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Sample records for hybridization results showed

  1. Some results of applied interspecific hybridization in sunflower breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations on the interspecific hybridization in sunflower, aimed at developing a diversified initial selection material, were carried out Wild species of the diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid groups, varieties, hybrids, and selfed-lines of cultivated sunflower were used for crossings. To overcome incrossability between the species and sterility in the hybrids the method of f;cilitating of crossability by mutual gra'fting and gamma-rays treatment of seeds and pollen were applied. Results showed that: 1. By the method of interspecific hybridization forms might be produced resistant to more important diseases. 2. Interspecific hybridization in combination with other methods of selection might produce varieties and hybrids with a complex of valuable qualities. 3. Crossings between wild species and cultivated sunflower gave progenies with gene rale sterility. 4. The species H.tuberosus, H.scaberimus, H.arωphylus and H.lenticularis possess genes of full fertility restoration. (author)

  2. Intraspecific Arabidopsis hybrids show different patterns of heterosis despite the close relatedness of the parental genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszmann, Michael; Gonzalez-Bayon, Rebeca; Greaves, Ian K; Wang, Li; Huen, Amanda K; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2014-09-01

    Heterosis is important for agriculture; however, little is known about the mechanisms driving hybrid vigor. Ultimately, heterosis depends on the interactions of specific alleles and epialleles provided by the parents, which is why hybrids can exhibit different levels of heterosis, even within the same species. We characterize the development of several intraspecific Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) F1 hybrids that show different levels of heterosis at maturity. We identify several phases of heterosis beginning during embryogenesis and culminating in a final phase of vegetative maturity and seed production. During each phase, the hybrids show different levels and patterns of growth, despite the close relatedness of the parents. For instance, during the vegetative phases, the hybrids develop larger leaves than the parents to varied extents, and they do so by exploiting increases in cell size and cell numbers in different ratios. Consistent with this finding, we observed changes in the expression of genes known to regulate leaf size in developing rosettes of the hybrids, with the patterns of altered expression differing between combinations. The data show that heterosis is dependent on changes in development throughout the growth cycle of the hybrid, with the traits of mature vegetative biomass and reproductive yield as cumulative outcomes of heterosis at different levels, tissues, and times of development. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Yeast-2-Hybrid data file showing progranulin interactions in human fetal brain and bone marrow libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard Tegeder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Progranulin deficiency in humans is associated with neurodegeneration. Its mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We performed a Yeast-2-Hybrid screen using human full-length progranulin as bait to assess the interactions of progranulin. Progranulin was screened against human fetal brain and human bone marrow libraries using the standard Matchmaker technology (Clontech. This article contains the full Y2H data table, including blast results and sequences, a sorted table according to selection criteria for likely positive, putatively positive, likely false and false preys, and tables showing the gene ontology terms associated with the likely and putative preys of the brain and bone marrow libraries. The interactions with autophagy proteins were confirmed and functionally analyzed in "Progranulin overexpression in sensory neurons attenuates neuropathic pain in mice: Role of autophagy" (C. Altmann, S. Hardt, C. Fischer, J. Heidler, H.Y. Lim, A. Haussler, B. Albuquerque, B. Zimmer, C. Moser, C. Behrends, F. Koentgen, I. Wittig, M.H. Schmidt, A.M. Clement, T. Deller, I. Tegeder, 2016 [1].

  4. Yeast-2-Hybrid data file showing progranulin interactions in human fetal brain and bone marrow libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, Irmgard

    2016-12-01

    Progranulin deficiency in humans is associated with neurodegeneration. Its mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We performed a Yeast-2-Hybrid screen using human full-length progranulin as bait to assess the interactions of progranulin. Progranulin was screened against human fetal brain and human bone marrow libraries using the standard Matchmaker technology (Clontech). This article contains the full Y2H data table, including blast results and sequences, a sorted table according to selection criteria for likely positive, putatively positive, likely false and false preys, and tables showing the gene ontology terms associated with the likely and putative preys of the brain and bone marrow libraries. The interactions with autophagy proteins were confirmed and functionally analyzed in "Progranulin overexpression in sensory neurons attenuates neuropathic pain in mice: Role of autophagy" (C. Altmann, S. Hardt, C. Fischer, J. Heidler, H.Y. Lim, A. Haussler, B. Albuquerque, B. Zimmer, C. Moser, C. Behrends, F. Koentgen, I. Wittig, M.H. Schmidt, A.M. Clement, T. Deller, I. Tegeder, 2016) [1].

  5. Hybridization within Saccharomyces Genus Results in Homoeostasis and Phenotypic Novelty in Winemaking Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma da Silva

    Full Text Available Despite its biotechnological interest, hybridization, which can result in hybrid vigor, has not commonly been studied or exploited in the yeast genus. From a diallel design including 55 intra- and interspecific hybrids between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. uvarum grown at two temperatures in enological conditions, we analyzed as many as 35 fermentation traits with original statistical and modeling tools. We first showed that, depending on the types of trait--kinetics parameters, life-history traits, enological parameters and aromas -, the sources of variation (strain, temperature and strain * temperature effects differed in a large extent. Then we compared globally three groups of hybrids and their parents at two growth temperatures: intraspecific hybrids S. cerevisiae * S. cerevisiae, intraspecific hybrids S. uvarum * S. uvarum and interspecific hybrids S. cerevisiae * S. uvarum. We found that hybridization could generate multi-trait phenotypes with improved oenological performances and better homeostasis with respect to temperature. These results could explain why interspecific hybridization is so common in natural and domesticated yeast, and open the way to applications for wine-making.

  6. Test Beam Results of Geometry Optimized Hybrid Pixel Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Becks, K H; Grah, C; Mättig, P; Rohe, T

    2006-01-01

    The Multi-Chip-Module-Deposited (MCM-D) technique has been used to build hybrid pixel detector assemblies. This paper summarises the results of an analysis of data obtained in a test beam campaign at CERN. Here, single chip hybrids made of ATLAS pixel prototype read-out electronics and special sensor tiles were used. They were prepared by the Fraunhofer Institut fuer Zuverlaessigkeit und Mikrointegration, IZM, Berlin, Germany. The sensors feature an optimized sensor geometry called equal sized bricked. This design enhances the spatial resolution for double hits in the long direction of the sensor cells.

  7. Cryptic Plutella species show deep divergence despite the capacity to hybridize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kym D; Baker, Gregory J; Powis, Kevin J; Kent, Joanne K; Ward, Christopher M; Baxter, Simon W

    2018-05-29

    Understanding genomic and phenotypic diversity among cryptic pest taxa has important implications for the management of pests and diseases. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., has been intensively studied due to its ability to evolve insecticide resistance and status as the world's most destructive pest of brassicaceous crops. The surprise discovery of a cryptic species endemic to Australia, Plutella australiana Landry & Hebert, raised questions regarding the distribution, ecological traits and pest status of the two species, the capacity for gene flow and whether specific management was required. Here, we collected Plutella from wild and cultivated brassicaceous plants from 75 locations throughout Australia and screened 1447 individuals to identify mtDNA lineages and Wolbachia infections. We genotyped genome-wide SNP markers using RADseq in coexisting populations of each species. In addition, we assessed reproductive compatibility in crossing experiments and insecticide susceptibility phenotypes using bioassays. The two Plutella species coexisted on wild brassicas and canola crops, but only 10% of Plutella individuals were P. australiana. This species was not found on commercial Brassica vegetable crops, which are routinely sprayed with insecticides. Bioassays found that P. australiana was 19-306 fold more susceptible to four commonly-used insecticides than P. xylostella. Laboratory crosses revealed that reproductive isolation was incomplete but directionally asymmetric between the species. However, genome-wide nuclear SNPs revealed striking differences in genetic diversity and strong population structure between coexisting wild populations of each species. Nuclear diversity was 1.5-fold higher in P. australiana, yet both species showed limited variation in mtDNA. Infection with a single Wolbachia subgroup B strain was fixed in P. australiana, suggesting that a selective sweep contributed to low mtDNA diversity, while a subgroup A strain infected just 1

  8. Hybrid SN/Monte Carlo research and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    The neutral particle transport equation is solved by a hybrid method that iteratively couples regions where deterministic (S N ) and stochastic (Monte Carlo) methods are applied. The Monte Carlo and S N regions are fully coupled in the sense that no assumption is made about geometrical separation or decoupling. The hybrid Monte Carlo/S N method provides a new means of solving problems involving both optically thick and optically thin regions that neither Monte Carlo nor S N is well suited for by themselves. The hybrid method has been successfully applied to realistic shielding problems. The vectorized Monte Carlo algorithm in the hybrid method has been ported to the massively parallel architecture of the Connection Machine. Comparisons of performance on a vector machine (Cray Y-MP) and the Connection Machine (CM-2) show that significant speedups are obtainable for vectorized Monte Carlo algorithms on massively parallel machines, even when realistic problems requiring variance reduction are considered. However, the architecture of the Connection Machine does place some limitations on the regime in which the Monte Carlo algorithm may be expected to perform well

  9. Experimental and numerical results from hybrid retrofitted photovoltaic panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Cecilia; Tagliafico, Luca A.; Scarpa, Federico; Bianco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The experimental study focuses on the feasibility of hybrid PV/T panels retrofitting. • The critical role of a thin layer of air between PV panel and back plate is evidenced. • The benefit of the addition of a conductive paste layer is analyzed via FEM simulations. • The use of wood ribs to stick the back plate represents a cheap effective solution. - Abstract: The aim of present study is to investigate different methodologies to achieve a better contact between a photovoltaic panel and a thermal plate, in order to cool the PV panel by means of water in the perspective of coupling it with a heat pump. It is believed that this kind of system allows to obtain a higher energy efficiency. The analysis is developed both experimentally and numerically, testing different kinds of configurations in different operating conditions. Simulations are employed to analyze the effect of the variations of the contact resistance between the panel and the thermal plates, demonstrating that the use of a conductive paste increases the overall performance of the panel. Results show interesting possibilities in terms of retrofitting of existing photovoltaic panels by employing very simple solutions, such as to fix the thermal plate on the rear of the panel by means of wood ribs

  10. Single-Labeled Oligonucleotides Showing Fluorescence Changes upon Hybridization with Target Nucleic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Tae Hwang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequence-specific detection of nucleic acids has been intensively studied in the field of molecular diagnostics. In particular, the detection and analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is crucial for the identification of disease-causing genes and diagnosis of diseases. Sequence-specific hybridization probes, such as molecular beacons bearing the fluorophore and quencher at both ends of the stem, have been developed to enable DNA mutation detection. Interestingly, DNA mutations can be detected using fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes with only one fluorophore. This review summarizes recent research on single-labeled oligonucleotide probes that exhibit fluorescence changes after encountering target nucleic acids, such as guanine-quenching probes, cyanine-containing probes, probes containing a fluorophore-labeled base, and microenvironment-sensitive probes.

  11. In situ hybridization of nucleus basalis neurons shows increased β-amyloid mRNA in Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.L.; Golde, T.E.; Usiak, M.F.; Younkin, L.H.; Younkin, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    To determine which cells within the brain produce β-amyloid mRNA and to assess expression of the β-amyloid gene in Alzheimer disease, the authors analyzed brain tissue from Alzheimer and control patients by in situ hybridization. The results demonstrate that β-amyloid mRNA is produced by neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert and cerebral cortex and that nuclues basalis perikarya from Alzheimer patients consistently hybridize more β-amyloid probe than those from controls. These observations support the hypothesis that increased expression of the β-amyloid gene plays an important role in the deposition of amyloid in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease

  12. Wheat hybridization and polyploidization results in deregulation of small RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenan-Eichler, Michal; Leshkowitz, Dena; Tal, Lior; Noor, Elad; Melamed-Bessudo, Cathy; Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A

    2011-06-01

    Speciation via interspecific or intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization triggers genomic responses involving genetic and epigenetic alterations. Such modifications may be induced by small RNAs, which affect key cellular processes, including gene expression, chromatin structure, cytosine methylation and transposable element (TE) activity. To date, the role of small RNAs in the context of wide hybridization and polyploidization has received little attention. In this work, we performed high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs of parental, intergeneric hybrid, and allopolyploid plants that mimic the genomic changes occurring during bread wheat speciation. We found that the percentage of small RNAs corresponding to miRNAs increased with ploidy level, while the percentage of siRNAs corresponding to TEs decreased. The abundance of most miRNA species was similar to midparent values in the hybrid, with some deviations, as seen in overrepresentation of miR168, in the allopolyploid. In contrast, the number of siRNAs corresponding to TEs strongly decreased upon allopolyploidization, but not upon hybridization. The reduction in corresponding siRNAs, together with decreased CpG methylation, as shown here for the Veju element, represent hallmarks of TE activation. TE-siRNA downregulation in the allopolyploid may contribute to genome destabilization at the initial stages of speciation. This phenomenon is reminiscent of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila.

  13. Reducing dietary protein in pond production of hybrid striped bass - study shows a significant reduction is possible in digestible protein level in commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous work, we demonstrated that diets containing 40% digestible protein (DP) (45% crude protein) and 18 %lipid supplemented with Met and Lys resulted in superior performance and nutrient retentions in hybrid striped bass compared to less energy-dense diets when rearing hybrid striped bass at ...

  14. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  15. Resin infusion of layered metal/composite hybrid and resulting metal/composite hybrid laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of fabricating a metal/composite hybrid laminate is provided. One or more layered arrangements are stacked on a solid base to form a layered structure. Each layered arrangement is defined by a fibrous material and a perforated metal sheet. A resin in its liquid state is introduced along a portion of the layered structure while a differential pressure is applied across the laminate structure until the resin permeates the fibrous material of each layered arrangement and fills perforations in each perforated metal sheet. The resin is cured thereby yielding a metal/composite hybrid laminate.

  16. Testing Delays Resulting in Increased Identification Accuracy in Line-Ups and Show-Ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekle, Dawn J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated time delays (immediate, two-three days, one week) between viewing a staged theft and attempting an eyewitness identification. Compared lineups to one-person showups in a laboratory analogue involving 412 subjects. Results show that across all time delays, participants maintained a higher identification accuracy with the showup…

  17. Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

    2009-05-01

    Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

  18. Synaptonemal complex analysis of interracial hybrids between the Moscow and Neroosa chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus showing regular formation of a complex meiotic configuration (ring-of-four).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveevsky, Sergey N; Pavlova, Svetlana V; Maret M Acaeva; Oxana L Kolomiets

    2012-01-01

    Immunocytochemical and electron microscopic analysis of synaptonemal complexes (SCs) was carried out for the first time in homozygotes and complex Robertsonian heterozygotes (hybrids) of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from a newly discovered hybrid zone between the Moscow and the Neroosa chromosomal races. These races differ in four monobrachial homologous metacentrics, and closed SC tetravalent is expected to be formed in meiosis of a hybrid. Indeed, such a multivalent was found at meiotic prophase I in hybrids. Interactions between multivalent and both autosomes and/or the sex chromosomes were observed. For the first time we have used immunocytochemical techniques to analyse asynapsis in Sorex araneus and show that the multivalent pairs in an orderly fashion with complete synapsis. Despite some signs of spermatocytes arrested in the meiotic prophase I, hybrids had large number of active sperm. Thus, Moscow - Neroosa hybrid males that form a ring-of-four meiotic configuration are most likely not sterile. Our results support previous demonstrations that monobrachial homology of metacentrics of the common shrew does not lead to complete reproductive isolation between parapatric chromosomal races of the species.

  19. Synaptonemal complex analysis of interracial hybrids between the Moscow and Neroosa chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus showing regular formation of a complex meiotic configuration (ring-of-four

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Matveevsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunocytochemical and electron microscopic analysis of synaptonemal complexes (SCs was carried out for the first time in homozygotes and complex Robertsonian heterozygotes (hybrids of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from a newly discovered hybrid zone between the Moscow and the Neroosa chromosomal races. These races differ in four monobrachial homologous metacentrics, and closed SC tetravalent is expected to be formed in meiosis of a hybrid. Indeed, such a multivalent was found at meiotic prophase I in hybrids. Interactions between multivalent and both autosomes and/or the sex chromosomes were observed. For the first time we have used immunocytochemical techniques to analyse asynapsis in S. araneus and show that the multivalent pairs in an orderly fashion with complete synapsis. Despite some signs of spermatocytes arrested in the meiotic prophase I, hybrids had large number of active sperm. Thus, Moscow – Neroosa hybrid males that form a ring-of-four meiotic configuration are most likely not sterile. Our results support previous demonstrations that monobrachial homology of metacentrics of the common shrew does not lead to complete reproductive isolation between parapatric chromosomal races of the species.

  20. Trade-off results and preliminary designs of Near-Term Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program involved the development of preliminary designs of electric/heat engine hybrid passenger vehicles. The preliminary designs were developed on the basis of mission analysis, performance specification, and design trade-off studies conducted independently by four contractors. THe resulting designs involve parallel hybrid (heat engine/electric) propulsion systems with significant variation in component selection, power train layout, and control strategy. Each of the four designs is projected by its developer as having the potential to substitute electrical energy for 40% to 70% of the petroleum fuel consumed annually by its conventional counterpart.

  1. Hybrid Spectral Micro-CT: System Design, Implementation, and Preliminary Results

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, James R; Xu, Qiong; Yu, Hengyong; Walsh, Michael; Butler, Anthony; Butler, Phillip; Cao, Guohua; Mohs, Aaron; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Spectral CT has proven an important development in biomedical imaging, and there have been several publications in the past years demonstrating its merits in pre-clinical and clinical applications. In 2012, Xu et al. reported that near-term implementation of spectral micro-CT could be enhanced by a hybrid architecture: a narrow-beam spectral "interior" imaging chain integrated with a traditional wide-beam "global" imaging chain. This hybrid integration coupled with compressive sensing (CS)-based interior tomography demonstrated promising results for improved contrast resolution, and decreased system cost and radiation dose. The motivation for the current study is implementation and evaluation of the hybrid architecture with a first-of-its-kind hybrid spectral micro-CT system. Preliminary results confirm improvements in both contrast and spatial resolution. This technology is shown to merit further investigation and potential application in future spectral CT scanner design.

  2. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Max; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Song, Pengfei; Meixner, Duane D; Fazzio, Robert T; Pruthi, Sandhya; Whaley, Dana H; Chen, Shigao; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) for classification of breast masses. CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF) beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results. Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s) in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s). Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC). CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  3. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Denis

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE for classification of breast masses.CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results.Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s. Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC, the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC.CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  4. AREVA: Operating performance shows distinct improvement; Results heavily impacted by the cost of remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 results illustrate the progress AREVA made in 2015 and open up favorable prospects for 2016 and the following years in view of its fundamentals. The group's competitiveness plan had a very positive impact on its costs and cash, despite the heavy net loss situation which continues and in a market environment that remained difficult in 2015. Half of this loss of 2 billion Euro is due to additional provisions for OL3 and half to provisions for restructuring and impairment related to market conditions. Concerning the group's liquidity, 2016 is funded and the capital increase which will be launched in the coming months will enable AREVA to gradually regain the group's positive profile. A new phase awaits the Group in 2016 with clarity and confidence in the implementation of the restructuring announced in 2015 and in particular the autonomy of AREVA NP and the creation of New AREVA

  5. Hybrid liposomes showing enhanced accumulation in tumors as theranostic agents in the orthotopic graft model mouse of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Ichihara, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Yoko

    2018-11-01

    Hybrid liposomes (HLs) can be prepared by simply sonicating a mixture of vesicular and micellar molecules in a buffer solution. This study aimed to elucidate the therapeutic effects and ability of HLs to detect (diagnosis) cancer in an orthotopic graft mouse model of colorectal cancer with HCT116 cells for the use of HLs as theranostic agents. In the absence of a chemotherapeutic drug, HLs exhibited therapeutic effects by inhibiting the growth of HCT116 colorectal cancer cells in vitro, possibly through an increase in apoptosis. Intravenously administered HLs also caused a remarkable reduction in the relative cecum weight in an orthotopic graft mouse model of colorectal cancer. A decrease in tumor size in the cecal sections was confirmed by histological analysis using HE staining. TUNEL staining indicated an induction of apoptosis in HCT116 cells in the orthotopic graft mouse model of colorectal cancer. For the detection (diagnosis) of colorectal cancer by HLs, the accumulation of HLs encapsulating a fluorescent probe (ICG) was observed in HCT116 cells in the in vivo colorectal cancer model following intravenous administration. These data indicate that HLs can accumulate in tumor cells in the cecum of the orthotopic graft mouse model of colorectal cancer for a prolonged period of time, and inhibit the growth of HCT116 cells.

  6. Hybrid Gear Preliminary Results-Application of Composites to Dynamic Mechanical Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Roberts Gary D.; Sinnamon, R.; Stringer, David B.; Dykas, Brian D.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2012-01-01

    Composite spur gears were fabricated and then tested at NASA Glenn Research Center. The composite material served as the web of the gear between the gear teeth and a metallic hub for mounting to the torque-applying shaft. The composite web was bonded only to the inner and outer hexagonal features that were machined from an initially all-metallic aerospace quality spur gear. The Hybrid Gear was tested against an all-steel gear and against a mating Hybrid Gear. As a result of the composite to metal fabrication process used, the concentricity of the gears were reduced from their initial high-precision value. Regardless of the concentricity error, the hybrid gears operated successfully for over 300 million cycles at 10000 rpm and 490 in.*lbs torque. Although the design was not optimized for weight, the composite gears were found to be 20% lighter than the all-steel gears. Free vibration modes and vibration/noise tests were also conduct to compare the vibration and damping characteristic of the Hybrid Gear to all-steel gears. The initial results indicate that this type of hybrid design may have a dramatic effect on drive system weight without sacrificing strength.

  7. Hybridization among wild boars, local breeds and commercial breeds - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    . Hybridization with the domestic pig is known to occur in Europe, however the degree and extent of the phenomenon is not fully understood yet. Introgression is considered to be a treat to biodiversity and could lead to loss of local adaptation or introgression in the wild population of human selected genes....... A better understanding of the hybridization levels at European scale would provide an important tool for the development of management plans aimed at reducing human conflict but also at preserving biodiversity and genetic differentiation. Additionally, this information would provide new perspectives...... gradients in variability levels among the analysed wild and domestic populations. This preliminary results will be further investigated to address the possible presence of hybrid zone(s) in Europe and the possible implications for conservation and management of both wild populations and local pig breeds...

  8. Establishment of 60Co dose calibration curve using fluorescent in situ hybridization assay technique: Result of preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimah Abdul Rahim; Noriah Jamal; Noraisyah Mohd Yusof; Juliana Mahamad Napiah; Nelly Bo Nai Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at establishing an in-vitro 60 Co dose calibration curve using Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization assay technique for the Malaysian National Bio dosimetry Laboratory. Blood samples collected from a female healthy donor were irradiated with several doses of 60 Co radiation. Following culturing of lymphocytes, microscopic slides are prepared, denatured and hybridized. The frequencies of translocation are estimated in the metaphases. A calibration curve was then generated using a regression technique. It shows a good fit to a linear-quadratic model. The results of this study might be useful in estimating absorbed dose for the individual exposed to ionizing radiation retrospectively. This information may be useful as a guide for medical treatment for the assessment of possible health consequences. (author)

  9. Study on driver model for hybrid truck based on driving simulator experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dam Hoang Phuc

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a proposed car-following driver model taking into account some features of both the compensatory and anticipatory model representing the human pedal operation has been verified by driving simulator experiments with several real drivers. The comparison between computer simulations performed by determined model parameters with the experimental results confirm the correctness of this mathematical driver model and identified model parameters. Then the driver model is joined to a hybrid vehicle dynamics model and the moderate car following maneuver simulations with various driver parameters are conducted to investigate influences of driver parameters on vehicle dynamics response and fuel economy. Finally, major driver parameters involved in the longitudinal control of drivers are clarified. Keywords: Driver model, Driver-vehicle closed-loop system, Car Following, Driving simulator/hybrid electric vehicle (B1

  10. Nonlinear Analysis and Preliminary Testing Results of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2015-01-01

    A large test article was recently designed, analyzed, fabricated, and successfully tested up to the representative design ultimate loads to demonstrate that stiffened composite panels with through-the-thickness reinforcement are a viable option for the next generation large transport category aircraft, including non-conventional configurations such as the hybrid wing body. This paper focuses on finite element analysis and test data correlation of the hybrid wing body center section test article under mechanical, pressure and combined load conditions. Good agreement between predictive nonlinear finite element analysis and test data is found. Results indicate that a geometrically nonlinear analysis is needed to accurately capture the behavior of the non-circular pressurized and highly-stressed structure when the design approach permits local buckling.

  11. Recombinant hybrid infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) carrying viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) G or NV genes show different virulence properities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Biacchesi, S.; Stegmann, Anders

    . By a reverse genetics approach using the related novirrhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) as basis, four hybrid IHNV-VHSV variants were generated. These chimeric variants included substitution of the IHNV glyco(G) or nonstrutrual (Nv) protein with the corresponding G or Nv-protein from......Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is the economically most important viral disease in European rainbow trout farming. The virus was introduced to fresh water farms in the 1950ies from a reservoir of VHSV in the marine environment. Isolates from wild marine fish and fresh water farms...... are difficult to distinguish serologically but they show different virulence profiles: marine isolates typically cause little or no mortality in rainbow trout fry following experimental waterborne challenge, while freshwater isolates often kill the majority of the fish. Genetic analysis reveal that the change...

  12. Finite Element Analysis and Test Results Comparison for the Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the comparison of test measurements and predictive finite element analysis results for a hybrid wing body center section test article. The testing and analysis efforts were part of the Airframe Technology subproject within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. Test results include full field displacement measurements obtained from digital image correlation systems and discrete strain measurements obtained using both unidirectional and rosette resistive gauges. Most significant results are presented for the critical five load cases exercised during the test. Final test to failure after inflicting severe damage to the test article is also documented. Overall, good comparison between predicted and actual behavior of the test article is found.

  13. A Hybrid Model Ranking Search Result for Research Paper Searching on Social Bookmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pijitra jomsri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social bookmarking and publication sharing systems are essential tools for web resource discovery. The performance and capabilities of search results from research paper bookmarking system are vital. Many researchers use social bookmarking for searching papers related to their topics of interest. This paper proposes a combination of similarity based indexing “tag title and abstract” and static ranking to improve search results. In this particular study, the year of the published paper and type of research paper publication are combined with similarity ranking called (HybridRank. Different weighting scores are employed. The retrieval performance of these weighted combination rankings are evaluated using mean values of NDCG. The results suggest that HybridRank and similarity rank with weight 75:25 has the highest NDCG scores. From the preliminary result of experiment, the combination ranking technique provide more relevant research paper search results. Furthermore the chosen heuristic ranking can improve the efficiency of research paper searching on social bookmarking websites.

  14. Characterizations of Polystyrene-Based Hybrid Particles Containing Hydrophobic Mg(OH2 Powder and Composites Fabricated by Employing Resultant Hybrid Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Kimura

    2007-01-01

    unchanged, even when the ST-1 powder content increased from 10 to 50 phr. Furthermore, a composite fabricated by employing the hybrid particles achieved homogenous distribution of ST-1 powder and showed a higher oxygen index than that of a composite fabricated by directly mixing of PS pellets and ST-1 powder.

  15. Review of lower hybrid results in the Wega and Petula experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briffod, G.

    1980-04-01

    Along these lines, a large part of the experimental program of the Grenoble laboratory has been devoted for several years to the study of heating at the lower hybrid frequency, first on the WEGA experiment, (a cooperative experiment with IPP GARCHING) and, more recently, also on the PETULA device. In particular, at HF heating power of the order of the ohmic heating power, significant ion heating (increase of ion temperature by 100%) and electron heating (electron temperature increase by 60%) have been observed on the WEGA device and published in 1976 and 1978. Nevertheless, despite the increasing number of experimental results, detailed investigations of the power balance during the HF heating pulse have remained scarce. Consequently, several important questions such as the identification of the heating mechanism, the origin of the observed fast ion tail and the often observed density increase during the HF remain to be investigated. Based on the power balance carried out in WEGA, a first attempt at an explanation of these various effects was carried out. A summary of this work constitutes the first part of this paper. Another very important aspect of lower hybrid heating consists in the possibility of coupling the lower hybrid wave to the plasma by means of a phased waveguide array, the 'grill'. In order to confirm the advantages of the grill structure up to the power density levels necessary in the future, specific experiments have been carried out in the PETULA device. Several results obtained there are presented in the second part of this paper. In the final section the directions of present research necessary in order to ensure applicability to large machines are briefly discussed

  16. Experimental results showing the internal three-component velocity field and outlet temperature contours for a model gas turbine combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyers, BC

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. All rights reserved ISABE-2011-1129 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS SHOWING THE INTERNAL THREE-COMPONENT VELOCITY FIELD AND OUTLET TEMPERATURE CONTOURS FOR A MODEL GAS TURBINE COMBUSTOR BC Meyers*, GC... identifier c Position identifier F Fuel i Index L (Combustor) Liner OP Orifice plate Introduction There are often inconsistencies when comparing experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for gas turbine combustors [1...

  17. Results of KEPCO HTS cable system tests and design of hybrid cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.H.; Sohn, S.H.; Yang, H.S.; Hwang, S.D.; Kim, D.L.; Ryoo, H.S.; Choi, H.O.

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the compatibility as a power utility facility, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) had installed a 22.9 kV, 1250 A, 100 m long high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable system. Using the HTS cable, various tests have been performed to investigate electrical and thermo-mechanical properties. Since 2005, a series of thermal cycle tests between liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) and ambient temperatures have been conducted using a vacuum-pump driven open-loop cryogenic system with a capacity of 3 kW. In the tests, although the open-loop cryogenic system was reliable to operate the HTS cable system, it was not effective in economic view point because LN 2 consumption was larger than expected. In order to secure against unexpected emergencies and solve the problem of LN 2 consumption, a hybrid cryogenic system was designed and installed. A stirling cryocooler was employed and combined with the open-loop cryogenic system. Considering the average heat load at rated condition, the cooling capacity of the cryocooler was determined to 4 kW at 77 K. In this paper, results of performance tests and the design of the hybrid cooling system are presented.

  18. Manufacturing experience and test results of the PS prototype flexible hybrid circuit for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacs, Mark Istvan; Gadek, Tomasz; Honma, Alan; Vasey, Francois

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Tracker Phase-2 Upgrade for HL-LHC requires High Density Interconnect (HDI) flexible hybrid circuits to build modules with low mass and high granularity. The hybrids are carbon fibre reinforced flexible circuits with flip-chips and passives. Three different manufacturers produced prototype hybrids for the Pixel-Strip type modules. The first part of the presentation will focus on the design challenges of this state of the art circuit. Afterwards, the difficulties and experience related to the circuit manufacturing and assembly are presented. The description of quality inspection methods with comprehensive test results will lead to the conclusion.

  19. Performance of Small Bore 60NiTi Hybrid Ball Bearings: Preliminary Life Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam

    2016-01-01

    Small bore (R8 size) hybrid ball bearings made with 60NiTi races and silicon nitride balls are under development for highly corrosive aerospace applications that are also exposed to heavy static (shock) loads. The target application is the vacuum pump used inside the wastewater recycling system on the International Space Station. To verify bearing longevity, life tests are run at 2000rpm for time periods up to 5000 hours. Accelerometers with data tracking are used to monitor operation and the bearings are disassembled and inspected at intervals to assess wear. Preliminary tests show that bearings made from 60NiTi are feasible for this aerospace and potentially other industrial applications that must endure similar operating environments.

  20. A Synthesis of Hybrid RANS/LES CFD Results for F-16XL Aircraft Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckring, James M.; Park, Michael A.; Hitzel, Stephan M.; Jirasek, Adam; Lofthouse, Andrew J.; Morton, Scott A.; McDaniel, David R.; Rizzi, Arthur M.

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis is presented of recent numerical predictions for the F-16XL aircraft flow fields and aerodynamics. The computational results were all performed with hybrid RANS/LES formulations, with an emphasis on unsteady flows and subsequent aerodynamics, and results from five computational methods are included. The work was focused on one particular low-speed, high angle-of-attack flight test condition, and comparisons against flight-test data are included. This work represents the third coordinated effort using the F-16XL aircraft, and a unique flight-test data set, to advance our knowledge of slender airframe aerodynamics as well as our capability for predicting these aerodynamics with advanced CFD formulations. The prior efforts were identified as Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project International, with the acronyms CAWAPI and CAWAPI-2. All information in this paper is in the public domain.

  1. Hybrid NOTES transvaginal cholecystectomy: operative and long-term results after 18 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Raffaele; Forgione, Antonello; Sansonna, Fabio; Ferrari, Giovanni Carlo; Di Lernia, Stefano; Magistro, Carmelo

    2010-03-01

    Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a novel technique that aims at reducing or abolishing skin incisions and potentially also postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to analyse operative and long-term results of a series of hybrid transvaginal cholecystectomy. Between July 2007 and May 2009, transvaginal NOTES cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis was performed by a hybrid technique in 18 women (mean age 54 years), including four women with a body mass index >30 kg/m(2). Dissection was conducted in the first four cases by a round-tip unipolar electrode (UE) introduced through the operative channel of the endoscope coming from the vagina and in the last 14 cases by a ultrasonic scalpel (US) introduced through a 5-mm abdominal port. The short-term outcomes and the long-term results of the two methods were compared. The transvaginal approach entailed no intraoperative complication and no conversion. The overall mean duration of procedures was 75 min (range 40-190). In the first four cases (UE), the operating time was 148 min (range 140-190), whilst in the last 14 (US), it was considerably shorter, 53 min (range 40-60, p < 0.01). We experienced one biliary leak in the UE group, whilst morbidity with US was nil (p < 0.005). The biliary leak healed in 7 days with nasobiliary drainage. No other complications were encountered in either group. The mean follow-up was 12 months (range 1-22), and none of the patients has complained of dyspareunia or other colpotomy-related complications so far. Until specifically designed endoscopic tools are available for NOTES, the hybrid technique with US dissection conducted through a 5-mm port should be preferred in transvaginal cholecystectomy in order to shorten the duration of surgery and make this approach effective, safe and reproducible. After a mean follow-up of 1 year, none of our patients has complained of any problem related to transvaginal approach.

  2. Emission control of hybrid vehicles. What are the resulting requirements?; Abgasnachbehandlung bei Hybridfahrzeugen. Welche Anforderungen ergeben sich daraus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurk, Paul; Mueller, Wilfried [Umicore AG und Co.KG, Hanau (Germany); Beidl, Christian; Weickgenannt, Philipp [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Hohenberg, Guenter [IVD Prof. Hohenberg, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In hybrid powertrain systems the operation of the combustion engine is changed in comparison to an internal combustion or IC engine - only systems. This causes new boundary conditions and challenges for an optimized design of the exhaust aftertreatment system. These specific behavior characteristics have been identified based on results measured with a Toyota Prius III test vehicle on a both chassis dynamometer and road cycle evaluation. NEDC cycle results show a characteristic reduction of catalyst temperature compared to a conventional powertrain as the combustion engine is switched on for only approx. 40% of the cycle time. A further challenge can be identified in hybrid specific events, e.g. when the restart of the engine follows a short standstill period, resulting in high engine out emissions which need to be properly converted by the catalyst. It can also be clearly recognized that the state of charge of the traction battery has significant impact on the emission behavior. Furthermore the highly interesting question about the influence of plug-in hybrid systems with extended periods of electric-only driving needs to be addressed. A test sequence with simulated plug-in operation in which the combustion engine is only active in the EUDC part of the cycle shows the expected reduction of CO{sub 2} - emission but an increase in engine out NOx - emission. An important aspect is given by the cooling behavior of the exhaust system during the engine shut-off time. Detailed knowledge of this behavior is key for generating efficient operating strategies without emission deterioration. ''Real world'' load profiles are required for this task and are derived from the Darmstadt Urban and Extra Urban Cycle road tests. The test vehicle with series application and fresh catalytic converters is safely below the Euro V emission limits under all circumstances. Thus a certain potential can be seen for reducing the precious metal loading with a corresponding

  3. Design and RF test result of High Power Hybrid Combiner for Helicon Wave Current Drive in KSTAR Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Wi, H. H.; Wang, S. J.; Kwak, J. G. [NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    200 kW RF power will be injected to plasmas through the traveling wave antenna after combining four klystrons output powers using three hybrid combiners. Each klystron produces 60 kW output at the frequency of 500 MHz. RF power combiners commonly used to divide or combine output powers for various rf and microwave applications. It is divided into several types according to the design type such as Wilkinson combiner, radial and quadrature hybrid combiner. We designed high power hybrid combiners using 6-1/8 inch coaxial line. The power combiner has many advantages such as high isolation, low insertion loss and high power handling capability. In this paper design and rf test results of high power combiners will be described. High power combiners using three coaxial hybrid couplers will be utilized for effectively combining of 500 MHz, 200 kW output powers generated by four klystrons. We have designed, fabricated, and tested a 6-1/8 inch coaxial hybrid combiners at 500 MHz for efficiently off-axis Helicon wave current drive in KSTAR. Simulation and test results of high power coaxial hybrid combiners are good agreement.

  4. Hybridization between a native and introduced predator of Adelgidae: An unintended result of classical biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.P. Havill; Gina Davis; David Mausel; Joanne Klein; Richard McDonald; Cera Jones; Melissa Fischer; Scott Salom; Adelgisa. Caccone

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization between introduced biological control agents and native species has the potential to impact native biodiversity and pest control efforts. This study reports progress towards predicting the outcome of hybridization between two beetle species, the introduced Laricobius nigrinus Fender and the native L. rubidus LeConte...

  5. Polysomy of chromosome 17 in breast cancer tumors showing an overexpression of ERBB2: a study of 175 cases using fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salido, Marta; Solé, Francesc; Tusquets, Ignasi; Corominas, Josep M; Suarez, Marta; Espinet, Blanca; Corzo, Cristina; Bellet, Meritxell; Fabregat, Xavier; Serrano, Sergi

    2005-01-01

    One of the most common genetic aberrations associated with breast cancer is the amplification and overexpression of the ERBB2 proto-oncogene located at chromosome 17, bands q12-21. The amplification/overexpression occurs in 25 to 30% of all breast cancers. In breast cancer, aneusomy of chromosome 17, either monosomy or polysomy, is frequently observed by conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The aim of this study was to discover whether or not numerical aberrations on chromosome 17 have a correlation to the amplification or overexpression of the ERBB2 gene and to analyze their clinical implications in subgroups showing 2+ or 3+ positive scores by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We used FISH on a series of 175 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast carcinomas to detect ERBB2 amplification, using a dual-probe system for the simultaneous enumeration of the ERBB2 gene and the centromeric region of chromosome 17, as well as using IHC to detect overexpression. We analyzed clinical and pathological variables in a subgroup of patients with 2+ and 3+ IHC scores (147 patients), to describe any differences in clinicopathological characteristics between polysomic and non-polysomic cases with the use of the χ 2 test. We found 13% of cases presenting polysomy, and three cases presented monosomy 17 (2%). According to the status of the ERBB2 gene, instances of polysomy 17 were more frequently observed in non-amplified cases than in FISH-amplified cases, suggesting that the mechanism for ERBB2 amplification is independent of polysomy 17. Polysomy 17 was detected in patients with 2+ and 3+ IHC scores. We found that nodal involvement was more frequent in polysomic than in non-polysomic cases (P = 0.046). The determination of the copy number of chromosome 17 should be incorporated into the assesment of ERBB2 status. It might also be helpful to differentiate a subgroup of breast cancer patients with polysomy of chromosome 17 and overexpression of ERBB2

  6. Fuel Economy and Performance of Mild Hybrids with Ultracapacitors: Simulations and Vehicle Test Results (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Pesaran, A.; Lustbader, J.; Tataria, H.

    2009-06-01

    NREL worked with GM and demonstrated equivalent performance in the Saturn Vue Belt Alternator Starter (BAS) hybrid vehicle whether running with its stock batteries or a retrofit ultracapacitor system.

  7. Transient Lift-Off Test Results for an Experimental Hybrid Bearing in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    bearings. The electric motor designed to drive the rotor is a high speed integral motorized spindle unit manufactured by SKF Precision Technologies and...create pressure that supports the rotor ( shaft ) without rotation. The pressure generated by the flow through an orifice gives the hybrid bearing a...Kettering University; Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Dara Childs A hybrid bearing designed for use in a next generation turbo-pump is

  8. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model...... of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal......; to what degree its reach has to do with a universal appeal inherent in the genre and/or the innovative character of individual formats, and to what degree its global success is due to local broadcasters’ ability to successfully adapt the formats to local audience tastes. A consensus has developed...

  9. Overview of recent results and future plans on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, D. A.; Archmiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Massidda, S.; Pandya, M. D.; Roberds, N. A.; Traverso, P. J.

    2015-11-01

    Goals of the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment are to: (1) investigate the dependence of plasma disruptive behavior on the level of applied 3D magnetic shaping, (2) test and advance 3D computational modeling tools in strongly shaped plasmas, and (3) study the implementation of a new island divertor. Progress towards these goals and other developments are summarized. The disruptive density limit is observed to exceed the Greenwald limit as the vacuum transform is increased, but a threshold for disruption avoidance is not observed. Low q operation is routine, with low q disruptions avoided when the vacuum transform is raised to the value of 0.07 or above. Application of vacuum transform has been demonstrated to reduce and eliminate the vertical drift of elongated discharges that would otherwise be vertically unstable. Current efforts at improved equilibrium reconstruction and diagnostic development will beoverviewed. NIMROD is used to model the current ramp phase of CTH and 3D shaped sawtooth behavior. An island divertor design has begun with connection length studies and initial EMC3-Eirene results to model energy deposition on divertor plates located in an edge 1/3 island. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE- FG02-00ER54610.

  10. Latest results and developments from the Hybrid Illinois Device for Research and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkallah, Rabel; Andruczyk, Daniel; Jeckell, Zachary Jon; Shone, Andrew John; Johnson, Daniel Scott; Allain, Jean Paul; Curreli, Davide; Ruzic, David N.; The Hidra Team

    2017-10-01

    The Hybrid Illinois Device for Research and Applications (HIDRA) is a five-period, l = 2, m = 5, toroidal fusion device operated at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). It has a major radius R0 = 0.72 m and minor radius a = 0.19 m. Initial heating is achieved with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) at an on-axis magnetic field of B0 = 0.087 T which can go as high as B0 = 0.5 T. HIDRA will mainly be used as a classical stellarator, but can also run as a tokamak. This allows for both steady-state and transient regime operations. Experiments on HIDRA will primarily tackle the issue of plasma-material interactions (PMI) in fusion, and focus on developing innovative plasma facing component (PFC) technologies. Currently, research on flowing liquid lithium PFCs meant to be tested inside the machine in real-time operation, is being carried on. The first experiments run on HIDRA started in early 2016 in the low field region. Now, HIDRA is also capable of running in the high field zone, allowing for more interesting experiments and meaningful outcomes. Here, we present some of the initial results coming from the machine.

  11. Regional assignment of seven loci to 12p 13. 2-pter by PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrids containing the der(12) or the der(X) chromosome from a mesothelioma showing t(X; 12)(q22; p13)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerssens, J.; Chaffanet, M.; Baens, M.; Matthijs, G.; Van Den Berche, H.; Cassiman, J.J.; Marynen, P. (Arthritis and Metabolic Bone Disease Research Unit, Leuven (Belgium))

    1994-03-01

    Two somatic cell hybrids containing the der(12) or the der(X) from a mesothelioma with a translocation t(X;12) (q22;p13) as the only chromosomal change were generated to characterize the region of 12p12 containing the translocation breakpoint. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed the breakpoint on chromosome 12 to occur between VWF and D12S158. On the linkage map developed by J. Weissenbach et al., the breakpoints were located between DXS1106 and DCS1001 on chromosome X. PCR analysis based on genomic sequences, with DNA from both somatic cell hybrids, enabled mapping of CACNL1A1, FGF6, D12S370, D12S38OE, D12S381E, and D12S382E distally to the 12p13 breakpoint and to VWF. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Research Regarding the Hybrids Resulted from the Domestic Pig and the Wild Boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted between 2005-2009 in Barzava, Arad county. The villagers breed pigs traditionally, the animals having the freedom to roam the outskirts of the villages. Over the years the domestic sows (Sus scrofa domesticus which had been let by their owners to roam the forests for mast and acorn, have mated with wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus, thus obtaining crossbreeds in various colours – either resembling the female or the male. In Bazava the total number of swine is 1820 specimens out of which 546 is formed by hybrids or crossbreeds in 2009. In the case of these hybrids the length of the head together with that of the trunk can reach 150-170 cm. An adult male can have a weight of 150-200 kg and the female 100-150 kg. These specimens are easily recognizable by the fact that they have the trunk covered in thick, long, spiky hairs. There are also other external characteristics of these crossbreeds. Data has been gathered on what concerns the colour and the length of the hair, external features, maintenance and feeding. Behavioural observations have been made also. The local people appreciate a lot these hybrids because of their qualitative meat, out of which they obtain traditional dishes, combining this meat with that from domestic pigs and veal. Moreover, the maintenance of these hybrids is very low-cost, the only conditions which have to be met being simple shelters during the night and during the winter. The demand for such animals is great. These hybrids are being bought by the Zoos or are used for repopulating the areas in which the wild boars are on the verge of extinction because of excessive poaching. Foreign buyers are also interested in these hybrids, wanting to breed them in special parks and then to organize hunting outings.

  13. Test-beam Results from a RICH Detector Prototype Using Aerogel Radiator and Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; Van Lysebetten, A; Piedigrossi, D; Wyllie, K; Bellunato, T F; Calvi, M; Matteuzzi, C; Musy, M; Perego, D L; Somerville, L P; Newby, C; Easo, S; Wotton, S

    2006-01-01

    A test-beam study was performed at CERN with a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) prototype using three pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors. Results on the photon yield and Cherenkov angle resolution are presented here, for the Aerogel radiator and also for reference runs taken with Nitrogen radiator.

  14. Bilateral femoral neck fractures resulting from pregnancy-associated osteoporosis showed bone marrow edema on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Kyoko; Kita, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Taku; Morisaki, Shinsuke; Yomo, Hiroko; Murakami, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    Femoral neck fractures resulting from pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare condition. Herein, we report an undoubted case of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis in a 38-year-old primiparous patient with pre-existing anorexia nervosa who suffered bilateral femoral neck fractures in the third trimester and early post-partum period. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed femoral neck fractures as well as diffuse marrow edema involving both femoral heads, which are considered under ordinary circumstances as characteristic imaging findings of transient osteoporosis of the hip. Based on our experience, we propose that pregnancy-associated osteoporosis might be present in femoral neck fractures attributed to transient osteoporosis of the hip in pregnancy. Conversely, bone status should be carefully and accurately estimated in cases of potential transient osteoporosis of the hip in pregnancy to reduce future fracture risk. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Mars Methane at Gale Crater Shows Strong Seasonal Cycle: Updated Results from TLS-SAM on Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Atreya, S. K.; Flesch, G.; Malespin, C.; McKay, C.; Martinez, G.; Moores, J.; Smith, C. L.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Zorzano, M. P.; Wong, M. H.; Trainer, M. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Glavin, D. P.; Steele, A.; Archer, D., Jr.; Sutter, B.; Coll, P. J.; Freissinet, C.; Meslin, P. Y.; Pavlov, A.; Keymeulen, D.; Christensen, L. E.; Gough, R. V.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Pla-García, J.; Rafkin, S. C.; Vicente-Retortillo, Á.; Kahanpää, H.; Viudez-Moreiras, D.; Smith, M. D.; Harri, A. M.; Genzer, M.; Hassler, D.; Lemmon, M. T.; Crisp, J. A.; Zurek, R. W.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    In situ measurements of atmospheric methane have been made over a 5-year period at Gale Crater on Mars using the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) instrument in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on the Curiosity rover. We report two important observations: (i) a background level of mean value of 0.41 ±0.11 (2sem) that is about 5 times lower than some model predictions based on generation from UV degradation of micro-meteorites or interplanetary dust delivered to the martian surface; (ii) "spikes" of elevated levels of 7 ppbv attributed to episodic releases from small local sources, probably to the north of Gale crater1. Reports of plumes, patches or episodic releases of methane in the Martian atmosphere have to date eluded explanation in part because of their lack of repeatability in time or location. Our in situ measurements of the background methane levels exhibit a strong, repeatable seasonal variability. The amplitude of the observed seasonal cycle is 3 times greater than both that expected from the annual sublimation and freezing of polar carbon dioxide and that expected from methane production from ultraviolet (UV) degradation of exogenously-delivered surface material. The observed large seasonal variation in the background, and sporadic observations of higher pulses of 7 ppbv appear consistent with localized small sources of methane release from Martian surface reservoirs that may be occurring throughout the planet. We will present our updated data set, correlations of Mars methane with various other measurements from SAM, REMS, RAD and ChemCam instruments on Curiosity, as well as empirical models of UV surface insolation, and provide preliminary interpretation of results. 1 "Mars Methane Detection and Variability at Gale Crater", C. R. Webster et al., Science, 347, 415-417 (2015) and references therein. The research described here was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the

  16. Comprehensive monitoring system - essential tool to show the results of the energy audit and voluntary agreement programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Without visible results political support to an energy efficiency programme will dissolve in a few years. Therefore high-quality monitoring and reporting systems are essential to maintain a long-term commitment. Both in Finnish Energy Audit Programme (EAP), began in 1992, and in Voluntary Agreement Scheme (VA), began in 1997, bottom-up monitoring systems have been in place almost since the beginning. These policy measures and their monitoring systems are integrated. For the EAP monitoring system data is collected in three phases: subsidies granted; the energy auditing volumes in different sectors submitted EA reports; proposed measures and saving potentials. VA annual reporting; status of implementation of the proposed measures in EA reports and implementing rate for saving potentials. In VA scheme the companies and communities report annually on their energy consumption and on energy efficiency measures they have implemented or have decided to implement. Information on energy savings in energy units and energy costs as well as the required investment is reported in connection to the presented measures. The collected data is based on engineering calculations by the energy auditors. Since the companies have no incentives to submit exaggerated savings, the reported savings are equal to those figures the companies have used as criteria when deciding on the implementation of the measures. By 2005 these two policy measures have generated about 7 TWh annual savings, representing over 2 % of Finland's total energy end-use. In relation to the magnitude of savings brought in daylight, the investment on monitoring has really paid back.

  17. Development and Commissioning Results of the Hybrid Sensor Bus Engineering Qualification Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, Andreas; Putzer, Phillipp; Roner, Markus; Gurster, Markus; Hulsemeyer, Christian; Lemke, Norbert M. K.

    2016-08-01

    In order to reduce mass, AIT effort and overall costs of classical point-to-point wired temperature sensor harness on-board spacecraft OHB System AGhas introduced the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) system which interrogates sensors connected in a bus architecture. To use the advantages of electrical as wellas of fiber-optical sensing technologies, HSB is designed as a modular measurement system interrogating digital sensors connected on electricalsensor buses based on I2C and fiber-optical sensor buses based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors inscribed in optical fibers. Fiber-optical sensor bus networks on-board satellites are well suited for temperature measurement due to low mass, electro-magnetic insensitivity and the capability to embed them inside structure parts. The lightweight FBG sensors inscribed in radiation tolerant fibers can reach every part of the satellite. HSB has been developed in the frame of the ESA ARTES program with European and German co- funding and will be verified as flight demonstrator on- board the German Heinrich Hertz satellite (H2Sat).In this paper the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) development of HSB and first commissioning results are presented. For the HSB development requirements applicable for telecommunication satellite platforms have been considered. This includes an operation of at least 15 years in a geostationary orbit.In Q3/2016 the qualification test campaign is planned to be carried out. The HSB EQM undergoes a full qualification according to ECSS. The paper concludes with an outlook regarding this HSB flight demonstrator development and its in-orbit verification (IOV) on board H2Sat.

