good identification with 98 % red cells in the wt sample and 90 % orange cells in the producer sample. The detected wt pigmentation phenotype (red cells) in the producer sample were either not fully induced yet (in 48 h induced

  8. Human IgE is efficiently produced in glycosylated and biologically active form in lepidopteran cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bantleon, Frank; Wolf, Sara; Seismann, Henning

    2016-01-01

    the recombinant production of the highly complex IgE isotype in insect cells. Recombinant IgE (rIgE) was efficiently assembled and secreted into the supernatant in yields of >30 mg/L. Purification from serum free medium using different downstream processing methods provided large amounts of rIgE. This exhibited...... a highly specific interaction with its antigen, therapeutic anti-IgE and its high affinity receptor, the FcεRI. Lectins and glyco-proteomic analyses proved the presence of prototypic insect type N-glycans on the epsilon heavy chain. Mediator release assays demonstrated a biological activity of the r......IgE comparable to IgE derived from mammalian cells. In summary the expression in insect cells provides rIgE with variant glycosylation pattern, but retained characteristics and biological activity. Therefore our data contribute to the understanding of functional and structural aspects and potential use of the Ig...

  9. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells.

  10. Atypical and classical memory B cells produce Plasmodium falciparum neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muellenbeck, Matthias F; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Amulic, Borko

    2013-01-01

    signs of active antibody secretion. AtM and CM were also different in their IgG gene repertoire, suggesting that they develop from different precursors. The findings provide direct evidence that natural Pf infection leads to the development of protective memory B cell antibody responses and suggest......Antibodies can protect from Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection and clinical malaria disease. However, in the absence of constant reexposure, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels rapidly decline and full protection from clinical symptoms is lost, suggesting that B cell memory is functionally impaired...... that constant immune activation rather than impaired memory function leads to the accumulation of AtM in malaria. Understanding the memory B cell response to natural Pf infection may be key to the development of a malaria vaccine that induces long-lived protection....

  11. Properties of murine leukemia viruses produced by leukemic cells established from NIH Swiss mice with radiation-induced leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumoto, Masaaki; Nishikawa, Ryosuke; Takamori, Yasuhiko; Iwai, Yoshiaki; Iwai, Mineko [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan); Imai, Shunsuke; Morimoto, Junji; Tsubura, Yoshihiko

    1984-06-01

    Three leukemic cell lines, designated NIH-RL1, NIH-RL2 and NFS-RL1, were established from spleen and thymuses of NIH Swiss and NFS mice with radiation-induced leukemia. The culture fluids of these cell lines contained RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RDDP) activities associated with particles of buoyant density of 1.15-1.17 (g/cm/sup 3/). The divalent cation reqirement of these enzymes was characteristic for that of murine leukemia viruses. In competition radioimmunoassay, a major core protein, p30, was detected in culture fluid of each leukemic cell line. Competition curves of viral p30 produced by these cell lines revealed that these viruses were very similar to those of xenotropic viruses of NZB mice. These viruses were undetectable both by XC plaque assay using SC-1 cells as an indicator cell, and by mink S/sup +/L/sup -/ focus induction assay. These viruses also lacked productive infectivity to mink lung cells (CCL-64), and were nononcogenic in syngeneic mice when the viruses were intrathymically inoculated.

  12. A novel dual-color reporter for identifying insulin-producing beta-cells and classifying heterogeneity of insulinoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Sook Lee

    Full Text Available Many research studies use immortalized cell lines as surrogates for primary beta- cells. We describe the production and use of a novel "indirect" dual-fluorescent reporter system that leads to mutually exclusive expression of EGFP in insulin-producing (INS(+ beta-cells or mCherry in non-beta-cells. Our system uses the human insulin promoter to initiate a Cre-mediated shift in reporter color within a single transgene construct and is useful for FACS selection of cells from single cultures for further analysis. Application of our reporter to presumably clonal HIT-T15 insulinoma cells, as well as other presumably clonal lines, indicates that these cultures are in fact heterogeneous with respect to INS(+ phenotype. Our strategy could be easily applied to other cell- or tissue-specific promoters. We anticipate its utility for FACS purification of INS(+ and glucose-responsive beta-like-cells from primary human islet cell isolates or in vitro differentiated pluripotent stem cells.

  13. IL-1β produced by aggressive breast cancer cells is one of the factors that dictate their interactions with mesenchymal stem cells through chemokine production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serret, Julien; Bièche, Ivan; Brigitte, Madly; Caicedo, Andres; Sanchez, Elodie; Vacher, Sophie; Vignais, Marie-Luce; Bourin, Philippe; Geneviève, David; Molina, Franck; Jorgensen, Christian; Lazennec, Gwendal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to understand whether the nature of breast cancer cells could modify the nature of the dialog of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with cancer cells. By treating MSCs with the conditioned medium of metastatic Estrogen-receptor (ER)-negative MDA-MB-231, or non-metastatic ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells, we observed that a number of chemokines were produced at higher levels by MSCs treated with MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium (CM). MDA-MB-231 cells were able to induce NF-κB signaling in MSC cells. This was shown by the use of a NF-kB chemical inhibitor or an IκB dominant negative mutant, nuclear translocation of p65 and induction of NF-κB signature. Our results suggest that MDA-MB-231 cells exert their effects on MSCs through the secretion of IL-1β, that activates MSCs and induces the same chemokines as the MDA-MB-231CM. In addition, inhibition of IL-1β secretion in the MDA-MB-231 cells reduces the induced production of a panel of chemokines by MSCs, as well the motility of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our data suggest that aggressive breast cancer cells secrete IL-1β, which increases the production of chemokines by MSCs. PMID:26362269

  14. Intragenotypic JFH1 based recombinant hepatitis C virus produces high levels of infectious particles but causes increased cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateu, Guaniri; Donis, Ruben O; Wakita, Takaji

    2008-01-01

    The full-length hepatitis C virus (HCV) JFH1 genome (genotype 2a) produces moderate titers of infectious particles in cell culture but the optimal determinants required for virion production are unclear. It has been shown that intragenotypic recombinants encoding core to NS2 from J6CF...... in the context of JFH1 are more robust in the release of viral particles. To understand the contributions of structural and nonstructural genes to HCV replication potential and infectivity, we have characterized intragenotypic recombinant genotype 2a viruses with different portions of the J6 isolate engineered...... into the JFH1 infectious clone. All genomes produced high levels of intracellular HCV RNA and NS3 protein in Huh-7.5 transfected cells. However, JFH1 genomes containing J6 sequences from C to E2 (CE2) or C to p7 (Cp7) secreted up to 100-fold more infectious HCV particles than the parental JFH1 clone...

  15. MRP4 knockdown enhances migration, suppresses apoptosis, and produces aggregated morphology in human retinal vascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, Mizuki [Department of Surgery Related, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kusuhara, Sentaro, E-mail: kusu@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Surgery Related, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Imai, Hisanori [Department of Surgery Related, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Uemura, Akiyoshi [Department of Surgery Related, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Department of Vascular Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Honda, Shigeru; Tsukahara, Yasutomo; Negi, Akira [Department of Surgery Related, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous VEGF decreases MRP4 expression in a dose-dependent manner. {yields} MRP4 knockdown leads to enhanced cell migration. {yields} MRP4 knockdown suppresses caspase-3-mediated cell apoptosis. {yields} MRP4 knockdown produces cell assembly and cell aggregation. -- Abstract: The multidrug resistance protein (MRP) MRP4/ABCC4 is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that actively effluxes endogenous and xenobiotic substrates out of cells. In the rodent retina, Mrp4 mRNA and protein are exclusively expressed in vascular endothelial cells, but the angiogenic properties of Mrp4 are poorly understood so far. This study aims to explore the angiogenic properties of MRP4 in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) utilizing the RNA interference (RNAi) technique. MRP4 expression was decreased at the mRNA and protein levels after stimulation with exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor in a dose-dependent manner. RNAi-mediated MRP4 knockdown in HRECs do not affect cell proliferation but enhances cell migration. Moreover, cell apoptosis induced by serum starvation was less prominent in MRP4 siRNA-treated HRECs as compared to control siRNA-treated HRECs. In a Matrigel-based tube-formation assay, although MRP4 knockdown did not lead to a significant change in the total tube length, MRP4 siRNA-treated HRECs assembled and aggregated into a massive tube-like structure, which was not observed in control siRNA-treated HRECs. These results suggest that MRP4 is uniquely involved in retinal angiogenesis.

  16. Simultaneous environmental manipulations in semi-perfusion cultures of CHO cells producing rh-tPA

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara,Mauricio; Becerra,Silvana; Díaz-Barrera,Alvaro; Berrios,Julio; Altamirano,Claudia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the combined effect of decreasing the temperature to a mild hypothermia range (34 and 31ºC) and switching to a slowly metabolizable carbon source (glucose substituted by galactose) on the growth and production of a recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rh-tPA) by Chinese hamster ovary cells in batch and semi-perfusion cultures. In batch cultures using glucose as a carbon source, decreasing the temperature caused a reduction in cell growth and an increase in specific pro...

  17. Induction of Interleukin-10 Producing Dendritic Cells As a Tool to Suppress Allergen-Specific T Helper 2 Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schülke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are gatekeepers of the immune system that control induction and polarization of primary, antigen-specific immune responses. Depending on their maturation/activation status, the molecules expressed on their surface, and the cytokines produced DCs have been shown to either elicit immune responses through activation of effector T cells or induce tolerance through induction of either T cell anergy, regulatory T cells, or production of regulatory cytokines. Among the cytokines produced by tolerogenic DCs, interleukin 10 (IL-10 is a key regulatory cytokine limiting und ultimately terminating excessive T-cell responses to microbial pathogens to prevent chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Because of their important role in preventing autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection, allergic reactions, or in controlling chronic inflammation DCs have become an interesting tool to modulate antigen-specific immune responses. For the treatment of allergic inflammation, the aim is to downregulate allergen-specific T helper 2 (Th2 responses and the associated clinical symptoms [allergen-driven Th2 activation, Th2-driven immunoglobulin E (IgE production, IgE-mediated mast cell and basophil activation, allergic inflammation]. Here, combining the presentation of allergens by DCs with a pro-tolerogenic, IL-10-producing phenotype is of special interest to modulate allergen-specific immune responses in the treatment of allergic diseases. This review discusses the reported strategies to induce DC-derived IL-10 secretion for the suppression of allergen-specific Th2-responses with a focus on IL-10 treatment, IL-10 transduction, and the usage of both whole bacteria and bacteria-derived components. Interestingly, while IL-10-producing DCs induced either by IL-10 treatment or IL-10 transduction are arrested in an immature/semi-mature state, treatment of DCs with live or killed bacteria as well as isolated bacterial components results in the induction of

  18. Screening and Selection of High Carotenoid Producing in Vitro Tomato Cell Culture Lines for [13C]-Carotenoid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Engelmann, Nancy J.; Campbell, Jessica K.; Rogers, Randy B.; Rupassara, S. Indumathie; Garlick, Peter J.; Lila, Mary Ann; Erdman, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Isotopically labeled tomato carotenoids, phytoene, phytofluene, and lycopene, are needed for mammalian bioavailability and metabolism research but are currently commercially unavailable. The goals of this work were to establish and screen multiple in vitro tomato cell lines for carotenoid production, test the best producers with or without the bleaching herbicides, norflurazon and 2-(4-chlorophenyl-thio)-triethylamine (CPTA), and to use the greatest carotenoid accumulator for in vitro 13C-lab...

  19. Activation of iNKT Cells Prevents Salmonella-Enterocolitis and Salmonella-Induced Reactive Arthritis by Downregulating IL-17-Producing γδT Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariángeles Noto Llana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis (ReA is an inflammatory condition of the joints that arises following an infection. Salmonella enterocolitis is one of the most common infections leading to ReA. Although the pathogenesis remains unclear, it is known that IL-17 plays a pivotal role in the development of ReA. IL-17-producers cells are mainly Th17, iNKT, and γδT lymphocytes. It is known that iNKT cells regulate the development of Th17 lineage. Whether iNKT cells also regulate γδT lymphocytes differentiation is unknown. We found that iNKT cells play a protective role in ReA. BALB/c Jα18−/− mice suffered a severe Salmonella enterocolitis, a 3.5-fold increase in IL-17 expression and aggravated inflammation of the synovial membrane. On the other hand, activation of iNKT cells with α-GalCer abrogated IL-17 response to Salmonella enterocolitis and prevented intestinal and joint tissue damage. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect of α-GalCer was related to a drop in the proportion of IL-17-producing γδT lymphocytes (IL17-γδTcells rather than to a decrease in Th17 cells. In summary, we here show that iNKT cells play a protective role against Salmonella-enterocolitis and Salmonella-induced ReA by downregulating IL17-γδTcells.

  20. Limitations of a hemolytic plaque assay for IgG-anti-IgG rheumatoid factor-producing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, A J; Dresser, D W

    1987-09-24

    An attempt has been made to develop a hemolytic plaque assay capable of detecting homophile IgG rheumatoid factor (RF)-producing cells. Anti-immunoglobulin allotype-developing reagents were used to distinguish between target and effector IgG. The hemolytic assay has been used to demonstrate an apparently high level of homophile IgM and IgG RF-producing cells in the spleens and lymph nodes of mice stimulated by LPS. However, it appears that a large proportion of the plaques obtained in these assays are due to an artefact resulting from cross-linking of target and effector molecules by the developing reagents. In the case of IgM RF the artefact depends on the presence of a small contamination of the target IgG by IgM, allowing cross-linking of target and effector IgM by the anti-mu-specific developing reagent. With the IgG RF, cross-reactivity of the rabbit anti-Ighb allotype-developing serum for the 'wrong' (Igha) allotype, normally undetectable, becomes sufficient to be biologically relevant when the developing antibody is complexed by being bound to its target (Ighb) allotype. Nevertheless anti-allotype reagents may afford an accurate means of detecting homophile IgG RF producing cells using other assay systems.