  18. Squat Biomechanical Modeling Results from Exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Jagodnik, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited and therefore compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Biomechanical data collection and computational modeling aid the device design process by quantifying the joint torques and the musculoskeletal forces that occur during exercises performed on the prototype devices. The computational models currently under development utilize the OpenSim software, an open source code for musculoskeletal modeling, with biomechanical input data from test subjects for estimation of muscle and joint loads. The subjects are instrumented with reflective markers for motion capture data collection while exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) prototype device. Ground reaction force data is collected with force plates under the feet and device loading is recorded through load cells internal to the HULK. Test variables include applied device load, narrow or wide foot stance, slow or fast cadence and the harness or long bar interface between the test subject and the device. Data is also obtained using free weights for a comparison to the resistively loaded exercise device. This data is input into the OpenSim biomechanical model, which has been scaled to match the anthropometrics of the test subject, to calculate the body loads. The focus of this presentation is to summarize the results from the full squat exercises

  19. Multiple Origins and Nested Cycles of Hybridization Result in High Tetraploid Diversity in the Monocot Prospero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae-Soo; Parker, John S; Emadzade, Khatere; Temsch, Eva M; Leitch, Andrew R; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Polyploidy is a major driving force in angiosperm evolution, but our understanding of establishment and early diversification processes following allo- vs. auto-polyploidy is limited. An excellent system to address such questions is the monocot plant Prospero autumnale , as it comprises several genomically and chromosomally distinct diploid cytotypes and their auto- and allotetraploid derivatives. To infer origins and evolutionary trajectories of the tetraploids, we use genome size data, in situ hybridization with parental genomic DNAs and specific probes (satDNA, rDNAs), as well as molecular-phylogenetic analyses. Thus, we demonstrate that an astounding range of allotetraploid lineages has been formed recurrently by chromosomal re-patterning, interactions of chromosomally variable parental genomes and nested cycles of extensive hybridization, whereas autotetraploids have originated at least twice and are cytologically stable. During the recurrent formation and establishment across wide geographic areas hybridization in some populations could have inhibited lineage diversification and nascent speciation of such a hybrid swarm. However, cytotypes that became fixed in populations enhanced the potential for species diversification, possibly exploiting the extended allelic base, and fixed heterozygosity that polyploidy confers. The time required for polyploid cytotype fixation may in part reflect the lag phase reported for polyploids between their formation and species diversification.

  20. Multiple Origins and Nested Cycles of Hybridization Result in High Tetraploid Diversity in the Monocot Prospero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Soo Jang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy is a major driving force in angiosperm evolution, but our understanding of establishment and early diversification processes following allo- vs. auto-polyploidy is limited. An excellent system to address such questions is the monocot plant Prospero autumnale, as it comprises several genomically and chromosomally distinct diploid cytotypes and their auto- and allotetraploid derivatives. To infer origins and evolutionary trajectories of the tetraploids, we use genome size data, in situ hybridization with parental genomic DNAs and specific probes (satDNA, rDNAs, as well as molecular-phylogenetic analyses. Thus, we demonstrate that an astounding range of allotetraploid lineages has been formed recurrently by chromosomal re-patterning, interactions of chromosomally variable parental genomes and nested cycles of extensive hybridization, whereas autotetraploids have originated at least twice and are cytologically stable. During the recurrent formation and establishment across wide geographic areas hybridization in some populations could have inhibited lineage diversification and nascent speciation of such a hybrid swarm. However, cytotypes that became fixed in populations enhanced the potential for species diversification, possibly exploiting the extended allelic base, and fixed heterozygosity that polyploidy confers. The time required for polyploid cytotype fixation may in part reflect the lag phase reported for polyploids between their formation and species diversification.

  1. A shift in nuclear state as the result of natural interspecific hybridization between two North American taxa of the basidiomycete complex Heterobasidion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo Garbelotto; Paolo Gonthier; Rachel Linzer; Giovanni Nicolotti; William Otrosina

    2004-01-01

    A natural first generation hybrid fungus shows interspecific heterozygosity. The nuclear condition of a rare natural hybrid between two taxa of the Heterobasidion complex is investigated. Heterobasidion species are known to be either homokaryotic (haploid) or heterokaryotic (n + n), but heterokaryons are made up of both...

  2. Recent Results with a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector for a novel parallax-free PET Scanner for Brain Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Joram, Christian; Mathot, Serge; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, Peter; Ciocia, F; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Vilardi, I; Argentieri, A; Corsi, F; Dragone, A; Pasqua, D

    2007-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and test results of a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics. Both the photodetector and its VLSI readout electronics are custom designed and have been tailored to the requirements of a recently proposed novel geometrical concept of a Positron Emission Tomograph. Emphasis is laid on the PET specific features of the device. The detector has been fabricated in the photocathode facility at CERN.

  3. Reticulate phylogeny of gastropod-shell-breeding cichlids from Lake Tanganyika – the result of repeated introgressive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanc Michel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tribe Lamprologini is the major substrate breeding lineage of Lake Tanganyika's cichlid species flock. Among several different life history strategies found in lamprologines, the adaptation to live and breed in empty gastropod shells is probably the most peculiar. Although shell-breeding arose several times in the evolutionary history of the lamprologines, all obligatory and most facultative shell-breeders belong to the so called "ossified group", a monophyletic lineage within the lamprologine cichlids. Since their distinctive life style enables these species to live and breed in closest vicinity, we hypothesized that these cichlids might be particularly prone to accidental hybridization, and that introgression might have affected the evolutionary history of this cichlid lineage. Results Our analyses revealed discrepancies between phylogenetic hypotheses based on mitochondrial and nuclear (AFLP data. While the nuclear phylogeny was congruent with morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics, several species – usually highly specialized shell-breeders – were placed at contradicting positions in the mitochondrial phylogeny. The discordant phylogenies strongly suggest repeated incidents of introgressive hybridization between several distantly related shell-breeding species, which reticulated the phylogeny of this group of cichlids. Long interior branches and high bootstrap support for many interior nodes in the mitochondrial phylogeny argue against a major effect of ancient incomplete lineage sorting on the phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, we provide morphological and genetic (mtDNA and microsatellites evidence for ongoing hybridization among distantly related shell-breeders. In these cases, the territorial males of the inferred paternal species are too large to enter the shells of their mate, such that they have to release their sperm over the entrance of the shell to fertilize the eggs. With sperm

  4. Initial results from the operation of village hybrid systems in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, R.; Baring-Gould, E.I.; Corbus, D. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The government of Chile has undertaken a rural electrification program to electrify 75% of the population by the year 2000. Renewable energy is considered within this program, and its application facilitated through a technical cooperation agreement between Chile`s national energy commission (CNE) and the U.S. Department of Energy. In order to introduce isolated mini-grid hybrid wind-energy systems into Chile, three pilot projects were implemented in Region IX. The goal of the pilot systems is to establish renewables as a viable option for rural electrification in the Chilean context. In this paper we report on the first six months of three pilot projects. Presented as background information are brief descriptions of the power systems, data acquisition systems, and the operation and maintenance (O&M) protocols. Analyses of loads, component performance, system operation, and balance of payments for O&M are the primary points presented. Important lessons learned and future plans are also discussed.

  5. Hybrid functional pseudopotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2018-02-01

    The consistency between the exchange-correlation functional used in pseudopotential construction and in the actual density functional theory calculation is essential for the accurate prediction of fundamental properties of materials. However, routine hybrid density functional calculations at present still rely on generalized gradient approximation pseudopotentials due to the lack of hybrid functional pseudopotentials. Here, we present a scheme for generating hybrid functional pseudopotentials, and we analyze the importance of pseudopotential density functional consistency for hybrid functionals. For the PBE0 hybrid functional, we benchmark our pseudopotentials for structural parameters and fundamental electronic gaps of the Gaussian-2 (G2) molecular dataset and some simple solids. Our results show that using our PBE0 pseudopotentials in PBE0 calculations improves agreement with respect to all-electron calculations.

  6. Stability Development of Immediately Loaded Hybrid Self-Tapping Implants Inserted in the Posterior Maxilla: 1-Year Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Vladimir S; Vasovic, Miroslav; Beetge, Mia-Michaela; van Zyl, Andre W; Kokovic, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate stability development of immediately loaded hybrid self-tapping implants inserted in the posterior maxilla. Forty-eight hybrid self-tapping implants with a chemically modified surface (∅4.1; length: 8 mm) were inserted bilaterally in the maxillary first and second premolar and first molar sites of 8 patients. In each patient, both sides of the maxilla were assigned randomly to either immediate (IL) or early (EL) loading group. Implant stability was evaluated by means of resonance frequency analysis immediately after implant placement and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks. High values of primary stability were found in both groups (71.91 ± 6.52 implant stability quotient [ISQ] in IL group; 73.87 ± 6.5 ISQ in EL group), with significant differences between the groups at the different time points. Initial decrease in stability was observed between the first and fifth weeks in the IL group and between the first and third weeks for the EL group. In the IL group 1 implant was removed after 3 weeks due to lack of stability. Early results of this study showed the ability of hybrid self-tapping dental implants with a chemically modified surface to achieve sufficient primary stability and to maintain high values of secondary implant stability in bone type 3 and 4, even when loaded immediately. Minimal alterations in stability were observed for both investigated groups, but the EL group showed faster recovery after an initial drop in stability.

  7. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  8. Self-consistent kinetic simulations of lower hybrid drift instability resulting in electron current driven by fusion products in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J W S; Chapman, S C; Dendy, R O; Brady, C S

    2011-01-01

    We present particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of minority energetic protons in deuterium plasmas, which demonstrate a collective instability responsible for emission near the lower hybrid frequency and its harmonics. The simulations capture the lower hybrid drift instability in a parameter regime motivated by tokamak fusion plasma conditions, and show further that the excited electromagnetic fields collectively and collisionlessly couple free energy from the protons to directed electron motion. This results in an asymmetric tail antiparallel to the magnetic field. We focus on obliquely propagating modes excited by energetic ions, whose ring-beam distribution is motivated by population inversions related to ion cyclotron emission, in a background plasma with a temperature similar to that of the core of a large tokamak plasma. A fully self-consistent electromagnetic relativistic PIC code representing all vector field quantities and particle velocities in three dimensions as functions of a single spatial dimension is used to model this situation, by evolving the initial antiparallel travelling ring-beam distribution of 3 MeV protons in a background 10 keV Maxwellian deuterium plasma with realistic ion-electron mass ratio. These simulations provide a proof-of-principle for a key plasma physics process that may be exploited in future alpha channelling scenarios for magnetically confined burning plasmas.

  9. Doping and defects in YBa2Cu3O7: Results from hybrid density functional theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2012-06-21

    Modified orbital occupation and inhomogeneous charge distribution in high-Tc oxide compounds due to doping and/or defects play a huge role for the material properties. To establish insight into the charge redistribution, we address metallic YBa2Cu3O7 in two prototypical configurations: Ca doped (hole doping) and O deficient (electron doping). By means of first principles calculations for fully relaxed structures, we evaluate the orbital occupations. We find that the change of the charge density, in particular in the CuO2 planes, shows a complex spatial pattern instead of the expected uniform (de-)population of the valence states.

  10. Analysis of genomic alterations in neuroblastoma by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array comparative genomic hybridization: a comparison of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combaret, Valérie; Iacono, Isabelle; Bréjon, Stéphanie; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Pierron, Gäelle; Couturier, Jérôme; Bergeron, Christophe; Blay, Jean-Yves

    2012-12-01

    In cases of neuroblastoma, recurring genetic alterations--losses of the 1p, 3p, 4p, and 11q and/or gains of 1q, 2p, and 17q chromosome arms--are currently used to define the therapeutic strategy in therapeutic protocols for low- and intermediate-risk patients. Different genome-wide analysis techniques, such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), have been suggested for detecting chromosome segmental abnormalities. In this study, we compared the results of the two technologies in the analyses of the DNA of tumor samples from 91 neuroblastoma patients. Similar results were obtained with the two techniques for 75 samples (82%). In five cases (5.5%), the MLPA results were not interpretable. Discrepancies between the aCGH and MLPA results were observed in 11 cases (12%). Among the discrepancies, a 18q21.2-qter gain and 16p11.2 and 11q14.1-q14.3 losses were detected only by aCGH. The MLPA results showed that the 7p, 7q, and 14q chromosome arms were affected in six cases, while in two cases, 2p and 17q gains were observed; these results were confirmed by neither aCGH nor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Because of the higher sensitivity and specificity of genome-wide information, reasonable cost, and shorter time of aCGH analysis, we recommend the aCGH procedure for the analysis of genomic alterations in neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - III. Subdwarf B stars with V1093 Her and hybrid (DW Lyn) type pulsations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, M.D.; Kawaler, Stephen D.; Østensen, Roy H.

    2010-01-01

    1093 Her (PG 1716) class or a hybrid star with both short and long periods. The apparently non-binary long-period and hybrid pulsators are described here. The V1093 Her periods range from 1 to 4.5 h and are associated with g-mode pulsations. Three stars also exhibit short periods indicative of p...

  12. Mercury's plasma belt: hybrid simulations results compared to in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercik, D.; Travnicek, P. M.; Schriver, D.; Hellinger, P.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of plasma belt and trapped particles region in the Mercury's inner magnetosphere has been questionable due to small dimensions of the magnetosphere of Mercury compared to Earth, where these regions are formed. Numerical simulations of the solar wind interaction with Mercury's magnetic field suggested that such a structure could be found also in the vicinity of Mercury. These results has been recently confirmed also by MESSENGER observations. Here we present more detailed analysis of the plasma belt structure and quasi-trapped particle population characteristics and behaviour under different orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field.The plasma belt region is constantly supplied with solar wind protons via magnetospheric flanks and tail current sheet region. Protons inside the plasma belt region are quasi-trapped in the magnetic field of Mercury and perform westward drift along the planet. This region is well separated by a magnetic shell and has higher average temperatures and lower bulk proton current densities than surrounding area. On the day side the population exhibits loss cone distribution function matching the theoretical loss cone angle. Simulations results are also compared to in-situ measurements acquired by MESSENGER MAG and FIPS instruments.

  13. Chronic self-administration of alcohol results in elevated ΔFosB: comparison of hybrid mice with distinct drinking patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozburn Angela R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inability to reduce or regulate alcohol intake is a hallmark symptom for alcohol use disorders. Research on novel behavioral and genetic models of experience-induced changes in drinking will further our knowledge on alcohol use disorders. Distinct alcohol self-administration behaviors were previously observed when comparing two F1 hybrid strains of mice: C57BL/6J x NZB/B1NJ (BxN show reduced alcohol preference after experience with high concentrations of alcohol and periods of abstinence while C57BL/6J x FVB/NJ (BxF show sustained alcohol preference. These phenotypes are interesting because these hybrids demonstrate the occurrence of genetic additivity (BxN and overdominance (BxF in ethanol intake in an experience dependent manner. Specifically, BxF exhibit sustained alcohol preference and BxN exhibit reduced alcohol preference after experience with high ethanol concentrations; however, experience with low ethanol concentrations produce sustained alcohol preference for both hybrids. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that these phenotypes are represented by differential production of the inducible transcription factor, ΔFosB, in reward, aversion, and stress related brain regions. Results Changes in neuronal plasticity (as measured by ΔFosB levels were experience dependent, as well as brain region and genotype specific, further supporting that neuronal circuitry underlies motivational aspects of ethanol consumption. BxN mice exhibiting reduced alcohol preference had lower ΔFosB levels in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus than mice exhibiting sustained alcohol preference, and increased ΔFosB levels in central medial amygdala as compared with control mice. BxN mice showing sustained alcohol preference exhibited higher ΔFosB levels in the ventral tegmental area, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, and amygdala (central and lateral divisions. Moreover, in BxN mice ΔFosB levels in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and ventral

  14. Chronic voluntary alcohol consumption results in tolerance to sedative/hypnotic and hypothermic effects of alcohol in hybrid mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozburn, Angela Renee; Harris, R. Adron; Blednov, Yuri A.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous two bottle choice test is the most common measure of alcohol consumption but there is remarkably little information about the development of tolerance or dependence with this procedure. We showed that C57BL/6JxFVB/NJ and FVB/NJxC57BL/6J F1 hybrid mice demonstrate greater preference for and consumption of alcohol than either parental strain. In order to test the ability of this genetic model of high alcohol consumption to produce neuroadaptation, we examined development of alcohol tolerance and dependence after chronic self-administration using a continuous access two-bottle choice paradigm. Ethanol-experienced mice stably consumed about 16–18 g/kg/day of ethanol. Ethanol-induced withdrawal severity was assessed (after 59 days of drinking) by scoring handling-induced convulsions; withdrawal severity was minimal and did not differ between ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice. After 71 days of drinking, the rate of ethanol clearance was similar for ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice. After 77 days of drinking, ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) was tested daily for 5 days. Ethanol-experienced mice had a shorter duration of LORR. For both ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice, blood ethanol concentrations taken at gain of righting reflex were greater on day 5 than on day 1, indicative of tolerance. After 98 days of drinking, ethanol-induced hypothermia was assessed daily for 3 days. Both ethanol-experienced and –naïve mice developed rapid and chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia, with significant group differences on the first day of testing. In summary, chronic, high levels of alcohol consumption in F1 hybrid mice produced rapid and chronic tolerance to both the sedative/hypnotic and hypothermic effects of ethanol; additionally, a small degree of metabolic tolerance developed. The development of tolerance supports the validity of using this model of high alcohol consumption in genetic studies of alcoholism. PMID:23313769

  15. Coronal mass ejection hits mercury: A.I.K.E.F. hybrid-code results compared to MESSENGER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exner, W.; Heyner, D.; Liuzzo, L.; Motschmann, U.; Shiota, D.; Kusano, K.; Shibayama, T.

    2018-04-01

    Mercury is the closest orbiting planet around the sun and is therefore embedded in an intensive and highly varying solar wind. In-situ data from the MESSENGER spacecraft of the plasma environment near Mercury indicates that a coronal mass ejection (CME) passed the planet on 23 November 2011 over the span of the 12 h MESSENGER orbit. Slavin et al. (2014) derived the upstream parameters of the solar wind at the time of that orbit, and were able to explain the observed MESSENGER data in the cusp and magnetopause segments of MESSENGER's trajectory. These upstream parameters will be used for our first simulation run. We use the hybrid code A.I.K.E.F. which treats ions as individual particles and electrons as a mass-less fluid, to conduct hybrid simulations of Mercury's magnetospheric response to the impact of the CME on ion gyro time scales. Results from the simulation are in agreement with magnetic field measurements from the inner day-side magnetosphere and the bow-shock region. However, at the planet's nightside, Mercury's plasma environment seemed to be governed by different solar wind conditions, in conclusion, Mercury's interaction with the CME is not sufficiently describable by only one set of upstream parameters. Therefore, to simulate the magnetospheric response while MESSENGER was located in the tail region, we use parameters obtained from the MHD solar wind simulation code SUSANOO (Shiota et al. (2014)) for our second simulation run. The parameters of the SUSANOO model achieve a good agreement of the data concerning the plasma tail crossing and the night-side approach to Mercury. However, the polar and closest approach are hardly described by both upstream parameters, namely, neither upstream dataset is able to reproduce the MESSENGER crossing of Mercury's magnetospheric cusp. We conclude that the respective CME was too variable on the timescale of the MESSENGER orbit to be described by only two sets of upstream conditions. Our results suggest locally strong

  16. HYBRID TOPONYMS AS A RESULT OF THE MERGER OF TWO CULTURES (BASED ON THE HISPANIC PLACE NAMES OF THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTYNENKO IRINA ANATOLYEVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of U.S hybrid place names of English-Spanish origin. The author explains the history of certain geographical names, describes the historical events that preceded the appearance of place names given. Particular attention is paid to the principles of formation of such hybrids, and some hypotheses are given about the causes of existence of Anglo-Spanish place names on the U.S. map.

  17. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas resveratrol treatment does not show overall beneficial effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgren, Charlotte; Nasser, Hasina Abdul; McKenna, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    model to study the possibility of recovering from HGPS bone disease upon silencing of the HGPS mutation, and the potential benefits from treatment with resveratrol. We show that complete silencing of the transgenic expression of progerin normalized bone morphology and mineralization already after 7...... weeks. The improvements included lower frequencies of rib fractures and callus formation, an increased number of osteocytes in remodeled bone, and normalized dentinogenesis. The beneficial effects from resveratrol treatment were less significant and to a large extent similar to mice treated with sucrose...... alone. However, the reversal of the dental phenotype of overgrown and laterally displaced lower incisors in HGPS mice could be attributed to resveratrol. Our results indicate that the HGPS bone defects were reversible upon suppressed transgenic expression and suggest that treatments targeting aberrant...

  18. Human hybrid hybridoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  19. Behavioral and spermatogenic hybrid male breakdown in Nasonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M E; O'Hara, F P; Chawla, A; Werren, J H

    2010-03-01

    Several reproductive barriers exist within the Nasonia species complex, including allopatry, premating behavioral isolation, postzygotic inviability and Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility. Here we show that hybrid males suffer two additional reproductive disadvantages, an inability to properly court females and decreased sperm production. Hybrid behavioral sterility, characterized by a reduced ability of hybrids to perform necessary courtship behaviors, occurs in hybrids between two species of Nasonia. Hybrid males produced in crosses between N. vitripennis and N. giraulti courted females at a reduced frequency (23-69%), compared with wild-type N. vitripennis and N. giraulti males (>93%). Reduced courtship frequency was not a simple function of inactivity among hybrids. A strong effect of cytoplasmic (mitochondrial) background was also found in N. vitripennis and N. giraulti crosses; F2 hybrids with giraulti cytoplasm showing reduced ability at most stages of courtship. Hybrids produced between a younger species pair, N. giraulti and N. longicornis, were behaviorally fertile. All males possessed motile sperm, but sperm production is greatly reduced in hybrids between the older species pair, N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. This effect on hybrid males, lowered sperm counts rather than nonfunctional sperm, is different from most described cases of hybrid male sterility, and may represent an earlier stage of hybrid sperm breakdown. The results add to previous studies of F2 hybrid inviability and behavioral sterility, and indicate that Wolbachia-induced hybrid incompatibility has arisen early in species divergence, relative to behavioral sterility and spermatogenic infertility.

  20. Behavioural and spermatogenic hybrid male breakdown in Nasonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael E.; O’Hara, F. Patrick; Chawla, Ankur; Werren, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Several reproductive barriers exists within the Nasonia species complex, including allopatry, premating behavioural isolation, postzygotic inviability and Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility. Here we show that hybrid males suffer two additional reproductive disadvantages, an inability to properly court females and decreased sperm production. Hybrid behavioural sterility, characterized by a reduced ability of hybrids to perform necessary courtship behaviours, occurs in hybrids between two species of Nasonia. Hybrid males produced in crosses between N. vitripennis and N. giraulti courted females at a reduced frequency (23-69%), compared to wild-type N. vitripennis and N. giraulti males (>93%). Reduced courtship frequency was not a simple function of inactivity among hybrids. A strong effect of cytoplasmic (mitochondrial) background was also found in N. vitripennis and N. giraulti crosses; F2 hybrids with giraulti cytoplasm showing reduced ability at most stages of courtship. Hybrids produced between a younger species pair, N. giraulti and N. longicornis, were behaviourally fertile. All males possessed motile sperm, but sperm production is greatly reduced in hybrids between the older species pair, N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. This effect on hybrid males, lowered sperm counts rather than non-functional sperm, is different from most described cases of hybrid male sterility and may represent an earlier stage of hybrid sperm breakdown. The results add to previous studies of F2 hybrid inviability and behavioural sterility, and indicated that Wolbachia induced hybrid incompatibility has arisen early in species divergence, relative to behavioural sterility and spermatogenic infertility. PMID:20087395

  1. Experimental Results and Model Calculations of a Hybrid Adsorption-Compression Heat Pump Based on a Roots Compressor and Silica Gel-Water Sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; De Boer, R.; Wemmers, A.K.; Smeding, S.F.; Veldhuis, J.B.J.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, J.A.

    2013-10-15

    Thermally driven sorption systems can provide significant energy savings, especially in industrial applications. The driving temperature for operation of such systems limits the operating window and can be a barrier for market-introduction. By adding a compressor, the sorption cycle can be run using lower waste heat temperatures. ECN has recently started the development of such a hybrid heat pump. The final goal is to develop a hybrid heat pump for upgrading lower (<100C) temperature industrial waste heat to above pinch temperatures. The paper presents the first measurements and model calculations of a hybrid heat pump system using a water-silica gel system combined with a Roots type compressor. From the measurements can be seen that the effect of the compressor is dependent on where in the cycle it is placed. When placed between the evaporator and the sorption reactor, it has a considerable larger effect compared to the compressor placed between the sorption reactor and the condenser. The latter hardly improves the performance compared to purely heat-driven operation. This shows the importance of studying the interaction between all components of the system. The model, which shows reasonable correlation with the measurements, could proof to be a valuable tool to determine the optimal hybrid heat pump configuration.

  2. Results for the hybrid laminar flow control experiment conducted in the NASA Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel on a 7-foot chord model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, Percy J.; Ferris, James C.; Harvey, William D.; Goradia, Suresh H.

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of the development of, and results from, the hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) experiment conducted in the NASA LaRC 8 ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel on a 7 ft chord, 23 deg swept model. The methods/codes used to obtain the contours of the HLFC model surface and to define the suction requirements are outlined followed by a discussion of the model construction, suction system, instrumentation, and some example results from the wind tunnel tests. Included in the latter are the effects of Mach number, suction level, and the extent of suction. An assessment is also given of the effect of the wind tunnel environment on the suction requirements. The data show that, at or near the design Mach number, large extents of laminar flow can be achieved with suction mass flows over the first 25 percent, or less, of the chord. Top surface drag coefficients with suction extending from the near leading edge to 20 percent of the chord were approximately 40 percent lower than those obtained with no suction. The results indicate that HLFC can be designed for transonic speeds with lift and drag coefficients approaching those of LFC designs but with much smaller extents and levels of suction.

  3. Prospects of an alternative treatment against Trypanosoma cruzi based on abietic acid derivatives show promising results in Balb/c mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, F; Guardia, J J; Marin, C; Messouri, I; Rosales, M J; Urbanová, K; Chayboun, I; Chahboun, R; Alvarez-Manzaneda, E J; Sánchez-Moreno, M

    2015-01-07

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoa parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is an example of extended parasitaemia with unmet medical needs. Current treatments based on old-featured benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox are expensive and do not fulfil the criteria of effectiveness, and a lack of toxicity devoid to modern drugs. In this work, a group of abietic acid derivatives that are chemically stable and well characterised were introduced as candidates for the treatment of Chagas disease. In vitro and in vivo assays were performed in order to test the effectiveness of these compounds. Finally, those which showed the best activity underwent additional studies in order to elucidate the possible mechanism of action. In vitro results indicated that some compounds have low toxicity (i.e. >150 μM, against Vero cell) combined with high efficacy (i.e. <20 μM) against some forms of T. cruzi. Further in vivo studies on mice models confirmed the expectations of improvements in infected mice. In vivo tests on the acute phase gave parasitaemia inhibition values higher those of Bz, and a remarkable decrease in the reactivation of parasitaemia was found in the chronic phase after immunosuppression of the mice treated with one of the compounds. The morphological alterations found in treated parasites with our derivatives confirmed extensive damage; energetic metabolism disturbances were also registered by (1)H NMR. The demonstrated in vivo activity and low toxicity, together with the use of affordable starting products and the lack of synthetic complexity, put these abietic acid derivatives in a remarkable position toward the development of an anti-Chagasic agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapamycin and chloroquine: the in vitro and in vivo effects of autophagy-modifying drugs show promising results in valosin containing protein multisystem proteinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angèle Nalbandian

    Full Text Available Mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP gene cause hereditary Inclusion body myopathy (hIBM associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB, frontotemporal dementia (FTD, more recently termed multisystem proteinopathy (MSP. Affected individuals exhibit scapular winging and die from progressive muscle weakness, and cardiac and respiratory failure, typically in their 40s to 50s. Histologically, patients show the presence of rimmed vacuoles and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43-positive large ubiquitinated inclusion bodies in the muscles. We have generated a VCPR155H/+ mouse model which recapitulates the disease phenotype and impaired autophagy typically observed in patients with VCP disease. Autophagy-modifying agents, such as rapamycin and chloroquine, at pharmacological doses have previously shown to alter the autophagic flux. Herein, we report results of administration of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway, and chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor which reverses autophagy by accumulating in lysosomes, responsible for blocking autophagy in 20-month old VCPR155H/+ mice. Rapamycin-treated mice demonstrated significant improvement in muscle performance, quadriceps histological analysis, and rescue of ubiquitin, and TDP-43 pathology and defective autophagy as indicated by decreased protein expression levels of LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, optineurin and inhibiting the mTORC1 substrates. Conversely, chloroquine-treated VCPR155H/+ mice revealed progressive muscle weakness, cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43, ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies and increased LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, and optineurin expression levels. Our in vitro patient myoblasts studies treated with rapamycin demonstrated an overall improvement in the autophagy markers. Targeting the mTOR pathway ameliorates an increasing list of disorders, and these findings suggest that VCP disease and related neurodegenerative multisystem

  5. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, Kim Choon; Amy, Gary L.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2016-01-01

    water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150

  6. Evolution of hybrid defect networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2009-01-01

    We apply a recently developed analytic model for the evolution of monopole networks to the case of monopoles attached to one string, usually known as hybrid networks. We discuss scaling solutions for both local and global hybrid networks, and also find an interesting application for the case of vortons. Our quantitative results agree with previous estimates in indicating that the hybrid networks will usually annihilate soon after the string-forming phase transition. However, we also show that in some specific circumstances these networks can survive considerably more than a Hubble time.

  7. Complex tibial plateau fractures treated by hybrid external fixation system: A correlation of followup computed tomography derived quality of reduction with clinical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Kateros

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibial plateau fractures are common due to high energy injuries. The principles of treatment include respect for the soft tissues, restoring the congruity of the articular surface and reduction of the anatomic alignment of the lower limb to enable early movement of the knee joint. There are various surgical fixation methods that can achieve these principles of treatment. Recognition of the particular fracture pattern is important, as this guides the surgical approach required in order to adequately stabilize the fracture. This study evaluates the results of the combined treatment of external fixator and limited internal fixation along with the advantages using postoperative computed tomography (CT scan after implant removal. Materials and Methods: 55 patients with a mean age of 42 years (range 17–65 years with tibial plateau fracture, were managed in our institution between October 2010 and September 2013., Twenty fractures were classified as Schatzker VI and 35 as Schatzker V. There were 8 open fractures (2 Gustilo Anderson 3A and 6 Gustilo Anderson 2. All fractures were treated with closed reduction and hybrid external fixation (n = 21/38.2% or with minimal open reduction internal fixation and a hybrid system (n = 34/61.8%. After the removal of the fixators, CT-scan was programmed for all the cases, for correlation with the results. At final followup, the American Knee Society Score (AKSS was administered. Results: All patients were evaluated with a minimum of 12 months (range 12–21 months followup. Average time to union was 15.5 weeks (range 13–19 weeks. The postoperative joint congruity as evaluated in the postoperative CT-scan was 5° in 19 cases (35%. Patients with residual joint depression 4.5 mm displayed a 100% chance of getting poor-fair scores both in AKSS knee and AKSS function score. The association of a postoperative mechanical axis within 5° of the contralateral limb and improved knee scores was statistically

  8. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  9. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  10. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - III. Subdwarf B stars with V1093 Her and hybrid (DW Lyn) type pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. D.; Kawaler, S. D.; Østensen, R. H.; Bloemen, S.; Baran, A.; Telting, J. H.; Silvotti, R.; Charpinet, S.; Quint, A. C.; Handler, G.; Gilliland, R. L.; Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D. G.; Kjeldsen, H.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-12-01

    We present the discovery of non-radial pulsations in five hot subdwarf B (sdB) stars based on 27 d of nearly continuous time series photometry using the Kepler spacecraft. We find that every sdB star cooler than ≈27 500 K that Kepler has observed (seven so far) is a long-period pulsator of the V1093 Her (PG 1716) class or a hybrid star with both short and long periods. The apparently non-binary long-period and hybrid pulsators are described here. The V1093 Her periods range from 1 to 4.5 h and are associated with g-mode pulsations. Three stars also exhibit short periods indicative of p-modes with periods of 2-5 min and in addition, these stars exhibit periodicities between both classes from 15 to 45 min. We detect the coolest and longest-period V1093 Her-type pulsator to date, KIC010670103 (Teff≈ 20 900 K, Pmax≈ 4.5 h) as well as a suspected hybrid pulsator, KIC002697388, which is extremely cool (Teff≈ 23 900 K) and for the first time hybrid pulsators which have larger g-mode amplitudes than p-mode ones. All of these pulsators are quite rich with many frequencies and we are able to apply asymptotic relationships to associate periodicities with modes for KIC010670103. Kepler data are particularly well suited for these studies as they are long duration, extremely high duty cycle observations with well-behaved noise properties.

  11. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Deuk; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, Kim Choon; Amy, Gary L; Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid desalination system consisting of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and adsorption desalination (AD) units, designated as VMD-AD cycle, is proposed. The synergetic integration of the VMD and AD is demonstrated where a useful effect of the AD cycle is channelled to boost the operation of the VMD process, namely the low vacuum environment to maintain the high pressure gradient across the microporous hydrophobic membrane. A solar-assisted multi-stage VMD-AD hybrid desalination system with temperature modulating unit is first designed, and its performance is then examined with a mathematical model of each component in the system and compared with the VMD-only system with temperature modulating and heat recovery units. The total water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150 m(2) of evacuated-tube collectors and 10 m(3) seawater storage tanks, both annual collector efficiency and solar fraction are close to 60%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2016-05-03

    In this paper, a hybrid desalination system consisting of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and adsorption desalination (AD) units, designated as VMD-AD cycle, is proposed. The synergetic integration of the VMD and AD is demonstrated where a useful effect of the AD cycle is channelled to boost the operation of the VMD process, namely the low vacuum environment to maintain the high pressure gradient across the microporous hydrophobic membrane. A solar-assisted multi-stage VMD-AD hybrid desalination system with temperature modulating unit is first designed, and its performance is then examined with a mathematical model of each component in the system and compared with the VMD-only system with temperature modulating and heat recovery units. The total water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150 m2 of evacuated-tube collectors and 10 m3 seawater storage tanks, both annual collector efficiency and solar fraction are close to 60%.

  13. The program system for the automatic graphical representation, on the Calcomp recorder, of the results of numerical or hybrid simulations on the E.A.I. 8900 Computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, Daniele

    1970-01-01

    This report was the first subject of a thesis submitted by Madame Daniele NEEL, on the 25 of May 1970, to the Faculte des Sciences in Paris in order to obtain the grade of doctor engineer. The differential equations, treated by hybrid calculations, were solved continuously by the analog machine; at the same time the digital computer sampled the results at different times. The program system was divided Into two parts. A card index system was developed progressively from the results (even if they were in real time); the results were displayed graphically directly on an oscilloscope screen with a memory as a curve or a series of curves or, by a delayed system using a digital tracer. The graphs obtained were ready to be inserted in a report and contained all the relevant information. The second subject 'The hybrid calculation - Generalities and Bibliography' was covered by a note CEA-N-1345. (author) [fr

  14. The skeletal trauma resulting from a fatal B.A.S.E jump: A case study showing the impact of landing feet-first under extreme vertical deceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, Samantha K; Blau, Soren; Hislop-Jambrich, Jacqueline

    2018-05-01

    The term 'B.A.S.E jump' refers to jumping from a building, antenna, span (i.e., bridge) or earth (i.e., cliff) structure, and parachuting to the ground. There are numerous hazards associated with B.A.S.E jumps which often result in injury and, occasionally, fatality. This case report details the skeletal trauma resulting from a fatal B.A.S.E jump in Australia. In this case, the jumper impacted the ground from a fall of 439m in a feet-first landing position, as a result of a partially deployed parachute, under extreme vertical deceleration. Skeletal trauma was analyzed using full-body post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and contextual information related to the circumstances of the jump as reported by the Coroner. Trauma to 61 skeletal elements indicates the primary impact was to the feet (i.e., feet-first landing), followed by an anterior impact to the body (i.e., fall forwards). Details of the individual fracture morphologies indicate the various forces and biomechanics involved in this fall event. This case presents the types of fractures that result from a B.A.S.E jump, and highlights the value of using PMCT and coronial data as tools to augment skeletal trauma interpretations. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Showing results? An analysis of the perceptions of internal and external stakeholders of the public performance communication by the Belgian and Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Galetzka, Mirjam; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Seydel, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Information Quarterly, 15: 153–156). In Belgium and the Netherlands, one Performance measurement and communicating about it with the broader public is not self-evident if one looks at public services organizations (Hernon, 1998 P. Hernon, The government performance and results act. Government

  16. Cells exposed to a huntingtin fragment containing an expanded polyglutamine tract show no sign of ion channel formation: results arguing against the ion channel hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørremølle, Anne; Grunnet, Morten; Hasholt, Lis

    2003-01-01

    Ion channels formed by expanded polyglutamine tracts have been proposed to play an important role in the pathological processes leading to neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease and other CAG repeat diseases. We tested the capacity of a huntingtin fragment containing an expanded polyglutamine...... in the currents recorded in any of the two expression systems, indicating no changes in ion channel activity. The results therefore argue against the proposed hypothesis of expanded polyglutamines forming ion channels....

  17. How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches – a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Kristin; Barkmann, Claus; Klasen, Fionna; Bullinger, Monika; Glaeske, Gerd; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative ...

  18. Hybrid cryptosystem RSA - CRT optimization and VMPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadani, R.; Mawengkang, H.; Sutarman

    2018-03-01

    Hybrid cryptosystem combines symmetric algorithms and asymmetric algorithms. This combination utilizes speeds on encryption/decryption processes of symmetric algorithms and asymmetric algorithms to secure symmetric keys. In this paper we propose hybrid cryptosystem that combine symmetric algorithms VMPC and asymmetric algorithms RSA - CRT optimization. RSA - CRT optimization speeds up the decryption process by obtaining plaintext with dp and p key only, so there is no need to perform CRT processes. The VMPC algorithm is more efficient in software implementation and reduces known weaknesses in RC4 key generation. The results show hybrid cryptosystem RSA - CRT optimization and VMPC is faster than hybrid cryptosystem RSA - VMPC and hybrid cryptosystem RSA - CRT - VMPC. Keyword : Cryptography, RSA, RSA - CRT, VMPC, Hybrid Cryptosystem.

  19. Is it possible to preserve lumbar lordosis after hybrid stabilization? Preliminary results of a novel rigid-dynamic stabilization system in degenerative lumbar pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, Matteo; Cavagnaro, Luca; Basso, Marco; Zanirato, Andrea; Felli, Lamberto; Formica, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the results of a novel rigid-dynamic stabilization technique in lumbar degenerative segment diseases (DSD), expressly pointing out the preservation of postoperative lumbar lordosis (LL). Forty-one patients with one level lumbar DSD and initial disc degeneration at the adjacent level were treated. Circumferential lumbar arthrodesis and posterior hybrid instrumentation were performed to preserve an initial disc degeneration above the segment that has to be fused. Clinical and spino-pelvic parameters were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. At 2-year follow-up, a significant improvement of clinical outcomes was reported. No statistically significant difference was noted between postoperative and 2-year follow-up in LL and in disc/vertebral body height ratio at the upper adjacent fusion level. When properly selected, this technique leads to good results. A proper LL should be achieved after any hybrid stabilization to preserve the segment above the fusion.

  20. Empty polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages in anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) show slow radiographic fusion that reduces clinical improvement: results from the prospective multicenter "PIERCE-PEEK" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Olaf; Schomaker, Martin; Cabraja, Mario; Danne, Marco; Kombos, Theodoros; Hanna, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a well-established surgical treatment for radiculopathy and myelopathy. Previous studies showed that empty PEEK cages have lower radiographic fusion rates, but the clinical relevance remains unclear. This paper's aim is to provide high-quality evidence on the outcomes of ACDF with empty PEEK cages and on the relevance of radiographic fusion for clinical outcomes. This large prospective multicenter clinical trial performed single-level ACDF with empty PEEK cages on patients with cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy. The main clinical outcomes were VAS (0-10) for pain and NDI (0-100) for functioning. Radiographic fusion was evaluated by two investigators for three different aspects. The median (range) improvement of the VAS pain score was: 3 (1-6) at 6 months, 3 (2-8) at 12 months, and 4 (2-8) at 18 months. The median (range) improvement of the NDI score was: 12 (2-34) at 6 months, 18 (4-46) at 12 months, and 22 (2-44) at 18 months. Complete radiographic fusion was reached by 126 patients (43%) at 6 months, 214 patients (73%) at 12 months, and 241 patients (83%) at 18 months. Radiographic fusion was a highly significant ( p  PEEK cages is slow and insufficient. Lack of complete radiographic fusion leads to less improvement of pain and disability. We recommend against using empty uncoated pure PEEK cages in ACDF. ISRCTN42774128. Retrospectively registered 14 April 2009.

  1. Optimal Design for Hybrid Ratio of Carbon/Basalt Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Resin Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Hong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The optimum hybrid ratio range of carbon/basalt hybrid fiber reinforced resin composites was studied. Hybrid fiber composites with nine different hybrid ratios were prepared before tensile test.According to the structural features of plain weave, the unit cell's performance parameters were calculated. Finite element model was established by using SHELL181 in ANSYS. The simulated values of the sample stiffness in the model were approximately similar to the experimental ones. The stress nephogram shows that there is a critical hybrid ratio which divides the failure mechanism of HFRP into single failure state and multiple failure state. The tensile modulus, strength and limit tensile strain of HFRP with 45% resin are simulated by finite element method. The result shows that the tensile modulus of HFRP with 60% hybrid ratio increases by 93.4% compared with basalt fiber composites (BFRP, and the limit tensile strain increases by 11.3% compared with carbon fiber composites(CFRP.

  2. [First results of a German second opinion program show high patient satisfaction and large discrepancies between initial therapy recommendations and second opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyerstraß, Jan; Prediger, Barbara; Neugebauer, Edmund; Pieper, Dawid

    2018-02-23

    Although legally anchored, there are no empirical results from German second opinion programs. In this study, various aspects within a population of a second opinion program are examined. In this study patients were analyzed who sought a second opinion in the period from August 2011 to December 2016. Differences in patient characteristics, differentiated by agreement of first and second opinion, were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Patients' satisfaction and quality of life were examined one, three and six months after obtaining the second opinion. In total, 1,414 patients sought a second opinion. Most frequent medical indications were the knee (38.7 %), the back (26.8 %), the hip (11.7 %), and the shoulder (10.2 %). Except for the indication (p=0.035), no patient characteristic had influence on the conformation of the second opinion. Approximately two out of three initial recommendations were not confirmed by the specialists. 89 % of the patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the second opinion and the service offered. The second opinion offers patients the opportunity to seek an additional independent medical opinion and thus provide support for decision making. Further research is needed to examine the reasons for the high discrepancies between the first and second opinions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. The risk of an air accident as a result of a serious incident of the hybrid type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorupski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Safety in air traffic is a multilayered concept and consists of many safety barriers. The practical side of increasing safety is mainly based on analysing the causes of accidents and incidents. This analysis leads to finding gaps in the safety structure and to developing corrective recommendations in order to eliminate them. In this paper we indicate that this practice is insufficient. Most incidents could transform into accidents with fatalities. The standard method of investigating incidents does not answer the question as to whether safety barrier is permanent or whether it was activated accidentally. This paper proposes a new method for analysing incidents aimed at finding their consequences rather than their causes. This makes it possible to find areas that need improvement. Stochastic, timed, coloured Petri nets were used for the analysis. There are three types of air traffic incidents, distinguished according to events that lead to a transformation of an incident into an accident: causal and temporal. The hybrid case, in which both types are important, has been discussed in detail. The method is useful in evaluating the current level of safety in air traffic. Applicability of this method has been shown on the example of the runway incursion problem. - Highlights: • Current accident investigation procedure is not sufficient. • New method aimed to study incident’s conversion into accident was proposed. • The Petri net model of air traffic accident was developed. • Method allows calculating accident probability. • The hybrid case in which both causal and temporal events are important is discussed

  4. Deterministic and stochastic approach for safety and reliability optimization of captive power plant maintenance scheduling using GA/SA-based hybrid techniques: A comparison of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, Dusmanta Kumar; Sadhu, Pradip Kumar; Chakrabarti, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of results for optimization of captive power plant maintenance scheduling using genetic algorithm (GA) as well as hybrid GA/simulated annealing (SA) techniques. As utilities catered by captive power plants are very sensitive to power failure, therefore both deterministic and stochastic reliability objective functions have been considered to incorporate statutory safety regulations for maintenance of boilers, turbines and generators. The significant contribution of this paper is to incorporate stochastic feature of generating units and that of load using levelized risk method. Another significant contribution of this paper is to evaluate confidence interval for loss of load probability (LOLP) because some variations from optimum schedule are anticipated while executing maintenance schedules due to different real-life unforeseen exigencies. Such exigencies are incorporated in terms of near-optimum schedules obtained from hybrid GA/SA technique during the final stages of convergence. Case studies corroborate that same optimum schedules are obtained using GA and hybrid GA/SA for respective deterministic and stochastic formulations. The comparison of results in terms of interval of confidence for LOLP indicates that levelized risk method adequately incorporates the stochastic nature of power system as compared with levelized reserve method. Also the interval of confidence for LOLP denotes the possible risk in a quantified manner and it is of immense use from perspective of captive power plants intended for quality power

  5. Optimizing hybrid spreading in metapopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Miller, Joel C; Cox, Ingemar J; Chain, Benjamin M

    2015-04-29

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by local spreading, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and global spreading, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemics, and examine the optimum balance between spreading mechanisms in terms of achieving the maximum outbreak size. We show the existence of critically hybrid epidemics where neither spreading mechanism alone can cause a noticeable spread but a combination of the two spreading mechanisms would produce an enormous outbreak. Our results provide new strategies for maximising beneficial epidemics and estimating the worst outcome of damaging hybrid epidemics.

  6. Event tree analysis for the system of hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongwei; Qiu Lijian

    1993-01-01

    The application of probabilistic risk assessment for fusion-fission hybrid reactor is introduced. A hybrid reactor system has been analysed using event trees. According to the character of the conceptual design of Hefei Fusion-fission Experimental Hybrid Breeding Reactor, the probabilities of the event tree series induced by 4 typical initiating events were calculated. The results showed that the conceptual design is safe and reasonable. through this paper, the safety character of hybrid reactor system has been understood more deeply. Some suggestions valuable to safety design for hybrid reactor have been proposed

  7. Electrical potential-assisted DNA hybridization. How to mitigate electrostatics for surface DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymoczko, Jakub; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gebala, Magdalena

    2014-12-24

    Surface-confined DNA hybridization reactions are sensitive to the number and identity of DNA capture probes and experimental conditions such as the nature and the ionic strength of the electrolyte solution. When the surface probe density is high or the concentration of bulk ions is much lower than the concentration of ions within the DNA layer, hybridization is significantly slowed down or does not proceed at all. However, high-density DNA monolayers are attractive for designing high-sensitivity DNA sensors. Thus, circumventing sluggish DNA hybridization on such interfaces allows a high surface concentration of target DNA and improved signal/noise ratio. We present potential-assisted hybridization as a strategy in which an external voltage is applied to the ssDNA-modified interface during the hybridization process. Results show that a significant enhancement of hybridization can be achieved using this approach.

  8. Boron/aluminum graphite/resin advanced fiber composite hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Fabrication feasibility and potential of an adhesively bonded metal and resin matrix fiber-composite hybrid are determined as an advanced material for aerospace and other structural applications. The results show that using this hybrid concept makes possible a composite design which, when compared with nonhybrid composites, has greater transverse strength, transverse stiffness, and impact resistance with only a small penalty on density and longitudinal properties. The results also show that laminate theory is suitable for predicting the structural response of such hybrids. The sequence of fracture modes indicates that these types of hybrids can be readily designed to meet fail-safe requirements.

  9. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer's prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The hybrid

  10. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  11. Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop–wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Uwimana, Brigitte; Smulders, Marinus J.M.; Hooftman, Danny A.P.; Hartman, Yorike; van Tienderen, Peter H.; Jansen, Johannes; McHale, Leah K.; Michelmore, Richard W.; van de Wiel , Clemens C.M.; Visser , Richard G.F.

    2012-01-01

    With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop–wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution of the crop parent to the performance of the hybrids. In this study, we investigated the v...

  12. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  13. Hybrid Laminates for Application in North Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, V. V.; Oreshko, E. I.; Erasov, V. S.; Serebrennikova, N. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    A hybrid aluminum-lithium alloy/SIAL laminate as a possible material for application in structures operated in North conditions is considered. The finite-element method is used for a buckling stability analysis of hybrid panels, bars, and plates. A technique allowing one to compare the buckling stability of multilayered hybrid plates is offered. Compression tests were run on a hybrid laminate wing panel as a prototype of the top panel of TU-204SM airplane made from a high-strength B95T2 aluminum alloy. It turned out that the lighter composite panel had a higher load-carrying capacity than the aluminum one. Results of investigation into the properties the hybrid aluminum-lithium alloy/SIAL laminate and an analysis of scientific-technical data on this subject showed that this composite material could be used in the elements of airframes, including those operated in north conditions.

  14. Hybrid Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logics with Interval Length Binders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin; Sciavicco, Guido

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the question of how much hybrid machinery can be added to the interval neighbourhood logic PNL and its metric extension MPNL without losing the decidability of their satisfiability problem in N. In particular, we consider the natural hybrid extension of MPNL obtained by adding...... over interval lengths. These results show that MPNL itself is, in this sense, a maximal decidable (weakly) hybrid extension of PNL. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. Analysis of product efficiency of hybrid vehicles and promotion policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyundo; Oh, Inha

    2010-01-01

    The key aim of this study is to evaluate the product efficiency of current hybrid vehicles and suggest effective policies to promote hybrid vehicles in the Korean automobile market and development trends of hybrid vehicles. The efficiency levels for car models sold in Korea, including hybrid ones, were measured using the recently developed discrete additive data envelopment analysis (DEA) model that reflects consumer preference. The result of the analysis shows that current hybrid vehicles on the market are still at lower competitive advantage than traditional car models with conventional combustion engines and we can suggest a mix of incentive policies to promote the competitiveness of hybrid vehicles. In addition, we also identify two distinctive trends of hybrid vehicle development: environment-oriented hybrid vehicles and performance-oriented hybrid vehicles. It implies that the government should take account of development trends of hybrid vehicles to achieve the policy goals in designing support schemes and automobile companies that are willing to develop hybrid vehicles can also gain some insights for making strategic decisions. (author)

  16. Novel recurrent chromosomal aberrations detected in clonal plasma cells of light chain amyloidosis patients show potential adverse prognostic effect: first results from a genome-wide copy number array analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzow, Martin; Hegenbart, Ute; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Hose, Dirk; Seckinger, Anja; Bochtler, Tilmann; Hemminki, Kari; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Schönland, Stefan O; Jauch, Anna

    2017-07-01

    Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the deposition of abnormal amyloid fibrils in multiple organs, thus impairing their function. In the largest cohort studied up to now of 118 CD138-purified plasma cell samples from previously untreated immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis patients, we assessed in parallel copy number alterations using high-density copy number arrays and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). We used fluorescence in situ hybridization probes for the IgH translocations t(11;14), t(4;14), and t(14;16) or any other IgH rearrangement as well as numerical aberrations of the chromosome loci 1q21, 8p21, 5p15/5q35, 11q22.3 or 11q23, 13q14, 15q22, 17p13, and 19q13. Recurrent gains included chromosomes 1q (36%), 9 (24%), 11q (24%), as well as 19 (15%). Recurrent losses affected chromosome 13 (29% monosomy) and partial losses of 14q (19%), 16q (14%) and 13q (12%), respectively. In 88% of patients with translocation t(11;14), the hallmark chromosomal aberration in AL amyloidosis, a concomitant gain of 11q22.3/11q23 detected by iFISH was part of the unbalanced translocation der(14)t(11;14)(q13;q32) with the breakpoint in the CCND1/MYEOV gene region. Partial loss of chromosome regions 14q and 16q were significantly associated to gain 1q. Gain 1q21 detected by iFISH almost always resulted from a gain of the long arm of chromosome 1 and not from trisomy 1, whereas deletions on chromosome 1p were rarely found. Overall and event-free survival analysis found a potential adverse prognostic effect of concomitant gain 1q and deletion 14q as well as of deletion 1p. In conclusion, in the first whole genome report of clonal plasma cells in AL amyloidosis, novel aberrations and hitherto unknown potential adverse prognostic effects were uncovered. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  17. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  18. New lager yeast strains generated by interspecific hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2015-05-01

    The interspecific hybrid Saccharomyces pastorianus is the most commonly used yeast in brewery fermentations worldwide. Here, we generated de novo lager yeast hybrids by mating a domesticated and strongly flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale strain with the Saccharomyces eubayanus type strain. The hybrids were characterized with respect to the parent strains in a wort fermentation performed at temperatures typical for lager brewing (12 °C). The resulting beers were analysed for sugar and aroma compounds, while the yeasts were tested for their flocculation ability and α-glucoside transport capability. These hybrids inherited beneficial properties from both parent strains (cryotolerance, maltotriose utilization and strong flocculation) and showed apparent hybrid vigour, fermenting faster and producing beer with higher alcohol content (5.6 vs 4.5 % ABV) than the parents. Results suggest that interspecific hybridization is suitable for production of novel non-GM lager yeast strains with unique properties and will help in elucidating the evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.

  19. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  20. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  1. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  2. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  3. Simulation results for PLATO: a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector with a low energy threshold for fusion plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, A.; Menouni, M.; Pangaud, P.; Morel, C.; Fenzi, C.; Colledani, G.; Moureau, G.; Escarguel, A.

    2017-01-01

    PLATO is a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector that has been designed to meet the specifications for plasma diagnostics for the WEST tokamak platform (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) in southern France, with potential perspectives for ITER. PLATO represents a customized solution that fulfills high sensitivity, low dispersion and high photon counting rate. The PLATO prototype matrix is composed of 16 × 18 pixels with a 70 μm pixel pitch. New techniques have been used in analog sensitive blocks to minimize noise coupling through supply rails and substrate, and to suppress threshold dispersion across the matrix. The PLATO ASIC is designed in CMOS 0.13 μm technology and was submitted for a fabrication run in June 2016. The chip is designed to be bump-bonded to a silicon sensor. This paper presents pixel architecture as well as simulation results while highlighting novel solutions.

  4. Yield performance and stability of CMS-based triticale hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühleisen, Jonathan; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Maurer, Hans Peter; Reif, Jochen Christoph

    2015-02-01

    CMS-based triticale hybrids showed only marginal midparent heterosis for grain yield and lower dynamic yield stability compared to inbred lines. Hybrids of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) are expected to possess outstanding yield performance and increased dynamic yield stability. The objectives of the present study were to (1) examine the optimum choice of the biometrical model to compare yield stability of hybrids versus lines, (2) investigate whether hybrids exhibit a more pronounced grain yield performance and yield stability, and (3) study optimal strategies to predict yield stability of hybrids. Thirteen female and seven male parental lines and their 91 factorial hybrids as well as 30 commercial lines were evaluated for grain yield in up to 20 environments. Hybrids were produced using a cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)-inducing cytoplasm that originated from Triticumtimopheevii Zhuk. We found that the choice of the biometrical model can cause contrasting results and concluded that a group-by-environment interaction term should be added to the model when estimating stability variance of hybrids and lines. midparent heterosis for grain yield was on average 3 % with a range from -15.0 to 11.5 %. No hybrid outperformed the best inbred line. Hybrids had, on average, lower dynamic yield stability compared to the inbred lines. Grain yield performance of hybrids could be predicted based on midparent values and general combining ability (GCA)-predicted values. In contrast, stability variance of hybrids could be predicted only based on GCA-predicted values. We speculated that negative effects of the used CMS cytoplasm might be the reason for the low performance and yield stability of the hybrids. For this purpose a detailed study on the reasons for the drawback of the currently existing CMS system in triticale is urgently required comprising also the search of potentially alternative hybridization systems.

  5. Intraprocedural arterial perforation during neuroendovascular therapy: Preliminary result of a dual-trained endovascular neurosurgeon in the neurosurgical hybrid operating room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuang-Seng Tsuei

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: IPAP can be rescued successfully with an aggressive approach and quick conversion to backup surgery by a dual-trained endovascular neurosurgeon in the hybrid OR. The value of the hybrid OR in neuroendovascular therapy should be further investigated in the future.

  6. Operation management of daily economic dispatch using novel hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm with hybrid mutation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Song; Ji, Zhicheng

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm based on hybrid mutation strategy (HGSAPSO-M) to optimize economic dispatch (ED) including distributed generations (DGs) considering market-based energy pricing. A daily ED model was formulated and a hybrid mutation strategy was adopted in HGSAPSO-M. The hybrid mutation strategy includes two mutation operators, chaotic mutation, Gaussian mutation. The proposed algorithm was tested on IEEE-33 bus and results show that the approach is effective for this problem.

  7. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  8. Hierarchically porous carbon/polyaniline hybrid for use in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Min Jae; Yun, Young Soo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2014-12-01

    A hierarchically porous carbon (HPC)/polyaniline (PANI) hybrid electrode was prepared by the polymerization of PANI on the surface of the HPC via rapid-mixing polymerization. The surface morphologies and chemical composition of the HPC/PANI hybrid electrode were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The surface morphologies and XPS results for the HPC, PANI and HPC/PANI hybrids indicate that PANI is coated on the surface of HPC in the HPC/PANI hybrids which have two different nitrogen groups as a benzenoid amine (-NH-) peak and positively charged nitrogen (N+) peak. The electrochemical performances of the HPC/PANI hybrids were analyzed by performing cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The HPC/PANI hybrids showed a better specific capacitance (222 F/g) than HPC (111 F/g) because of effect of pseudocapacitor behavior. In addition, good cycle stabilities were maintained over 1000 cycles.

  9. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  10. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  11. Gonad morphogenesis defects drive hybrid male sterility in asymmetric hybrid breakdown of Caenorhabditis nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Alivia; Jin, Qi; Chen, Yen-Chu; Cutter, Asher D

    2014-01-01

    Determining the causes and evolution of reproductive barriers to gene flow between populations, speciation, is the key to understanding the origin of diversity in nature. Many species manifest hybrid breakdown when they intercross, characterized by increasingly exacerbated problems in later generations of hybrids. Recently, Caenorhabditis nematodes have emerged as a genetic model for studying speciation, and here we investigate the nature and causes of hybrid breakdown between Caenorhabditis remanei and C. latens. We quantify partial F1 hybrid inviability and extensive F2 hybrid inviability; the ~75% F2 embryonic arrest occurs primarily during gastrulation or embryonic elongation. Moreover, F1 hybrid males exhibit Haldane's rule asymmetrically for both sterility and inviability, being strongest when C. remanei serves as maternal parent. We show that the mechanism by which sterile hybrid males are incapable of transferring sperm or a copulatory plug involves defective gonad morphogenesis, which we hypothesize results from linker cell defects in migration and/or cell death during development. This first documented case of partial hybrid male sterility in Caenorhabditis follows expectations of Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule for asymmetric male fitness, providing a powerful foundation for molecular dissection of intrinsic reproductive barriers and divergence of genetic pathways controlling organ morphogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Marans, B. [Toronto Atmospheric Fund, ON (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO{sub 2} emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  13. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.; Marans, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO 2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  14. Regional assignment of seven genes on chromosome 1 of man by use of man-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids. I. Results obtained after hybridization of human cells carrying reciprocal translocations involving chromosome 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsma, A P; Burgerhout, W G

    1977-01-01

    Regional localization studies of genes coding for human PGD, PPH1, PGM1, UGPP, GuK1, Pep-C, and FH, which have been assigned to chromosome 1, were performed with man-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids, Informative hybrids that retained fragments of the human chromosome 1 were produced by fusion of hamster cells with human cells carrying reciprocal translocations involving chromosome 1. Analysis of the hybrids that retained one of the translocation chromosomes or de novo rearrangements involving the human 1 revealed the following gene positions: PGD and PPH1 in 1pter leads to 1p32, PGM1 in 1p32 leads to 1p22, UGPP and GuK1 in 1q21 leads to 1q42, FH in 1qter leads to 1q42, and Pep-C probably in 1q42.

  15. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  16. Interploidal hybridization and mating patterns in the Sphagnum subsecundum complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, M; Szövényi, P; Temsch, E M; Johnson, M G; Shaw, A J

    2011-08-01

    Polyploidization is thought to result in instant sympatric speciation, but several cases of hybrid zones between one of the parental species and its polyploid derivative have been documented. Previous work showed that diploid Sphagnum lescurii is an allopolyploid derived from the haploids S. lescurii (maternal progenitor) and S. subsecundum (paternal progenitor). Here, we report the results from analyses of a population where allodiploid and haploid S. lescurii co-occur and produce sporophytes. We tested (i) whether haploids and diploids form hybrid triploid sporophytes; (ii) how hybrid and nonhybrid sporophytes compare in fitness; (iii) whether hybrid sporophytes form viable spores; (iv) the ploidy of any viable gametophyte offspring from hybrid sporophytes; (v) the relative viability of sporelings derived from hybrid and nonhybrid sporophytes; and (vi) if interploidal hybridization results in introgression between the allopolyploid and its haploid progenitor. We found that triploid hybrid sporophytes do occur and are larger than nonhybrid sporophytes, but exhibit very low germination percentages and produce sporelings that develop more slowly than those from nonhybrid sporophytes. All sporophytes attached to haploid gametophytes were triploid and were sired by diploid males, but all sporophytes attached to diploid gametophytes were tetraploid. This asymmetric pattern of interploidal hybridization is related to an absence of haploid male gametophytes in the population. Surprisingly, all sporelings from triploid sporophytes were triploid, yet were genetically variable, suggesting some form of aberrant meiosis that warrants further study. There was limited (but some) evidence of introgression between allodiploid and haploid S. lescurii. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Hybrid Methods in Designing Sierpinski Gasket Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudrik Alaydrus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sierpinki gasket antennas as example of fractal antennas show multiband characteristics. The computer simulation of Sierpinksi gasket monopole with finite ground needs prohibitively large computer memory and more computational time. Hybrid methods consist of surface integral equation method and physical optics or uniform geometrical theory of diffraction should alleviate this computational burdens. The so-called full hybridization of the different methods with modifying the incoming electromagnetic waves in case of hybrid method surface integral equation method and physical optics and modification of the Greens function for hybrid method surface integral equation method and uniform geometrical theory of diffraction plays the central role in the observation. Comparison between results of different methods are given and also measurements of three Sierpinksi gasket antennas. The multiband characteristics of the antennas still can be seen with some reduction and enhancement of resonances.

  18. Effects of natural hybrid and non-hybrid Epichloë endophytes on the response of Hordelymus europaeus to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Martina; Güsewell, Sabine; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Ascomycota, Clavicipitaceae) are prevalent in wild grass populations, possibly because of their larger gene variation, resulting in increased fitness benefits for host plants; however, the reasons are not yet known. We tested hypotheses regarding niche expansion mediated by hybrid endophytes, population-dependent interactions and local co-adaptation in the woodland grass Hordelymus europaeus, which naturally hosts both hybrid and non-hybrid endophyte taxa. Seedlings derived from seeds of four grass populations made endophyte free were re-inoculated with hybrid or non-hybrid endophyte strains, or left endophyte free. Plants were grown in the glasshouse with or without drought treatment. Endophyte infection increased plant biomass and tiller production by 10-15% in both treatments. Endophyte types had similar effects on growth, but opposite effects on reproduction: non-hybrid endophytes increased seed production, whereas hybrid endophytes reduced or prevented it completely. The results are consistent with the observation that non-hybrid endophytes in H. europaeus prevail at dry sites, but cannot explain the prevalence of hybrid endophytes. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of niche expansion of hybrid-infected plants. Moreover, plants inoculated with native relative to foreign endophytes yielded higher infections, but both showed similar growth and survival, suggesting weak co-adaptation. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Study on hybrid heat source overlap welding of magnesium alloy AZ31B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G.L.; Zhou, G.; Yuan, S.Q.

    2009-01-01

    The magnesium alloy AZ31B was overlap welded by hybrid welding (laser-tungsten inert gas arc). According to the hybrid welding interaction principle, a new heat source model, hybrid welding heat source model, was developed with finite element analysis. At the same time, using a high-temperature metallographical microscope, the macro-appearance and microstructure characteristics of the joint after hybrid overlap welding were studied. The results indicate that the hybrid welding was superior to the single tungsten inert gas welding or laser welding on the aspects of improving the utilized efficiency of the arc and enhancing the absorptivity of materials to laser energy. Due to the energy characteristics of hybrid overlap welding the macro-appearance of the joint was cup-shaped, the top weld showed the hybrid welding microstructure, while, the lower weld showed the typical laser welding microstructure

  20. Study on hybrid heat source overlap welding of magnesium alloy AZ31B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, G.L. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Tangshan College, Tangshan 063000 (China)], E-mail: guoliliang@sohu.com; Zhou, G. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yuan, S.Q. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Tangshan College, Tangshan 063000 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The magnesium alloy AZ31B was overlap welded by hybrid welding (laser-tungsten inert gas arc). According to the hybrid welding interaction principle, a new heat source model, hybrid welding heat source model, was developed with finite element analysis. At the same time, using a high-temperature metallographical microscope, the macro-appearance and microstructure characteristics of the joint after hybrid overlap welding were studied. The results indicate that the hybrid welding was superior to the single tungsten inert gas welding or laser welding on the aspects of improving the utilized efficiency of the arc and enhancing the absorptivity of materials to laser energy. Due to the energy characteristics of hybrid overlap welding the macro-appearance of the joint was cup-shaped, the top weld showed the hybrid welding microstructure, while, the lower weld showed the typical laser welding microstructure.

  1. Comparative gene expression profiles between heterotic and non-heterotic hybrids of tetraploid Medicago sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nettleton Dan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterosis, the superior performance of hybrids relative to parents, has clear agricultural value, but its genetic control is unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that hybrids expressing heterosis for biomass yield would show more gene expression levels that were different from midparental values and outside the range of parental values than hybrids that do not exhibit heterosis. Results We tested these hypotheses in three Medicago sativa (alfalfa genotypes and their three hybrids, two of which expressed heterosis for biomass yield and a third that did not, using Affymetrix M. truncatula GeneChip arrays. Alfalfa hybridized to approximately 47% of the M. truncatula probe sets. Probe set signal intensities were analyzed using MicroArray Suite v.5.0 (MAS and robust multi-array average (RMA algorithms. Based on MAS analysis, the two heterotic hybrids performed similarly, with about 27% of genes showing differential expression among the parents and their hybrid compared to 12.5% for the non-heterotic hybrid. At a false discovery rate of 0.15, 4.7% of differentially expressed genes in hybrids (~300 genes showed nonadditive expression compared to only 0.5% (16 genes in the non-heterotic hybrid. Of the nonadditively expressed genes, approximately 50% showed expression levels that fell outside the parental range in heterotic hybrids, but only one of 16 showed a similar profile in the non-heterotic hybrid. Genes whose expression differed in the parents were three times more likely to show nonadditive expression than genes whose parental transcript levels were equal. Conclusion The higher proportions of probe sets with expression level that differed from the parental midparent value and that were more extreme than either parental value in the heterotic hybrids compared to a non-heterotic hybrid were also found using RMA. We conclude that nonadditive expression of transcript levels may contribute to heterosis for biomass

  2. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  3. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  4. Hybridization and management of oak populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver Gailing

    2017-01-01

    Hybridization can result in the transfer of adaptations among species and may contribute to speciation processes. On the other hand, hybridization can also result in a loss of species diversity due to asymmetric gene flow between species (genetic swamping) and in low hybrid fitness. An understanding of the outcomes of interspecific hybridization is crucial for the...

  5. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  6. Rosetta swing-by at Mars – an analysis of the ROMAP measurements in comparison with results of 3-D multi-ion hybrid simulations and MEX/ASPERA-3 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boesswetter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Rosetta spacecraft flew by Mars at a distance of 260 km on 25 February 2007 during a gravity assist manoeuvre. During the closest approach (CA the lander magnetometer ROMAP was switched on. The dataset taken during this swingby provides insight into the plasma environment around Mars: in addition to a pronounced bow shock crossing Rosetta recorded the signature of the pile up region of draped magnetic field. Also the Rosetta measurements showed signatures of crustal magnetic field anomalies which can be verified by results of a crustal magnetic field model. In order to understand the measured field morphology, multi-ion hybrid simulations were performed. Some of the input parameters for the simulations were obtained from Mars Express (MEX data which were contemporaneously collected during the Rosetta swingby. These simulations reproduces ROMAP magnetic field measurements and show that the interplanetary magnetic field pointed northward during the encounter. A spectral analysis shows upstream waves ahead of the bow shock and indicates the presence of the magnetic pile-up boundary (MPB. The multi-ion model reproduces the ion fluxes measured by MEX/ASPERA-3 and is in agreement with the measurements to within one order of magnitude.

  7. A Prototype Regional GSI-based EnKF-Variational Hybrid Data Assimilation System for the Rapid Refresh Forecasting System: Dual-Resolution Implementation and Testing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yujie; Xue, Ming; Zhu, Kefeng; Wang, Mingjun

    2018-05-01

    A dual-resolution (DR) version of a regional ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF)-3D ensemble variational (3DEnVar) coupled hybrid data assimilation system is implemented as a prototype for the operational Rapid Refresh forecasting system. The DR 3DEnVar system combines a high-resolution (HR) deterministic background forecast with lower-resolution (LR) EnKF ensemble perturbations used for flow-dependent background error covariance to produce a HR analysis. The computational cost is substantially reduced by running the ensemble forecasts and EnKF analyses at LR. The DR 3DEnVar system is tested with 3-h cycles over a 9-day period using a 40/˜13-km grid spacing combination. The HR forecasts from the DR hybrid analyses are compared with forecasts launched from HR Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) 3D variational (3DVar) analyses, and single LR hybrid analyses interpolated to the HR grid. With the DR 3DEnVar system, a 90% weight for the ensemble covariance yields the lowest forecast errors and the DR hybrid system clearly outperforms the HR GSI 3DVar. Humidity and wind forecasts are also better than those launched from interpolated LR hybrid analyses, but the temperature forecasts are slightly worse. The humidity forecasts are improved most. For precipitation forecasts, the DR 3DEnVar always outperforms HR GSI 3DVar. It also outperforms the LR 3DEnVar, except for the initial forecast period and lower thresholds.

  8. Analysis of chromosome aberration data by hybrid-scale models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indrawati, Iwiq; Kumazawa, Shigeru

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing data of chromosome aberrations, which is useful to understand the characteristics of dose-response relationships and to construct the calibration curves for the biological dosimetry. The hybrid scale of linear and logarithmic scales brings a particular plotting paper, where the normal section paper, two types of semi-log papers and the log-log paper are continuously connected. The hybrid-hybrid plotting paper may contain nine kinds of linear relationships, and these are conveniently called hybrid scale models. One can systematically select the best-fit model among the nine models by among the conditions for a straight line of data points. A biological interpretation is possible with some hybrid-scale models. In this report, the hybrid scale models were applied to separately reported data on chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes as well as on chromosome breaks in Tradescantia. The results proved that the proposed models fit the data better than the linear-quadratic model, despite the demerit of the increased number of model parameters. We showed that the hybrid-hybrid model (both variables of dose and response using the hybrid scale) provides the best-fit straight lines to be used as the reliable and readable calibration curves of chromosome aberrations. (author)

  9. Methodology for the hybrid solution of systems of differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrinaga, E.F.; Lopez, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    This work shows a general methodology of solution to systems of differential equations in hybrid computers. Taking into account this methodology, a mathematical model was elaborated. It offers wide possibilities of recording and handling the results on the basis of using the hybrid system IBM-VIDAC 1224 which the ISCTN has. It also presents the results gained when simulating a simple model of a nuclear reactor, which was used in the validation of the results of the computational model

  10. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  11. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  12. Functional efficiency comparison between split- and parallel-hybrid using advanced energy flow analysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenberg, Philipp; Lin, Mengyan [Romax Technology, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The following paper presents a comparative efficiency analysis of the Toyota Prius versus the Honda Insight using advanced Energy Flow Analysis methods. The sample study shows that even very different hybrid concepts like a split- and a parallel-hybrid can be compared in a high level of detail and demonstrates the benefit showing exemplary results. (orig.)

  13. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  14. Ternary Hollow Mesoporous TiN/N-Graphene/Pt Hybrid Results in Enhanced Electrocatalytic Performance for Methanol Oxidation and Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Baocang; Huo, Lili; Zhang, Geng; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hollow mesoporous ternary @M-TiN/N-G/Pt electrocatalysts were synthesized. • The @M-TiN/N-G/Pt electrocatalysts displayed outstanding activity and stability toward MOR and ORR. • The activity and stability of @M-TiN/N-G/Pt electrocatalysts were higher than Pt/TiN, @M-TiN/Pt, and Pt/C catalysts. • The excellent electrocatalytic performance rooted in its unique configuration. • Several reasons were proposed to explain the enhanced electrocatalytic performance of @M-TiN/N-G/Pt. - Abstract: A novel hollow mesoporous TiN/N-graphene (N-G) hybrid architecture (@M-TiN/N-G) composed of N-doped graphene wrapped mesoporous TiN nanoparticle shells was constructed for the first time. It can be used as an efficient support for creating a highly efficient ternary @M-TiN/N-G/Pt electrocatalyst with superior catalytic activity and stability for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) through decorating well-dispersed Pt nanoparticles on @M-TiN/N-G surface. By optimizing the content of N-G in catalysts, the @M-TiN/N-G/Pt catalysts display superior catalytic activity and stability toward MOR and ORR to traditional Pt/C and graphene-free Pt/TiN and @M-TiN/Pt catalysts. The various characterization results reveal that the outstanding electrocatalytic performance of @M-TiN/N-G/Pt catalyst roots in its large surface area, high porosity, strong interaction among Pt, TiN, and N-G, excellent electron transfer property facilitated by N-doped graphene, and small size of Pt and TiN nanocrystals. The synthetic approach may be available for constructing other graphene based hollow metal nitrides, carbides, and phosphides for various electrocatalytic applications.

  15. Segregation distortion causes large-scale differences between male and female genomes in hybrid ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmuni, Jonna; Seifert, Bernhard; Pamilo, Pekka

    2010-04-20

    Hybridization in isolated populations can lead either to hybrid breakdown and extinction or in some cases to speciation. The basis of hybrid breakdown lies in genetic incompatibilities between diverged genomes. In social Hymenoptera, the consequences of hybridization can differ from those in other animals because of haplodiploidy and sociality. Selection pressures differ between sexes because males are haploid and females are diploid. Furthermore, sociality and group living may allow survival of hybrid genotypes. We show that hybridization in Formica ants has resulted in a stable situation in which the males form two highly divergent gene pools whereas all the females are hybrids. This causes an exceptional situation with large-scale differences between male and female genomes. The genotype differences indicate strong transmission ratio distortion depending on offspring sex, whereby the mother transmits some alleles exclusively to her daughters and other alleles exclusively to her sons. The genetic differences between the sexes and the apparent lack of multilocus hybrid genotypes in males can be explained by recessive incompatibilities which cause the elimination of hybrid males because of their haploid genome. Alternatively, differentiation between sexes could be created by prezygotic segregation into male-forming and female-forming gametes in diploid females. Differentiation between sexes is stable and maintained throughout generations. The present study shows a unique outcome of hybridization and demonstrates that hybridization has the potential of generating evolutionary novelties in animals.

  16. Patterns of parasite distribution in the hybrids of non-congeneric cyprinid fish species: is asymmetry in parasite infection the result of limited coadaptation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasnovyd, V.; Vetešník, Lukáš; Gettová, L.; Civáňová, K.; Šimková, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 8 (2017), s. 471-483 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Interspecific hybrids * Cyprinid fish * Parasite communities * Host specificity * Maternal ancestry Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2016

  17. Control of hybrid fuel cell/energy storage distributed generation system against voltage sag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajizadeh, Amin; Golkar, Masoud Aliakbar [Electrical Engineering Department, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Seyedkhandan, Dr. Shariati Ave, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-06-15

    Fuel cell (FC) and energy storage (ES) based hybrid distributed power generation systems appear to be very promising for satisfying high energy and high power requirements of power quality problems in distributed generation (DG) systems. In this study, design of control strategy for hybrid fuel cell/energy storage distributed power generation system during voltage sag has been presented. The proposed control strategy allows hybrid distributed generation system works properly when a voltage disturbance occurs in distribution system and hybrid system stays connected to the main grid. Hence, modeling, controller design, and simulation study of a hybrid distributed generation system are investigated. The physical model of the fuel cell stack, energy storage and the models of power conditioning units are described. Then the control design methodology for each component of the hybrid system is proposed. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance including active power control and voltage sag ride-through capability of the hybrid distributed generation system. (author)

  18. YIELD STABILITY OF NEW HYBRID RICE ACROSS LOCATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of hybrid rice varieties mostly are in specific location and season, but there are some of the varieties have a wide adaptation then adopted by the farmer in the large area. Replicated yield trials were conducted to study the stability of hybrid rice yield and identify the best location to optimize their yield per ha. The trials were conducted in three location such as Sukamandi, Salatiga and Malang during two seasons in 2011. Data across location and season were analazed by using AMMI and Eberhart Russel methods. The AMMI analysis showed that the IR79156A/PK88 was adaptable to favorable environments but unstable. This hybrid is always performing well and produce the higher yield compare to check variety. Some of other hybrids were good only in specific location, i.e. IR62829A/BP2280-1E-12-22 and IR58029A/BP2280-1E-12-22. Those hybrids produced higher yield in Salatiga and Malang, respectively. Seem to AMMI analysis, the result of Eberhart and Russell method also showed that IR79156A/PK81 was the best hybrid with regression slope (b around 1 with the yield average higher than average of all hybrids. It indicated that this hybrid has a wide adaptation and probably can be cultivated in the wider ecosystem.

  19. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  20. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  1. Ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy for the thyroid nodule: does the procedure hold any benefit for the diagnosis when fine-needle aspiration cytology analysis shows inconclusive results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, S Y; Han, B-K; Ko, E Y; Ko, E S

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the diagnostic role of ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) according to ultrasonography features of thyroid nodules that had inconclusive ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) results. Methods: A total of 88 thyroid nodules in 88 patients who underwent ultrasonography-guided CNB because of previous inconclusive FNA results were evaluated. The patients were classified into three groups based on ultrasonography findings: Group A, which was suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); Group B, which was suspicious for follicular (Hurthle cell) neoplasm; and Group C, which was suspicious for lymphoma. The final diagnoses of the thyroid nodules were determined by surgical confirmation or follow-up after ultrasonography-guided CNB. Results: Of the 88 nodules, the malignant rate was 49.1% in Group A, 12.0% in Group B and 90.0% in Group C. The rates of conclusive ultrasonography-guided CNB results after previous incomplete ultrasonography-guided FNA results were 96.2% in Group A, 64.0% in Group B and 90.0% in Group C (p=0.001). 12 cases with inconclusive ultrasonography-guided CNB results were finally diagnosed as 8 benign lesions, 3 PTCs and 1 lymphoma. The number of previous ultrasonography-guided FNA biopsies was not significantly different between the conclusive and the inconclusive result groups of ultrasonography-guided CNB (p=0.205). Conclusion: Ultrasonography-guided CNB has benefit for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with inconclusive ultrasonography-guided FNA results. However, it is still not helpful for the differential diagnosis in 36% of nodules that are suspicious for follicular neoplasm seen on ultrasonography. Advances in knowledge: This study shows the diagnostic contribution of ultrasonography-guided CNB as an alternative to repeat ultrasonography-guided FNA or surgery. PMID:23564885

  2. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  3. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  5. Optimization of an extraordinary magnetoresistance sensor in the semiconductor-metal hybrid structure

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian; Kosel, Jü rgen; Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Soh, Yeongah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show by numerical computation how geometric parameters influence the Extraordinary Magnetoresistance (EMR) effect in an InAs-Au hybrid device. Symmetric IVVI and VIIV configurations were considered. The results show

  6. A hybrid air conditioner driven by a hybrid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alili, Ali

    The objective of this thesis is to search for an efficient way of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications. The current solar Air Conditioners (A/C)s suffer from low Coefficient of Performance (COP) and performance degradation in hot and humid climates. By investigating the possible ways of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications, the bottlenecks in these approaches were identified. That resulted in proposing a novel system whose subsystem synergy led to a COP higher than unity. The proposed system was found to maintain indoor comfort at a higher COP compared to the most common solar A/Cs, especially under very hot and humid climate conditions. The novelty of the proposed A/C is to use a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector, which outputs thermal and electrical energy simultaneously, to drive a hybrid A/C. The performance of the hybrid A/C, which consists of a desiccant wheel, an enthalpy wheel, and a vapor compression cycle (VCC), was investigated experimentally. This work also explored the use of a new type of desiccant material, which can be regenerated with a low temperature heat source. The experimental results showed that the hybrid A/C is more effective than the standalone VCC in maintaining the indoor conditions within the comfort zone. Using the experimental data, the COP of the hybrid A/C driven by a hybrid solar collector was found to be at least double that of the current solar A/Cs. The innovative integration of its subsystems allows each subsystem to do what it can do best. That leads to lower energy consumption which helps reduce the peak electrical loads on electric utilities and reduces the consumer operating cost since less energy is purchased during the on peak periods and less solar collector area is needed. In order for the proposed A/C to become a real alternative to conventional systems, its performance and total cost were optimized using the experimentally validated model. The results showed that for an

  7. Mirror hybrid reactor optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A system model of the mirror hybrid reactor has been developed. The major components of the model include (1) the reactor description, (2) a capital cost analysis, (3) various fuel management schemes, and (4) an economic analysis that includes the hybrid plus its associated fission burner reactors. The results presented describe the optimization of the mirror hybrid reactor, the objective being to minimize the cost of electricity from the hybrid fission-burner reactor complex. We have examined hybrid reactors with two types of blankets, one containing natural uranium, the other thorium. The major difference between the two optimized reactors is that the uranium hybrid is a significant net electrical power producer, whereas the thorium hybrid just about breaks even on electrical power. Our projected costs for fissile fuel production are approximately 50 $/g for 239 Pu and approximately 125 $/g for 233 U

  8. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  9. Effect of layering sequence and chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of woven kenaf–aramid hybrid laminated composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya, R.; Sapuan, S.M.; Jawaid, M.; Leman, Z.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The mechanical properties of woven kenaf/Kevlar hybrid composites were analysed. • The layering sequences affect the mechanical properties of hybrid composites. • Treated kenaf improves the mechanical properties of hybrid composites. - Abstract: This work aims to evaluate the effect of layering sequence and chemical treatment on mechanical properties of woven kenaf–Kevlar composites. Woven kenaf–aramid hybrid laminated composites fabricated through hand lay-up techniques by arranging woven kenaf and Kevlar fabrics in different layering sequences and by using treated kenaf mat. To evaluate the effect of chemical treatment on hybrid composites, the woven kenaf mat was treated with 6% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) diluted solution and compared mechanical properties with untreated kenaf hybrid composites. Results shows that the tensile properties of hybrid composites improved in 3-layer composites compared to 4-layer composites. Hybrid composite with Kevlar as outer layers display a better mechanical properties as compared to other hybrid composites. Tensile and flexural properties of treated hybrid composites are better than non-treated hybrid composites. The fractured surface of hybrid composites was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. This study is a part of exploration of potential application of the hybrid composite in high velocity impact application

  10. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  11. Regional assignment of seven genes on chromosome 1 of man by use of man-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids. II. Results obtained after induction of breaks in chromosome 1 by X-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgerhout, W G; Smit, S L; Jongsma, A P

    1977-01-01

    The position of genes coding for PGD, PPH1, UGPP, GuK1, PGM1, Pep-C, and FH on human chromosome 1 was investigated by analysis of karyotype and enzyme phenotypes in man-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids carrying aberrations involving chromosome 1. Suitable hybrid cell lines were obtained by X-irradiation of hybrid cells carrying an intact chromosome 1 and by fusion of human cells from a clonal population carrying a translocation involving chromosome 1 with Chinese hamster cells. The latter human cell population had been isolated following X-irradiation of primary Lesch-Nyhan fibroblasts. In addition, products of de novo chromosome breakage in the investigated hybrid lines were utilized. By integrating the results of these analyses with earlier findings in our laboratory, the following positions of genes are deduced: PGD and PPH1 in 1p36 leads to 1p34; PGM1 in 1p32; UGPP in 1q21 leads to 1q23; GuK1 in 1q31 leads to 1q42; Pep-C in 1q42; and FH in 1qter leads to 1q42.

  12. Hybrid simulations of current-carrying instabilities in Z-pinch plasmas with sheared axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotnikov, Vladimir I.; Makhin, Volodymyr; Bauer, Bruno S.; Hellinger, Petr; Travnicek, Pavel; Fiala, Vladimir; Leboeuf, Jean-Noel

    2002-01-01

    The development of instabilities in z-pinch plasmas has been studied with three-dimensional (3D) hybrid simulations. Plasma equilibria without and with sheared axial flow have been considered. Results from the linear phase of the hybrid simulations compare well with linear Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations for sausage modes. The hybrid simulations show that sheared axial flow has a stabilizing effect on the development of both sausage and kink modes

  13. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types th......-style intensional models; we build, as simply as we can, hybrid logicover Henkin’s logic...

  14. Research on Hybrid Isolation System for Micro-Nano-Fabrication Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain better vibration suppression effect, this paper designs a semiactive/fully active hybrid isolator by using magnetorheological elastomer (MRE and piezoelectric material. Combined with multimode control scheme, full frequency vibration suppression is achieved. Firstly, series type structure is determined for the hybrid isolator, and the structure of hybrid isolator is designed. Next, the dynamic model of hybrid isolator is derived, the dynamic characteristics measurement for MRE isolator and piezoelectric stack actuator (PSA is established, and parameters such as voltage-displacement coefficient, stiffness and damping constant are identified from the experimental results, respectively. Meanwhile, the switch frequency is determined by experimental results of PSA and MRE isolator. Lastly, influence of the stiffness of MRE, control voltage of PSA, and intermediate mass on hybrid isolator system is analyzed by simulations, and the results show that the hybrid isolator proposed is effective.

  15. Assessing the potential of hybrid fossil–solar thermal plants for energy policy making: Brayton cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardos, Eva; López, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Javier; Abánades, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a first study in-depth of solar–fossil hybridization from a general perspective. It develops a set of useful parameters for analyzing and comparing hybrid plants, it studies the case of hybridizing Brayton cycles with current solar technologies and shows a tentative extrapolation of the results to integrated combined cycle systems (ISCSS). In particular, three points have been analyzed: the technical requirements for solar technologies to be hybridized with Brayton cycles, the temperatures and pressures at which hybridization would produce maximum power per unit of fossil fuel, and their mapping to current solar technologies and Brayton cycles. Major conclusions are that a hybrid plant works in optimum conditions which are not equal to those of the solar or power blocks considered independently, and that hybridizing at the Brayton cycle of a combined cycle could be energetically advantageous. -- Highlights: •We model a generic solar–fossil hybrid Brayton cycle. •We calculate the operating conditions for maximum ratio power/fuel consumption. •Best hybrid plant conditions are not the same as solar or power blocks separately. •We study potential for hybridization with current solar technologies. •Hybridization at the Brayton in a combined cycle may achieve high power/fuel ratio

  16. Preparation and fluorescent recognition properties for fluoride of a nanostructured covalently bonded europium hybrid material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旭东; 李景印; 李亚娟; 耿丽君; 甄小丽; 于涛

    2015-01-01

    A novel covalently bonded Eu3+-based silica hybrid material was designed and its spectrophotometric anion sensing prop-erty was studied. The fluorescent receptor (europium complex) was covalently grafted to the silica matrix via a sol-gel approach. FTIR, UV-vis spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescent spectra were characterized, and the results revealed that the hybrid material with nanosphere structure displayed excellent photophysical property. In addition, the selective anion sensing property of the hybrid material was studied by UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. The results showed that the hybrid material exhibited a smart response with fluoride anions.

  17. Correlation between apparent diffusion coefficients and standardized uptake values in hybrid {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR: Preliminary results in rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ju Hye [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Ihn Ho; Chun, Kyung Ah; Kong, Eun Jung; Kwon, Sang Don; Kim, Jae Hwang [Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) share the same role in clinical oncology and it is feasible to obtain the standardized uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) simultaneously by emerging the hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR). This study investigated the correlation between the ADCs of rectal cancer lesions and their SUVs derived from hybrid PET/MR. Nine patients with histologically proven rectal adenocarcinoma (5 men, 4 women; mean age, 70 ± 15.91 years) underwent torso {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and regional hybrid {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR sequentially. A fixed threshold value of 40 % of maximum uptake was used to determine tumor volume of interest (VOI) on PET image; SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, and SUV{sub mean} were calculated automatically. A single freehand region of interest (ROI) was drawn on high b-value (b1000) DWI image and copied to corresponding ADC map to determine the ADCmean of rectal cancer lesion. Spearman'rank correlation coefficient (ρ) was calculated to determine the correlation between SUVs and ADC values. SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, and SUV{sub mean} derived by hybrid PET/MR were 12.35 ± 4.66 (mean ± standard deviation), 9.66  ± 3.15 and 7.41 ± 2.54, respectively. The ADCmean value of rectal cancer lesions was 1.02 ± 0.08 × 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s. ADCmean was significantly and inversely correlated with SUV values (SUV{sub max}, ρ = -0.95, p < 0.001; SUV{sub peak}, ρ = -0.93, p < 0.001; SUV{sub mean}, ρ = -0.91, p = 0.001). This preliminary hybrid PET/MR study demonstrates a significant inverse correlation exists between metabolic activity on {sup 18}F-FDG PET and water diffusion on DWI in rectal cancer.

  18. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  19. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  20. Analysis of Synchronization for Coupled Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zheng; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    In the control systems with coupled multi-subsystem, the subsystems might be synchronized (i.e. all the subsystems have the same operation states), which results in negative influence to the whole system. For example, in the supermarket refrigeration systems, the synchronized switch of each...... subsystem will cause low efficiency, inferior control performance and a high wear on the compressor. This paper takes the supermarket refrigeration systems as an example to analyze the synchronization and its coupling strengths of coupled hybrid systems, which may provide a base for further research...... of control strategies. This paper combines topology and section mapping theories together to show a new way of analyzing hybrid systems...

  1. Hybrid III-V/SOI resonant cavity enhanced photodetector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Learkthanakhachon, Supannee; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Park, Gyeong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid III–V/SOI resonant-cavity-enhanced photodetector (RCE-PD) structure comprising a high-contrast grating (HCG) reflector, a hybrid grating (HG) reflector, and an air cavity between them, has been proposed and investigated. In the proposed structure, a light absorbing material is integrated...... as part of the HG reflector, enabling a very compact vertical cavity. Numerical investigations show that a quantum efficiency close to 100 % and a detection linewidth of about 1 nm can be achieved, which are desirable for wavelength division multiplexing applications. Based on these results, a hybrid RCE...

  2. A Hybrid Algorithm for Optimizing Multi- Modal Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qinghua; Yang Shida; Ruan Youlin

    2006-01-01

    A new genetic algorithm is presented based on the musical performance. The novelty of this algorithm is that a new genetic algorithm, mimicking the musical process of searching for a perfect state of harmony, which increases the robustness of it greatly and gives a new meaning of it in the meantime, has been developed. Combining the advantages of the new genetic algorithm, simplex algorithm and tabu search, a hybrid algorithm is proposed. In order to verify the effectiveness of the hybrid algorithm, it is applied to solving some typical numerical function optimization problems which are poorly solved by traditional genetic algorithms. The experimental results show that the hybrid algorithm is fast and reliable.

  3. Design, Synthesis, and Analysis of Minor Groove Binder Pyrrolepolyamide-2′-Deoxyguanosine Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Kawashima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolepolyamide-2′-deoxyguanosine hybrids (Hybrid 2 and Hybrid 3 incorporating the 3-aminopropionyl or 3-aminopropyl linker were designed and synthesized on the basis of previously reported results of a pyrrolepolyamide-adenosine hybrid (Hybrid 1. Evaluation of the DNA binding sequence selectivity of pyrrolepolyamide-2′-deoxyguanosine hybrids was performed by CD spectral and Tm analyses. It was shown that Hybrid 3 possessed greater binding specificity than distamycin A, Hybrid 1 and Hybrid 2.

  4. A hybrid absorbing boundary condition for frequency-domain finite-difference modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Zhiming; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Liu and Sen (2010 Geophysics 75 A1–6; 2012 Geophys. Prospect. 60 1114–32) proposed an efficient hybrid scheme to significantly absorb boundary reflections for acoustic and elastic wave modelling in the time domain. In this paper, we extend the hybrid absorbing boundary condition (ABC) into the frequency domain and develop specific strategies for regular-grid and staggered-grid modelling, respectively. Numerical modelling tests of acoustic, visco-acoustic, elastic and vertically transversely isotropic (VTI) equations show significant absorptions for frequency-domain modelling. The modelling results of the Marmousi model and the salt model also demonstrate the effectiveness of the hybrid ABC. For elastic modelling, the hybrid Higdon ABC and the hybrid Clayton and Engquist (CE) ABC are implemented, respectively. Numerical simulations show that the hybrid Higdon ABC gets better absorption than the hybrid CE ABC, especially for S-waves. We further compare the hybrid ABC with the classical perfectly matched layer (PML). Results show that the two ABCs cost the same computation time and memory space for the same absorption width. However, the hybrid ABC is more effective than the PML for the same small absorption width and the absorption effects of the two ABCs gradually become similar when the absorption width is increased. (paper)

  5. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand

  6. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  7. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia); Yahaya, M. S. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  8. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  9. Mass Optimization of Battery/Supercapacitors Hybrid Systems Based on a Linear Programming Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Benoit; Labbe, Julien

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to show that, on a specific launcher-type mission profile, a 40% gain of mass is expected using a battery/supercapacitors active hybridization instead of a single battery solution. This result is based on the use of a linear programming optimization approach to perform the mass optimization of the hybrid power supply solution.

  10. Conceptual design study for a laser fusion hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.

    1976-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Bechtel Corporation have been involved in a joint effort to conceptually design a laser fusion hybrid reactor. The design which has evolved is a depleted-uranium fueled fast-fission blanket which produces fissile plutonium and electricity. A major objective of the design study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing fissile fuel with laser fusion. This feasibility evaluation was carried out by analyzing the integrated engineering performance of the complete conceptual design and by identifying the required laser/pellet performance. The performance of the laser fusion hybrid has also been compared to a typical fast breeder reactor. The results show that the laser fusion hybrid produces enough fissile material to fuel more than six light water reactors (LWR's) of equivalent thermal power while operating in a regime which requires an order of magnitude less laser and pellet performance than pure laser fusion. In comparison to a fast breeder reactor the hybrid produces 10 times more fissile fuel. An economic analysis of the design shows that the cost of electricity in a combined hybrid-LWR scenario is insensitive to the capital cost of the hybrid, increasing by only 20 to 40 percent when the capital cost of the hybrid ranges from 2 to 3 times more than an LWR

  11. Dielectric properties of PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Acosta, M. D.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Alshareef, Husam N.; Gnade, Bruce E.; Ramí rez-Bon, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel process. PMMASiO2 films were prepared using methylmethacrylate (MMA), tetraethil-orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon dioxide source, and 3-trimetoxi-silil-propil-methacrylate (TMSPM) as coupling agent. FTIR measurements were performed on the hybrid films to confirm the presence of PMMA-SiO2 bonding. In addition, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were fabricated to study the dielectric constant of the films as function of frequency (1 KHz to 1 MHz). Electrical results show a weak trend of the dielectric constant of the hybrid films with MMA molar ratio. More importantly, the PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films showed a higher dielectric constant than SiO2 and PMMA layers, which is likely due to the presence of additional C-O-C bond. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  12. Dielectric properties of PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Acosta, M. D.

    2010-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel process. PMMASiO2 films were prepared using methylmethacrylate (MMA), tetraethil-orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon dioxide source, and 3-trimetoxi-silil-propil-methacrylate (TMSPM) as coupling agent. FTIR measurements were performed on the hybrid films to confirm the presence of PMMA-SiO2 bonding. In addition, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were fabricated to study the dielectric constant of the films as function of frequency (1 KHz to 1 MHz). Electrical results show a weak trend of the dielectric constant of the hybrid films with MMA molar ratio. More importantly, the PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films showed a higher dielectric constant than SiO2 and PMMA layers, which is likely due to the presence of additional C-O-C bond. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  13. Advanced configuration of hybrid passive filter for reactive power and harmonic compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kececioglu, O Fatih; Acikgoz, Hakan; Sekkeli, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Harmonics is one of the major power quality problems for power systems. The harmonics can be eliminated by power filters such as passive, active, and hybrid. In this study, a new passive filter configuration has been improved in addition to the existing passive filter configurations. Conventional hybrid passive filters are not successful to compensate rapidly changing reactive power demand. The proposed configure are capable of compensating both harmonics and reactive power at the same time. Simulation results show that performance of reactive power and harmonic compensation with advanced hybrid passive filter is better than conventional hybrid passive filters.

  14. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  15. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Heather

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  16. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil. PMID:22540987

  17. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  19. A HYBRID HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR THE CLUSTERED TRAVELING SALESMAN PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Mestria

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper proposes a hybrid heuristic algorithm, based on the metaheuristics Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure, Iterated Local Search and Variable Neighborhood Descent, to solve the Clustered Traveling Salesman Problem (CTSP. Hybrid Heuristic algorithm uses several variable neighborhood structures combining the intensification (using local search operators and diversification (constructive heuristic and perturbation routine. In the CTSP, the vertices are partitioned into clusters and all vertices of each cluster have to be visited contiguously. The CTSP is -hard since it includes the well-known Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP as a special case. Our hybrid heuristic is compared with three heuristics from the literature and an exact method. Computational experiments are reported for different classes of instances. Experimental results show that the proposed hybrid heuristic obtains competitive results within reasonable computational time.

  20. Effect of sp3-hybridized defects on the oscillatory behavior of carbon nanotube oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Taiyu; Ding, Tony Weixi; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the oscillatory behaviors of carbon nanotube oscillators containing sp 3 -hybridized defects formed by hydrogen chemisorption. It is found that the presence of these defects significantly affects the kinetic and potential energies of the nanotube systems, which in turn affects their oscillation periods and frequencies. We have also studied the oscillatory characteristics of the oscillators containing sp 3 -hybridized Stone-Wales defects. Our results show that it is possible to control the motion of the inner nanotube by introducing sp 3 -hybridized defects on the outer nanotube, which provides a potential way to tune the oscillatory behavior of nanotube oscillators. -- Highlights: → sp 3 -hybridized defects increase energy dissipation. → sp 3 -hybridized defects arranged in a row have stronger effect than that in a ring. → sp 3 -hybridized defects reduces the effect of SW defects.

  1. Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Reyneri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

  2. Genome-Wide Prediction of the Performance of Three-Way Hybrids in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the grain yield performance of three-way hybrids is challenging. Three-way crosses are relevant for hybrid breeding in barley ( L. and maize ( L. adapted to East Africa. The main goal of our study was to implement and evaluate genome-wide prediction approaches of the performance of three-way hybrids using data of single-cross hybrids for a scenario in which parental lines of the three-way hybrids originate from three genetically distinct subpopulations. We extended the ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction (RRBLUP and devised a genomic selection model allowing for subpopulation-specific marker effects (GSA-RRBLUP: general and subpopulation-specific additive RRBLUP. Using an empirical barley data set, we showed that applying GSA-RRBLUP tripled the prediction ability of three-way hybrids from 0.095 to 0.308 compared with RRBLUP, modeling one additive effect for all three subpopulations. The experimental findings were further substantiated with computer simulations. Our results emphasize the potential of GSA-RRBLUP to improve genome-wide hybrid prediction of three-way hybrids for scenarios of genetically diverse parental populations. Because of the advantages of the GSA-RRBLUP model in dealing with hybrids from different parental populations, it may also be a promising approach to boost the prediction ability for hybrid breeding programs based on genetically diverse heterotic groups.

  3. Mechanical performance of oil palm empty fruit bunches/jute fibres reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawaid, M. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., E-mail: akhalilhps@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid composites constituents of natural fibres show good mechanical performances. {yields} Hybridization with 20% jute fibre gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. {yields} Outer or core material affect mechanical performance of hybrid composites. {yields} Impact strength of pure EFB composite is higher than hybrid composites. - Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different sequence of fibre mat arrangement such as EFB/jute/EFB and jute/EFB/jute were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The effect of layering patterns on the mechanical performance of the composites was studied. The hybrid composites are intended for engineering applications as an alternative to synthetic fibre composites. Mechanical performance of hybrid composites were evaluated and compared with the pure EFB, pure jute composites and neat epoxy using flexural and impact testing. The flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of pure EFB composite with respect to the weight fraction of fibre, where as the impact strength of pure EFB composite is much higher than those of hybrid composites. The flexural results were interpreted using sandwich theory. The fracture surface morphology of the impact testing samples of the hybrid composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  4. Mechanical performance of oil palm empty fruit bunches/jute fibres reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawaid, M.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Abu Bakar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hybrid composites constituents of natural fibres show good mechanical performances. → Hybridization with 20% jute fibre gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. → Outer or core material affect mechanical performance of hybrid composites. → Impact strength of pure EFB composite is higher than hybrid composites. - Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different sequence of fibre mat arrangement such as EFB/jute/EFB and jute/EFB/jute were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The effect of layering patterns on the mechanical performance of the composites was studied. The hybrid composites are intended for engineering applications as an alternative to synthetic fibre composites. Mechanical performance of hybrid composites were evaluated and compared with the pure EFB, pure jute composites and neat epoxy using flexural and impact testing. The flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of pure EFB composite with respect to the weight fraction of fibre, where as the impact strength of pure EFB composite is much higher than those of hybrid composites. The flexural results were interpreted using sandwich theory. The fracture surface morphology of the impact testing samples of the hybrid composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. Design Method and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Hybrid Fiber Used in Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber, as an additive, can improve the performance of asphalt concrete and be widely studied, but only a few works have been done for hybrid fiber. This paper presents a new and convenient method to design hybrid fiber and verifies hybrid fiber’s superiority in asphalt pavement engineering. Firstly, this paper expounds the design method used as its applied example with the hybrid fiber composed of lignin, polyester, and polypropylene fibers. In this method, a direct shear device (DSD is used to measure the shear damage energy density (SDED of hybrid fiber modified asphalts, and range and variance statistical analysis are applied to determine the composition proportion of hybrid fiber. Then, the engineering property of hybrid fiber reinforced asphalt concrete (AC-13 is investigated. Finally, a cost-benefit model is developed to analyze the advantage of hybrid fiber compared to single fibers. The results show that the design method employed in this paper can offer a beneficial reference. A combination of 1.8% of lignin fiber and 2.4% of polyester fiber plus 3.0% polypropylene fiber presented the best reinforcement of the hybrid fiber. The cost-benefit model verifies that the hybrid fiber can bring about comprehensive pavement performance and good economy.

  6. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Heather; Park, Haram; Paolini, Maion

    2012-04-23

    Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this "hybrid premium" is the cost of the vehicles' batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  7. Weighted hybrid technique for recommender system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriati, S.; Dwiastuti, Meisyarah; Tulus, T.

    2017-12-01

    Recommender system becomes very popular and has important role in an information system or webpages nowadays. A recommender system tries to make a prediction of which item a user may like based on his activity on the system. There are some familiar techniques to build a recommender system, such as content-based filtering and collaborative filtering. Content-based filtering does not involve opinions from human to make the prediction, while collaborative filtering does, so collaborative filtering can predict more accurately. However, collaborative filtering cannot give prediction to items which have never been rated by any user. In order to cover the drawbacks of each approach with the advantages of other approach, both approaches can be combined with an approach known as hybrid technique. Hybrid technique used in this work is weighted technique in which the prediction score is combination linear of scores gained by techniques that are combined.The purpose of this work is to show how an approach of weighted hybrid technique combining content-based filtering and item-based collaborative filtering can work in a movie recommender system and to show the performance comparison when both approachare combined and when each approach works alone. There are three experiments done in this work, combining both techniques with different parameters. The result shows that the weighted hybrid technique that is done in this work does not really boost the performance up, but it helps to give prediction score for unrated movies that are impossible to be recommended by only using collaborative filtering.