  1. Bone morphogenic protein 4 produced in endothelial cells by oscillatory shear stress stimulates an inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorescu, George P.; Sykes, Michelle; Weiss, Daiana; Platt, Manu O.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Boyd, Nolan; Boo, Yong C.; Vega, J. David; Taylor, W. Robert; hide

    2003-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is now viewed as an inflammatory disease occurring preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow conditions, including oscillatory shear stress (OS), in branched arteries. In contrast, the arterial regions exposed to laminar shear (LS) are relatively lesion-free. The mechanisms underlying the opposite effects of OS and LS on the inflammatory and atherogenic processes are not clearly understood. Here, through DNA microarrays, protein expression, and functional studies, we identify bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) as a mechanosensitive and pro-inflammatory gene product. Exposing endothelial cells to OS increased BMP4 protein expression, whereas LS decreased it. In addition, we found BMP4 expression only in the selective patches of endothelial cells overlying foam cell lesions in human coronary arteries. The same endothelial patches also expressed higher levels of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein compared with those of non-diseased areas. Functionally, we show that OS and BMP4 induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion by a NFkappaB-dependent mechanism. We suggest that BMP4 is a mechanosensitive, inflammatory factor playing a critical role in early steps of atherogenesis in the lesion-prone areas.

  2. Engineering cell factories for producing building block chemicals for bio-polymer synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuge, Yota; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sasaki, Kengo; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic polymers are widely used in daily life. Due to increasing environmental concerns related to global warming and the depletion of oil reserves, the development of microbial-based fermentation processes for the production of polymer building block chemicals from renewable resources is desirable to replace current petroleum-based methods. To this end, strains that efficiently produce the target chemicals at high yields and productivity are needed. Recent advances in metabolic engineerin...

  3. Engineering cell factories for producing building block chemicals for bio-polymer synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Yota; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sasaki, Kengo; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-21

    Synthetic polymers are widely used in daily life. Due to increasing environmental concerns related to global warming and the depletion of oil reserves, the development of microbial-based fermentation processes for the production of polymer building block chemicals from renewable resources is desirable to replace current petroleum-based methods. To this end, strains that efficiently produce the target chemicals at high yields and productivity are needed. Recent advances in metabolic engineering have enabled the biosynthesis of polymer compounds at high yield and productivities by governing the carbon flux towards the target chemicals. Using these methods, microbial strains have been engineered to produce monomer chemicals for replacing traditional petroleum-derived aliphatic polymers. These developments also raise the possibility of microbial production of aromatic chemicals for synthesizing high-performance polymers with desirable properties, such as ultraviolet absorbance, high thermal resistance, and mechanical strength. In the present review, we summarize recent progress in metabolic engineering approaches to optimize microbial strains for producing building blocks to synthesize aliphatic and high-performance aromatic polymers.

  4. Decellularized extracellular matrices produced from immortal cell lines derived from different parts of the placenta support primary mesenchymal stem cell expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina D Kusuma

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs exhibit undesired phenotypic changes during ex vivo expansion, limiting production of the large quantities of high quality primary MSCs needed for both basic research and cell therapies. Primary MSCs retain many desired MSC properties including proliferative capacity and differentiation potential when expanded on decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM prepared from primary MSCs. However, the need to use low passage number primary MSCs (passage 3 or lower to produce the dECM drastically limits the utility and impact of this technology. Here, we report that primary MSCs expanded on dECM prepared from high passage number (passage 25 human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT transduced immortal MSC cell lines also exhibit increased proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Two hTERT-transduced placenta-derived MSC cell lines, CMSC29 and DMSC23 [derived from placental chorionic villi (CMSCs and decidua basalis (DMSCs, respectively], were used to prepare dECM-coated substrates. These dECM substrates showed structural and biochemical differences. Primary DMSCs cultured on dECM-DMSC23 showed a three-fold increase in cell number after 14 days expansion in culture and increased osteogenic differentiation compared with controls. Primary CMSCs cultured on the dECM-DMSC23 exhibited a two-fold increase in cell number and increased osteogenic differentiation. We conclude that immortal MSC cell lines derived from different parts of the placenta produce dECM with varying abilities for supporting increased primary MSC expansion while maintaining important primary MSC properties. Additionally, this is the first demonstration of using high passage number cells to produce dECM that can promote primary MSC expansion, and this advancement greatly increases the feasibility and applicability of dECM-based technologies.

  5. Improved differentiation of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-producing cells by PDX-1 mRNA transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pham, Phuc; Thi-My Nguyen, Phuoc; Thai-Quynh Nguyen, Anh; Minh Pham, Vuong; Nguyen-Tu Bui, Anh; Thi-Tung Dang, Loan; Gia Nguyen, Khue; Kim Phan, Ngoc

    2014-06-01

    Numerous studies have sought to identify diabetes mellitus treatment strategies with fewer side effects. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy was previously considered as a promising therapy; however, it requires the cells to be trans-differentiated into cells of the pancreatic-endocrine lineage before transplantation. Previous studies have shown that PDX-1 expression can facilitate MSC differentiation into insulin-producing cells (IPCs), but the methods employed to date use viral or DNA-based tools to express PDX-1, with the associated risks of insertional mutation and immunogenicity. Thus, this study aimed to establish a new method to induce PDX-1 expression in MSCs by mRNA transfection. MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and expanded in vitro, with stemness confirmed by surface markers and multipotentiality. MSCs were transfected with PDX-1 mRNA by nucleofection and chemically induced to differentiate into IPCs (combinatorial group). This IPC differentiation was then compared with that of untransfected chemically induced cells (inducer group) and uninduced cells (control group). We found that PDX-1 mRNA transfection significantly improved the differentiation of MSCs into IPCs, with 8.3±2.5% IPCs in the combinatorial group, 3.21±2.11% in the inducer group and 0% in the control. Cells in the combinatorial group also strongly expressed several genes related to beta cells (Pdx-1, Ngn3, Nkx6.1 and insulin) and could produce C-peptide in the cytoplasm and insulin in the supernatant, which was dependent on the extracellular glucose concentration. These results indicate that PDX-1 mRNA may offer a promising approach to produce safe IPCs for clinical diabetes mellitus treatment. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Virions and intracellular nucleocapsids produced during mixed heterotypic influenza infection of MDCK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklyanskaya, E.I.; Varich, N.L.; Amvrosieva, T.V.; Kaverin, N.V.

    1985-01-01

    Phenotypically mixed virus yields, obtained by coinfection of MDCK cells with influenza A/WSN/33 and B/Lee/40 viruses, contained both A/WSN/33 and B/Lee/40 NP proteins, as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified 14 C-amino acids-labeled virus. Virions were lysed with 0.6 M KCl-Triton X-100 buffer, and nucleocapsids were immunoprecipitated with antibodies against NP protein of influenza A virus. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the immunoprecipitate revealed NP protein of A/WSN/33 but not of B/Lee/40 virus. However, in similar experiments with the lysates of doubly infected cells, the band of B/Lee/40 NP protein was revealed in the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of the immunoprecipitates. In an attempt to analyze the RNA content of the immune complexes, the authors absorbed the lysates of doubly infected [ 3 H]uridine-labeled cells with protein A-containing Staphylococcus aureus covered with antibodies against the NP protein of influenza A virus. RNA extracted from the immune complexes contained genomic RNA segments of both A/WSN/33 and B/Lee/40 viruses. In control samples containing an artificial mixture of cell lysates separately infected with each virus, the analysis revealed homologous components (i.e., A/WSN/33 NP protein or RNA segments) in the immune complexes. The results suggest the presence of phenotypically mixed nucleocapsids in the cells doubly infected with influenza A and B viruses; in the course of the virion formation, the nucleocapsids lacking the heterologous NP protein are selected

  7. Silver-free Metallization Technology for Producing High Efficiency, Industrial Silicon Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelson, Lynne M [Technic Inc; Munoz, Krystal [Technic Inc.; Karas, Joseph [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Bowden, Stuart [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Rand, James A; Gallegos, Anthony [Technic Inc.; Tyson, Tom [Technic Inc.; Buonassisi, Tonio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2018-03-30

    The goal of this project is to provide a commercially viable Ag-free metallization technology that will both reduce cost and increase efficiency of standard silicon solar cells. By removing silver from the front grid metallization and replacing it with lower cost nickel, copper, and tin metal, the front grid direct materials costs will decrease. This reduction in material costs should provide a path to meeting the Sunshot 2020 goal of $1 / WDC. As of today, plated contacts are not widely implemented in large scale manufacturing. For organizations that wish to implement pilot scale manufacturing, only two equipment choices exist. These equipment manufacturers do not supply plating chemistry. The main goal of this project is to provide a chemistry and equipment solution to the industry that enables reliable manufacturing of plated contacts marked by passing reliability results and higher efficiencies than silver paste front grid contacts. To date, there have been several key findings that point to plated contacts performing equal to or better than the current state of the art silver paste contacts. Poor adhesion and reliability concerns are a few of the hurdles for plated contacts, specifically plated nickel directly on silicon. A key finding of the Phase 1 budget period is that the plated contacts have the same adhesion as the silver paste controls. This is a huge win for plated contacts. With very little optimization work, state of the art electrical results for plated contacts on laser ablated lines have been demonstrated with efficiencies up to 19.1% and fill factors ~80% on grid lines 40-50 um wide. The silver paste controls with similar line widths demonstrate similar electrical results. By optimizing the emitter and grid design for the plated contacts, it is expected that the electrical performance will exceed the silver paste controls. In addition, cells plated using Technic chemistry and equipment pass reliability testing; i.e. 1000 hours damp heat and 200

  8. Human endometrial stromal stem cells differentiate into megakaryocytes with the ability to produce functional platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinju Wang

    Full Text Available Human endometrium is a high dynamic tissue that contains endometrial stromal stem cells (hESSCs. The hESSCs have been differentiated into a number of cell lineages. However, differentiation of hESSCs into megakaryocytes (MKs has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of MK generation from hESSCs and subsequent production of functional platelets (PLTs. In our study, hESSCs were cultured from endometrial stromal cells as confirmed by positive stromal cell specific markers (CD90 and CD29 and negative hematopoietic stem cell markers (CD45 and CD34 expression. Then, hESSCs were differentiated in a medium supplemented with thrombopoietin (TPO for 18 days. The MK differentiation was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The differentiation medium was collected for PLT production analysis by flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and functional measurements. Our results show: 1 MKs were successfully generated from hESSCs as identified by expression of specific markers (CD41a: 1 ± 0.09% and 39 ± 3.0%; CD42b: 1.2 ± 0.06% and 28 ± 2.0%, control vs. differentiation accompanied with reduction of pluripotent transcription factors (Oct4 and Sox2 expression; 2 The level of PLTs in the differentiation medium was 16 ± 1 number/µl as determined by size (2-4 µm and CD41a expression (CD41a: 1 ± 0.4% and 90±2.0%, control vs. differentiation; 3 Generated PLTs were functional as evidenced by the up-regulation of CD62p expression and fibrinogen binding following thrombin stimulation; 4 Released PLTs showed similar ultra-structure characteristics (alpha granules, vacuoles and dense tubular system as PLTs from peripheral blood determined by electron microscopic analysis. Data demonstrate the feasibility of generating MKs from hESSCs, and that the generated MKs release functional PLTs. Therefore, hESSCs could be a potential new stem cell source for in vitro MK/PLT production.

  9. Dendritic Cell Activity Driven by Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Producing Human IL-18, in Healthy BCG Vaccinated Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpakowski, Piotr; Biet, Franck; Locht, Camille; Paszkiewicz, Małgorzata; Rudnicka, Wiesława; Druszczyńska, Magdalena; Allain, Fabrice; Fol, Marek; Pestel, Joël; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains an enormous global burden, despite wide vaccination coverage with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only vaccine available against this disease, indicating that BCG-driven immunity is insufficient to protect the human population against tuberculosis. In this study we constructed recombinant BCG producing human IL-18 (rBCGhIL-18) and investigated whether human IL-18 produced by rBCGhIL-18 modulates DC functions and enhances Th1 responses to mycobacterial antigens in humans. We found that the costimulatory CD86 and CD80 molecules were significantly upregulated on rBCGhIL-18-infected DCs, whereas the stimulation of DCs with nonrecombinant BCG was less effective. In contrast, both BCG strains decreased the DC-SIGN expression on human DCs. The rBCGhIL-18 increased IL-23, IL-10, and IP-10 production by DCs to a greater extent than nonrecombinant BCG. In a coculture system of CD4(+) T cells and loaded DCs, rBCGhIL-18 favoured strong IFN-γ but also IL-10 production by naive T cells but not by memory T cells. This was much less the case for nonrecombinant BCG. Thus the expression of IL-18 by recombinant BCG increases IL-23, IP-10, and IL-10 expression by human DCs and enhances their ability to induce IFN-γ and IL-10 expression by naive T cells, without affecting the maturation phenotype of the DCs.

  10. Dendritic Cell Activity Driven by Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Producing Human IL-18, in Healthy BCG Vaccinated Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szpakowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains an enormous global burden, despite wide vaccination coverage with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, the only vaccine available against this disease, indicating that BCG-driven immunity is insufficient to protect the human population against tuberculosis. In this study we constructed recombinant BCG producing human IL-18 (rBCGhIL-18 and investigated whether human IL-18 produced by rBCGhIL-18 modulates DC functions and enhances Th1 responses to mycobacterial antigens in humans. We found that the costimulatory CD86 and CD80 molecules were significantly upregulated on rBCGhIL-18-infected DCs, whereas the stimulation of DCs with nonrecombinant BCG was less effective. In contrast, both BCG strains decreased the DC-SIGN expression on human DCs. The rBCGhIL-18 increased IL-23, IL-10, and IP-10 production by DCs to a greater extent than nonrecombinant BCG. In a coculture system of CD4+ T cells and loaded DCs, rBCGhIL-18 favoured strong IFN-γ but also IL-10 production by naive T cells but not by memory T cells. This was much less the case for nonrecombinant BCG. Thus the expression of IL-18 by recombinant BCG increases IL-23, IP-10, and IL-10 expression by human DCs and enhances their ability to induce IFN-γ and IL-10 expression by naive T cells, without affecting the maturation phenotype of the DCs.