  8. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  9. Allelic asymmetry of the Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr) gene expression in the hybrid between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans: confirmation by using genetic variations of D. melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirata, Mika; Araye, Quenta; Maehara, Kazunori; Enya, Sora; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Sawamura, Kyoichi

    2014-02-01

    In the cross between Drosophila melanogaster females and D. simulans males, hybrid males die at the late larval stage, and the sibling females also die at later stages at high temperatures. Removing the D. simulans allele of the Lethal hybrid rescue gene (Lhr (sim) ) improves the hybrid incompatibility phenotypes. However, the loss-of-function mutation of Lhr (sim) (Lhr (sim0) ) does not rescue the hybrid males in crosses with several D. melanogaster strains. We first describe the genetic factor possessed by the D. melanogaster strains. It has been suggested that removing the D. melanogaster allele of Lhr (Lhr (mel) ), that is Lhr (mel0) , does not have the hybrid male rescue effect, contrasting to Lhr (sim0) . Because the expression level of the Lhr gene is known to be Lhr (sim) > Lhr (mel) in the hybrid, Lhr (mel0) may not lead to enough of a reduction in total Lhr expression. Then, there is a possibility that the D. melanogaster factor changes the expression level to Lhr (sim) Lhr (mel) in the hybrid irrespectively of the presence of the factor. At last, we showed that Lhr (mel0) slightly improves the viability of hybrid females, which was not realized previously. All of the present results are consistent with the allelic asymmetry model of the Lhr gene expression in the hybrid.

  10. Epigenomics: dissecting hybridization and polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Scott A

    2017-06-19

    Epigenetic profiling in diploid, allopolyploid, and domesticated cotton shows that despite most DNA methylation being conserved and stably inherited, alterations likely due to hybridization and domestication affect gene expression.

  11. Genetic, morphological, and spectral characterization of relictual Niobrara River hybrid aspens (Populus × smithii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Nicholas John; Grossman, Jake Joseph; Schweiger, Anna Katharina; Armour, Isabella; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2017-12-01

    Aspen groves along the Niobrara River in Nebraska have long been a biogeographic curiosity due to morphological differences from nearby remnant Populus tremuloides populations. Pleistocene hybridization between P. tremuloides and P. grandidentata has been proposed, but the nearest P. grandidentata populations are currently several hundred kilometers east. We tested the hybrid-origin hypothesis using genetic data and characterized putative hybrids phenotypically. We compared nuclear microsatellite loci and chloroplast sequences of Niobrara River aspens to their putative parental species. Parental species and putative hybrids were also grown in a common garden for phenotypic comparison. On the common garden plants, we measured leaf morphological traits and leaf-level spectral reflectance profiles, from which chemical traits were derived. The genetic composition of the three unique Niobrara aspen genotypes is consistent with the hybridization hypothesis and with maternal chloroplast inheritance from P. grandidentata . Leaf margin dentition and abaxial pubescence differentiated taxa, with the hybrids showing intermediate values. Spectral profiles allowed statistical separation of taxa in short-wave infrared wavelengths, with hybrids showing intermediate values, indicating that traits associated with internal structure of leaves and water absorption may vary among taxa. However, reflectance values in the visible region did not differentiate taxa, indicating that traits related to pigments are not differentiated. Both genetic and phenotypic results support the hypothesis of a hybrid origin for these genetically unique aspens. However, low genetic diversity and ongoing ecological and climatic threats to the hybrid taxon present a challenge for conservation of these relictual boreal communities. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  12. Genetic basis to hybrid inviability is more complex than hybrid male sterility in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundus, Joanna D; Wang, Donglin; Cutter, Asher D

    2018-04-07

    Hybrid male sterility often evolves before female sterility or inviability of hybrids, implying that the accumulation of divergence between separated lineages should lead hybrid male sterility to have a more polygenic basis. However, experimental evidence is mixed. Here, we use the nematodes Caenorhabditis remanei and C. latens to characterize the underlying genetic basis of asymmetric hybrid male sterility and hybrid inviability. We demonstrate that hybrid male sterility is consistent with a simple genetic basis, involving a single X-autosome incompatibility. We also show that hybrid inviability involves more genomic compartments, involving diverse nuclear-nuclear incompatibilities, a mito-nuclear incompatibility, and maternal effects. These findings demonstrate that male sensitivity to genetic perturbation may be genetically simple compared to hybrid inviability in Caenorhabditis and motivates tests of generality for the genetic architecture of hybrid incompatibility across the breadth of phylogeny.

  13. Hybrid system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid systems studied for fissile material production, were reconsidered for minor actinide and long-lived fission product destruction as alternative to the traditional final disposal of nuclear waste. Now there are attempts to extend the use of the concepts developed for minor actinide incineration to plutonium burning. The most promising hybrid system concept considers fuel and target both as liquids. From the results obtained, the possibility to adopt composite targets seems the most promising solution, but still there remains the problem of Pu production, not acceptable in a burning system. This kind of targets can be mainly used for fissile material production, while for accelerator driven burners it is most convenient to use a liquid lead target. The most suitable solvent is heavy water for minor actinide annihilation in the blanket of a hybrid system. Due to the criticality conditions and the necessity of electric energy production, the blanket using plutonium dissolved in molten salts is the most convenient one. (author)

  14. Hybrid strategies in nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Hector M; Mullen, Thomas J; Zhang Pengpeng; Dewey, Daniel C; Claridge, Shelley A; Weiss, Paul S [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: psw@cnsi.ucla.edu

    2010-03-15

    Hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies combine the registration and addressability of conventional lithographic techniques with the chemical and physical functionality enabled by intermolecular, electrostatic and/or biological interactions. This review aims to highlight and to provide a comprehensive description of recent developments in hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies that enhance existing lithographic techniques or can be used to fabricate functional chemical patterns that interact with their environment. These functional structures create new capabilities, such as the fabrication of physicochemical surfaces that can recognize and capture analytes from complex liquid or gaseous mixtures. The nanolithographic techniques we describe can be classified into three general areas: traditional lithography, soft lithography and scanning-probe lithography. The strengths and limitations of each hybrid patterning technique will be discussed, along with the current and potential applications of the resulting patterned, functional surfaces.

  15. NS maize hybrids in production regions of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojaković Milisav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen NS maize hybrids of FAO 300-700 maturity groups were evaluated in strip trials (plot size 1,120 m2 at 30 locations in Serbia. In all locations including all production regions, the most yielding hybrid was NS 6030 with average yield of 10.9 t ha-1. The additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI and the sites regression (SREG models were used to study basic structure of G x E interactions and the possible existence of different mega-environments in Serbian maize growing regions in 2009. The results of the 15 hybrids x 10 locations for grain yield in maize showed by biplot technique indicate several specific location-hybrid deviations (the AMMI biplot, and possible existence of at least one mega-environment (the GGE biplot. .

  16. Modeling and optimization of batteryless hybrid PV (photovoltaic)/Diesel systems for off-grid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuanyo, David; Azoumah, Yao; Aussel, Didier; Neveu, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new model and optimization procedure for off-grid hybrid PV (photovoltaic)/Diesel systems operating without battery storage. The proposed technico-economic model takes into account the variability of both the solar irradiation and the electrical loads. It allows optimizing the design and the operation of the hybrid systems by searching their lowest LCOE (Levelized Cost of Electricity). Two cases have been investigated: identical Diesel generators and Diesel generators with different sizes, and both are compared to conventional standalone Diesel generator systems. For the same load profile, the optimization results show that the LCOE of the optimized batteryless hybrid solar PV/Diesel (0.289 €/kWh for the hybrid system with identical Diesel generators and 0.284 €/kWh for the hybrid system with different sizes of Diesel generators) is lower than the LCOE obtained with standalone Diesel generators (0.32 €/kWh for the both cases). The obtained results are then confirmed by HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables) software. - Highlights: • A technico-economic model for optimal design and operation management of batteryless hybrid systems is developed. • The model allows optimizing design and operation of hybrid systems by ensuring their lowest LCOE. • The model was validated by HOMER. • Batteryless hybrid system are suitable for off-grid applications

  17. Testing a hypothesis of unidirectional hybridization in plants: Observations on Sonneratia, Bruguiera and Ligularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chung-I

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When natural hybridization occurs at sites where the hybridizing species differ in abundance, the pollen load delivered to the rare species should be predominantly from the common species. Previous authors have therefore proposed a hypothesis on the direction of hybridization: interspecific hybrids are more likely to have the female parent from the rare species and the male parent from the common species. We wish to test this hypothesis using data of plant hybridizations both from our own experimentation and from the literature. Results By examining the maternally inherited chloroplast DNA of 6 cases of F1 hybridization from four genera of plants, we infer unidirectional hybridization in most cases. In all 5 cases where the relative abundance of the parental species deviates from parity, however, the direction is predominantly in the direction opposite of the prediction based strictly on numerical abundance. Conclusion Our results show that the observed direction of hybridization is almost always opposite of the predicted direction based on the relative abundance of the hybridizing species. Several alternative hypotheses, including unidirectional postmating isolation and reinforcement of premating isolation, were discussed.

  18. DNA-dispersed graphene/NiO hybrid materials for highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Wei; Jin Fengmin; Guo Quangui; Yang Quanhong; Kang Feiyu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the potential of GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid used as a nonenzymatic sensor. ► DNA is a highly efficient disperse agent for GNS/NiO hybrid than ionic surfactants. ► GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid shows fast electron transfer in the electrochemical reaction. ► GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid shows good detection performance towards glucose. - Abstract: We demonstrate graphene nanosheet/NiO hybrids (GNS/NiO) as the active material for high-performance non-enzymatic glucose sensors. Such sensors are fabricated by DNA-dispersed GNS/NiO suspension deposited on glassy carbon electrodes. ss-DNA shows strong dispersing ability for the GNS/NiO hybrid materials resulting in stable water-dispersible GNS/NiO/DNA hybrids with fully separated layers. The GNS/NiO/DNA hybrids show enhanced electron transfer in the electrocatalytic reaction process, and accordingly, such hybrids modified electrodes show good sensing performance towards glucose and are characterized by large detection ranges, short response periods, low detection limit and high sensitivity and stability.

  19. SELECTED MACROECONOMIC FACTORS OBSERVATION IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA AND THE WESTERN BALKANS IN THE OBSERVATION PERIOD 2000-2012, SHOWING RESULTS FROM 2008 TO 2012.

    OpenAIRE

    BOGDAN LABAN; ŽELJKO GRUBLJEŠIĆ; VERA POPOVIĆ; VLADIMIR MALETIĆ; VESNA PETROVIĆ

    2017-01-01

    The application of the neoliberal concept in the Western Balkans has had effects on the economies of those countries that can say das resulted in unsustainable economic growth and macroeconomic instability. Besides the application of the same given the developments that had features of weakness especially since 2008., from the onset of the global economic crisis. The consequences of the liberalization of international economic developments have enabled the countries of the West...

  20. Hybrid electric vehicles energy management strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief deals with the control and optimization problem in hybrid electric vehicles. Given that there are two (or more) energy sources (i.e., battery and fuel) in hybrid vehicles, it shows the reader how to implement an energy-management strategy that decides how much of the vehicle’s power is provided by each source instant by instant. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: •introduces methods for modeling energy flow in hybrid electric vehicles; •presents a standard mathematical formulation of the optimal control problem; •discusses different optimization and control strategies for energy management, integrating the most recent research results; and •carries out an overall comparison of the different control strategies presented. Chapter by chapter, a case study is thoroughly developed, providing illustrative numerical examples that show the basic principles applied to real-world situations. In addition to the examples, simulation code is provided via a website, so that readers can work on the actua...

  1. Hybrid thin films derived from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane and monodispersed colloidal silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid thin films containing nano-sized inorganic domains were synthesized from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane (WPU-AC and monodispersed colloidal silica with coupling agent. The coupling agent, 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (MSMA, was bonded onto colloidal silica first, and then mixed with WPU-AC to form a precursor solution. This precursor was spin coated, dried and UV-cured to generate the hybrid films. The silica content in the hybrid thin films was varied from 0 to 30 wt%. Experimental results showed the aggregation of silica particles in the hybrid films. Thus, the silica domain in the hybrid films was varied from 30 to 50 nm by the different ratios of MSMAsilica to WPU-AC. The prepared hybrid films from the crosslinked WPU-AC/MSMA-silica showed much better thermal stability and mechanical properties than pure WPU-AC.

  2. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tongzhai

    evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the results showed that 10 wt% pigmentation improved the corrosion resistance of the entire coating system. The effect of pigmentation on epoxide/polysiloxane hybrid coatings was also investigated. The epoxide was successfully modified using 3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl isocyanate (TEOSPI) as indicated by FTIR and NMR. Good dispersion of the pigment particles was achieved as revealed by the SEM images. The tensile modulus, tensile strength, pencil hardness and thermal stability of the hybrid coatings were improved while the flexibility and pull-off adhesion were deteriorated when increasing PVC.

  3. The maintenance of hybrids by parasitism in a freshwater snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttel, Yonathan; Ben-Ami, Frida

    2014-11-01

    Hybrids have often been labelled evolutionary dead-ends due to their lower fertility and viability. However, there is growing awareness that hybridisation between different species may play a constructive role in animal evolution as a means to create variability. Thus, hybridisation and introgression may contribute to adaptive evolution, for example with regards to natural antagonists (parasites, predators, competitors) and adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here we investigated whether parasite intensity contributes to the continuous recreation of hybrids in 74 natural populations of Melanopsis, a complex of freshwater snails with three species. We also examined, under laboratory conditions, whether hybrids and their parental taxa differ in their tolerance of low and high temperatures and salinity levels. Infections were consistently less prevalent in males than in females, and lower in snails from deeper habitats. Infection prevalence in hybrids was significantly lower than in the parental taxa. Low hybrid infection rates could not be explained by sediment type, snail density or geographic distribution of the sampling sites. Interestingly, infected hybrid snails did not show signs of parasite-induced gigantism, whereas all parental taxa did. We found that hybrids mostly coped with extreme temperatures and salinity levels as well as their parental taxa did. Taken together, our results suggest that Melanopsis hybrids perform better in the presence of parasites and environmental stress. This may explain the widespread and long-term occurrence of Melanopsis hybrids as evidenced by paleontological and biogeographic data. Hybridisation may be an adaptive host strategy, reducing infection rates and resisting gigantism. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. One patient with schizophrenia showed reduced drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms as a result of an alternative regimen of treatment with paliperidone 3 and 6 mg every other day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Hibino, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Hideo; Mikami, Katsunaka

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic disease that requires long-term management with antipsychotics. Antipsychotic drugs are given by tapering their dose, extending the dosing interval, and so on, as part of a treatment strategy to minimize the adverse effects while at the same time maintaining efficacy. We report the case of one patient with schizophrenia in whom the clinical symptoms were alleviated after treatment with 6 mg paliperidone. However, the patient developed extrapyramidal syndrome, for which 3 and 6 mg paliperidone were administered alternately every other day. Extrapyramidal syndrome was assessed using the Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale, Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale, or Barnes Akathisia Scale. There was improvement in Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale score and Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale score. However, there was almost no change in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score, positive score, negative score, or general score. The results indicate the possibility of lessened adverse effects as a result of an alternative regimen of treatment with paliperidone 3 and 6 mg every other day in the maintenance phase.

  5. SELECTED MACROECONOMIC FACTORS OBSERVATION IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA AND THE WESTERN BALKANS IN THE OBSERVATION PERIOD 2000-2012, SHOWING RESULTS FROM 2008 TO 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN LABAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of the neoliberal concept in the Western Balkans has had effects on the economies of those countries that can say das resulted in unsustainable economic growth and macroeconomic instability. Besides the application of the same given the developments that had features of weakness especially since 2008., from the onset of the global economic crisis. The consequences of the liberalization of international economic developments have enabled the countries of the Western Balkans obtain foreign investment in the form of foreign direct investment, but their economies have done even more dependent on foreign capital, which is increasingly going in economic activities that have a faster way could fertilize the invested capital.

  6. Hybrid Assistive Limb Exoskeleton HAL in the Rehabilitation of Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Proof of Concept; the Results in 21 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Oliver; Grasmuecke, Dennis; Meindl, Renate C; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schwenkreis, Peter; Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Wessling, Martin; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Fisahn, Christian; Aach, Mirko

    2018-02-01

    The use of mobile exoskeletons is becoming more and more common in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. The hybrid assistive limb (HAL) exoskeleton provides a tailored support depending on the patient's voluntary drive. After a pilot study in 2014 that included 8 patients with chronic SCI, this study of 21 patients with chronic SCI serves as a proof of concept. It was conducted to provide further evidence regarding the efficacy of exoskeletal-based rehabilitation. Functional assessment included walking speed, distance, and time on a treadmill, with additional analysis of functional mobility using the following tests: 10-meter walk test (10MWT), timed up and go (TUG) test, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and the walking index for SCI II (WISCI-II) score. After a training period of 90 days, all 21 patients significantly improved their functional and ambulatory mobility without the exoskeleton. Patients were assessed by the 6MWT, the TUG test, and the 10MWT, which also indicated an increase in the WISCI-II score along with significant improvements in HAL-associated walking speed, distance, and time. Although, exoskeletons are not yet an established treatment in the rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries, the devices will play a more important role in the future. The HAL exoskeleton training enables effective, body weight-supported treadmill training and is capable of improving ambulatory mobility. Future controlled studies are required to enable a comparison of the new advances in the field of SCI rehabilitation with traditional over-ground training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. NMR metabolomics of thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) resistance in Senecio hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Kirsten A; Choi, Young H; Abdel-Farid, Ibrahim B; Verpoorte, Robert; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2009-02-01

    Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) has become a key insect pest of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Little is known about host plant resistance to thrips. In this study, we investigated thrips resistance in F (2) hybrids of Senecio jacobaea and Senecio aquaticus. We identified thrips-resistant hybrids applying three different bioassays. Subsequently, we compared the metabolomic profiles of these hybrids applying nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The new developments of NMR facilitate a wide range coverage of the metabolome. This makes NMR especially suitable if there is no a priori knowledge of the compounds related to herbivore resistance and allows a holistic approach analyzing different chemical compounds simultaneously. We show that the metabolomes of thrips-resistant and -susceptible hybrids differed considerably. Thrips-resistant hybrids contained higher amounts of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), jacobine, and jaconine, especially in younger leaves. Also, a flavanoid, kaempferol glucoside, accumulated in the resistant plants. Both PAs and kaempferol are known for their inhibitory effect on herbivores. In resistant and susceptible F (2) hybrids, young leaves showed less thrips damage than old leaves. Consistent with the optimal plant defense theory, young leaves contained increased levels of primary metabolites such as sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose, but also accumulated jacaranone as a secondary plant defense compound. Our results prove NMR as a promising tool to identify different metabolites involved in herbivore resistance. It constitutes a significant advance in the study of plant-insect relationships, providing key information on the implementation of herbivore resistance breeding strategies in plants.

  8. Conceptual design study for a laser fusion hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniscalco, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Bechtel Corporation have been involved in a joint effort to conceptually design a laser fusion hybrid reactor. The design which has evolved is a depleted-uranium fueled fast-fission blanket which produces fissile plutonium and electricity. A major objective of the design study was to evaluate the feasibility of producing fissile fuel with laser fusion. This feasibility evaluation was carried out by analyzing the integrated engineering performance of the complete conceptual design and by identifying the required laser/pellet performance. The performance of the laser fusion hybrid has also been compared to a typical fast breeder reactor. The results show that the laser fusion hybrid produces enough fissile material to fuel more than six light water reactors (LWRs) of equivalent thermal power while operating in a regime which requires an order of magnitude less laser and pellet performance than pure laser fusion. In comparison to a fast breeder reactor the hybrid produces 10 times more fissile fuel. An economic analysis of the design shows that the cost of electricity in a combined hybrid-LWR scenario increases by only 20 to 40 percent when the capital cost of the hybrid ranges from 2 to 3 times more than an LWR

  9. Laser driven fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Maniscalco, J.A.

    1977-11-01

    The role of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) as a fissile fuel and/or power producer is discussed. As long range options to supply the world energy needs, hybrid-fueled thermal-burner reactors are compared to liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). A discussion of different fuel cycles (thorium, depleted uranium, and spent fuel) is presented in order to compare the energy multiplication, the production of fissile fuel, the laser efficiency and pellet gain requirements of the hybrid reactor. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has collaborated with Bechtel Corporation and with Westinghouse in two engineering design studies of laser fusion driven hybrid power plants. The hybrid designs which have resulted from these two studies are briefly described and analyzed by considering operational parameters, such as energy multiplication, power density, burn-up and plutonium production as a function time

  10. Generation of New Genotypic and Phenotypic Features in Artificial and Natural Yeast Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter P. Pfliegler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolution and genome stabilization have mostly been studied on the Saccharomyces hybrids isolated from natural and alcoholic fermentation environments. Genetic and phenotypic properties have usually been compared to the laboratory and reference strains, as the true ancestors of the natural hybrid yeasts are unknown. In this way the exact impact of different parental fractions on the genome organization or metabolic activity of the hybrid yeasts is difficult to resolve completely. In the present work the evolution of geno- and phenotypic properties is studied in the interspecies hybrids created by the cross-breeding of S. cerevisiae with S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii auxotrophic mutants. We hypothesized that the extent of genomic alterations in S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii should affect the physiology of their F1 offspring in different ways. Our results, obtained by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP genotyping and karyotyping analyses, showed that both subgenomes of the S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum and of S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids experienced various modifications. However, the S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii F1 hybrids underwent more severe genomic alterations than the S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum ones. Generation of the new genotypes also influenced the physiological performances of the hybrids and the occurrence of novel phenotypes. Significant differences in carbohydrate utilization and distinct growth dynamics at increasing concentrations of sodium chloride, urea and miconazole were observed within and between the S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids. Parental strains also demonstrated different contributions to the final metabolic outcomes of the hybrid yeasts. A comparison of the genotypic properties of the artificial hybrids with several hybrid isolates from the wine-related environments and wastewater demonstrated a greater genetic variability of

  11. The Explicit-Cloud Parameterized-Pollutant hybrid approach for aerosol-cloud interactions in multiscale modeling framework models: tracer transport results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jr, William I Gustafson; Berg, Larry K; Easter, Richard C; Ghan, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    All estimates of aerosol indirect effects on the global energy balance have either completely neglected the influence of aerosol on convective clouds or treated the influence in a highly parameterized manner. Embedding cloud-resolving models (CRMs) within each grid cell of a global model provides a multiscale modeling framework for treating both the influence of aerosols on convective as well as stratiform clouds and the influence of clouds on the aerosol, but treating the interactions explicitly by simulating all aerosol processes in the CRM is computationally prohibitive. An alternate approach is to use horizontal statistics (e.g., cloud mass flux, cloud fraction, and precipitation) from the CRM simulation to drive a single-column parameterization of cloud effects on the aerosol and then use the aerosol profile to simulate aerosol effects on clouds within the CRM. Here, we present results from the first component of the Explicit-Cloud Parameterized-Pollutant parameterization to be developed, which handles vertical transport of tracers by clouds. A CRM with explicit tracer transport serves as a benchmark. We show that this parameterization, driven by the CRM's cloud mass fluxes, reproduces the CRM tracer transport significantly better than a single-column model that uses a conventional convective cloud parameterization

  12. The Explicit-Cloud Parameterized-Pollutant hybrid approach for aerosol-cloud interactions in multiscale modeling framework models: tracer transport results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jr, William I Gustafson; Berg, Larry K; Easter, Richard C; Ghan, Steven J [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, MSIN K9-30, Richland, WA (United States)], E-mail: William.Gustafson@pnl.gov

    2008-04-15

    All estimates of aerosol indirect effects on the global energy balance have either completely neglected the influence of aerosol on convective clouds or treated the influence in a highly parameterized manner. Embedding cloud-resolving models (CRMs) within each grid cell of a global model provides a multiscale modeling framework for treating both the influence of aerosols on convective as well as stratiform clouds and the influence of clouds on the aerosol, but treating the interactions explicitly by simulating all aerosol processes in the CRM is computationally prohibitive. An alternate approach is to use horizontal statistics (e.g., cloud mass flux, cloud fraction, and precipitation) from the CRM simulation to drive a single-column parameterization of cloud effects on the aerosol and then use the aerosol profile to simulate aerosol effects on clouds within the CRM. Here, we present results from the first component of the Explicit-Cloud Parameterized-Pollutant parameterization to be developed, which handles vertical transport of tracers by clouds. A CRM with explicit tracer transport serves as a benchmark. We show that this parameterization, driven by the CRM's cloud mass fluxes, reproduces the CRM tracer transport significantly better than a single-column model that uses a conventional convective cloud parameterization.

  13. Evaluation of real-time data obtained from gravimetric preparation of antineoplastic agents shows medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact: Results of a large-scale, multicentre, multinational, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkola, R; Czejka, M; Bérubé, J

    2017-08-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially with antineoplastic drugs, owing to their narrow therapeutic index. Gravimetric workflow software systems have the potential to reduce volumetric errors during intravenous antineoplastic drug preparation which may occur when verification is reliant on visual inspection. Our aim was to detect medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact as determined by the rate of prevented medication errors in chemotherapy compounding after implementation of gravimetric measurement. A large-scale, retrospective analysis of data was carried out, related to medication errors identified during preparation of antineoplastic drugs in 10 pharmacy services ("centres") in five European countries following the introduction of an intravenous workflow software gravimetric system. Errors were defined as errors in dose volumes outside tolerance levels, identified during weighing stages of preparation of chemotherapy solutions which would not otherwise have been detected by conventional visual inspection. The gravimetric system detected that 7.89% of the 759 060 doses of antineoplastic drugs prepared at participating centres between July 2011 and October 2015 had error levels outside the accepted tolerance range set by individual centres, and prevented these doses from reaching patients. The proportion of antineoplastic preparations with deviations >10% ranged from 0.49% to 5.04% across sites, with a mean of 2.25%. The proportion of preparations with deviations >20% ranged from 0.21% to 1.27% across sites, with a mean of 0.71%. There was considerable variation in error levels for different antineoplastic agents. Introduction of a gravimetric preparation system for antineoplastic agents detected and prevented dosing errors which would not have been recognized with traditional methods and could have resulted in toxicity or suboptimal therapeutic outcomes for patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  14. Glyphosate (Ab)sorption by Shoots and Rhizomes of Native versus Hybrid Cattail (Typha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianye; Sutton, Nora B; de Jager, Pim; Grosshans, Richard; Munira, Sirajum; Farenhorst, Annemieke

    2017-11-01

    Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are integrated with farmland and contain mixtures of herbicide contaminants. Passive nonfacilitated diffusion is how most herbicides can move across plant membranes, making this perhaps an important process by which herbicide contaminants are absorbed by wetland vegetation. Prairie wetlands are dominated by native cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid cattail (Typha x glauca). The objective of this batch equilibrium study was to compare glyphosate absorption by the shoots and rhizomes of native versus hybrid cattails. Although it has been previously reported for some pesticides that passive diffusion is greater for rhizome than shoot components, this is the first study to demonstrate that the absorption capacity of rhizomes is species dependent, with the glyphosate absorption being significantly greater for rhizomes than shoots in case of native cattails, but with no significant differences in glyphosate absorption between rhizomes and shoots in case of hybrid cattails. Most importantly, glyphosate absorption by native rhizomes far exceeded that of the absorption occurring for hybrid rhizomes, native shoots and hybrid shoots. Glyphosate has long been used to manage invasive hybrid cattails in wetlands in North America, but hybrid cattail expansions continue to occur. Since our results showed limited glyphosate absorption by hybrid shoots and rhizomes, this lack of sorption may partially explain the poorer ability of glyphosate to control hybrid cattails in wetlands.

  15. A study on the development of photoelastic experimental hybrid method for colour isochromatics (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawong, Jai Sug; Nam, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Kyo Hyoung; Kwon, O Sung; Kwon, Gun; Park, Sung Han

    2010-01-01

    Isochromatics obtained from photoelastic experiment shows the stress distributions of the full field of a structure under load. Therefore, stress distributions of the structure can be read at a glance through isochromatics. Many experimental data can be obtained from isochromatics which are then used in various photoelastic experimental hybrid methods for stress analysis. Monochromatic light has however, until now been used in the photoelastic experimental hybrid method to produce black and white isochromatics. The use of black and white isochromatics in photoelastic experimental hybrid method for black and white isochromatics requires high fringe orders in order to obtain sufficient experimental data for photoelastic hybrid techniques. Accordingly, this paper develops the photoelastic experimental hybrid method for color isochromatics in which a fringe order of 1 is enough to gather the experimental data of the photoelastic experimental hybrid method. The method was applied to validate stress concentration problems. Experimental results from this study indicated that the photoelastic experimental hybrid method for color isochromatics is more precise than the photoelastic experimental hybrid method for black and white isochromatics. The use of few fringe orders in photoelastic experimental hybrid method for color isochromatics can offer significant advantages in stress analysis of real components using reflective-type photoelastic experimental method

  16. The technology and welding joint properties of hybrid laser-tig welding on thick plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenghai, Zhang; Yifu, Shen; Huijuan, Qiu

    2013-06-01

    The technologies of autogenous laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding are used on thick plate of high strength lower alloy structural steel 10CrNiMnMoV in this article. The unique advantages of hybrid laser-TIG welding is summarized by comparing and analyzing the process parameters and welding joints of autogenous laser welding laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding. With the optimal process parameters of hybrid welding, the good welding joint without visible flaws can be obtained and its mechanical properties are tested according to industry standards. The results show that the hybrid welding technology has certain advantages and possibility in welding thick plates. It can reduce the demands of laser power, and it is significant for lowering the aspect ratio of weld during hybrid welding, so the gas in the molten pool can rise and escape easily while welding thick plates. Therefore, the pores forming tendency decreases. At the same time, hybrid welding enhances welding speed, and optimizes the energy input. The transition and grain size of the microstructure of hybrid welding joint is better and its hardness is higher than base material. Furthermore, its tensile strength and impact toughness is as good as base material. Consequently, the hybrid welding joint can meet the industry needs completely.

  17. A novel electrospun silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Jinfa; Zuo, Baoqi

    2012-01-01

    A novel electrospinning of silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers with different composition ratios was performed with methanoic acid as a spinning solvent. The silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrids containing up to 30% hydroxyapatite nanoparticles could be electrospun into the continuous fibrous structure. The electrospun silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers showed bigger diameter and wider diameter distribution than pure silk fibroin nanofibers, and the average diameter gradually increased from 95 to 582 nm. At the same time, the secondary structure of silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite nanofibers was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared analysis, and DSC measurement. Comparing with the pure silk fibroin nanofibers, the crystal structure of silk fibroin was mainly amorphous structure in the hybrid nanofibers. X-ray diffraction results demonstrated the hydroxyapatite crystalline nature remained as evidenced from the diffraction planes (002), (211), (300), and (202) of the hydroxyapatite crystallites, which was also confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. The thermal behavior of hybrid nanofibers exhibited the endothermic peak of moisture evaporation ranging from 86 to 113 °C, and the degradation peak at 286 °C appeared. The SF/HAp nanofibers mats containing 30% HAp nanoparticles showed higher breaking tenacity and extension at break for 1.1688 ± 0.0398 MPa and 6.55 ± 1.95%, respectively. Therefore, the electrospun silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite hybrid nanofibers should be provided potentially useful options for the fabrication of biomaterial scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. -- Highlights: ► The novel SF/HAp nanofibers were directly prepared by electrospinning method. ► The nanofiber diameter had significant related to the content of HAp. ► The crystal structure of silk fibroin was mainly amorphous structure in the hybrid nanofibers. ► The HAp crystals existing in the hybrid nanofibers were characterized

  18. Suppression or knockout of SaF/SaM overcomes the Sa-mediated hybrid male sterility in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongyao Xie; Baixiao Niu; Yunming Long; Gousi Li; Jintao Tang; Yaling Zhang; Ding Ren; Yao-Guang Liu; Letian Chen

    2017-01-01

    Hybrids between the indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa) are usually sterile, which hinders utilization of heterosis in the inter-subspecific hybrid breeding. The complex locus Sa comprises two adjacently located genes, SaF and SaM, which interact to cause abortion of pollen grains carrying the japonica allele in japonica-indica hybrids. Here we showed that silencing of SaF or SaM by RNA interference restored male fertility in indica-japonica hybrids with heterozygous Sa. We further used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-based genome editing to knockout the SaF and SaM alleles, respectively, of an indica rice line to create hybrid-compatible lines. The resultant artificial neutral alleles did not affect pollen viability and other agricultural traits, but did break down the reproductive barrier in the hybrids. We found that some rice lines have natural neutral allele Sa-n, which was compatible with the typical japonica or indica Sa alleles in hybrids. Our results demonstrate that SaF and SaM are required for hybrid male sterility, but are not essential for pollen development. This study provides effective approaches for the generation of hybrid-compatible lines by knocking out the Sa locus or using the natural Sa-n allele to overcome hybrid male sterility in rice breeding.

  19. Suppression or knockout of SaF/SaM overcomes the Sa-mediated hybrid male sterility in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yongyao; Niu, Baixiao; Long, Yunming; Li, Gousi; Tang, Jintao; Zhang, Yaling; Ren, Ding; Liu, Yao-Guang; Chen, Letian

    2017-09-01

    Hybrids between the indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa) are usually sterile, which hinders utilization of heterosis in the inter-subspecific hybrid breeding. The complex locus Sa comprises two adjacently located genes, SaF and SaM, which interact to cause abortion of pollen grains carrying the japonica allele in japonica-indica hybrids. Here we showed that silencing of SaF or SaM by RNA interference restored male fertility in indica-japonica hybrids with heterozygous Sa. We further used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-based genome editing to knockout the SaF and SaM alleles, respectively, of an indica rice line to create hybrid-compatible lines. The resultant artificial neutral alleles did not affect pollen viability and other agricultural traits, but did break down the reproductive barrier in the hybrids. We found that some rice lines have natural neutral allele Sa-n, which was compatible with the typical japonica or indica Sa alleles in hybrids. Our results demonstrate that SaF and SaM are required for hybrid male sterility, but are not essential for pollen development. This study provides effective approaches for the generation of hybrid-compatible lines by knocking out the Sa locus or using the natural Sa-n allele to overcome hybrid male sterility in rice breeding. © 2017 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Preliminary neutronics calculation of fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xubo; Chen Yixue; Gao Bin

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of using the fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel in PWR was preliminarily studied in this paper. According to the fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel characteristics, PWR assembly including fusion-fission hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel was designed. The parameters such as fuel temperature coefficient, moderator temperature coefficient and their variation were investigated. Results show that the neutron properties of uranium-based assembly and hybrid reactor breeding spent fuel assembly are similar. The design of this paper has a smaller uniformity coefficient of power at the same fissile isotope mass percentage. The results will provide technical support for the future fusion-fission hybrid reactor and PWR combined with cycle system. (authors)

  1. Hybrid real-code ant colony optimisation for constrained mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholdee, Nantiwat; Bureerat, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid meta-heuristic based on integrating a local search simplex downhill (SDH) method into the search procedure of real-code ant colony optimisation (ACOR). This hybridisation leads to five hybrid algorithms where a Monte Carlo technique, a Latin hypercube sampling technique (LHS) and a translational propagation Latin hypercube design (TPLHD) algorithm are used to generate an initial population. Also, two numerical schemes for selecting an initial simplex are investigated. The original ACOR and its hybrid versions along with a variety of established meta-heuristics are implemented to solve 17 constrained test problems where a fuzzy set theory penalty function technique is used to handle design constraints. The comparative results show that the hybrid algorithms are the top performers. Using the TPLHD technique gives better results than the other sampling techniques. The hybrid optimisers are a powerful design tool for constrained mechanical design problems.

  2. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    Social media has created new ways of communicating and has brought about a new distinctive ethos. New literacies are not simply about new technology but also about this new ethos. Many museums are embracing this ethos by what is often called participatory practices. From a sociocultural perspective...... this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both...

  3. Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis......, secrete growth factors, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types make them a potential ideal therapy for lymphoedema. Adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells and they can be harvested, isolated, and used for therapy...... in a single stage procedure as an autologous treatment. The aim of this paper was to review all studies using mesenchymal stem cells for lymphoedema treatment with a special focus on the potential use of adipose-derived stem cells. A systematic search was performed and five preclinical and two clinical...

  4. A Study on Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking in the Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Based on ECE Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a mathematic model of composite braking in the hydraulic hybrid vehicle and analyzes the constraint condition of parallel regenerative braking control algorithm. Based on regenerative braking system character and ECE (Economic Commission of Europe regulations, it introduces the control strategy of regenerative braking in parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV. Finally, the paper establishes the backward simulation model of the hydraulic hybrid vehicle in Matlab/simulink and makes a simulation analysis of the control strategy of regenerative braking. The results show that this strategy can equip the hydraulic hybrid vehicle with strong brake energy recovery power in typical urban drive state.

  5. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...... has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  6. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  7. CSEM-steel hybrid wiggler/undulator magnetic field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.

    1985-05-01

    Current design of permanent magnet wiggler/undulators use either pure charge sheet equivalent material (CSEM) or the CSEM-Steel hybrid configuration. Hybrid configurations offer higher field strength at small gaps, field distributions dominated by the pole surfaces and pole tuning. Nominal performance of the hybrid is generally predicted using a 2-D magnetic design code neglecting transverse geometry. Magnetic measurements are presented showing transverse configuration influence on performance, from a combination of models using CSEMs, REC (H/sub c/ = 9.2 kOe) and NdFe (H/sub c/ = 10.7 kOe), different pole widths and end configurations. Results show peak field improvement using NdFe in place of REC in identical models, gap peak field decrease with pole width decrease (all results less than computed 2-D fields), transverse gap field distributions, and importance of CSEM material overhanging the poles in the transverse direction for highest gap fields

  8. Backcrosses in interspecific hybridization in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Jovanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When incorporating desirable traits (resistance to causal agents of various diseases from the wild relatives into the cultivated sunflower, some undesirable ones are introduced too (branching, small head diameter, low oil content, etc. To overcome this problem, backcrosses (F1 interspecific hybrids x cultivated sunflower are used, although very often desirable traits are lost in the process. Cytological analysis (meiosis and pollen viability and molecular markers (RAPD were used to estimate what portion of the parental species genome was present in (be interspecific hybrids of the F1 and BC1F1 generations. The results showed that the percentage of irregularities at meiosis increased from F1 to BC1F1 gen. They also indicated the presence of aneuploids and sterility in the cross between the hexaploid species H.rigidus and cultivated sunflower. The genetic distance between the parents was 83%, that between H.rigidus and the F1 hybrid 54 61%, and that between H.annuus and F1 hybrid 70-76%. In the BC1F1 generation, the genetic distance from Hannuus decreased to 58-66% and that from H.rigidus increased to 69-76%.

  9. Green synthesis of hybrid graphene oxide/microcrystalline cellulose aerogels and their use as superabsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xiao; Huang, Ting; Yang, Jing-hui; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yong; Zhou, Zuo-wan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid GO/MCC aerogels were prepared using LiBr aqueous solution as the solvent. • GO was exfoliated by MCC through the strong interaction between them. • The adsorption ability of GO per unit mass in the hybrid aerogels was greatly enhanced. - Abstract: In this work, we developed a green synthesis method to prepare the hybrid aerogels containing graphene oxide (GO) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) using lithium bromide (LiBr) aqueous solution as the solvent, which insured the complete dissolution of MCC. The interaction between GO and MCC was investigated through different methods The results demonstrate that there is a strong interaction between GO and MCC molecules, which promotes the exfoliation of GO in the hybrid aerogels. The hybrid GO/MCC aerogels exhibit typical three dimensional porous structure and the pore morphology can be well adjusted by changing the content of GO. The adsorption ability of the hybrid aerogels was measured using methylene blue (MB) as an adsorbate. The results show that the adsorption ability of GO per unit mass is greatly enhanced compared with the pure GO aerogel, especially at relatively low GO content the adsorption amount of GO per unit mass is enhanced up to 2630 mg/g. Further results demonstrate that the hybrid GO/MCC aerogels still obey the pseudo-second-order adsorption model, which is similar to that of the pure GO aerogel. The mechanism for the amplified adsorption ability of GO in the hybrid GO/MCC aerogels is then analyzed.

  10. Green synthesis of hybrid graphene oxide/microcrystalline cellulose aerogels and their use as superabsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiao; Huang, Ting; Yang, Jing-hui; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yong, E-mail: yongwang1976@163.com; Zhou, Zuo-wan

    2017-08-05

    Highlights: • Hybrid GO/MCC aerogels were prepared using LiBr aqueous solution as the solvent. • GO was exfoliated by MCC through the strong interaction between them. • The adsorption ability of GO per unit mass in the hybrid aerogels was greatly enhanced. - Abstract: In this work, we developed a green synthesis method to prepare the hybrid aerogels containing graphene oxide (GO) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) using lithium bromide (LiBr) aqueous solution as the solvent, which insured the complete dissolution of MCC. The interaction between GO and MCC was investigated through different methods The results demonstrate that there is a strong interaction between GO and MCC molecules, which promotes the exfoliation of GO in the hybrid aerogels. The hybrid GO/MCC aerogels exhibit typical three dimensional porous structure and the pore morphology can be well adjusted by changing the content of GO. The adsorption ability of the hybrid aerogels was measured using methylene blue (MB) as an adsorbate. The results show that the adsorption ability of GO per unit mass is greatly enhanced compared with the pure GO aerogel, especially at relatively low GO content the adsorption amount of GO per unit mass is enhanced up to 2630 mg/g. Further results demonstrate that the hybrid GO/MCC aerogels still obey the pseudo-second-order adsorption model, which is similar to that of the pure GO aerogel. The mechanism for the amplified adsorption ability of GO in the hybrid GO/MCC aerogels is then analyzed.

  11. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  12. Mitotic and meiotic irregularities in somatic hybrids of Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, A M; Schoenmakers, H C; Kamstra, S; Eden, J; Koornneef, M; Jong, J H

    1994-10-01

    Chromosome numbers were determined in metaphase complements of root-tip meristems of 107 tomato (+) potato somatic hybrids, obtained from five different combinations of parental genotypes. Of these hybrids 79% were aneuploid, lacking one or two chromosomes in most cases. All four hybrids that were studied at mitotic anaphase of root tips showed laggards and bridges, the three aneuploids in a higher frequency than the single euploid. Hybrid K2H2-1C, which showed the highest percentage of aberrant anaphases, possessed 46 chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with total genomic DNA showed that this hybrid contained 23 tomato, 22 potato, and 1 recombinant chromosome consisting of a tomato chromosome arm and a potato chromosome arm. The potato parent of K2H2-1C was aneusomatic in its root tips with a high frequency of monosomic and trisomic cells and a relatively high frequency of cells with one fragment or telosome. Meiotic analyses of three tomato (+) potato somatic hybrids revealed laggards, which occurred most frequently in the triploid hybrids, and bridges, which were frequently present in pollen mother cells (PMCs) at anaphase I of hypotetraploid K2H2-1C. We observed putative trivalents in PMCs at diakinesis and metaphase I of eutriploid A7-82A and quadrivalents in part of the PMCs of hypotetraploid K2H2-1C, suggesting that homoeologous recombination between tomato and potato chromosomes occurred in these hybrids. All three hybrids showed a high percentage of first division restitution, giving rise to unreduced gametes. However, shortly after the tetrad stage all microspores completely degenerated, resulting in exclusively sterile pollen.

  13. Hybrid Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks: Controlling Framework Porosity and Functionality by Mixed-Linker Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Thompson, Joshua A.

    2012-05-22

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a subclass of nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that exhibit zeolite-like structural topologies and have interesting molecular recognition properties, such as molecular sieving and gate-opening effects associated with their pore apertures. The synthesis and characterization of hybrid ZIFs with mixed linkers in the framework are described in this work, producing materials with properties distinctly different from the parent frameworks (ZIF-8, ZIF-90, and ZIF-7). NMR spectroscopy is used to assess the relative amounts of the different linkers included in the frameworks, whereas nitrogen physisorption shows the evolution of the effective pore size distribution in materials resulting from the framework hybridization. X-ray diffraction shows these hybrid materials to be crystalline. In the case of ZIF-8-90 hybrids, the cubic space group of the parent frameworks is continuously maintained, whereas in the case of the ZIF-7-8 hybrids there is a transition from a cubic to a rhombohedral space group. Nitrogen physisorption data reveal that the hybrid materials exhibit substantial changes in gate-opening phenomena, either occurring at continuously tunable partial pressures of nitrogen (ZIF-8-90 hybrids) or loss of gate-opening effects to yield more rigid frameworks (ZIF-7-8 hybrids). With this synthetic approach, significant alterations in MOF properties may be realized to suit a desired separation or catalytic process. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Analysis of fuel cell hybrid locomotives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Arnold R. [Vehicle Projects LLC, 621, 17th Street, Suite 2131, Denver, CO 80293 (United States); Peters, John; Smith, Brian E. [Transportation Technology Center Inc., 55500 DOT Road, Pueblo, CO 81007 (United States); Velev, Omourtag A. [AeroVironment Inc., 232 West Maple Avenue, Monrovia, CA 91016 (United States)

    2006-07-03

    Led by Vehicle Projects LLC, an international industry-government consortium is developing a 109t, 1.2MW road-switcher locomotive for commercial and military railway applications. As part of the feasibility and conceptual-design analysis, a study has been made of the potential benefits of a hybrid power plant in which fuel cells comprise the prime mover and a battery or flywheel provides auxiliary power. The potential benefits of a hybrid power plant are: (i) enhancement of transient power and hence tractive effort; (ii) regenerative braking; (iii) reduction of capital cost. Generally, the tractive effort of a locomotive at low speed is limited by wheel adhesion and not by available power. Enhanced transient power is therefore unlikely to benefit a switcher locomotive, but could assist applications that require high acceleration, e.g. subway trains with all axles powered. In most cases, the value of regeneration in locomotives is minimal. For low-speed applications such as switchers, the available kinetic energy and the effectiveness of traction motors as generators are both minimal. For high-speed heavy applications such as freight, the ability of the auxiliary power device to absorb a significant portion of the available kinetic energy is low. Moreover, the hybrid power plant suffers a double efficiency penalty, namely, losses occur in both absorbing and then releasing energy from the auxiliary device, which result in a net storage efficiency of no more than 50% for present battery technology. Capital cost in some applications may be reduced. Based on an observed locomotive duty cycle, a cost model shows that a hybrid power plant for a switcher may indeed reduce capital cost. Offsetting this potential benefit are the increased complexity, weight and volume of the power plant, as well as 20-40% increased fuel consumption that results from lower efficiency. Based on this analysis, the consortium has decided to develop a pure fuel cell road-switcher locomotive, that

  15. Program Hybrid/GDH. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.; Bisplinghoff, J.

    1975-10-01

    This code is the most recent in a series of codes for doing a-priori pre-equilibrium decay calculations. It has been written to permit the user to exercise many options at time of execution. It will, for example, permit calculation with either Hybrid model or the geometry dependent Hybrid model (GDH). Intranuclear transition rates can be calculated using either a nucleon-nucleon scattering approach (improved over earlier results) or based on the imaginary optical potential. Transition rates based on exciton lifetimes can be selected (as suggested in the Hybrid model formulation) or an average lifetime for each n-exciton configuration may be selected

  16. Comparative studies on testicular and epididymal morphology, and serum hormone concentrations in foxes and the hybrids during the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T A; Yang, Y H; Peng, Y H; Cong, B; Diao, Y F; Bao, K; Hu, P F; Song, X C; Liu, L L; Yang, Y F; Xing, X M; Yang, F H

    2016-05-01

    The silver fox and the blue fox belong to different genera, and the hybrid males are fully or partially sterile. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the causes of hybrid male sterility, and therefore analyze the differences in testicular, and epididymal morphology and serum hormone concentrations among silver foxes, blue foxes, and the hybrids during the breeding season. Samples were collected from 20 male silver foxes, 20 male blue foxes, 15 male HSBs (silver fox female × blue fox male hybrids) and 14 male HBSs (blue fox male × silver fox female hybrids), respectively. Seminal evaluation showed large numbers of sperm present in the semen of blue foxes and silver foxes, but no sperm present in the hybrids. Mean testicular volume and the diameter of seminiferous tubules in silver foxes and blue foxes were greater than in the hybrids; and there were many Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells, and sperm in silver foxes and blue foxes, while spermatogenic cells decreased with no sperm in the hybrids. Mean serum LH and prolactin concentrations in silver foxes and blue foxes were less and testosterone was greater than in the hybrids (P<0.05). The results indicate that germ cell meioses in the hybrids were arrested at the prophase stage of meiosis, and that lesser concentrations of testosterone and greater concentrations of LH and prolactin can inhibit the completion of spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hybrid [{sup 18}F]-FDG PET/MRI including non-Gaussian diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI): Preliminary results in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusch, Philipp [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Köhler, Jens [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Oncology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Wittsack, Hans-Joerg [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Heusner, Till A., E-mail: Heusner@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Buchbender, Christian [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Poeppel, Thorsten D. [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Nensa, Felix; Wetter, Axel [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Gauler, Thomas [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Oncology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Hartung, Verena [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Lanzman, Rotem S. [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of non-Gaussian DWI as part of a FDG-PET/MRI protocol in patients with histologically proven non-small cell lung cancer. Material and methods: 15 consecutive patients with histologically proven NSCLC (mean age 61 ± 11 years) were included in this study and underwent whole-body FDG-PET/MRI following whole-body FDG-PET/CT. As part of the whole-body FDG-PET/MRI protocol, an EPI-sequence with 5 b-values (0, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 s/mm{sup 2}) was acquired for DWI of the thorax during free-breathing. Volume of interest (VOI) measurements were performed to determine the maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}). A region of interest (ROI) was manually drawn around the tumor on b = 0 images and then transferred to the corresponding parameter maps to assess ADC{sub mono}, D{sub app} and K{sub app}. To assess the goodness of the mathematical fit R{sup 2} was calculated for monoexponential and non-Gaussian analysis. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare SUV values and diffusion coefficients. A Student's t-test was performed to compare the monoexponential and non-Gaussian diffusion fitting (R{sup 2}). Results: T staging was equal between FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/MRI in 12 of 15 patients. For NSCLC, mean ADC{sub mono} was 2.11 ± 1.24 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, D{sub app} was 2.46 ± 1.29 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s and mean K{sub app} was 0.70 ± 0.21. The non-Gaussian diffusion analysis (R{sup 2} = 0.98) provided a significantly better mathematical fitting to the DWI signal decay than the monoexponetial analysis (R{sup 2} = 0.96) (p < 0.001). SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} of NSCLC was 13.5 ± 7.6 and 7.9 ± 4.3 for FDG-PET/MRI. ADC{sub mono} as well as D{sub app} exhibited a significant inverse correlation with the SUV{sub max} (ADC{sub mono}: R = −0.67; p < 0.01; D{sub app}: R = −0.69; p < 0.01) as well as with SUV{sub mean} assessed by FDG-PET/MRI (ADC{sub mono}: R

  18. Rin4 causes hybrid necrosis and race-specific resistance in an interspecific lettuce hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Marieke J W; Zhang, Ningwen W; McHale, Leah K; Pelgrom, Koen; den Boer, Erik; Lindhout, Pim; Michelmore, Richard W; Visser, Richard G F; Niks, Rients E

    2009-10-01

    Some inter- and intraspecific crosses may result in reduced viability or sterility in the offspring, often due to genetic incompatibilities resulting from interactions between two or more loci. Hybrid necrosis is a postzygotic genetic incompatibility that is phenotypically manifested as necrotic lesions on the plant. We observed hybrid necrosis in interspecific lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Lactuca saligna) hybrids that correlated with resistance to downy mildew. Segregation analysis revealed a specific allelic combination at two interacting loci to be responsible. The allelic interaction had two consequences: (1) a quantitative temperature-dependent autoimmunity reaction leading to necrotic lesions, lethality, and quantitative resistance to an otherwise virulent race of Bremia lactucae; and (2) a qualitative temperature-independent race-specific resistance to an avirulent race of B. lactucae. We demonstrated by transient expression and silencing experiments that one of the two interacting genes was Rin4. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RIN4 is known to interact with multiple R gene products, and their interactions result in hypersensitive resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Site-directed mutation studies on the necrosis-eliciting allele of Rin4 in lettuce showed that three residues were critical for hybrid necrosis.