  11. Efficient and simple production of insulin-producing cells from embryonal carcinoma stem cells using mouse neonate pancreas extract, as a natural inducer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Ebrahimie

    Full Text Available An attractive approach to replace the destroyed insulin-producing cells (IPCs is the generation of functional β cells from stem cells. Embryonal carcinoma (EC stem cells are pluripotent cells which can differentiate into all cell types. The present study was carried out to establish a simple nonselective inductive culture system for generation of IPCs from P19 EC cells by 1-2 weeks old mouse pancreas extract (MPE. Since, mouse pancreatic islets undergo further remodeling and maturation for 2-3 weeks after birth, we hypothesized that the mouse neonatal MPE contains essential factors to induce in vitro differentiation of pancreatic lineages. Pluripotency of P19 cells were first confirmed by expression analysis of stem cell markers, Oct3/4, Sox-2 and Nanog. In order to induce differentiation, the cells were cultured in a medium supplemented by different concentrations of MPE (50, 100, 200 and 300 µg/ml. The results showed that P19 cells could differentiate into IPCs and form dithizone-positive cell clusters. The generated P19-derived IPCs were immunoreactive to proinsulin, insulin and insulin receptor beta. The expression of pancreatic β cell genes including, PDX-1, INS1 and INS2 were also confirmed. The peak response at the 100 µg/ml MPE used for investigation of EP300 and CREB1 gene expression. When stimulated with glucose, these cells synthesized and secreted insulin. Network analysis of the key transcription factors (PDX-1, EP300, CREB1 during the generation of IPCs resulted in introduction of novel regulatory candidates such as MIR17, and VEZF1 transcription factors, as well as MORN1, DKFZp761P0212, and WAC proteins. Altogether, we demonstrated the possibility of generating IPCs from undifferentiated EC cells, with the characteristics of pancreatic β cells. The derivation of pancreatic cells from EC cells which are ES cell siblings would provide a valuable experimental tool in study of pancreatic development and function as well as rapid

  12. Preliminary viability studies of fibroblastic cells cultured on microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamonds produced by chemical vapour deposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Rodrigues

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Implant materials used in orthopedics surgery have demonstrated some disadvantages, such as metallic corrosion processes, generation of wear particles, inflammation reactions and bone reabsorption in the implant region. The diamond produced through hot-filament chemical vapour deposition method is a new potential biomedical material due to its chemical inertness, extreme hardness and low coefficient of friction. In the present study we analysis two samples: the microcrystalline diamond and the nanocrystalline diamond. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface properties of the diamond samples by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Cell viability and morphology were assessed using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, cytochemical assay and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results revealed that the two samples did not interfere in the cell viability, however the proliferation of fibroblasts cells observed was comparatively higher with the nanocrystalline diamond.

  13. Encapsulated glucagon-like peptide-1-producing mesenchymal stem cells have a beneficial effect on failing pig hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Elizabeth J; Farrell, Kelly A; Malik, Nadim

    2012-01-01

    -life in vivo. The effects of prolonged GLP-1 delivery from stromal cells post-MI were evaluated in a porcine model. Human mesenchymal stem cells immortalized and engineered to produce a GLP-1 fusion protein were encapsulated in alginate (bead-GLP-1 MSC) and delivered to coronary artery branches. Control groups...... were cell-free beads and beads containing unmodified MSCs (bead-MSC), n = 4-5 per group. Echocardiography confirmed left ventricular (LV) dysfunction at time of delivery in all groups. Four weeks after intervention, only the bead-GLP-1 MSC group demonstrated LV function improvement toward baseline...... and showed decreased infarction area compared with controls. Histological analysis showed reduced inflammation and a trend toward reduced apoptosis in the infarct zone. Increased collagen but fewer myofibroblasts were observed in infarcts of the bead-GLP-1 MSC and bead-MSC groups, and significantly more...

  14. Exploiting translational coupling for the selection of cells producing toxic recombinant proteins from expression vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliavia, Marcello; Cuttitta, Angela

    2016-01-01

    High rates of plasmid instability are associated with the use of some expression vectors in Escherichia coli, resulting in the loss of recombinant protein expression. This is due to sequence alterations in vector promoter elements caused by the background expression of the cloned gene, which leads to the selection of fast-growing, plasmid-containing cells that do not express the target protein. This phenomenon, which is worsened when expressing toxic proteins, results in preparations containing very little or no recombinant protein, or even in clone loss; however, no methods to prevent loss of recombinant protein expression are currently available. We have exploited the phenomenon of translational coupling, a mechanism of prokaryotic gene expression regulation, in order to select cells containing plasmids still able to express recombinant proteins. Here we designed an expression vector in which the cloned gene and selection marker are co-expressed. Our approach allowed for the selection of the recombinant protein-expressing cells and proved effective even for clones encoding toxic proteins.

  15. Human haemato-endothelial precursors: cord blood CD34+ cells produce haemogenic endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Pelosi

    Full Text Available Embryologic and genetic evidence suggest a common origin of haematopoietic and endothelial lineages. In the murine embryo, recent studies indicate the presence of haemogenic endothelium and of a common haemato-endothelial precursor, the haemangioblast. Conversely, so far, little evidence supports the presence of haemogenic endothelium and haemangioblasts in later stages of development. Our studies indicate that human cord blood haematopoietic progenitors (CD34+45+144-, triggered by murine hepatocyte conditioned medium, differentiate into adherent proliferating endothelial precursors (CD144+CD105+CD146+CD31+CD45- capable of functioning as haemogenic endothelium. These cells, proven to give rise to functional vasculature in vivo, if further instructed by haematopoietic growth factors, first switch to transitional CD144+45+ cells and then to haematopoietic cells. These results highlight the plasticity of haemato-endhothelial precursors in human post-natal life. Furthermore, these studies may provide highly enriched populations of human post-fetal haemogenic endothelium, paving the way for innovative projects at a basic and possibly clinical level.

  16. Cytokine-free directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells efficiently produces hemogenic endothelium with lymphoid potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galat, Yekaterina; Dambaeva, Svetlana; Elcheva, Irina; Khanolkar, Aaruni; Beaman, Kenneth; Iannaccone, Philip M; Galat, Vasiliy

    2017-03-17

    The robust generation of human hematopoietic progenitor cells from induced or embryonic pluripotent stem cells would be beneficial for multiple areas of research, including mechanistic studies of hematopoiesis, the development of cellular therapies for autoimmune diseases, induced transplant tolerance, anticancer immunotherapies, disease modeling, and drug/toxicity screening. Over the past years, significant progress has been made in identifying effective protocols for hematopoietic differentiation from pluripotent stem cells and understanding stages of mesodermal, endothelial, and hematopoietic specification. Thus, it has been shown that variations in cytokine and inhibitory molecule treatments in the first few days of hematopoietic differentiation define primitive versus definitive potential of produced hematopoietic progenitor cells. The majority of current feeder-free, defined systems for hematopoietic induction from pluripotent stem cells include prolonged incubations with various cytokines that make the differentiation process complex and time consuming. We established that the application of Wnt agonist CHIR99021 efficiently promotes differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells in the absence of any hematopoietic cytokines to the stage of hemogenic endothelium capable of definitive hematopoiesis. The hemogenic endothelium differentiation was accomplished in an adherent, serum-free culture system by applying CHIR99021. Hemogenic endothelium progenitor cells were isolated on day 5 of differentiation and evaluated for their endothelial, myeloid, and lymphoid potential. Monolayer induction based on GSK3 inhibition, described here, yielded a large number of CD31 + CD34 + hemogenic endothelium cells. When isolated and propagated in adherent conditions, these progenitors gave rise to mature endothelium. When further cocultured with OP9 mouse stromal cells, these progenitors gave rise to various cells of myeloid lineages as well as natural killer lymphoid, T

  17. Antigen-specific murine T cell clones produce soluble interleukin 2 receptor on stimulation with specific antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.K.; York-Jolley, J.; Malek, T.R.; Berzofsky, J.A.; Nelson, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, monoclonal antibodies were used to the murine IL 2 receptor (IL 2R) termed 3C7 and 7D4, which bind to different epitopes on the murine IL 2R, to develop an ELISA to measure soluble murine IL 2R. Surprisingly, stimulated murine spleen cells not only expressed cell-associated IL 2R, but also produced a considerable level of cellfree IL 2R in the culture supernatant fluid. To assess the fine specificity of this response, myoglobin-immune murine T cell clones were stimulated with appropriate or inappropriate antigen and syngeneic or allogeneic presenting cells. Proliferation, measured by [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation, and levels of soluble IL 2R were determined at day 4. The production of soluble IL2R displayed the same epitope fine specificity, genetic restriction, and antigen dose-response as the proliferative response. Indeed, in some cases there was sharper discrimination of epitope specificity and genetic restriction with the soluble IL 2R levels. There was also reproducible clone-to-clone variation in the amount of soluble receptor produced in response to antigen among 12 T cell clones and lines tested. In time course experiments, proliferation was greatest at day 3, whereas soluble IL 2R levels continued to rise in subsequent days. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first demonstration of release of secretion of soluble IL 2R by murine T cells, and the first demonstration of the fine specificity and genetic restriction of the induction of soluble IL 2R by specific antigen

  18. Genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells produce IL-3 and TPO to further improve human scaffold-based xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, Marco; de Boer, Bauke; Jaques, Jenny; Antonelli, Antonella; Horton, Sarah J; Yuan, Huipin; de Bruijn, Joost D; Groen, Richard W J; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2017-07-01

    Recently, NOD-SCID IL2Rγ -/- (NSG) mice were implanted with human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the presence of ceramic scaffolds or Matrigel to mimic the human bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. This approach allowed the engraftment of leukemic samples that failed to engraft in NSG mice without humanized niches and resulted in a better preservation of leukemic stem cell self-renewal properties. To further improve our humanized niche scaffold model, we genetically engineered human MSCs to secrete human interleukin-3 (IL-3) and thrombopoietin (TPO). In vitro, these IL-3- and TPO-producing MSCs were superior in expanding human cord blood (CB) CD34 + hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. MLL-AF9-transduced CB CD34 + cells could be transformed efficiently along myeloid or lymphoid lineages on IL-3- and TPO-producing MSCs. In vivo, these genetically engineered MSCs maintained their ability to differentiate into bone, adipocytes, and other stromal components. Upon transplantation of MLL-AF9-transduced CB CD34 + cells, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) developed in engineered scaffolds, in which a significantly higher percentage of myeloid clones was observed in the mouse compartments compared with previous models. Engraftment of primary AML, B-cell ALL, and biphenotypic acute leukemia (BAL) patient samples was also evaluated, and all patient samples could engraft efficiently; the myeloid compartment of the BAL samples was better preserved in the human cytokine scaffold model. In conclusion, we show that we can genetically engineer the ectopic human BM microenvironment in a humanized scaffold xenograft model. This approach will be useful for functional study of the importance of niche factors in normal and malignant human hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2017 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. All rights reserved.

  19. Ex Vivo Produced Oral Mucosa Equivalent by Using the Direct Explant Cell Culture Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamile Öztürk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is the histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of ex vivo produced oral mucosal equivalents using keratinocytes cultured by direct explant technique.Material and Methods: Oral mucosa tissue samples were obtained from the keratinized gingival tissues of 14 healthy human subjects. Human oral mucosa keratinocytes from an oral mucosa biopsy specimen were dissociated by the explant technique. Once a sufficient population of keratinocytes was reached, they were seeded onto the type IV collagen coated “AlloDerm” and taken for histological and immunohistochemical examinations at 11 days postseeding of the keratinocytes on the cadaveric human dermal matrix.Results: Histopathologically and immunohistochemically, 12 out of 14 successful ex vivo produced oral mucosa equivalents (EVPOME that consisted of a stratified epidermis on a dermal matrix have been developed with keratinocytes cultured by the explant technique.Conclusion: The technical handling involved in the direct explant method at the beginning of the process has fewer steps than the enzymatic method and use of the direct explant technique protocol for culturing of human oral mucosa keratinocyte may be more adequate for EVPOME production.

  20. Protection by polyphenol extract from olive stones against apoptosis produced by oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Castell, Ernesto; Veciana-Galindo, Carmen; Torró-Montell, Luis; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Sirvent-Segura, Elia; Gil-Guillén, Vicente; Rizo-Baeza, Mercedes

    2016-02-16

    We evaluated the protective activity of an extract from a by-product such as olive stones, through its ability to inhibit H202 induced apoptosis in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. To such end, 20,000 cells/well were cultivated and differentiation with retinoic acid was initiated. Once the cells were differentiated, apoptosis was induced with and without H2O2 extract. Finally, cDNA extraction was performed, and pro-apoptotic genes Bax and anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 were analyzed. Quantification of the gene expression was performed using the GAPDH gene marker. Cell viability with the extract is 97.6% (SD 5.7) with 10 mg/l and 62.8% (SD 1.2) to 50 mg/l, using 10 mg/l for the biomarker assay. The retinoic acid differentiated SH-S cell line (10 μM) shows a clear apoptosis when treated with H2O2 150 μM, with a Bax/Bcl-2 ratio of 3.75 (SD 0.80) in contrast to the differentiated control cells subjected to H2O2 and with extract, which have the same ratio of 1.02 (SD 0.01-0.03). The olive stone extract shows anti-apoptotic activity in the provoked cell death of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells in their normal state, defending them from oxidative stress which produces a significant increase in the apoptotic gene ratio in contrast to anti-apoptotic genes (Bax/Bcl-2).