  19. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288519361; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416355; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  20. Static and Dynamic Behavior of High Modulus Hybrid Boron/Glass/Aluminum Fiber Metal Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Po-Ching

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation presents the investigation of a newly developed hybrid fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which contains commingled boron fibers, glass fibers, and 2024-T3 aluminum sheets. Two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs are developed. The first, type I hybrid FMLs, contained a layer of boron fiber prepreg in between two layers of S2-glass fiber prepreg, sandwiched by two aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheets. The second, type II hybrid FMLs, contained three layer of commingled hybrid boron/glass fiber prepreg layers, sandwiched by two aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheets. The mechanical behavior and deformation characteristics including blunt notch strength, bearing strength and fatigue behavior of these two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs were investigated. Compared to traditional S2-glass fiber reinforced aluminum laminates (GLARE), the newly developed hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates possess high modulus, high yielding stress, and good blunt notch properties. From the bearing test result, the hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates showed outstanding bearing strength. The high fiber volume fraction of boron fibers in type II laminates lead to a higher bearing strength compared to both type I laminates and traditional GLARE. Both types of hybrid FMLs have improved fatigue crack initiation lives and excellent fatigue crack propagation resistance compared to traditional GLARE. The incorporation of the boron fibers improved the Young's modulus of the composite layer in FMLs, which in turn, improved the fatigue crack initiation life and crack propagation rates of the aluminum sheets. Moreover, a finite element model was established to predict and verify the properties of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs. The simulated results showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Hybrid fiber reinforcement and crack formation in Cementitious Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, E.B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, J.A.O.

    2011-01-01

    reinforcement systems. The research described in this paper shows that the multi-scale conception of cracking and the use of hybrid fiber reinforcements do not necessarily result in an improved tensile behavior of the composite. Particular material design requirements may nevertheless justify the use of hybrid......- to the macroscale. In this study, the performance of different fiber reinforced cementitious composites is assessed in terms of their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The results obtained from this investigation allow a direct quantitative comparison of the behavior obtained from the different fiber...

  2. Diamond difference method with hybrid angular quadrature applied to neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, Jose H.; Barros, Ricardo C.; Alves Filho, Hermes

    2005-01-01

    In this work we presents the results for the calculations of the disadvantage factor in thermal nuclear reactor physics. We use the one-group discrete ordinates (S N ) equations to mathematically model the flux distributions in slab lattices. We apply the diamond difference method with source iteration iterative scheme to numerically solve the discretized systems equations. We used special interface conditions to describe the method with hybrid angular quadrature. We show numerical results to illustrate the accuracy of the hybrid method. (author)

  3. Stability analysis of hybrid-driven underwater glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wen-dong; Wang, Shu-xin; Wang, Yan-hui; Song, Yang; Zhu, Ya-qiang

    2017-10-01

    Hybrid-driven underwater glider is a new type of unmanned underwater vehicle, which combines the advantages of autonomous underwater vehicles and traditional underwater gliders. The autonomous underwater vehicles have good maneuverability and can travel with a high speed, while the traditional underwater gliders are highlighted by low power consumption, long voyage, long endurance and good stealth characteristics. The hybrid-driven underwater gliders can realize variable motion profiles by their own buoyancy-driven and propeller propulsion systems. Stability of the mechanical system determines the performance of the system. In this paper, the Petrel-II hybrid-driven underwater glider developed by Tianjin University is selected as the research object and the stability of hybrid-driven underwater glider unitedly controlled by buoyancy and propeller has been targeted and evidenced. The dimensionless equations of the hybrid-driven underwater glider are obtained when the propeller is working. Then, the steady speed and steady glide path angle under steady-state motion have also been achieved. The steady-state operating conditions can be calculated when the hybrid-driven underwater glider reaches the desired steady-state motion. And the steadystate operating conditions are relatively conservative at the lower bound of the velocity range compared with the range of the velocity derived from the method of the composite Lyapunov function. By calculating the hydrodynamic coefficients of the Petrel-II hybrid-driven underwater glider, the simulation analysis has been conducted. In addition, the results of the field trials conducted in the South China Sea and the Danjiangkou Reservoir of China have been presented to illustrate the validity of the analysis and simulation, and to show the feasibility of the method of the composite Lyapunov function which verifies the stability of the Petrel-II hybrid-driven underwater glider.

  4. Fiscal 1999 regional consortium R and D project. Report of R and D results on regional consortium energy (R and D of hybrid pulse plasma coating (HPPC) system - 2nd year); 1999 nendo hybrid gata pulse plasma coating (HPPC) system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A surface reforming system was developed which enables DLC or ceramic films to be uniformly and adhesively coated on the surfaces of objects such as metallic dies and tools of complicated shape, which used to be impossible by a conventional dry coating. This paper describes the fiscal 1999 results. The technologies consist of pulse introduction of gaseous materials, pulse generation of plasma, application of negative high-voltage pulse, the HPPC (hybrid pulse plasma coating) system of advanced hybrid control, etc. Technologies were developed for 1 Hz pulse on/off introduction of methane and toluene gas, with the film forming experiment carried out. The density of Ar plasma formed by RF was measured by a Langmuir probe method. High densities of plasma were successfully achieved by a magnetic field. In the experiment of applying a negative pulse voltage to a model metallic die, it was possible to apply up to 14 kV pulse voltage. Elucidated was a plasma chemical phenomenon at the time of pulse gas introduction and pulse plasma formation, using a quadrupole mass spectrometer capable of measuring ion types in plasma, with the control conditions optimized. (NEDO)

  5. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. The simulation results showed that the hybrid power system could greatly optimize and improve the efficiency of the batteries and their dynamic current was also decreased due to the participation of the ultracapacitors, which would have a good influence on batteries’ cycle life. Finally, the parameter matching for the passive hybrid power system was studied by simulation and comparisons.

  6. Tensile properties of interwoven hemp/PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) epoxy hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M. A. A.; Majid, M. S. A.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Firdaus, A. Z. A.; Amin, N. A. M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigation of the tensile properties of interwoven Hemp/PET hybrid composites. The effect of hybridization of hemp (warp) with PET fibres (weft) on tensile properties was of interest. Hemp and PET fibres were selected as the reinforcing material while epoxy resin was chosen as the matrix. The interwoven Hemp/PET fabric was used to produce hybrid composite using a vacuum infusion process. The tensile test was conducted using Universal Testing Machine in accordance to the ASTM D638. The tensile properties of the interwoven Hemp/PET hybrid composite were then compared with the neat woven hemp/epoxy composite. The results show that the strength of hemp/PET with the warp direction was increased by 8% compared to the neat woven hemp composite. This enhancement of tensile strength was due to the improved interlocking structure of interwoven Hemp/PET hybrid fabric.

  7. Gamma irradiation of the interspecific hybrids Gossypium hirsutum L. x G. barbadense L. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoilova, A.

    1990-01-01

    The study was aimed at combining the methods of hybridization and experimental mutagenesis and widening the possibilities of interspecific hybridization for successful breeding work. The reaction of interspecific cotton hybrids (G. hirsutum x G. barbadense) to gamma rays in the year of treatment was investigated. Four hybrid combinations resulting from reciprocal crosses between the two species were studied. Seeds of long fibre F 1 plants from each combination were divided in four equal parts (irradiated with 15, 20 and 25 krad and a control). The changes in the main biometrical indices between the control and maximum dose (25 krad) treatment showed that the F 2 hybrids were either resistant or slightly sensitive to irradiation depending on the direction of crossing in respect to growth processes, field germination and survival to the end of vegetation. 3 tabs., 2 figs., 14 refs

  8. UV irradiation as a tool for obtaining asymmetric somatic hybrids between Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Lycopersicon esculentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahova, M.; Hinnisdaels, S.; Frulleux, F.; Claeys, M.; Atanassov, A.; Jacobs, M.

    1997-01-01

    UV-irradiated kanamycin-resistant Lycopersicon esculentum leaf protoplasts were fused with wild-type Nicotiana plumbaginifolia leaf protoplasts. Hybrid calli were recovered after selection in kanamycin-containing medium and subsequently regenerated. Cytological analysis of these regenerants showed that several (2–4) tomato chromosomes, or chromosome fragments, were present in addition to a polyploid Nicotiana genome complement. All lines tested had neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) activity and the presence of the kanamycin gene was shown by Southern blotting. In two cases a different hybridization profile for the kanamycin gene, compared to the tomato donor partner, was observed, suggesting the occurence of intergenomic recombination events. The hybrid nature of the regenerants was further confirmed by Southernblotting experiments using either a ribosomal DNA sequence or a tomato-specific repeat as probes. The hybrids were partially fertile and some progeny could be obtained. Our results demonstrate that UV irradiation is a valuable alternative for asymmetric cell-hybridization experiments. (author)

  9. Preparation and characterization of silk/silica hybrid biomaterials by sol-gel crosslinking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Aiqin, E-mail: aiqinhou@dhu.edu.c [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Chen Huawei [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The silk/silica hybrid biomaterials are synthesized by sol-gel crosslinking process. The chemical and morphological structures of silk/silica hybrids are investigated with micro-FT-IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, SEM, AFM, and DSC. The results show that the crosslinking reactions among inorganic nano-particles, fibroin and 2,4,6-tri[(2-epihydrin-3-bimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-EBAC) take place during sol-gel process. The silk/silica hybrids form new molecular structures containing not only organic fibroin but also inorganic nano-silica particles. The inorganic particles are bounded to the fibroin through covalent bonds. The silk/silica hybrids can form excellent film with very even nanometer particles. The thermal properties of organic/inorganic hybrid are improved.

  10. Preparation and characterization of silk/silica hybrid biomaterials by sol-gel crosslinking process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Aiqin; Chen Huawei

    2010-01-01

    The silk/silica hybrid biomaterials are synthesized by sol-gel crosslinking process. The chemical and morphological structures of silk/silica hybrids are investigated with micro-FT-IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, SEM, AFM, and DSC. The results show that the crosslinking reactions among inorganic nano-particles, fibroin and 2,4,6-tri[(2-epihydrin-3-bimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-EBAC) take place during sol-gel process. The silk/silica hybrids form new molecular structures containing not only organic fibroin but also inorganic nano-silica particles. The inorganic particles are bounded to the fibroin through covalent bonds. The silk/silica hybrids can form excellent film with very even nanometer particles. The thermal properties of organic/inorganic hybrid are improved.

  11. Gamma irradiation of the interspecific hybrids Gossypium hirsutum L. x G. barbadense L. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoilova, A.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to combine the methods of hybridization and experimental mutagenesis and to widen the possibilities of interspecific hybridization for successful breeding work. Four hybrid combinations resulting from reciprocal crosses between the two species were studied. Seeds of long fibre F 1 plants from each combination were devided in four equal parts, three of which were irradiated with doses 15, 20 and 25 krad and one remained as control. The complex radiosensitivity evaluation of the four hybrid combinations investigated was based on the changes in the main biometrical indices comparing the control with 25 krad treatment and showed that the F 2 hybrids were either resistant or slightly sensitive to irradiation depending on the direction of crossing in respect to growth process, field germination and survival to the end of vegetation. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 14 refs

  12. Rapid male-specific regulatory divergence and down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila species hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ferguson

    Full Text Available In most crosses between closely related species of Drosophila, the male hybrids are sterile and show postmeiotic abnormalities. A series of gene expression studies using genomic approaches have found significant down regulation of postmeiotic spermatogenesis genes in sterile male hybrids. These results have led some to suggest a direct relationship between down regulation in gene expression and hybrid sterility. An alternative explanation to a cause-and-effect relationship between misregulation of gene expression and male sterility is rapid divergence of male sex regulatory elements leading to incompatible interactions in an interspecies hybrid genome. To test the effect of regulatory divergence in spermatogenesis gene expression, we isolated 35 fertile D. simulans strains with D. mauritiana introgressions in either the X, second or third chromosome. We analyzed gene expression in these fertile hybrid strains for a subset of spermatogenesis genes previously reported as significantly under expressed in sterile hybrids relative to D. simulans. We found that fertile autosomal introgressions can cause levels of gene down regulation similar to that of sterile hybrids. We also found that X chromosome heterospecific introgressions cause significantly less gene down regulation than autosomal introgressions. Our results provide evidence that rapid male sex gene regulatory divergence can explain misexpression of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids.

  13. Genetic identification of F1 and post-F1 serrasalmid juvenile hybrids in Brazilian aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Teruo Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Juvenile fish trade monitoring is an important task on Brazilian fish farms. However, the identification of juvenile fish through morphological analysis is not feasible, particularly between interspecific hybrids and pure species individuals, making the monitoring of these individuals difficult. Hybrids can be erroneously identified as pure species in breeding facilities, which might reduce production on farms and negatively affect native populations due to escapes or stocking practices. In the present study, we used a multi-approach analysis (molecular and cytogenetic markers to identify juveniles of three serrasalmid species (Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus mesopotamicus and Piaractus brachypomus and their hybrids in different stocks purchased from three seed producers in Brazil. The main findings of this study were the detection of intergenus backcrossing between the hybrid ♀ patinga (P. mesopotamicus×P. brachypomus×♂ C. macropomum and the occurrence of one hybrid triploid individual. This atypical specimen might result from automixis, a mechanism that produces unreduced gametes in some organisms. Moreover, molecular identification indicated that hybrid individuals are traded as pure species or other types of interspecific hybrids, particularly post-F1 individuals. These results show that serrasalmid fish genomes exhibit high genetic heterogeneity, and multi-approach methods and regulators could improve the surveillance of the production and trade of fish species and their hybrids, thereby facilitating the sustainable development of fish farming.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of interspecific trigenomic hybrids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the triploids showed high frequency of bivalents during diakinesis and metaphase I (MI) of meiosis. The allohexaploids (FF.AABB, 2n = 52; FF.AACC, 2n = 54; BBCC.FF, 2n = 50) were synthesized by colchicine treatments of respective hybrids in vitro, which showed growth vigor and had larger stature than the hybrids, but ...

  15. Storing in carbon nano structures for hybrid systems solar hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marazzi, R.; Zini, G.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a hybrid energy system for converting energy from renewable sources and its storage in the form of hydrogen. The storage uses activated carbon and the methodology was modelled mathematically and simulated in numerical software. The results show that storage compression is cheaper storage for liquefaction. [it

  16. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  17. A new adaptive hybrid electromagnetic damper: modelling, optimization, and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadi, Ehsan; Ribeiro, Roberto; Behrad Khamesee, Mir; Khajepour, Amir

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a new electromagnetic hybrid damper which provides regenerative adaptive damping force for various applications. Recently, the introduction of electromagnetic technologies to the damping systems has provided researchers with new opportunities for the realization of adaptive semi-active damping systems with the added benefit of energy recovery. In this research, a hybrid electromagnetic damper is proposed. The hybrid damper is configured to operate with viscous and electromagnetic subsystems. The viscous medium provides a bias and fail-safe damping force while the electromagnetic component adds adaptability and the capacity for regeneration to the hybrid design. The electromagnetic component is modeled and analyzed using analytical (lumped equivalent magnetic circuit) and electromagnetic finite element method (FEM) (COMSOL ® software package) approaches. By implementing both modeling approaches, an optimization for the geometric aspects of the electromagnetic subsystem is obtained. Based on the proposed electromagnetic hybrid damping concept and the preliminary optimization solution, a prototype is designed and fabricated. A good agreement is observed between the experimental and FEM results for the magnetic field distribution and electromagnetic damping forces. These results validate the accuracy of the modeling approach and the preliminary optimization solution. An analytical model is also presented for viscous damping force, and is compared with experimental results The results show that the damper is able to produce damping coefficients of 1300 and 0–238 N s m −1 through the viscous and electromagnetic components, respectively. (paper)

  18. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis−Membrane Distillation (PRO−MD) Process for Osmotic Power and Clean Water Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Gang; Zuo, Jian; Wan, Chunfeng; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    unique advantages of high water recovery rate, huge osmotic power generation, well controlled membrane fouling, and minimal environmental impacts. Experimental results show that the PRO−MD hybrid process is promising that not only can harvest osmotic

  19. Hybrid Ventilation with Innovative Heat Recovery—A System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Hellström

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors when low energy houses are built is to have good heat recovery on the ventilation system. However, standard ventilation units use a considerable amount of electricity. This article discusses the consequences on a system level of using hybrid ventilation with heat recovery. The simulation program TRNSYS was used in order to investigate a ventilation system with heat recovery. The system also includes a ground source storage and waste water heat recovery system. The result of the analysis shows that the annual energy gain from ground source storage is limited. However, this is partly a consequence of the fact that the well functioning hybrid ventilation system leaves little room for improvements. The analysis shows that the hybrid ventilation system has potential to be an attractive solution for low energy buildings with a very low need for electrical energy.

  20. Blot hybridization analysis of TCR genes of T cells for five people exposed in a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui; Liu Benti; Cheng Tianmin; Yang Rujun; Meng Xiangshun; Xiao Jinsong

    1996-01-01

    Human lymphocyte total DNA was prepared in agarose plug by mixing cells with low melting agarose, and two restriction endonucleases were used for digestion of the total DNA with human α and β TCR cDNA probes. The total digested DNA from five people who were whole body exposed to 2.0-2.5 Gy ionizing radiation in an accident 4.5 years ago was hybridized by Southern blot method. The results showed that no obvious difference in hybridization bands was found between controls and the five victims when hybridizations were fulfilled in the total DNA which was digested by Hind III restriction endonuclease with both α and β probes. However, when the total DNA was digested with restriction endonuclease EcoR I and was hybridized with TCR α probe, four of the five exposed people showed a different hybridizing band pattern compared with the controls. The results are also discussed

  1. Intraspecific hybridization, developmental stability and fitness in Drosophila mercatorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, D.H.; Pertoldi, C.; Scali, V.

    2002-01-01

    One of the possible effects of intraspecific hybridization is outbreeding depression, due to a breakdown of coadapted gene complexes, which can lead to reduced fitness and decreased developmental stability in hybrids. Alternatively, increased fitness and increased developmental stability in hybrids...... (hybrid vigour) may be a result of hybridization, probably due to increased heterozygosity. Developmental stability is assumed to be correlated with fitness and is commonly measured as fluctuating asymmetry or phenotypic variance. Drosophila mercatorum is capable of reproducing sexually, but also...

  2. A field operational test on valve-regulated lead-acid absorbent-glass-mat batteries in micro-hybrid electric vehicles. Part I. Results based on kernel density estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Karspeck, T.; Ott, C.; Weckler, M.; Stoermer, A. O.

    2011-03-01

    In March 2007 the BMW Group has launched the micro-hybrid functions brake energy regeneration (BER) and automatic start and stop function (ASSF). Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology are applied in vehicles with micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In both part I and part II of this publication vehicles with MHPS and AGM batteries are subject to a field operational test (FOT). Test vehicles with conventional power system (CPS) and flooded batteries were used as a reference. In the FOT sample batteries were mounted several times and electrically tested in the laboratory intermediately. Vehicle- and battery-related diagnosis data were read out for each test run and were matched with laboratory data in a data base. The FOT data were analyzed by the use of two-dimensional, nonparametric kernel estimation for clear data presentation. The data show that capacity loss in the MHPS is comparable to the CPS. However, the influence of mileage performance, which cannot be separated, suggests that battery stress is enhanced in the MHPS although a battery refresh function is applied. Anyway, the FOT demonstrates the unsuitability of flooded batteries for the MHPS because of high early capacity loss due to acid stratification and because of vanishing cranking performance due to increasing internal resistance. Furthermore, the lack of dynamic charge acceptance for high energy regeneration efficiency is illustrated. Under the presented FOT conditions charge acceptance of lead-acid (LA) batteries decreases to less than one third for about half of the sample batteries compared to new battery condition. In part II of this publication FOT data are presented by multiple regression analysis (Schaeck et al., submitted for publication [1]).

  3. Characterization and evaluation of rice blast resistance of Chinese indica hybrid rice parental lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyu Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistant varieties and hybrid combinations has been the most effective and economical strategy to control blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae. However, the distribution of major R genes and blast resistance characterization in hybrid rice parents has not been well investigated, resulting in their limited use in hybrid rice blast-resistance breeding. In the present study, 88 elite indica hybrid rice parental lines were evaluated with 30 isolates of M. oryzae collected from the main planting area of indica hybrid rice in China and were characterized for the presence of 11 major resistance genes using molecular markers. The pathogenicity assays showed that four types of hybrid rice parent line showed some resistance to M. oryzae. However, the proportions of highly resistant lines and the mean resistance frequency (RF varied among the four types, with resistance in decreasing order shown by three-line restorer lines, three-line maintainer lines, two-line sterile lines, and two-line restorer lines. All 88 hybrid rice parental lines carried more than one R gene, but none carried the R genes Pi1 and Pi2. Although Pid3 and Pi9 were present only in three-line restorer lines and Pigm only in three-line maintainer lines, the remaining six R genes (Pib, Pid2, Pi5, Pia, Pi54, and Pita were present in the four types of hybrid rice parent with significantly different distribution frequencies. The correlation between R genes and resistance reactions was investigated. The results are expected to provide useful information for rational utilization of major R genes in hybrid rice breeding programs. Keywords: Hybrid rice parental lines, Magnaporthe oryzae, Pi genes, Resistance evaluation, Molecular markers

  4. Adsorption mechanism of magnetically separable Fe_3O_4/graphene oxide hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Ke; Zhu, Chuanhe; Zhao, Ya; Wang, Leichao; Xie, Shan; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A recyclable Fe_3O_4/graphene oxide (GO) magnetic hybrid was successfully synthesized via a facile one-pot polylol approach and exhibited an effective adsorption of BPA in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • Magnetically separable Fe_3O_4/GO hybrids were synthesized via a facile one-pot polylol approach. • The Fe_3O_4/GO hybrid could be easily recovered and met the need of magnetic separation, exhibiting excellent reproducibility and reusability. • The hybrids showed excellent adsorption ability for bisphenol A in aqueous solution. • The effect of pH value, temperature and coexisting ions on the adsorption was studied. • π–π interactions were postulated to be the primary mechanisms of adsorption of BPA on Fe_3O_4/GO hybrids. - Abstract: A reclaimable Fe_3O_4/graphene oxide (GO) magnetic hybrid was successfully synthesized via a facile one-pot polyol approach and employed as a recyclable adsorbent for Bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solutions. The maximum adsorption capacity (q_m) of the Fe_3O_4/GO hybrid for BPA was 72.80 mg/g at 273 K. The kinetics of the adsorption process and the adsorption isotherm data were fitted using the Freundlich equation and a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results of the thermodynamic parameters ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° showed that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Furthermore, the reusability of the samples was investigated, and the results indicated that the samples exhibited high stability. The magnetic characterization demonstrated that hybrids were superparamagnetic and could be recovered conveniently by magnetic separation. The strong π–π interaction was determined to be the predominant driving force behind the adsorption of BPA onto the Fe_3O_4/GO hybrid. Therefore, the Fe_3O_4/GO hybrid could be regarded as a potential adsorbent for wastewater treatment and purification processes.

  5. Different selective pressures lead to different genomic outcomes as newly-formed hybrid yeasts evolve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowski Jeff S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific hybridization occurs in every eukaryotic kingdom. While hybrid progeny are frequently at a selective disadvantage, in some instances their increased genome size and complexity may result in greater stress resistance than their ancestors, which can be adaptively advantageous at the edges of their ancestors' ranges. While this phenomenon has been repeatedly documented in the field, the response of hybrid populations to long-term selection has not often been explored in the lab. To fill this knowledge gap we crossed the two most distantly related members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group, S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum, and established a mixed population of homoploid and aneuploid hybrids to study how different types of selection impact hybrid genome structure. Results As temperature was raised incrementally from 31°C to 46.5°C over 500 generations of continuous culture, selection favored loss of the S. uvarum genome, although the kinetics of genome loss differed among independent replicates. Temperature-selected isolates exhibited greater inherent and induced thermal tolerance than parental species and founding hybrids, and also exhibited ethanol resistance. In contrast, as exogenous ethanol was increased from 0% to 14% over 500 generations of continuous culture, selection favored euploid S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum hybrids. Ethanol-selected isolates were more ethanol tolerant than S. uvarum and one of the founding hybrids, but did not exhibit resistance to temperature stress. Relative to parental and founding hybrids, temperature-selected strains showed heritable differences in cell wall structure in the forms of increased resistance to zymolyase digestion and Micafungin, which targets cell wall biosynthesis. Conclusions This is the first study to show experimentally that the genomic fate of newly-formed interspecific hybrids depends on the type of selection they encounter during the course of evolution

  6. Hybridization study of wild rice Oryza glumaepatula with varieties of cultivated rice (O. sativa) and wild (O. grandiglumis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Cascante, Eddier

    2015-01-01

    The process of interspecific hybridization of the wild species O. glumaepatula is studied with commercial varieties of the species O. sativa and O. grandiglumis, by morphological evaluation and hybrid flow cytometry. Hybrid plants were evaluated of cross between O. glumaepatula, located in the wetlands of Rio Medio Queso and two varieties of O. sativa, Puita Inta and CFX 18 resistant to a herbicide. The technique of Polymerase Chain Reaction Allele Specifies Oligonucleotide (PCR-ASO) was used to detect allelic mutations in the ALS gene conferring herbicide resistance, and it is confirmed the hybrid nature of the plants obtained at crossings. 68 hybrids were obtained: O. glumaepatula x P. Inta, 21 hybrids P. Inta x O. glumaepatula, 4 hybrids O. glumaepatula x CFX-18 and 15 hybrids CFX-18 x O. glumaepatula. 10 morphological descriptors of the genus Oryza were evaluated and determined that are indifferent to the direction and type of crossing, the hybrids resemble to the wild species O. glumaepatula for characters: height, panicle length and ligule length. All hybrids have showed similarity to commercial varieties in flag leaf length. Other characters evaluated in the hybrids have presented maternal effect, heterosis and intermediate values. The protocol of flow cytometry (FCM) is standardized species for Oryza genus analyzing nuclear DNA content of 106 samples of leaf tissue of wild species O. glumaepatula, O. grandiglumis; whose average has been of 0.73 picograms, and natural hybrids product of the cross of these species. The result has been intermediate compared with O. grandiglumis and O. glumaepatula that have made available to 1.0 picograms and 0.50 of DNA respectively. The molecular nature of the hybrids was confirmed in this way. (author) [es

  7. The formation of diploid and triploid hybrids of female grass carp × male blunt snout bream and their 5S rDNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiguo; Xie, Lihua; Li, Tangluo; Liu, Shaojun; Xiao, Jun; Hu, Jie; Wang, Jing; Qin, Qinbo; Liu, Yun

    2013-11-23

    Hybridization is a useful strategy to alter the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring. It could transfer the genome of one species to another through combing the different genome of parents in the hybrid offspring. And the offspring may exhibit advantages in growth rate, disease resistance, survival rate and appearance, which resulting from the combination of the beneficial traits from both parents. Diploid and triploid hybrids of female grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus, GC, Cyprininae, 2n = 48) × male blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala, BSB, Cultrinae, 2n = 48) were successfully obtained by distant hybridization. Diploid hybrids had 48 chromosomes, with one set from GC and one set from BSB. Triploid hybrids possessed 72 chromosomes, with two sets from GC and one set from BSB.The morphological traits, growth rates, and feeding ecology of the parents and hybrid offspring were compared and analyzed. The two kinds of hybrid offspring exhibited significantly phenotypic divergence from GC and BSB. 2nGB hybrids showed similar growth rate compared to that of GC, and 3nGB hybrids significantly higher results. Furthermore, the feeding ecology of hybrid progeny was omnivorous.The 5S rDNA of GC, BSB and their hybrid offspring were also cloned and sequenced. There was only one type of 5S rDNA (designated type I: 180 bp) in GC and one type of 5S rDNA (designated type II: 188 bp) in BSB. However, in the hybrid progeny, diploid and triploid hybrids both inherited type I and type II from their parents, respectively. In addition, a chimera of type I and type II was observed in the genome of diploid and triploid hybrids, excepting a 10 bp of polyA insertion in type II sequence of the chimera of the diploid hybrids. This is the first report of diploid and triploid hybrids being produced by crossing GC and BSB, which have the same chromosome number. The obtainment of two new hybrid offspring has significance in fish genetic breeding. The results illustrate the effect

  8. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  9. Cosmological dynamics of a hybrid chameleon scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Nozari, Kourosh; Rashidi, N.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a hybrid scalar field which is non-minimally coupled to the matter and models a chameleon cosmology. By introducing an effective potential, we study the dependence of the effective potential's minimum and hybrid chameleon field's masses to the local matter density. In a dynamical system technique, we analyze the phase space of this two-field chameleon model, find its fixed points and study their stability. We show that the hybrid chameleon domination solution is a stable attractor...

  10. Deep electroproduction of exotic hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Wallon, S.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluate the leading order amplitude for the deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. We show that, contrarily to naive expectation, this amplitude factorizes at the twist 2 level and thus scales like usual meson electroproduction when the virtual photon and the hybrid meson are longitudinally polarized. Exotic hybrid mesons may thus be studied in electroproduction experiments at JLAB, HERA (HERMES) or CERN (Compass)

  11. Evaporator modeling - A hybrid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xudong; Cai Wenjian; Jia Lei; Wen Changyun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid modeling approach is proposed to model two-phase flow evaporators. The main procedures for hybrid modeling includes: (1) Based on the energy and material balance, and thermodynamic principles to formulate the process fundamental governing equations; (2) Select input/output (I/O) variables responsible to the system performance which can be measured and controlled; (3) Represent those variables existing in the original equations but are not measurable as simple functions of selected I/Os or constants; (4) Obtaining a single equation which can correlate system inputs and outputs; and (5) Identify unknown parameters by linear or nonlinear least-squares methods. The method takes advantages of both physical and empirical modeling approaches and can accurately predict performance in wide operating range and in real-time, which can significantly reduce the computational burden and increase the prediction accuracy. The model is verified with the experimental data taken from a testing system. The testing results show that the proposed model can predict accurately the performance of the real-time operating evaporator with the maximum error of ±8%. The developed models will have wide applications in operational optimization, performance assessment, fault detection and diagnosis

  12. A new hybrid BCI paradigm based on P300 and SSVEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjue; Daly, Ian; Allison, Brendan Z; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Lanlan; Wang, Xingyu

    2015-04-15

    P300 and steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) approaches have been widely used for brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. However, neither of these approaches can work for all subjects. Some groups have reported that a hybrid BCI that combines two or more approaches might provide BCI functionality to more users. Hybrid P300/SSVEP BCIs have only recently been developed and validated, and very few avenues to improve performance have been explored. The present study compares an established hybrid P300/SSVEP BCIs paradigm to a new paradigm in which shape changing, instead of color changing, is adopted for P300 evocation to decrease the degradation on SSVEP strength. The result shows that the new hybrid paradigm presented in this paper yields much better performance than the normal hybrid paradigm. A performance increase of nearly 20% in SSVEP classification is achieved using the new hybrid paradigm in comparison with the normal hybrid paradigm. All the paradigms except the normal hybrid paradigm used in this paper obtain 100% accuracy in P300 classification. The new hybrid P300/SSVEP BCIs paradigm in which shape changing, instead of color changing, could obtain as high classification accuracy of SSVEP as the traditional SSVEP paradigm and could obtain as high classification accuracy of P300 as the traditional P300 paradigm. P300 did not interfere with the SSVEP response using the new hybrid paradigm presented in this paper, which was superior to the normal hybrid P300/SSVEP paradigm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Static and dynamic mechanical properties of alkali treated unidirectional continuous Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fiber/jute fiber reinforced hybrid polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, D.; Thiruchitrambalam, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New type of hybrid composite with Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fibers (PPLSF) and jute. • Composites fabricated with continuous, unidirectional fibers. • Alkali treatment and hybridizing jute imparted good static and dynamic properties. • Properties are comparable with well know natural/glass fiber composites. • New hybrid composite can be an alternative in place of synthetic fiber composites. - Abstract: Alkali treated continuous Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fiber (PPLSF) and jute fibers were used as reinforcement in unsaturated polyester matrix and their static and dynamic mechanical properties were evaluated. Continuous PPLSF and jute fibers were aligned unidirectionally in bi-layer arrangement and the hybrid composites were fabricated by compression molding process. Positive hybrid effect was observed for the composites due to hybridization. Increasing jute fiber loading showed a considerable increase in tensile and flexural properties of the hybrid composites as compared to treated PPLSF composites. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) of the fractured surfaces showed the nature of fiber/matrix interface. The impact strength of the hybrid composites were observed to be less compared to pure PPLSF composites. Addition of jute fibers to PPLSF and alkali treatment of the fibers has enhanced the storage and loss modulus of the hybrid composites. A positive shift of Tan δ peaks to higher temperature and reduction in the peak height of the composites was also observed. The composites with higher jute loading showed maximum damping behavior. Overall the hybridization was found to be efficient showing increased static and dynamic mechanical properties. A comparative study of properties of this hybrid composite with other hybrids made out of using natural/glass fibers is elaborated. Hybridization of alkali treated jute and PPLSF has resulted in enhanced properties which are comparable with other natural/glass fiber composites thus increasing the scope of

  14. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  15. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  16. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  17. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  18. Stable graphene-polyoxometalate nanomaterials for application in hybrid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Guevara, Jullieth; Ruiz, Vanesa; Gómez-Romero, Pedro

    2014-10-14

    We report the synthesis of hybrid supercapacitor electrodes by a novel reduction of GO with simultaneous incorporation of polyoxometalate. These hybrids show a 30% increase in specific capacitance and excellent stability after 10,000 cycles.

  19. Mathematical foundations of hybrid data assimilation from a synchronization perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Stephen G.

    2017-12-01

    The state-of-the-art data assimilation methods used today in operational weather prediction centers around the world can be classified as generalized one-way coupled impulsive synchronization. This classification permits the investigation of hybrid data assimilation methods, which combine dynamic error estimates of the system state with long time-averaged (climatological) error estimates, from a synchronization perspective. Illustrative results show how dynamically informed formulations of the coupling matrix (via an Ensemble Kalman Filter, EnKF) can lead to synchronization when observing networks are sparse and how hybrid methods can lead to synchronization when those dynamic formulations are inadequate (due to small ensemble sizes). A large-scale application with a global ocean general circulation model is also presented. Results indicate that the hybrid methods also have useful applications in generalized synchronization, in particular, for correcting systematic model errors.

  20. Solution of the radiative enclosure with a hybrid inverse method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rogerio Brittes da; Franca, Francis Henrique Ramos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mail: frfranca@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2010-07-01

    This work applies the inverse analysis to solve a three-dimensional radiative enclosure - which the surfaces are diffuse-grays - filled with transparent medium. The aim is determine the powers and locations of the heaters to attain both uniform heat flux and temperature on the design surface. A hybrid solution that couples two methods, the generalized extremal optimization (GEO) and the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is proposed. The determination of the heat sources distribution is treated as an optimization problem, by GEO algorithm , whereas the solution of the system of equation, that embodies the Fredholm equation of first kind and therefore is expected to be ill conditioned, is build up through TSVD regularization method. The results show that the hybrid method can lead to a heat flux on the design surface that satisfies the imposed conditions with maximum error of less than 1,10%. The results illustrated the relevance of a hybrid method as a prediction tool. (author)

  1. The role of meiotic drive in hybrid male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-04-27

    Meiotic drive causes the distortion of allelic segregation away from Mendelian expected ratios, often also reducing fecundity and favouring the evolution of drive suppressors. If different species evolve distinct drive-suppressor systems, then hybrid progeny may be sterile as a result of negative interactions of these systems' components. Although the hypothesis that meiotic drive may contribute to hybrid sterility, and thus species formation, fell out of favour early in the 1990s, recent results showing an association between drive and sterility have resurrected this previously controversial idea. Here, we review the different forms of meiotic drive and their possible roles in speciation. We discuss the recent empirical evidence for a link between drive and hybrid male sterility, also suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for this link in the context of chromatin remodelling. Finally, we revisit the population genetics of drive that allow it to contribute to speciation.

  2. The Evolution of Polymorphic Hybrid Incompatibilities in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Erica L; Vanderpool, Dan; Sarver, Brice A J; Callahan, Colin; Keeble, Sara; Provencio, Lorraine P; Kessler, Michael D; Stewart, Vanessa; Nordquist, Erin; Dean, Matthew D; Good, Jeffrey M

    2018-04-24

    Resolving the mechanistic and genetic bases of reproductive barriers between species is essential to understanding the evolutionary forces that shape speciation. Intrinsic hybrid incompatibilities are often treated as fixed between species, yet there can be considerable variation in the strength of reproductive isolation between populations. The extent and causes of this variation remain poorly understood in most systems. We investigated the genetic basis of variable hybrid male sterility (HMS) between two recently diverged subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus domesticus and M. m. musculus We found that polymorphic HMS has a surprisingly complex genetic basis, with contributions from at least five autosomal loci segregating between two closely related wild-derived strains of M. m. musculus One of the HMS-linked regions on Chromosome 4 also showed extensive introgression among inbred laboratory strains and transmission ratio distortion (TRD) in hybrid crosses. Using additional crosses and whole genome sequencing of sperm pools, we showed that TRD was limited to hybrid crosses and was not due to differences in sperm motility between M. m. musculus strains. Based on these results, we argue that TRD likely reflects additional incompatibilities that reduce hybrid embryonic viability. In some common inbred strains of mice, selection against deleterious interactions appears to have unexpectedly driven introgression at loci involved in epistatic hybrid incompatibilities. The highly variable genetic basis to F1 hybrid incompatibilities between closely related mouse lineages argues that a thorough dissection of reproductive isolation will require much more extensive sampling of natural variation than has been commonly utilized in mice and other model systems. Copyright © 2018, Genetics.

  3. A Hybrid Approach on Tourism Demand Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, M. E.; Nurul, A. I. M.; Rusiman, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    Tourism has become one of the important industries that contributes to the country’s economy. Tourism demand forecasting gives valuable information to policy makers, decision makers and organizations related to tourism industry in order to make crucial decision and planning. However, it is challenging to produce an accurate forecast since economic data such as the tourism data is affected by social, economic and environmental factors. In this study, an equally-weighted hybrid method, which is a combination of Box-Jenkins and Artificial Neural Networks, was applied to forecast Malaysia’s tourism demand. The forecasting performance was assessed by taking the each individual method as a benchmark. The results showed that this hybrid approach outperformed the other two models

  4. A Novel Hybrid Similarity Calculation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problems of similarity calculation in the traditional recommendation algorithms of nearest neighbor collaborative filtering, especially the failure in describing dynamic user preference. Proceeding from the perspective of solving the problem of user interest drift, a new hybrid similarity calculation model is proposed in this paper. This model consists of two parts, on the one hand the model uses the function fitting to describe users’ rating behaviors and their rating preferences, and on the other hand it employs the Random Forest algorithm to take user attribute features into account. Furthermore, the paper combines the two parts to build a new hybrid similarity calculation model for user recommendation. Experimental results show that, for data sets of different size, the model’s prediction precision is higher than the traditional recommendation algorithms.

  5. PV-hybrid and thermoelectric collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockendorf, G.; Sillmann, R. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH, Emmerthal (Germany); Podlowski, L.; Litzenburger, B. [SolarWerk GmbH, Teltow (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Two different principles of thermoelectric cogeneration solar collectors have been realized and investigated. Concerning the first principle, the thermoelectric collector (TEC) delivers electricity indirectly by first producing heat and subsequently generating electricity by means of a thermoelectric generator. Concerning the second principle, the photovoltaic-hybrid collector (PVHC) uses photovoltaic cells, which are cooled by a liquid heat-transfer medium. The characteristics of both collector types are described. Simulation modules have been developed and implemented in TRNSYS 14.1 (1994), in order to simulate their behaviour in typical domestic hot-water systems. The discussion of the results shows that the electric output of the PV-hybrid collector is significantly higher than that of the thermoelectric collector. (author)

  6. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  7. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)–poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hybrids as injectable biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstrand, Johanna; López, Alejandro; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues with the currently available injectable biomaterials for hard tissue replacement is the mismatch between their mechanical properties and those of the surrounding bone. Hybrid bone cements that combine the benefits of tough polymeric and bioactive ceramic materials could become a good alternative. In this work, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) was copolymerized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to form injectable in situ cross-linkable hybrid cements. The hybrids were characterized in terms of their mechanical, rheological, handling and in vitro bioactive properties. The results indicated that hybridization improves the mechanical and bioactive properties of POSS and PEG. The Young moduli of the hybrids were lower than those of commercial cements and more similar to those of cancellous bone. Furthermore, the strength of the hybrids was similar to that of commercial cements. Calcium deficient hydroxyapatite grew on the surface of the hybrids after 28 days in PBS, indicating bioactivity. The study showed that PEG–POSS-based hybrid materials are a promising alternative to commercial bone cements. (paper)

  8. Behavior of Reinforced Hybrid Concrete Corbel-Column Connection with Vertical Construction Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Yasir Ali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, shear behavior of reinforced hybrid concrete connection of corbel-column is experimentally investigated. Nine homogenous and hybrid concrete corbel-column connections subjected to vertical applied loads were constructed and tested within two test groups (A, B. The experimental program included the effect of several variables such as type of hybrid concrete;high strength concrete (HSC or steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC, monolithic casting of hybrid concrete connection, and presence of construction joint at the interface of corbel-column. Experimental results showed significant effects of concrete hybridization on the structural behavior of connection specimens such as: ultimate strength, cracking loads, cracking patterns, and failure modes. Hybridization process in group (A included hybrid connection of corbel-column with HSC or SFRC corbel instated of NSC. This process led to increase the capacity of connection by (26%, 38% and shear cracking loads by (20%, 120% respectively. Moreover, connections of hybrid concrete corbels cast monolithically improved the shear capacity of corbels by (19%, 42% for HSC or SFRC respectively. In group (B, presence of construction joint at connection region reduced the shear capacity of connectionsby (10% to 22% and cracking loads by (23%-62% compared with connections cast monolithically.

  9. Evaluation on reaction of late maturing maize hybrids and lines to Fusarium ear rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haddadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In order to evaluate and determine resistance rates of different corn genotypes to Fusarium ear rot, 22 inbred lines and 19 late and medium maturity hybrids in 2009 and 17 inbred lines and 14 late and medium maturity hybrids were planted in Qarakheil Agricultural Research Station in 2010. Each line and hybrid were planted separately. For each experiment a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Plant ears were inoculated by Nail th Punch method at the 10 day after anthesis. When the disease symptoms were observed, evaluation of each line and genotype was done based on percentage and severity of the disease symptom. The result in 2009 showed that 14 hybrids were tolerant. Hybrids of K3640/3 X MO17, K166B X K18, K166B X K19/1 and K3547/4 X MO17 were resistant. One hybrid was susceptible. Pure lines of K18 and K LM77007/7-2-6-3-1-2-1 were resistant. 14 tolerance lines and 6 susceptible lines were shown. In 2010 hybrids of K166B X K18 and K3653/2 X K18 were resistant. The other hybrids were tolerant. Pure lines of K3547/3 and K18 were resistant. Five tolerance lines were also shown.

  10. An energy management approach of hybrid vehicles using traffic preview information for energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Chunhua; Xu, Guoqing; Xu, Kun; Pan, Zhongming; Liang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management approach of hybrid vehicles using traffic preview information. • Vehicle velocity profile and fuel consumption are optimized at the same time. • It is proved that a further energy saving is achieved by the proposed approach. • The proposed approach is useful especially for autonomous hybrid vehicles. - Abstract: The traffic preview information is very helpful for hybrid vehicles when distributing the power requirement of the vehicle to power sources and when determining the next driving route of the vehicle. In this research, an energy management approach for hybrid vehicles is proposed, which optimizes the vehicle velocity profile while minimizing the fuel consumption with the help of the traffic preview information, so that a further energy saving for hybrid vehicles can be achieved. The Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) is adopted on the proposed approach. A fuel cell hybrid vehicle (FCHV) is selected as an example, and the proposed energy management approach is applied to the FCHV in a computer simulation environment for the offline and online cases respectively. Simulation results show that the fuel economy of the FCHV is improved by the proposed energy management approach compared to a benchmark case where the driving cycle is fixed and only the hybrid power split (allocation) ratio is optimized. The proposed energy management approach is useful especially for the autonomous hybrid vehicles.

  11. Parametric systems analysis for ICF hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Maniscalco, J.A.; Chapin, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Parametric design and systems analysis for inertial confinement fusion-fission hybrids are presented. These results were generated as part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored Feasibility Assessment of Fusion-Fission Hybrids, using an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hybrid power plant design code developed in conjunction with the feasibility assessment. The SYMECON systems analysis code, developed by Westinghouse, was used to generate economic results for symbiotic electricity generation systems consisting of the hybrid and its client Light Water Reactors (LWRs). These results explore the entire fusion parameter space for uranium fast fission blanket hybrids, thorium fast fission blanket hybrids, and thorium suppressed fission blanket types are discussed, and system sensitivities to design uncertainties are explored

  12. Design of a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic film using cured fluoropolymer@silica hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hao; Pi, Pihui; Yang, Zhuo-ru; Lu, Zhong; Chen, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cured fluoropolymer@silica hybrid was coated on stainless steel mesh. • The hybrid film showed superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity by adjusting silica dosage. • The hybrid film exhibited good thermal stability and excellent oil/water separation efficiency. - Abstract: Recently, considerable efforts have been made on superhydrophobic–superoleophilic filter to satisfy the requirements of the applications to oil/water separation. In this work, we obtained a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic film by coating cured fluoropolymer@silica hybrid on stainless steel mesh. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) were used to determine the chemical composition and thermal stability of the sample. The effect of silica nanoparticles (NPs) concentration on the surface property of the hybrid film was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle analyzer. The results indicate that silica NPs not only enhance the thermal stability, but also strengthen the hydrophobicity and oleophilicity of the film. When 20 wt% silica NPs was added into the thermosetting fluoropolymer, the hybrid film shows both superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity owing to the large surface roughness factor (RMS) and porous structure. Moreover, the hybrid film could be used to separate water from different oils effectively. When the pore size of the mesh is less than 300 μm, the oil/water separation efficiency of the film reaches above 99%, which shows a great potential application to dehydrate fuel oils.

  13. Design of a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic film using cured fluoropolymer@silica hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Street, Wuhan, 430073 (China); Pi, Pihui; Yang, Zhuo-ru [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Lu, Zhong [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Street, Wuhan, 430073 (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchenhku@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Street, Wuhan, 430073 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cured fluoropolymer@silica hybrid was coated on stainless steel mesh. • The hybrid film showed superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity by adjusting silica dosage. • The hybrid film exhibited good thermal stability and excellent oil/water separation efficiency. - Abstract: Recently, considerable efforts have been made on superhydrophobic–superoleophilic filter to satisfy the requirements of the applications to oil/water separation. In this work, we obtained a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic film by coating cured fluoropolymer@silica hybrid on stainless steel mesh. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) were used to determine the chemical composition and thermal stability of the sample. The effect of silica nanoparticles (NPs) concentration on the surface property of the hybrid film was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle analyzer. The results indicate that silica NPs not only enhance the thermal stability, but also strengthen the hydrophobicity and oleophilicity of the film. When 20 wt% silica NPs was added into the thermosetting fluoropolymer, the hybrid film shows both superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity owing to the large surface roughness factor (RMS) and porous structure. Moreover, the hybrid film could be used to separate water from different oils effectively. When the pore size of the mesh is less than 300 μm, the oil/water separation efficiency of the film reaches above 99%, which shows a great potential application to dehydrate fuel oils.

  14. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO

  15. Hard and transparent films formed by nanocellulose-TiO2 nanoparticle hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Schütz

    Full Text Available The formation of hybrids of nanofibrillated cellulose and titania nanoparticles in aqueous media has been studied. Their transparency and mechanical behavior have been assessed by spectrophotometry and nanoindentation. The results show that limiting the titania nanoparticle concentration below 16 vol% yields homogeneous hybrids with a very high Young's modulus and hardness, of up to 44 GPa and 3.4 GPa, respectively, and an optical transmittance above 80%. Electron microscopy shows that higher nanoparticle contents result in agglomeration and an inhomogeneous hybrid nanostructure with a concomitant reduction of hardness and optical transmittance. Infrared spectroscopy suggests that the nanostructure of the hybrids is controlled by electrostatic adsorption of the titania nanoparticles on the negatively charged nanocellulose surfaces.

  16. Hard and Transparent Films Formed by Nanocellulose–TiO2 Nanoparticle Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Christina; Sort, Jordi; Bacsik, Zoltán; Oliynyk, Vitaliy; Pellicer, Eva; Fall, Andreas; Wågberg, Lars; Berglund, Lars; Bergström, Lennart; Salazar-Alvarez, German

    2012-01-01

    The formation of hybrids of nanofibrillated cellulose and titania nanoparticles in aqueous media has been studied. Their transparency and mechanical behavior have been assessed by spectrophotometry and nanoindentation. The results show that limiting the titania nanoparticle concentration below 16 vol% yields homogeneous hybrids with a very high Young’s modulus and hardness, of up to 44 GPa and 3.4 GPa, respectively, and an optical transmittance above 80%. Electron microscopy shows that higher nanoparticle contents result in agglomeration and an inhomogeneous hybrid nanostructure with a concomitant reduction of hardness and optical transmittance. Infrared spectroscopy suggests that the nanostructure of the hybrids is controlled by electrostatic adsorption of the titania nanoparticles on the negatively charged nanocellulose surfaces. PMID:23049689

  17. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  18. Solving SAT Problem Based on Hybrid Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kunqi; Zhang, Jingmin; Liu, Gang; Kang, Lishan

    Satisfiability (SAT) problem is an NP-complete problem. Based on the analysis about it, SAT problem is translated equally into an optimization problem on the minimum of objective function. A hybrid differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve the Satisfiability problem. It makes full use of strong local search capacity of hill-climbing algorithm and strong global search capability of differential evolution algorithm, which makes up their disadvantages, improves the efficiency of algorithm and avoids the stagnation phenomenon. The experiment results show that the hybrid algorithm is efficient in solving SAT problem.

  19. Integrated resource management for Hybrid Optical Wireless (HOW) networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Yu, Hao; Wessing, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Efficient utilization of available bandwidth over hybrid optical wireless networks is a critical issue, especially for multimedia applications with high data rates and stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. In this paper, we propose an integrated resource management including an enhanced...... resource sharing scheme and an integrated admission control scheme for the hybrid optical wireless networks. It provides QoS guarantees for connections through both optical and wireless domain. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme improves QoS performances in terms of high throughput and low...

  20. Optimum Performance-Based Seismic Design Using a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talatahari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid optimization method is presented to optimum seismic design of steel frames considering four performance levels. These performance levels are considered to determine the optimum design of structures to reduce the structural cost. A pushover analysis of steel building frameworks subject to equivalent-static earthquake loading is utilized. The algorithm is based on the concepts of the charged system search in which each agent is affected by local and global best positions stored in the charged memory considering the governing laws of electrical physics. Comparison of the results of the hybrid algorithm with those of other metaheuristic algorithms shows the efficiency of the hybrid algorithm.

  1. Tracking alien chromosome in sativa background by genomic in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, F.M.; Iqbal, M.; Salim, M.

    2004-01-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to look into the genomic constitution of monosomic alien -addition line derived from O. sativa x O. brachyantha. Biotin label genomic DNA from O. brachyantha was used as probe. The probe hybridized to the brachyantha chromosome. No detectable hybridization signal was observed on sativa chromosomes. This differential painting of chromosome enables us to unequivocally discriminate brachyantha chromosome from those of sativa. Results showed the usefulness of GISH in the identification of a single alien chromosome in the sativa background. (author)

  2. Fuzzy-Based Adaptive Hybrid Burst Assembly Technique for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Muhammad Umaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical burst switching (OBS paradigm is perceived as an intermediate switching technology for future all-optical networks. Burst assembly that is the first process in OBS is the focus of this paper. In this paper, an intelligent hybrid burst assembly algorithm that is based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The new algorithm is evaluated against the traditional hybrid burst assembly algorithm and the fuzzy adaptive threshold (FAT burst assembly algorithm via simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the hybrid and the FAT algorithms in terms of burst end-to-end delay, packet end-to-end delay, and packet loss ratio.

  3. Effect of exchange correlation potential on dispersion properties of lower hybrid wave in degenerate plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimza, Tripti; Sharma, Prerana

    2017-05-01

    The dispersion properties of lower hybrid wave are studied in electron-iondegenerate plasma with exchange effect in non-relativistic regime. It is found that the combined effect of Bohm potential and exchange correlation potential significantly modifies the dispersion properties of lower hybrid wave. The graphical results explicitly show the influence of degeneracy pressure, Bohm force and exchange correlation potential on the frequency of the lower hybrid mode. Present work should be of relevance for the dense astrophysical environments like white dwarfs and for laboratory experiments.