  1. Encapsulated Glucagon-Like Peptide-1-Producing Mesenchymal Stem Cells Have a Beneficial Effect on Failing Pig Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Elizabeth J.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Malik, Nadim; Kassem, Moustapha; Lewis, Andrew L.; Wallrapp, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is an exciting and emerging treatment option to promote post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) healing; however, cell retention and efficacy in the heart remain problematic. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone with cardioprotective properties but a short half-life in vivo. The effects of prolonged GLP-1 delivery from stromal cells post-MI were evaluated in a porcine model. Human mesenchymal stem cells immortalized and engineered to produce a GLP-1 fusion protein were encapsulated in alginate (bead-GLP-1 MSC) and delivered to coronary artery branches. Control groups were cell-free beads and beads containing unmodified MSCs (bead-MSC), n = 4–5 per group. Echocardiography confirmed left ventricular (LV) dysfunction at time of delivery in all groups. Four weeks after intervention, only the bead-GLP-1 MSC group demonstrated LV function improvement toward baseline and showed decreased infarction area compared with controls. Histological analysis showed reduced inflammation and a trend toward reduced apoptosis in the infarct zone. Increased collagen but fewer myofibroblasts were observed in infarcts of the bead-GLP-1 MSC and bead-MSC groups, and significantly more vessels per mm2 were noted in the infarct of the bead-GLP-1 MSC group. No differences were observed in myocyte cross-sectional area between groups. Post-MI delivery of GLP-1 encapsulated genetically modified MSCs provided a prolonged supply of GLP-1 and paracrine stem cell factors, which improved LV function and reduced epicardial infarct size. This was associated with increased angiogenesis and an altered remodeling response. Combined benefits of paracrine stem cell factors and GLP-1 were superior to those of stem cells alone. These results suggest that encapsulated genetically modified MSCs would be beneficial for recovery following MI. PMID:23197668

  2. Development of anionic membranes produced by radiation-grafting for alkaline fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Clotilde Coppini

    2017-01-01

    Anion Exchange Membranes (AEMs) are a promising alternative to the development of more efficient electrolytes for alkaline fuel cells. In general, the AEMs are ionomeric membranes able to conduct hydroxide ions (OH - ) due to the quaternary ammonium groups, which confer high pH equivalent to the AEM. In order to develop alkaline membranes with high chemical and thermal stability, besides satisfactory ionic conductivity for alkaline fuel cells, membranes based on low density polyethylene (LDPE), ultrahigh weight molecular weight polyethylene (UHWHPE), poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (PETFE) and poly(hexafluoropropylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (PFEP) previously irradiated by using 60 Co gamma and electron beam sources, have been synthesized by styrene-grafting, and functionalized with trimethylamine to introduced quaternary ammonium groups. The resulting membranes were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The determination of the grafting degree and water uptake were conducted by gravimetry and ion exchange capacity, by titration. The membranes synthesized with PELD and PEUHMW polymers pre-irradiated at 70 kGy and stored at low temperature (-70 deg C), up to 10 months, showed ionic conductivity results, in hydroxide form (OH - ), of 29 mS.cm -1 and 14 mS.cm -1 at 65 deg C, respectively. The PFEP polymers irradiated by the simultaneous process showed insufficient grating levels for the membrane synthesis, requiring more studies to improve the irradiation and grafting process. The styrene-grafted PETFE membranes, pre-irradiated at 70 kGy and stored at low temperature (-70 deg C), up to 10 months, showed ionic conductivity results, in hydroxide form (OH - ), of 90 mS.cm -1 to 165 mS.cm -1 , in the temperature range 30 to 60 deg C. Such results have demonstrated that LDPE, UHMWPE and PETFE based AEMs are promising electrolytes for alkaline fuel cell

  3. Ultrastructural analysis of early toxic effects produced by bee venom phospholipase A2 and melittin in Sertoli cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilinca, Mariana; Florea, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the testicular toxicity of two molecules derived from bee venom (BV): phospholipase A2 (PlA2) and melittin (Mlt). Ultrastructural effects of purified BV PlA2 and Mlt were assessed consecutive to repeated dose (30 days) and acute toxicity studies. For the subchronic treatment, PlA2 and Mlt were injected in daily doses equivalent to those released by a bee sting (105 μg PlA2/kg/day and 350 μg Mlt/kg/day), while in the acute treatment their doses corresponded to those released by 100 bee stings (9.3 mg PlA2/kg and 31 mg Mlt/kg). Both PlA2 and Mlt affected the Leydig cells and the cells in seminiferous tubules, the Sertoli cells first of all. PlA2 injection resulted in detachment of the Sertoli cells from the surrounding cells, and extracellular vacuolations, cytoplasmic vacuolations in their basal region and in branches as well, detachment of spermatids, residual bodies and sometimes even spermatocytes into the lumen, changes that had a higher magnitude after the acute treatment. Mlt injection induced similar ultrastructural alterations, but more severe, including degeneration of cellular organelles and cellular necrosis, resulting into rarefaction of the seminiferous epithelium; the ultrastructural changes had a higher magnitude after the 30 repeated dose treatment. We concluded that either of the two molecules tested here, PlA2 and Mlt, were Sertoli cells toxicants at the used doses, and they participated both in the BV testicular toxicity. We consider the observed changes as part of a preceding mechanism of the more severe alterations produced by the BV. It also remains possible that these early unspecific changes reported here could represent the response of the SCs not only to the components of bee venom, but to molecules of other venoms as well. The Sertoli cells were the primary target of PlA2 and Mlt in the spermatogenic epithelium, and their alteration led to further degenerative changes of the germ cells. Since

  4. Vascular cell responses to ECM produced by smooth muscle cells on TiO{sub 2} nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Fangyu [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Key Lab of Advanced Technology of Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhu, Ying [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Key Lab of Advanced Technology of Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wuhan Dragonbio Orthopedic Products CO., LTD, 18, Qinglnghe Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430065 (China); Li, Xin [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Key Lab of Advanced Technology of Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Luo, Rifang, E-mail: lrifang@126.com [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Key Lab of Advanced Technology of Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Tu, Qiufen [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Key Lab of Advanced Technology of Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Laboratory of Biosensing and Micro Mechatronics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, Jin, E-mail: jinxxwang@263.net [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Key Lab of Advanced Technology of Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Huang, Nan [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Key Lab of Advanced Technology of Materials of Education Ministry, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with the tube diameter of 30 nm via anodic oxidation was prepared. • SMCs on TiO{sub 2} nanotubes presented enhanced extracellular matrix secreting. • ECM prepared via decellularization retained the components: Fn, Ln and collagen. • ECM-covered TiO{sub 2} nanotubes significantly improved the proliferation of ECs. - Abstract: There is an increasing interest in developing new methods to promote biocompatibility of biomedical materials. The TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with the tube diameter of 30 nm were prepared by anodization. The response behavior of the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cell (HUASMC) to these different nanotube sizes was investigated. Compared to the flat Ti, the growth and viability of HUVEC are prohibited, but there was no significant difference of HUASMC on 30 nm TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. In this study, extracellular matrix (ECM) as a complex cellular environment which provides structural support to cells and regulates the cells functions was further used to modify the biological properties of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. The ECM secreted from HUASMC was successfully deposited onto the 30 nm TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. Moreover, immunofluorescence staining of common ECM components, such as fibronectin, laminin and type IV collagen, also indicated the successful ECM-covering on nanotube surfaces. Interestingly, the surface of ECM-covered TiO{sub 2} nanotubes significantly improved the proliferation of HUVECs in vitro. This suggested that the ECM secreted from HUASMCs on the TiO{sub 2} nanotubular surface could further improve the HUVECs adhesion and proliferation.

  5. Engineering redox homeostasis to develop efficient alcohol-producing microbial cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunhua; Zhao, Qiuwei; Li, Yin; Zhang, Yanping

    2017-06-24

    The biosynthetic pathways of most alcohols are linked to intracellular redox homeostasis, which is crucial for life. This crucial balance is primarily controlled by the generation of reducing equivalents, as well as the (reduction)-oxidation metabolic cycle and the thiol redox homeostasis system. As a main oxidation pathway of reducing equivalents, the biosynthesis of most alcohols includes redox reactions, which are dependent on cofactors such as NADH or NADPH. Thus, when engineering alcohol-producing strains, the availability of cofactors and redox homeostasis must be considered. In this review, recent advances on the engineering of cellular redox homeostasis systems to accelerate alcohol biosynthesis are summarized. Recent approaches include improving cofactor availability, manipulating the affinity of redox enzymes to specific cofactors, as well as globally controlling redox reactions, indicating the power of these approaches, and opening a path towards improving the production of a number of different industrially-relevant alcohols in the near future.

  6. Influence of gastrointestinal system conditions on adhesion of exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains to caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Onal Darilmaz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the transit tolerance of potential probiotic dairy Lactobacillus strains in human uppergastrointestinal tract in vitro, and to evaluate the effect of EPS production on the viability and adhesion of these strains. Survival and adhesion of two exopolysaccharide (EPS-producing L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains (B3 and B2 and E. coli ATCC11229 were assessed after the exposure of different pH (gastric juice and gastric plus pancreatic juice challenges. In the artificial gastric juice (pH 2, both the viability of the strain B3 and B2 was decreased. Artificial juice treatments significantly reduced the adhesion to caco-2 cells (P< 0.05. High EPS-producing B3 survived better in the adverse gastrointestinal conditions and showed better ability of adhesion to Caco-2 cells when assessed for competition with E. coli ATCC 11229 compared to low EPS-producing B2. This investigation showed that EPS production could be affected or be involved in the viability, adherence and competition of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and support the potential of B3 strain for development of new probiotic products.

  7. Effect of producer cell line on functional activity of anti-D monoclonal antibodies destined for prevention of rhesus sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olovnikova, N I; Ershler, M A; Belkina, E V; Nikolaeva, T L; Miterev, G Yu

    2009-04-01

    The ability of anti-D antibodies to cause antigen-specific immunosuppression depends on their interaction with low-affinity Fcgamma-receptors. Human monoclonal antibodies to D antigen of the rhesus system were investigated by antibody-dependent cytotoxicity assay in order to estimate their ability to induce hemolysis mediated by low-affinity Fcgamma receptors. We demonstrate that affinity of monoclonal antibodies to receptors of this type does not depend on primary structure of Fc-fragment, but depends on the producer cell line which expresses the antibodies. Monoclonal IgG1 antibodies interacting with FcgammaRIIa and FcgammaRIII lost this property, if they were secreted by human-mouse heterohybridoma, but not by human B-cell line. On the opposite, monoclonal antibodies that could not activate low-affinity Fcgamma receptors were highly active after human cells fusion with rat myeloma YB2/0. Hemolytic activity of IgG3 remained unchanged after fusion of human cells with rodent cells.

  8. Using renewable ethanol and isopropanol for lipid transesterification in wet microalgae cells to produce biodiesel with low crystallization temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Rui; Cheng, Jun; Qiu, Yi; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethanol and isopropanol were used for transesterification in wet microalgae cell. • Decreased droplet size and polarity of lipid were observed after transesterification. • Ethanol and isopropanol dosage needed for 95% FAAE yield were 75% of methanol dosage. • Crystallization temperature of crude biodiesel decreased from 2.08 °C to −3.15 °C. - Abstract: Renewable ethanol and isopropanol were employed for lipid transesterification in wet microalgae cells to produce biodiesel with low crystallization temperature and reduce the alcohol volume needed for biodiesel production. Decreased droplet size and lipid polarity were observed after transesterification with alcohol in microalgae cells. Such decrease was beneficial in extracting lipid from microalgae with apolar hexane. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, and alcohol volume on microwave-assisted transesterification with ethanol and isopropanol were investigated, and results were compared with those with methanol. Microwave-assisted transesterification with ethanol and isopropanol, which were more miscible with lipid in cells, resulted in higher fatty acid alkyl ester (FAAE) yields than that with methanol when the reaction temperature was lower than 90 °C. The ethanol and isopropanol volumes in the transesterification with 95% FAAE yield were only 75% of the methanol volume. The crystallization temperatures (0.19 °C and −3.15 °C) of biodiesels produced from wet microalgae through lipid transesterification in cells with ethanol and isopropanol were lower than that with methanol (2.08 °C), which was favorable for biodiesel flow in cold districts and winter.

  9. Cells for bioartificial liver devices: the human hepatoma-derived cell line C3A produces urea but does not detoxify ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavri-Damelin, Demetra; Damelin, Leonard H; Eaton, Simon; Rees, Myrddin; Selden, Clare; Hodgson, Humphrey J F

    2008-02-15

    Extrahepatic bioartificial liver devices should provide an intact urea cycle to detoxify ammonia. The C3A cell line, a subclone of the hepatoma-derived HepG2 cell line, is currently used in this context as it produces urea, and this has been assumed to be reflective of ammonia detoxification via a functional urea cycle. However, based on our previous findings of perturbed urea-cycle function in the non-urea producing HepG2 cell line, we hypothesized that the urea produced by C3A cells was via a urea cycle-independent mechanism, namely, due to arginase II activity, and therefore would not detoxify ammonia. Urea was quantified using (15)N-ammonium chloride metabolic labelling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Gene expression was determined by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, protein expression by western blotting, and functional activities with radiolabelling enzyme assays. Arginase inhibition studies used N(omega)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine. Urea was detected in C3A conditioned medium; however, (15)N-ammonium chloride-labelling indicated that (15)N-ammonia was not incorporated into (15)N-labelled urea. Further, gene expression of two urea cycle genes, ornithine transcarbamylase and arginase I, were completely absent. In contrast, arginase II mRNA and protein was expressed at high levels in C3A cells and was inhibited by N(omega)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine, which prevented urea production, thereby indicating a urea cycle-independent pathway. The urea cycle is non-functional in C3A cells, and their urea production is solely due to the presence of arginase II, which therefore cannot provide ammonia detoxification in a bioartificial liver system. This emphasizes the continued requirement for developing a component capable of a full repertoire of liver function. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Exploring bio-hydrogen-producing performance in three-phase fluidized bed bioreactors using different types of immobilized cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu-Yii Wu; Chi-Neng Lin; Yuan-Chang Shen; Shu-Yii Wu; Chiu-Yue Lin; Jo-Shu Chang

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the spherical activated carbon (AC) and silicone gel (SC) were used as the primary matrices to immobilize H 2 -producing activated sludge. The experiments were carried out in two different types of three-phase fluidized beds; namely, conventional fluidized bed reactor (FBR) and draft tube fluidized bed reactor (DTFBR). The solid volume of AC and SC immobilized cells was 10 vol.% for both FBR and DTFBR. Sucrose (at 20000 mg COD/l) was used as the carbon substrate for H 2 production. The H 2 -producing performance was examined at different hydraulic retention times (HRT = 8, 6, 4, 2, 1, and 0.5 h). The results show that the best volumetric H 2 production rate was 1.23 ± 0.08 l/h/l (HRT = 2 h) and 2.33 ± 0.22 l/h/l (HRT 0.5 h) for fluidized beds containing AC and SC immobilized cells, respectively. The highest H 2 yield was 3.37 mol H 2 /mol sucrose (HRT = 6 h) and 4.07 mol H 2 /mol sucrose (HRT = 4 h) for fluidized beds with AC and SC immobilized cells, respectively. The H 2 content in the biogas was stably maintained at 35% or higher for all the reactors, while the primary soluble metabolites in the cultures were acetic acid and butyric acid. (authors)

  11. Sponge-Associated Bacteria Produce Non-cytotoxic Melanin Which Protects Animal Cells from Photo-Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vijitha; Jasmin, Chekidhenkuzhiyil; Anas, Abdulaziz; Parakkaparambil Kuttan, Sreelakshmi; Vinothkumar, Saradavey; Perunninakulath Subrayan, Parameswaran; Nair, Shanta

    2017-09-01

    Melanin is a photo-protective polymer found in many organisms. Our research shows that the bacteria associated with darkly pigmented sponges (Haliclona pigmentifera, Sigmadocia pumila, Fasciospongia cavernosa, Spongia officinalis, and Callyspongia diffusa) secrete non-cytotoxic melanin, with antioxidant activity that protects animal cells from photo-toxicity. Out of 156 bacterial strains screened, 22 produced melanin and these melanin-producing bacteria (MPB) were identified as Vibrio spp., Providencia sp., Bacillus sp., Shewanella sp., Staphylococcus sp., Planococcus sp., Salinococcus sp., and Glutamicibacter sp. Maximum melanin production was exhibited by Vibrio alginolyticus Marine Microbial Reference Facility (MMRF) 534 (50 mg ml -1 ), followed by two isolates of Vibrio harveyi MMRF 535 (40 mg ml -1 ) and MMRF 546 (30 mg ml -1 ). Using pathway inhibition assay and FT-IR spectral analysis, we identified the melanin secreted into the culture medium of MPB as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin. The bacterial melanin was non-cytotoxic to mouse fibroblast L929 cells and brine shrimps up to a concentration of 200 and 500 ppm, respectively. Bacterial melanin showed antioxidant activity at very low concentration (IC 50 -9.0 ppm) and at 50 ppm, melanin protected L929 cells from UV-induced intracellular reactive oxygen stress. Our study proposes sponge-associated bacteria as a potential source of non-cytotoxic melanin with antioxidant potentials.

  12. Chromosome damage in Chinese hamster cells produced by 125I-UdR at the site of its incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.L.; Weinblatt, A.C.; Prensky, W.

    1978-01-01

    Metaphase chromosomal aberrations were produced by 125 I-labeled iododeoxyuridine ( 125 I-UdR) incorporated into Chinese hamster Don cells at the end of the S-period of the cell cycle. Chromosome damage and the number of autoradiographic silver grains were recorded for whole cells, for chromosome pairs 4 and 5 and for the X and the Y chromosomes. The X and the Y chromosomes, which label late in S, were at least twice as heavily labeled as chromosome pairs 4 and 5 - two readily recognizable autosomes of similar size. The incidence of chromosome damage was at least six times that which would have been expected from equivalent doses of X-rays and the incidence of damage was directly related to the number of silver grains over each chromosome. It is estimated that it takes four to ten disintegrations to produce a visible chromosome aberration. The finding that chromosome damage is localized at the site of the 125 I decay is most readily explained by the high flux of low energy Auger electrons occurring at the site of the decay of the incorporated 125 I atom. (Auth.)

  13. Phosphorus-Based Dendrimer ABP Treats Neuroinflammation by Promoting IL-10-Producing CD4(+) T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayder, Myriam; Varilh, Marjorie; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Poupot, Rémy; Liblau, Roland S

    2015-11-09

    Dendrimers are polyfunctional nano-objects of perfectly defined structure that can provide innovative alternatives for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the efficiency of a recently described amino-bis(methylene phosphonate)-capped ABP dendrimer as a potential drug candidate for MS, we used the classical mouse model of MOG35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our study provides evidence that the ABP dendrimer prevents the development of EAE and inhibits the progression of established disease with a comparable therapeutic benefit as the approved treatment Fingolimod. We also show that the ABP dendrimer redirects the pathogenic myelin-specific CD4(+) T cell response toward IL-10 production.

  14. A method for producing transgenic cells using a multi-integrase system on a human artificial chromosome vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyuki Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available The production of cells capable of expressing gene(s of interest is important for a variety of applications in biomedicine and biotechnology, including gene therapy and animal transgenesis. The ability to insert transgenes at a precise location in the genome, using site-specific recombinases such as Cre, FLP, and ΦC31, has major benefits for the efficiency of transgenesis. Recent work on integrases from ΦC31, R4, TP901-1 and Bxb1 phages demonstrated that these recombinases catalyze site-specific recombination in mammalian cells. In the present study, we examined the activities of integrases on site-specific recombination and gene expression in mammalian cells. We designed a human artificial chromosome (HAC vector containing five recombination sites (ΦC31 attP, R4 attP, TP901-1 attP, Bxb1 attP and FRT; multi-integrase HAC vector and de novo mammalian codon-optimized integrases. The multi-integrase HAC vector has several functions, including gene integration in a precise locus and avoiding genomic position effects; therefore, it was used as a platform to investigate integrase activities. Integrases carried out site-specific recombination at frequencies ranging from 39.3-96.8%. Additionally, we observed homogenous gene expression in 77.3-87.5% of colonies obtained using the multi-integrase HAC vector. This vector is also transferable to another cell line, and is capable of accepting genes of interest in this environment. These data suggest that integrases have high DNA recombination efficiencies in mammalian cells. The multi-integrase HAC vector enables us to produce transgene-expressing cells efficiently and create platform cell lines for gene expression.

  15. Detection of transketolase in bone marrow-derived insulin-producing cells: benfotiamine enhances insulin synthesis and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seh-Hoon; Witek, Rafal P; Bae, Si-Hyun; Darwiche, Houda; Jung, Youngmi; Pi, Liya; Brown, Alicia; Petersen, Bryon E

    2009-01-01

    Adult bone marrow (BM)-derived insulin-producing cells (IPCs) are capable of regulating blood glucose levels in chemically induced hyperglycemic mice. Using cell transplantation therapy, fully functional BM-derived IPCs help to mediate treatment of diabetes mellitus. Here, we demonstrate the detection of the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme, transketolase (TK), in BM-derived IPCs cultured under high-glucose conditions. Benfotiamine, a known activator of TK, was not shown to affect the proliferation of insulinoma cell line, INS-1; however, when INS-1 cells were cultured with oxythiamine, an inhibitor of TK, cell proliferation was suppressed. Treatment with benfotiamine activated glucose metabolism in INS-1 cells in high-glucose culture conditions, and appeared to maximize the BM-derived IPCs ability to synthesize insulin. Benfotiamine was not shown to induce the glucose receptor Glut-2, however it was shown to activate glucokinase, the enzyme responsible for conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. Furthermore, benfotiamine-treated groups showed upregulation of the downstream glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). However, in cells where the pentose phosphate pathway was blocked by oxythiamine treatment, there was a clear downregulation of Glut-2, glucokinase, insulin, and GAPDH. When benfotiamine was used to treat mice transplanted with BM-derived IPCs transplanted, their glucose level was brought to a normal range. The glucose challenge of normal mice treated with benfotiamine lead to rapidly normalized blood glucose levels. These results indicate that benfotiamine activates glucose metabolism and insulin synthesis to prevent glucose toxicity caused by high concentrations of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus.

  16. Detection of Transketolase in Bone Marrow—Derived Insulin-Producing Cells: Benfotiamine Enhances Insulin Synthesis and Glucose Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Rafal P.; Bae, Si-Hyun; Darwiche, Houda; Jung, Youngmi; Pi, Liya; Brown, Alicia; Petersen, Bryon E.

    2009-01-01

    Adult bone marrow (BM)-derived insulin-producing cells (IPCs) are capable of regulating blood glucose levels in chemically induced hyperglycemic mice. Using cell transplantation therapy, fully functional BM-derived IPCs help to mediate treatment of diabetes mellitus. Here, we demonstrate the detection of the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme, transketolase (TK), in BM-derived IPCs cultured under high-glucose conditions. Benfotiamine, a known activator of TK, was not shown to affect the proliferation of insulinoma cell line, INS-1; however, when INS-1 cells were cultured with oxythiamine, an inhibitor of TK, cell proliferation was suppressed. Treatment with benfotiamine activated glucose metabolism in INS-1 cells in high-glucose culture conditions, and appeared to maximize the BM-derived IPCs ability to synthesize insulin. Benfotiamine was not shown to induce the glucose receptor Glut-2, however it was shown to activate glucokinase, the enzyme responsible for conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. Furthermore, benfotiamine-treated groups showed upregulation of the downstream glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). However, in cells where the pentose phosphate pathway was blocked by oxythiamine treatment, there was a clear downregulation of Glut-2, glucokinase, insulin, and GAPDH. When benfotiamine was used to treat mice transplanted with BM-derived IPCs transplanted, their glucose level was brought to a normal range. The glucose challenge of normal mice treated with benfotiamine lead to rapidly normalized blood glucose levels. These results indicate that benfotiamine activates glucose metabolism and insulin synthesis to prevent glucose toxicity caused by high concentrations of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus. PMID:18393672

  17. Deficient regulatory T cell activity and low frequency of IL-17-producing T cells correlate with the extent of cardiomyopathy in human Chagas' disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Matta Guedes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myocardium damage during Chagas' disease results from the immunological imbalance between pro- and production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and has been explained based on the Th1-Th2 dichotomy and regulatory T cell activity. Recently, we demonstrated that IL-17 produced during experimental T. cruzi infection regulates Th1 cells differentiation and parasite induced myocarditis. Here, we investigated the role of IL-17 and regulatory T cell during human Chagas' disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, we observed CD4(+IL-17(+ T cells in culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from Chagas' disease patients and we evaluated Th1, Th2, Th17 cytokine profile production in the PBMC cells from Chagas' disease patients (cardiomyopathy-free, and with mild, moderate or severe cardiomyopathy cultured with T. cruzi antigen. Cultures of PBMC from patients with moderate and severe cardiomyopathy produced high levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ and low levels of IL-10, when compared to mild cardiomyopathy or cardiomyopathy-free patients. Flow cytometry analysis showed higher CD4(+IL-17(+ cells in PBMC cultured from patients without or with mild cardiomyopathy, in comparison to patients with moderate or severe cardiomyopathy. We then analyzed the presence and function of regulatory T cells in all patients. All groups of Chagas' disease patients presented the same frequency of CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory T cells. However, CD4(+CD25(+ T cells from patients with mild cardiomyopathy or cardiomyopathy-free showed higher suppressive activity than those with moderate and severe cardiomyopathy. IFN-γ levels during chronic Chagas' disease are inversely correlated to the LVEF (P = 0.007, r = -0.614, while regulatory T cell activity is directly correlated with LVEF (P = 0.022, r = 0.500. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that reduced production of the cytokines IL-10 and IL-17 in association with high levels of IFN-γ and TNF

  18. Cephem Potentiation by Inactivation of Nonessential Genes Involved in Cell Wall Biogenesis of beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Kristin R.; Sigurdardottir, Helga Høeg; Jana, Bimal

    2017-01-01

    Reversal of antimicrobial resistance is an appealing and largely unexplored strategy in drug discovery. The objective of this study was to identify potential targets for “helper” drugs reversing cephem resistance in Escherichia coli strains producing β-lactamases. A CMY-2-encoding plasmid...... was transferred by conjugation to seven isogenic deletion mutants exhibiting cephem hypersusceptibility. The effect of each mutation was evaluated by comparing the MICs in the wild type and the mutant harboring the same plasmid. Mutation of two genes encoding proteins involved in cell wall biosynthesis, dap...... for all three drugs. Individual deletion of dapF and mrcB in a clinical isolate of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) resulted in partial reversal of ceftazidime and cefepime resistance but did not reduce MICs below susceptibility breakpoints. Growth curve analysis indicated no fitness...

  19. Price estimation and economic evaluation of the production cost of red wines produced by immobilized cells on dried raisin berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argiris Tsakiris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Argiris Tsakiris1, Kiriaki Sotirakoglou2, Panagiotis Kandylis3, Panagiotis Kaldis1, Constantina Tzia4, Yiannis Kourkoutas31Department of Oenology and Beverage Technology, Faculty of Food Technology and Nutrition, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 3Applied Microbiology and Molecular Biotechnology Research Group, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 4Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, GreeceAbstract: The aim of the study was initially to estimate the price of red wines produced by immobilized cells on dried raisin berries and subsequently to investigate whether the estimated price was sufficient to counterbalance the increased investment and operational costs required for industrial application of the novel biotechnological process. Price estimation of the experimental wines was based on the correlation of sensory quality, determined by a group of trained tasters, and the price of commercial wines available in a certain market. Application of principal component analysis (PCA provided improved results over simple and exponential regression analysis, as only a part of the relationship between the two variables was represented (68.4% and 75.3%, respectively. However, with PCA the total variance explained by the two components was 100%. Taste was more important than aroma in determining sensory quality, and wine price was mainly affected by sensory quality rather than wine age in the Greek market. The total increase of production cost was estimated to be €0.032/bottle, which is significantly lower than the increase of €2.08/bottle price estimated by PCA for the red wines produced by immobilized cells, due to the improved aromatic potential compared with wines produced by

  20. Rod and cone photoreceptor cells produce ROS in response to stress in a live retinal explant system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhatt, Lavinia

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to oxidative stress, which is a strong contributory factor to many ocular diseases. In this study, the removal of trophic factors is used as a model system to investigate the effects of stress in the retina. The aims were to determine if both rod and cone photoreceptor cells produce ROS when they are deprived of trophic factor support and to demonstrate if the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) enzymes are responsible for this ROS production. METHODS: Retinas were explanted from mice aged between postnatal days 8-10 and cultured overnight. The following morning, confocal microscopy combined with various fluorescent probes was used to detect the production of ROS. Each time peanut agglutinin (PNA), a cone photoreceptor marker, was used to facilitate orientation of the retina. Dihydroethidium and dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR123) were used to determine which cells produce ROS. Subsequently, western blots of retinal serial sections were used to detect the presence of Noxs in the different retinal layers. The Nox inhibitor apocynin was then tested to determine if it altered the production of ROS within these cells. RESULTS: Live retinal explants, viewed at high magnifications using confocal microscopy, displayed an increase in the fluorescent products of dihydroethidium and DHR123 upon serum removal when compared to controls. DHR123 fluorescence, once oxidized, localized to mitochondria and was found in the same focal plane as the PNA staining. This showed that cones and rods produced ROS when stressed. Retinal serial sectioning established that the photoreceptor layer expressed Nox4, dual oxidase (Duox) 1, and Duox2 at varying levels. Finally, the Nox inhibitor apocynin decreased the burst stimulated by the stress of serum removal. CONCLUSIONS: Confocal microscopy and PNA staining allowed differentiation of cell types within the outermost layers of the retina, demonstrating

  1. A Systematic Comparison of Purification and Normalization Protocols for Quantitative MicroRNA Expressional Profiling in Insulin-Producing Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anna Lindeløv; Blankestijn, Maaike; Stahl, Jonathan Lucien

    2016-01-01

    As microRNAs (miRs) are gaining increasing attention as key regulators of cellular processes, expressional quantification is widely applied. However, in the processing of relatively quantified data, the importance of testing the stability of several reference mRNAs and/or miRs and choosing among...... these for normalization is often overlooked, potentially leading to biased results. Here, we have optimized the purification of miR-enriched total RNA from pancreatic insulin-producing INS-1 cells. Additionally, we optimized and analyzed miR expression by a qPCR-based microarray and by specific qPCR and tested...

  2. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-01-01

    . 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different......A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed...

  3. Engineered BDNF producing cells as a potential treatment for neurologic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peter; Anderson, Johnathon D.; Yu, Abigail S.; Annett, Geralyn; Fink, Kyle D.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in wide range of neurological diseases and injury. This neurotrophic factor is vital for neuronal health, survival, and synaptic connectivity. Many therapies focus on the restoration or enhancement of BDNF following injury or disease progression. Areas covered The present review will focus on the mechanisms in which BDNF exerts its beneficial functioning, current BDNF therapies, issues and potential solutions for delivery of neurotrophic factors to the central nervous system, and other disease indications that may benefit from overexpression or restoration of BDNF. Expert opinion Due to the role of BDNF in neuronal development, maturation, and health, BDNF is implicated in numerous neurological diseases making it a prime therapeutic agent. Numerous studies have shown the therapeutic potential of BDNF in a number of neurodegenerative disease models and in acute CNS injury, however clinical translation has fallen short due to issues in delivering this molecule. The use of MSC as a delivery platform for BDNF holds great promise for clinical advancement of neurotrophic factor restoration. The ease with which MSC can be engineered opens the door to the possibility of using this cell-based delivery system to advance a BDNF therapy to the clinic. PMID:27159050

  4. Scaled-up manufacturing of recombinant antibodies produced by plant cells in a 200-L orbitally-shaken disposable bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Nicole; Rasche, Stefan; Kuehn, Christoph; Anderlei, Tibor; Klöckner, Wolf; Schuster, Flora; Henquet, Maurice; Bosch, Dirk; Büchs, Jochen; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco BY-2 cells have emerged as a promising platform for the manufacture of biopharmaceutical proteins, offering efficient protein secretion, favourable growth characteristics and cultivation in containment under a controlled environment. The cultivation of BY-2 cells in disposable bioreactors is a useful alternative to conventional stainless steel stirred-tank reactors, and orbitally-shaken bioreactors could provide further advantages such as simple bag geometry, scalability and predictable process settings. We carried out a scale-up study, using a 200-L orbitally-shaken bioreactor holding disposable bags, and BY-2 cells producing the human monoclonal antibody M12. We found that cell growth and recombinant protein accumulation were comparable to standard shake flask cultivation, despite a 200-fold difference in cultivation volume. Final cell fresh weights of 300-387 g/L and M12 yields of ∼20 mg/L were achieved with both cultivation methods. Furthermore, we established an efficient downstream process for the recovery of M12 from the culture broth. The viscous spent medium prevented clarification using filtration devices, but we used expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography with SP Sepharose as an alternative for the efficient capture of the M12 antibody. EBA was introduced as an initial purification step prior to protein A affinity chromatography, resulting in an overall M12 recovery of 75-85% and a purity of >95%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of orbitally-shaken bioreactors for the scaled-up cultivation of plant cell suspension cultures and provide a strategy for the efficient purification of antibodies from the BY-2 culture medium. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. IL-23 (Interleukin-23)-Producing Conventional Dendritic Cells Control the Detrimental IL-17 (Interleukin-17) Response in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Gallizioli, Mattia; Ludewig, Peter; Thom, Vivien; Arunachalam, Priyadharshini; Rissiek, Björn; Bernreuther, Christian; Glatzel, Markus; Korn, Thomas; Arumugam, Thiruma Valavan; Sedlacik, Jan; Gerloff, Christian; Tolosa, Eva; Planas, Anna M; Magnus, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory mechanisms can exacerbate ischemic tissue damage and worsen clinical outcome in patients with stroke. Both αβ and γδ T cells are established mediators of tissue damage in stroke, and the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in inducing the early events of T cell activation and differentiation in stroke is not well understood. In a murine model of experimental stroke, we defined the immune phenotype of infiltrating DC subsets based on flow cytometry of surface markers, the expression of ontogenetic markers, and cytokine levels. We used conditional DC depletion, bone marrow chimeric mice, and IL-23 (interleukin-23) receptor-deficient mice to further explore the functional role of DCs. We show that the ischemic brain was rapidly infiltrated by IRF4 + /CD172a + conventional type 2 DCs and that conventional type 2 DCs were the most abundant subset in comparison with all other DC subsets. Twenty-four hours after ischemia onset, conventional type 2 DCs became the major source of IL-23, promoting neutrophil infiltration by induction of IL-17 (interleukin-17) in γδ T cells. Functionally, the depletion of CD11c + cells or the genetic disruption of the IL-23 signaling abrogated both IL-17 production in γδ T cells and neutrophil infiltration. Interruption of the IL-23/IL-17 cascade decreased infarct size and improved neurological outcome after stroke. Our results suggest a central role for interferon regulatory factor 4-positive IL-23-producing conventional DCs in the IL-17-dependent secondary tissue damage in stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. All Hormone-Producing Cell Types of the Pituitary Intermediate and Anterior Lobes Derive From Prop1-Expressing Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shannon W; Keisler, Jessica L; Pérez-Millán, María I; Schade, Vanessa; Camper, Sally A

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in PROP1, the most common known cause of combined pituitary hormone deficiency in humans, can result in the progressive loss of all hormones of the pituitary anterior lobe. In mice, Prop1 mutations result in the failure to initiate transcription of Pou1f1 (also known as Pit1) and lack somatotropins, lactotropins, and thyrotropins. The basis for this species difference is unknown. We hypothesized that Prop1 is expressed in a progenitor cell that can develop into all anterior lobe cell types, and not just the somatotropes, thyrotropes, and lactotropes, which are collectively known as the PIT1 lineage. To test this idea, we produced a transgenic Prop1-cre mouse line and conducted lineage-tracing experiments of Prop1-expressing cells. The results reveal that all hormone-secreting cell types of both the anterior and intermediate lobes are descended from Prop1-expressing progenitors. The Prop1-cre mice also provide a valuable genetic reagent with a unique spatial and temporal expression for generating tissue-specific gene rearrangements early in pituitary gland development. We also determined that the minimal essential sequences for reliable Prop1 expression lie within 10 kilobases of the mouse gene and demonstrated that human PROP1 can substitute functionally for mouse Prop1. These studies enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of disease in patients with PROP1 mutations.

  7. Combinatorial effects of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata Smith with anticancer drugs against human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Frión-Herrera, Yahima; da Silva, Livia Matsumoto; Romagnoli, Graziela Gorete; de Oliveira, Deilson Elgui; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2016-07-01

    The identification of natural products exerting a combined effect with therapeutic agents could be an alternative for cancer treatment, reducing the concentration of the drugs and side effects. Geopropolis (Geo) is produced by some stingless bees from a mixture of vegetable resins, gland secretions of the bees and soil. It has been used popularly as an antiseptic agent and to treat respiratory diseases and dermatosis. To determine whether Geo enhances the anticancer effect of carboplatin, methotrexate and doxorubicin (DOX), human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells were treated with Geo alone or in combination with each drug. Cell growth, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and flow cytometry. Scratch assay was used to analyze cell migration and transmission electron microscopy to observe morphologic alterations. The influence of Geo on drug resistance was also investigated assessing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) action. Geo inhibited cell proliferation and migration. The combination Geo+DOX led to the highest cytotoxic activity and induced apoptosis, leading to loss of membrane integrity. Geo had no effect on P-gp-mediated efflux of DOX. Data indicate that Geo combined with DOX could be a potential clinical chemotherapeutic approach for laryngeal cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Specific inhibition of cytotoxic memory cells produced against uv-induced tumors in uv-irradiation mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Cytotoxic responses of uv-irradiated mice against syngeneic uv-induced tumors were measured by using a 51 Cr-release assay to determine if uv treatment induced a specific reduction of cytotoxic activity. The in vivo and in vitro primary responses against syngeneic tumors and allogeneic cells were unaffected, as was the ''memory'' response (in vivo stimulation, in vitro restimulation) against alloantigens. In contrast, the memory response of uv-treated mice against syngeneic, uv-induced tumors was consistently and significantly depressed. The cytotoxicity generated by tumor cell stimulation in vivo or in vitro was tumor-specific and T cell-dependent. Since the primary response against syngeneic uv-induced tumors produces apparently normal amounts of tumor-specific cytotoxic activity, uv-treated mice may not reject transplanted syngeneic tumors because of too few T effector memory cells. These results imply that, at least in this system, tumor rejection depends mostly on the secondary responses against tumor antigens and that at least one carcinogen can, indirectly, specifically regulate immune responses

  9. TRANSGENIC GDNF POSITIVELY INFLUENCES PROLIFERATION, DIFFERENTIATION, MATURATION AND SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURONS PRODUCED FROM MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Édgar Cortés

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESC are pluripotent and thus can differentiate into every cell type present in the body. Directed differentiation into motor neurons has been described for pluripotent cells. Although neurotrophic factors promote neuronal survival, their role in neuronal commitment is elusive. Here, we developed double-transgenic lines of mouse ESC that constitutively produce Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and also contain a GFP reporter, driven by HB9, which is expressed only by postmitotic motor neurons. After lentiviral transduction, ESC lines integrated and expressed the human GDNF gene without altering pluripotency markers before differentiation. Further, GDNF-ESC showed significantly higher spontaneous release of this neurotrophin to the medium, when compared to controls. To study motor neuron induction, control and GDNF cell lines were grown as embryoid bodies and stimulated with retinoic acid and Sonic Hedgehog. In GDNF-overexpressing cells, a significant increase of proliferative Olig2+ precursors, which are specified as spinal motor neurons, was found. Accordingly, GDNF increases the yield of cells with the pan motor neuronal markers HB9, monitored by GFP expression, and Isl1. At terminal differentiation, almost all differentiated neurons express phenotypic markers of motor neurons in GDNF cultures, with lower proportions in control cells. To test if the effects of GDNF were present at early differentiation stages, exogenous recombinant human GDNF was added to control ESC, also resulting in enhanced motor neuron differentiation. This effect was abolished by the co-addition of neutralizing anti-GDNF antibodies, strongly suggesting that differentiating ESC are responsive to GDNF. Using the HB9::GFP reporter, motor neurons were selected for electrophysiological recordings. Motor neurons differentiated from GDNF-ESC, compared to control motor neurons, showed greater electrophysiological maturation, characterized by

  10. Endogenously produced Indian Hedgehog regulates TGFβ-driven chondrogenesis of human bone marrow stromal/stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handorf, Andrew M; Chamberlain, Connie S; Li, Wan-Ju

    2015-04-15

    Human bone marrow stromal/stem cells (hBMSCs) have an inherent tendency to undergo hypertrophy when induced into the chondrogenic lineage using transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ) in vitro, reminiscent of what occurs during endochondral ossification. Surprisingly, Indian Hedgehog (IHH) has received little attention for its role during hBMSC chondrogenesis despite being considered a master regulator of endochondral ossification. In this study, we investigated the role that endogenously produced IHH plays during hBMSC chondrogenesis. We began by analyzing the expression of IHH throughout differentiation using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and found that IHH expression was upregulated dramatically upon chondrogenic induction and peaked from days 9 to 12 of differentiation, which coincided with a concomitant increase in the expression of chondrogenesis- and hypertrophy-related markers, suggesting a potential role for endogenously produced IHH in driving hBMSC chondrogenesis. More importantly, pharmacological inhibition of Hedgehog signaling with cyclopamine or knockdown of IHH almost completely blocked TGFβ1-induced chondrogenesis in hBMSCs, demonstrating that endogenously produced IHH is necessary for hBMSC chondrogenesis. Furthermore, overexpression of IHH was sufficient to drive chondrogenic differentiation, even when TGFβ signaling was inhibited. Finally, stimulation with TGFβ1 induced a significant and sustained upregulation of IHH expression within 3 h that preceded an upregulation in all cartilage-related genes analyzed, and knockdown of IHH blocked the effects of TGFβ1 entirely, suggesting that the effects of TGFβ1 are being mediated through endogenously produced IHH. Together, our findings demonstrate that endogenously produced IHH is playing a critical role in regulating hBMSC chondrogenesis.

  11. IL-10 and IL-27 producing dendritic cells capable of enhancing IL-10 production of T cells are induced in oral tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Aya; Tanabe, Kosuke; Tsuji, Noriko M; Sato, Ryuichiro; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2009-06-30

    Oral tolerance is a key feature of intestinal immunity, generating systemic tolerance to ingested antigens (Ag). Dendritic cells (DC) have been revealed as important immune regulators, however, the precise role of DC in oral tolerance induction remains unclear. We investigated the characteristics of DC in spleen, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), and Peyer's patch (PP) after oral Ag administration in a TCR-transgenic mouse model. DC from PP and MLN of tolerized mice induced IL-10 production but not Foxp3 expression in cocultured T cells. IL-10 production was markedly increased after 5-7-day Ag administration especially in PP DC. On the other hand, IL-27 production was increased after 2-5-day Ag administration. CD11b(+) DC, which increased after ingestion of Ag, prominently expressed IL-10 and IL-27 compared with CD11b(-) DC. These results suggest that IL-10 and IL-27 producing DC are increased by interaction with antigen specific T cells in PP, and these DC act as an inducer of IL-10 producing T cells in oral tolerance.

  12. Human Circulating Antibody-Producing B Cell as a Predictive Measure of Mucosal Immunity to Poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ayan; Molodecky, Natalie A; Verma, Harish; Sharma, Prashant; Yang, Jae Seung; Saletti, Giulietta; Ahmad, Mohammad; Bahl, Sunil K; Wierzba, Thomas F; Nandy, Ranjan K; Deshpande, Jagadish M; Sutter, Roland W; Czerkinsky, Cecil

    2016-01-01

    The "gold standard" for assessing mucosal immunity after vaccination with poliovirus vaccines consists in measuring virus excretion in stool after challenge with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). This testing is time and resource intensive, and development of alternative methods is a priority for accelerating polio eradication. We therefore evaluated circulating antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) as a potential means to evaluate mucosal immunity to poliovirus vaccine. 199 subjects, aged 10 years, and previously immunized repeatedly with OPV, were selected. Subjects were assigned to receive either a booster dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), bivalent OPV (bOPV), or no vaccine. Using a micro-modified whole blood-based ELISPOT assay designed for field setting, circulating poliovirus type-specific IgA- and IgG-ASCs, including gut homing α4β7+ ASCs, were enumerated on days 0 and 7 after booster immunization. In addition, serum samples collected on days 0, 28 and 56 were tested for neutralizing antibody titers against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3. Stool specimens were collected on day 28 (day of bOPV challenge), and on days 31, 35 and 42 and processed for poliovirus isolation. An IPV dose elicited blood IgA- and IgG-ASC responses in 84.8 to 94.9% of subjects, respectively. In comparison, a bOPV dose evoked corresponding blood ASC responses in 20.0 to 48.6% of subjects. A significant association was found between IgA- and IgG-ASC responses and serum neutralizing antibody titers for poliovirus type 1, 2, 3 (ppoliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 was 62.7%, 89.8% and 45.8%, respectively. A significant association was observed between virus excretion and α4β7+ IgA- and/or IgG-ASC responses to poliovirus type 3 among immunized children; however, only a weak association was found for type 1 poliovirus. Our results suggest that virus-specific blood ASCs, especially for type 3 poliovirus, can serve as surrogate of mucosal immunity after vaccination. Further studies are needed to

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced via very low pressure suspension plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, James D.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a promising element of comprehensive energy policies due to their direct mechanism for converting the oxidization of fuel, such as hydrogen, into electrical energy. Both very low pressure plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition allow working with high melting temperature SOFC suspension based feedstock on complex surfaces, such as in non-planar SOFC designs. Dense, thin electrolytes of ideal composition for SOFCs can be fabricated with each of these processes, while compositional control is achieved with dissolved dopant compounds that are incorporated into the coating during deposition. In the work reported, sub-micron 8 mole % Y2O3-ZrO2 (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC), powders, including those in suspension with scandium-nitrate dopants, were deposited on NiO-YSZ anodes, via very low pressure suspension plasma spray (VLPSPS) at Sandia National Laboratories' Thermal Spray Research Laboratory and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) at Purdue University. Plasma spray was carried out in a chamber held at 320 - 1300 Pa, with the plasma composed of argon, hydrogen, and helium. EPD was characterized utilizing constant current deposition at 10 mm electrode separation, with deposits sintered from 1300 -- 1500 °C for 2 hours. The role of suspension constituents in EPD was analyzed based on a parametric study of powder loading, powder specific surface area, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) content, polyethyleneimine (PEI) content, and acetic acid content. Increasing PVB content and reduction of particle specific surface area were found to eliminate the formation of cracks when drying. PEI and acetic acid content were used to control suspension stability and the adhesion of deposits. Additionally, EPD was used to fabricate YSZ/GDC bilayer electrolyte systems. The resultant YSZ electrolytes were 2-27 microns thick and up to 97% dense. Electrolyte performance as part of a SOFC system with screen printed LSCF cathodes was evaluated with peak

  14. A novel monoclonal anti-CD81 antibody produced by genetic immunization efficiently inhibits Hepatitis C virus cell-cell transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Fofana

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a challenge to prevent and treat because of the rapid development of drug resistance and escape. Viral entry is required for initiation, spread, and maintenance of infection, making it an attractive target for antiviral strategies.Using genetic immunization, we produced four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against the HCV host entry factor CD81. The effects of antibodies on inhibition of HCV infection and dissemination were analyzed in HCV permissive human liver cell lines.The anti-CD81 mAbs efficiently inhibited infection by HCV of different genotypes as well as a HCV escape variant selected during liver transplantation and re-infecting the liver graft. Kinetic studies indicated that anti-CD81 mAbs target a post-binding step during HCV entry. In addition to inhibiting cell-free HCV infection, one antibody was also able to block neutralizing antibody-resistant HCV cell-cell transmission and viral dissemination without displaying any detectable toxicity.A novel anti-CD81 mAb generated by genetic immunization efficiently blocks HCV spread and dissemination. This antibody will be useful to further unravel the role of virus-host interactions during HCV entry and cell-cell transmission. Furthermore, this antibody may be of interest for the development of antivirals for prevention and treatment of HCV infection.

  15. Insulin-producing Cells from Adult Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Could Control Chemically Induced Diabetes in Dogs: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Mahmoud M; Zakaria, Mahmoud M; Refaie, Ayman F; Ismail, Amani M; Khater, Sherry M; Ashamallah, Sylvia A; Azzam, Maha M; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2018-01-01

    Ten mongrel dogs were used in this study. Diabetes was chemically induced in 7 dogs, and 3 dogs served as normal controls. For each diabetic dog, 5 million human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells/kg were differentiated to form insulin-producing cells using a trichostatin-based protocol. Cells were then loaded in 2 TheraCyte capsules which were transplanted under the rectus sheath. One dog died 4 d postoperatively from pneumonia. Six dogs were followed up with for 6 to 18 mo. Euglycemia was achieved in 4 dogs. Their glucose tolerance curves exhibited a normal pattern demonstrating that the encapsulated cells were glucose sensitive and insulin responsive. In the remaining 2 dogs, the fasting blood sugar levels were reduced but did not reach normal values. The sera of all transplanted dogs contained human insulin and C-peptide with a negligible amount of canine insulin. Removal of the transplanted capsules was followed by prompt return of diabetes. Intracytoplasmic insulin granules were seen by immunofluorescence in cells from the harvested capsules. Furthermore, all pancreatic endocrine genes were expressed. This study demonstrated that the TheraCyte capsule or a similar device can provide adequate immunoisolation, an important issue when stem cells are considered for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Hepatocyte growth factor is constitutively produced by donor-derived bone marrow cells and promotes regeneration of pancreatic β-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumida, Yoshihiko; Aoki, Takeshi; Yasuda, Daisuke; Koizumi, Tomotake; Suganuma, Chisaki; Saito, Koji; Murai, Noriyuki; Shimizu, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Ken; Odaira, Masanori; Kusano, Tomokazu; Kushima, Miki; Kusano, Mitsuo

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the transplantation of bone marrow cells following diabetes induced by streptozotocin can support the recovery of pancreatic β-cell mass and a partial reversal of hyperglycemia. To address this issue, we examined whether the c-Met/hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signaling pathway was involved in the recovery of β-cell injury after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In this model, donor-derived bone marrow cells were positive for HGF immunoreactivity in the recipient spleen, liver, lung, and pancreas as well as in the host hepatocytes. Indeed, plasma HGF levels were maintained at a high value. The frequency of c-Met expression and its proliferative activity and differentiative response in the pancreatic ductal cells in the BMT group were greater than those in the PBS-treated group, resulting in an elevated number of endogenous insulin-producing cells. The induction of the c-Met/HGF signaling pathway following BMT promotes pancreatic regeneration in diabetic rats

  17. Hybrid TiO2 Solar Cells Produced from Aerosolized Nanoparticles of Water-Soluble Polythiophene Electron Donor Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall L. Sweet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid solar cells (HSCs with water soluble polythiophene sodium poly[2-(3-thienyl-ethyloxy-4-butylsulfonate] (PTEBS thin films produced using electrospray deposition (ESD were fabricated, tested, and modeled and compared to devices produced using conventional spin coating. A single device structure of FTO/TiO2/PTEBS/Au was used to study the effects of ESD of the PTEBS layer on device performance. ESD was found to increase the short circuit current density (Jsc by a factor of 2 while decreasing the open circuit voltage (Voc by half compared to spin coated PTEBS films. Comparable efficiencies of 0.009% were achieved from both device construction types. Current-voltage curves were modeled using the characteristic solar cell equation and showed a similar increase in generated photocurrent with an increase by two orders of magnitude in the saturation current in devices from ESD films. Increases in Jsc are attributed to an increase in the interfacial contact area between the TiO2 and PTEBS layers, while decreases in Voc are attributed to incomplete film formation from ESD.

  18. Anodic biofilms in microbial fuel cells harbor low numbers of higher-power-producing bacteria than abundant genera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Patrick D.; Call, Douglas F.; Yates, Matthew D.; Regan, John M.; Logan, Bruce E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-09-15

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode communities often reveal just a few genera, but it is not known to what extent less abundant bacteria could be important for improving performance. We examined the microbial community in an MFC fed with formic acid for more than 1 year and determined using 16S rRNA gene cloning and fluorescent in situ hybridization that members of the Paracoccus genus comprised most ({proportional_to}30%) of the anode community. A Paracoccus isolate obtained from this biofilm (Paracoccus denitrificans strain PS-1) produced only 5.6 mW/m{sup 2}, whereas the original mixed culture produced up to 10 mW/m{sup 2}. Despite the absence of any Shewanella species in the clone library, we isolated a strain of Shewanella putrefaciens (strain PS-2) from the same biofilm capable of producing a higher-power density (17.4 mW/m{sup 2}) than the mixed culture, although voltage generation was variable. Our results suggest that the numerical abundance of microorganisms in biofilms cannot be assumed a priori to correlate to capacities of these predominant species for high-power production. Detailed screening of bacterial biofilms may therefore be needed to identify important strains capable of high-power generation for specific substrates. (orig.)

  19. Anodic biofilms in microbial fuel cells harbor low numbers of higher-power-producing bacteria than abundant genera

    KAUST Repository

    Kiely, Patrick D.; Call, Douglas F.; Yates, Matthew D.; Regan, John M.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode communities often reveal just a few genera, but it is not known to what extent less abundant bacteria could be important for improving performance. We examined the microbial community in an MFC fed with formic acid for more than 1 year and determined using 16S rRNA gene cloning and fluorescent in situ hybridization that members of the Paracoccus genus comprised most (~30%) of the anode community. A Paracoccus isolate obtained from this biofilm (Paracoccus denitrificans strain PS-1) produced only 5.6 mW/m 2, whereas the original mixed culture produced up to 10 mW/m 2. Despite the absence of any Shewanella species in the clone library, we isolated a strain of Shewanella putrefaciens (strain PS-2) from the same biofilm capable of producing a higher-power density (17.4 mW/m2) than the mixed culture, although voltage generation was variable. Our results suggest that the numerical abundance of microorganisms in biofilms cannot be assumed a priori to correlate to capacities of these predominant species for high-power production. Detailed screening of bacterial biofilms may therefore be needed to identify important strains capable of high-power generation for specific substrates. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Anodic biofilms in microbial fuel cells harbor low numbers of higher-power-producing bacteria than abundant genera

    KAUST Repository

    Kiely, Patrick D.

    2010-07-15

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode communities often reveal just a few genera, but it is not known to what extent less abundant bacteria could be important for improving performance. We examined the microbial community in an MFC fed with formic acid for more than 1 year and determined using 16S rRNA gene cloning and fluorescent in situ hybridization that members of the Paracoccus genus comprised most (~30%) of the anode community. A Paracoccus isolate obtained from this biofilm (Paracoccus denitrificans strain PS-1) produced only 5.6 mW/m 2, whereas the original mixed culture produced up to 10 mW/m 2. Despite the absence of any Shewanella species in the clone library, we isolated a strain of Shewanella putrefaciens (strain PS-2) from the same biofilm capable of producing a higher-power density (17.4 mW/m2) than the mixed culture, although voltage generation was variable. Our results suggest that the numerical abundance of microorganisms in biofilms cannot be assumed a priori to correlate to capacities of these predominant species for high-power production. Detailed screening of bacterial biofilms may therefore be needed to identify important strains capable of high-power generation for specific substrates. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Purification and characterization of two new cell-bound bioactive compounds produced by wild Lactococcus lactis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Margarete Alice Fontes; Brede, Dag Anders; Nes, Ingolf Figved; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; de Moraes, Célia Alencar

    2017-07-03

    Novel compounds and innovative methods are required considering that antibiotic resistance has reached a crisis point. In the study, two cell-bound antimicrobial compounds produced by Lactococcus lactis ID1.5 were isolated and partially characterized. Following purification by cationic exchange and a solid-phase C18 column, antimicrobial activity was recovered after three runs of RPC using 60% (v/v) and 100% (v/v) of 2-propanol for elution, suggesting that more than one antimicrobial compound were produced by L. lactis ID1.5, which were in this study called compounds AI and AII. The mass spectrum of AI and AII showed major intensity ions at m/z 1070.05 and 955.9 Da, respectively. The compound AI showed a spectrum of antimicrobial activity mainly against L. lactis species, while the organisms most sensitive to compound AII were Bacillus subtilis, Listeria innocua, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of both compounds was suppressed by treatment with Tween 80. Nevertheless, both compounds showed high stability to heat and proteases treatments. The isolated compounds, AI and AII, showed distinct properties from other antimicrobial substances already reported as produced by L. lactis, and have a significant inhibitory effect against two clinically important respiratory pathogens. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Native IgG2a(b) is barely antigenic to major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted T cells owing to inefficient internalization by professional antigen-presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnes, K; Hannestad, K

    2000-04-01

    Peptide epitopes derived from immunoglobulin variable regions represent tumour-specific antigens on B-cell neoplasms and can be recognized by syngeneic, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted T cells. Immunoglobulin peptide/MHC class II complexes may also be involved in autoimmunity and CD4+ T-cell-mediated B-cell regulation. Thus, the IgG2a(b) H-chain allopeptide gamma2a(b) 435-451 presented on I-Ad mimics the epitope implicated in herpes simplex virus-induced autoimmune stromal keratitis and is the target of T helper 1 (Th1) clones that suppress IgG2a(b) production in vivo. We here report that spleen and thymus cells constitutively present the autologous gamma2a(b) epitope to a gamma2a(b) 435-451/I-A(d) reactive T-cell hybridoma as a function of the animal housing conditions (specific pathogen-free or not) and the serum levels of IgG2a(b). Constitutive presentation in the spleen was predominantly performed by dendritic cells. Whereas spleen cells poorly presented native IgG2a(b) to a gamma2a(b) 435-451/I-A(d) reactive T-cell hybridoma, IgG2a(b) in the form of immune complexes were presented > 200-fold more efficiently owing to internalization via low-affinity FcgammaR on macrophages. The antigenicity could also be improved by homotypic aggregation and by targeting IgG2a(b) to complement receptors on the A20 B-cell lymphoma. Mice without detectable IgG2a(b)-containing immune complexes typically exhibited minimal constitutive presentation. Nevertheless, native IgG2a(b) can sensitize antigen-presenting cells in vivo, as mice that were devoid of immune complexes and carried an IgG2a(b)-producing tumour did present constitutively, even at physiological IgG2a(b) serum levels. Whereas the amounts of IgG released from most B-cell lymphomas may be too low to allow spontaneous priming of tumour-specific MHC class II-restricted T cells, administration of tumour immunoglobulin in aggregated form might improve the efficacy of idiotype vaccination.

  3. Recognition, signaling, and repair of DNA double-strand breaks produced by ionizing radiation in mammalian cells: the molecular choreography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Larry H

    2012-01-01

    The faithful maintenance of chromosome continuity in human cells during DNA replication and repair is critical for preventing the conversion of normal diploid cells to an oncogenic state. The evolution of higher eukaryotic cells endowed them with a large genetic investment in the molecular machinery that ensures chromosome stability. In mammalian and other vertebrate cells, the elimination of double-strand breaks with minimal nucleotide sequence change involves the spatiotemporal orchestration of a seemingly endless number of proteins ranging in their action from the nucleotide level to nucleosome organization and chromosome architecture. DNA DSBs trigger a myriad of post-translational modifications that alter catalytic activities and the specificity of protein interactions: phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, and SUMOylation, followed by the reversal of these changes as repair is completed. "Superfluous" protein recruitment to damage sites, functional redundancy, and alternative pathways ensure that DSB repair is extremely efficient, both quantitatively and qualitatively. This review strives to integrate the information about the molecular mechanisms of DSB repair that has emerged over the last two decades with a focus on DSBs produced by the prototype agent ionizing radiation (IR). The exponential growth of molecular studies, heavily driven by RNA knockdown technology, now reveals an outline of how many key protein players in genome stability and cancer biology perform their interwoven tasks, e.g. ATM, ATR, DNA-PK, Chk1, Chk2, PARP1/2/3, 53BP1, BRCA1, BRCA2, BLM, RAD51, and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex. Thus, the nature of the intricate coordination of repair processes with cell cycle progression is becoming apparent. This review also links molecular abnormalities to cellular pathology as much a possible and provides a framework of temporal relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hypoxia-response plasmid vector producing bcl-2 shRNA enhances the apoptotic cell death of mouse rectum carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takashi; Matsunaga, Naoya; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced gene expression frequently occurs in malignant solid tumors because they often have hypoxic areas in which circulation is compromised due to structurally disorganized blood vessels. Hypoxia-response elements (HREs) are responsible for activating gene transcription in response to hypoxia. In this study, we constructed a hypoxia-response plasmid vector producing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (bcl-2), an anti-apoptotic factor. The hypoxia-response promoter was made by inserting tandem repeats of HREs upstream of cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (HRE-CMV). HRE-CMV shbcl-2 vector consisted of bcl-2 shRNA under the control of HRE-CMV promoter. In hypoxic mouse rectum carcinoma cells (colon-26), the production of bcl-2 shRNA driven by HRE-CMV promoter was approximately 2-fold greater than that driven by CMV promoter. A single intratumoral (i.t.) injection of 40 microg HRE-CMV shbcl-2 to colon-26 tumor-bearing mice caused apoptotic cell death, and repetitive treatment with HRE-CMV shbcl-2 (40 microg/mouse, i.t.) also significantly suppressed the growth of colon-26 tumor cells implanted in mice. Apoptotic and anti-tumor effects were not observed in tumor-bearing mice treated with CMV shbcl-2. These results reveal the ability of HRE-CMV shbcl-2 vector to suppress the expression of bcl-2 in hypoxic tumor cells and suggest the usefulness of our constructed hypoxia-response plasmid vector to treat malignant tumors. [Supplementary Figures: available only at http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/jphs.10054FP].

  5. Live Staining and Isolation of Specific Hormone-Producing Cells from Rat Anterior Pituitary by Cytochemistry with Lectins and Cholera Toxin B Subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Motoshi; Kusumoto, Kenji; Fujiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Kozue; Tando, Yukiko; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Anterior pituitary glands contain five types of hormone-producing cells. Distinguishing and isolating specific types of living cells are essential for studying their function. Although many such attempts have been made, the results have been disappointing. In the present study, we labeled specific types of living hormone-producing cells by using potential differences in sugar chains on the cell surfaces. Cytochemical analysis with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit revealed that PNA, S-WGA, and cholera toxin B subunit recognized sugar chains specific to prolactin cells, ACTH cells, and GH cells, respectively, and that UEA-I recognized most of prolactin cells and GH cells. Next, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate GH cells labeled by fluoresceinated cholera toxin B. The purity of the GH cell fraction estimated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR for cell type-specific genes was more than 98%, which was higher than that reported in earlier studies, including those using transgenic animals. We conclude that cytochemistry with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit is a straightforward, acceptable method of isolating specific types of anterior pituitary cells and that the cells isolated by this method can serve as useful materials in the study of anterior pituitary cells

  6. Improving the performance of industrial ethanol-producing yeast by expressing the aspartyl protease on the cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhong-peng; Zhang, Liang; Ding, Zhong-yang; Wang, Zheng-Xiang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2010-12-01

    The yeasts used in fuel ethanol manufacture are unable to metabolize soluble proteins. The PEP4 gene, encoding a vacuolar aspartyl protease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was either secretively or cell-surface anchored expressed in industrial ethanol-producing S. cerevisiae. The obtained recombinant strains APA (expressing the protease secretively) and APB (expressing the protease on the cell wall) were studied under ethanol fermentation conditions in feed barley cultures. The effects of expression of the protease on product formation, growth and cell protein content were measured. The biomass yield of the wild-type was clearly lower than that of the recombinant strains (0.578 ± 0.12 g biomass/g glucose for APA and 0.582 ± 0.08 g biomass/g glucose for APB). In addition, nearly 98-99% of the theoretical maximum level of ethanol yield was achieved (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) for the recombinant strains, while limiting the nitrogen source resulted in dissatisfactory fermentation for the wild-type and more than 30 g/l residual sugar was detected at the end of fermentation. In addition, higher growth rate, viability and lower yields of byproducts such as glycerol and pyruvic acid for recombinant strains were observed. Expressing acid protease can be expected to lead to a significant increase in ethanol productivity. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Screening and selection of high carotenoid producing in vitro tomato cell culture lines for [13C]-carotenoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Nancy J; Campbell, Jessica K; Rogers, Randy B; Rupassara, S Indumathie; Garlick, Peter J; Lila, Mary Ann; Erdman, John W

    2010-09-22

    Isotopically labeled tomato carotenoids, phytoene, phytofluene, and lycopene, are needed for mammalian bioavailability and metabolism research but are currently commercially unavailable. The goals of this work were to establish and screen multiple in vitro tomato cell lines for carotenoid production, test the best producers with or without the bleaching herbicides, norflurazon and 2-(4-chlorophenyl-thio)triethylamine (CPTA), and to use the greatest carotenoid accumulator for in vitro 13C-labeling. Different Solanum lycopersicum allelic variants for high lycopene and varying herbicide treatments were compared for carotenoid accumulation in callus and suspension culture, and cell suspension cultures of the hp-1 line were chosen for isotopic labeling. When grown with [U]-13C-glucose and treated with CPTA, hp-1 suspensions yielded highly enriched 13C-lycopene with 45% of lycopene in the M+40 form and 88% in the M+35 to M+40 isotopomer range. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of highly enriched 13C-carotenoid production from in vitro plant cell culture.

  8. Naive helper T cells from BCG-vaccinated volunteers produce IFN-gamma and IL-5 to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoĂŤl Pestel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-GuĂŠrin (BCG is a live vaccine that has been used in routine vaccination against tuberculosis for nearly 80 years. However, its efficacy is controversial. The failure of BCG vaccination may be at least partially explained by the induction of poor or inappropriate host responses. Dendritic cells (DCs are likely to play a key role in the induction of immune response to mycobacteria by polarizing the reactivity of T lymphocytes toward a Th1 profile, contributing to the generation of protective cellular immunity against mycobacteria. In this study we aimed to investigate the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by naive CD4+ T cells to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed DCs in the group of young, healthy BCG vaccinated volunteers. The response of naive helper T cells was compared with the response of total blood lymphocytes. Our present results clearly showed that circulating naive CD45RA+CD4+ lymphocytes from BCG-vaccinated subjects can become effector helper cells producing IFN-gamma and IL-5 under the stimulation by autologous dendritic cells presenting mycobacterial protein antigen-PPD or infected with live M. bovis BCG bacilli.

  9. Naive helper T cells from BCG-vaccinated volunteers produce IFN-gamma and IL-5 to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Kaźmierczak, Dominik; Donevski, Stefan; Biet, Franck; Pestel, Joël; Rudnicka, Wiesława

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a live vaccine that has been used in routine vaccination against tuberculosis for nearly 80 years. However, its efficacy is controversial. The failure of BCG vaccination may be at least partially explained by the induction of poor or inappropriate host responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) are likely to play a key role in the induction of immune response to mycobacteria by polarizing the reactivity of T lymphocytes toward a Th1 profile, contributing to the generation of protective cellular immunity against mycobacteria. In this study we aimed to investigate the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by naive CD4+ T cells to mycobacterial antigen-pulsed DCs in the group of young, healthy BCG vaccinated volunteers. The response of naive helper T cells was compared with the response of total blood lymphocytes. Our present results clearly showed that circulating naive CD45RA+CD4+ lymphocytes from BCG-vaccinated subjects can become effector helper cells producing IFN-gamma and IL-5 under the stimulation by autologous dendritic cells presenting mycobacterial protein antigen-PPD or infected with live M. bovis BCG bacilli.

  10. FA