  4. Direct electrical arc ignition of hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Michael I., Jr.

    Hybrid rockets motors provide distinct safety advantages when compared to traditional liquid or solid propellant systems, due to the inherent stability and relative inertness of the propellants prior to established combustion. As a result of this inherent propellant stability, hybrid motors have historically proven difficult to ignite. State of the art hybrid igniter designs continue to require solid or liquid reactants distinct from the main propellants. These ignition methods however, reintroduce to the hybrid propulsion system the safety and complexity disadvantages associated with traditional liquid or solid propellants. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a novel direct electrostatic arc ignition method for hybrid motors. A series of small prototype stand-alone thrusters demonstrating this technology were successfully designed and tested using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic and Gaseous Oxygen (GOX) as propellants. Measurements of input voltage and current demonstrated that arc-ignition will occur using as little as 10 watts peak power and less than 5 joules total energy. The motor developed for the stand-alone small thruster was adapted as a gas generator to ignite a medium-scale hybrid rocket motor using nitrous oxide /and HTPB as propellants. Multiple consecutive ignitions were performed. A large data set as well as a collection of development `lessons learned' were compiled to guide future development and research. Since the completion of this original groundwork research, the concept has been developed into a reliable, operational igniter system for a 75mm hybrid motor using both gaseous oxygen and liquid nitrous oxide as oxidizers. A development map of the direct spark ignition concept is presented showing the flow of key lessons learned between this original work and later follow on development.

  5. Hybrid XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years significant innovations of EDXRF, e.g. total reflection XRF or polarized beam XRF, were utilized in different industrial applications. The decrease of background within the spectra was the goal of these developments. Excellent detection limits and sensitivities demonstrate the success of these new techniques. Nevertheless, further improvements are possible by using Si drift detectors. These detectors allow the processing of input count rates up to 10 6 cps in comparison to 10 5 of Si(Li) detectors. New excitation optics are necessary to produce such count rates. One possibility is the use of doubly curved crystals between tube and sample. These crystals enable the reflection of the primary beam within the given solid angle (0.4π) of an end window tube to the sample. Using such brightness optics excellent sensitivities mainly for light elements are achievable. The combination of a BRAGG crystal as a wavelength dispersive component and a solid state detector as an energy dispersive component creates a new technique: hybrid XRF. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  6. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  7. Ad Hoc on-Demand Distance Vector (AODV Routing Protocol Performance Evaluation on Hybrid Ad Hoc Network: Comparison of Result of Ns-2 Simulation and Implementation on Testbed using PDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riri Sari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET, node supplemented with wireless equipment has the capacity to manage and organise autonomously, without the presence of network infrastructures. Hybrid ad hoc network, enable several nodes to move freely (mobile to create instant communication. Independent from infrastructure. They could access the Local Area Network (LAN or the Internet. Functionalities of ad hoc network very much dependent on the routing protocol that determines the routing around node. Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV is one of routing protocols in ad hoc network which has a reactive characteristic. This protocol is the most common protocol being researched and used. In this Research, AODV protocol investigation was conducted by developing a testbed using Personal Computer, several Laptops (the Linux Red Hat operation system 9.0 and Fedora Core 2, and Personal Digital Assistant (PDA. This research also made a complete package by mean of cross compilation for PDA iPAQ. In general, results obtained from the simulation of AODV protocol using Network Simulator NS-2 are packet delivery ratio 99.89%, end-to-end delay of 0.14 seconds and routing overhead of 1,756.61 byte per second. Afterwards results from simulation were compared to results from testbed. Results obtained from testbed are as follows: the packet delivery ratio is 99.57%, the end-to-end delay is 1.004 seconds and the routing overhead is 1,360.36 byte per second.

  8. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  9. PEAK-TO-AVERAGE POWER RATIO REDUCTION USING CODING AND HYBRID TECHNIQUES FOR OFDM SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Bahubali K. Shiragapur; Uday Wali

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the research work investigated is based on an error correction coding techniques are used to reduce the undesirable Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) quantity. The Golay Code (24, 12), Reed-Muller code (16, 11), Hamming code (7, 4) and Hybrid technique (Combination of Signal Scrambling and Signal Distortion) proposed by us are used as proposed coding techniques, the simulation results shows that performance of Hybrid technique, reduces PAPR significantly as compared to Conve...

  10. Identification of chaotic systems by neural network with hybrid learning algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, S.-T.; Lai, C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the genetic algorithm (GA) and steepest descent method (SDM), this paper proposes a hybrid algorithm for the learning of neural networks to identify chaotic systems. The systems in question are the logistic map and the Duffing equation. Different identification schemes are used to identify both the logistic map and the Duffing equation, respectively. Simulation results show that our hybrid algorithm is more efficient than that of other methods

  11. A hybrid reconfigurable solar and wind energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Sagar A.

    We study the feasibility of a novel hybrid solar-wind hybrid system that shares most of its infrastructure and components. During periods of clear sunny days the system will generate electricity from the sun using a parabolic concentrator. The concentrator is formed by individual mirror elements and focuses the light onto high intensity vertical multi-junction (VMJ) cells. During periods of high wind speeds and at night, the same concentrator setup will be reconfigured to channel the wind into a wind turbine which will be used to harness wind energy. In this study we report on the feasibility of this type of solar/wind hybrid energy system. The key mechanisms; optics, cooling mechanism of VMJ cells and air flow through the system were investigated using simulation tools. The results from these simulations, along with a simple economic analysis giving the levelized cost of energy for such a system are presented. An iterative method of design refinement based on the simulation results was used to work towards a prototype design. The levelized cost of the system achieved in the economic analysis shows the system to be a good alternative for a grid isolated site and could be used as a standalone system in regions of lower demand. The new approach to solar wind hybrid system reported herein will pave way for newer generation of hybrid systems that share common infrastructure in addition to the storage and distribution of energy.

  12. Craniomandibular form and body size variation of first generation mouse hybrids: A model for hominin hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kerryn A; Ritzman, Terrence B; Humphreys, Robyn A; Percival, Christopher J; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers

    2018-03-01

    Hybridization occurs in a number of mammalian lineages, including among primate taxa. Analyses of ancient genomes have shown that hybridization between our lineage and other archaic hominins in Eurasia occurred numerous times in the past. However, we still have limited empirical data on what a hybrid skeleton looks like, or how to spot patterns of hybridization among fossils for which there are no genetic data. Here we use experimental mouse models to supplement previous studies of primates. We characterize size and shape variation in the cranium and mandible of three wild-derived inbred mouse strains and their first generation (F 1 ) hybrids. The three parent taxa in our analysis represent lineages that diverged over approximately the same period as the human/Neanderthal/Denisovan lineages and their hybrids are variably successful in the wild. Comparisons of body size, as quantified by long bone measurements, are also presented to determine whether the identified phenotypic effects of hybridization are localized to the cranium or represent overall body size changes. The results indicate that hybrid cranial and mandibular sizes, as well as limb length, exceed that of the parent taxa in all cases. All three F 1 hybrid crosses display similar patterns of size and form variation. These results are generally consistent with earlier studies on primates and other mammals, suggesting that the effects of hybridization may be similar across very different scenarios of hybridization, including different levels of hybrid fitness. This paper serves to supplement previous studies aimed at identifying F 1 hybrids in the fossil record and to introduce further research that will explore hybrid morphologies using mice as a proxy for better understanding hybridization in the hominin fossil record. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An experimental study on the thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the Hybrid Safety Injection Tank using a separate effect test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Sung Uk; Ryu, Hyobong; Park, Hyun-Sik; Yi, Sung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The experimental study on the pressure balancing between the Hybrid SIT and PZR. • The effects of different variables affecting the pressure balancing are investigated. • A sensitivity analysis on the pressure variations of the Hybrid SIT. - Abstract: This paper reports an experimental research for investigating thermal hydraulic phenomena of Hybrid Safety Injection Tank (Hybrid SIT) using a separate effect test facility in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The Hybrid SIT is a passive safety injection system that enables the safety injection water to be injected into the reactor pressure vessel throughout all operating pressures by connecting the top of the SIT and the pressurizer (PZR). The separate effect test (SET) facility of Hybrid SIT, which is designed based on the APR+ power plant, comprises a PZR, Hybrid SIT, pressure balancing line (PBL), injection line (IL), nitrogen gas line, and refueling water tank (RWT). Furthermore, the pressure loss range of the SET facility was analyzed and compared with that of the reference nuclear power plant. In this research, a condition for balancing the pressure between the Hybrid SIT and PZR is examined and the effects of different variables affecting the pressure balancing, which are flow rate, injection velocity of steam and initial water level, are also investigated. The condition for balancing the pressure between the Hybrid SIT and PZR was derived theoretically from a pressure network for the Hybrid SIT, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis as a theoretical approach was conducted on the pressure variations in relation to the rate of steam condensation inside the Hybrid SIT. The results showed that pressure of the Hybrid SIT was predominantly determined by the rate of steam condensation. The results showed that if the rate of condensation increased or decreased by 10%, the Hybrid SIT pressure at the pressure balancing point decreased or

  14. Numerical investigations of hybrid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betelin, V. B.; Kushnirenko, A. G.; Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Tyurenkova, V. V.; Stamov, L. I.

    2018-03-01

    Paper presents the results of numerical studies of hybrid rocket engines operating cycle including unsteady-state transition stage. A mathematical model is developed accounting for the peculiarities of diffusion combustion of fuel in the flow of oxidant, which is composed of oxygen-nitrogen mixture. Three dimensional unsteady-state simulations of chemically reacting gas mixture above thermochemically destructing surface are performed. The results show that the diffusion combustion brings to strongly non-uniform fuel mass regression rate in the flow direction. Diffusive deceleration of chemical reaction brings to the decrease of fuel regression rate in the longitudinal direction.

  15. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  16. Non-reciprocal Interspecies Hybridization Barriers in the Capsella Genus Are Established in the Endosperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin A Rebernig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition to selfing in Capsella rubella accompanies its recent divergence from the ancestral outcrossing C. grandiflora species about 100,000 years ago. Whether the change in mating system was accompanied by the evolution of additional reproductive barriers that enforced species divergence remained unknown. Here, we show that C. rubella and C. grandiflora are reproductively separated by an endosperm-based, non-reciprocal postzygotic hybridization barrier. While hybridizations of C. rubella maternal plants with C. grandiflora pollen donors resulted in complete seed abortion caused by endosperm cellularization failure, the reciprocal hybridization resulted in the formation of small seeds with precociously cellularized endosperm. Strikingly, the transcriptomic response of both hybridizations mimicked respectively the response of paternal and maternal excess hybridizations in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting unbalanced genome strength causes hybridization failure in both species. These results provide strong support for the theory that crosses between plants of different mating systems will be unbalanced, with the outcrosser behaving like a plant of increased ploidy, evoking a response that resembles an interploidy-type seed failure. Seed incompatilibity of C. rubella pollinated by C. grandiflora followed the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model, involving negative genetic interaction of multiple paternal C. grandiflora loci with at least one maternal C. rubella locus. Given that both species only recently diverged, our data suggest that a fast evolving mechanism underlies the post-zygotic hybridization barrier(s separating both species.

  17. Reactivity limitations on the performance of hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piera, M.; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A neutronic theory for characterizing the hybrid blanket physics is used to show that hybrid performances are limited because of reactivity restrictions. The hybrid must always remain subcritical, even in abnormal conditions. For hybrids devoted to energy production by multiplication of the neutron source power, the restriction is particularly strong, and the electricity recirculation fraction to feed the plant can be too large for its economic feasibility. In hybrids used to breed fissile fuel, the power of LWR maintained by power unit of the hybrid is also limited (to a factor of 10, approx.). (author)

  18. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase dispersed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide hybrid biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-01-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on enhanced and fast direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) at enzyme dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide (MWCNT/GO) hybrid biocomposite was developed. The fabricated hybrid biocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The TEM image of hybrid biocomposite reveals that a thin layer of GOx was covered on the surface of MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. IR results validate that the hybrid biocomposite was formed through the electrostatic interactions between GOx and MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. Further, MWCNT/GO hybrid composite has also been characterized by TEM and UV-visible spectroscopy. A pair of well-defined redox peak was observed for GOx immobilized at the hybrid biocomposite electrode than that immobilized at the MWCNT modified electrode. The electron transfer rate constant (Ks) of GOx at the hybrid biocomposite was calculated to be 11.22s(-1). The higher Ks value revealed that fast DET of GOx occurred at the electrode surface. Moreover, fabricated biosensor showed a good sensitivity towards glucose oxidation over a linear range 0.05-23.2mM. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 28μM. The good features of the proposed biosensor could be used for the accurate detection of glucose in the biological samples. © 2013.

  19. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán, Claudio S; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  20. A General Model of Distant Hybridization Reveals the Conditions for Extinction in Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán, Claudio S.; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as “distant hybridization,” the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action. PMID:25003336

  1. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S Quilodrán

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  2. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  3. Hybrid Therapy Regimen for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Song

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Hybrid therapy showed wide differences in the efficacy but consistently good compliance and safety across different regions. Dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were the key factor to efficacy. Hybrid therapy was similar to sequential or concomitant therapy in the efficacy, safety, and compliance.

  4. A Simple Hybrid Synchronization for a Class of Chaotic Financial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is an important to achieve the hybrid synchronization of the chaotic financial system. Chaos synchronization is equivalent to the error system which is asymptotically stable. The hybrid synchronization for a class of finance chaotic systems is discussed. First, a simple single variable controller is obtained to synchronize two identical chaotic financial systems with different initial conditions. Second, a novel algorithm is proposed to determine the variables of the master system that should antisynchronize with corresponding variables of the slave system and use this algorithm to determine the corresponding variables in the chaotic financial systems. The hybrid synchronization of the chaotic financial systems is realized by a simple controller. At the same time, different controllers can implement the chaotic financial system hybrid synchronization. In comparison with the existing results, the obtained controllers in this paper are simpler than those of the existing results. Finally, numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  5. Behavior of hybrid corn crop as second rot incidence in West Region Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Sérgio Rosset

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and influence of stalk rot and ear in cultivation of hybrid corn second crop in west region Paraná. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with six transgenic corn hybrids (DKB 330PRO, P4285HX, P3646HX, 30F53HX, P3340HX and P3161HX with four replications at spacing of 0.90 m between rows and 0.20 m between plants. The characteristics evaluated were: number of healthy and symptomatic plants, number of ears healthy and symptomatic and total number of spikes. After harvest, we assessed the length of ears healthy and symptomatic, bulk grain ears healthy and symptomatic, thousand grain weight of ears healthy and symptomatic, and grain mass per spike weighted, thousand grain weight and weighted productivity. The hybrid P3646HX showed 100% of plants with stem base rot (Colletotrichum graminicola and soft rot cob (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. Zeae and 100% of ears with symptoms of soft rot, followed by hybrid 30F53HX, DKB 330PRO with 34.9 and 29.1% of ears with symptoms of soft rot respectively. The hybrid DKB330PRO showed healthy spikes and patients with superior size, resulting in less interference in the grain yield. The hybrid P3340 productivity was higher, with 7952 kg ha-1 , followed by hybrid 30F53HX and DKB330PRO. A positive correlation between agronomic characteristics and grain yield.

  6. Influence of electrical and hybrid heating on bread quality during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhanwal, N; Ezhilarasi, P N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2015-07-01

    Energy efficiency and product quality are the key factors for any food processing industry. The aim of the study was to develop energy and time efficient baking process. The hybrid heating (Infrared + Electrical) oven was designed and fabricated using two infrared lamps and electric heating coils. The developed oven can be operated in serial or combined heating modes. The standardized baking conditions were 18 min at 220°C to produce the bread from hybrid heating oven. Effect of baking with hybrid heating mode (H-1 and H-2, hybrid oven) on the quality characteristics of bread as against conventional heating mode (C-1, pilot scale oven; C-2, hybrid oven) was studied. The results showed that breads baked in hybrid heating mode (H-2) had higher moisture content (28.87%), higher volume (670 cm(3)), lower crumb firmness value (374.6 g), and overall quality score (67.0) comparable to conventional baking process (68.5). Moreover, bread baked in hybrid heating mode showed 28% reduction in baking time.

  7. Genomic structural variation-mediated allelic suppression causes hybrid male sterility in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rongxin; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xupeng; Wu, Jiang; Jin, Weiwei; Zhao, Xiucai; Xie, Xianrong; Zhu, Qinlong; Tang, Huiwu; Li, Qing; Chen, Letian; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2017-11-03

    Hybrids between divergent populations commonly show hybrid sterility; this reproductive barrier hinders hybrid breeding of the japonica and indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies. Here we show that structural changes and copy number variation at the Sc locus confer japonica-indica hybrid male sterility. The japonica allele, Sc-j, contains a pollen-essential gene encoding a DUF1618-domain protein; the indica allele, Sc-i, contains two or three tandem-duplicated ~ 28-kb segments, each carrying an Sc-j-homolog with a distinct promoter. In Sc-j/Sc-i hybrids, the high-expression of Sc-i in sporophytic cells causes suppression of Sc-j expression in pollen and selective abortion of Sc-j-pollen, leading to transmission ratio distortion. Knocking out one or two of the three Sc-i copies by CRISPR/Cas9 rescues Sc-j expression and male fertility. Our results reveal the gene dosage-dependent allelic suppression as a mechanism of hybrid incompatibility, and provide an effective approach to overcome the reproductive barrier for hybrid breeding.

  8. Targeting Interleukin-4 Receptor Alpha by Hybrid Peptide for Novel Biliary Tract Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahori Seto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα is highly expressed on the surface of various human solid tumors. We previously designed novel IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide composed of binding peptide to IL-4Rα and cell-lytic peptide and reported that the designed IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide exhibited cytotoxic and antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo against the human pancreatic cancer cells expressing IL-4Rα. Here, we evaluated the antitumor activity of the IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide as a novel molecular targeted therapy for human biliary tract cancer (BTC. The IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide showed cytotoxic activity in six BTC cell lines with a concentration that killed 50% of all cells (IC50 as low as 5 μM. We also showed that IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide in combination with gemcitabine exhibited synergistic cytotoxic activity in vitro. In addition, intravenous administration of IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide significantly inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model of human BTC in vivo. Taken together, these results indicated that the IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide is a potent agent that might provide a novel therapy for patients with BTC.

  9. Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation Based on Hybrid Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sideslip angle is essential for active safety control systems. This paper presents a new hybrid Kalman filter to estimate vehicle sideslip angle based on the 3-DoF nonlinear vehicle dynamic model combined with Magic Formula tire model. The hybrid Kalman filter is realized by combining square-root cubature Kalman filter (SCKF, which has quick convergence and numerical stability, with square-root cubature based receding horizon Kalman FIR filter (SCRHKF, which has robustness against model uncertainty and temporary noise. Moreover, SCKF and SCRHKF work in parallel, and the estimation outputs of two filters are merged by interacting multiple model (IMM approach. Experimental results show the accuracy and robustness of the hybrid Kalman filter.

  10. Impact strength on fiber-reinforced hybrid composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdaus, S M; Nurdina; Ariff, M Azmil

    2013-01-01

    Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) has been well known composite in automotive players to have light weight with high impact strength material compared to sheet metal material which has high impact strength but heavy in weight. In this project, the impact strength properties of fabricated pure ABS were compared to the eight samples of hybrid ABS composite with different weight percentages of short fibers and particle sizes of ground rubber. The objective was to improve the impact strength in addition of short fibers and ground rubber particles. These samples were then characterized using an un-notched Izod impact test. Results show that the increasing of filler percentage yielded an adverse effect on the impact strength of the hybrid composite. The effect of the ground rubber particulate sizes however are deemed to be marginal than the effect of varying filler percentage based on the collected impact strength data from all physically tested hybrid composites

  11. Hybrid propulsion technology program. Volume 2: Technology definition package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gordon E.; Holzman, Allen L.; Leisch, Steven O.; Keilbach, Joseph; Parsley, Randy; Humphrey, John

    1989-01-01

    A concept design study was performed to configure two sizes of hybrid boosters; one which duplicates the advanced shuttle rocket motor vacuum thrust time curve and a smaller, quarter thrust level booster. Two sizes of hybrid boosters were configured for either pump-fed or pressure-fed oxygen feed systems. Performance analyses show improved payload capability relative to a solid propellant booster. Size optimization and fuel safety considerations resulted in a 4.57 m (180 inch) diameter large booster with an inert hydrocarbon fuel. The preferred diameter for the quarter thrust level booster is 2.53 m (96 inches). The demonstration plan would culminate with test firings of a 3.05 m (120 inch) diameter hybrid booster.

  12. Novel Platinum (Pt)-Vandetanib Hybrid Compounds: Design, Synthesis and Investigation of Anti-cancer Activity and Mechanism of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Rong

    of them formed mono-dentate adducts. Moreover, hybrid compounds exhibited low toxicity in human normal kidney cells. Compounds maintained the inhibition selectivity towards EGFR from the results of kinase inhibition profiling and cell-free kinase inhibition assay. Hybrids formed strong H-bond at D800 on EGFR. Pt-vandetanib hybrids were highly effective against HCC827 cells harboring sensitizing EGFR mutation. Importantly, relative resistant rate of hybrids were much smaller than vandetanib in H1975 cells. Western blot analysis results revealed that the hybrid compounds could efficiently inhibit EGFR phosphorylation in a dose dependent manner in HCC827. While, inhibition of p-EGFR was not as good as the original TKI in H1975 cells. However, the hybrid compounds induced DNA damage and caused apoptosis of the NSCLC cells. Both of the two pathways were contributed to cancer cell death and overcome vandetanib resistance. Pt-vandetanib hybrids showed little resistance in cisplatin resistant cell line KB-CP20. Drug accumulation evaluation revealed that cisplatin accumulation in CP20 cells decreased to one eighth of that in the parental KB3.1 cells. While hybrids maintained similar drug accumulation extent in both cells lines. Mechanistic study showed that hybrid compounds could induce DNA damage and cause apoptosis, whereas cisplatin failed to cause DNA damage in KB-CP20 cells. Oncoprotein CIP2A was overexpressed in CP20 cell and was ascribed to CDDP resistance. The hybrids inhibited CIP2A expression and downstream AKT phosphorylation. It was hypothesized that downregulation of CIP2A contributed to circumvention platinum resistance. Conclusion: Novel Pt-vandetanib hybrid compounds were able to overcome vandetanib resistance in H1975 cells by maintaining inhibition to the EGFR and inducing DNA damage and apoptosis. Moreover, Pt-vandetanib hybrid compounds behaved low toxicity and overcome cisplatin resistance by being "non-substrate" to efflux transporter and successfully

  13. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase dispersed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide hybrid biocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Chen, Shen-Ming, E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net

    2014-01-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on enhanced and fast direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) at enzyme dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide (MWCNT/GO) hybrid biocomposite was developed. The fabricated hybrid biocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The TEM image of hybrid biocomposite reveals that a thin layer of GOx was covered on the surface of MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. IR results validate that the hybrid biocomposite was formed through the electrostatic interactions between GOx and MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. Further, MWCNT/GO hybrid composite has also been characterized by TEM and UV–visible spectroscopy. A pair of well-defined redox peak was observed for GOx immobilized at the hybrid biocomposite electrode than that immobilized at the MWCNT modified electrode. The electron transfer rate constant (K{sub s}) of GOx at the hybrid biocomposite was calculated to be 11.22 s{sup −1}. The higher K{sub s} value revealed that fast DET of GOx occurred at the electrode surface. Moreover, fabricated biosensor showed a good sensitivity towards glucose oxidation over a linear range 0.05–23.2 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 28 μM. The good features of the proposed biosensor could be used for the accurate detection of glucose in the biological samples. - Highlights: • An amperometric glucose biosensor has been developed at MWCNT/GO hybrid biocomposite. • Enhanced and fast direct electron transfer kinetics of glucose oxidase has been achieved at hybrid biocomposite. • Hybrid biocomposite has been characterized by TEM, IR and Raman spectroscopy. • Highly sensitive and selective for glucose determination.

  14. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase dispersed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide hybrid biocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-01-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on enhanced and fast direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) at enzyme dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide (MWCNT/GO) hybrid biocomposite was developed. The fabricated hybrid biocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The TEM image of hybrid biocomposite reveals that a thin layer of GOx was covered on the surface of MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. IR results validate that the hybrid biocomposite was formed through the electrostatic interactions between GOx and MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. Further, MWCNT/GO hybrid composite has also been characterized by TEM and UV–visible spectroscopy. A pair of well-defined redox peak was observed for GOx immobilized at the hybrid biocomposite electrode than that immobilized at the MWCNT modified electrode. The electron transfer rate constant (K s ) of GOx at the hybrid biocomposite was calculated to be 11.22 s −1 . The higher K s value revealed that fast DET of GOx occurred at the electrode surface. Moreover, fabricated biosensor showed a good sensitivity towards glucose oxidation over a linear range 0.05–23.2 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 28 μM. The good features of the proposed biosensor could be used for the accurate detection of glucose in the biological samples. - Highlights: • An amperometric glucose biosensor has been developed at MWCNT/GO hybrid biocomposite. • Enhanced and fast direct electron transfer kinetics of glucose oxidase has been achieved at hybrid biocomposite. • Hybrid biocomposite has been characterized by TEM, IR and Raman spectroscopy. • Highly sensitive and selective for glucose determination

  15. Immediate Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in F1 Hybrids Parented by Species with Divergent Genomes in the Rice Genus (Oryza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wu

    Full Text Available Inter-specific hybridization occurs frequently in higher plants, and represents a driving force of evolution and speciation. Inter-specific hybridization often induces genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the resultant homoploid hybrids or allopolyploids, a phenomenon known as genome shock. Although genetic and epigenetic consequences of hybridizations between rice subspecies (e.g., japonica and indica and closely related species sharing the same AA genome have been extensively investigated, those of inter-specific hybridizations between more remote species with different genomes in the rice genus, Oryza, remain largely unknown.We investigated the immediate chromosomal and molecular genetic/epigenetic instability of three triploid F1 hybrids produced by inter-specific crossing between species with divergent genomes of Oryza by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and molecular marker analysis. Transcriptional and transpositional activity of several transposable elements (TEs and methylation stability of their flanking regions were also assessed. We made the following principle findings: (i all three triploid hybrids are stable in both chromosome number and gross structure; (ii stochastic changes in both DNA sequence and methylation occurred in individual plants of all three triploid hybrids, but in general methylation changes occurred at lower frequencies than genetic changes; (iii alteration in DNA methylation occurred to a greater extent in genomic loci flanking potentially active TEs than in randomly sampled loci; (iv transcriptional activation of several TEs commonly occurred in all three hybrids but transpositional events were detected in a genetic context-dependent manner.Artificially constructed inter-specific hybrids of remotely related species with divergent genomes in genus Oryza are chromosomally stable but show immediate and highly stochastic genetic and epigenetic instabilities at the molecular level. These novel hybrids might

  16. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  17. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  18. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  19. Hybrid platform. Economical hybrid drive for commercial vehicles; Hybrid Plattform. Wirtschaftlicher Hybridantrieb fuer Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, S.; Lamke, M.; Mohr, M.; Sedlacek, M.; Speck, F.D. [ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Up to now, hybrid systems have been adapted to their specific requirements in the various applications for trucks, buses as well as mobile and building machines. From a technical point of view, this does indeed result in optimized hybrid drives for each single vehicle application, but due to small volumes, such single developments are critical from a business point of view. ZF Friedrichshafen AG is providing a solution to the technical and economical requirements of the cost-sensitive CV segment in the form of a modular CV parallel hybrid platform composed of a hybrid module system, an inverter, a battery system, and a hybrid software integrated into the overall vehicle. Thanks to the intelligent combination of assemblies and the use of as many identical parts as possible, platforms are realized which cover power ranges between 60 and 120 kW, voltage ranges between 350 and 650 V, and battery capacities between 2 and 4 kWh. The dimensions of the platform elements are such that integration into the diverse commercial vehicle applications is made easy. The hybrid software required for the vehicle-specific functions is also configurable for the mentioned CV applications. (orig.)

  20. Woven hybrid composites: Tensile and flexural properties of oil palm-woven jute fibres based epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawaid, M. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., E-mail: akhalilhps@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Woven hybrid composites show good tensile and flexural properties. {yields} Hybridization with 20% woven jute gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. {yields} Layering pattern affect mechanical properties of hybrid composites. {yields} Statistical analysis shows that there is significant difference between composites. - Abstract: In this research, tensile and flexural performance of tri layer oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/woven jute (Jw) fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites subjected to layering pattern has been experimentally investigated. Sandwich composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique in a mould and cured with 105 deg. C temperatures for 1 h by using hot press. Pure EFB and woven jute composites were also fabricate for comparison purpose. Results showed that tensile and flexural properties of pure EFB composite can be improved by hybridization with woven jute fibre as extreme woven jute fibre mat. It was found that tensile and flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of EFB composite but less than woven jute composite. Statistical analysis of composites done by ANOVA-one way, it showed significant differences between the results obtained. The fracture surface morphology of the tensile samples of the hybrid composites was performed by using scanning electron microscopy.

  1. Woven hybrid composites: Tensile and flexural properties of oil palm-woven jute fibres based epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawaid, M.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Abu Bakar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Woven hybrid composites show good tensile and flexural properties. → Hybridization with 20% woven jute gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. → Layering pattern affect mechanical properties of hybrid composites. → Statistical analysis shows that there is significant difference between composites. - Abstract: In this research, tensile and flexural performance of tri layer oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/woven jute (Jw) fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites subjected to layering pattern has been experimentally investigated. Sandwich composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique in a mould and cured with 105 deg. C temperatures for 1 h by using hot press. Pure EFB and woven jute composites were also fabricate for comparison purpose. Results showed that tensile and flexural properties of pure EFB composite can be improved by hybridization with woven jute fibre as extreme woven jute fibre mat. It was found that tensile and flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of EFB composite but less than woven jute composite. Statistical analysis of composites done by ANOVA-one way, it showed significant differences between the results obtained. The fracture surface morphology of the tensile samples of the hybrid composites was performed by using scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Performance and efficiency of a hydraulic hybrid powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbaschian, Mohammad Ali [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Faculty of Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Hydraulic hybrid powertrains are considered to be a promising technology to save energy and reduce emission in specific automotive fields because of their high power density, components lifetime, and long lasting experience in industries compared to electric hybrid powertrains. Within the first part of the paper, a very brief literature survey on hydraulic hybrid vehicle systems (HHVS) and the related dynamical behaviour is given. No specific activities to improve the efficiency of these systems were detected. Related literature with respect to optimization mainly deals with the management of the system's energy flows trying to control the engine operation point and the high pressure in the system. In the second part, a small simulation study is presented. Therefore, hybrid systems are generally assumed as a Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) system. The effect of key variables (i.e. accumulator size and pressure, pump/motor displacement and efficiency, valve dynamics) on the system is discussed. The results show that the volume displacement of pump and motor, the performance of the engine, and the state of charge of the accumulator are the most important parameters to specify the efficiency and performance of the hydraulic hybrid powertrain. Additionally, a hybrid hydraulic powertrain with an adjustable state of charge accumulator is compared with one whose state of charge is constant. The result shows the improvement of braking performance and fuel savings. The goal is to optimize the parameters of the system based on the simultaneous consideration of the three (or more) variables for a given load profile with respect to given objectives. (orig.)

  3. Improving Hybrid III injury assessment in steering wheel rim to chest impacts using responses from finite element Hybrid III and human body model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Kristian; Davidsson, Johan; Mendoza-Vazquez, Manuel; Rundberget, Peter; Svensson, Mats Y; Thorn, Stefan; Törnvall, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to improve the quality of injury risk assessments in steering wheel rim to chest impacts when using the Hybrid III crash test dummy in frontal heavy goods vehicle (HGV) collision tests. Correction factors for chest injury criteria were calculated as the model chest injury parameter ratios between finite element (FE) Hybrid III, evaluated in relevant load cases, and the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS). This is proposed to be used to compensate Hybrid III measurements in crash tests where steering wheel rim to chest impacts occur. The study was conducted in an FE environment using an FE-Hybrid III model and the THUMS. Two impactor shapes were used, a circular hub and a long, thin horizontal bar. Chest impacts at velocities ranging from 3.0 to 6.0 m/s were simulated at 3 impact height levels. A ratio between FE-Hybrid III and THUMS chest injury parameters, maximum chest compression C max, and maximum viscous criterion VC max, were calculated for the different chest impact conditions to form a set of correction factors. The definition of the correction factor is based on the assumption that the response from a circular hub impact to the middle of the chest is well characterized and that injury risk measures are independent of impact height. The current limits for these chest injury criteria were used as a basis to develop correction factors that compensate for the limitations in biofidelity of the Hybrid III in steering wheel rim to chest impacts. The hub and bar impactors produced considerably higher C max and VC max responses in the THUMS compared to the FE-Hybrid III. The correction factor for the responses of the FE-Hybrid III showed that the criteria responses for the bar impactor were consistently overestimated. Ratios based on Hybrid III and THUMS responses provided correction factors for the Hybrid III responses ranging from 0.84 to 0.93. These factors can be used to estimate C max and VC max values when the Hybrid III is

  4. Advanced Nano hybrid Materials: Surface Modification and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.H.; Metivier, R.; Wang, Sh.; Wang, Sh.; Hui Wang

    2012-01-01

    The field of functional nano scale hybrid materials is one of the most promising and rapidly emerging research areas in materials chemistry. Nano scale hybrid materials can be broadly defined as synthetic materials with organic and inorganic components that are linked together by noncovalent bonds (Class I, linked by hydrogen bond, electrostatic force, or van der Waals force) or covalent bonds (Class II) at nanometer scale. The unlimited possible combinations of the distinct properties of inorganic, organic, or even bioactive components in a single material, either in molecular or nano scale dimensions, have attracted considerable attention. This approach provides an opportunity to create a vast number of novel advanced materials with well-controlled structures and multiple functions. The unique properties of advanced hybrid nano materials can be advantageous to many fields, such as optical and electronic materials, biomaterials, catalysis, sensing, coating, and energy storage. In this special issue, the breadth of papers shows that the hybrid materials is attracting attention, because of both growing fundamental interest, and a route to new materials. Two review articles and seven research papers that report new results of hybrid materials should gather widespread interest.

  5. Some hybrid models applicable to dose-response relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, Shigeru

    1992-01-01

    A new type of models of dose-response relationships has been studied as an initial stage to explore a reliable extrapolation of the relationships decided by high dose data to the range of low dose covered by radiation protection. The approach is to use a 'hybrid scale' of linear and logarithmic scales; the first model is that the normalized surviving fraction (ρ S > 0) in a hybrid scale decreases linearly with dose in a linear scale, and the second is that the induction in a log scale increases linearly with the normalized dose (τ D > 0) in a hybrid scale. The hybrid scale may reflect an overall effectiveness of a complex system against adverse events caused by various agents. Some data of leukemia in the atomic bomb survivors and of rodent experiments were used to show the applicability of hybrid scale models. The results proved that proposed models fit these data not less than the popular linear-quadratic models, providing the possible interpretation of shapes of dose-response curves, e.g. shouldered survival curves varied by recovery time. (author)

  6. Hybrid attacks on model-based social recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Gao, Min; Rong, Wenge; Li, Wentao; Xiong, Qingyu; Wen, Junhao

    2017-10-01

    With the growing popularity of the online social platform, the social network based approaches to recommendation emerged. However, because of the open nature of rating systems and social networks, the social recommender systems are susceptible to malicious attacks. In this paper, we present a certain novel attack, which inherits characteristics of the rating attack and the relation attack, and term it hybrid attack. Furtherly, we explore the impact of the hybrid attack on model-based social recommender systems in multiple aspects. The experimental results show that, the hybrid attack is more destructive than the rating attack in most cases. In addition, users and items with fewer ratings will be influenced more when attacked. Last but not the least, the findings suggest that spammers do not depend on the feedback links from normal users to become more powerful, the unilateral links can make the hybrid attack effective enough. Since unilateral links are much cheaper, the hybrid attack will be a great threat to model-based social recommender systems.

  7. Performance analysis of a photovoltaic-thermochemical hybrid system prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenjia; Ling, Yunyi; Liu, Xiangxin; Hao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A modular photovoltaic-thermochemical hybrid system prototype is proposed. •Net solar-electric efficiency up to 41% is achievable. •Stable solar power supply is achievable via convenient energy storage. •The modular design facilitates the scalability of the hybrid system. -- Abstract: A solar photovoltaic (PV) thermochemical hybrid system consisting of a point-focus Fresnel concentrator, a PV cell and a methanol thermochemical reactor is proposed. In particular, a reactor capable of operating under high solar concentration is designed, manufactured and tested. Studies on both kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the reactor and the system are performed. Analysis of numerical and experimental results shows that with cascaded solar energy utilization and synergy among different forms of energy, the hybrid system has the advantages of high net solar-electric efficiency (up to 41%), stable solar energy power supply, solar energy storage (via syngas) and flexibility in application scale. The hybrid system proposed in this work provides a potential solution to some key challenges of current solar energy utilization technologies.

  8. Selfish evolution of cytonuclear hybrid incompatibility in Mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Andrea L; Finseth, Findley R; Barr, Camille M; Fishman, Lila

    2016-09-14

    Intraspecific coevolution between selfish elements and suppressors may promote interspecific hybrid incompatibility, but evidence of this process is rare. Here, we use genomic data to test alternative models for the evolution of cytonuclear hybrid male sterility in Mimulus In hybrids between Iron Mountain (IM) Mimulus guttatus × Mimulus nasutus, two tightly linked M. guttatus alleles (Rf1/Rf2) each restore male fertility by suppressing a local mitochondrial male-sterility gene (IM-CMS). Unlike neutral models for the evolution of hybrid incompatibility loci, selfish evolution predicts that the Rf alleles experienced strong selection in the presence of IM-CMS. Using whole-genome sequences, we compared patterns of population-genetic variation in Rf at IM to a neighbouring population that lacks IM-CMS. Consistent with local selection in the presence of IM-CMS, the Rf region shows elevated FST, high local linkage disequilibrium and a distinct haplotype structure at IM, but not at Cone Peak (CP), suggesting a recent sweep in the presence of IM-CMS. In both populations, Rf2 exhibited lower polymorphism than other regions, but the low-diversity outliers were different between CP and IM. Our results confirm theoretical predictions of ubiquitous cytonuclear conflict in plants and provide a population-genetic mechanism for the evolution of a common form of hybrid incompatibility. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Newly Obtained Interspecific Hybrids in the Campanula Genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Catharina Röper

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridisation creates new phenotypes within several ornamental plant species including the Campanula genus. We have employed phenotypic and genotypic methods to analyse and evaluate interspecific hybridisation among cultivars of four Campanula species, i.e. C. cochleariifolia, C. isophylla, C. medium and C. formanekiana. Hybrids were analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, flow cytometry and biometrical measurements. Results of correlation matrices demonstrated heterogeneous phenotypes for the parental species, which confirmed our basic premise for new phenotypes of interspecific hybrids. AFLP assays confirmed the hybridity and identified self-pollinated plants. Limitation of flow cytometry analysis detection was observed while detecting the hybridity status of two closely related parents, e.g. C. cochleariiafolia × C. isophylla. Phenotypic characteristics such as shoot habitus and flower colour were strongly influenced by one of the parental species in most crosses. Rooting analysis revealed that inferior rooting quality occurred more often in interspecific hybrids than in the parental species. Only interspecific hybrid lines of C. formanekiana 'White' × C. medium 'Pink' showed a high rooting level. Phenotype analyses demonstrated a separation from the interspecific hybrid lines of C. formanekiana 'White' × C. medium 'Pink' to the other clustered hybrids of C. formanekiana and C. medium. In our study we demonstrated that the use of correlation matrices is a suitable tool for identifying suitable cross material. This study presents a comprehensive overview for analysing newly obtained interspecific hybrids. The chosen methods can be used as guidance for analyses for further interspecific hybrids in Campanula, as well as in other ornamental species.

  10. Epistasis among Drosophila persimilis factors conferring hybrid male sterility with D. pseudoobscura bogotana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey S Chang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model posits that hybrid incompatibilities result from genetic changes that accumulate during population divergence. Indeed, much effort in recent years has been devoted to identifying genes associated with hybrid incompatibilities, often with limited success, suggesting that hybrid sterility and inviability are frequently caused by complex interactions between multiple loci and not by single or a small number of gene pairs. Our previous study showed that the nature of epistasis between sterility-conferring QTL in the Drosophila persimilis-D. pseudoobscura bogotana species pair is highly specific. Here, we further dissect one of the three QTL underlying hybrid male sterility between these species and provide evidence for multiple factors within this QTL. This result indicates that the number of loci thought to contribute to hybrid dysfunction may have been underestimated, and we discuss how linkage and complex epistasis may be characteristic of the genetics of hybrid incompatibilities. We further pinpoint the location of one locus that confers hybrid male sterility when homozygous, dubbed "mule-like", to roughly 250 kilobases.

  11. Importance of the correlation contribution for local hybrid functionals: range separation and self-interaction corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuznikov, Alexei V; Kaupp, Martin

    2012-01-07

    Local hybrid functionals with their position-dependent exact-exchange admixture are a conceptually simple and promising extension of the concept of a hybrid functional. Local hybrids based on a simple mixing of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) with exact exchange have been shown to be successful for thermochemistry, reaction barriers, and a range of other properties. So far, the combination of this generation of local hybrids with an LSDA correlation functional has been found to give the most favorable results for atomization energies, for a range of local mixing functions (LMFs) governing the exact-exchange admixture. Here, we show that the choice of correlation functional to be used with local hybrid exchange crucially influences the parameterization also of the exchange part as well as the overall performance. A novel ansatz for the correlation part of local hybrids is suggested based on (i) range-separation of LSDA correlation into short-range (SR) and long-range (LR) parts, and (ii) partial or full elimination of the one-electron self-correlation from the SR part. It is shown that such modified correlation functionals allow overall larger exact exchange admixture in thermochemically competitive local hybrids than before. This results in improvements for reaction barriers and for other properties crucially influenced by self-interaction errors, as demonstrated by a number of examples. Based on the range-separation approach, a fresh view on the breakdown of the correlation energy into dynamical and non-dynamical parts is suggested.

  12. Epistasis among Drosophila persimilis factors conferring hybrid male sterility with D. pseudoobscura bogotana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Audrey S; Bennett, Sarah M; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-10-27

    The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model posits that hybrid incompatibilities result from genetic changes that accumulate during population divergence. Indeed, much effort in recent years has been devoted to identifying genes associated with hybrid incompatibilities, often with limited success, suggesting that hybrid sterility and inviability are frequently caused by complex interactions between multiple loci and not by single or a small number of gene pairs. Our previous study showed that the nature of epistasis between sterility-conferring QTL in the Drosophila persimilis-D. pseudoobscura bogotana species pair is highly specific. Here, we further dissect one of the three QTL underlying hybrid male sterility between these species and provide evidence for multiple factors within this QTL. This result indicates that the number of loci thought to contribute to hybrid dysfunction may have been underestimated, and we discuss how linkage and complex epistasis may be characteristic of the genetics of hybrid incompatibilities. We further pinpoint the location of one locus that confers hybrid male sterility when homozygous, dubbed "mule-like", to roughly 250 kilobases.

  13. Epistasis modifies the dominance of loci causing hybrid male sterility in the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Audrey S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-01-01

    Speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation between populations, serves as the driving force for generating biodiversity. Postzygotic barriers to gene flow, such as F(1) hybrid sterility and inviability, play important roles in the establishment and maintenance of biological species. F(1) hybrid incompatibilities in taxa that obey Haldane's rule, the observation that the heterogametic sex suffers greater hybrid fitness problems than the homogametic sex, are thought to often result from interactions between recessive-acting X-linked loci and dominant-acting autosomal loci. Because they play such prominent roles in producing hybrid incompatibilities, we examine the dominance and nature of epistasis between alleles derived from Drosophila persimilis that confer hybrid male sterility in the genetic background of its sister species, D. pseudoobscura bogotana. We show that epistasis elevates the apparent dominance of individually recessive-acting QTL such that they can contribute to F(1) hybrid sterility. These results have important implications for assumptions underlying theoretical models of hybrid incompatibilities and may offer a possible explanation for why, to date, identification of dominant-acting autosomal "speciation genes" has been challenging.

  14. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  15. Current status of hybrid coronary revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaik, Nikhil P; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Leacche, Marzia; Solenkova, Natalia; Balaguer, Jorge M; Hoff, Steven J; Ball, Stephen K; Zhao, David X; Byrne, John G

    2011-10-01

    Hybrid coronary revascularization combines coronary artery bypass surgery with percutaneous coronary intervention techniques to treat coronary artery disease. The potential benefits of such a technique are to offer the patients the best available treatments for coronary artery disease while minimizing the risks of the surgery. Hybrid coronary revascularization has resulted in the establishment of new 'hybrid operating suites', which incorporate and integrate the capabilities of a cardiac surgery operating room with that of an interventional cardiology laboratory. Hybrid coronary revascularization has greatly augmented teamwork and cooperation between both fields and has demonstrated encouraging as well as good initial outcomes.

  16. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  17. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  18. {pi}{eta} pair hard electroproduction and exotic hybrid mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.V. [LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay, France, UMR 8627 du CNRS (France); BLTP, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau, France, UMR 7644 du CNRS (France); Pire, B. [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau, France, UMR 7644 du CNRS (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland) and Univ. de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Teryaev, O.V. [BLTP, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Wallon, S. [LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405-Orsay, France, UMR 8627 du CNRS (France)

    2005-06-13

    We show that hard electroproduction is a promising way to study exotic hybrid mesons, in particular through the hybrid decay channel H->{pi}{eta}. We discuss the {pi}{eta} generalized distribution amplitude, calculate the production amplitude and propose a forward-backward asymmetry as a signal for the hybrid meson production.

  19. πη pair hard electroproduction and exotic hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We show that hard electroproduction is a promising way to study exotic hybrid mesons, in particular through the hybrid decay channel H->πη. We discuss the πη generalized distribution amplitude, calculate the production amplitude and propose a forward-backward asymmetry as a signal for the hybrid meson production

  20. Recent progress of hybrid simulation for energetic particles and MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todo, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Several hybrid simulation models have been constructed to study the evolution of Alfven eigenmodes destabilized by energetic particles. Recent hybrid simulation results of energetic particle driven instabilities are presented in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  1. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time......-derivatives in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  2. Thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of seaweed/sugar palm fibre reinforced thermoplastic sugar palm Starch/Agar hybrid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaidin, Ridhwan; Sapuan, Salit M; Jawaid, Mohammad; Ishak, Mohamad R; Sahari, Japar

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of sugar palm fibre (SPF) on the mechanical, thermal and physical properties of seaweed/thermoplastic sugar palm starch agar (TPSA) composites. Hybridized seaweed/SPF filler at weight ratio of 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 were prepared using TPSA as a matrix. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties of hybrid composites were carried out. Obtained results indicated that hybrid composites display improved tensile and flexural properties accompanied with lower impact resistance. The highest tensile (17.74MPa) and flexural strength (31.24MPa) was obtained from hybrid composite with 50:50 ratio of seaweed/SPF. Good fibre-matrix bonding was evident in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph of the hybrid composites' tensile fracture. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis showed increase in intermolecular hydrogen bonding following the addition of SPF. Thermal stability of hybrid composites was enhanced, indicated by a higher onset degradation temperature (259°C) for 25:75 seaweed/SPF composites than the individual seaweed composites (253°C). Water absorption, thickness swelling, water solubility, and soil burial tests showed higher water and biodegradation resistance of the hybrid composites. Overall, the hybridization of SPF with seaweed/TPSA composites enhances the properties of the biocomposites for short-life application; that is, disposable tray, plate, etc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Heavy quarkonium hybrids: Spectrum, decay, and mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncala, Ruben; Soto, Joan

    2017-07-01

    We present a largely model-independent analysis of the lighter heavy quarkonium hybrids based on the strong coupling regime of potential nonrelativistic QCD. We calculate the spectrum at leading order, including the mixing of static hybrid states. We use potentials that fulfill the required short and long distance theoretical constraints and fit well the available lattice data. We argue that the decay width to the lower lying heavy quarkonia can be reliably estimated in some cases and provide results for a selected set of decays. We also consider the mixing with heavy quarkonium states. We establish the form of the mixing potential at O (1 /mQ) , mQ being the mass of the heavy quarks, and work out its short and long distance constraints. The weak coupling regime of potential nonrelativistic QCD and the effective string theory of QCD are used for that goal. We show that the mixing effects may indeed be important and produce large spin symmetry violations. Most of the isospin zero XYZ states fit well in our spectrum, either as a hybrid or standard quarkonium candidate.

  4. An efficient method for hybrid density functional calculation with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maoyuan; Liu, Gui-Bin; Guo, Hong; Yao, Yugui

    2018-03-01

    In first-principles calculations, hybrid functional is often used to improve accuracy from local exchange correlation functionals. A drawback is that evaluating the hybrid functional needs significantly more computing effort. When spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is taken into account, the non-collinear spin structure increases computing effort by at least eight times. As a result, hybrid functional calculations with SOC are intractable in most cases. In this paper, we present an approximate solution to this problem by developing an efficient method based on a mixed linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) scheme. We demonstrate the power of this method using several examples and we show that the results compare very well with those of direct hybrid functional calculations with SOC, yet the method only requires a computing effort similar to that without SOC. The presented technique provides a good balance between computing efficiency and accuracy, and it can be extended to magnetic materials.

  5. Hybrid Magnetics and Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wai Keung; Paasch, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid magnetic approach, merging two different magnetic core properites such as ferrite and iron powder cores, is an effective solution for power converter applications. It can offer similar magnetic properties to that of magnetic powder cores but showing less copper loss than powder cores....... In order to prevent ferrite core saturation, placing an effective air gap within the ferrite core is a key method to obtain optimum hybrid magnetic performance. Furthermore, a relatively large inductance at low loading current is an excellent way to minimze power loss in order to achieve high efficiency...

  6. A highly bioactive poly (amido amine)/70S30C bioactive glass hybrid with photoluminescent and antimicrobial properties for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Dourbash, Fakhraddin; Alizadeh, Parvin; Nazari, Shahram; Farasat, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    The field of tissue engineering constantly calls for novel biomaterials that possess intrinsically multifunctional properties such as bioactivity, bioimaging ability and antibacterial properties. In this paper, poly (amido amine) generation 5/bioactive glass inorganic-organic hybrids have been developed through direct hybridization by 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) as coupling agent. Results indicated that the degree of covalent coupling by GPTMS and the weight percent of inorganic and organic constituents highly influence hybrids properties. It was found that nanoscale integration of inorganic and organic chains by GPTMS significantly endows hybrids with high thermal stability. Furthermore, hybrids exhibited photoluminescent ability (emission 400-600nm and 700nm) without incorporating of any organic dyes or quantum dots. In addition, hydrophilicity of our hybrids indicated good cell/material interaction. The biological apatite was formed on the surface of calcium containing hybrids when soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1week. Hybrids also showed linear biodegradation behavior in SBF that could be controlled by the degree of covalent crosslinking which was indicative of their stable biodegradation ability. High inherent antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus was also observed from poly (amido amine)/silica hybrids. No adverse cytotoxicity for human gingival fibroblast cell lines (HGF) was detected after 4days. It is envisaged that our novel multifunctional hybrid system will confer intriguing potential in advancing the field of tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  8. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  9. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  10. Case for the fusion hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The use of nuclear fusion to produce fuel for nuclear fission power stations is discussed in the context of a crucial need for future energy options. The fusion hybrid is first considered as an element in the future of nuclear fission power to provide long term assurance of adequate fuel supplies for both breeder and convertor reactors. Generic differences in neutronic characteristics lead to a fuel production potential of fusion-fission hybrid systems which is significantly greater than that obtainable with fission systems alone. Furthermore, cost benefit studies show a variety of scenarios in which the hybrid offers sufficient potential to justify development costs ranging in the tens of billions of dollars. The hybrid is then considered as an element in the ultimate development of fusion electric power. The hybrid offers a near term application of fusion where experience with the requisite technologies can be derived as a vital step in mapping a credible route to eventual commercial feasibility of pure fusion systems. Finally, the criteria for assessment of future energy options are discussed with prime emphasis on the need for rational comparision of alternatives

  11. Reduced temperature (22 degrees C) results in enhancement of cell killing and neoplastic transformation in noncycling HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells irradiated with low-dose-rate gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, J.L.; Antoniono, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of reduced temperature (22 degrees C) or serum deprivation during low-dose-rate (0.66 cGy/min) γ irradiation on cell killing and neoplastic transformation has been examined using the HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cell system. The reduced temperature stops progression of these cells through the cell cycle while serum deprivation slows down cell turnover markedly. The data demonstrate an enhancement in both of the end points when cells are held at 22 degrees C compared to parallel experiments done at 37 degrees C. In operational terms, the decreased survival and increased neoplastic transformation are consistent with our earlier hypothesis of a higher probability of misrepair at reduced temperature. The interpretation that this damage enhancement was associated with the reduced temperature, and not the fact that the cells were noncycling, was supported by the results of experiments performed with cells cultured at 37 degrees C in serum-free medium for 35 h prior to and then during the 12.24 h low-dose-rate radiation exposure. Under these conditions, cell cycle progression, as shown by reduction in growth rate and dual-parameter flow cytometric analysis, was considerable inhibited (cell cycle time increased from 20 h to 40 h), and there was no significant enhancement of cell killing or neoplastic transformation. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Hybrid model for forecasting time series with trend, seasonal and salendar variation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartono; Rahayu, S. P.; Prastyo, D. D.; Wijayanti, D. G. P.; Juliyanto

    2017-09-01

    Most of the monthly time series data in economics and business in Indonesia and other Moslem countries not only contain trend and seasonal, but also affected by two types of calendar variation effects, i.e. the effect of the number of working days or trading and holiday effects. The purpose of this research is to develop a hybrid model or a combination of several forecasting models to predict time series that contain trend, seasonal and calendar variation patterns. This hybrid model is a combination of classical models (namely time series regression and ARIMA model) and/or modern methods (artificial intelligence method, i.e. Artificial Neural Networks). A simulation study was used to show that the proposed procedure for building the hybrid model could work well for forecasting time series with trend, seasonal and calendar variation patterns. Furthermore, the proposed hybrid model is applied for forecasting real data, i.e. monthly data about inflow and outflow of currency at Bank Indonesia. The results show that the hybrid model tend to provide more accurate forecasts than individual forecasting models. Moreover, this result is also in line with the third results of the M3 competition, i.e. the hybrid model on average provides a more accurate forecast than the individual model.

  13. Preparation of ZnO/CdS/BC Photocatalyst Hybrid Fiber and Research of Its Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An environment-friendly biomaterial bacterial cellulose (BC is introduced to substitute general organic polymers to assist the preparation of ZnO/CdS/BC photocatalyst hybrid nanofiber through coprecipitation method under the low-temperature condition. The XRD, XPS, and SEM results show that high load of ZnO/CdS/BC ternary hybrid fiber can be produced. TGA curves scan shows that ZnO/CdS/BC hybrid fiber has better thermal properties than bacterial cellulose. The UV-Vis spectra of the ZnO/CdS/BC hybrid nanofiber (0, 10, 20, and 50 wt%, resp. show that photocatalytic activities of ZnO/CdS/BC are influenced by the added amount of CdS. The degradation curve of methyl shows that ZnO/CdS/BC nanohybrid fibers exhibit excellent photocatalytic efficiency.

  14. The threat of hybrid Phytophthoras

    Science.gov (United States)

    The majority of invasive plant pathogens have resulted from the introduction of exotic organisms. However, another mechanism for invasiveness results from hybridization between species. This phenomenon has been documented in plants and animals, but its role in plant pathology has only recently been ...

  15. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  16. Nonminimally coupled hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Seoktae; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the hybrid inflation model where the inflaton field is nonminimally coupled to gravity. In the Jordan frame, the potential contains φ 4 term as well as terms in the original hybrid inflation model. In our model, inflation can be classified into the type (I) and the type (II). In the type (I), inflation is terminated by the tachyonic instability of the waterfall field, while in the type (II) by the violation of slow-roll conditions. In our model, the reheating takes place only at the true minimum and even in the case (II) finally the tachyonic instability occurs after the termination of inflation. For a negative nonminimal coupling, inflation takes place in the vacuum-dominated region, in the large field region, or near the local minimum/maximum. Inflation in the vacuum-dominated region becomes either the type (I) or (II), resulting in a blue or red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, respectively. Inflation around the local maximum can be either the type (I) or the type (II), which results in the red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, while around the local minimum it must be the type (I), which results in the blue spectrum. In the large field region, to terminate inflation, potential in the Einstein frame must be positively tilted, always resulting in the red spectrum. We then numerically solve the equations of motion to investigate the whole dynamics of inflaton and confirm that the spectrum of curvature perturbations changes from red to blue ones as scales become smaller.

  17. Rotor Vibration Reduction via Active Hybrid Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through...... orifices machined in the bearing pads, one can alter the machine dynamic characteristics, thus enhancing its operational range. A mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system, as well as of the hydraulic system, is presented. Numerical results of the system frequency response show good agreement...

  18. Hybrid employment recommendation algorithm based on Spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoquan; Lin, Yubei; Zhang, Xingming

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at the real-time application of collaborative filtering employment recommendation algorithm (CF), a clustering collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm (CCF) is developed, which applies hierarchical clustering to CF and narrows the query range of neighbour items. In addition, to solve the cold-start problem of content-based recommendation algorithm (CB), a content-based algorithm with users’ information (CBUI) is introduced for job recommendation. Furthermore, a hybrid recommendation algorithm (HRA) which combines CCF and CBUI algorithms is proposed, and implemented on Spark platform. The experimental results show that HRA can overcome the problems of cold start and data sparsity, and achieve good recommendation accuracy and scalability for employment recommendation.

  19. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  20. Redox-active Hybrid Materials for Pseudocapacitive Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, Muhammad

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials show a great promise for the purpose of manufacturing high performance electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems and beyond. Molecular level combination of two best suited components in a hybrid material leads to new or sometimes exceptional sets of physical, chemical, mechanical and electrochemical properties that makes them attractive for broad ranges of applications. Recently, there has been growing interest in producing redox-active hybrid nanomaterials for energy storage applications where generally the organic component provides high redox capacitance and the inorganic component offers high conductivity and robust support. While organic-inorganic hybrid materials offer tremendous opportunities for electrochemical energy storage applications, the task of matching the right organic material out of hundreds of natural and nearly unlimited synthetic organic molecules to appropriate nanostructured inorganic support hampers their electrochemical energy storage applications. We aim to present the recent development of redox-active hybrid materials for pseudocapacitive energy storage. We will show the impact of combination of suitable organic materials with distinct carbon nanostructures and/or highly conductive metal carbides (MXenes) on conductivity, charge storage performance, and cyclability. Combined experimental and molecular simulation results will be discussed to shed light on the interfacial organic-inorganic interactions, pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanisms, and likely orientations of organic molecules on conductive supports. Later, the concept of all-pseudocapacitive organic-inorganic asymmetric supercapacitors will be highlighted which open up new avenues for developing inexpensive, sustainable, and high energy density aqueous supercapacitors. Lastly, future challenges and opportunities to further tailor the redox-active hybrids will be highlighted.

  1. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Three Super-Hybrid Rice Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Peng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of heterosis has significantly increased rice yields. However, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptional profiles of three super-hybrid rice combinations, LY2163, LY2186 and LYP9, at the flowering and filling stages, were created using rice whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray. The LY2163, LY2186 and LYP9 hybrids yielded 1193, 1630 and 1046 differentially expressed genes (DGs, accounting for 3.2%, 4.4% and 2.8% of the total number of genes (36,926, respectively, after using the z-test (p < 0.01. Functional category analysis showed that the DGs in each hybrid combination were mainly classified into the carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism categories. Further analysis of the metabolic pathways showed that DGs were significantly enriched in the carbon fixation pathway (p < 0.01 for all three combinations. Over 80% of the DGs were located in rice quantitative trait loci (QTLs of the Gramene database, of which more than 90% were located in the yield related QTLs in all three combinations, which suggested that there was a correlation between DGs and rice heterosis. Pathway Studio analysis showed the presence of DGs in the circadian regulatory network of all three hybrid combinations, which suggested that the circadian clock had a role in rice heterosis. Our results provide information that can help to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying rice heterosis.

  2. A study on genetic variation and selective effect of principal characters of hybrid progenies of macro-mutants in peanut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Qingrong

    1990-01-01

    In order to make good use of macro-mutants, we have studied the law of genetic variation and selective effect on the hybrid progenies of original varieties and of two macro-mutants with steady phenotypes. The results show that the hybrid progenies of the two experimental macro-mutants in the broad-sense heritability and the genetic advance of their main economical characters as well as the effect on selection are better than those of the hybrid progenies of the two original varieties. The selection rate from the macro-mutant hybrid progenies is 72.2% which is higher than that of the hybrid progenies of the two original varieties, and and a new prospecting strain has been obtained

  3. The Comparative Study on Vapor-Polymerization and Pressure-dependent Conductance Behavior in Polypyrrole-hybridized Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanif, Zahid; Lee, Seyeong; Arsalani, Nasir; Geckeler, Kurt E.; Hong, Sukwon; Yoon, Myung-Han [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this study, commercially available cellulose membranes were hybridized with conjugated polymer via vapor-phase polymerization using pyrrole and iron chloride as a monomer and oxidant, respectively. The iron (III) chloride layer dip-coated on the hydrophilic cell ulose surface oxidized the vaporized pyrrole monomer leading to the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane. The conductivity of hybrid membrane was optimized by varying the oxidant concentration and the monomer vapor exposure time. The various surface characterizations of polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane show that the conductive polypyrrole layer was uniformly deposited onto the surface of cellulose fibrous networks unlike the polypyrrole-nylonhybrid membrane prepared in the similar way. The polypyrrole-incorporated cellulose networks exhibits steeper electrical conductance increase over the vertical pressure than its nylon counterpart. Our result suggests that the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane can be applicable for a disposable high-load pressure sensor.

  4. The Comparative Study on Vapor-Polymerization and Pressure-dependent Conductance Behavior in Polypyrrole-hybridized Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, Zahid; Lee, Seyeong; Arsalani, Nasir; Geckeler, Kurt E.; Hong, Sukwon; Yoon, Myung-Han

    2016-01-01

    In this study, commercially available cellulose membranes were hybridized with conjugated polymer via vapor-phase polymerization using pyrrole and iron chloride as a monomer and oxidant, respectively. The iron (III) chloride layer dip-coated on the hydrophilic cell ulose surface oxidized the vaporized pyrrole monomer leading to the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane. The conductivity of hybrid membrane was optimized by varying the oxidant concentration and the monomer vapor exposure time. The various surface characterizations of polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane show that the conductive polypyrrole layer was uniformly deposited onto the surface of cellulose fibrous networks unlike the polypyrrole-nylonhybrid membrane prepared in the similar way. The polypyrrole-incorporated cellulose networks exhibits steeper electrical conductance increase over the vertical pressure than its nylon counterpart. Our result suggests that the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane can be applicable for a disposable high-load pressure sensor.

  5. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  6. BN-600 hybrid core benchmark analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.I.; Stanculescu, A.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.N.; Grimm, K.N.

    2003-01-01

    Benchmark analyses for the hybrid BN-600 reactor that contains three uranium enrichment zones and one plutonium zone in the core, have been performed within the frame of an IAEA sponsored Coordinated Research Project. The results for several relevant reactivity parameters obtained by the participants with their own state-of-the-art basic data and codes, were compared in terms of calculational uncertainty, and their effects on the ULOF transient behavior of the hybrid BN-600 core were evaluated. The comparison of the diffusion and transport results obtained for the homogeneous representation generally shows good agreement for most parameters between the RZ and HEX-Z models. The burnup effect and the heterogeneity effect on most reactivity parameters also show good agreement for the HEX-Z diffusion and transport theory results. A large difference noticed for the sodium and steel density coefficients is mainly due to differences in the spatial coefficient predictions for non fuelled regions. The burnup reactivity loss was evaluated to be 0.025 (4.3 $) within ∼ 5.0% standard deviation. The heterogeneity effect on most reactivity coefficients was estimated to be small. The heterogeneity treatment reduced the control rod worth by 2.3%. The heterogeneity effect on the k-eff and control rod worth appeared to differ strongly depending on the heterogeneity treatment method. A substantial spread noticed for several reactivity coefficients did not give a significant impact on the transient behavior prediction. This result is attributable to compensating effects between several reactivity effects and the specific design of the partially MOX fuelled hybrid core. (author)

  7. Hybrid coating on a magnesium alloy for minimizing the localized degradation for load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au; Liyanaarachchi, S.

    2013-10-01

    The effect of a hybrid coating, calcium phosphate (CaP) + polylactic acid (PLA), on a magnesium alloy on its in vitro degradation (general and localized) behaviour was studied for potential load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications. CaP was coated on a magnesium alloy, AZ91, using an electrochemical deposition method. A spin coating method was used to coat PLA on the CaP coated alloy. In vitro degradation performance of the alloy with hybrid coating was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The EIS results showed that the hybrid coating enhanced the degradation resistance of the alloy by more than two-order of magnitude as compared to the bare alloy and one-order of magnitude higher than that of the CaP coated alloy, after 1 h exposure in simulated body fluid (SBF). Long-term (48 h) EIS results also confirmed that the hybrid coating performed better than the bare alloy and the CaP coated alloy. Importantly, the hybrid coating improved the localized degradation resistance of the alloy significantly, which is critical for better in service mechanical integrity. - Highlights: • A hybrid coating (CaP + PLA) was applied on a magnesium-based alloy. • The hybrid coating enhanced the in vitro degradation resistance of the alloy. • Localized degradation resistance was also improved by the hybrid coating.

  8. Hybrid coating on a magnesium alloy for minimizing the localized degradation for load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, M. Bobby; Liyanaarachchi, S.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a hybrid coating, calcium phosphate (CaP) + polylactic acid (PLA), on a magnesium alloy on its in vitro degradation (general and localized) behaviour was studied for potential load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications. CaP was coated on a magnesium alloy, AZ91, using an electrochemical deposition method. A spin coating method was used to coat PLA on the CaP coated alloy. In vitro degradation performance of the alloy with hybrid coating was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The EIS results showed that the hybrid coating enhanced the degradation resistance of the alloy by more than two-order of magnitude as compared to the bare alloy and one-order of magnitude higher than that of the CaP coated alloy, after 1 h exposure in simulated body fluid (SBF). Long-term (48 h) EIS results also confirmed that the hybrid coating performed better than the bare alloy and the CaP coated alloy. Importantly, the hybrid coating improved the localized degradation resistance of the alloy significantly, which is critical for better in service mechanical integrity. - Highlights: • A hybrid coating (CaP + PLA) was applied on a magnesium-based alloy. • The hybrid coating enhanced the in vitro degradation resistance of the alloy. • Localized degradation resistance was also improved by the hybrid coating

  9. Targeted delivery of 10-hydroxycamptothecin to human breast cancers by cyclic RGD-modified lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhe; Luo, Xingen; Zhang, Xiaofang; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Qing

    2013-04-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) combining the positive attributes of both liposomes and polymeric NPs are increasingly being considered as promising candidates to carry therapeutic agents safely and efficiently into targeted sites. Herein, a modified emulsification technique was developed and optimized for the targeting lipid-polymer hybrid NPs fabrication; the surface properties and stability of the hybrid NPs were systematically investigated, which confirmed that the hybrid NPs consisted of a poly (lactide-co-glycolide) core with ∼90% surface coverage of the lipid monolayer and a ∼4.4 nm hydrated polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell. Optimization results showed that the lipid:polymer mass ratio and the lipid-PEG:lipid molar ratio could affect the size, lipid association efficiency and stability of hybrid NPs. Furthermore, a model chemotherapy drug, 10-hydroxycamptothecin, was encapsulated into hybrid NPs with a higher drug loading compared to PLGA NPs. Surface modification of the lipid layer and the PEG conjugated targeting ligand did not affect their drug release kinetics. Finally, the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies indicated that the lipid coverage and the c(RGDyk) conjugation of the hybrid NPs gained a significantly enhanced ability of cell killing and endocytosis. Our results suggested that lipid-polymer hybrid NPs prepared by the modified emulsion technique have great potential to be utilized as an engineered drug delivery system with precise control ability of surface targeting modification.

  10. Targeted delivery of 10-hydroxycamptothecin to human breast cancers by cyclic RGD-modified lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhe; Luo, Xingen; Zhang, Xiaofang; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) combining the positive attributes of both liposomes and polymeric NPs are increasingly being considered as promising candidates to carry therapeutic agents safely and efficiently into targeted sites. Herein, a modified emulsification technique was developed and optimized for the targeting lipid–polymer hybrid NPs fabrication; the surface properties and stability of the hybrid NPs were systematically investigated, which confirmed that the hybrid NPs consisted of a poly (lactide-co-glycolide) core with ∼90% surface coverage of the lipid monolayer and a ∼4.4 nm hydrated polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell. Optimization results showed that the lipid:polymer mass ratio and the lipid-PEG:lipid molar ratio could affect the size, lipid association efficiency and stability of hybrid NPs. Furthermore, a model chemotherapy drug, 10-hydroxycamptothecin, was encapsulated into hybrid NPs with a higher drug loading compared to PLGA NPs. Surface modification of the lipid layer and the PEG conjugated targeting ligand did not affect their drug release kinetics. Finally, the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies indicated that the lipid coverage and the c(RGDyk) conjugation of the hybrid NPs gained a significantly enhanced ability of cell killing and endocytosis. Our results suggested that lipid–polymer hybrid NPs prepared by the modified emulsion technique have great potential to be utilized as an engineered drug delivery system with precise control ability of surface targeting modification. (paper)

  11. Anatomy of FD-term hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbrecht, Bjoern; Pallis, Constantinos; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the cosmological implications of F-term hybrid inflation with a subdominant Fayet-Iliopoulos D-term whose presence explicitly breaks a D-parity in the inflaton-waterfall sector. This scenario of inflation, which is called F D -term hybrid model for brevity, can naturally predict lepton number violation at the electroweak scale, by tying the μ-parameter of the MSSM to an SO(3)-symmetric Majorana mass m N , via the vacuum expectation value of the inflaton field. We show how a negative Hubble-induced mass term in a next-to-minimal extension of supergravity helps to accommodate the present CMB data and considerably weaken the strict constraints on the theoretical parameters, resulting from cosmic string effects on the power spectrum P R . The usual gravitino overabundance constraint may be significantly relaxed in this model, once the enormous entropy release from the late decays of the ultraheavy waterfall gauge particles is properly considered. As the Universe enters a second thermalization phase involving a very low reheat temperature, which might be as low as about 0.3 TeV, thermal electroweak-scale resonant leptogenesis provides a viable mechanism for successful baryogenesis, while thermal right-handed sneutrinos emerge as new possible candidates for solving the cold dark matter problem. In addition, we discuss grand unified theory realizations of F D -term hybrid inflation devoid of cosmic strings and monopoles, based on the complete breaking of an SU(2) X subgroup. The F D -term hybrid model offers rich particle-physics phenomenology, which could be probed at high-energy colliders, as well as in low-energy experiments of lepton flavour or number violation

  12. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF THREE HYBRID BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, E. C.; Lister, M. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Kharb, P. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Marshall, H. L. [Center for Space Research, Room NE80-6031, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); O’Dea, C.; Baum, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    We present multiwavelength imaging observations of PKS 1045−188, 8C 1849+670, and PKS 2216−038, three radio-loud active galactic nuclei from the MOJAVE-Chandra Sample that straddle the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) boundary between low- and high-power jets. These hybrid sources provide an excellent opportunity to study jet emission mechanisms and the influence of the external environment. We used archival VLA observations, and new Hubble and Chandra observations to identify and study the spectral properties of five knots in PKS 1045−188, two knots in 8C 1849+670, and three knots in PKS 2216−038. For the seven X-ray visible knots, we constructed and fit the broadband spectra using synchrotron and inverse Compton/cosmic microwave background (IC/CMB) emission models. In all cases, we found that the lack of detected optical emission ruled out the X-ray emission from the same electron population that produces radio emission. All three sources have high total extended radio power, similar to that of FR II sources. We find this is in good agreement with previously studied hybrid sources, where high-power hybrid sources emit X-rays via IC/CMB and the low-power hybrid sources emit X-rays via synchrotron emission. This supports the idea that it is total radio power rather than FR morphology that determines the X-ray emission mechanism. We found no significant asymmetries in the diffuse X-ray emission surrounding the host galaxies. Sources PKS 1045−188 and 8C 1849+670 show significant differences in their radio and X-ray termination points, which may result from the deceleration of highly relativistic bulk motion.

  13. Species hybridization in the genus Pinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett

    1979-01-01

    Results of a breeding program in which a large number of pine species were tested indicate that a number of species and hybrids may be useful in the northeastern United States. Austrian black pine x Japanese black pine and hybrids containing Japanese red pine all had good growth rates. While none of the soft pines grew faster than eastern white pine, a number of...

  14. On Fractional Order Hybrid Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. E. Herzallah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of fractional hybrid differential equations with linear and nonlinear perturbations involving the Caputo fractional derivative of order 0<α<1. Using some fixed point theorems we prove the existence of mild solutions for two types of hybrid equations. Examples are given to illustrate the obtained results.

  15. Vegetative and adaptive traits predict different outcomes for restoration using hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Crystal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – Hybridization has been implicated as a driver of speciation, extinction, and invasiveness, but can also provide resistant breeding stock following epidemics. However, evaluating the appropriateness of hybrids for use in restoration programs is difficult. Past the F1 generation, the proportion of a progenitor’s genome can vary widely, as can the combinations of parental genomes. Detailed genetic analysis can reveal this information, but cannot expose phenotypic alterations due to heterosis, transgressive traits, or changes in metabolism or development. In addition, because evolution is often driven by extreme individuals, decisions based on phenotypic averages of hybrid classes may have unintended results. We demonstrate a strategy to evaluate hybrids for use in restoration by visualizing hybrid phenotypes across selected groups of traits relative to both progenitor species. Specifically, we used discriminant analysis to differentiate among butternut (Juglans cinerea L., black walnut (J. nigra L., and Japanese walnut (J. ailantifolia Carr. var. cordiformis using vegetative characters and then with functional adaptive traits associated with seedling performance. When projected onto the progenitor trait space, naturally occurring hybrids (J. ×bixbyi Rehd. between butternut and Japanese walnut showed introgression towards Japanese walnut at vegetative characters but exhibited a hybrid swarm at functional traits. Both results indicate that hybrids have morphological and ecological phenotypes that distinguish them from butternut, demonstrating a lack of ecological equivalency that should not be carried into restoration breeding efforts. Despite these discrepancies, some hybrids were projected into the space occupied by butternut seedlings’ 95% confidence ellipse, signifying that some hybrids were similar at the measured traits. Determining how to consistently identify these individuals is imperative for future breeding and species

  16. Hybridization and the evolution of reef coral diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Steven V; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2002-06-14

    Hundreds of coral species coexist sympatrically on reefs, reproducing in mass-spawning events where hybridization appears common. In the Caribbean, DNA sequence data from all three sympatric Acropora corals show that mass spawning does not erode species barriers. Species A. cervicornis and A. palmata are distinct at two nuclear loci or share ancestral alleles. Morphotypes historically given the name Acropora prolifera are entirely F(1) hybrids of these two species, showing morphologies that depend on which species provides the egg for hybridization. Although selection limits the evolutionary potential of hybrids, F(1) individuals can reproduce asexually and form long-lived, potentially immortal hybrids with unique morphologies.

  17. Development of eggplant hybrid cultivar ‘BATEM FILIZI’ and determination of yield performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Filiz BOYACI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cultivation is an important part of vegetable production in Turkey. It is highly affected by abiotic stress factors such as low temperatures during growth and development. The present study was aimed to improve new hybrid varieties with high quality and fruit setting under undesirable environmental conditions in eggplant. The 39 inbred lines were developed from eggplant genepool by using pedigree breeding method at the Bati Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute. They were characterized morphologically and evaluated for phylogenetic relationship among them. Selected seven lines were crossed each other to obtain F1 hybrids. Thirteen hybrids from these crosses were examined for their rate of heterosis and heterobeltiosis. These hybrids were not suitable for market demands although F1 hybrids including P350 as parental line had high heterosis rate. Oval fruit shaped P350 inbred line as female parent showed good performance and crossed with long fruit shaped P599 inbred line. The resultant F1 hybrid cultivar higher yielding, suitable for production under greenhouse and highly adaptable was registered with the name of BATEM FILIZI. It is recommended that this hybrid can be used in greenhouse production especially in single crop season.

  18. Environmental and economic impacts of fertilizer drawn forward osmosis and nanofiltration hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jung Eun

    2017-05-08

    Environmental and economic impacts of the fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) and nanofiltration (NF) hybrid system were conducted and compared with conventional reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid scenarios using microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) as a pre-treatment process. The results showed that the FDFO-NF hybrid system using thin film composite forward osmosis (TFC) FO membrane has less environmental impact than conventional RO hybrid systems due to lower consumption of energy and cleaning chemicals. The energy requirement for the treatment of mine impaired water by the FDFO-NF hybrid system was 1.08 kWh/m, which is 13.6% less energy than an MF-RO and 21% less than UF-RO under similar initial feed solution. In a closed-loop system, the FDFO-NF hybrid system using a TFC FO membrane with an optimum NF recovery rate of 84% had the lowest unit operating expenditure of AUD $0.41/m. Besides, given the current relatively high price and low flux performance of the cellulose triacetate and TFC FO membranes, the FDFO-NF hybrid system still holds opportunities to reduce operating expenditure further. Optimizing NF recovery rates and improving the water flux of the membrane would decrease the unit OPEX costs, although the TFC FO membrane would be less sensitive to this effect.

  19. PERFORMANCE OF PROMISING HYBRID RICE IN TWO DIFFERENT ELEVATIONS OF IRRIGATED LOWLAND IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Widyastuti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid rice program has been established since early 1990’s at the Indonesia Center for Rice Research (ICRR. Twenty-four experimental hybrid rice varieties which have been developed were tested in lowland rice fields in Sukamandi (West Java and Batang (Central Java during the dry season and the rainy season of 2012. Randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was used in each location. The results showed that grains yields were affected by locations, seasons, and genotypes. The genotypes x locations x seasons interaction effect was significant; therefore, the best hybrid was different for each location and season. A7/PK36 hybrid has the best performance in Batang during the dry season, while A7/PK40 and A7/PK32 are the best hybrids in the rainy season. In Sukamandi, nine hybrids were identified as better yielder than that of the check cultivar in the dry season, but not so in the rainy season. Using the correlation and path analysis, we found that the number of panicles per hill and the number of filled grains per panicle could be used as selection criteria for yield in hybrid rice.

  20. Pedestrian and motorists' actions at pedestrian hybrid beacon sites: findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Self, Debbie R

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analysis of pedestrian and motorists' actions at sites with pedestrian hybrid beacons and assesses their effectiveness in improving the safety of pedestrians. Descriptive and statistical analyses (one-tail two-sample T-test and two-proportion Z-test) were conducted using field data collected during morning and evening peak hours at three study sites in the city of Charlotte, NC, before and after the installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons. Further, an analysis was conducted to assess the change in pedestrian and motorists' actions over time (before the installation; 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the installation). Results showed an increase in average traffic speed at one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon sites while no specific trends were observed at the other two pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. A decrease in the number of motorists not yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians trapped in the middle of the street, and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were observed at all the three pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. The installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons did not have a negative effect on pedestrian actions at two out of the three sites. Improvements seem to be relatively more consistent 3 months after the installation of the pedestrian hybrid beacon.

  1. Application of Pseudomurein Endoisopeptidase to Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization of Methanogens within the Family Methanobacteriaceae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kohei ; Terada, Takeshi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Shinzato, Naoya; Meng, Xian-Ying; Enoki, Miho; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    In situ detection of methanogens within the family Methanobacteriaceae is sometimes known to be unsuccessful due to the difficulty in permeability of oligonucleotide probes. Pseudomurein endoisopeptidase (Pei), a lytic enzyme that specifically acts on their cell walls, was applied prior to 16S rRNA-targeting fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For this purpose, pure cultured methanogens within this family, Methanobacterium bryantii, Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus together with a Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus-containing syntrophic acetate-oxidizing coculture, endosymbiotic Methanobrevibacter methanogens within an anaerobic ciliate, and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) granule were examined. Even without the Pei treatment, Methanobacterium bryantii and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus cells are relatively well hybridized with oligonucleotide probes. However, almost none of the cells of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, cocultured Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, and the endosymbiotic methanogens and the cells within UASB granule were hybridized. Pei treatment was able to increase the probe hybridization ratio in every specimen, particularly in the specimen that had shown little hybridization. Interestingly, the hybridizing signal intensity of Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus cells in coculture with an acetate-oxidizing H2-producing syntroph was significantly improved by Pei pretreatment, whereas the probe was well hybridized with the cells of pure culture of the same strain. We found that the difference is attributed to the differences in cell wall thicknesses between the two culture conditions. These results indicate that Pei treatment is effective for FISH analysis of methanogens that show impermeability to the probe. PMID:16950902

  2. Mechanical analysis of CFRP-steel hybrid composites considering the interfacial adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jinhyeok; Sung, Minchang; Han, Sungjin; Shim, Wonbo; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

    2017-10-01

    Recently, hybrid composites of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) and steel have attracted great attention from automotive engineers due to their high potential for lightweight and multi-materials structures. Interestingly, such hybrid composites have demonstrated increased breaking strain, i.e., the breaking strain of CFRP in the hybrid was larger than that of single CFRP. As such the mechanical properties of hybrid composites could not be calculated using the rule of mixture. In addition, such increase is strongly dependent on the adhesion between CFRP and steel. In this study, a numerical analysis model was built to investigate the mechanism behind increased breaking strain of CFRP in the hybrid structure. Using cohesive zone model, the adhesion between CFRP and steel was effectively considered. The numerical results showed that the simulated mechanical behavior of the hybrid composites did not change as much as observed in experimental as the interfacial adhesion varied. We will investigate this discrepancy in detail and will report new analysis method suitable for CFRP and steel hybrid composites.

  3. Environmental and economic impacts of fertilizer drawn forward osmosis and nanofiltration hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jung Eun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Chekli, Laura; Hong, Seungkwan; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Choi, Joon Yong; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2017-01-01

    Environmental and economic impacts of the fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) and nanofiltration (NF) hybrid system were conducted and compared with conventional reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid scenarios using microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) as a pre-treatment process. The results showed that the FDFO-NF hybrid system using thin film composite forward osmosis (TFC) FO membrane has less environmental impact than conventional RO hybrid systems due to lower consumption of energy and cleaning chemicals. The energy requirement for the treatment of mine impaired water by the FDFO-NF hybrid system was 1.08 kWh/m, which is 13.6% less energy than an MF-RO and 21% less than UF-RO under similar initial feed solution. In a closed-loop system, the FDFO-NF hybrid system using a TFC FO membrane with an optimum NF recovery rate of 84% had the lowest unit operating expenditure of AUD $0.41/m. Besides, given the current relatively high price and low flux performance of the cellulose triacetate and TFC FO membranes, the FDFO-NF hybrid system still holds opportunities to reduce operating expenditure further. Optimizing NF recovery rates and improving the water flux of the membrane would decrease the unit OPEX costs, although the TFC FO membrane would be less sensitive to this effect.

  4. Probabilistic modelling and analysis of stand-alone hybrid power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujano-Rojas, Juan M.; Dufo-López, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustín, José L.

    2013-01-01

    As a part of the Hybrid Intelligent Algorithm, a model based on an ANN (artificial neural network) has been proposed in this paper to represent hybrid system behaviour considering the uncertainty related to wind speed and solar radiation, battery bank lifetime, and fuel prices. The Hybrid Intelligent Algorithm suggests a combination of probabilistic analysis based on a Monte Carlo simulation approach and artificial neural network training embedded in a genetic algorithm optimisation model. The installation of a typical hybrid system was analysed. Probabilistic analysis was used to generate an input–output dataset of 519 samples that was later used to train the ANNs to reduce the computational effort required. The generalisation ability of the ANNs was measured in terms of RMSE (Root Mean Square Error), MBE (Mean Bias Error), MAE (Mean Absolute Error), and R-squared estimators using another data group of 200 samples. The results obtained from the estimation of the expected energy not supplied, the probability of a determined reliability level, and the estimation of expected value of net present cost show that the presented model is able to represent the main characteristics of a typical hybrid power system under uncertain operating conditions. - Highlights: • This paper presents a probabilistic model for stand-alone hybrid power system. • The model considers the main sources of uncertainty related to renewable resources. • The Hybrid Intelligent Algorithm has been applied to represent hybrid system behaviour. • The installation of a typical hybrid system was analysed. • The results obtained from the study case validate the presented model

  5. Kalman Filtered Bio Heat Transfer Model Based Self-adaptive Hybrid Magnetic Resonance Thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxin; Chen, Shuo; Deng, Kexin; Chen, Bingyao; Wei, Xing; Yang, Jiafei; Wang, Shi; Ying, Kui

    2017-01-01

    To develop a self-adaptive and fast thermometry method by combining the original hybrid magnetic resonance thermometry method and the bio heat transfer equation (BHTE) model. The proposed Kalman filtered Bio Heat Transfer Model Based Self-adaptive Hybrid Magnetic Resonance Thermometry, abbreviated as KalBHT hybrid method, introduced the BHTE model to synthesize a window on the regularization term of the hybrid algorithm, which leads to a self-adaptive regularization both spatially and temporally with change of temperature. Further, to decrease the sensitivity to accuracy of the BHTE model, Kalman filter is utilized to update the window at each iteration time. To investigate the effect of the proposed model, computer heating simulation, phantom microwave heating experiment and dynamic in-vivo model validation of liver and thoracic tumor were conducted in this study. The heating simulation indicates that the KalBHT hybrid algorithm achieves more accurate results without adjusting λ to a proper value in comparison to the hybrid algorithm. The results of the phantom heating experiment illustrate that the proposed model is able to follow temperature changes in the presence of motion and the temperature estimated also shows less noise in the background and surrounding the hot spot. The dynamic in-vivo model validation with heating simulation demonstrates that the proposed model has a higher convergence rate, more robustness to susceptibility problem surrounding the hot spot and more accuracy of temperature estimation. In the healthy liver experiment with heating simulation, the RMSE of the hot spot of the proposed model is reduced to about 50% compared to the RMSE of the original hybrid model and the convergence time becomes only about one fifth of the hybrid model. The proposed model is able to improve the accuracy of the original hybrid algorithm and accelerate the convergence rate of MR temperature estimation.

  6. Physical properties of coir and pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polylactic acid hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siakeng, R.; Jawaid, M.; Ariffin, H.; Sapuan, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the physical behaviour of Coir fibres (CF)/Pineapple leaf fibres (PALF)/Poly lactic acid (PLA) composites. In this research, coir and PALF reinforced PLA hybrid composites were fabricated by hand lay-up process and hot press. The aim of this work is to do comparative study on density, water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) of untreated CF/PALF reinforced PLA composites and hybrid composites. The effect of different fibre ratios in hybridization on density, WA and TS of CF/PALF hybrid composites were also analyzed and C7P3 showed highest density while P30 had lowest. The results indicated that the density varies on different fibre ratio. WA and TS of CF/PALF composites and hybrid composites vary with fibres ratio and soaking duration. WA and TS of untreated CF/PALF hybrid composites were increased by increasing coir fibre ratio so, C30 showed highest WA and TS whereas P30 and C1P1 showed least WA and TS respectively apart from neat PLA.

  7. Hybridization Associated with Cycles of Ecological Succession in a Passerine Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Renée A; Semenov, Georgy A

    2017-10-01

    Identifying the diversity of contexts that can lead to hybridization is important for understanding its prevalence and dynamics in natural populations. Despite the potential of ecological succession to dramatically alter species co-occurrence and abundances, it is unknown whether it directly promotes hybridization and, if so, has long-lasting consequences. Here, we summarize 30 years of survey data across 10 populations to show that in western and mountain bluebirds, heterospecific pairing occurs during repeatable and transient colonization events at the early stages of species turnover. Despite mixed pairing occurring only during early succession, genetic data showed presence of hybrids at both early and late successional stages. Moreover, hybrids showed novel patterns of variation in morphology and behavior, emphasizing that even ephemeral contexts for hybridization can have important evolutionary consequences. Our results suggest that because ecological succession often brings together closely related competitors in disparate numbers but lasts for only a brief period of time, it may be a widespread but underappreciated context for hybridization.

  8. Glueballs, hybrids, multiquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klempt, Eberhard [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitaet, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: klempt@hiskp.uni-bonn.de; Zaitsev, Alexander [Institute for High-Energy Physics, Moscow Region, RU-142284 Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2007-12-15

    Glueballs, hybrids and multiquark states are predicted as bound states in models guided by quantum chromo dynamics (QCD), by QCD sum rules or QCD on a lattice. Estimates for the (scalar) glueball ground state are in the mass range from 1000 to 1800 MeV, followed by a tensor and a pseudoscalar glueball at higher mass. Experiments have reported evidence for an abundance of meson resonances with 0{sup -+},0{sup ++} and 2{sup ++} quantum numbers. In particular, the sector of scalar mesons is full of surprises starting from the elusive {sigma} and {kappa} mesons. The a{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 0}(980), discussed extensively in the literature, are reviewed with emphasis on their Janus-like appearance as KK-bar molecules, tetraquark states or qq-bar mesons. Most exciting is the possibility that the three mesons f{sub 0}(1370), f{sub 0}(1500), and f{sub 0}(1710) might reflect the appearance of a scalar glueball in the world of quarkonia. However, the existence of f{sub 0}(1370) is not beyond doubt and there is evidence that both f{sub 0}(1500) and f{sub 0}(1710) are flavour octet states, possibly in a tetraquark composition. We suggest a scheme in which the scalar glueball is dissolved into the wide background into which all scalar flavour-singlet mesons collapse. There is an abundance of meson resonances with the quantum numbers of the {eta}. Three states are reported below 1.5GeV/c{sup 2} whereas quark models expect only one, perhaps two. One of these states, {iota}(1440), was the prime glueball candidate for a long time. We show that {iota}(1440) is the first radial excitation of the {eta} meson. Hybrids may have exotic quantum numbers which are not accessible by qq-bar mesons. There are several claims for J{sup PC}=1{sup -+} exotics, some of them with properties as predicted from the flux tube model interpreting the quark-antiquark binding by a gluon string. The evidence for these states depends partly on the assumption that meson-meson interactions are dominated by s

  9. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...... in a natural way. We show that hybrid logic is very well suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated...

  10. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Mg composites containing nano-B4C hybridized micro-Ti particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, S.; Sabat, R.K.; Jayalakshmi, S.; Suwas, S.; Gupta, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of extruded Mg composites containing micro-Ti particulates hybridized with varying contents of nano-B 4 C are investigated, and compared with Mg-5.6Ti. Microstructural characterization showed the presence of uniformly distributed micro-Ti particles embedded with nano-B 4 C particulates that resulted in significant grain refinement. Electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analyses of Mg-(5.6Ti + x-B 4 C) BM hybrid composites showed that the addition of hybridized particle resulted in relatively more recrystallized grains, realignment of basal planes and extension of weak basal fibre texture when compared to Mg-5.6Ti. The evaluation of mechanical properties indicated improved strength with ductility retention in Mg-(5.6Ti + x-B 4 C) BM hybrid composites. When compared to Mg-5.6Ti, the superior strength properties of the Mg-(5.6Ti + x-B 4 C) BM hybrid composites are attributed to the presence of nano-reinforcements, the uniform distribution of the hybridized particles, better interfacial bonding between the matrix and the reinforcement particles and the matrix grain refinement achieved by nano-B 4 C addition. The ductility enhancement obtained in hybrid composites can be attributed to the fibre texture spread and favourable basal plane orientation achieved due to nano B 4 C addition. - Highlights: • Micro-Ti particulates are hybridized with varying weight fractions of nano-B 4 C. • The hybrid mixture was used as hybrid reinforcements in magnesium. • Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-(5.6Ti + x-B 4 C) BM are compared with Mg-5.6Ti. • Electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis conducted to study the microtexture evolution

  11. Morphology and properties of silica/novolac hybrid xerogels synthesized using sol–gel polymerization at solvent vapor-saturated atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seraji, Mohamad Mehdi; Seifi, Azadeh; Bahramian, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sol–gel polymerization in vapor of solvent saturated atmosphere is developed. • Highly porous novolac–silica hybrid xerogels are successfully synthesized. • Novolac–silica hybrid gel was dried in ambient condition with low shrinkage. • Required time for preparation of gel reduced from 5 days to about 5 h. • By incorporation of silica into the novolac xerogel structure, the pore size decreases. - Abstract: Highly porous novolac–silica hybrid xerogels were successfully synthesized via the novel method of sol–gel polymerization in solvent vapor-saturated atmosphere. This method removes the need for supercritical drying and yields the hybrid xerogels with reduced shrinkage in comparison with conventional sol–gel process. Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was used as the precursor of silica-based inorganic phase. The chemical and structural characterization of the prepared hybrid xerogels were performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, respectively. Thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid samples were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and compressive strength analysis. The resultant hybrid xerogels show a nanostructured colloidal hybrid network with high porosity (above 80%) and low density (below 0.25 g cm −3 ). Si mapping images shows the good distribution of silica phase throughout the hybrid structure

  12. Hybrid Silk Fibers Dry-Spun from Regenerated Silk Fibroin/Graphene Oxide Aqueous Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yaopeng; Shao, Huili; Hu, Xuechao

    2016-02-10

    Regenerated silk fibroin (RSF)/graphene oxide (GO) hybrid silk fibers were dry-spun from a mixed dope of GO suspension and RSF aqueous solution. It was observed that the presence of GO greatly affect the viscosity of RSF solution. The RSF/GO hybrid fibers showed from FTIR result lower β-sheet content compared to that of pure RSF fibers. The result of synchrotron radiation wide-angle X-ray diffraction showed that the addition of GO confined the crystallization of silk fibroin (SF) leading to the decrease of crystallinity, smaller crystallite size, and new formation of interphase zones in the artificial silks. Synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering also proved that GO sheets in the hybrid silks and blended solutions were coated with a certain thickness of interphase zones due to the complex interaction between the two components. A low addition of GO, together with the mesophase zones formed between GO and RSF, enhanced the mechanical properties of hybrid fibers. The highest breaking stress of the hybrid fibers reached 435.5 ± 71.6 MPa, 23% improvement in comparison to that of degummed silk and 72% larger than that of pure RSF silk fiber. The hybrid RSF/GO materials with good biocompatibility and enhanced mechanical properties may have potential applications in tissue engineering, bioelectronic devices, or energy storage.

  13. Allelic interaction of F1 pollen sterility loci and abnormal chromosome behaviour caused pollen sterility in intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J H; Shahid, M Q; Li, Y J; Guo, H B; Cheng, X A; Liu, X D; Lu, Y G

    2011-08-01

    The intersubspecific hybrids of autotetraploid rice has many features that increase rice yield, but lower seed set is a major hindrance in its utilization. Pollen sterility is one of the most important factors which cause intersubspecific hybrid sterility. The hybrids with greater variation in seed set were used to study how the F(1) pollen sterile loci (S-a, S-b, and S-c) interact with each other and how abnormal chromosome behaviour and allelic interaction of F(1) sterility loci affect pollen fertility and seed set of intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids. The results showed that interaction between pollen sterility loci have significant effects on the pollen fertility of autotetraploid hybrids, and pollen fertility further decreased with an increase in the allelic interaction of F(1) pollen sterility loci. Abnormal ultra-structure and microtubule distribution patterns during pollen mother cell (PMC) meiosis were found in the hybrids with low pollen fertility in interphase and leptotene, suggesting that the effect-time of pollen sterility loci interaction was very early. There were highly significant differences in the number of quadrivalents and bivalents, and in chromosome configuration among all the hybrids, and quadrivalents decreased with an increase in the seed set of autotetraploid hybrids. Many different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, such as chromosome straggling, chromosome lagging, asynchrony of chromosome disjunction, and tri-fission were found during the various developmental stages of PMC meiosis. All these abnormalities were significantly higher in sterile hybrids than in fertile hybrids, suggesting that pollen sterility gene interactions tend to increase the chromosomal abnormalities which cause the partial abortion of male gametes and leads to the decline in the seed set of the autotetraploid rice hybrids. © 2011 The Author(s).

  14. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I.; Fenstad, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA, have been sparsely described. The Nordic Arthroplasty....... Patients and methods - From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk...

  15. Biomass route shows lower cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffe, P

    1980-11-21

    There has been much discussion concerning the economics of using biomass for the production of substitute fuels and it has been argued that the net energy gain could be small or even negative. The development of the ATPAL process is described and it is claimed that only one quarter of the energy equivalent contained in the alcohol will be consumed in the total process. Both the pilot plant and a commercial scale plant with some modifications are described. The most significant advantage claimed for the ATPAL process is in its low process energy savings resulting from mechanical vapour recompression, recycling the heat and production of a low volume of effluent.

  16. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials based on polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Duc Nghia; Ngo Trinh Tung [Institute of Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: ducnghia264@fpt.vn

    2009-09-01

    Hybrid material is one of the most promising materials classed in the 21st century because of its unique properties and its advanced applications. In this work, hybrid materials based on polypyrrole (Ppy) and silver nanoparicles were prepared and characterized. The preparation of the hybrid material was performed by the chemical polymerization method. The structure, electrical and thermal properties of Ppy/Ag hybrid materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TGA and the conventional four probe method. The results showed that the Ag particles of 4-8 nm were agglomerated during the in-situ polymerization of PPy and formed some clusters with the diameter of 25 -150 nm. By the addition of Ag particles, the electrical conductivity of Ppy increased with increasing Ag concentration. The thermal stability of Ppy was significantly improved by modification with Ag particles.

  17. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials based on polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Nghia; Ngo Trinh Tung

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid material is one of the most promising materials classed in the 21st century because of its unique properties and its advanced applications. In this work, hybrid materials based on polypyrrole (Ppy) and silver nanoparicles were prepared and characterized. The preparation of the hybrid material was performed by the chemical polymerization method. The structure, electrical and thermal properties of Ppy/Ag hybrid materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TGA and the conventional four probe method. The results showed that the Ag particles of 4-8 nm were agglomerated during the in-situ polymerization of PPy and formed some clusters with the diameter of 25 -150 nm. By the addition of Ag particles, the electrical conductivity of Ppy increased with increasing Ag concentration. The thermal stability of Ppy was significantly improved by modification with Ag particles.

  18. A study on the control of a hybrid MTDC system supplying a passive network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotb, Omar; Ghandhari, Mehrdad; Eriksson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid Multi-Terminal DC (MTDC) system can combine the benefits of both Line Commutated Converter (LCC) and Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technologies in the form of reduced losses and flexibility to connect to weak and passive grids. In this paper, an analysis of control strategies used...... in a hybrid MTDC system is presented. A case study of a four terminal hybrid MTDC system supplying a passive AC network was considered for simulation study. A control scheme based on voltage margin was developed to cope with the condition of main DC voltage controlling station tripping. Two various control...... scenarios for controlling the VSCs connected to the passive network were presented and compared. The system performance was studied through EMTP-RV simulations under different disturbances. The results show the ability of selected converter control modes and proposed control schemes to operate the hybrid...

  19. Preparation, characterisation, engine performance and emission characteristics of coconut oil based hybrid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pranil J.; Singh, Anirudh [Division of Physics, School of Engineering and Physics, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, University of the South Pacific, 325 Fletcher Road, Suva (Fiji); Khurma, Jagjit [Division of Chemistry, School of Biological, Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji)

    2010-09-15

    In this study, hybrid fuels consisting of coconut oil, aqueous ethanol and a surfactant (butan-1-ol) were prepared and tested as a fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. After determining fuel properties such as the density, viscosity and gross calorific values of these fuels, they were used to run a diesel engine. The engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with that of diesel. The experimental results show that the efficiency of the hybrid fuels is comparable to that of diesel. As the viscosity of the hybrid fuels decreased and approached that of diesel, the efficiency increased progressively towards that of diesel. The exhaust emissions were lower than those for diesel, except carbon monoxide emissions, which increased. Hence, it is concluded that these hybrid fuels can be used successfully as an alternative fuel in diesel engines without any modifications. Their completely renewable nature ensures that they are environmentally friendly with regard to their emissions characteristics. (author)

  20. Hybrid Type II fuzzy system & data mining approach for surface finish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Liang (Bill Tseng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new methodology in predicting a system output has been investigated by applying a data mining technique and a hybrid type II fuzzy system in CNC turning operations. The purpose was to generate a supplemental control function under the dynamic machining environment, where unforeseeable changes may occur frequently. Two different types of membership functions were developed for the fuzzy logic systems and also by combining the two types, a hybrid system was generated. Genetic algorithm was used for fuzzy adaptation in the control system. Fuzzy rules are automatically modified in the process of genetic algorithm training. The computational results showed that the hybrid system with a genetic adaptation generated a far better accuracy. The hybrid fuzzy system with genetic algorithm training demonstrated more effective prediction capability and a strong potential for the implementation into existing control functions.

  1. Control of a hybrid HVDC link to increase inter-regional power transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotb, Omar; Ghandhari, Mehrdad; Eriksson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a hybrid HVDC link in a two area power system with the purpose of increasing the inter-regional power transfer. A hybrid HVDC system combines both LCCs and VSCs, and hence it is capable of combining the benefits of both converter technologies, such as reduced...... cost and power losses due to the LCCs, and ability to connect to weak AC grids due to the VSCs. The mathematical model of the power system including the HVDC link is presented. The increase in inter-area power transfer is demonstrated and compared to the case when the hybrid HVDC link is not used....... Furthermore, the transient stability of the AC/DC power system was enhanced using auxiliary controllers for Power Oscillation Damping (POD). The results show the ability of the hybrid HVDC link to increase the unidirectional inter-area power transfer, while enhancing the transient stability of the power...

  2. Hybrid daylight/light-emitting diode illumination system for indoor lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Aiming; Qiu, Peng; Cai, Jinlin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junwei

    2014-03-20

    A hybrid illumination method using both daylight and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for indoor lighting is presented in this study. The daylight can be introduced into the indoor space by a panel-integration system. The daylight part and LEDs are combined within a specific luminaire that can provide uniform illumination. The LEDs can be turned on and dimmed through closed-loop control when the daylight illuminance is inadequate. We simulated the illumination and calculated the indoor lighting efficiency of our hybrid daylight and LED lighting system, and compared this with that of LED and fluorescent lighting systems. Simulation results show that the efficiency of the hybrid daylight/LED illumination method is better than that of LED and traditional lighting systems, under the same lighting conditions and lighting time; the method has hybrid lighting average energy savings of T5 66.28%, and that of the LEDs is 41.62%.

  3. Procedure for the Design of a Hybrid-Series Vehicle and the Hybridization Degree Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Coccia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For years, the interest of the UDR1 research group has focused on the development of a Hybrid Series (HS vehicle, different from the standard one thanks to the use of a Gas Turbine set (GT as a thermal engine. The reason for this choice resides in the opportunity to reduce weight and dimensions, in comparison to a traditional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE. It is not possible to use the GT engine set directly for the vehicle traction, therefore the UDR1 HS configuration shows the GT set connected with the electric generator only. The result is that the traction is purely electric. The resulting engine configuration is a commonly defined Hybrid Series. Many efforts are spent in the definition of a generic scientific method to define the correct ratio (Degree of Hybridization between the installed power of the battery pack and that of the GT electric generator, which simultaneously guarantees the life of the battery pack and the capacity of the vehicle to complete a common mission without lack of energy or stopping. This article reports a method to define the power ratio between battery pack and GT generator, applied to a recent commission for the development of a mini city bus.

  4. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  5. Two molecular markers based on mitochondrial genomes for varieties identification of the northern snakehead (Channa argus) and blotched snakehead (Channa maculata) and their reciprocal hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xincheng, Zhang; Kunci, Chen; Xinping, Zhu; Jian, Zhao; Qing, Luo; Xiaoyou, Hong; Wei, Li; Fengfang, Xiao

    2015-08-01

    The northern snakehead (Channa argus) and blotched snakehead (Channa maculata) and their reciprocal hybrids have played important roles in the Chinese freshwater aquaculture industry, with an annual production in China exceeding 400 thousand tons. While these are popular aquaculture breeds in China, it is not easy to identify northern snakehead, blotched snakehead, and their hybrids. Thus, a method should be developed to identify these varieties. To distinguish between the reciprocal hybrids (C. argus ♀ × C. maculata ♂ and C. maculata ♀ × C. argus ♂), the mitochondrial genome sequences of northern snakehead and blotched snakehead and their reciprocal hybrids were compared. Following the alignment and analysis of mtDNA sequences of northern snakehead, blotched snakehead and their hybrids, two pairs of specific primers were designed based on identified differences ranging from 12S rRNA to 16S rRNA gene. The BY1 primers amplified the same bands in the blotched snakehead and the hybrid (C. maculata ♀ × C. argus ♂), while producing no products in northern snakehead and the hybrid (C. argus ♀ × C. maculata ♂). Amplification with WY1 yielded the opposite results. Then, 30 individuals per fish were randomized to verify the primers, and the results showed that the primers were specific for breeds, as intended. The specific primers can not only simply distinguish between two kinds of hybrids, but also rapidly identify the two parents. This study provides a method of molecular marker identification to identify reciprocal hybrids.

  6. Chromosome Synapsis and Recombination in Male-Sterile and Female-Fertile Interspecies Hybrids of the Dwarf Hamsters (Phodopus, Cricetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Bikchurina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid sterility is an important step in the speciation process. Hybrids between dwarf hamsters Phodopus sungorus and P. campbelli provide a good model for studies in cytological and genetic mechanisms of hybrid sterility. Previous studies in hybrids detected multiple abnormalities of spermatogenesis and a high frequency of dissociation between the X and Y chromosomes at the meiotic prophase. In this study, we found that the autosomes of the hybrid males and females underwent paring and recombination as normally as their parental forms did. The male hybrids showed a significantly higher frequency of asynapsis and recombination failure between the heterochromatic arms of the X and Y chromosomes than the males of the parental species. Female hybrids as well as the females of the parental species demonstrated a high incidence of centromere misalignment at the XX bivalent and partial asynapsis of the ends of its heterochromatic arms. In all three karyotypes, recombination was completely suppressed in the heterochromatic arm of the X chromosome, where the pseudoautosomal region is located. We propose that this recombination pattern speeds up divergence of the X- and Y-linked pseudoautosomal regions between the parental species and results in their incompatibility in the male hybrids.

  7. Genomic Prediction of Sunflower Hybrids Oil Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Mangin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of hybrid performance using incomplete factorial mating designs is widely used in breeding programs including different heterotic groups. Based on the general combining ability (GCA of the parents, predictions are accurate only if the genetic variance resulting from the specific combining ability is small and both parents have phenotyped descendants. Genomic selection (GS can predict performance using a model trained on both phenotyped and genotyped hybrids that do not necessarily include all hybrid parents. Therefore, GS could overcome the issue of unknown parent GCA. Here, we compared the accuracy of classical GCA-based and genomic predictions for oil content of sunflower seeds using several GS models. Our study involved 452 sunflower hybrids from an incomplete factorial design of 36 female and 36 male lines. Re-sequencing of parental lines allowed to identify 468,194 non-redundant SNPs and to infer the hybrid genotypes. Oil content was observed in a multi-environment trial (MET over 3 years, leading to nine different environments. We compared GCA-based model to different GS models including female and male genomic kinships with the addition of the female-by-male interaction genomic kinship, the use of functional knowledge as SNPs in genes of oil metabolic pathways, and with epistasis modeling. When both parents have descendants in the training set, the predictive ability was high even for GCA-based prediction, with an average MET value of 0.782. GS performed slightly better (+0.2%. Neither the inclusion of the female-by-male interaction, nor functional knowledge of oil metabolism, nor epistasis modeling improved the GS accuracy. GS greatly improved predictive ability when one or both parents were untested in the training set, increasing GCA-based predictive ability by 10.4% from 0.575 to 0.635 in the MET. In this scenario, performing GS only considering SNPs in oil metabolic pathways did not improve whole genome GS prediction but

  8. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  9. Hybrid treatment of tandem, common carotid/innominate artery and ipsilateral carotid bifurcation stenoses by simultaneous, retrograde proximal stenting and eversion carotid endarterectomy: Preliminary results of a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Pasqua, Rocco; Frezzotti, Francesca; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Macrina, Francesco; Calio', Francesco

    2018-04-01

    Tandem stenoses of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and proximal, ipsilateral common carotid artery (CCA) or innominate artery can be treated with a hybrid approach, combining conventional carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and retrograde stenting of the proximal stenosis, through surgical exposure of the carotid bifurcation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of combining eversion CEA with retrograde CCA/innominate artery stenting. From January 2015 to July 2017, 7 patients, 6 men of a mean age of 72 years (range 59-83 years) underwent simultaneous, retrograde stenting of the proximal CCA/innominate artery and an eversion CEA of the ipsilateral ICA, through surgical exposure of the carotid bifurcation, for severe tandem stenoses. The proximal stenosis involved the left proximal CCA in 4 patients, the proximal innominate artery in 2 patients and the right CCA in one patient. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia in a conventional operating room equipped with a mobile C-arm. A covered, balloon expandable stent was deployed over the proximal stenosis via a 6-F sheath directly introduced into the proximal CCA through the obliquely transected carotid bulb. After removing the sheath, debris were flushed through the carotid bulb and eversion CEA completed the procedure. Study endpoints were: postoperative stroke/mortality rate, cardiac mortality and morbidity, peripheral nerve injury, cervical hematoma, overall late survival, freedom from ipsilateral stroke and patency of arterial reconstruction. No postoperative mortality or neurologic morbidity was observed in any patient. Cervical hematomas and peripheral nerve injuries were likewise absent. At a mean follow-up of 18 months, all the patients were alive, free from neurologic events of new onset and free from restenosis. Combined proximal stenting and eversion CEA for tandem lesions seems a valid treatment, with the advantages of eversion CEA over other techniques of carotid bifurcation

  10. Rin4 Causes Hybrid Necrosis and Race-Specific Resistance in an Interspecific Lettuce Hybrid[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Marieke J.W.; Zhang, Ningwen W.; McHale, Leah K.; Pelgrom, Koen; den Boer, Erik; Lindhout, Pim; Michelmore, Richard W.; Visser, Richard G.F.; Niks, Rients E.

    2009-01-01

    Some inter- and intraspecific crosses may result in reduced viability or sterility in the offspring, often due to genetic incompatibilities resulting from interactions between two or more loci. Hybrid necrosis is a postzygotic genetic incompatibility that is phenotypically manifested as necrotic lesions on the plant. We observed hybrid necrosis in interspecific lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Lactuca saligna) hybrids that correlated with resistance to downy mildew. Segregation analysis revealed a specific allelic combination at two interacting loci to be responsible. The allelic interaction had two consequences: (1) a quantitative temperature-dependent autoimmunity reaction leading to necrotic lesions, lethality, and quantitative resistance to an otherwise virulent race of Bremia lactucae; and (2) a qualitative temperature-independent race-specific resistance to an avirulent race of B. lactucae. We demonstrated by transient expression and silencing experiments that one of the two interacting genes was Rin4. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RIN4 is known to interact with multiple R gene products, and their interactions result in hypersensitive resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Site-directed mutation studies on the necrosis-eliciting allele of Rin4 in lettuce showed that three residues were critical for hybrid necrosis. PMID:19855048

  11. Patterns of contemporary hybridization inferred from paternity analysis in a four-oak-species forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gailing Oliver

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies address the issue of hybridization in a more than two-species context. The species-rich Quercus complex is one of the systems which can offer such an opportunity. To investigate the contemporary pattern of hybridization we sampled and genotyped 320 offspring from a natural mixed forest comprising four species of the European white oak complex: Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens, and Q. frainetto. Results A total of 165 offspring were assigned unambiguously to one of the pollen donors within the study plot. The minimum amount of effective pollen originating from outside the plot varied markedly among the seed parents, ranging from 0.18 to 0.87. The majority of the successful matings (64.1% occurred between conspecific individuals indicating the existence of reproductive barriers between oak species. However, the isolation was not complete since we found strong evidence for both first-generation (8.4% and later-generation hybrids (27.5%. Only two out of eight seed parents, belonging to Q. petraea and Q. robur, showed a high propensity to hybridize with Q. pubescens and Q. petraea, respectively. Significant structure of the effective pollen pools (Φpt = 0.069, P = 0.01 was detected in our sample. However, no support was found for the isolation by distance hypothesis. The proportion of hybrids was much higher (79% in the seed generation when compared to the adult tree generation. Conclusion First-generation hybrids were observed only between three out of six possible species combinations. Hybrids between one pair of species preferred to mate with one of their parental species. The observation of first and later-generation hybrids in higher frequency in acorns than in adults might be explained by selection against hybrid genotypes, the history of this uneven-aged forest or past introgression between species.

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces kudriavzevii hybrids during low temperature winemaking [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Tronchoni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most frequently isolated species in wine fermentation, and the most studied species, other species and interspecific hybrids have greatly attracted the interest of researchers in this field in the last few years, given their potential to solve new winemaking industry challenges. S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids exhibit good fermentative capabilities at low temperatures, and produce wines with smaller alcohol quantities and larger glycerol quantities, which can be very useful to solve challenges in the winemaking industry such as the necessity to enhance the aroma profile. Methods: In this study, we performed a transcriptomic study of S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids in low temperature winemaking conditions. Results: The results revealed that the hybrids have acquired both fermentative abilities and cold adaptation abilities, attributed to S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii parental species, respectively, showcasing their industrially relevant characteristics. For several key genes, we also studied the contribution to gene expression of each of the alleles of S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii in the S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids. From the results, it is not clear how important the differential expression of the specific parental alleles is to the phenotype of the hybrids. Conclusions: This study shows that the fermentative abilities of S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids at low temperatures do not seem to result from differential expression of specific parental alleles of the key genes involved in this phenotype.

  13. Mechanistic basis of infertility of mouse intersubspecific hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Gregorova, Sona; Mihola, Ondrej; Anger, Martin; Sebestova, Jaroslava; Denny, Paul; Simecek, Petr; Forejt, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    According to the Dobzhansky–Muller model, hybrid sterility is a consequence of the independent evolution of related taxa resulting in incompatible genomic interactions of their hybrids. The model implies that the incompatibilities evolve randomly, unless a particular gene or nongenic sequence diverges much faster than the rest of the genome. Here we propose that asynapsis of heterospecific chromosomes in meiotic prophase provides a recurrently evolving trigger for the meiotic arrest of interspecific F1 hybrids. We observed extensive asynapsis of chromosomes and disturbance of the sex body in >95% of pachynemas of Mus m. musculus × Mus m. domesticus sterile F1 males. Asynapsis was not preceded by a failure of double-strand break induction, and the rate of meiotic crossing over was not affected in synapsed chromosomes. DNA double-strand break repair was delayed or failed in unsynapsed autosomes, and misexpression of chromosome X and chromosome Y genes was detected in single pachynemas and by genome-wide expression profiling. Oocytes of F1 hybrid females showed the same kind of synaptic problems but with the incidence reduced to half. Most of the oocytes with pachytene asynapsis were eliminated before birth. We propose the heterospecific pairing of homologous chromosomes as a preexisting condition of asynapsis in interspecific hybrids. The asynapsis may represent a universal mechanistic basis of F1 hybrid sterility manifested by pachytene arrest. It is tempting to speculate that a fast-evolving subset of the noncoding genomic sequence important for chromosome pairing and synapsis may be the culprit. PMID:23329330

  14. Hybrid perovskite resulting from the solid-state reaction between the organic cations and perovskite layers of alpha1-(Br-(CH(2))(2)-NH(3))(2)PbI(4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourisseau, Sebastien; Louvain, Nicolas; Bi, Wenhua; Mercier, Nicolas; Rondeau, David; Buzaré, Jean-Yves; Legein, Christophe

    2007-07-23

    The alpha1-(Br-(CH(2))(2)-NH(3))(2)PbI(4) hybrid perovskite undergoes a solid-state transformation, that is, the reaction between the organic cations and the perovskite layers to give the new hybrid perovskite (Br-(CH(2))(2)-NH(3))(2-x)(I-(CH(2))(2)-NH(3))(x)PbBr(x)I(4-x), based on mixed halide inorganic layers. This transformation has been followed by a conventional powder X-ray diffraction system equipped with a super speed detector, and both solid-state (13)C NMR and ESI/MS measurements have been adopted in the estimation of the rate of halide substitution. The first reaction step leads to the special composition of x approximately 1 (A phase), while the complete substitution is not achieved even at elevated temperature (x(max) approximately 1.85 (B phase)). This unprecedented solid-state reaction between organic and inorganic components of a hybrid perovskite can be considered as a completely new strategy to achieve interesting hybrid perovskites.

  15. Theoretical and experimental study of the hybrid wave coupling in Tore Supra and Jet by multijunction antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.

    1990-06-01

    The hybrid or slow electron plasma waves propagation and coupling are investigated in a toroidal magnetic confinement configuration such as found in Tokamaks. The main characteristics of the antenna, formed of several waveguides displaced in the toroidal direction, are studied. The equations of the hybrid waves linear propagation are solved for a plane geometrical configuration and in an inhomogeneous plasma. The optimization of the hybrid wave couplers of Tore Supra and Jet is carried out by means of the SWAN code. The results of the experiments performed on Tore Supra are analyzed. The investigation shows that the wave coupling depends on the edge plasma properties [fr

  16. Improvement of Dynamic Performance of Hybrid Gas Bearings via Adjustable Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    and the pressure and velocity fields in the injection nozzle are compared. The simplified theoretical model has been validated against the CFD results and experimentally using a test rig. The test rig consists of a flexible rotor supported by a ball bearing and a controllable hybrid gas bearing. The results show...

  17. Surface hardness of hybrid ionomer cement after immersion in antiseptic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Yuliati

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid ionomer cement or resin modified glass ionomer cement is a developed form of conventional glass ionomer cement. This hybrid ionomer cement can be eroded if in direct contact with acid solution which will affect surface hardness. The aim of this study is to learn surface hardness of hybrid ionomer cement after immersion in methyl salicylate 0.06% (pH 3.6 and povidon iodine 1% (pH 2.9 solution. Sample of hybrid ionomer cement with 5 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness was immersed in sterile aquadest solution (control, methyl salicylate pH 3.6, povidon iodine pH 2.9 for 1 minute, 7 and 14 minutes. Surface hardness was measured with Micro Vickers Hardness Tester. The obtained data was analyzed statistically with ANOVA followed by LSD test. The result of hybrid ionomer cement after immersion in sterile aquadest, methyl salicylate 0.06% pH 3.6 and povidon iodine 1% pH 2.9 for one minute, showed no significant difference; while immersion for 7 and 14 minutes showed a significant difference. The conclusion states that hybrid ionomer cement after 14 minutes immersion in povidon iodine 1% pH 2.9 has the lowest surface hardness.

  18. Hybridism between Biomphalaria cousini and Biomphalaria amazonica and its susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Maria Teodoro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques can aid in the classification of Biomphalaria species because morphological differentiation between these species is difficult. Previous studies using phylogeny, morphological and molecular taxonomy showed that some populations studied were Biomphalaria cousini instead of Biomphalaria amazonica. Three different molecular profiles were observed that enabled the separation of B. amazonica from B. cousini. The third profile showed an association between the two and suggested the possibility of hybrids between them. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the hybridism between B. cousini and B. amazonica and to verify if the hybrids are susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni. Crosses using the albinism factor as a genetic marker were performed, with pigmented B. cousini and albino B. amazonica snails identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. This procedure was conducted using B. cousini and B. amazonica of the type locality accordingly to Paraense, 1966. In addition, susceptibility studies were performed using snails obtained from the crosses (hybrids and three S. mansoni strains (LE, SJ, AL. The crosses between B. amazonica and B. cousini confirmed the occurrence of hybrids. Moreover, hybrids can be considered potential hosts of S. mansoni because they are susceptible to LE, SJ and AL strains (4.4%, 5.6% and 2.2%, respectively. These results indicate that there is a risk of introducing schistosomiasis mansoni into new areas.

  19. A New Hybrid Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells-Battery Power System with Efficiencies Considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chung-Hsing; Shieh, Jenn-Jong

    Hybrid systems, based on lead-acid or lithium-ion batteries and proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), give the possibility of combining the benefit of both technologies. The merits of high energy density and power density for different applications are discussed in this paper in recognition of the practical realization of such hybrid power systems. Furthermore, experimental data for such a hybrid system is described and the results are shown and discussed. The results show that the combination of lead-acid batteries or lithium-ion batteries and PEMFCs shows advantages in cases of applications with high peak power requirements, such as electric scooters and applications where the fuel cell (FC) is used as an auxiliary power-supply to recharge the battery. The high efficiency of FCs operating with a partial load results in a good fuel economy for the purpose of recharging batteries within a FC system.

  20. Design and implementation of a hybrid electric motorcycle management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Yuan-Yong; Lu, Shao-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a successful design and implement of a shunt-winding hybrid electric motorcycle management system which utilizes an electronic control unit (ECU) to integrate two major subsystems together, one being the traditional system of 125 c.c. internal combustion engine and the other an electric power motor. The hybrid electric motorcycle is assembled together robustly by these two major subsystems and eventually leads to successful road tests. The hybrid power system thus implemented can recharge its own batteries with electricity provided by the electrical recharge system and thus increasing the cruising mileages largely. The testing results obtained by using the proposed experimental platform indicate that lead-acid cells can boost their state of charge (SOC) by approximately 4% when it is operated under the hybrid mode for four driving cycles (about 1600 s) with the recharger on in a standard ECE-40 testing procedure. The results of road tests also clearly show that the pollutant emissions of the engine can be reduced at a lower speed or idling condition, and the problem of insufficient cruising range for electric motorcycles can also be greatly enhanced.

  1. HybridGO-Loc: mining hybrid features on gene ontology for predicting subcellular localization of multi-location proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shibiao; Mak, Man-Wai; Kung, Sun-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Protein subcellular localization prediction, as an essential step to elucidate the functions in vivo of proteins and identify drugs targets, has been extensively studied in previous decades. Instead of only determining subcellular localization of single-label proteins, recent studies have focused on predicting both single- and multi-location proteins. Computational methods based on Gene Ontology (GO) have been demonstrated to be superior to methods based on other features. However, existing GO-based methods focus on the occurrences of GO terms and disregard their relationships. This paper proposes a multi-label subcellular-localization predictor, namely HybridGO-Loc, that leverages not only the GO term occurrences but also the inter-term relationships. This is achieved by hybridizing the GO frequencies of occurrences and the semantic similarity between GO terms. Given a protein, a set of GO terms are retrieved by searching against the gene ontology database, using the accession numbers of homologous proteins obtained via BLAST search as the keys. The frequency of GO occurrences and semantic similarity (SS) between GO terms are used to formulate frequency vectors and semantic similarity vectors, respectively, which are subsequently hybridized to construct fusion vectors. An adaptive-decision based multi-label support vector machine (SVM) classifier is proposed to classify the fusion vectors. Experimental results based on recent benchmark datasets and a new dataset containing novel proteins show that the proposed hybrid-feature predictor significantly outperforms predictors based on individual GO features as well as other state-of-the-art predictors. For readers' convenience, the HybridGO-Loc server, which is for predicting virus or plant proteins, is available online at http://bioinfo.eie.polyu.edu.hk/HybridGoServer/.

  2. Daily air quality index forecasting with hybrid models: A case in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Suling; Lian, Xiuyuan; Liu, Haixia; Hu, Jianming; Wang, Yuanyuan; Che, Jinxing

    2017-01-01

    Air quality is closely related to quality of life. Air pollution forecasting plays a vital role in air pollution warnings and controlling. However, it is difficult to attain accurate forecasts for air pollution indexes because the original data are non-stationary and chaotic. The existing forecasting methods, such as multiple linear models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and support vector regression (SVR), cannot fully capture the information from series of pollution indexes. Therefore, new effective techniques need to be proposed to forecast air pollution indexes. The main purpose of this research is to develop effective forecasting models for regional air quality indexes (AQI) to address the problems above and enhance forecasting accuracy. Therefore, two hybrid models (EMD-SVR-Hybrid and EMD-IMFs-Hybrid) are proposed to forecast AQI data. The main steps of the EMD-SVR-Hybrid model are as follows: the data preprocessing technique EMD (empirical mode decomposition) is utilized to sift the original AQI data to obtain one group of smoother IMFs (intrinsic mode functions) and a noise series, where the IMFs contain the important information (level, fluctuations and others) from the original AQI series. LS-SVR is applied to forecast the sum of the IMFs, and then, S-ARIMA (seasonal ARIMA) is employed to forecast the residual sequence of LS-SVR. In addition, EMD-IMFs-Hybrid first separately forecasts the IMFs via statistical models and sums the forecasting results of the IMFs as EMD-IMFs. Then, S-ARIMA is employed to forecast the residuals of EMD-IMFs. To certify the proposed hybrid model, AQI data from June 2014 to August 2015 collected from Xingtai in China are utilized as a test case to investigate the empirical research. In terms of some of the forecasting assessment measures, the AQI forecasting results of Xingtai show that the two proposed hybrid models are superior to ARIMA, SVR, GRNN, EMD-GRNN, Wavelet-GRNN and Wavelet-SVR. Therefore, the

  3. Evaluation of Myc Gene Amplification in Prostate Cancer Using a Dual Color Chromogenic in-Situ Hybridization (Dual CISH) Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Lerda; Marta Cabrera; Jorge Flores; Luis Gutierrez; Armando Chierichetti; Martin Revol; Hernan Garcia Onto

    2013-01-01

    Objetive: The overall purpose of the study was to demonstrate applicability of the Dako dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) assay (DAKO Denmark, Glostrup) with respect to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes MYC-C. Methods: MYC gene amplification by FISH and Dako dual-color CISH Results: The study showed that the dual-color CISH assay can convert Texas red and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) signals into chromogenic signals. The dual –color CISH assay was p...

  4. Hyper- and hybrid nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanna; Gessner, Manuel; Li, Weidong; Smerzi, Augusto

    2018-02-01

    The controlled generation and identification of quantum correlations, usually encoded in either qubits or continuous degrees of freedom, builds the foundation of quantum information science. Recently, more sophisticated approaches, involving a combination of two distinct degrees of freedom, have been proposed to improve on the traditional strategies. Hyperentanglement describes simultaneous entanglement in more than one distinct degree of freedom, whereas hybrid entanglement refers to entanglement shared between a discrete and a continuous degree of freedom. In this work we propose a scheme that allows us to combine the two approaches, and to extend them to the strongest form of quantum correlations. Specifically, we show how two identical, initially separated particles can be manipulated to produce Bell nonlocality among their spins, among their momenta, as well as across their spins and momenta. We discuss possible experimental realizations with atomic and photonic systems.

  5. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    “hubris” that is so much taken for granted in contemporary science and engineering discourses and practices with a sense of cooperation and social responsibility. The book portrays the history of science and technology as an underlying tension between hubris – literally the ambition to “play god...... an alternative approach, devoting special attention to the role played by social and cultural movements in the making of science and technology. They show how social and cultural movements, from the Renaissance of the late 15th century to the environmental and global justice movements of our time, have provided......” on the part of many a scientist and engineer and neglect the consequences - and a hybrid imagination, connecting scientific “facts” and technological “artifacts” with cultural understanding. The book concludes with chapters on the recent transformations in the modes of scientific and technological production...

  6. Electrokinetic acceleration of DNA hybridization in microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kin Fong; Wang, Yun-Hsiang; Chen, Huai-Yi; Sun, Jia-Hong; Cheng, Ji-Yen

    2015-06-01

    In this work, electrokinetic acceleration of DNA hybridization was investigated by different combinations of frequencies and amplitudes of actuating electric signals. Because the frequencies from low to high can induce different kinds of electrokinetic forces, i.e., electroosmotic to electrothermal forces, this work provides an in-depth investigation of electrokinetic enhanced hybridization. Concentric circular Cr/Au microelectrodes of 350 µm in diameter were fabricated on a glass substrate and probe DNA was immobilized on the electrode surface. Target DNA labeled with fluorescent dyes suspending in solution was then applied to the electrode. Different electrokinetic forces were induced by the application of different electric signals to the circular microelectrodes. Local microfluidic vortexes were generated to increase the collision efficiency between the target DNA suspending in solution and probe DNA immobilized on the electrode surface. DNA hybridization on the electrode surface could be accelerated by the electrokinetic forces. The level of hybridization was represented by the fluorescent signal intensity ratio. Results revealed that such 5-min dynamic hybridization increased 4.5 fold of signal intensity ratio as compared to a 1-h static hybridization. Moreover, dynamic hybridization was found to have better differentiation ability between specific and non-specific target DNA. This study provides a strategy to accelerate DNA hybridization in microsystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chaos synchronization in autonomous chaotic system via hybrid feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lixin; Chu Yandong; Zhang Jiangang; Li Xianfeng; Chang Yingxiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the synchronization of chaos by designing united controller. First, this method is implemented in synchronization of a simple system, then we realize the synchronization of Lue hyperchaotic system, we also take tracking control to realize the synchronization of Lue hyperchaotic system. Comparing with results, we can find that hybrid feedback control approach is more effective than tracking control for hyperchaotic system. Numerical simulations show the united synchronization method works well.

  8. Nonlinear hybridization of the fundamental eigenmodes of microscopic ferromagnetic ellipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, V E; Buchmeier, M; Rott, K; Krzysteczko, P; Münchenberger, J; Reiss, G; Demokritov, S O

    2010-05-28

    We have studied experimentally with high spatial resolution the nonlinear eigenmodes of microscopic Permalloy elliptical elements. We show that the nonlinearity affects the frequencies of the edge and the center modes in an essentially different way. This leads to repulsion of corresponding resonances and to nonlinear mode hybridization resulting in qualitative modifications of the spatial characteristics of the modes. We find that the nonlinear counterparts of the edge and the center modes simultaneously exhibit features specific for both their linear analogues.

  9. Nonlinear Hybridization of the Fundamental Eigenmodes of Microscopic Ferromagnetic Ellipses

    OpenAIRE

    Demidov, V. E.; Buchmeier, M.; Rott, Karsten; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Münchenberger, Jana; Reiss, Günter; Demokritov, S. O.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied experimentally with high spatial resolution the nonlinear eigenmodes of microscopic Permalloy elliptical elements. We show that the nonlinearity affects the frequencies of the edge and the center modes in an essentially different way. This leads to repulsion of corresponding resonances and to nonlinear mode hybridization resulting in qualitative modifications of the spatial characteristics of the modes. We find that the nonlinear counterparts of the edge and the center modes s...

  10. Panorama 2011: The development of hybrid and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Car manufacturers are having to deal with increasingly stringent norms and customers who are increasingly demanding with respect to fuel savings. As a result, large numbers of them are now looking into solutions that involve electrifying their vehicles. Hybrid vehicles, some of which can be recharged, and electric vehicles are the new stars of the auto trade shows. But not all manufacturers are necessarily using the same strategies. (author)

  11. Hybrid structure of polyaniline/ZnO nanograss and its application in dye-sensitized solar cell with performance improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Shibu; Wei Wei; Chen Xiangnan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Jiang Man, E-mail: jiangman1021@163.com [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Zhou Zuowan, E-mail: zwzhou@at-c.net [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Polyaniline (PANI) hybridized ZnO photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was primarily prepared via a two-step process which involved hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanograss on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and subsequently chemisorption of PANI on the surfaces of the ZnO nanorods. The PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and the results indicated that there were chemical interactions between PANI and ZnO. Both pure ZnO nanograss and PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss were applied to DSSC. The results of photoelectrochemical measurement showed that the photocurrent density of PANI (100 mg/L) hybridized ZnO nanograss photoanode was significantly enhanced, and the overall light-conversion efficiency increased by 60%. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) displayed that the electron densities in photoanodes of PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss were larger than that in pure ZnO nanograss. This is ascribed to more effective charge separation and faster interfacial charge transferring occurred in the hybrid photoanode. - Graphical abstract: Operational principle of the DSSC: the introduced hybridizing PANI layer performs effective charge separation and faster interfacial charge transferring. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PANI/ZnO nanograss hybrid materials as photoanode in Dye-sensitized solar cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoelectric conversion efficiency after hybridization was enhanced by 60%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PANI hybridizing ZnO nanograss induced a rapid charge separation.

  12. Hybrid structure of polyaniline/ZnO nanograss and its application in dye-sensitized solar cell with performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shibu; Wei Wei; Chen Xiangnan; Jiang Man; Zhou Zuowan

    2012-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) hybridized ZnO photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was primarily prepared via a two-step process which involved hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanograss on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and subsequently chemisorption of PANI on the surfaces of the ZnO nanorods. The PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and the results indicated that there were chemical interactions between PANI and ZnO. Both pure ZnO nanograss and PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss were applied to DSSC. The results of photoelectrochemical measurement showed that the photocurrent density of PANI (100 mg/L) hybridized ZnO nanograss photoanode was significantly enhanced, and the overall light-conversion efficiency increased by 60%. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) displayed that the electron densities in photoanodes of PANI hybridized ZnO nanograss were larger than that in pure ZnO nanograss. This is ascribed to more effective charge separation and faster interfacial charge transferring occurred in the hybrid photoanode. - Graphical abstract: Operational principle of the DSSC: the introduced hybridizing PANI layer performs effective charge separation and faster interfacial charge transferring. Highlights: ► PANI/ZnO nanograss hybrid materials as photoanode in Dye-sensitized solar cell. ► Photoelectric conversion efficiency after hybridization was enhanced by 60%. ► PANI hybridizing ZnO nanograss induced a rapid charge separation.

  13. HYBRID EDUCATION: THE ESTIMATION IN THE CATEGORIES OF INFORMATION-AXIOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kizilova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: a hybrid assessment of reality is a new information-axiological level of communication between people. The term "hybrid (hybrid training" has been used as a result of the integration of digital and communication technologies in the form of online courses.Materials and methods: the main Russian forms of education are analyzed. The evaluation of the forms of education in the categories of the information-axiological approach is made on the basis of the following idea: everything is interchangeable, since everything has value. The mixing principles and models used in the process of hybrid formation are considered. Due to the fact that any mixed training requires planning, the analysis of the project and the target group, content analysis and financial analysis in this process is carried out.Results: specific educational methods are studied at the Bauman MSTU, subject to a hybrid assessment in the categories of the information-axiological approach. The analysis showed that the above explanation of the term "hybrid formation" is extremely narrow and one-sided. In particular, the search for information on volunteer education and the search for a socially-based education was conducted not only in the Bauman MSTU, but in Russia as a whole. However, the result was the portals of international student organizations with their own projects. Another example of a different interpretation of the "hybrid education" may be the assumption of quite axiologically new duties.Discussion and Conclusions: hybrid education is not limited to any temporal and territorial framework. It can manifest itself not only in the Internet-sphere, but also in the most diverse spheres of everyday life, with the interaction of various people and entire societies.

  14. Experimental Crossing of Two Distinct Species of Leopard Geckos, Eublepharis angramainyu and E. macularius: Viability, Fertility and Phenotypic Variation of the Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančúchová-Lásková, Jitka; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between distinct species of animals and subsequent genetic introgression plays a considerable role in the speciation process and the emergence of adaptive characters. Fitness of between-species hybrids usually sharply decreases with the divergence time of the concerned species and the divergence depth, which still allows for a successful crossing differs among principal clades of vertebrates. Recently, a review of hybridization events among distinct lizard species revealed that lizards belong to vertebrates with a highly developed ability to hybridize. In spite of this, reliable reports of experimental hybridizations between genetically fairly divergent species are only exceptional. Here, we show the results of the crossing of two distinct allopatric species of eyelid geckos possessing temperature sex determination and lacking sex chromosomes: Eublepharis macularius distributed in Pakistan/Afghanistan area and E. angramainyu, which inhabits Mesopotamia and adjacent areas. We demonstrated that F1 hybrids were viable and fertile, and the introgression of E. angramainyu genes into the E. macularius genome can be enabled via a backcrossing. The examined hybrids (except those of the F2 generation) displayed neither malformations nor a reduced survival. Analyses of morphometric and coloration traits confirmed phenotypic distinctness of both parental species and their F1 hybrids. These findings contrast with long-term geographic and an evolutionary separation of the studied species. Thus, the occurrence of fertile hybrids of comparably divergent species, such as E. angramainyu and E. macularius, may also be expected in other taxa of squamates. This would violate the current estimates of species diversity in lizards.

  15. Assessing genetic divergence in interspecific hybrids of Aechmea gomosepala and A. recurvata var. recurvata using inflorescence characteristics and sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Ge, Y Y; Wang, W Y; Shen, X L; Yu, X Y

    2012-12-03

    Conventional hybridization and selection techniques have aided the development of new ornamental crop cultivars. However, little information is available on the genetic divergence of bromeliad hybrids. In the present study, we investigated the genetic variability in interspecific hybrids of Aechmea gomosepala and A. recurvata var. recurvata using inflorescence characteristics and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. The morphological analysis showed that the putative hybrids were intermediate between both parental species with respect to inflorescence characteristics. The 16 SRAP primer combinations yield 265 bands, among which 154 (57.72%) were polymorphic. The genetic similarity was an average of 0.59 and ranged from 0.21 to 0.87, indicating moderate genetic divergence among the hybrids. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based cluster analysis distinguished the hybrids from their parents with a genetic distance coefficient of 0.54. The cophenetic correlation was 0.93, indicating a good fit between the dendrogram and the original distance matrix. The two-dimensional plot from the principal coordinate analysis showed that the hybrids were intermediately dispersed between both parents, corresponding to the results of the UPGMA cluster and the morphological analysis. These results suggest that SRAP markers could help to identify breeders, characterize F(1) hybrids of bromeliads at an early stage, and expedite genetic improvement of bromeliad cultivars.

  16. Evidence for the robustness of protein complexes to inter-species hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Leducq

    Full Text Available Despite the tremendous efforts devoted to the identification of genetic incompatibilities underlying hybrid sterility and inviability, little is known about the effect of inter-species hybridization at the protein interactome level. Here, we develop a screening platform for the comparison of protein-protein interactions (PPIs among closely related species and their hybrids. We examine in vivo the architecture of protein complexes in two yeast species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii that diverged 5-20 million years ago and in their F1 hybrids. We focus on 24 proteins of two large complexes: the RNA polymerase II and the nuclear pore complex (NPC, which show contrasting patterns of molecular evolution. We found that, with the exception of one PPI in the NPC sub-complex, PPIs were highly conserved between species, regardless of protein divergence. Unexpectedly, we found that the architecture of the complexes in F1 hybrids could not be distinguished from that of the parental species. Our results suggest that the conservation of PPIs in hybrids likely results from the slow evolution taking place on the very few protein residues involved in the interaction or that protein complexes are inherently robust and may accommodate protein divergence up to the level that is observed among closely related species.

  17. Pluripotent hybrid cells contribute to extraembryonic as well as embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Jeong Tae; Choi, Hyun Woo; Choi, Youngsok; Schöler, Hans R

    2011-06-01

    The restricted gene expression of a differentiated cell can be reversed by forming hybrid with embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The resulting hybrid cells showed not only an ESC-specific marker expression but also a differentiation potential similar to the pluripotent fusion partner. Here, we evaluated whether the tetraploid fusion hybrid cells have a unique differentiation potential compared with diploid pluripotent cells. The first Oct4-GFP-positive cells were observed at day 2 following fusion between ESCs and neurosphere cells (OG2(+/-)/ROSA26(+/-)). Reprogramming efficiency was as high as 94.5% at passage 5 and 96.4% at passage 13. We have found that the tetraploid hybrid cells could form chimera with contribution to placenta after blastocyst injection. This result indicates that the tetraploid pluripotent fusion hybrid cells have wide range of differentiation potential. Therefore, we suggest that once the somatic cells are reprogrammed by fusion with ESCs, the tetraploid hybrid cells contributed to the extraembryonic as well as embryonic tissues.

  18. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum does not distinguish between ancient population structure and hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    Eriksson, Anders

    2014-03-13

    Distinguishing between hybridization and population structure in the ancestral species is a key challenge in our understanding of how permeable species boundaries are to gene flow. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum (dcfs) has been argued to be a powerful metric to discriminate between these two explanations, and it was used to argue for hybridization between Neandertal and anatomically modern humans. The shape of the observed dcfs for these two species cannot be reproduced by a model that represents ancient population structure in Africa with two populations, while adding hybridization produces realistic shapes. In this letter, we show that this result is a consequence of the spatial coarseness of the demographic model and that a spatially structured stepping stone model can generate realistic dcfs without hybridization. This result highlights how inferences on hybridization between recently diverged species can be strongly affected by the choice of how population structure is represented in the underlying demographic model. We also conclude that the dcfs has limited power in distinguishing between the signals left by hybridization and ancient structure. 2014 The Author.

  19. Quality parameters and RAPD-PCR differentiation of commercial baker's yeast and hybrid strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fiky, Zaki A; Hassan, Gamal M; Emam, Ahmed M

    2012-06-01

    Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a key component in bread baking. Total of 12 commercial baker's yeast and 2 hybrid strains were compared using traditional quality parameters. Total of 5 strains with high leavening power and the 2 hybrid strains were selected and evaluated for their alpha-amylase, maltase, glucoamylase enzymes, and compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The results revealed that all selected yeast strains have a low level of alpha-amylase and a high level of maltase and glucoamylase enzymes. Meanwhile, the Egyptian yeast strain (EY) had the highest content of alpha-amylase and maltase enzymes followed by the hybrid YH strain. The EY and YH strains have the highest content of glucoamylase enzyme almost with the same level. The RAPD banding patterns showed a wide variation among commercial yeast and hybrid strains. The closely related Egyptian yeast strains (EY and AL) demonstrated close similarity of their genotypes. The 2 hybrid strains were clustered to Turkish and European strains in 1 group. The authors conclude that the identification of strains and hybrids using RAPD technique was useful in determining their genetic relationship. These results can be useful not only for the basic research, but also for the quality control in baking factories. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. A large set of newly created interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids increases aromatic diversity in lager beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Stijn; Steensels, Jan; Saels, Veerle; De Rouck, Gert; Aerts, Guido; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-12-01

    Lager beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. Its production process is marked by a fermentation conducted at low (8 to 15°C) temperatures and by the use of Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecific hybrid between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the cold-tolerant Saccharomyces eubayanus. Recent whole-genome-sequencing efforts revealed that the currently available lager yeasts belong to one of only two archetypes, "Saaz" and "Frohberg." This limited genetic variation likely reflects that all lager yeasts descend from only two separate interspecific hybridization events, which may also explain the relatively limited aromatic diversity between the available lager beer yeasts compared to, for example, wine and ale beer yeasts. In this study, 31 novel interspecific yeast hybrids were developed, resulting from large-scale robot-assisted selection and breeding between carefully selected strains of S. cerevisiae (six strains) and S. eubayanus (two strains). Interestingly, many of the resulting hybrids showed a broader temperature tolerance than their parental strains and reference S. pastorianus yeasts. Moreover, they combined a high fermentation capacity with a desirable aroma profile in laboratory-scale lager beer fermentations, thereby successfully enriching the currently available lager yeast biodiversity. Pilot-scale trials further confirmed the industrial potential of these hybrids and identified one strain, hybrid H29, which combines a fast fermentation, high attenuation, and the production of a complex, desirable fruity aroma. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Correlation between ultraviolet survival and DNA repair efficiency in mouse cell hybrids and their parent lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbosch, S.

    1982-01-01

    Three hybrid cell lines formed between mouse lymphoma (LS) and mouse fibroblasts (A9) have been tested for their capacity to perform unscheduled DNA synthesis; their recovery characteristics after uv irradiation have also been studied to determine if DNA repair is implicated in the high survival observed in one hybrid (clone 3). The results of these investigations indicate that hybrid clone 3 was distinguishable from the more uv sensitive parental and other hybrid cell lines by its higher uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis, its greater clonogenic survival in plateau phase, and its faster recovery when maintained in conditioned medium after irradiation. The simultaneous increase of these three properties in hybrid clone 3 suggest that, by three different approaches, we have evidenced the same molecular process, a process involved in the elimination of potentially lethal damage, most probably the excision repair pathway. This report also shows that the low efficiency in excision repair in the parent line A9 is probably not due to deletion but rather to repression of the relevant gene(s) and that somatic cell hybridization can result in a stimulation of a previously poorly expressed repair process

  2. Fatigue crack initiation in hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber metal laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.-Y.; Yeh, P.-C.; Yang, J.-M.

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue crack initiation behavior of a high modulus and hybrid boron/glass/aluminum fiber/metal laminate (FML) was investigated experimentally and analytically. Two types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs were fabricated and studied, which consisted of aluminum alloy sheets as the metal layers and a mixture of boron fibers and glass fibers as the composite layers. For the first type, the boron fiber/prepreg and the glass fiber/prepreg were used separately in the composite layers, and for the second type, the boron fibers and the glass fibers were mingled together to form a hybrid boron/glass/prepreg composite layer. These hybrid FMLs were consolidated using an autoclave curing process. The incorporation of the boron fibers improved the Young's modulus of the composite layer in FMLs, which in turn, would improve the fatigue crack initiation life of the Al sheet. The experimental results clearly showed that the fatigue crack initiation lives for both types of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs were superior to the monolithic aluminum alloy under the same loading condition. An analytical approach was proposed to calculate the fatigue crack initiation lives of hybrid boron/glass/aluminum FMLs based on the classical laminate theory and the small-crack theory. A good correlation was obtained between the predictions and the experimental results

  3. User acceptance of diesel/PV hybrid system in an island community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuangpornpitak, N.; Kumar, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted at a rural (island) community to understand the role of PV hybrid system installed on an island. Until 2004, most islanders had installed diesel generators in their homes to generate electricity, which was directly supplied to appliances or stored in the batteries for later use. A field survey was carried out to study the user satisfaction of the PV hybrid system in the island community. The attitude of islanders to the PV hybrid system was mostly positive. The islanders can use more electricity, the supply of which can meet the demand. A comparison of pollutions before and after installation of the PV hybrid system was made along with the interviews with the users. The data show that the users are highly satisfied with the PV hybrid system which can reduce environmental impact, especially air and noise pollutions. New opportunities as a result of access to electric service include studying and reading at night that were not possible earlier. All the islanders use the PV hybrid system and more importantly, no one found that the system made their life worse as compared to the earlier state of affairs. (author)

  4. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum does not distinguish between ancient population structure and hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Distinguishing between hybridization and population structure in the ancestral species is a key challenge in our understanding of how permeable species boundaries are to gene flow. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum (dcfs) has been argued to be a powerful metric to discriminate between these two explanations, and it was used to argue for hybridization between Neandertal and anatomically modern humans. The shape of the observed dcfs for these two species cannot be reproduced by a model that represents ancient population structure in Africa with two populations, while adding hybridization produces realistic shapes. In this letter, we show that this result is a consequence of the spatial coarseness of the demographic model and that a spatially structured stepping stone model can generate realistic dcfs without hybridization. This result highlights how inferences on hybridization between recently diverged species can be strongly affected by the choice of how population structure is represented in the underlying demographic model. We also conclude that the dcfs has limited power in distinguishing between the signals left by hybridization and ancient structure. 2014 The Author.

  5. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  8. Growth and nutritional evaluation of napier grass hybrids as forage for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Turano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Napier grass is a perennial, tropical C-4 grass that can produce large amounts of forage. However, low temperatures and drought stress limit its productivity and nutritive value as a forage. To overcome these limitations, pearl millet × napier grass hybrids (PMN were developed. It was hypothesized that PMN hybrids were more drought-tolerant, produced higher yields, and had higher nutritive value than napier grass varieties. The yield and nutritive value of 4 napier grass varieties (Bana grass, Mott, MB4 and N51 and 4 PMN hybrids (PMN2, PMN3, 5344 and 4604 were determined with or without irrigation in a strip plot design in Hawaii. Hybrid PMN3 outperformed napier grass varieties and the other hybrids for yield, while 5344 showed higher nutritional content and digestibility than most other grasses. Dry matter yields during the 110-day study period ranged from 10.3 to 32.1 t/ha without irrigation and 19.6 to 55.8 t/ha with irrigation, indicating that moisture stress was limiting performance in raingrown pastures. Only hybrids PMN3 and PMN2 and variety MB4 showed significant growth responses to irrigation. Further work is needed to evaluate the hybrids in a range of environments over much longer periods to determine if these preliminary results can be reproduced over the long term. Similarly, feeding studies with animals are needed to determine if the in vitro data for digestibility are reflected in superior performance for the promising hybrids.Keywords: Biomass, cattle, in vitro digestion, nutrient content, Pennisetum, tropical grasses.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4168-178

  9. TiO2/PCL hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catauro, M.; Bollino, F.; Papale, F.; Marciano, S.; Pacifico, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work has been the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on titanium dioxide and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to be used in the biomedical field. Several materials have been synthesized using sol–gel methods by adding different amounts of polymer to the inorganic sol. The obtained gels have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR data allowed us to hypothesize that the structure formed was that of an interpenetrating network, realized by hydrogen bonds between Ti-OH groups in the sol–gel intermediate species and carbonyl groups in the polymer repeating units. SEM and AFM analyses highlighted that the obtained materials were nanostructurated hybrids. To evaluate the biological properties of the hybrids, their bioactivity and cytotoxicity were investigated as a function of the PCL amount. The bioactivity of the synthesized systems was proven by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating human blood plasma (SBF). MTT cytotoxicity tests and Trypan Blue dye exclusion tests were carried out exposing NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts for 24 and 48 h to extracts from the investigated hybrid materials. The results showed that all the hybrids had a non-cytotoxic effect on target cells. - Highlights: • TiO 2 /PCL hybrids were obtained by the sol–gel process for biomedical applications. • Synthesized materials were found to be first-class hybrid nanocomposites. • Hybrids appear to be bioactive, a fundamental characteristic for osseointegration. • MTT and Trypan Blue viability test show that the materials are biocompatible. • The organic phase is able to modulate the biocompatibility of the materials

  10. Hybrid chaotic ant swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuying; Wen Qiaoyan; Li Lixiang; Peng Haipeng

    2009-01-01

    Chaotic ant swarm optimization (CASO) is a powerful chaos search algorithm that is used to find the global optimum solution in search space. However, the CASO algorithm has some disadvantages, such as lower solution precision and longer computational time, when solving complex optimization problems. To resolve these problems, an improved CASO, called hybrid chaotic swarm optimization (HCASO), is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm introduces preselection operator and discrete recombination operator into the CASO; meanwhile it replaces the best position found by own and its neighbors' ants with the best position found by preselection operator and discrete recombination operator in evolution equation. Through testing five benchmark functions with large dimensionality, the experimental results show the new method enhances the solution accuracy and stability greatly, as well as reduces the computational time and computer memory significantly when compared to the CASO. In addition, we observe the results can become better with swarm size increasing from the sensitivity study to swarm size. And we gain some relations between problem dimensions and swam size according to scalability study.

  11. Techno economic analysis of a wind-photovoltaic-biomass hybrid renewable energy system for rural electrification: A case study of Kallar Kahar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Jameel; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    . The comprehensive resource assessment of wind, biomass and solar energy is carried out for grid integration. Homer Pro software is used to model a hybrid microgrid system. Optimization results and sensitivity analysis is carried out to ensure the robustness and cost-effectiveness of the proposed hybrid microgrid......This paper focuses on the techno-economic feasibility of a grid-tied hybrid microgrid system for local inhabitants of Kallar Kahar near Chakwal city of Punjab province in Pakistan and investigates the potential for electricity generation through hybrid wind, photovoltaic and biomass system...... system. The total load has been optimally shared among generated power through wind, photovoltaic and biomass resources and surplus power is supplied to the national grid in case of low local demand of the load. The results of techno-economic feasibility study show that hybrid power system can generate...

  12. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  13. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  14. Analysis of fixed tilt and sun tracking photovoltaic–micro wind based hybrid power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sunanda; Chandel, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: 6 kW_p photovoltaic–micro wind based hybrid power system analysis in a Indian Western Himalayan location. - Highlights: • Power generation by a roof mounted photovoltaic–micro wind hybrid system is explored. • Optimum hybrid configurations using fixed and sun tracking photovoltaic systems are determined. • Analysis of hybrid systems with optimally tilted and different sun tracking systems is presented. • Two axis sun tracking systems are found to generate 4.88–26.29% more energy than fixed tilt system. • Hybrid system installed at optimum tilt angle is found to be cost effective than a sun tracking system. - Abstract: In this study fixed tilt and sun tracking photovoltaic based micro wind hybrid power systems are analyzed along with determining the optimum configurations for a 6 kW_p roof mounted micro wind based hybrid system using fixed and tracking photovoltaic systems to enhance the power generation potential in a low windy Indian hilly terrain with good solar resource. The main objective of the study is to enhance power generation by focusing on photovoltaic component of the hybrid system. A comparative power generation analysis of different configurations of hybrid systems with fixed tilt, monthly optimum tilt, yearly optimum tilt and 6 different sun tracking photovoltaic systems is carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. Monthly and seasonal optimum tilt angles determined for the location vary between 0° and 60° with annual optimum tilt angle as 29.25°. The optimum configurations for all sun tracking systems except for the two axis tracking system is found to be 7 kW_p photovoltaic system, one 5 kW_p wind turbine, 10 batteries and a 2 kW_p inverter. The optimum configuration for two axis tracking system and two types of fixed tilt systems, is found to be a 8 kW_p photovoltaic system, one 5 kW_p wind turbine, 10 batteries and a 2 kW_p inverter. The results show that horizontal axis with

  15. The fusion-fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.

    1985-01-01

    As the history of the development of fusion energy shows, a sustained controlled fusion reaction is much more difficult to produce than rapid uncontrolled release of fusion energy. Currently, the ''magnetic bottle'' technique shows sufficient progress that it might applied for the commercial fuel production of /sup 233/U, suitable for use in fission reactors, by developing a fusion-fission hybrid. Such a device would consist of a fusion chamber core surrounded by a region containing cladded uranium pellets cooled by helium, with lithium salts also present to produce tritium to refuel the fusion process. Successful development of this hybrid might be possible within 10 y, and would provide both experience and funds for further development of controlled fusion energy

  16. Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bescribano@bcamath.org [BCAM—Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, E-48009 Bilbao (Spain); Akhmatskaya, Elena [BCAM—Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, E-48009 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Reich, Sebastian [Universität Potsdam, Institut für Mathematik, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Azpiroz, Jon M. [Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU) and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P.K. 1072, Donostia (Spain)

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2–4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

  17. Parametric decay below the upper hybrid frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, E; Krause, K; Schlueter, H [Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik 2

    1977-03-21

    Parametric decay of the upper hybrid mode is observed between the electron cyclotron frequency and its first two harmonics. The decay products are identified as electron Bernstein and ion acoustic mode. The diagnostic results confirm the relevant dispersion relations.

  18. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and ''through-the-ground'' parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains. (author)

  19. Gasoline-fueled hybrid vs. conventional vehicle emissions and fuel economy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.

    1999-06-18

    This paper addresses the relative fuel economy and emissions behavior, both measured and modeled, of technically comparable, contemporary hybrid and conventional vehicles fueled by gasoline, in terms of different driving cycles. Criteria pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides) are discussed, and the potential emissions benefits of designing hybrids for grid connection are briefly considered. In 1997, Toyota estimated that their grid-independent hybrid vehicle would obtain twice the fuel economy of a comparable conventional vehicle on the Japan 10/15 mode driving cycle. This initial result, as well as the fuel economy level (66 mpg), made its way into the U.S. press. Criteria emissions amounting to one-tenth of Japanese standards were cited, and some have interpreted these results to suggest that the grid-independent hybrid can reduce criteria emissions in the U.S. more sharply than can a conventional gasoline vehicle. This paper shows that the potential of contemporary grid-independent hybrid vehicle technology for reducing emissions and fuel consumption under U.S. driving conditions is less than some have inferred. The importance (and difficulty) of doing test and model assessments with comparable driving cycles, comparable emissions control technology, and comparable performance capabilities is emphasized. Compared with comparable-technology conventional vehicles, grid-independent hybrids appear to have no clear criteria pollutant benefits (or disbenefits). (Such benefits are clearly possible with grid-connectable hybrids operating in zero emissions mode.) However, significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., fuel consumption) are possible with hybrid vehicles when they are used to best advantage.

  20. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac, E-mail: jaehacko@pkusz.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Temporary aeration shortened the initial acid inhibition phase for methanogens. • COD decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactor than that in the anaerobic control. • Methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. • MSW settlement increased with increasing the frequency of intermittent aeration. - Abstract: Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10 months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic–anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia–nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75 d and 60 d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens.