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Sample records for hybridization histochemistry revealed

  1. Location of gene expression in CNS using hybridization histochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penschow, J.D.; Haralambidis, J.; Aldred, P.; Tregear, G.W.; Coghlan, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The pursuit of improvements in sensitivity, specificity, and resolution has resulted in a myriad of published procedures designed for a variety of applications and of seemingly increasing complexity. The choice of technique now available, through significant recent technological advances, includes nonisotopic cDNA probe labels, single-stranded RNA (Riboprobe), and synthetic oligonucleotides as probes, in addition to the now familiar radiolabeled cDNA probes. The authors' aim is to simplify this choice by describing a convenient method applicable to the location of specific mRNA in brain and other tissues by either cDNA or synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes. The procedure is based on a /sup 32/P probe label which enables detection of the mRNA-DNA hybrids on X-ray fail autoradiographs of frozen sections within 48 hr of tissue collection. Single, labeled cells can be located in heterogeneous tissues in subsequent short exposure liquid emulsion autoradiographs. This technique has been used successfully over a period of 5 years on tissues as diverse as whole small animals, sheep brain, rat thyroid, and human tumors. Deproteination procedures employed with other methods, which have been found to be unnecessary for /sup 32/P, are not included, thus simplifying the procedure. The use of synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides is emphasized as their choice of probes for the reasons outlined. Apart from providing an escape route from dependence on a molecular biology laboratory, discriminating sequences of similar gene products can be synthesized and localized so that single cells within small groups can be further characterized by their biosynthetic function

  2. Similarities and differences between the brain networks underlying allocentric and egocentric spatial learning in rat revealed by cytochrome oxidase histochemistry.

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    Rubio, S; Begega, A; Méndez, M; Méndez-López, M; Arias, J L

    2012-10-25

    The involvement of different brain regions in place- and response-learning was examined using a water cross-maze. Rats were trained to find the goal from the initial arm by turning left at the choice point (egocentric strategy) or by using environmental cues (allocentric strategy). Although different strategies were required, the same maze and learning conditions were used. Using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry as a marker of cellular activity, the function of the 13 diverse cortical and subcortical regions was assessed in rats performing these two tasks. Our results show that allocentric learning depends on the recruitment of a large functional network, which includes the hippocampal CA3, dentate gyrus, medial mammillary nucleus and supramammillary nucleus. Along with the striatum, these last three structures are also related to egocentric spatial learning. The present study provides evidence for the contribution of these regions to spatial navigation and supports a possible functional interaction between the two memory systems, as their structural convergence may facilitate functional cooperation in the behaviours guided by more than one strategy. In summary, it can be argued that spatial learning is based on dynamic functional systems in which the interaction of brain regions is modulated by task requirements. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Histochemistry and translational medicine

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    MG Manfredi Romanini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Journal is mainly devoted to a specific, crucial topic in the field of histochemical research: how in situ technologies can be exploited to study tissue samples from patients with specific diseases. The final goal is on one hand a more accurate diagnosis; on the other, the identification of specific features that can: i be followed and compared at different time points ii provide hints on the natural history of the disease and iii represent surrogate end-points for targeted molecular treatments. The European Journal of Histochemistry has always been particularly concerned with the molecular study of diseases in different tissues, and we had the privilege to publish recently several cuttingedge reports dealing with such a subject (Boniotto et al., 2003; Lanni et al., 2003; Maraldi et al., 2003; Munoz et al., 2003; Benkoel et al., 2004; Cremer et al., 2004; Rambotti et al., 2004;Trovato et al., 2004;Waltregny et al., 2004;Woodall and Graham, 2004

  4. Enzyme Histochemistry for Functional Histology in Invertebrates.

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    Cima, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    In invertebrates, enzyme histochemistry has recently found a renaissance regarding its applications in morphology and ecology. Many enzyme activities are useful for the morphofunctional characterization of cells, as biomarkers of biological and pathologic processes, and as markers of the response to environmental stressors. Here, the adjustments to classic techniques, including the most common enzymes used for digestion, absorption, transport, and oxidation, as well as techniques for azo-coupling, metal salt substitution and oxidative coupling polymerization, are presented in detail for various terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates. This chapter also provides strategies to solve the problems regarding anesthesia, small body size, the presence of an exo- or endoskeleton and the search for the best fixative in relation to the internal fluid osmolarity. These techniques have the aim of obtaining good results for both the pre- and post-embedding labeling of specimens, tissue blocks, sections, and hemolymph smears using both light and transmission electron microscopy.

  5. Genome-wide mapping in a house mouse hybrid zone reveals hybrid sterility loci and Dobzhansky-Muller interactions.

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    Turner, Leslie M; Harr, Bettina

    2014-12-09

    Mapping hybrid defects in contact zones between incipient species can identify genomic regions contributing to reproductive isolation and reveal genetic mechanisms of speciation. The house mouse features a rare combination of sophisticated genetic tools and natural hybrid zones between subspecies. Male hybrids often show reduced fertility, a common reproductive barrier between incipient species. Laboratory crosses have identified sterility loci, but each encompasses hundreds of genes. We map genetic determinants of testis weight and testis gene expression using offspring of mice captured in a hybrid zone between M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. Many generations of admixture enables high-resolution mapping of loci contributing to these sterility-related phenotypes. We identify complex interactions among sterility loci, suggesting multiple, non-independent genetic incompatibilities contribute to barriers to gene flow in the hybrid zone.

  6. Phylogenetic tests of a Cercopithecus monkey hybrid reveal X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A captive Cercopithecus nictitans × C. cephus male was examined at loci on the X- and Y-chromosomes as a test of previously described phylogenetic methods for identifying hybrid Cercopithecus monkeys. The results confirm the reliability of such assays, indicating that they can be of immediate utility for studies of wild ...

  7. On the future contents of a small journal of histochemistry

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    C. Pellicciari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last three years, more than 70,000 scientific articles have been published in peer reviewed journals on the application of histochemistry in the biomedical field: most of them did not appear in strictly histochemical journals, but in others dealing with cell and molecular biology, medicine or biotechnology. This proves that histochemistry is still an active and innovative discipline with relevance in basic and applied biological research, but also demonstrates that especially the small histochemical Journals should likely reconsider their scopes and strategies to preserve their authorship. A review of the last three years volumes of the European Journal of Histochemistry, taken as an example of a long-time established small Journal, confirmed that the published articles were widely heterogeneous in their topics and experimental models, as in this Journal’s tradition. This strongly suggests that a Journal of histochemistry should keep its role as a forum open to an audience as broad as possible, publishing papers on cell and tissue biology in a wide variety of models. This will improve knowledge of the basic mechanisms of development and differentiation, while helping to increase the number of potential authors since scientists who generally do not use histochemistry in their research will find hints for the applications of histochemical techniques to novel still unexplored subjects.

  8. The chromosomal constitution of fish hybrid lineage revealed by 5S rDNA FISH.

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    Zhang, Chun; Ye, Lihai; Chen, Yiyi; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Yanhong; Tao, Min; Xiao, Yamei; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-12-03

    The establishment of the bisexual fertile fish hybrid lineage including the allodiploid and allotetraploid hybrids, from interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var. 2n = 100, 2n = AA) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. 2n = 100, 2n = BB) (♂), provided a good platform to investigate genetic relationship between the parents and their hybrid progenies. The chromosomal inheritance of diploid and allotetraploid hybrid progenies in successive generations, was studied by applying 5S rDNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. Signals of 5S rDNA distinguished the chromosomal constitution of common carp (B-genome) from red crucian carp (A-genome), in which two strong signals were observed on the first submetacentric chromosome, while no major signal was found in common carp. After fish hybridization, one strong signal of 5S rDNA was detected in the same locus on the chromosome of diploid hybrids. As expected, two strong signals were observed in 4nF3 tetraploid hybrids offspring and it is worth mentioning that two strong signals were detected in a separating bivalent of a primary spermatocyte in 4nF3. Furthermore, the mitosis of heterozygous chromosomes was shown normal and stable with blastular tissue histological studies. We revealed that 5S rDNA signal can be applied to discern A-genome from B-genome, and that 5S rDNA bearing chromosomes can be stably passed down in successive generations. Our work provided a significant method in fish breeding and this is important for studies in fish evolutionary biology.

  9. Fine Mapping and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Associated with Hybrid Lethality in Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiliang; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuqian; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Liu, Xing; Liu, Zezhou; Lv, Honghao; Zhuang, Mu

    2017-06-05

    Hybrid lethality is a deleterious phenotype that is vital to species evolution. We previously reported hybrid lethality in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ) and performed preliminary mapping of related genes. In the present study, the fine mapping of hybrid lethal genes revealed that BoHL1 was located on chromosome C1 between BoHLTO124 and BoHLTO130, with an interval of 101 kb. BoHL2 was confirmed to be between insertion-deletion (InDels) markers HL234 and HL235 on C4, with a marker interval of 70 kb. Twenty-eight and nine annotated genes were found within the two intervals of BoHL1 and BoHL2 , respectively. We also applied RNA-Seq to analyze hybrid lethality in cabbage. In the region of BoHL1 , seven differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and five resistance (R)-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo1g153320 and Bo1g153380 ) were found, whereas in the region of BoHL2 , two DEGs and four R-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo4g173780 and Bo4g173810 ) were found. Along with studies in which R genes were frequently involved in hybrid lethality in other plants, these interesting R-DEGs may be good candidates associated with hybrid lethality. We also used SNP/InDel analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to confirm the results. This work provides new insight into the mechanisms of hybrid lethality in cabbage.

  10. Submicroscopic deletions at the WAGR locus, revealed by nonradioactive in situ hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Fantes, J A; Bickmore, W A; Fletcher, J M; Ballesta, F; Hanson, I M; van Heyningen, V

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with biotin-labeled probes mapping to 11p13 has been used for the molecular analysis of deletions of the WAGR (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, and mental retardation) locus. We have detected a submicroscopic 11p13 deletion in a child with inherited aniridia who subsequently presented with Wilms tumor in a horseshoe kidney, only revealed at surgery. The mother, who has aniridia, was also found to carry a deletion including both the ...

  11. Patterns of hybrid loss of imprinting reveal tissue- and cluster-specific regulation.

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    Christopher D Wiley

    Full Text Available Crosses between natural populations of two species of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus (BW, and P. polionotus (PO, produce parent-of-origin effects on growth and development. BW females mated to PO males (bwxpo produce growth-retarded but otherwise healthy offspring. In contrast, PO females mated to BW males (POxBW produce overgrown and severely defective offspring. The hybrid phenotypes are pronounced in the placenta and include POxBW conceptuses which lack embryonic structures. Evidence to date links variation in control of genomic imprinting with the hybrid defects, particularly in the POxBW offspring. Establishment of genomic imprinting is typically mediated by gametic DNA methylation at sites known as gDMRs. However, imprinted gene clusters vary in their regulation by gDMR sequences.Here we further assess imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation at different cluster types in order to discern patterns. These data reveal POxBW misexpression at the Kcnq1ot1 and Peg3 clusters, both of which lose ICR methylation in placental tissues. In contrast, some embryonic transcripts (Peg10, Kcnq1ot1 reactivated the silenced allele with little or no loss of DNA methylation. Hybrid brains also display different patterns of imprinting perturbations. Several cluster pairs thought to use analogous regulatory mechanisms are differentially affected in the hybrids.These data reinforce the hypothesis that placental and somatic gene regulation differs significantly, as does that between imprinted gene clusters and between species. That such epigenetic regulatory variation exists in recently diverged species suggests a role in reproductive isolation, and that this variation is likely to be adaptive.

  12. Genomic Analyses Reveal the Influence of Geographic Origin, Migration, and Hybridization on Modern Dog Breed Development

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    Heidi G. Parker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are nearly 400 modern domestic dog breeds with a unique histories and genetic profiles. To track the genetic signatures of breed development, we have assembled the most diverse dataset of dog breeds, reflecting their extensive phenotypic variation and heritage. Combining genetic distance, migration, and genome-wide haplotype sharing analyses, we uncover geographic patterns of development and independent origins of common traits. Our analyses reveal the hybrid history of breeds and elucidate the effects of immigration, revealing for the first time a suggestion of New World dog within some modern breeds. Finally, we used cladistics and haplotype sharing to show that some common traits have arisen more than once in the history of the dog. These analyses characterize the complexities of breed development, resolving longstanding questions regarding individual breed origination, the effect of migration on geographically distinct breeds, and, by inference, transfer of trait and disease alleles among dog breeds.

  13. Chlorosis caused by two recessively interacting genes reveals a role of RNA helicase in hybrid breakdown in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Plötner, Björn; Nurmi, Markus; Fischer, Axel; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Holm, Svante; Vaid, Neha; Schöttler, Mark Aurel; Walther, Dirk; Hoefgen, Rainer; Weigel, Detlef; Laitinen, Roosa A E

    2017-07-01

    Hybrids often differ in fitness from their parents. They may be superior, translating into hybrid vigour or heterosis, but they may also be markedly inferior, because of hybrid weakness or incompatibility. The underlying genetic causes for the latter can often be traced back to genes that evolve rapidly because of sexual or host-pathogen conflicts. Hybrid weakness may manifest itself only in later generations, in a phenomenon called hybrid breakdown. We have characterized a case of hybrid breakdown among two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, Shahdara (Sha, Tajikistan) and Lövvik-5 (Lov-5, Northern Sweden). In addition to chlorosis, a fraction of the F 2 plants have defects in leaf and embryo development, and reduced photosynthetic efficiency. Hybrid chlorosis is due to two major-effect loci, of which one, originating from Lov-5, appears to encode an RNA helicase (AtRH18). To examine the role of the chlorosis allele in the Lövvik area, in addition to eight accessions collected in 2009, we collected another 240 accessions from 15 collections sites, including Lövvik, from Northern Sweden in 2015. Genotyping revealed that Lövvik collection site is separated from the rest. Crosses between 109 accessions from this area and Sha revealed 85 cases of hybrid chlorosis, indicating that the chlorosis-causing allele is common in this area. These results suggest that hybrid breakdown alleles not only occur at rapidly evolving loci, but also at genes that code for conserved processes. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Histochemistry of lectin-binding sites in Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, A; Schumacher, U; Storch, V

    2001-02-01

    Priapulida represent one of the phylogenetically oldest multicellular animal groups. In multicellular animals (Metazoa) cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions are often mediated by carbohydrate residues of glycoconjugates. To analyze the carbohydrate composition of a phylogenetically old species, lectin histochemistry was employed on 5 specimens of the priapulid Halicryptus spinulosus. Many lectins bound to the chitin-containing cuticle, including those specific for carbohydrates other than N-acetylglucosamine, the principle building block of chitin. The connective tissue of the animals contained both N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. Mannose residues were widely distributed with the exception of the cuticle, but complex type carbohydrates were not present in the entire animal. Sialic acid residues were only detected in the cuticle and brush border of the intestinal epithelium, while fucose was limited to the cuticle. Thus, the lectin-binding pattern indicated that sugars typical for the linking region of both N- and O-glycoproteins in mammals are also present in H. spinulosus. Carbohydrate residues that are typical for the complex type of N-linked glycans in vertebrates are not present as are carbohydrate residues typical for the termination of O-linked carbohydrate chains. Hence, a truncated form of both N- and O-linked glycosylation is present in H. spinulosus indicating that more complex patterns of glycosylation developed later during evolution.

  15. Interspecies introgressive hybridization in spiny frogs Quasipaa (Family Dicroglossidae) revealed by analyses on multiple mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

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    Zhang, Qi-Peng; Hu, Wen-Fang; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Kong, Shen-Shen; Liu, Zhi-Fang; Zheng, Rong-Quan

    2018-01-01

    Introgression may lead to discordant patterns of variation among loci and traits. For example, previous phylogeographic studies on the genus Quasipaa detected signs of genetic introgression from genetically and morphologically divergent Quasipaa shini or Quasipaa spinosa . In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data to verify the widespread introgressive hybridization in the closely related species of the genus Quasipaa , evaluate the level of genetic diversity, and reveal the formation mechanism of introgressive hybridization. In Longsheng, Guangxi Province, signs of asymmetrical nuclear introgression were detected between Quasipaa boulengeri and Q. shini . Unidirectional mitochondrial introgression was revealed from Q. spinosa to Q. shini . By contrast, bidirectional mitochondrial gene introgression was detected between Q. spinosa and Q. shini in Lushan, Jiangxi Province. Our study also detected ancient hybridizations between a female Q. spinosa and a male Q. jiulongensis in Zhejiang Province. Analyses on mitochondrial and nuclear genes verified three candidate cryptic species in Q. spinosa , and a cryptic species may also exist in Q. boulengeri . However, no evidence of introgressive hybridization was found between Q. spinosa and Q. boulengeri . Quasipaa exilispinosa from all the sampling localities appeared to be deeply divergent from other communities. Our results suggest widespread introgressive hybridization in closely related species of Quasipaa and provide a fundamental basis for illumination of the forming mechanism of introgressive hybridization, classification of species, and biodiversity assessment in Quasipaa .

  16. Genomic markers reveal introgressive hybridization in the Indo-West Pacific mangroves: a case study.

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    Mei Sun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of mangrove ecosystems is difficult to assess, at least partly due to lack of genetic verification of morphology-based documentation of species. Natural hybridization, on the one hand, plays an important role in evolution as a source of novel gene combinations and a mechanism of speciation. However, on the other hand, recurrent introgression allows gene flow between species and could reverse the process of genetic differentiation among populations required for speciation. To understand the dynamic evolutionary consequences of hybridization, this study examines genomic structure of hybrids and parental species at the population level. In the Indo-West Pacific, Bruguiera is one of the dominant mangrove genera and species ranges overlap extensively with one another. Morphological intermediates between sympatric Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Bruguiera sexangula have been reported as a variety of B. sexangula or a new hybrid species, B. × rhynchopetala. However, the direction of hybridization and extent of introgression are unclear. A large number of species-specific inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers were found in B. gymnorrhiza and B. sexangula, and the additive ISSR profiling of B. × rhynchopetala ascertained its hybrid status and identified its parental origin. The varying degree of scatterness among hybrid individuals in Principal Coordinate Analysis and results from NewHybrids analysis indicate that B. × rhynchopetala comprises different generations of introgressants in addition to F(1s. High genetic relatedness between B. × rhynchopetala and B. gymnorrhiza based on nuclear and chloroplast sequences suggests preferential hybrid backcrosses to B. gymnorrhiza. We conclude that B. × rhynchopetala has not evolved into an incipient hybrid species, and its persistence can be explained by recurrent hybridization and introgression. Genomic data provide insights into the hybridization dynamics of mangrove plants. Such information

  17. Leaf histochemistry analysis of four medicinal species from Cerrado

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    Vinícius C. Kuster

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chemical components act in plant defense and protection, but many of them are extracted and used medicinally. For Cerrado, active chemical components are used in the treatment of diseases, which strengthens the necessity for pharmacological studies of plants of that environment. The objective was to evaluate the histochemistry of the leaf blade of Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. DC., Malpighiaceae, Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess. O.Berg, Myrtaceae, Roupala montana Aubl., Proteaceae, and Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., Solanaceae, species that have been reported as producers of secondary metabolites for pharmacological use. The 3rd node leaves (median, intercostal and margin regions were collected, fixed, included in Paraplast® or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, sectioned in microtome, stained and photographed on microscope. This analysis aimed to find leaf regions which produced chemical compounds. For histochemical tests, intercostal areas were selected from median region leaf of the 3rd node. Samples fresh and newly collected and fixed and embedded in Paraplast® were used. Tests were conducted for lipids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, sugars and proteins. Alkaloids were observed only in R. montana, as well as the results for phenolic compounds. Flavonoids are present in B. verbascifolia and R. montana. The lipid composition was showed for the chemical compounds of B. verbascifolia and C. adamantium, which proved to be part of the essential oils or resins oils in C. adamantium idioblasts. The chemical compounds of B. verbascifolia, C. adamantium and R. montana are present mainly in idioblasts among the parenchyma and epidermal cells. C. adamantium has secretory cavities, but only with lipid content. The identification of chemical compounds has not been possible in mature leaves of S. lycocarpum.

  18. Immunolabelling, histochemistry and in situ hybridisation in human skeletal muscle fibres to detect myosin heavy chain expression at the protein and mRNA level

    Science.gov (United States)

    SERRANO, A. L.; PÉREZ, MARGARITA; LUCÍA, A.; CHICHARRO, J. L.; QUIROZ-ROTHE, E.; RIVERO, J. L. L.

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of muscle fibres classified on the basis of their content of different myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms was analysed in vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of 15 young men (with an average age of 22 y) by correlating immunohistochemistry with specific anti-MHC monoclonal antibodies, myofibrillar ATPase (mATPase) histochemistry and in situ hybridisation with probes specific for MHC β-slow, MHC-IIA and MHC-IIX. The characterisation of a large number of individual fibres was compared and correlated on a fibre-to-fibre basis. The panel of monoclonal antibodies used in the study allowed classification of human skeletal muscle fibres into 5 categories according to the MHC isoform they express at the protein level, types I, I+IIA, IIA, IIAX and IIX. Hybrid fibres coexpressing two isoforms represented a considerable proportion of the fibre composition (about 14%) and were clearly underestimated by mATPase histochemistry. For a very high percentage of fibres there was a precise correspondence between the MHC protein isoforms and mRNA transcripts. The integrated methods used demonstrate a high degree of precision of the immunohistochemical procedure used for the identification and quantification of human skeletal muscle fibre types. The monoclonal antibody S5-8H2 is particularly useful for identifying hybrid IIAX fibres. This protocol offers new prospects for muscle fibre classification in human experimental studies. PMID:11554510

  19. Plastid DNA analysis reveals cryptic hybridization in invasive dalmatian toadflax populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Boswell; Sharlene E. Sing; Sarah M. Ward

    2016-01-01

    Gene flow between Dalmatian toadflax (DT) and yellow toadflax (YT), both aggressive invaders throughout the Intermountain West, is creating hybrid populations potentially more invasive than either parent species. To determine the direction of gene flow in these hybrid populations, species-diagnostic cytoplasmic markers were developed. Markers were based on...

  20. Genomic islands of differentiation in two songbird species reveal candidate genes for hybrid female sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mořkovský, Libor; Janoušek, Václav; Reif, Jiří; Rídl, Jakub; Pačes, Jan; Choleva, Lukáš; Janko, Karel; Nachman, Michael W; Reifová, Radka

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid sterility is a common first step in the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation. According to Haldane's Rule, it affects predominantly the heterogametic sex. While the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in organisms with heterogametic males has been studied for decades, the genetic basis of hybrid female sterility in organisms with heterogametic females has received much less attention. We investigated the genetic basis of reproductive isolation in two closely related avian species, the common nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the thrush nightingale (L. luscinia), that hybridize in a secondary contact zone and produce viable hybrid progeny. In accordance with Haldane's Rule, hybrid females are sterile, while hybrid males are fertile, allowing gene flow to occur between the species. Using transcriptomic data from multiple individuals of both nightingale species, we identified genomic islands of high differentiation (F ST ) and of high divergence (D xy ), and we analysed gene content and patterns of molecular evolution within these islands. Interestingly, we found that these islands were enriched for genes related to female meiosis and metabolism. The islands of high differentiation and divergence were also characterized by higher levels of linkage disequilibrium than the rest of the genome in both species indicating that they might be situated in genomic regions of low recombination. This study provides one of the first insights into genetic basis of hybrid female sterility in organisms with heterogametic females. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Longitudinal fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals cytogenetic evolution in myeloma relapsing after autologous transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Maximilian; Jauch, Anna; Hielscher, Thomas; Mai, Elias K.; Seckinger, Anja; Hose, Dirk; Bertsch, Uta; Neben, Kai; Raab, Marc S.; Salwender, Hans; Blau, Igor W.; Lindemann, Hans-Walter; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo; Scheid, Christof; Haenel, Mathias; Weisel, Katja; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Hillengass, Jens

    2017-01-01

    To investigate cytogenetic evolution after upfront autologous stem cell transplantation for newly diagnosed myeloma we retrospectively analyzed fluorescence in situ hybridization results of 128 patients with paired bone marrow samples from the time of primary diagnosis and at relapse. High-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (deletion 17p and/or gain 1q21) occurred more frequently after relapse (odds ratio: 6.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.86–33.42; P<0.001). No significant changes were observed for defined IGH translocations [t(4;14); t(11;14); t(14;16)] or hyperdiploid karyotypes between primary diagnosis and relapse. IGH translocations with unknown partners occurred more frequently at relapse. New deletion 17p and/or gain 1q21 were associated with cytogenetic heterogeneity, since some de novo lesions with different copy numbers were present only in subclones. No distinct baseline characteristics were associated with the occurrence of new high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities after progression. Patients who relapsed after novel agent-based induction therapy had an increased risk of developing high-risk aberrations (odds ratio 10.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.65–127.66; P=0.03) compared to those who were treated with conventional chemotherapy. Survival analysis revealed dismal outcomes regardless of whether high-risk aberrations were present at baseline (hazard ratio, 3.53; 95% confidence interval: 1.53–8.14; P=0.003) or developed at relapse only (hazard ratio, 3.06; 95% confidence interval: 1.09–8.59; P=0.03). Our results demonstrate cytogenetic evolution towards high-risk disease after autologous transplantation and underline the importance of repeated genetic testing in relapsed myeloma (EudraCT number of the HD4 trial: 2004-000944-26). PMID:28495913

  2. Secretory structure and histochemistry test of some Zingiberaceae plants

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    Indriyani, Serafinah

    2017-11-01

    A secretory structure is a structure that produces a plant's metabolite substances. Secretory structures are grouped into an internal and external. Zingiberaceae plants are known as traditional medicine plants and as spice plants due to secretory structures in their tissues. The objective of the research were to describe the secretory structure of Zingiberaceae plants and to discover the qualitatively primary metabolite substances in plant's tissues via histochemistry test. The research was conducted by observation descriptive design, quantitative data including the density of secretory cells per mm². The quantitative data were analyzed by ANOVA and continued by Duncan at α = 5 %. The results showed that the secretory structures in leaves, rhizome, and the root of 14 species of Zingiberaceae plants are found in the mesophyll of leaves and cortex, and also pith in rhizome and roots. The type of secretory structure is internal. Within the root of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.(bengle), Curcuma domestica Val. (kunyit), Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Roscoe (kunyit putih), Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J.E. Smith (lempuyang), Alpiniapurpurata K. Schum (lengkuas merah), and Curcuma aeruginosa Val. (temu ireng) were found amylum grains, while in Kaemferia galanga L. (kencur), Boesen bergiapandurata L. (temu kunci), and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (temulawak) there were no amylum grains in the root as well as in the leaves. The roots of bengle had the greatest density of amylum grain, it had 248.1 ± 9.8 secretory cells of amylum grains per mm². Lipids (oil droplets) were found in the root of bengle, Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. emprit (jahe emprit), Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. Gajah (jahe gajah), Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. Rubrum (jahe merah), Keampferia angustifolia L. (kunci pepet), kunyit, kunyit putih, lempuyang, lengkua smerah, Curcuma aeruginosa Val. (temu ireng), and Curcuma mangga Val. and van Zijp (temu mangga); the root of lempuyang had the greatest density of oil

  3. Reticulate evolution: frequent introgressive hybridization among chinese hares (genus lepus revealed by analyses of multiple mitochondrial and nuclear DNA loci

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    Wu Shi-Fang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific hybridization may lead to the introgression of genes and genomes across species barriers and contribute to a reticulate evolutionary pattern and thus taxonomic uncertainties. Since several previous studies have demonstrated that introgressive hybridization has occurred among some species within Lepus, therefore it is possible that introgressive hybridization events also occur among Chinese Lepus species and contribute to the current taxonomic confusion. Results Data from four mtDNA genes, from 116 individuals, and one nuclear gene, from 119 individuals, provides the first evidence of frequent introgression events via historical and recent interspecific hybridizations among six Chinese Lepus species. Remarkably, the mtDNA of L. mandshuricus was completely replaced by mtDNA from L. timidus and L. sinensis. Analysis of the nuclear DNA sequence revealed a high proportion of heterozygous genotypes containing alleles from two divergent clades and that several haplotypes were shared among species, suggesting repeated and recent introgression. Furthermore, results from the present analyses suggest that Chinese hares belong to eight species. Conclusion This study provides a framework for understanding the patterns of speciation and the taxonomy of this clade. The existence of morphological intermediates and atypical mitochondrial gene genealogies resulting from frequent hybridization events likely contribute to the current taxonomic confusion of Chinese hares. The present study also demonstrated that nuclear gene sequence could offer a powerful complementary data set with mtDNA in tracing a complete evolutionary history of recently diverged species.

  4. Molecular data reveal complex hybridization and a cryptic species of neotropical wild cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Tatiane C; Schneider, Alexsandra; de Oliveira, Tadeu G; Lehugeur, Livia M; Silveira, Leandro; Freitas, Thales R O; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2013-12-16

    Hybridization among animal species has recently become more recognized as an important phenomenon, especially in the context of recent radiations. Here we show that complex hybridization has led to contrasting patterns of genomic composition among closely related species of the Neotropical cat genus Leopardus. We show strong evidence of ancient hybridization and introgression between the pampas cat (L. colocolo) and northeastern populations of tigrina (L. tigrinus), leading to remarkable cytonuclear discordance in the latter. In contrast, southern tigrina populations show recent and continuing hybridization with Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi), leading to extreme levels of interspecific admixture at their contact zone. Finally, we demonstrate that two seemingly continuous Brazilian tigrina populations show no evidence of ongoing gene flow between them, leading us to support their formal recognition as distinct species, namely L. tigrinus in the northeast and L. guttulus in the south. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Natural hybridization between Phlomis lycia D. Don x P. bourgaei Boiss., (Lamiaceae) revealed by RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüzbaşioğlu, Ertuğrul; Dadandi, Mehmet Yaşar; Ozcan, Sebahattin

    2008-05-01

    Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers (RAPD) were used to assess the hybrid identity of individuals sampled as Phlomis x termessi Davis. Out of 95 primers screened, 11 primers produced reproducible amplification patterns used for discrimination of P. x termessi and their parents. Eleven primers produced 81 bands. Forty two percent of the RAPD bands existed in parents. Of the 54 bands found in P. lycia, 19 were found only in this species and 7 of these were monomorphic. Similarly, of 57 RAPD bands observed in P. bourgaei, 18 were found only in P. bourgaei and 6 of these were monomorphic. Among hybrid individuals, 35 of the 73 markers were monomorphic. Fifteen of these existed in individual parents showing that parents were homozygous for these markers. Of the 35 monomorphic bands observed among hybrid individuals, 5 were present in the samples of one of the parents and completely absent from the samples of the other; therefore, additive inheritance is indicated. Of the 5 additive bands, 1 was inherited from P. bourgaei and 4 were inherited from P. lycia. Among 38 polymorhic markers observed in hybrid individuals, 9 were new and hybrid-specific. Pollen fertility was also investigated. Mean pollen fertility for P. lycia and P. bourgaei was 93% and 97% respectively. However, mean pollen fertility for hybrids was 65% (+/-10.5).

  6. Differential stress response of Saccharomyces hybrids revealed by monitoring Hsp104 aggregation and disaggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Claudia; Lengeler, Klaus; Wendland, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Proteotoxic stress may occur upon exposure of yeast cells to different stress conditions. The induction of stress response mechanisms is important for cells to adapt to changes in the environment and ensure survival. For example, during exposure to elevated temperatures the expression of heat shock proteins such as Hsp104 is induced in yeast. Hsp104 extracts misfolded proteins from aggregates to promote their refolding. We used an Hsp104-GFP reporter to analyze the stress profiles of Saccharomyces species hybrids. To this end a haploid S. cerevisiae strain, harboring a chromosomal HSP104-GFP under control of its endogenous promoter, was mated with stable haploids of S. bayanus, S. cariocanus, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae, S. paradoxus and S. uvarum. Stress response behaviors in these hybrids were followed over time by monitoring the appearance and dissolution of Hsp104-GFP foci upon heat shock. General stress tolerance of these hybrids was related to the growth rate detected during exposure to e.g. ethanol and oxidizing agents. We observed that hybrids were generally more resistant to high temperature and ethanol stress compared to their parental strains. Amongst the hybrids differential responses regarding the appearance of Hsp104-foci and the time required for dissolving these aggregates were observed. The S. cerevisiae/S. paradoxus hybrid, combining the two most closely related strains, performed best under these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals that hybridization between Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica occurred in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Peng, Mao; Hayashi, Kei; Shoriki, Takuya; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2017-02-01

    The well-known pathogens of fasciolosis, Fasciola hepatica (Fh) and Fasciola Gigantica (Fg), possess abundant mature sperms in their seminal vesicles, and thus, they reproduce bisexually. On the other hand, aspermic Fasciola flukes reported from Asian countries, which have no sperm in their seminal vesicles, probably reproduce parthenogenetically. The aim of this study was to reveal the origin of aspermic Fasciola flukes. The nuclear single copy markers, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta, were employed for analysis of Fasciola species from China. The hybrid origin of aspermic Fasciola flukes was strongly suggested by the presence of the Fh/Fg type, which includes DNA fragments of both F. hepatica and F. gigantica. China can be regarded as the cradle of the interspecific hybridization because F. hepatica and F. gigantica were detected in the northern and southern parts of China, respectively, and hybrids flukes were distributed between the habitats of the two species. The Chinese origin was supported by the fact that a larger number of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) haplotypes was detected in Chinese aspermic Fasciola populations than in aspermic populations from the neighbouring countries. Hereafter, 'aspermic' Fasciola flukes should be termed as 'hybrid' Fasciola flukes.

  8. Diverse mechanisms of plant resistance to cauliflower mosaic virus revealed by leaf skeleton hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, U; Brannan, C M; Gardner, C O; Essenberg, R C

    1992-01-01

    Plants not hosts for cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) may prevent systemic CaMV infection by interfering with dissemination of infection through the plant or by preventing viral replication and maturation. Leaf skeleton hybridization allows distinction between these two barriers. The technique assesses the spatial distribution of CaMV in an inoculated leaf by hybridization of a skeleton of the leaf with a CaMV DNA probe. Leaves or leaflets of soybean, cucumber, peanut, tomato, lettuce, spinach, pepper, onion, wheat, maize and barley, inoculated with CaMV DNA or CaMV virions were processed for leaf skeleton hybridization either immediately after inoculation or two weeks thereafter. Autoradiographic images of soybean and cucumber skeletons had many dark spots suggesting that CaMV DNA replication and local spread had occurred. Images of onion leaf skeletons prepared two weeks after inoculation with CaMV DNA had fewer spots. To test whether these spots resulted from CaMV replication, DNA was extracted from inoculated onion leaves and analyzed by electrophoresis, blotting and hybridization. Molecules recovered two weeks after inoculation resembled those inoculated, indicating absence of replication. For the other species, we found no evidence of local spread of CaMV infections. Thus, many plant species resist systemic CaMV infection by preventing replication or local spread of CaMV, while others solely prevent systemic movement of infection.

  9. Ultrafast optical snapshots of hybrid perovskites reveal the origin of multiband electronic transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Nie, Wanyi; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Even, Jacky; Mohite, Aditya D.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2017-11-01

    Connecting the complex electronic excitations of hybrid perovskites to their intricate organic-inorganic lattice structure has critical implications for energy conversion and optoelectronic technologies. Here we detail the multiband, multivalley electronic structure of a halide hybrid perovskite by measuring the absorption transients of a millimeter-scale-grain thin film as it undergoes a thermally controlled reversible tetragonal-to-orthogonal phase transition. Probing nearly single grains of this hybrid perovskite, we observe an unreported energy splitting (degeneracy lifting) of the high-energy 2.6 eV band in the tetragonal phase that further splits as the rotational degrees of freedom of the disordered C H3N H3 + molecules are reduced when the sample is cooled. This energy splitting drastically increases during an extended phase-transition coexistence region that persists from 160 to 120 K, becoming more pronounced in the orthorhombic phase. By tracking the temperature-dependent optical transition energies and using symmetry analysis that describes the evolution of electronic states from the tetragonal phase to the orthorhombic phase, we assign this energy splitting to the nearly degenerate transitions in the tetragonal phase from both the R - and M -point-derived states. Importantly, these assignments explain how momentum conservation effects lead to long hot-carrier lifetimes in the room-temperature tetragonal phase, with faster hot-carrier relaxation when the hybrid perovskite structurally transitions to the orthorhombic phase due to enhanced scattering at the Γ point.

  10. Histochemistry in Biology and Medicine: A Message From the Citing Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Especially in recent years, biomedical research has taken advantage of the progress in several disciplines, among which microscopy and histochemistry. To assess the influence of histochemistry in the biomedical field, the articles published during the period 2011-2015 have been selected from different databases and grouped by subject categories. As expected, biological and biomedical studies where histochemistry has been used as a major experimental approach include a wide range of basic and applied researches on both humans and other animal or plant organisms. To better understand the impact of histochemical publications onto the different biological and medical disciplines, it was useful to look at the journals where the articles published in a multidisciplinary journal of histochemistry have been cited: it was observed that, in the five-years period considered, 20% only of the citations were in histochemical periodicals, the remaining ones being in journals of Cell & Tissue biology, general and experimental Medicine, Oncology, Biochemistry & Molecular biology, Neurobiology, Anatomy & Morphology, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Reproductive biology, Veterinary sciences, Physiology, Endocrinology, Tissue engineering & Biomaterials, as well as in multidisciplinary journals. It is easy to foresee that also in the future the histochemical journals will be an attended forum for basic and applied scientists in the biomedical field. It will be crucial that these journals be open to an audience as varied as possible, publishing articles on the application of refined techniques to very different experimental models: this will stimulate non-histochemist scientists to approach histochemistry whose application horizon could expand to novel and possibly exclusive subjects. PMID:26708189

  11. Histochemistry in biology and medicine: a message from the citing journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Pellicciari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Especially in recent years, biomedical research has taken advantage of the progress in several disciplines, among which microscopy and histochemistry. To assess the influence of histochemistry in the biomedical field, the articles published during the period 2011-2015 have been selected from different databases and grouped by subject categories: as expected, biological and biomedical studies where histochemistry has been used as a major experimental approach include a wide of basic and applied researches on both humans and other animal or plant organisms. To better understand the impact of histochemical publications onto the different biological and medical disciplines, it was useful to look at the journals where the articles published in a multidisciplinary journal of histochemistry have been cited: it was observed that, in the five-years period considered, 20% only of the citations were in histochemical periodicals, the remaining ones being in journals of Cell & Tissue biology,  general and experimental Medicine, Oncology, Biochemistry & Molecular biology, Neurobiology, Anatomy & Morphology, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Reproductive biology, Veterinary sciences, Physiology, Endocrinology, Tissue engineering & Biomaterials,  as well as in multidisciplinary journals.It is easy to foresee that also in the future the histochemical journals will be an attended forum for basic and applied scientists in the biomedical field. It will be crucial that these journals be open to an audience as varied as possible, publishing articles on the application of refined techniques to very different experimental models: this will stimulate non-histochemist scientists to approach histochemistry whose application horizon could expand to novel and possibly exclusive subjects.

  12. Genomic constitution of Festuca x Lolium hybrids revealed by the DArTFest array

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, David; Bartoš, Jan; Christelová, Pavla; Černoch, V.; Kilian, A.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 2 (2011), s. 355-363 ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71267; GA ČR GP521/07/P479 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : IN-SITU HYBRIDIZATION * GENETIC-LINKAGE MAP * PRATENSIS HUDS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.297, year: 2011

  13. Genetics of hybrid male sterility between drosophila sibling species: a complex web of epistasis is revealed in interspecific studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palopoli, M F; Wu, C I

    1994-10-01

    To study the genetic differences responsible for the sterility of their male hybrids, we introgressed small segments of an X chromosome from Drosophila simulans into a pure Drosophila mauritiana genetic background, then assessed the fertility of males carrying heterospecific introgressions of varying size. Although this analysis examined less than 20% of the X chromosome (roughly 5% of the euchromatic portion of the D. simulans genome), and the segments were introgressed in only one direction, a minimum of four factors that contribute to hybrid male sterility were revealed. At least two of the factors exhibited strong epistasis: males carrying either factor alone were consistently fertile, whereas males carrying both factors together were always sterile. Distinct spermatogenic phenotypes were observed for sterile introgressions of different lengths, and it appeared that an interaction between introgressed segments also influenced the stage of spermatogenic defect. Males with one category of introgression often produced large quantities of motile sperm and were observed copulating, but never inseminated females. Evidently these two species have diverged at a large number of loci which have varied effects on hybrid male fertility. By extrapolation, we estimate that there are at least 40 such loci on the X chromosome alone. Because these species exhibit little DNA-sequence divergence at arbitrarily chosen loci, it seems unlikely that the extensive functional divergence observed could be due mainly to random genetic drift. Significant epistasis between conspecific genes appears to be a common component of hybrid sterility between recently diverged species of Drosophila. The linkage relationships of interacting factors could shed light on the role played by epistatic selection in the dynamics of the allele substitutions responsible for reproductive barriers between species.

  14. Zebrafish syntenic relationship to human/mouse genomes revealed by radiation hybrid mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samonte, Irene E.

    2007-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an excellent model system for vertebrate developmental analysis and a new model for human disorders. In this study, however, zebrafish was used to determine its syntenic relationship to human/mouse genomes using the zebrafish-hamster radiation hybrid panel. The focus was on genes residing on chromosomes 6 and 17 of human and mouse, respectively, and some other genes of either immunologic or evolutionary importance. Gene sequences of interest and zebrafish expressed sequence tags deposited in the GenBank were used in identifying zebrafish homologs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, cloning and subcloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis were done to confirm the homology of the candidate genes in zebrafish. The promising markers were then tested in the 94 zebrafish-hamster radiation hybrid panel cell lines and submitted for logarithm of the odds (LOD) score analysis to position genes on the zebrafish map. A total of 19 loci were successfully mapped to zebrafish linkage groups 1, 14, 15, 19, and 20. Four of these loci were positioned in linkage group 20, whereas, 3 more loci were added in linkage group 19, thus increasing to 34 loci the number of human genes syntenic to the group. With the sequencing of the zebrafish genome, about 20 more MHC genes were reported linked on the same group. (Author)

  15. Histochemistry for the research in veterinary science: the legacy of Giuseppe Aureli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Lauria

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, on April 24th 1984, Giuseppe Aureli, Founding Member and President of the Italian Society of Histochemistry from 1971 to 1973, Director of the Institute of Anatomy of Domestic Animals, Histology and Embryology and Dean of the School of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Milan, died suddenly and before his time. Following in the footsteps of Carlo Bignardi, he started from the time he was a student, to deal with the research approaches of Maffo Vialli, founder of histochemistry in Italy Head in Milan of a skilled group of scientists, he developed a sound and reliable research school mainly based on the use of ever more advanced histochemical and cytochemical techniques to study, in the extensive area of veterinary science, different problems aimed at developing either basic knowledge or animal production.

  16. Quantification of intensive hybrid coastal reclamation for revealing its impacts on macrozoobenthos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jiaguo; Cui, Baoshan; Zheng, Jingjing; Xie, Tian; Wang, Qing; Li, Shanze

    2015-01-01

    Managing and identifying the sources of anthropogenic stress in coastal wetlands requires an in-depth understanding of relationships between species diversity and human activities. Empirical and experimental studies provide clear evidence that coastal reclamation can have profound impacts on marine organisms, but the focus of such studies is generally on comparative or laboratory research. We developed a compound intensity index (reclamation intensity index, RI) on hybrid coastal reclamation, to quantify the impacts of reclamation on coastal ecosystems. We also made use of mean annual absolute changes to a number of biotic variables (biodiversity, species richness, biomass of total macrozoobenthos, and species richness and biomass of Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, and Echinodermata) to determine Hedges’d index, which is a measure of the potential effects of coastal reclamation. Our results showed that there was significant difference of coastal reclamation intensity between Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea, the biological changes in effect sizes of the three regions differed greatly over time. Our modelling analyses showed that hybrid coastal reclamation generally had significant negative impacts on species diversity and biomass of macrozoobenthos. These relationships varied among different taxonomic groups and included both linear and nonlinear relationships. The results indicated that a high-intensity of coastal reclamation contributed to a pronounced decline in species diversity and biomass, while lower-intensity reclamation, or reclamation within certain thresholds, resulted in a small increase in species diversity and biomass. These results have important implications for biodiversity conservation and the ecological restoration of coastal wetlands in face of the intensive reclamation activities. (letter)

  17. Controlled chaos: three-dimensional kinematics, fiber histochemistry, and muscle contractile dynamics of autotomized lizard tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Timothy E; Lipsett, Kathryn R; Syme, Douglas A; Russell, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    The ability to shed an appendage occurs in both vertebrates and invertebrates, often as a tactic to avoid predation. The tails of lizards, unlike most autotomized body parts of animals, exhibit complex and vigorous movements once disconnected from the body. Despite the near ubiquity of autotomy across groups of lizards and the fact that this is an extraordinary event involving the self-severing of the spinal cord, our understanding of why and how tails move as they do following autotomy is sparse. We herein explore the histochemistry and physiology of the tail muscles of the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), a species that exhibits vigorous and variable tail movements following autotomy. To confirm that the previously studied tail movements of this species are generally representative of geckos and therefore suitable for in-depth muscle studies, we quantified the three-dimensional kinematics of autotomized tails in three additional species. The movements of the tails of all species were generally similar and included jumps, flips, and swings. Our preliminary analyses suggest that some species of gecko exhibit short but high-frequency movements, whereas others exhibit larger-amplitude but lower-frequency movements. We then compared the ATPase and oxidative capacity of muscle fibers and contractile dynamics of isolated muscle bundles from original tails, muscle from regenerate tails, and fast fibers from an upper limb muscle (iliofibularis) of the leopard gecko. Histochemical analysis revealed that more than 90% of the fibers in original and regenerate caudal muscles had high ATPase but possessed a superficial layer of fibers with low ATPase and high oxidative capacity. We found that contraction kinetics, isometric force, work, power output, and the oscillation frequency at which maximum power was generated were lowest in the original tail, followed by the regenerate tail and then the fast fibers of the iliofibularis. Muscle from the original tail exhibited

  18. Hybridization Capture Reveals Evolution and Conservation across the Entire Koala Retrovirus Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yasuko; Cui, Pin; Vielgrader, Hanna; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Roca, Alfred L.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2014-01-01

    The koala retrovirus (KoRV) is the only retrovirus known to be in the midst of invading the germ line of its host species. Hybridization capture and next generation sequencing were used on modern and museum DNA samples of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) to examine ca. 130 years of evolution across the full KoRV genome. Overall, the entire proviral genome appeared to be conserved across time in sequence, protein structure and transcriptional binding sites. A total of 138 polymorphisms were detected, of which 72 were found in more than one individual. At every polymorphic site in the museum koalas, one of the character states matched that of modern KoRV. Among non-synonymous polymorphisms, radical substitutions involving large physiochemical differences between amino acids were elevated in env, potentially reflecting anti-viral immune pressure or avoidance of receptor interference. Polymorphisms were not detected within two functional regions believed to affect infectivity. Host sequences flanking proviral integration sites were also captured; with few proviral loci shared among koalas. Recently described variants of KoRV, designated KoRV-B and KoRV-J, were not detected in museum samples, suggesting that these variants may be of recent origin. PMID:24752422

  19. Hybridization capture reveals evolution and conservation across the entire Koala retrovirus genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Tsangaras

    Full Text Available The koala retrovirus (KoRV is the only retrovirus known to be in the midst of invading the germ line of its host species. Hybridization capture and next generation sequencing were used on modern and museum DNA samples of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus to examine ca. 130 years of evolution across the full KoRV genome. Overall, the entire proviral genome appeared to be conserved across time in sequence, protein structure and transcriptional binding sites. A total of 138 polymorphisms were detected, of which 72 were found in more than one individual. At every polymorphic site in the museum koalas, one of the character states matched that of modern KoRV. Among non-synonymous polymorphisms, radical substitutions involving large physiochemical differences between amino acids were elevated in env, potentially reflecting anti-viral immune pressure or avoidance of receptor interference. Polymorphisms were not detected within two functional regions believed to affect infectivity. Host sequences flanking proviral integration sites were also captured; with few proviral loci shared among koalas. Recently described variants of KoRV, designated KoRV-B and KoRV-J, were not detected in museum samples, suggesting that these variants may be of recent origin.

  20. Suppression subtractive hybridization reveals transcript profiling of Chlorella under heterotrophy to photoautotrophy transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Fan

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been extensively investigated and exploited because of their competitive nutritive bioproducts and biofuel production ability. Chlorella are green algae that can grow well heterotrophically and photoautotrophically. Previous studies proved that shifting from heterotrophy to photoautotrophy in light-induced environments causes photooxidative damage as well as distinct physiologic features that lead to dynamic changes in Chlorella intracellular components, which have great potential in algal health food and biofuel production. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the trophic transition remain unclear.In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization strategy was employed to screen and characterize genes that are differentially expressed in response to the light-induced shift from heterotrophy to photoautotrophy. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs were obtained from 770 and 803 randomly selected clones among the forward and reverse libraries, respectively. Sequence analysis identified 544 unique genes in the two libraries. The functional annotation of the assembled unigenes demonstrated that 164 (63.1% from the forward library and 62 (21.8% from the reverse showed significant similarities with the sequences in the NCBI non-redundant database. The time-course expression patterns of 38 selected differentially expressed genes further confirmed their responsiveness to a diverse trophic status. The majority of the genes enriched in the subtracted libraries were associated with energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and stress defense.The data presented here offer the first insights into the molecular foundation underlying the diverse microalgal trophic niche. In addition, the results can be used as a reference for unraveling candidate genes associated with the transition of Chlorella from heterotrophy to photoautotrophy, which holds great potential for further improving its lipid and

  1. Relationship between CNS metabolism and cytoarchitecture: a review of 14C-deoxyglucose studies with correlation to cytochrome oxidase histochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Rocco, R.J.; Kageyama, G.H.; Wong-Riley, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    Since the inception of the 14 C-deoxyglucose method and its extension to in vivo imaging of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in humans by positron emission tomography, uncertainty has persisted concerning the type of work to which regional metabolism is coupled, as well as the distribution of this work within the neuron. 14 C-deoxyglucose studies indicate that functionally-coupled neural metabolism is more apparent in axon terminals and perhaps dendrites than neuronal perikarya. Moreover, it appears that most of the metabolism in axon terminals is accounted for by Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Nevertheless, cytochrome oxidase histochemistry reveals the presence of intensely reactive mitochondria in soma-dendrite regions opposite presynaptic axon terminals, thereby indicating that continuous temporal and spatial summation of postsynaptic graded potentials is associated with increased metabolism. While the situation concerning the relative postsynaptic metabolic prices of EPSP's and IPSP's remains uncertain, the presence of elevated levels of cytochrome oxidase activity within certain classes of presynaptic terminals indicates that active excitation and inhibition is associated with increases in presynaptic metabolism. This observation has been confirmed in 14 C-deoxyglucose studies. Nevertheless, studies of neonatal hippocampus indicate that, before metabolic activity shifts to dendritic and telodendritic regions of electrophysiological activity, metabolism is high in somal foci of biosynthesis. 51 references

  2. Patterns of Limnohabitans Microdiversity across a Large Set of Freshwater Habitats as Revealed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezbera, Jan; Jezberová, Jitka; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Šimek, Karel; Hahn, Martin W.

    2013-01-01

    Among abundant freshwater Betaproteobacteria, only few groups are considered to be of central ecological importance. One of them is the well-studied genus Limnohabitans and mainly its R-BT subcluster, investigated previously mainly by fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. We designed, based on sequences from a large Limnohabitans culture collection, 18 RLBH (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) probes specific for different groups within the genus Limnohabitans by targeting diagnostic sequences on their 16 S–23 S rRNA ITS regions. The developed probes covered in sum 92% of the available isolates. This set of probes was applied to environmental DNA originating from 161 different European standing freshwater habitats to reveal the microdiversity (intra-genus) patterns of the Limnohabitans genus along a pH gradient. Investigated habitats differed in various physicochemical parameters, and represented a very broad range of standing freshwater habitats. The Limnohabitans microdiversity, assessed as number of RLBH-defined groups detected, increased significantly along the gradient of rising pH of habitats. 14 out of 18 probes returned detection signals that allowed predictions on the distribution of distinct Limnohabitans groups. Most probe-defined Limnohabitans groups showed preferences for alkaline habitats, one for acidic, and some seemed to lack preferences. Complete niche-separation was indicated for some of the probe-targeted groups. Moreover, bimodal distributions observed for some groups of Limnohabitans, suggested further niche separation between genotypes within the same probe-defined group. Statistical analyses suggested that different environmental parameters such as pH, conductivity, oxygen and altitude influenced the distribution of distinct groups. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that the wide ecological distribution of Limnohabitans bacteria in standing freshwater habitats results from generalist adaptations of these bacteria

  3. Patterns of Limnohabitans microdiversity across a large set of freshwater habitats as revealed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jezbera

    Full Text Available Among abundant freshwater Betaproteobacteria, only few groups are considered to be of central ecological importance. One of them is the well-studied genus Limnohabitans and mainly its R-BT subcluster, investigated previously mainly by fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. We designed, based on sequences from a large Limnohabitans culture collection, 18 RLBH (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization probes specific for different groups within the genus Limnohabitans by targeting diagnostic sequences on their 16 S-23 S rRNA ITS regions. The developed probes covered in sum 92% of the available isolates. This set of probes was applied to environmental DNA originating from 161 different European standing freshwater habitats to reveal the microdiversity (intra-genus patterns of the Limnohabitans genus along a pH gradient. Investigated habitats differed in various physicochemical parameters, and represented a very broad range of standing freshwater habitats. The Limnohabitans microdiversity, assessed as number of RLBH-defined groups detected, increased significantly along the gradient of rising pH of habitats. 14 out of 18 probes returned detection signals that allowed predictions on the distribution of distinct Limnohabitans groups. Most probe-defined Limnohabitans groups showed preferences for alkaline habitats, one for acidic, and some seemed to lack preferences. Complete niche-separation was indicated for some of the probe-targeted groups. Moreover, bimodal distributions observed for some groups of Limnohabitans, suggested further niche separation between genotypes within the same probe-defined group. Statistical analyses suggested that different environmental parameters such as pH, conductivity, oxygen and altitude influenced the distribution of distinct groups. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that the wide ecological distribution of Limnohabitans bacteria in standing freshwater habitats results from generalist adaptations of

  4. Distribution of 45S rDNA in Modern Rose Cultivars (Rosa hybrida), Rosa rugosa, and Their Interspecific Hybrids Revealed by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Liu; Xu, Ting-Liang; Wang, Jing; Luo, Le; Yu, Chao; Dong, Gui-Min; Pan, Hui-Tang; Zhang, Qi-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary dynamics of the location and number of rDNA loci in the process of polyploidization in the genus Rosa, we examined 45S rDNA sites in the chromosomes of 6 modern rose cultivars (R. hybrida), 5 R. rugosa cultivars, and 20 hybrid progenies by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Variation in the number of rDNA sites in parents and their interspecific hybrids was detected. As expected, 4 rDNA sites were observed in the genomes of 4 modern rose cultivars, while 3 hybridization sites were observed in the 2 others. Two expected rDNA sites were found in 2 R. rugosa cultivars, while in the other 3 R. rugosa cultivars 4 sites were present. Among the 20 R. hybrida × R. rugosa offspring, 13 carried the expected number of rDNA sites, and 1 had 6 hybridization sites, which exceeded the expected number by far. The other 6 offspring had either 2 or 3 hybridization sites, which was less than expected. Differences in the number of rDNA loci were observed in interspecific offspring, indicating that rDNA loci exhibit instability after distant hybridization events. Abnormal chromosome pairing may be the main factor explaining the variation in rDNA sites during polyploidization. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán, Claudio S; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  6. A General Model of Distant Hybridization Reveals the Conditions for Extinction in Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán, Claudio S.; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as “distant hybridization,” the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action. PMID:25003336

  7. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S Quilodrán

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  8. Comparative Genomic Hybridization of Human Malignant Gliomas Reveals Multiple Amplification Sites and Nonrandom Chromosomal Gains and Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schròck, Evelin; Thiel, Gundula; Lozanova, Tanka; du Manoir, Stanislas; Meffert, Marie-Christine; Jauch, Anna; Speicher, Michael R.; Nürnberg, Peter; Vogel, Siegfried; Janisch, Werner; Donis-Keller, Helen; Ried, Thomas; Witkowski, Regine; Cremer, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Nine human malignant gliomas (2 astrocytomas grade III and 7 glioblastomas) were analyzed using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). In addition to the amplification of the EGFR gene at 7p12 in 4 of 9 cases, six new amplification sites were mapped to 1q32, 4q12, 7q21.1, 7q21.2-3, 12p, and 22q12. Nonrandom chromosomal gains and losses were identified with overrepresentation of chromosome 7 and underrepresentation of chromosome 10 as the most frequent events (1 of 2 astrocytomas, 7 of 7 glioblastomas). Gain of a part or the whole chromosome 19 and losses of chromosome bands 9pter-23 and 22q13 were detected each in five cases. Loss of chromosome band 17p13 and gain of chromosome 20 were revealed each in three cases. The validity of the CGH data was confirmed using interphase cytogenetics with YAC clones, chromosome painting in tumor metaphase spreads, and DNA fingerprinting. A comparison of CGH data with the results of chromosome banding analyses indicates that metaphase spreads accessible in primary tumor cell cultures may not represent the clones predominant in the tumor tissue ImagesFigure 1Figure 4Figure 6 PMID:8203461

  9. Comprehensive Analysis of ETS Family Members in Melanoma by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Reveals Recurrent ETV1 Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Rohit; Dhanasekaran, Saravana M; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Vats, Pankaj; Cao, Xuhong; Kim, Jung H; Kim, David SL; Johnson, Timothy; Fullen, Douglas R; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2013-01-01

    E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors are known to be involved in gene aberrations in various malignancies including prostate cancer; however, their role in melanoma oncogenesis has yet to be fully explored. We have completed a comprehensive fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based screen for all 27 members of the ETS transcription factor family on two melanoma tissue microarrays, representing 223 melanomas, 10 nevi, and 5 normal skin tissues. None of the melanoma cases demonstrated ETS fusions; however, 6 of 114 (5.3%) melanomas were amplified for ETV1 using a break-apart FISH probe. For the six positive cases, locus-controlled FISH probes revealed that two of six cases were amplified for the ETV1 region, whereas four cases showed copy gains of the entire chromosome 7. The remaining 26 ETS family members showed no chromosomal aberrations by FISH. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed an average 3.4-fold (P value = .00218) increased expression of ETV1 in melanomas, including the FISH ETV1-amplified cases, when compared to other malignancies (prostate, breast, and bladder carcinomas). These data suggest that a subset of melanomas overexpresses ETV1 and amplification of ETV1 may be one mechanism for achieving high gene expression. PMID:23908683

  10. A screen for F1 hybrid male rescue reveals no major-effect hybrid lethality loci in the Drosophila melanogaster autosomal genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuykendall, Tawny N; Satyaki, P; Ji, Shuqing; Clay, Derek M; Edelman, Nathaniel B; Kimchy, Alexandra; Li, Ling-Hei; Nuzzo, Erin A; Parekh, Neil; Park, Suna; Barbash, Daniel A

    2014-10-27

    Hybrid sons between Drosophila melanogaster females and D. simulans males die as 3rd instar larvae. Two genes, D. melanogaster Hybrid male rescue (Hmr) on the X chromosome, and D. simulans Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr) on chromosome II, interact to cause this lethality. Loss-of-function mutations in either gene suppress lethality, but several pieces of evidence suggest that additional factors are required for hybrid lethality. Here we screen the D. melanogaster autosomal genome by using the Bloomington Stock Center Deficiency kit to search for additional regions that can rescue hybrid male lethality. Our screen is designed to identify putative hybrid incompatibility (HI) genes similar to Hmr and Lhr which, when removed, are dominant suppressors of lethality. After screening 89% of the autosomal genome, we found no regions that rescue males to the adult stage. We did, however, identify several regions that rescue up to 13% of males to the pharate adult stage. This weak rescue suggests the presence of multiple minor-effect HI loci, but we were unable to map these loci to high resolution, presumably because weak rescue can be masked by genetic background effects. We attempted to test one candidate, the dosage compensation gene male specific lethal-3 (msl-3), by using RNA interference with short hairpin microRNA constructs targeted specifically against D. simulans msl-3 but failed to achieve knockdown, in part due to off-target effects. We conclude that the D. melanogaster autosomal genome likely does not contain additional major-effect HI loci. We also show that Hmr is insufficient to fully account for the lethality associated with the D. melanogaster X chromosome, suggesting that additional X-linked genes contribute to hybrid lethality. Copyright © 2014 Cuykendall et al.

  11. Combining stated and revealed choice research to simulate the neighbor effect: The case of hybrid-electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axsen, Jonn [Institute of Transportation Studies, Univ. of California at Davis, 2028 Academic Surge, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Mountain, Dean C. [DeGroote School of Business, McMaster Univ., 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M4 (Canada); Jaccard, Mark [School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser Univ., 8888 Univ. Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    According to intuition and theories of diffusion, consumer preferences develop along with technological change. However, most economic models designed for policy simulation unrealistically assume static preferences. To improve the behavioral realism of an energy-economy policy model, this study investigates the ''neighbor effect'', where a new technology becomes more desirable as its adoption becomes more widespread in the market. We measure this effect as a change in aggregated willingness to pay under different levels of technology penetration. Focusing on hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), an online survey experiment collected stated preference (SP) data from 535 Canadian and 408 Californian vehicle owners under different hypothetical market conditions. Revealed preference (RP) data was collected from the same respondents by eliciting the year, make and model of recent vehicle purchases from regions with different degrees of HEV popularity: Canada with 0.17% new market share, and California with 3.0% new market share. We compare choice models estimated from RP data only with three joint SP-RP estimation techniques, each assigning a different weight to the influence of SP and RP data in coefficient estimates. Statistically, models allowing more RP influence outperform SP influenced models. However, results suggest that because the RP data in this study is afflicted by multicollinearity, techniques that allow more SP influence in the beta estimates while maintaining RP data for calibrating vehicle class constraints produce more realistic estimates of willingness to pay. Furthermore, SP influenced coefficient estimates also translate to more realistic behavioral parameters for CIMS, allowing more sensitivity to policy simulations. (author)

  12. Combining stated and revealed choice research to simulate the neighbor effect: The case of hybrid-electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Mountain, Dean C.; Jaccard, Mark

    2009-01-01

    According to intuition and theories of diffusion, consumer preferences develop along with technological change. However, most economic models designed for policy simulation unrealistically assume static preferences. To improve the behavioral realism of an energy-economy policy model, this study investigates the ''neighbor effect'', where a new technology becomes more desirable as its adoption becomes more widespread in the market. We measure this effect as a change in aggregated willingness to pay under different levels of technology penetration. Focusing on hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), an online survey experiment collected stated preference (SP) data from 535 Canadian and 408 Californian vehicle owners under different hypothetical market conditions. Revealed preference (RP) data was collected from the same respondents by eliciting the year, make and model of recent vehicle purchases from regions with different degrees of HEV popularity: Canada with 0.17% new market share, and California with 3.0% new market share. We compare choice models estimated from RP data only with three joint SP-RP estimation techniques, each assigning a different weight to the influence of SP and RP data in coefficient estimates. Statistically, models allowing more RP influence outperform SP influenced models. However, results suggest that because the RP data in this study is afflicted by multicollinearity, techniques that allow more SP influence in the beta estimates while maintaining RP data for calibrating vehicle class constraints produce more realistic estimates of willingness to pay. Furthermore, SP influenced coefficient estimates also translate to more realistic behavioral parameters for CIMS, allowing more sensitivity to policy simulations. (author)

  13. Fluorescence in situ hybridization karyotyping reveals the presence of two distinct genomes in the taxon Aegilops tauschii

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Laibin; Ning, Shunzong; Yi, Yingjin; Zhang, Lianquan; Yuan, Zhongwei; Wang, Jirui; Zheng, Youliang; Hao, Ming; Liu, Dengcai

    2018-01-01

    Background Aegilops tauschii is the donor of the bread wheat D genome. Based on spike morphology, the taxon has conventionally been subdivided into ssp. tauschii and ssp. strangulata. The present study was intended to address the poor match between this whole plant morphology-based subdivision and genetic relationships inferred from genotyping by fluorescence in situ hybridization karyotyping a set of 31 Ae. tauschii accessions. Results The distribution of sites hybridizing to the two probes ...

  14. Morphology, histochemistry and glycosylation of the placenta and associated tissues in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Carter, A M; Allen, W R

    2016-01-01

    glycosylated. Yolk sac inner and outer endoderm expressed similar glycans except for N-acetylgalactosamine residues in endodermal acini. DISCUSSION: New features of near-term hedgehog placenta and associated tissues are presented, including their glycosylation, and novel yolk sac acinar structures......INTRODUCTION: There are few descriptions of the placenta and associated tissues of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and here we present findings on a near-term pregnant specimen. METHODS: Tissues were examined grossly and then formalin fixed and wax-embedded for histology...... and immunocytochemistry (cytokeratin) and resin embedded for lectin histochemistry. RESULTS: Each of four well-developed and near term hoglets displayed a discoid, haemochorial placenta with typical labyrinth and spongy zones. In addition there was a paraplacenta incorporating Reichert's membrane and a largely detached...

  15. [The muscular lesion in myasthenia gravis: study of 17 cases with muscular histochemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, L C

    1982-03-01

    A study of 17 muscle biopsies from patients with myasthenia gravis was done, using freshfrozen section and histochemistry tecnics. It was found 15 abnormal muscle biopsies. The most common abnormality were small dark angular fibers, excess of lipids droplets outside the muscle membrane, changes in fiber size and type II fiber atrophy. These findings suggested denervation in 11 biopsies, type II fiber atrophy in 7, linfocyte infiltration in 4, fiber necrosis with fagocitosis in 1 and 2 were normal. Was noted a direct correlation between the disease duration and the severity of the histological abnormality. Two patients had tymoma. Congenital myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis, intersticial hypertrophic neuritis, Hashimoto tireoiditis and concomitance of myasthenic syndrome was found once in different patients.

  16. Anatomy and Histochemistry of Roots and Shoots in Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaodong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb. is a famous, perennial, emergent vegetable in China. The current work explores the anatomy and histochemistry of roots, stems, and leaves and the permeability of apoplastic barriers of wild rice. The adventitious roots in wild rice have suberized and lignified endodermis and adjacent, thick-walled cortical layers and suberized and lignified hypodermis, composed of a uniseriate sclerenchyma layer (SC underlying uniseriate exodermis; they also have lysigenous aerenchyma. Stems have a thickened epidermal cuticle, a narrow peripheral mechanical ring (PMR, an outer ring of vascular bundles, and an inner ring of vascular bundles embedded in a multiseriate sclerenchyma ring (SCR. There is evidence of suberin in stem SCR and PMR sclerenchyma cells. Sheathing leaves are characterized by thick cuticles and fibrous bundle sheath extensions. Air spaces in stems and leaves consist of mostly lysigenous aerenchyma and pith cavities in stems. Apoplastic barriers are found in roots and stems.

  17. Patterns of Limnohabitans microdiversity across a large set of freshwater habitats as revealed by reverse line blot hybridization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jezbera, Jan; Jezberová, Jitka; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Šimek, Karel; Hahn, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2013), e58527 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/10/0566; GA ČR(CZ) GEEEF/10/E011 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Limnohabitans * microdiversity * habitats * hybridization Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  18. Deep sequencing of amplicons reveals widespread intraspecific hybridization and multiple origins of polyploidy in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Justin T. Page; Prabin Bajgain; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joshua A. Udall

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Hybridization has played an important role in the evolution and ecological adaptation of diploid and polyploid plants. Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) tetraploids are extremely widespread and of great ecological importance. These tetraploids are often taxonomically identified as A. tridentata subsp. wyomingensis or as autotetraploids of diploid...

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Growth-Related Genes in Juvenile Chinese Sea Cucumber, Russian Sea Cucumber, and Their Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhicheng; Cui, Jun; Song, Jian; Wang, Haoze; Gao, Kailun; Qiu, Xuemei; Gou, Meng; Li, Xin; Hu, Ziwen; Wang, Xiuli; Chang, Yaqing

    2018-04-01

    Heterosis is important for sea cucumber breeding, but its molecular mechanism remains largely unexplored. In this study, parental lines of Apostichopus japonicus from Russia (R) and China (C) were used to construct hybrids (CR and RC) by reciprocal crossing. We examined the transcriptional profiles of the hybrids (CR and RC) and the purebreds (CC and RR) at different developmental times. A total of 60.27 Gb of clean data was obtained, and 176,649 unigenes were identified, of which 50,312 unigenes were annotated. A total of 414,536 SNPs were identified. A total of 7011 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained between the purebreds and hybrids at 45 days after fertilization (DAF), and a total of 8218 DEGs were obtained between the purebreds and hybrids at 75 DAF. In addition, a total of 7652 DEGs were obtained between 45 DAF and 75 DAF. The significant DEGs were mainly involved in the MAPK and FOXO signaling pathways, especially in the Ras-Raf-MEK1/2-ERK module, which may be a key regulator of development and growth in juvenile A. japonicus. In addition, we also identified key growth-related genes, such as fgfs, igfs, megfs and hgfs, which were upregulated in the hybrids (RC and CR); these genes may play important roles in heterosis in A. japonicus. Our study provides fundamental information on the molecular mechanisms underlying heterosis in sea cucumber and might suggest strategies for the selection of rapidly growing strains of sea cucumber in aquaculture.

  20. Revealing the distinct habitat ranges and hybrid zone of genetic sub-populations within Pseudo-nitzschia pungens (Bacillariophyceae) in the West Pacific area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Ho; Wang, Pengbin; Park, Bum Soo; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Han, Myung-Soo

    2018-03-01

    Genetic sub-populations (clades) of cosmopolitan marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia pungens might have distinct habitats, and their hybrid zone is suspected in higher latitude area of the West Pacific area, however, it is still unrevealed because of technical difficulties and lack of evidences in natural environments. The aim of this study is to investigate the habitat characteristics of each clade of P. pungens on geographical distribution with the habitat temperature ranges of each clade and to reveal their hybrid zone in the West Pacific area. We employed the 137 number of nucleotide sequences of P. pungens and its sampling data (spatial and temporal scale) originated from the West Pacific area, and used field application of qPCR assay for intra-specific level of P. pungens. Only two genotypes, clade I and III, were identified in the West Pacific area. Clade I was distributed from 39 to 32.3°N, and clade III were from 1.4 to 34.4°N. The estimated habitat temperature for the clade I and clade III ranges were 8.1-26.9 °C and 24.2-31.2 °C, respectively. The latitudinal distributions and temperature ranges of each clade were significantly different. The qPCR assay employed, and results suggested that the hybrid zone for clade I and III has been observed in the southern Korean coasts, and clade III might be introduced from the Southern Pacific area. The cell abundances of clade III were strongly related with the higher seawater temperature and warm current force. This study has defined distinct habitat characteristics of genetically different sub-populations of P. pungens, and revealed its hybrid zone in natural environment for the first time. We also provided strong evidences about dispersion of the population of clade III to higher latitude in the West Pacific area. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Histology, Histochemistry And Ultrastructure Of The Oviducts And Seminal Receptacle Of Tropidurus Itambere (rodrigues, 1987) (reptilia: Tropiduridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira A.; Dolder H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study found new information regarding the histology, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the oviduct of Tropidurus itambere, an inhabitant of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Three differentiated histological regions constitute the oviduct: the infundibulum, as its main characteristic, has many tubuloalveolar glands; the uterine region is remarkable for many mucous glands, just below the epithelium; the vagina, near to the cloacal opening, is characterized by an epithelium with inf...

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Perinatal Development of Barrel Cortex in Rat, Mouse and Guinea Pig Using Acetylcholinesterase Histochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENDEMİR, Erdoğan

    2014-01-01

    The role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the developing neocortex was reexamined by comparing its expression in rats, mice and guinea pigs, following the protocol for acetylcholinesterase histochemistry (described in Sendemir et al., 1996) in order to determine the suitability of the breeding colony at UludaÛ University for use as an animal model. A total of 103 pups as well as two adult animals of each species were used. In the rat pups, acetylcholinesterase-rich patches were d...

  3. Distribution and ecological preferences of the freshwater lineage LimA (genus Limnohabitans) revealed by a new double hybridization approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shabarova, Tatiana; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Šimek, Karel; Nedoma, Jiří; Znachor, Petr; Posch, T.; Pernthaler, J.; Salcher, Michaela M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2017), s. 1296-1309 ISSN 1462-2912 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00243S; GA ČR GA15-12197S; GA ČR GA15-09721S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dissolved organic-matter * in-situ hybridization * bacterial community composition * polynucleobacter-necessarius Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 5.395, year: 2016

  4. The Histochemistry and Cell Biology omnium-gatherum: the year 2015 in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatjes, Douglas J; Roth, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    We provide here our annual review/synopsis of all of the articles published in Histochemistry and Cell Biology (HCB) for the preceding year. In 2015, HCB published 102 articles, representing a wide variety of topics and methodologies. For ease of access to these differing topics, we have created categories, as determined by the types of articles presented to provide a quick index representing the general areas covered. This year, these categories include: (1) advances in methodologies; (2) molecules in health and disease; (3) organelles, subcellular structures, and compartments; (4) the nucleus; (5) stem cells and tissue engineering; (6) cell cultures: properties and capabilities; (7) connective tissues and extracellular matrix; (8) developmental biology; (9) nervous system; (10) musculoskeletal system; (11) respiratory and cardiovascular system; (12) liver and gastrointestinal tract; and (13) male and female reproductive systems. Of note, the categories proceed from methods development, to molecules, intracellular compartments, stem cells and cell culture, extracellular matrix, developmental biology, and finishing with various organ systems, hopefully presenting a logical journey from methods to organismal molecules, cells, and whole tissue systems.

  5. Effects of Piper hispidinervum on spermatogenesis and histochemistry of ovarioles of Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, T J S; Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Teixeira, A A C; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Câmara, C A G; Cunha, F M

    2014-05-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), not only damages crops, but controlling its population also requires synthetic insecticides, which leads to selection of resistant populations and environmental contamination. Essential oils are an alternative for controlling this insect. There are few studies of the effects of these oils on the insect's reproductive system. We evaluated the effects of the long pepper, Piper hispidinervum, essential oil on the gonads of the armyworm and tested its possible influence on the fertility of this insect. Dosages of 30 and 50 mg/ml were tested in 3(rd) instar caterpillars using the leaf immersion method. Testes and ovarioles were collected, fixed with 10% formalin and embedded in Historesin. The sections were stained with toluidine blue and Mallory trichrome to detect connective tissue, periodic acid-Schiff to detect neutral carbohydrates, and bromophenol blue to detect proteins. We found that the long pepper essential oil affected negatively the spermatogenesis and altered the histochemistry of the ovarioles of S. frugiperda. The effects of long pepper oil suggest that it is a promising tool for controlling the armyworm pest.

  6. Application of Photoshop and Scion Image analysis to quantification of signals in histochemistry, immunocytochemistry and hybridocytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolivia, Jorge; Navarro, Ana; del Valle, Eva; Perez, Cristina; Ordoñez, Cristina; Martínez, Eva

    2006-02-01

    To describe a simple method to achieve the differential selection and subsequent quantification of the strength signal using only one section. Several methods for performing quantitative histochemistry, immunocytochemistry or hybridocytochemistry, without use of specific commercial image analysis systems, rely on pixel-counting algorithms, which do not provide information on the amount of chromogen present in the section. Other techniques use complex algorithms to calculate the cumulative signal strength using two consecutive sections. To separate the chromogen signal we used the "Color range" option of the Adobe Photoshop program, which provides a specific file for a particular chromogen selection that could be applied on similar sections. The measurement of the chromogen signal strength of the specific staining is achieved with the Scion Image software program. The method described in this paper can also be applied to simultaneous detection of different signals on the same section or different parameters (area of particles, number of particles, etc.) when the "Analyze particles" tool of the Scion program is used.

  7. Effects of Caloric Restriction and Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle Histochemistry in Aging Fischer 344 Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Lowenthal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of calorie restriction and exercise on hindlimb histochemistry and fiber type in Fischer 344 rats as they advanced from adulthood through senescence. At 10 months of age, animals were divided into sedentary fed ad libitum, exercise (18 m/min, 8% grade, 20 min/day, 5 days/week fed ad libitum, and calorie restricted by alternate days of feeding. Succinic dehydrogenase, myosin adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase at pH 9.4, nicotine adenonine dinucleotide reductase, and Periodic Acid Shiff histochemical stains were performed on plantaris and soleus muscles. The results indicated that aging resulted in a progressive decline in plantaris Type I muscle fiber in sedentary animals, while exercise resulted in maintenance of these fibers. The percent of plantaris Type II fibers increased between 10 and 24 months of age. Exercise also resulted in a small, but significant, increase in the percentage of plantaris Type IIa fibers at 24 months of age. The soleus fiber distribution for Type I fibers was unaffected by increasing age in all groups of animals. The implications of these results suggest the implementation of exercise as a lifestyle modification as early as possible.

  8. Expression analysis of carbohydrate antigens in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast by lectin histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieber-Emmons Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of breast cancer patients diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS continues to grow. Laboratory and clinical data indicate that DCIS can progress to invasive disease. Carbohydrate-mediated cell-cell adhesion and tumor-stroma interaction play crucial roles in tumorigenesis and tumor aggressive behavior. Breast carcinogenesis may reflect quantitative as well as qualitative changes in oligosaccharide expression, which may provide a useful tool for early detection of breast cancer. Because tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA are implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, the purpose of this study was to assess the expression of selected TACA by lectin histochemistry on DCIS specimens from the archival breast cancer tissue array bank of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Methods For detection of TACA expression, specimens were stained with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin-I (GS-I and Vicia vilosa agglutinin (VVA. We studied associations of lectin reactivity with established prognostic factors, such as tumor size, tumor nuclear grade, and expression of Her-2/neu, p53 mutant and estrogen and progesterone receptors. Results We observed that both lectins showed significant associations with nuclear grade of DCIS. DCIS specimens with nuclear grades II and III showed significantly more intense reactivity than DCIS cases with nuclear grade I to GS-1 (Mean-score chi-square = 17.60, DF = 2; P = 0.0002 and VVA (Mean-score chi-square = 15.72, DF = 2; P = 0.0004. Conclusion The results suggest that the expression of VVA- and GS-I-reactive carbohydrate antigens may contribute to forming higher grade DCIS and increase the recurrence risk.

  9. Expression analysis of carbohydrate antigens in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast by lectin histochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korourian, Soheila; Siegel, Eric; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah

    2008-01-01

    The number of breast cancer patients diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) continues to grow. Laboratory and clinical data indicate that DCIS can progress to invasive disease. Carbohydrate-mediated cell-cell adhesion and tumor-stroma interaction play crucial roles in tumorigenesis and tumor aggressive behavior. Breast carcinogenesis may reflect quantitative as well as qualitative changes in oligosaccharide expression, which may provide a useful tool for early detection of breast cancer. Because tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA) are implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, the purpose of this study was to assess the expression of selected TACA by lectin histochemistry on DCIS specimens from the archival breast cancer tissue array bank of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. For detection of TACA expression, specimens were stained with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin-I (GS-I) and Vicia vilosa agglutinin (VVA). We studied associations of lectin reactivity with established prognostic factors, such as tumor size, tumor nuclear grade, and expression of Her-2/neu, p53 mutant and estrogen and progesterone receptors. We observed that both lectins showed significant associations with nuclear grade of DCIS. DCIS specimens with nuclear grades II and III showed significantly more intense reactivity than DCIS cases with nuclear grade I to GS-1 (Mean-score chi-square = 17.60, DF = 2; P = 0.0002) and VVA (Mean-score chi-square = 15.72, DF = 2; P = 0.0004). The results suggest that the expression of VVA- and GS-I-reactive carbohydrate antigens may contribute to forming higher grade DCIS and increase the recurrence risk

  10. Calretinin immunohistochemistry versus improvised rapid Acetylcholinesterase histochemistry in the evaluation of colorectal biopsies for Hirschsprung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokendra Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE histochemistry on rectal mucosal biopsies accurately diagnoses Hirschsprung disease (HD, but is not widely employed as it requires special tissue handling and pathologist expertise. Calretinin immunohistochemistry (IHC has been reported to be comparable to AChE staining with the loss of expression correlating with aganglionosis. Aim: The aim was to evaluate calretinin IHC as a primary diagnostic tool in comparison to the improvised rapid AChE technique in the diagnosis of HD. Materials and Methods: A total of 74 rectal biopsies (18 fresh frozen - 18 cases, 56 formalin fixed - 33 cases from 51 cases of suspect HD were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin/AChE/Calretinin. Ten biopsies each from ganglionated and aganglionated segments served as positive and negative controls. Ileal (3, appendiceal (3 and ring bowel (2 biopsies were also included. Two pathologists blinded to the clinical details evaluated the histomorphology with AChE and calretinin. Observations were statistically analyzed and Cohen′s k coefficient employed to assess agreement between two pathologists and calretinin and the AChE. Results: The study confirmed HD in 26 and non-HD in 25 cases. There were 7 neonates, 5 low level biopsies and 14 "inadequate" biopsies. The results of calretinin were comparable with AChE with a statistically significant measure of agreement of k = 0.973 between the two. One false-positive case of HD was noted with calretinin. The advantages and disadvantages of calretinin versus AChE are discussed. Conclusion: Calretinin is a reliable single immune marker for ruling out HD by its specific positive mucosal staining of formalin fixed rectal biopsy. The improvised AChE staining remains indispensable to confirm HD on fresh biopsies and thus, along with calretinin IHC maximizes the diagnostic accuracy of HD in difficult cases.

  11. Transcriptional profiles of hybrid Eucalyptus genotypes with contrasting lignin content reveal that monolignol biosynthesis-related genes regulate wood composition

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    Tomotaka eShinya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus species constitutes the most widely planted hardwood trees in temperate and subtropical regions. In this study, we compared the transcript levels of genes involved in lignocellulose formation such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biosynthesis in two selected three-year old hybrid Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis genotypes (AM063 and AM380 that have different lignin content. AM063 and AM380 had 20.2 and 35.5% of Klason lignin content and 59.0% and 48.2%, -cellulose contents, respectively. We investigated the correlation between wood properties and transcript levels of wood formation-related genes using RNA-seq with total RNAs extracted from developing xylem tissues at a breast height. Transcript levels of cell wall construction genes such as cellulose synthase (CesA and sucrose synthase (SUSY were almost the same in both genotypes. However, AM063 exhibited higher transcript levels of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP and xyloglucan endotransglucoxylase (XTH than those in AM380. Most monolignol biosynthesis- related isozyme genes showed higher transcript levels in AM380. These results indicate monolignol biosynthesis-related genes may regulate wood composition in Eucalyptus. Flavonoids contents were also observed at much higher levels in AM380 as a result of the elevated transcript levels of common phenylpropanoid pathway genes, phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL. Secondary plant cell wall formation is regulated by many transcription factors. We analyzed genes encoding NAC, WRKY, AP2/ERF and KNOX transcription factors and found higher transcript levels of these genes in AM380. We also observed increased transcription of some MYB and LIM domain transcription factors in AM380 compared to AM063. All these results show that genes related to monolignol biosynthesis may regulate the wood composition and help maintain the ratio of cellulose and lignin contents

  12. A populational survey of 45S rDNA polymorphism in the Jefferson salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH

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    Jinzhong FU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The chromosomal localization of 45S ribosomal RNA genes in Ambystoma jeffersonianum was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA fragment as a probe (FISH-rDNA. Our results revealed the presence of rDNA polymorphism among A.jeffersonianum populations in terms of number, location and FISH signal intensity on the chromosomes. Nine rDNA cytotypes were found in ten geographically isolated populations and most of them contained derivative rDNA sites. Our preliminary study provides strong indication of karyotypic diversification of A.jeffersonianum that is demonstrated by intraspecific variation of 45S rDNA cytotypes. rDNA cytotype polymorphism has been described in many other caudate amphibians. We predict that habitat isolation, low dispersal ability and decline of effective population size could facilitate the fixation and accumulation of variable rDNA cytotypes during their chromosome evolution.

  13. Morphology and histochemistry of glandular trichomes of Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd is an achlorophyllous root parasite rare in Poland. It prefers dry and sunny slopes, xerothermic grasslands and pastures, mountain pastures, light scrubs, and rock fissures and ledges. The hosts of O. alba include Thymus polytrichus A. ern. ex Borbás, Clinopodium vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare L. The tick and fleshy 10-70 cm high stem in this species bears an inflorescence composed of zygomorphic, white or yellow “spotted” flowers covered by purple glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes of this type are also borne on other parts of the plant, i.e. on the stem, scaly leaves, sepals, filaments, and the style. The secondary metabolites secreted by the glandular trichomes are related to defense of plants against the attack of herbivores and pathogens or act as attractants to pollinators or for fruit dispersal. The micromorphology and histochemistry of the glandular trichomes in O. alba were examined using scanning electron and light microscopes. In order to determine the type of secondary metabolites produced by the trichomes, the flowing histochemical assays were used: Sudan III and neutral red for detection of lipophilic compounds, IKI for detection of starch, and FeCl3 for detection of phenolic compounds. The peltate glandular trichomes of O. alba were characterised by a varied length (0.15‑0.48 mm and different activity phases. The trichome was composed of one larger basal epidermal cell, 1-3 hyaline stalk cells with a striated cuticle, a neck cell with a smooth cuticle on the surface, and a globose head formed of 8-18 secretory cells arranged in a circle. Many stalk cells of the trichomes, particularly those located on the corolla, contained anthocyanins, which give the trichomes dark carmine colour. In turn, the colour of the heads was dependent on trichome age: the heads were brown in older trichomes and yellow in younger hairs. Secretion was produced by both young and older trichomes. It penetrated

  14. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) reveals a neo-X chromosome and biased gene movement in stalk-eyed flies (genus Teleopsis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard H; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2010-09-16

    Chromosomal location has a significant effect on the evolutionary dynamics of genes involved in sexual dimorphism, impacting both the pattern of sex-specific gene expression and the rate of duplication and protein evolution for these genes. For nearly all non-model organisms, however, knowledge of chromosomal gene content is minimal and difficult to obtain on a genomic scale. In this study, we utilized Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH), using probes designed from EST sequence, to identify genes located on the X chromosome of four species in the stalk-eyed fly genus Teleopsis. Analysis of log(2) ratio values of female-to-male hybridization intensities from the CGH microarrays for over 3,400 genes reveals a strongly bimodal distribution that clearly differentiates autosomal from X-linked genes for all four species. Genotyping of 33 and linkage mapping of 28 of these genes in Teleopsis dalmanni indicate the CGH results correctly identified chromosomal location in all cases. Syntenic comparison with Drosophila indicates that 90% of the X-linked genes in Teleopsis are homologous to genes located on chromosome 2L in Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting the formation of a nearly complete neo-X chromosome from Muller element B in the dipteran lineage leading to Teleopsis. Analysis of gene movement both relative to Drosophila and within Teleopsis indicates that gene movement is significantly associated with 1) rates of protein evolution, 2) the pattern of gene duplication, and 3) the evolution of eyespan sexual dimorphism. Overall, this study reveals that diopsids are a critical group for understanding the evolution of sex chromosomes within Diptera. In addition, we demonstrate that CGH is a useful technique for identifying chromosomal sex-linkage and should be applicable to other organisms with EST or partial genomic information.

  15. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH reveals a neo-X chromosome and biased gene movement in stalk-eyed flies (genus Teleopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H Baker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal location has a significant effect on the evolutionary dynamics of genes involved in sexual dimorphism, impacting both the pattern of sex-specific gene expression and the rate of duplication and protein evolution for these genes. For nearly all non-model organisms, however, knowledge of chromosomal gene content is minimal and difficult to obtain on a genomic scale. In this study, we utilized Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH, using probes designed from EST sequence, to identify genes located on the X chromosome of four species in the stalk-eyed fly genus Teleopsis. Analysis of log(2 ratio values of female-to-male hybridization intensities from the CGH microarrays for over 3,400 genes reveals a strongly bimodal distribution that clearly differentiates autosomal from X-linked genes for all four species. Genotyping of 33 and linkage mapping of 28 of these genes in Teleopsis dalmanni indicate the CGH results correctly identified chromosomal location in all cases. Syntenic comparison with Drosophila indicates that 90% of the X-linked genes in Teleopsis are homologous to genes located on chromosome 2L in Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting the formation of a nearly complete neo-X chromosome from Muller element B in the dipteran lineage leading to Teleopsis. Analysis of gene movement both relative to Drosophila and within Teleopsis indicates that gene movement is significantly associated with 1 rates of protein evolution, 2 the pattern of gene duplication, and 3 the evolution of eyespan sexual dimorphism. Overall, this study reveals that diopsids are a critical group for understanding the evolution of sex chromosomes within Diptera. In addition, we demonstrate that CGH is a useful technique for identifying chromosomal sex-linkage and should be applicable to other organisms with EST or partial genomic information.

  16. Genome-Wide Spectra of Transcription Insertions and Deletions Reveal That Slippage Depends on RNA:DNA Hybrid Complementarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverse, Charles C; Ochman, Howard

    2017-08-29

    Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled direct quantification of genome-wide errors that occur during RNA transcription. These errors occur at rates that are orders of magnitude higher than rates during DNA replication, but due to technical difficulties such measurements have been limited to single-base substitutions and have not yet quantified the scope of transcription insertions and deletions. Previous reporter gene assay findings suggested that transcription indels are produced exclusively by elongation complex slippage at homopolymeric runs, so we enumerated indels across the protein-coding transcriptomes of Escherichia coli and Buchnera aphidicola , which differ widely in their genomic base compositions and incidence of repeat regions. As anticipated from prior assays, transcription insertions prevailed in homopolymeric runs of A and T; however, transcription deletions arose in much more complex sequences and were rarely associated with homopolymeric runs. By reconstructing the relocated positions of the elongation complex as inferred from the sequences inserted or deleted during transcription, we show that continuation of transcription after slippage hinges on the degree of nucleotide complementarity within the RNA:DNA hybrid at the new DNA template location. IMPORTANCE The high level of mistakes generated during transcription can result in the accumulation of malfunctioning and misfolded proteins which can alter global gene regulation and in the expenditure of energy to degrade these nonfunctional proteins. The transcriptome-wide occurrence of base substitutions has been elucidated in bacteria, but information on transcription insertions and deletions-errors that potentially have more dire effects on protein function-is limited to reporter gene constructs. Here, we capture the transcriptome-wide spectrum of insertions and deletions in Escherichia coli and Buchnera aphidicola and show that they occur at rates approaching those of base substitutions

  17. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Josane F; Espreafico, Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP), confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP), when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library) by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C) cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617), and the other (Met library) by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in available expression study databases allowed us to point to a

  18. Hybrid perovskite solar cells: In situ investigation of solution-processed PbI2 reveals metastable precursors and a pathway to producing porous thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Barrit, Dounya

    2017-04-17

    The successful and widely used two-step process of producing the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite CH3NH3PbI3, consists of converting a solution deposited PbI2 film by reacting it with CH3NH3I. Here, we investigate the solidification of PbI2 films from a DMF solution by performing in situ grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) measurements. The measurements reveal an elaborate sol–gel process involving three PbI2⋅DMF solvate complexes—including disordered and ordered ones—prior to PbI2 formation. The ordered solvates appear to be metastable as they transform into the PbI2 phase in air within minutes without annealing. Morphological analysis of air-dried and annealed films reveals that the air-dried PbI2 is substantially more porous when the coating process produces one of the intermediate solvates, making this more suitable for subsequent conversion into the perovskite phase. The observation of metastable solvates on the pathway to PbI2 formation open up new opportunities for influencing the two-step conversion of metal halides into efficient light harvesting or emitting perovskite semiconductors.

  19. Lectin histochemistry of goblet cell sugar residues in the gut of the chick embryo and of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, S G; Sgambati, E; Gheri Bryk, G

    1999-04-01

    The anlage of duodenum, ileum and colon were removed from chick embryos of day 8-21 of incubation and from 1-day-old chicks. A battery of seven different horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins (PNA, SBA, DBA, Con A, WGA, LTA and UEAI) was used to study the carbohydrate residues of the glycoconjugates in the goblet cells of the three parts of the intestine. The main results can be summarized as follows: differences in lectin binding were absent in the proximal and distal parts of the duodenum, ileum and colon. Lectin histochemistry showed differences among the three intestinal segments for the time of appearance of the oligosaccharides in the goblet mucus. In the colonic goblet cells of 1-day-old chicks, LTA and UEAI lectins showed two different types of linkage of alpha-L-fucose. This is the first demonstration of UEAI reactive sites in Gallus domesticus.

  20. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

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    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals carbohydrate and lipid metabolism blocks in Brassica napus L. male sterility induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulfuron ester sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhang, Peipei; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2015-03-17

    Chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) are often used to induce male sterility for the production of hybrid seeds. We previously discovered that monosulfuron ester sodium (MES), an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor of the herbicide sulfonylurea family, can induce rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) male sterility at approximately 1% concentration required for its herbicidal activity. To find some clues to the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility, the ultrastructural cytology observations, comparative transcriptome analysis, and physiological analysis on carbohydrate content were carried out in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages between the MES-treated and mock-treated rapeseed plants. Cytological analysis revealed that the plastid ultrastructure was abnormal in pollen mother cells and tapetal cells in male sterility anthers induced by MES treatment, with less material accumulation in it. However, starch granules were observed in chloroplastids of the epidermis cells in male sterility anthers. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 1501 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages, most of these DETs being localized in plastid and mitochondrion. Transcripts involved in metabolism, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and cellular transport were differentially expressed. Pathway visualization showed that the tightly regulated gene network for metabolism was reprogrammed to respond to MES treatment. The results of cytological observation and transcriptome analysis in the MES-treated rapeseed plants were mirrored by carbohydrate content analysis. MES treatment led to decrease in soluble sugars content in leaves and early stage buds, but increase in soluble sugars content and decrease in starch content in middle stage buds. Our integrative results suggested that carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were influenced by CHA-MES treatment during rapeseed anther development, which might

  2. Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis

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    Pearson Gareth A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. Results Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. Conclusion These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization

  3. Evidence of Natural Hybridization and Introgression between Vasconcellea Species (Caricaceae) from Southern Ecuador Revealed by Chloroplast, Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN DROOGENBROECK, B.; KYNDT, T.; ROMEIJN-PEETERS, E.; VAN THUYNE, W.; GOETGHEBEUR, P.; ROMERO-MOTOCHI, J. P.; GHEYSEN, G.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Vasconcellea × heilbornii is believed to be of natural hybrid origin between V. cundinamarcensis and V. stipulata, and is often difficult to discriminate from V. stipulata on morphological grounds. The aim of this paper is to examine individuals of these three taxa and of individuals from the closely related species V. parviflora and V. weberbaueri, which all inhabit a hybrid zone in southern Ecuador. • Methods Molecular data from mitochondrial, chloroplast and nuclear DNA from 61 individuals were analysed. • Key Results Molecular analysis confirmed occasional contemporary hybridization between V. stipulata, V. cundinamarcensis and V. × heilbornii and suggested the possible involvement of V. weberbaueri in the origin of V. × heilbornii. In addition, the molecular data indicated unidirectional introgression of the V. cundinamarcensis nuclear genome into that of V. stipulata. Several of the individuals examined with morphology similar to that of V. stipulata had genetic traces of hybridization with V. cundinamarcensis, which only seems to act as pollen donor in interspecific hybridization events. Molecular analyses also strongly suggested that most of the V. × heilbornii individuals are not F1 hybrids but instead are progeny of repeated backcrosses with V. stipulata. • Conclusions The results of the present study point to the need for re-evaluation of natural populations of V. stipulata and V. × heilbornii. In general, this analysis demonstrates the complex patterns of genetic and morphological diversity found in natural plant hybrid zones. PMID:16500954

  4. Genomic profiling of plasmablastic lymphoma using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH: revealing significant overlapping genomic lesions with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xin-Yan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmablastic lymphoma (PL is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Studies have suggested that tumors with PL morphology represent a group of neoplasms with clinopathologic characteristics corresponding to different entities including extramedullary plasmablastic tumors associated with plasma cell myeloma (PCM. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the genetic similarities and differences among PL, DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related and PCM using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Results Examination of genomic data in PL revealed that the most frequent segmental gain (> 40% include: 1p36.11-1p36.33, 1p34.1-1p36.13, 1q21.1-1q23.1, 7q11.2-7q11.23, 11q12-11q13.2 and 22q12.2-22q13.3. This correlated with segmental gains occurring in high frequency in DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related cases. There were some segmental gains and some segmental loss that occurred in PL but not in the other types of lymphoma suggesting that these foci may contain genes responsible for the differentiation of this lymphoma. Additionally, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and AIDS associated DLBCL suggesting that these foci may be associated with HIV infection. Furthermore, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and PCM suggesting that these lesions may be related to plasmacytic differentiation. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, the current study represents the first genomic exploration of PL. The genomic aberration pattern of PL appears to be more similar to that of DLBCL (AIDS-related or non AIDS-related than to PCM. Our findings suggest that PL may remain best classified as a subtype of DLBCL at least at the genome level.

  5. Revealing the synergetic effects in Ni nanoparticle-carbon nanotube hybrids by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and their application in the hydrolysis of ammonia borane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanqi; Zhong, Jun; Wang, Jian; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Sun, Xuhui; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2015-06-07

    The hybrids of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the supported Ni nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and tested by the hydrolysis reaction of ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3). Data clearly showed the existence of a strong interaction between Ni NPs and thin CNTs (C-O-Ni bonds), which favored the tunable (buffer) electronic structure of Ni NPs facilitating the catalytic process. The hydrolysis process of AB confirmed the hypothesis that the hybrids with a strong interfacial interaction would show superior catalytic performance, while the hybrids with a weak interfacial interaction show poor performance. Our results provide a wealth of detailed information regarding the electronic structure of the NP-CNT hybrids and provide guidance towards the rational design of high-performance catalysts for energy applications.

  6. Genomic Diversity of Burkholderia pseudomallei Clinical Isolates: Subtractive Hybridization Reveals a Burkholderia mallei-Specific Propage in B. pseudomallei 1026b

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeShazer, David

    2004-01-01

    .... pseudomallei, 1026b and K96243. Numerous mobile genetic elements, including a temperate bacteriophage designated phi1026b, were identified among the 1026b-specific suppression subtractive hybridization products...

  7. Combined array-comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-loss of heterozygosity analysis reveals complex changes and multiple forms of chromosomal instability in colorectal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaasenbeek, Michelle; Howarth, Kimberley; Rowan, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Cancers with chromosomal instability (CIN) are held to be aneuploid/polyploid with multiple large-scale gains/deletions, but the processes underlying CIN are unclear and different types of CIN might exist. We investigated colorectal cancer cell lines using array-comparative genomic hybridization...

  8. Recent introgressive hybridization revealed by exclusive mtDNA transfer from Oreochromis leucostictus (Trewavas, 1933) to Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Lake Baringo, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Nyingi, Dorothy W.; Agnèse, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear DNA and mtDNA polymorphisms were surveyed in various species of East African Oreochromis. In Lake Baringo, where only Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis is present, alien mtDNA haplotypes were observed, apparently the result of introgressive hybridization with Oreochromis leucostictus. This introgression is not accompanied by any substantial or recorded transfer of nuclear genes into O. n. baringoensis.

  9. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis of stage 4 neuroblastoma reveals high frequency of 11q deletion in tumors lacking MYCN amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantaz, D.; Vandesompele, J.; van Roy, N.; Lastowska, M.; Bown, N.; Combaret, V.; Favrot, M. C.; Delattre, O.; Michon, J.; Bénard, J.; Hartmann, O.; Nicholson, J. C.; Ross, F. M.; Brinkschmidt, C.; Laureys, G.; Caron, H.; Matthay, K. K.; Feuerstein, B. G.; Speleman, F.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the occurrence and association of 11q deletions with other chromosomal imbalances in Stage 4 neuroblastomas. To this purpose we have performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis on 50 Stage 4 neuroblastomas and these data were analyzed together with those from 33

  10. Lectin histochemistry and alkaline phosphatase activity in the pia mater vessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumańska, G; Gadamski, R

    1992-01-01

    Some lectins were used to study the localization of sugar residues on the endothelial cell surface in the pia mater blood vessels of control (WKY) and hypertensive rats (SHR). The lectins tested recognized the following residues: beta-D-galactosyl (Ricinus communis agglutinin 120, RCA-1), alpha-L-fucosyl (Ulex europaeus agglutinin, UEA-1), N-acetylglucosaminyl and sialyl (Wheat germ agglutinin, WGA), N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid (Limax flavus agglutinin, LFA), and N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl (Helix pomatia agglutinin, HPA). Several differences were revealed in the presence of sugar receptors on the surface of endothelial cells between the control and the hypertensive rats. Our studies showed also differences in the localization of the tested glycoconjugates between pial capillaries, small, medium-size and large pial arteries. The histochemical evaluation of alkaline phosphatase revealed an increased activity of the enzyme in the pial vessels of SHRs as compared with control rats with a similar localization of the enzyme activity. Some differences in the distribution of lectin binding sites and alkaline phosphatase activity could be associated with the different functions of particular segments of the pial vascular network.

  11. Expression pattern of glycoconjugates in the Bidderian and ovarian follicles of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus analyzed by lectin histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Farias

    Full Text Available The Bidder's organ and ovary of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus were studied by light microscopy, using hematoxylin-eosin (HE and periodic acid Schiff (PAS staining. The expression and distribution of carbohydrate moieties was analyzed by lectin histochemistry, using 8 lectins with different carbohydrate specificities: Ulex europaeus (UEA I, Lens culinaris (LCA, Erythrina cristagalli (ECA, Arachis hypogaea (PNA, Ricinus communis (RCA I, Aleuria aurantia (AAA, Triticum vulgaris (WGA, and Glycine maximum (SBA. The results showed that the Bidderian zona pellucida presented alpha-mannose, alpha-L-fucose, beta-D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. The Bidderian follicular cells showed the presence of beta-D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. In the extracellular matrix, alpha-mannose and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues were detected. The ovarian zona pellucida showed alpha-L-fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues, and alpha-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues were detected in the follicular cells. Thus, the zona pellucida in both organs contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. alpha-L-fucose residues were detected in the zona pellucida of both organs, using different lectins. Considering that beta-D-galactose residue was absent from ovary but present in the Bidder's organ, this sugar residue may play an important role in follicle development, blocking the Bidderian follicles and preventing further development of the Bidder's organ into a functional ovary.

  12. In Situ Hybridization Method Reveals (Pro)renin Receptor Expressing Cells in the Pituitary Gland of Rats: Correlation with Anterior Pituitary Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Yatabe, Megumi; Fujiwara, Ken; Hirose, Takuo; Totsune, Kazuhito; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-02-28

    Expression of (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR), a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, was studied in rat pituitary gland. In situ hybridization showed that cells expressing (P)RR mRNA were widely distributed in the anterior lobe and intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. Double-staining using in situ hybridization for (P)RR mRNA and immunohistochemistry for the pituitary hormones showed that (P)RR mRNA was expressed in most of the GH cells and ACTH cells in the anterior lobe. (P)RR mRNA was also expressed in a few prolactin cells and TSH cells, but not in LH cells. The present study has shown for the first time the distribution of (P)RR mRNA expressing cells in the rat pituitary gland. These findings suggest that (P)RR plays physiological roles in the pituitary gland, such as the modulation of the pituitary hormone secretion.

  13. In Situ Hybridization Method Reveals (Pro)renin Receptor Expressing Cells in the Pituitary Gland of Rats: Correlation with Anterior Pituitary Hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Yatabe, Megumi; Fujiwara, Ken; Hirose, Takuo; Totsune, Kazuhito; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Expression of (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR), a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, was studied in rat pituitary gland. In situ hybridization showed that cells expressing (P)RR mRNA were widely distributed in the anterior lobe and intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. Double-staining using in situ hybridization for (P)RR mRNA and immunohistochemistry for the pituitary hormones showed that (P)RR mRNA was expressed in most of the GH cells and ACTH cells in the anterior lobe. (P)RR mRNA was also expressed in a few prolactin cells and TSH cells, but not in LH cells. The present study has shown for the first time the distribution of (P)RR mRNA expressing cells in the rat pituitary gland. These findings suggest that (P)RR plays physiological roles in the pituitary gland, such as the modulation of the pituitary hormone secretion

  14. In Silico and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Mapping Reveals Collinearity between the Pennisetum squamulatum Apomixis Carrier-Chromosome and Chromosome 2 of Sorghum and Foxtail Millet

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, Sirjan; Conner, Joann A.; Hanna, Wayne W.; Simon, Bindu; Fengler, Kevin; Deschamps, St?phane; Cigan, Mark; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Apomixis, or clonal propagation through seed, is a trait identified within multiple species of the grass family (Poaceae). The genetic locus controlling apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum (syn Cenchrus squamulatus) and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn Pennisetum ciliare, buffelgrass) is the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Previously, the ASGR was shown to be highly conserved but inverted in marker order between P. squamulatum and C. ciliaris based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) a...

  15. A combined RT-PCR and dot-blot hybridization method reveals the coexistence of SJNNV and RGNNV betanodavirus genotypes in wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jimena, B; Cherif, N; Garcia-Rosado, E; Infante, C; Cano, I; Castro, D; Hammami, S; Borrego, J J; Alonso, M C

    2010-10-01

    To detect the possible coexistence of striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV) and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotypes in a single fish, a methodology based on the combination of PCR amplification and blot hybridization has been developed and applied in this study. The degenerate primers designed for the PCR procedure target the T4 region within the capsid gene, resulting in the amplification of both genotypes. The subsequent hybridization of these amplification products with two different specific digoxigenin-labelled probes resulted in the identification of both genotypes separately. The application of the RT-PCR protocol to analyse blood samples from asymptomatic wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius) specimens has shown a 46.87% of viral nervous necrosis virus carriers. The combination of RT-PCR and blot hybridization increases the detection rate up to 90.62%, and, in addition, it has shown the coexistence of both genotypes in 18 out of the 32 specimens analysed (56.25%). This study reports the coexistence of betanodaviruses belonging to two different genotypes (SJNNV and RGNNV) in wild fish specimens. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of SJNNV and RGNNV genotypes in the same specimen. This study also demonstrates a carrier state in this fish species for the first time. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. The Effects of Ceftriaxone on Histology, Histomorphometry, and Histochemistry of Testis and Sperm Characteristics in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapour Hasanzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which has a broad-spectrum activity against bacteria. Recently, its adverse effects on the reproductive system, was revealed. The aim of this study was to investigate the adverse effects of ceftriaxone on testicular tissue in adult male mice. Methods: A total of 40 adult male mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: Control group received normal saline; the first and second experimental groups, respectively, received ceftriaxone at doses of 20 and 50mg/kg bw for 7 days; and the third and fourth groups, respectively, received 20 and 50mg/kg bw of the drug for 45 days. After preparation of tissue sections, routine and specific staining was performed, and histological, histomorphometric, and histochemical studies were carried out. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Significance level was considered as p0.05 in the interstitial tissue thickness in all the experimental groups compared to the control group. In the experimental groups, Sudan Black and alkaline phosphatase reactions were intense, while PAS reaction was weak. Conclusion: Ceftriaxone damages testicular structure, which includes loss of balance of the spermatogenic cell population and decrease in the spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis processes.  

  17. Cytochemical localization of small intestinal glycoconjugates by lectin histochemistry in controls and subjects with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, L R; De Fontes, D; Cox, K L

    1983-05-01

    Human mucosal glycoconjugates were examined in normal small intestinal biopsies from five control subjects using six different fluorescein-conjugated lectins: Triticum vulgare agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA1), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA1), glycin max-soy bean agglutinin (SBA), Dolichus biflorus agglutinin (DBA), and Arachis hypogaea peanut agglutinin (PNA). These plant agglutinins bind to specific nonreducing end-terminal carbohydrate residues. Only the lectins derived from WGA, which produced the strongest staining, and UEA1 consistently bound to both intestinal goblet cell mucin and epithelial cell microvillar membranes. The intensity of lectin binding was greatest in the upper villus and diminished down towards the crypt, being weakest in the crypt base. Similar histochemical studies carried out on small bowel biopsies from five patients with cystic fibrosis revealed no major qualitative differences between the intestinal glycoconjugates in normal subjects and those with cystic fibrosis. These results suggest that glycoconjugate biosynthesis of human intestinal goblet cell mucin and epithelial cell membranes may be complete and hence full differentiation achieved only when these cells have migrated out of the crypt and onto the villus.

  18. A new method of lectin histochemistry for the study of brain angiogenesis. Lectin angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, T; Miyake, T; Takamatsu, T; Fujita, S

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to analyse the kinetics of angiogenesis in the brain, we developed a new lectin-histochemical staining technique for identifying the vasculature. Three horseradish-peroxidase-conjugated lectins, i.e., Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin 1 (GS1), Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA1) and soybean agglutinin (SBA), selectively stained vascular walls in brain-tissue sections. When these lectins were injected into the circulation of ether-anesthetized animals via the pulsating left ventricle, they bound specifically to the inner surface of endothelial cells and revealed the three-dimensional architecture of the vascular network within thick tissue preparations. When this technique, referred to a lectin angiography, was combined with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BudR) immunohistochemistry, proliferating capillary cells could be easily identified in three-dimensional structures of the developing vasculature. Because of its simplicity and wide applicability, lectin angiography should be useful for analysing the kinetics of angiogenesis in developmental, regenerative, and pathological conditions in various tissues and organs.

  19. Locked Nucleic Acid-Based In Situ Hybridization Reveals miR-7a as a Hypothalamus-Enriched MicroRNA with a Distinct Expression Pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzer, S; Silahtaroglu, A; Meister, B

    2012-01-01

    , a part of the brain that controls vital bodily functions, we employed locked nucleic acid (LNA) - fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The expression pattern of the mature miRNAs miR-7a, miR-7b, miR-137 and miR-153 in mouse brain tissue sections was investigated. Whereas all studied miRNAs were......R-7a expression was particularly prominent in the subfornical organ, suprachiasmatic, paraventricular, periventricular, supraoptic, dorsomedial and arcuate nuclei. Identical expression patterns for miR-7a was seen in mouse and rat hypothalamus. By combining LNA-FISH with immunohistochemistry...

  20. Revealing the properties of defects formed by CH3NH2 molecules in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite MAPbBr3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Zhang, Ao; Yan, Jun; Li, Dan; Chen, Yunlin

    2017-03-01

    The properties of defects in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite are widely studied from the first-principles calculation. However, the defects of methylamine (methylamine = CH3NH2), which would be easily formed during the preparation of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, are rarely investigated. Thermodynamic properties as well as defect states of methylamine embedded MAPbX3 (MA = methyl-ammonium = CH3NH3, X = Br, I) are studied based on first-principles calculations of density functional theory. It was found that there is a shallow defect level near the highest occupied molecular orbital, which induced by the interstitial methylamine defect in MAPbBr3, will lead to an increase of photoluminescence. The calculation results showed that interstitial defect states of methylamine may move deeper due to the interaction between methylamine molecules and methyl-ammonium cations. It was also showed that the interstitial methylamine defect is stable at room temperature, and the defect can be removed easily by annealing.

  1. Shared features of S100B immunohistochemistry and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry in the ventroposterior thalamus and lateral habenula in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Funahashi, Hisayuki; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Whitaker-Azmitia, Patricia M; Shioda, Seiji

    2012-10-01

    The ventroposterior thalamus and the habenular nuclei of the epithalamus are relevant to the monoaminergic system functionally and anatomically. The glia-derived S100B protein plays a critical role in the development of the nervous system including the monoaminergic systems. In this study, we performed an immunohistochemical study of glia-related proteins including S100B, serotonin transporter, and microtubule-associated protein 2, as well as cytochrome oxidase histochemistry in neonatal rats. Results showed the same findings for S100B immunohistochemistry between the ventroposterior thalamus and the lateral habenula at postnatal day 7: intense staining in cell bodies of astrocytes, diffusely spread immunoproduct in the intercellular space, and S100B-free areas as well as a strong reaction to cytochrome oxidase histochemistry. Further common features were the scarcity of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes and the few apoptotic cells observed. The results of the cytochrome oxidase reaction suggested that S100B is released actively into intercellular areas in restricted brain regions showing high neuronal activity at postnatal day 7. Pathology of the ventroposterior thalamus and the habenula is suggested in mental disorders, and S100B might be a key factor for investigations in these areas. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SH2 Domain Histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Sophia; Nollau, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Among posttranslational modifications, the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues is a key modification in cell signaling. Because of its biological importance, characterization of the cellular state of tyrosine phosphorylation is of great interest. Based on the unique properties of endogenously expressed SH2 domains recognizing tyrosine phosphorylated signaling proteins with high specificity we have developed an alternative approach, coined SH2 profiling, enabling us to decipher complex patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation in various normal and cancerous tissues. So far, SH2 profiling has largely been applied for the analysis of protein extracts with the limitation that information on spatial distribution and intensity of tyrosine phosphorylation within a tissue is lost. Here, we describe a novel SH2 domain based strategy for differential characterization of the state of tyrosine phosphorylation in formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. This approach demonstrates that SH2 domains may serve as very valuable tools for the analysis of the differential state of tyrosine phosphorylation in primary tissues fixed and processed under conditions frequently applied by routine pathology laboratories.

  3. In situ hybridization reveals that type I and III collagens are produced by pericytes in the anterior pituitary gland of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ken; Jindatip, Depicha; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    Type I and III collagens widely occur in the rat anterior pituitary gland and are the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Although ECM components possibly play an important role in the function of the anterior pituitary gland, little is known about collagen-producing cells. Type I collagen is a heterotrimer of two α1(I) chains (the product of the col1a1 gene) and one α2(I) chain (the product of the col1a2 gene). Type III collagen is a homotrimer of α1(III) chains (the product of the col3a1 gene). We used in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes to examine the expression of col1a1, col1a2, and col3a1 mRNAs in the pituitary gland of adult rats. mRNA expression for these collagen genes was clearly observed, and cells expressing col1a1, col1a2, and col3a1 mRNA were located around capillaries in the gland. We also investigated the possible double-staining of collagen mRNA and pituitary hormones, S-100 protein (a marker of folliculo-stellate cells), or desmin (a marker of pericytes). Col1a1 and col3a1 mRNA were identified in desmin-immunopositive cells. Thus, only pericytes produce type I and III collagens in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

  4. Angiofibroma of soft tissue with fibrohistiocytic features and intratumor genetic heterogeneity of NCOA2 gene rearrangement revealed by chromogenic in situ hybridization: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yumiko; Motoi, Toru; Kato, Ikuma; Ikegami, Masachika; Funata, Nobuaki; Ohtomo, Rie; Horiguchi, Shinichiro; Goto, Takahiro; Hishima, Tsunekazu

    2014-05-01

    Angiofibroma of soft tissue is a recently described soft tissue tumor that is characterized by fibroblastic spindle tumor cells with arborizing capillary proliferation. Cytogenetically, it harbors a specific fusion gene involving the nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NCOA2) gene. We report here additional new pathological and cytogenetic features. A soft tissue tumor in the left thigh of 73-year-old female was investigated. Microscopically, histiocytoid tumor cells were scattered in an edematous background with branching capillary proliferation. Immunohistochemically, we identified that the tumor cells were positive for histiocytic markers such as CD68 and CD163. Rearrangement of the NCOA2 gene was detected successfully by chromogenic in situ hybridization; however, abnormal signal patterns were observed in only a small subset of tumor cells. Unlike typical tumors with bland spindle cells, the present tumor needs to be distinguished from myxoid, dendritic and clear cell tumors. This case may suggest that angiofibroma of soft tissue is not in the center of the fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumor group, but rather shows a fibrohistiocytic nature. We also found intratumor genetic heterogeneity, which is uncommon for a translocation-associated tumor. Therefore, careful evaluation is required to detect the gene rearrangement in this tumor entity. © 2014 The Authors. Pathology International © 2014 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. In Silico and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Mapping Reveals Collinearity between the Pennisetum squamulatum Apomixis Carrier-Chromosome and Chromosome 2 of Sorghum and Foxtail Millet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirjan Sapkota

    Full Text Available Apomixis, or clonal propagation through seed, is a trait identified within multiple species of the grass family (Poaceae. The genetic locus controlling apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum (syn Cenchrus squamulatus and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn Pennisetum ciliare, buffelgrass is the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR. Previously, the ASGR was shown to be highly conserved but inverted in marker order between P. squamulatum and C. ciliaris based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and varied in both karyotype and position of the ASGR on the ASGR-carrier chromosome among other apomictic Cenchrus/Pennisetum species. Using in silico transcript mapping and verification of physical positions of some of the transcripts via FISH, we discovered that the ASGR-carrier chromosome from P. squamulatum is collinear with chromosome 2 of foxtail millet and sorghum outside of the ASGR. The in silico ordering of the ASGR-carrier chromosome markers, previously unmapped in P. squamulatum, allowed for the identification of a backcross line with structural changes to the P. squamulatum ASGR-carrier chromosome derived from gamma irradiated pollen.

  6. In Silico and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Mapping Reveals Collinearity between the Pennisetum squamulatum Apomixis Carrier-Chromosome and Chromosome 2 of Sorghum and Foxtail Millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Sirjan; Conner, Joann A; Hanna, Wayne W; Simon, Bindu; Fengler, Kevin; Deschamps, Stéphane; Cigan, Mark; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Apomixis, or clonal propagation through seed, is a trait identified within multiple species of the grass family (Poaceae). The genetic locus controlling apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum (syn Cenchrus squamulatus) and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn Pennisetum ciliare, buffelgrass) is the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Previously, the ASGR was shown to be highly conserved but inverted in marker order between P. squamulatum and C. ciliaris based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and varied in both karyotype and position of the ASGR on the ASGR-carrier chromosome among other apomictic Cenchrus/Pennisetum species. Using in silico transcript mapping and verification of physical positions of some of the transcripts via FISH, we discovered that the ASGR-carrier chromosome from P. squamulatum is collinear with chromosome 2 of foxtail millet and sorghum outside of the ASGR. The in silico ordering of the ASGR-carrier chromosome markers, previously unmapped in P. squamulatum, allowed for the identification of a backcross line with structural changes to the P. squamulatum ASGR-carrier chromosome derived from gamma irradiated pollen.

  7. Hybrid perovskite solar cells: In situ investigation of solution-processed PbI2 reveals metastable precursors and a pathway to producing porous thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Barrit, Dounya; Sheikh, Arif D.; Munir, Rahim; Barbe, Jeremy; Li, Ruipeng; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Amassian, Aram

    2017-01-01

    from a DMF solution by performing in situ grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) measurements. The measurements reveal an elaborate sol–gel process involving three PbI2⋅DMF solvate complexes—including disordered and ordered ones

  8. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  9. Differential ontogenetic patterns of levocabastine-sensitive neurotensin NT2 receptors and of NT1 receptors in the rat brain revealed by in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépée-Lorgeoux, I; Betancur, C; Rostène, W; Pélaprat, D

    1999-03-12

    The postnatal ontogeny of the levocabastine-sensitive neurotensin receptor (NT2) mRNA was studied by in situ hybridization in the rat brain and compared with the distribution of the levocabastine-insensitive NT1 receptor. NT2 receptor mRNA was absent at birth from all brain structures except the ependymal cell layer lining the ventricles. The development of NT2 receptor mRNA followed three ontogenetic patterns. The first pattern, involving the majority of the cerebral gray matter, was characterized by a continuous increase from postnatal day 5 (P5) to P30. The second one, involving regions rich in myelinated fibers such as the corpus callosum and lacunosum moleculare layer of the hippocampus, exhibited a pronounced increase between P5 and P10, peaked at P15 and was followed by a plateau or a slight decrease. The third pattern was observed in the ependymal cell layer lining the olfactory and lateral ventricles, where the high labeling already present at birth continued to increase during development. These different developmental patterns could reflect the variety of cells expressing NT2 receptor mRNA, including neurons, protoplasmic astrocytes in gray matter, fibrous astrocytes present in myelinated fibers tracts, and ependymal cells. In contrast, NT1 receptor mRNA, which seems to be associated only with neurons, was highly and transiently expressed during the perinatal period in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatal neuroepithelium. Other regions, notably the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra compacta, exhibited a gradual increase in NT1 receptor signal, reaching adult levels by P21. Both the differential localization and ontogenetic profiles of NT1 and NT2 receptor mRNAs suggest different involvement of these two receptors in brain functions and development. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Gravity Modes Reveal the Internal Rotation of a Post-mass-transfer Gamma Doradus/Delta Scuti Hybrid Pulsator in Kepler Eclipsing Binary KIC 9592855

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z.; Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    We report the discovery of a post-mass-transfer Gamma Doradus/Delta Scuti hybrid pulsator in the eclipsing binary KIC 9592855. This binary has a circular orbit, an orbital period of 1.2 days, and contains two stars of almost identical masses ({M}1=1.72 {M}⊙ ,{M}2=1.71 {M}⊙ ). However, the cooler secondary star is more evolved ({R}2=1.96 {R}⊙ ), while the hotter primary is still on the zero-age-main-sequence ({R}1=1.53 {R}⊙ ). Coeval models from single-star evolution cannot explain the observed masses and radii, and binary evolution with mass-transfer needs to be invoked. After subtracting the binary light curve, the Fourier spectrum shows low-order pressure-mode pulsations, and more dominantly, a cluster of low-frequency gravity modes at about 2 day-1. These g-modes are nearly equally spaced in period, and the period spacing pattern has a negative slope. We identify these g-modes as prograde dipole modes and find that they stem from the secondary star. The frequency range of unstable p-modes also agrees with that of the secondary. We derive the internal rotation rate of the convective core and the asymptotic period spacing from the observed g-modes. The resulting values suggest that the core and envelope rotate nearly uniformly, i.e., their rotation rates are both similar to the orbital frequency of this synchronized binary.

  11. Unsupervised Analysis of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Data from Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer Reveals Equivalence with Molecular Classification and Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Arriba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether chromosomal instability (CIN is associated with tumor phenotypes and/or with global genomic status based on MSI (microsatellite instability and CIMP (CpG island methylator phenotype in early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC. METHODS: Taking as a starting point our previous work in which tumors from 60 EOCRC cases (≤45 years at the time of diagnosis were analyzed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH, in the present study we performed an unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of those aCGH data in order to unveil possible associations between the CIN profile and the clinical features of the tumors. In addition, we evaluated the MSI and the CIMP statuses of the samples with the aim of investigating a possible relationship between copy number alterations (CNAs and the MSI/CIMP condition in EOCRC. RESULTS: Based on the similarity of the CNAs detected, the unsupervised analysis stratified samples into two main clusters (A, B and four secondary clusters (A1, A2, B3, B4. The different subgroups showed a certain correspondence with the molecular classification of colorectal cancer (CRC, which enabled us to outline an algorithm to categorize tumors according to their CIMP status. Interestingly, each subcluster showed some distinctive clinicopathological features. But more interestingly, the CIN of each subcluster mainly affected particular chromosomes, allowing us to define chromosomal regions more specifically affected depending on the CIMP/MSI status of the samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings may provide a basis for a new form of classifying EOCRC according to the genomic status of the tumors.

  12. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China. Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  13. Phenotypic characterization of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower Amazon region, western Pará state, Brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis × Leishmania (Viannia shawi shawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Yara Lins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We phenotypically characterized 43 leishmanial parasites from cutaneous leishmaniasis by isoenzyme electrophoresis and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (23 McAbs. Identifications revealed 11 (25.6% strains of Leishmania (V. braziliensis, 4 (9.3% of L. (V. shawi shawi, 7 (16.3% of L. (V. shawi santarensis, 6 (13.9% of L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. lainsoni, 2 (4.7% of L. (L. amazonensis, and 7 (16.3% of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. shawi shawi. McAbs detected three different serodemes of L. (V. braziliensis: I-7, II-1, and III-3 strains. Among the strains of L. (V. shawi we identified two populations: one (7 strains expressing the B19 epitope that was previously considered to be species-specific for L. (V. guyanensis. We have given this population sub-specific rank, naming it L. (V. s. santarensis. The other one (4 strains did not express the B19 epitope like the L. (V. shawi reference strain, which we now designate as L. (V. s. shawi. For the first time in the eastern Brazilian Amazon we register a putative hybrid parasite (7 strains, L. (V. guyanensis/L. (V. s. shawi, characterized by a new 6PGDH three-band profile at the level of L. (V. guyanensis. Its PGM profile, however, was very similar to that of L. (V. s. shawi. These results suggest that the lower Amazon region – western Pará state, Brazil, represents a biome where L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. s. shawi exchange genetic information.

  14. Phenotypic characterization of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower Amazon region, western Pará state, Brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis × Leishmania (Viannia) shawi shawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Yara Lins; de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We phenotypically characterized 43 leishmanial parasites from cutaneous leishmaniasis by isoenzyme electrophoresis and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (23 McAbs). Identifications revealed 11 (25.6%) strains of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, 4 (9.3%) of L. (V.) shawi shawi, 7 (16.3%) of L. (V.) shawi santarensis, 6 (13.9%) of L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) lainsoni, 2 (4.7%) of L. (L.) amazonensis, and 7 (16.3%) of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis/L. (V.) shawi shawi. McAbs detected three different serodemes of L. (V.) braziliensis: I-7, II-1, and III-3 strains. Among the strains of L. (V.) shawi we identified two populations: one (7 strains) expressing the B19 epitope that was previously considered to be species-specific for L. (V.) guyanensis. We have given this population sub-specific rank, naming it L. (V.) s. santarensis. The other one (4 strains) did not express the B19 epitope like the L. (V.) shawi reference strain, which we now designate as L. (V.) s. shawi. For the first time in the eastern Brazilian Amazon we register a putative hybrid parasite (7 strains), L. (V.) guyanensis/L. (V.) s. shawi, characterized by a new 6PGDH three-band profile at the level of L. (V.) guyanensis. Its PGM profile, however, was very similar to that of L. (V.) s. shawi. These results suggest that the lower Amazon region – western Pará state, Brazil, represents a biome where L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) s. shawi exchange genetic information. PMID:25083790

  15. Basal levels of metabolic activity are elevated in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS): measurement of regional activity of cytochrome oxidase and lactate dehydrogenase by histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Franck; Koning, Estelle; Nehlig, Astrid

    2003-08-01

    The Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) are considered an isomorphic, predictive, and homologous model of human generalized absence epilepsy. It is characterized by the expression of spike-and-wave discharges in the thalamus and cortex. In this strain, basal regional rates of cerebral glucose utilization measured by the quantitative autoradiographic [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose technique display a widespread consistent increase compared to a selected strain of genetically nonepileptic rats (NE). In order to verify whether these high rates of glucose metabolism are paralleled by elevated activities of the enzymes of the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways, we measured by histochemistry the regional activity of the two key enzymes of glucose metabolism, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) for the anaerobic pathway and cytochrome oxidase (CO) for the aerobic pathway coupled to oxidative phosphorylation. CO and LDH activities were significantly higher in GAERS than in NE rats in 24 and 28 of the 30 brain regions studied, respectively. The differences in CO and LDH activity between both strains were widespread, affected all brain systems studied, and ranged from 12 to 63%. The data of the present study confirm the generalized increase in cerebral glucose metabolism in GAERS, occurring both at the glycolytic and at the oxidative step. However, they still do not allow us to understand why the ubiquitous mutation(s) generates spike-and-wave discharges only in the thalamocortical circuit.

  16. Lectin histochemistry as a tool to identify apoptotic cells in the seminiferous epithelium of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) subjected to short photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Rovira, V; Beltrán-Frutos, E; Ferrer, C; Sánchez-Huertas, M M; Madrid, J F; Saez, F J; Pastor, L M

    2013-12-01

    Lectins have been widely used to study the pattern of cellular glycoconjugates in numerous species. In the process of cellular apoptosis, it has been observed that changes occur in the membrane sugar sequences of these apoptotic cells. The aim of our work was to identify which lectins, out of an extensive battery of the same (PNA, SBA, HPA, LTA, Con-A, UEA-I, WGA, DBA, MAA, GNA, AAA, SNA), show affinity for germinal cells in apoptosis, at what stage of cell death they do so and in which germinal cell types they can be detected. For this, we studied testis sections during testicular regression in Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) subjected to short photoperiod. Several lectins showed an affinity for the glycoconjugate residues of germ cells in apoptosis: Gal β1,3-GalNAcα1, α-d-mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine and l-fucose. Furthermore, lectin specificity was observed for some specific germinal cells and in certain stages of apoptosis. It was also observed that one of these lectins (PNA) showed affinity for Sertoli cells undergoing apoptosis. Therefore, we conclude that the use of lectin histochemistry could be a very useful tool for studying apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium because of the specificity shown towards germinal cells in pathological or experimentally induced epithelial depletion models. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Determination of the cell tropism of serotype 1 feline infectious peritonitis virus using the spike affinity histochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cham, Tat-Chuan; Chang, Yen-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Shiue; Wu, Ching-Ho; Chen, Hui-Wen; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Pang, Victor Fei; Chang, Hui-Wen

    2017-08-01

    Unlike for serotype II feline coronaviruses (FCoV II), the cellular receptor for serotype I FCoV (FCoV I), the most prevalent FCoV serotype, is unknown. To provide a platform for assessing the pattern by which FCoV I attaches to its host receptor(s), HEK293 cell lines that stably express the ectodomains of the spike (S) proteins derived from a FCoV I feline enteric coronavirus strain UU7 (FECV UU7) and a feline infectious peritonitis virus strain UU4 (FIPV UU4) were established. Using the recombinant S proteins as probes to perform S protein affinity histochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissues, although no tissue or enteric binding of FECV UU7 S protein was detected, it was found that by immunohistochemistry that the tissue distribution of FIPV UU4 S protein-bound cells correlated with that of FIPV antigen-positive cells and lesions associated with FIP and that the affinity binding of FIPV UU4 S protein on macrophages was not affected by enzymatic removal of host cell-surface sialic acid with neuraminidase. These findings suggest that a factor(s) other than sialic acid contribute(s) to the macrophage tropism of FIPV strain UU4. This approach allowed obtaining more information about both virus-host cell interactions and the biological characteristics of the unidentified cellular receptor for FCoV I. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Anatomy and histochemistry of spread-wing posture in birds. 2. Gliding flight in the California gull, Larus californicus: a paradox of fast fibers and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, R A; Mathias, E

    1997-09-01

    Gliding flight is a postural activity which requires the wings to be held in a horizontal position to support the weight of the body. Postural behaviors typically utilize isometric contractions in which no change in length takes place. Due to longer actin-myosin interactions, slow contracting muscle fibers represent an economical means for this type of contraction. In specialized soaring birds, such as vultures and pelicans, a deep layer of the pectoralis muscle, composed entirely of slow fibers, is believed to perform this function. Muscles involved in gliding posture were examined in California gulls (Larus californicus) and tested for the presence of slow fibers using myosin ATPase histochemistry and antibodies. Surprisingly small numbers of slow fibers were found in the M. extensor metacarpi radialis, M. coracobrachialis cranialis, and M. coracobrachialis caudalis, which function in wrist extension, wing protraction, and body support, respectively. The low number of slow fibers in these muscles and the absence of slow fibers in muscles associated with wing extension and primary body support suggest that gulls do not require slow fibers for their postural behaviors. Gulls also lack the deep belly to the pectoralis found in other gliding birds. Since bird muscle is highly oxidative, we hypothesize that fast muscle fibers may function to maintain wing position during gliding flight in California gulls.

  19. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  20. Histology and histochemistry of the venom apparatus of the black scorpion Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807 (Scorpiones: Buthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BM Jarrar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The venom apparatus of the black scorpion Androctonus crassicauda has been characterized histologically and histochemically in the present study. The results showed that this apparatus consists of paired venom glands, each of which initially presents its own canal and posteriorily both fuse into a single common one. Each gland is covered by a sheath of striated muscle and is lined with extensively folded secretory epithelium (formed of non-secretory and secretory venom-producing cells. The outcomes also revealed that the venom-producing cells of both glands produce neutral mucosubstances, sialomucins, sulfomucins and proteins, but are devoid of glycogen. Cysteine, tyrosine, tryptophan and arginine were also detected along with activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase, aminopeptidase, cholinesterase and non-specific esterases. Structure and secretion of scorpion venom glands are discussed within the context of the present results.

  1. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  2. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  3. Muscle histochemistry in chronic alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Ferraz

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two chronic acoholic patients were assessed by neurologic examination and muscle biopsy. The patients manifested proximal muscular weakness to a variable extent. One case presented as an acute bout of myopathy, according to the Manual Muscle Test, MMT. The most prominent histologic feature observed was muscle atrophy (95.3% better evidenced through the ATPase stain with the predominance of type II A fibers (71.4%. Lack of the mosaic pattern (type grouping seen in 76% of the cases and an important mitochondrial proliferation with intrasarcoplasmatic lipid accumulation in 63% of the patients. In case of acute presentation of muscle weakness the. pathological substrate is quite different, i.e. presence of myositis mainly interstitial characterized by lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate and several spots of necrosis like Zencker degeneration. Based on histologic criteria, our data suggest that: the main determinant of muscle weakness seen in chronic alcoholic patients is neurogenic in origin (alcoholic polineuropathy; the direct toxic action of ethanol under the skeletal muscle is closely related to the mitochondrial metabolism; the so-called acute alcoholic myopathy has probably viral etiology.

  4. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  5. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  6. Foliar anatomy and histochemistry in seven species of Eucalyptus Anatomia e histoquímica foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo David Tuffi Santos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to describe the foliar anatomy of seven species of Eucalyptus, emphasizing the characterization of secretory structures and the chemical nature of the compounds secreted and /or present in the leaves. Anatomical characterization and histochemical evaluation to determine the nature and localization of the secondary compounds were carried out in fully expanded leaves, according to standard methodology. Anatomical differences were verified among the species studied, especially in E. pyrocarpa. Sub-epidermal cavities were the only secretory structures found in the seven species studied, with higher density in E. pellita and lower in E. pilularis. The following compounds were histochemically detected: lipophilic compounds, specifically lipids of the essential or resin-oil type and sesquiterpene lactones found in the lumen of the cavities of the seven species; and hydrophilic compounds, of the phenolic compound type found in the mesophyll of all the species studied and on the epidermis of some of them. The results confirmed the complexity of the product secreted by the cavities, stressing the homogeneous histochemistry nature of these compounds among the species. However, the phenolic compounds results may be an indication of important variations in adaptations and ecological relations, since they show differences among the species.Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho descrever a anatomia foliar de sete espécies de Eucalyptus, com ênfase na caracterização de estruturas secretoras e da natureza química dos compostos secretados e/ou presentes no limbo foliar. A caracterização anatômica e a avaliação histoquímica para determinação da natureza e localização dos compostos secundários foram realizadas em folhas totalmente expandidas segundo metodologia usual. Houve diferenças anatômicas entre as espécies estudadas, especialmente em E. pyrocarpo. Cavidades subepidérmicas foram as únicas estruturas secretoras encontradas

  7. Anatomia e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos de Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Aguilera

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se a anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis, em estrutura primária, enfatizando a caracterização e histoquímica de suas estruturas secretoras. Folhas, caules e raízes foram fixados em FAA50 e em sulfato ferroso e estocados em etanol 70%. Cortes transversais e longitudinais foram submetidos ao azul-de-toluidina pH 4,0, ao vermelho-de-rutênio, à reação de PAS, ao reativo Xylidine Ponceau, ao Sudan Black B e ao reativo Dragendorff. Anatomicamente, os órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis são semelhantes aos caracteres descritos para Asteraceae. As raízes laterais são triarcas e o caule, um eustelo. Ductos estão ausentes na raiz e presentes no caule e na folha. Estas estruturas são de pequeno diâmetro, sendo delimitadas por quatro a cinco células epiteliais. No caule, os ductos estavam presentes no córtex, próximos à endoderme e na medula; nas folhas, associados aos feixes vasculares, tanto para o lado do xilema quanto para o do floema. As folhas são dorsiventrais e anfiestomáticas. Três tipos de estruturas secretoras foram observados: ductos, hidatódios e tricomas glandulares. Os testes histoquímicos aplicados demonstraram a presença de compostos fenólicos e alcalóides nos ductos e, nos tricomas, de compostos lipofílicos e fenólicos. Esses resultados indicam a complexidade da secreção produzida pelas estruturas secretoras na espécie.The anatomy of the vegetative organs of S. orientalis in primary structure was described, emphasizing the characterization and histochemistry of its secretory structures. Leaves, stems and roots were fixed in FAA50 and ferrous sulphate and stored in 70% ethanol. Cross and longitudinal sections were submitted to toluidine blue pH 4.0, ruthenium red, PAS reaction, Ponceau Xylidine reactive, Sudan Black B and Dragendorff reactive. Anatomically, S. orientalis vegetative organs are similar to the characters described for the Asteraceae. The lateral roots are triarches and

  8. Involvement of an ABI-like protein and a Ca2+-ATPase in drought tolerance as revealed by transcript profiling of a sweetpotato somatic hybrid and its parents Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. and I. triloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yufeng; Wang, Yannan; Jia, Licong; Yang, Guohong; Xu, Xinzhi; Zhai, Hong; He, Shaozhen; Li, Junxia; Dai, Xiaodong; Qin, Na; Zhu, Cancan; Liu, Qingchang

    2018-01-01

    Previously, we obtained the sweetpotato somatic hybrid KT1 from a cross between sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Kokei No. 14 and its drought-tolerant wild relative I. triloba L. KT1 not only inherited the thick storage root characteristic of Kokei No. 14 but also the drought-tolerance trait of I. triloba L. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism of the drought tolerance of KT1. Four-week-old in vitro-grown plants of KT1, Kokei No. 14, and I. triloba L. were subjected to a simulated drought stress treatment (30% PEG6000) for 0, 6, 12 and 24 h. Total RNA was extracted from samples at each time point, and then used for transcriptome sequencing. The gene transcript profiles of KT1 and its parents were compared to identify differentially expressed genes, and drought-related modules were screened by a weighted gene co-expression network analysis. The functions of ABI-like protein and Ca2+-ATPase, two proteins screened from the cyan and light yellow modules, were analyzed in terms of their potential roles in drought tolerance in KT1 and its parents. These analyses of the drought responses of KT1 and its somatic donors at the transcriptional level provide new annotations for the molecular mechanism of drought tolerance in the somatic hybrid KT1 and its parents.

  9. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...... has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  10. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  11. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  12. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  13. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  14. A Novel Three-Colour Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Approach for the Detection of t(7;12)(q36;p13) in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Reveals New Cryptic Three Way Translocation t(7;12;16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiel, Abdulbasit [Leukaemia and Chromosome Research Laboratory, Division of Biosciences, Brunel University, London, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Vetter, Michael [MetaSystems, Altlussheim 68804 (Germany); Plekhanova, Olga [Regional Children’s Hospital N 1, Ekaterinburg 620149 (Russian Federation); Fleischman, Elena; Sokova, Olga [N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center Russian Academy of Medical Science, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Tsaur, Grigory [Regional Children’s Hospital N 1, Ekaterinburg 620149 (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Medical Cell Technologies, Ekaterinburg 620149 (Russian Federation); Harbott, Jochen [Oncogenetic Laboratory, Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, Justus Liebig University, Giessen 35392 (Germany); Tosi, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.tosi@brunel.ac.uk [Leukaemia and Chromosome Research Laboratory, Division of Biosciences, Brunel University, London, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-11

    The t(7;12)(q36;p13) translocation is a recurrent chromosome abnormality that involves the ETV6 gene on chromosome 12 and has been identified in 20–30% of infant patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The detection of t(7;12) rearrangements relies on the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) because this translocation is hardly visible by chromosome banding methods. Furthermore, a fusion transcript HLXB9-ETV6 is found in approximately 50% of t(7;12) cases, making the reverse transcription PCR approach not an ideal screening method. Considering the report of few cases of variant translocations harbouring a cryptic t(7;12) rearrangement, we believe that the actual incidence of this abnormality is higher than reported to date. The clinical outcome of t(7;12) patients is believed to be poor, therefore an early and accurate diagnosis is important in the clinical management and treatment. In this study, we have designed and tested a novel three-colour FISH approach that enabled us not only to confirm the presence of the t(7;12) in a number of patients studied previously, but also to identify a cryptic t(7;12) as part of a complex rearrangement. This new approach has proven to be an efficient and reliable method to be used in the diagnostic setting.

  15. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approxima...

  16. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  17. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  18. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  19. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  20. Transcriptional analysis and histochemistry reveal that hypersensitive cell death and H2O2 have crucial roles in the resistance of tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) to anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuchun; Hao, Xinyuan; Lu, Qinhua; Wang, Lu; Qian, Wenjun; Li, Nana; Ding, Changqing; Wang, Xinchao; Yang, Yajun

    2018-01-01

    Anthracnose causes severe losses of tea production in China. Although genes and biological processes involved in anthracnose resistance have been reported in other plants, the molecular response to anthracnose in tea plant is unknown. We used the susceptible tea cultivar Longjing 43 and the resistant cultivar Zhongcha 108 as materials and compared transcriptome changes in the leaves of both cultivars following Colletotrichum fructicola inoculation. In all, 9015 and 8624 genes were differentially expressed between the resistant and susceptible cultivars and their controls (0 h), respectively. In both cultivars, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched in 215 pathways, including responses to sugar metabolism, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species (ROS), biotic stimuli and signalling, transmembrane transporter activity, protease activity and signalling receptor activity, but DEG expression levels were higher in Zhongcha 108 than in Longjing 43. Moreover, functional enrichment analysis of the DEGs showed that hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) metabolism, cell death, secondary metabolism, and carbohydrate metabolism are involved in the defence of Zhongcha 108, and 88 key genes were identified. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network demonstrated that putative mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are activated by resistance (R) genes and mediate downstream defence responses. Histochemical analysis subsequently validated the strong hypersensitive response (HR) and H 2 O 2 accumulation that occurred around the hyphal infection sites in Zhongcha 108. Overall, our results indicate that the HR and H 2 O 2 are critical mechanisms in tea plant defence against anthracnose and may be activated by R genes via MAPK cascades.

  1. Quantitative comparison between the gel-film and polyvinyl alcohol methods for dehydrogenase histochemistry reveals different intercellular distribution patterns of glucose-6-phosphate and lactate dehydrogenases in mouse liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffini, P.; Vigorelli, E.; Bertone, V.; Freitas, I.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    The precise histochemical localization and quantification of the activity of soluble dehydrogenases in unfixed cryostat sections requires the use of tissue protectants. In this study, two protectants, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and agarose gel, were compared for assaying the activity of lactate

  2. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  3. Hybrid XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years significant innovations of EDXRF, e.g. total reflection XRF or polarized beam XRF, were utilized in different industrial applications. The decrease of background within the spectra was the goal of these developments. Excellent detection limits and sensitivities demonstrate the success of these new techniques. Nevertheless, further improvements are possible by using Si drift detectors. These detectors allow the processing of input count rates up to 10 6 cps in comparison to 10 5 of Si(Li) detectors. New excitation optics are necessary to produce such count rates. One possibility is the use of doubly curved crystals between tube and sample. These crystals enable the reflection of the primary beam within the given solid angle (0.4π) of an end window tube to the sample. Using such brightness optics excellent sensitivities mainly for light elements are achievable. The combination of a BRAGG crystal as a wavelength dispersive component and a solid state detector as an energy dispersive component creates a new technique: hybrid XRF. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  4. Radiation hybrid mapping of human chromosome 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francke, U.; Moon, A.J.; Chang, E.; Foellmer, B.; Strauss, B.; Haschke, A.; Chihlin Hsieh; Geigl, E.M.; Welch, S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have generated a Chinese hamster V79/380-6 HPRT minus x human leukocyte hybrid cell line (18/V79) with chromosome 18 as the only human chromosome that is retained at high frequency without specific selection. Hybrid cells were selected in HAT medium, and 164 individual colonies were isolated. Of 110 colonies screened for human DNA by PCR amplification using a primer specific for human Alu repeats 67 (61%) were positive. These were expanded in culture for large-scale DNA preparations. Retesting expanded clones by PCR with Alu and LINE primers has revealed unique patterns of amplification products. In situ hybridization of biotin labelled total human DNA to metaphase spreads from various hybrids revealed the presence of one or more human DNA fragments integrated in hamster chromosomes. The authors have generated a resource that should allow the construction of a radiation map, to be compared with the YAC contig map also under construction in their laboratory

  5. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  6. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  7. Electrokinetic acceleration of DNA hybridization in microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kin Fong; Wang, Yun-Hsiang; Chen, Huai-Yi; Sun, Jia-Hong; Cheng, Ji-Yen

    2015-06-01

    In this work, electrokinetic acceleration of DNA hybridization was investigated by different combinations of frequencies and amplitudes of actuating electric signals. Because the frequencies from low to high can induce different kinds of electrokinetic forces, i.e., electroosmotic to electrothermal forces, this work provides an in-depth investigation of electrokinetic enhanced hybridization. Concentric circular Cr/Au microelectrodes of 350 µm in diameter were fabricated on a glass substrate and probe DNA was immobilized on the electrode surface. Target DNA labeled with fluorescent dyes suspending in solution was then applied to the electrode. Different electrokinetic forces were induced by the application of different electric signals to the circular microelectrodes. Local microfluidic vortexes were generated to increase the collision efficiency between the target DNA suspending in solution and probe DNA immobilized on the electrode surface. DNA hybridization on the electrode surface could be accelerated by the electrokinetic forces. The level of hybridization was represented by the fluorescent signal intensity ratio. Results revealed that such 5-min dynamic hybridization increased 4.5 fold of signal intensity ratio as compared to a 1-h static hybridization. Moreover, dynamic hybridization was found to have better differentiation ability between specific and non-specific target DNA. This study provides a strategy to accelerate DNA hybridization in microsystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Histogram analysis reveals a better delineation of tumor volume from background in 18F-FET PET compared to CBV maps in a hybrid PET–MR studie in gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filss, Christian P.; Stoffels, Gabriele; Galldiks, Norbert; Sabel, Michael; Wittsack, Hans J.; Coenen, Heinz H.; Shah, Nadim J.; Herzog, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the method of first choice for diagnostic investigation of glial tumors. However, different MR sequences may over- or underestimate tumor size and thus it may not be possible to delineate tumor from adjacent brain. In order to compensate this confinement additonal MR sequences like perfusion weighted MRI (PWI) with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) or positron emission tomography (PET) with aminoacids are used to gain further information. Recent studies suggest that both of theses image modalities provide similar diagnostic information. For comparison tumor to brain ratios (TBR) with mean and maximum values are frequently used but results from different studies can often not be checked against each other. Furthermore, especially the maximum TBR in rCBV is at risk to be falsified by artifacts (e.g. blood vessels). These confinements are reduced by the use of histograms since all information of the VOIs are equally displayed. In this study we measured and compared the intersection of tumor and reference tissue histograms in 18 F-FET PET and rCBV maps in glioma patients. Methods: Twenty-seven glioma patients with contrast enhancing lesion on T1-weighted MR images were investigated using static 18 F-FET PET and rCBV in MRI using a PET–MR hybrid scanner. In all patients diagnosis was confirmed histologically (7 grade II gliomas, 6 grade III gliomas and 14 grade IV gliomas). We generated a set of tumor and reference tissue Volumes-of-Interest (VOIs) based on T1 weighted images in MRI with the tumor VOI defined by contrast enhancement and transferred these VOIs to the corresponding 18 F-FET PET scans and rCBV maps. From these VOIs we generated tumor and reference tissue histograms with a unity of one for each curve integral and measured the proportion of the area under the tumor curve that falls into the reference curve for 18 F-FET PET and rCBV maps for each patient. Results: The mean proportion

  9. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  10. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  11. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  12. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  13. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  14. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  15. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  16. Effect of surface modification and hybridization on dynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Epoxy; Roystonea regia; glass; surface modification; hybridization; dynamic mechanical ... other advantages such as light weight, low cost, high specific ... ful technique to study the mechanical behaviour of mate- ... The test reveals response.

  17. Advances on research epigenetic change of hybrid and polyploidy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MERCY

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... evolution is speculated as a simulation of the evolutionary steps that .... Molecular studies indicate that epigenetic events are important in ...... Patterns of hybrid loss of imprinting reveal tissue- and cluster-specific regulation.

  18. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  19. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  20. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  3. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  4. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Marans, B. [Toronto Atmospheric Fund, ON (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO{sub 2} emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.; Marans, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO 2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  6. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  7. What controls the hybridization thermodynamics of spherical nucleic acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randeria, Pratik S; Jones, Matthew R; Kohlstedt, Kevin L; Banga, Resham J; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2015-03-18

    The hybridization of free oligonucleotides to densely packed, oriented arrays of DNA modifying the surfaces of spherical nucleic acid (SNA)-gold nanoparticle conjugates occurs with negative cooperativity; i.e., each binding event destabilizes subsequent binding events. DNA hybridization is thus an ever-changing function of the number of strands already hybridized to the particle. Thermodynamic quantification of this behavior reveals a 3 orders of magnitude decrease in the binding constant for the capture of a free oligonucleotide by an SNA conjugate as the fraction of pre-hybridized strands increases from 0 to ∼30%. Increasing the number of pre-hybridized strands imparts an increasing enthalpic penalty to hybridization that makes binding more difficult, while simultaneously decreasing the entropic penalty to hybridization, which makes binding more favorable. Hybridization of free DNA to an SNA is thus governed by both an electrostatic barrier as the SNA accumulates charge with additional binding events and an effect consistent with allostery, where hybridization at certain sites on an SNA modify the binding affinity at a distal site through conformational changes to the remaining single strands. Leveraging these insights allows for the design of conjugates that hybridize free strands with significantly higher efficiencies, some of which approach 100%.

  8. A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1-hms2 incompatibility.

  9. Protective Effects of Royal Jelly and Vitamin C against Experimental Hemolytic Anemia on Sex Hormones and Histochemical Testicle Tissue Histochemistry of Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Anbara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenylhydrazine (PHZ is a well-known hemolytic compound inducing intoxication in erythrocytes. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of royal jelly and vitamin C against phenylhydrazine-induced damages in mouse testicles. Methods: In this study, 64 adult male mice were randomly and equally assigned to eight groups. The first group received normal saline (0.1ml intraperitoneally. The second group received PHZ (6 mg/100 gr intraperitoneally in 48-hour intervals. The third group received vitamin C (250 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally perday a long with PHZ. The fourth group received royal jelly (100 mg/kg/day through gavage. The fifth group received PHZ along with vitamin C and royal jelly in similar doses to the previous groups. The sixth group received only vitamin C, the seventh group recieved only royal jelly, and finally the eighth group received similar doses of vitamin C and royal jelly. After 35 days, serum and tissue samples were taken and used for histochemical (Mallory-Azan, Alkaline phosphatase, Oil red-O and PAS, and serum analyses (Testosterone, LH, FSH. Results: The study results revealed the histochemical changes in testicular tissue of the phenylhydrazine group, in which vitamin C and royal jelly partly improved the changes. Furthermore, serum analyses demonstrated a significant decrease in testosterone, FSH and LH levels, which this decrease was diminished by royal jelly and vitamin C. Conclusions: Royal jelly and vitamin C seem to have the potential to decrease serum and tissue damages induced by phenylhydrazine via restraining free radicals.

  10. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  11. Bucking the trend in wolf-dog hybridization: first evidence from europe of hybridization between female dogs and male wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindrikson, Maris; Männil, Peep; Ozolins, Janis; Krzywinski, Andrzej; Saarma, Urmas

    2012-01-01

    Studies on hybridization have proved critical for understanding key evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation. However, from the perspective of conservation, hybridization poses a concern, as it can threaten the integrity and fitness of many wild species, including canids. As a result of habitat fragmentation and extensive hunting pressure, gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations have declined dramatically in Europe and elsewhere during recent centuries. Small and fragmented populations have persisted, but often only in the presence of large numbers of dogs, which increase the potential for hybridization and introgression to deleteriously affect wolf populations. Here, we demonstrate hybridization between wolf and dog populations in Estonia and Latvia, and the role of both genders in the hybridization process, using combined analysis of maternal, paternal and biparental genetic markers. Eight animals exhibiting unusual external characteristics for wolves - six from Estonia and two from Latvia - proved to be wolf-dog hybrids. However, one of the hybridization events was extraordinary. Previous field observations and genetic studies have indicated that mating between wolves and dogs is sexually asymmetrical, occurring predominantly between female wolves and male dogs. While this was also the case among the Estonian hybrids, our data revealed the existence of dog mitochondrial genomes in the Latvian hybrids and, together with Y chromosome and autosomal microsatellite data, thus provided the first evidence from Europe of mating between male wolves and female dogs. We discuss patterns of sexual asymmetry in wolf-dog hybridization.

  12. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large

  13. Mirror hybrid reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The hybrid reactor studies are reviewed. The optimization of the point design and work on a reference design are described. The status of the nuclear analysis of fast spectrum blankets, systems studies for fissile fuel producing hybrid reactor, and the mechanical design of the machine are reviewed

  14. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  15. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  16. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  17. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation...

  18. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  19. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  20. Course on hybrid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Tellier; Bonnemay; Craigne; Chareton; Di Falco

    1969-02-01

    After a definition of hybrid calculation (combination of analogue and digital calculation) with a distinction between series and parallel hybrid computing, and a description of a hybrid computer structure and of task sharing between computers, this course proposes a description of hybrid hardware used in Saclay and Cadarache computing centres, and of operations performed by these systems. The next part addresses issues related to programming languages and software. The fourth part describes how a problem is organised for its processing on these computers. Methods of hybrid analysis are then addressed: resolution of optimisation problems, of partial differential equations, and of integral equations by means of different methods (gradient, maximum principle, characteristics, functional approximation, time slicing, Monte Carlo, Neumann iteration, Fischer iteration)

  1. Hybrid functional pseudopotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2018-02-01

    The consistency between the exchange-correlation functional used in pseudopotential construction and in the actual density functional theory calculation is essential for the accurate prediction of fundamental properties of materials. However, routine hybrid density functional calculations at present still rely on generalized gradient approximation pseudopotentials due to the lack of hybrid functional pseudopotentials. Here, we present a scheme for generating hybrid functional pseudopotentials, and we analyze the importance of pseudopotential density functional consistency for hybrid functionals. For the PBE0 hybrid functional, we benchmark our pseudopotentials for structural parameters and fundamental electronic gaps of the Gaussian-2 (G2) molecular dataset and some simple solids. Our results show that using our PBE0 pseudopotentials in PBE0 calculations improves agreement with respect to all-electron calculations.

  2. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  3. Close Look at Hybrid Vehicle Loyalty and Ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes [ORNL; Taylor, Rob D [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In a news release dated April 9, 2012, Polk stated that only 35% of hybrid owners bought a hybrid again when they returned to market in 2011. These findings were based on an internal study conducted by Polk. The study also indicated that if repurchase behavior among the high volume audience of Toyota Prius owners wasn t factored in; hybrid loyalty would drop to under 25%. This news release has generated a lot of interest and concern by the automobile industry as well as consumers, since it was published, and caused many to think about the idea of hybrid loyalty as well as factors that influence consumers. Most reactions to the 35% hybrid loyalty dealt with concerns of the viability of hybrid technology as part of the solution to address transportation energy challenges. This paper attempts to shed more light on Polk s hybrid loyalty study as well as explore several information sources concerning hybrid loyalty status. Specifically, major factors that might impact the selection and acquisition of hybrid vehicles are addressed. This includes investigating the associations between hybrid market shares and influencing factors like fuel price and hybrid incentives, as well as the availability of hybrid models and other highly fuel efficient vehicle options. This effort is not in-depth study, but rather a short study to see if Polk s claim could be validated. This study reveals that Polk s claim was rather misleading because its definition of loyalty was very narrow. This paper also suggests that Polk s analysis failed to account for some very important factors, raising the question of whether it is fair to compare a vehicle drive train option (which hybrids are) with a vehicle brand in terms of loyalty and also raises the question of whether hybrid loyalty is even a valid point to consider. This report maintains that Polk s study does not prove that hybrid owners were dissatisfied with their vehicles, which was a common theme among reporting news agencies when Polk

  4. Stability analysis of maize hybrids across north west of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, H.; Durreshawar; Ali, S.; Iftikhar, F.; Khalil, I.H.; Shah, S.M.A.; Ahmad, H.

    2010-01-01

    Stability analysis was carried out to study stability in performance and genotype x environment interactions for 18 maize hybrids across three locations of NWFP i.e., Agricultural University Peshawar (AUP), Agricultural Research Station (ARS), Baffa, (Mansehra) and Cereal Crops Research Institute (CCRI), Pirsabak (Nowshera), during 2006. Data were recorded on different morphological and yield parameters. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the three locations for all the traits studied. Hybrids showed significant differences for all parameters except anthesis silking interval (ASI) and ear height, which were non significant across the three locations. The hybrid x location interactions also revealed significant differences for days to 50% silking, days to 50% anthesis, ASI, grain moisture at harvest and grain yield per hectare while non significant differences were observed for plant height and ear height. Based on yield performance of hybrids across the three locations, Baffa ranked first as compared to the other two locations. Hybrid DK-1 x EV-9806 was the highest yielding across the three locations followed by hybrid AGB-108, while the lowest yield was observed for hybrid CSCY. Stability in performance was evident for hybrid CS-2Y2 with regard to days required for silking and anthesis. Stability in anthesis silking interval (ASI) was manifested for hybrid CS-222. Hybrid AGB-108 was comparatively stable for grain yield across the tested locations. Remaining hybrids seemed to be considerably influenced by Genotype x environment interactions encountered at the tested locations and location specific selection has to be made while selecting a maize hybrid for a particular location. (author)

  5. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  6. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  7. Towers of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid meson is a quark-antiquark pair in which, contrary to ordinary mesons, the gluon field is in an excited state. In the framework of constituent models, the interaction potential is assumed to be the energy of an excited string. An approximate, but accurate, analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation with such a potential is presented. When applied to hybrid charmonia and bottomonia, towers of states are predicted in which the masses are a linear function of a harmonic oscillator band number for the quark-antiquark pair. Such a formula could be a reliable guide for the experimental detection of heavy hybrid mesons.

  8. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  9. Destination bonding: Hybrid cognition using Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Baksi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research has identified the phenomenon of destination bonding as a result of summated physical and emotional values associated with the destination. Physical values, namely natural landscape & other physical settings and emotional values, namely the enculturation processes, have a significant role to play in portraying visitors’ cognitive framework for destination preference. The physical values seemed to be the stimulator for bonding that embodies action or behavior tendencies in imagery. The emotional values were the conditions that lead to affective bonding and are reflected in attitudes for a place which were evident in text narratives. Social networking on virtual platforms offers the scope for hybrid cognitive expression using imagery and text to the visitors. Instagram has emerged as an application-window to capture these hybrid cognitions of visitors. This study focuses on assessing the relationship between hybrid cognition of visitors expressed via Instagram and their bond with the destination. Further to this, the study attempts to examine the impact of hybrid cognition of visitors on the behavioral pattern of prospective visitors to the destination. The study revealed that sharing of visual imageries and related text by the visitors is an expression of the physico-emotional bonding with the destination. It was further established that hybrid cognition strongly asserts destination bonding and has been also found to have moderating impact on the link between destination bonding and electronic-word-of-mouth.

  10. Nuclear histochemistry: Its history in fifty volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Manfredi Romanini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fiftieth anniversary of the double helix was marked two years ago. The elucidation of the structure of DNA by Watson and Crick can rightfully be considered to be "the" milestone in modern biology because it has conditioned the explosive growth in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the structural and functional organization of single cells and multicellular organisms....

  11. Carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber/hybrid filler composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mousa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of the OSW and NLS are measured with the dynamic contact-angle technique. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS of the OSW reveals that the OSW possesses various reactive functional groups namely hydroxyl groups (OH. Hybrid filler from NLS and OSW were incorporated into carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR to produce XNBR hybrid composites. The reaction of OH groups from the OSW with COOH of the XNBR is checked by attenuated total reflectance spectra (ATR-IR of the composites. The degree of curing ΔM (maximum torque-minimum torque as a function of hybrid filler as derived from moving die rheometer (MDR is reported. The stress-strain behavior of the hybrid composites as well as the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA is studied. Bonding quality and dispersion of the hybrid filler with and in XNBR are examined using scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM in SEM.

  12. Formula hybrid SAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    User-friendly tools are needed for undergraduates to learn about component sizing, powertrain integration, and control : strategies for student competitions involving hybrid vehicles. A TK Solver tool was developed at the University of Idaho for : th...

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  15. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-01-01

    for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations

  16. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  17. Human hybrid hybridoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  18. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  19. Noise suppress or express exponential growth for hybrid Hopfield neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Song; Shen Yi; Chen Guici

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, we will show that noise can make the given hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution may grows exponentially become the new stochastic hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution will grows at most polynomially. On the other hand, we will also show that noise can make the given hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution grows at most polynomially become the new stochastic hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution will grows at exponentially. In other words, we will reveal that the noise can suppress or express exponential growth for hybrid Hopfield neural networks.

  20. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tongzhai

    Organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was developed for anticorrosion applications using polyurea, polyurethane or epoxide as the organic phase and polysiloxane, formed by sol-gel process, as the inorganic phase. Polyurea/polysiloxane hybrid coatings were formulated and moisture cured using HDI isocyanurate, alkoxysilane-functionalized HDI isocyanurate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Two urethanes were prepared using the same components as abovementioned in addition to the oligoesters derived from either cyclohexane diacids (CHDA) and 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) or adipic acid (AA), isophthalic acid (IPA), 1,6-hexanediol (HD), and trimethylol propane (TMP). Accelerated weathering and outdoor exposure were performed to study the weatherability of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coating system. FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the degradation of the hybrid coatings occurred at the urethane and ester functionalities of the organic phase. DMA and DSC analyses showed the glass transition temperature increased and broadened after weathering. SEM was employed to observe the change of morphology of the hybrid coatings and correlated with the gloss variation after weathering. Rutile TiO2 was formulated into polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings in order to investigate the effect of pigmentation on the coating properties and the sol-gel precursor. Chemical interaction between the TiO2 and the sol-gel precursor was investigated using solid-state 29Si NMR and XPS. The morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal properties of the pigmented coatings were evaluated as a function of pigmentation volume concentration (PVC). Using AFM and SEM, the pigment were observed to be well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The thermal stability, the tensile modulus and strength of the coatings were enhanced with increasing PVC, whereas the pull-off adhesion and flexibility were reduced with increasing PVC. Finally, the pigmented coatings were

  1. Hybrid-electric propulsion for automotive and aviation applications

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, C; Robertson, Paul Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In parallel with the automotive industry, hybrid-electric propulsion is becoming a viable alternative propulsion technology for the aviation sector and reveals potential advantages including fuel savings, lower pollution, and reduced noise emission. Hybrid-electric propulsion systems can take advantage of the synergy between two technologies by utilizing both internal combustion engines and electric motors together, each operating at their respective optimum conditions...

  2. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  3. Fusion-fission hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the range of characteristics attainable from hybrid reactor blankets; blanket design considerations; hybrid reactor designs; alternative fuel hybrid reactors; multi-purpose hybrid reactors; and hybrid reactors and the energy economy. Hybrid reactors are driven by a fusion neutron source and include fertile and/or fissile material. The fusion component provides a copious source of fusion neutrons which interact with a subcritical fission component located adjacent to the plasma or pellet chamber. Fissile fuel and/or energy are the main products of hybrid reactors. Topics include high F/M blankets, the fissile (and tritium) breeding ratio, effects of composition on blanket properties, geometrical considerations, power density and first wall loading, variations of blanket properties with irradiation, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design considerations, safety considerations, tokamak hybrid reactors, tandem-mirror hybrid reactors, inertial confinement hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources, fissile-fuel and energy production ability, simultaneous production of combustible and fissile fuels, fusion reactors for waste transmutation and fissile breeding, nuclear pumped laser hybrid reactors, Hybrid Fuel Factories (HFFs), and scenarios for hybrid contribution. The appendix offers hybrid reactor fundamentals. Numerous references are provided

  4. Quantitative study of fruit flavonoids in citrus hybrids of King (C. nobilis) and Mukaku Kishu (C. kinokuni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Nonomura-Nakano, M; Nesumi, H; Yoshida, T; Sugiura, M; Yano, M

    2001-08-01

    Twenty-four Citrus hybrids of King (C. nobilis) and Mukaku Kishu (C. kinokuni) were examined for their flavonoid profiles of the edible part by reversed-phase HPLC analysis. Two hybrids (G-155 and G-156) contained higher amounts of natsudaidain than their parents, whereas the remainder of the hybrids had a character intermediate between those of King and Mukaku Kishu on the basis of polymethoxylated flavone composition. Principal component analysis revealed the distribution of the hybrids by quantifying 23 flavonoid contents.

  5. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  6. New hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.

    2001-01-01

    New hybrid systems are made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and a proton accelerator. The neutrons that are produced in the target by the flux of protons are necessary to maintain the chain reaction of fission. Some parameters that are important for a classical nuclear reactor like doppler coefficient or delayed neutron fraction do not matter in a hybrid system. In a PWR-type reactor or in a fast reactor the concentration of actinides has a bad impact on these 2 parameters, so it is justified to study hybrid systems as actinide transmuters. The hybrid system, because of its external source of neutrons can put aside an important reactivity margin. This reactivity margin can be used to design safer nuclear reactors (particularly in some situations of reactivity accidents) or to irradiate fuel elements containing high concentrations of minor actinides that could not be allowed in a classical reactor. This article reviews various ways of integrating hybrid systems in a population of already existing nuclear reactors in order to manage quantities of plutonium, of minor actinides or of long-life fission products. (A.C.)

  7. Expression of a serine protease (motopsin PRSS12) mRNA in the mouse brain: in situ hybridization histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, N; Tanaka, M; Mitsui, S; Yamamura, Y; Yamaguchi, N; Ibata, Y

    1999-03-20

    Serine proteases are considered to play several important roles in the brain. In an attempt to find novel brain-specific serine proteases (BSSPs), motopsin (PRSS-12) was cloned from a mouse brain cDNA library by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the postnatal 10-day mouse brain contained the most amount of motopsin mRNA. At this developmental stage, in situ hybridization histochemistry showed that motopsin mRNA was specifically expressed in the following regions: cerebral cortical layers II/III, V and VIb, endopiriform cortex and the limbic system, particularly in the CA1 region of the hippocampal formation. In addition, in the brainstem, the oculomotor nucleus, trochlear nucleus, mecencephalic and motor nuclei of trigeminal nerve (N), abducens nucleus, facial nucleus, nucleus of the raphe pontis, dorsoral motor nucleus of vagal N, hypoglossal nucleus and ambiguus nucleus showed motopsin mRNA expression. Expression was also found in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. The above findings strongly suggest that neurons in almost all motor nuclei, particularly in the brainstem and spinal cord, express motopsin mRNA, and that motopsin seems to have a close relation to the functional role of efferent neurons. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    Social media has created new ways of communicating and has brought about a new distinctive ethos. New literacies are not simply about new technology but also about this new ethos. Many museums are embracing this ethos by what is often called participatory practices. From a sociocultural perspective...... this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both...

  9. Hybrid system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid systems studied for fissile material production, were reconsidered for minor actinide and long-lived fission product destruction as alternative to the traditional final disposal of nuclear waste. Now there are attempts to extend the use of the concepts developed for minor actinide incineration to plutonium burning. The most promising hybrid system concept considers fuel and target both as liquids. From the results obtained, the possibility to adopt composite targets seems the most promising solution, but still there remains the problem of Pu production, not acceptable in a burning system. This kind of targets can be mainly used for fissile material production, while for accelerator driven burners it is most convenient to use a liquid lead target. The most suitable solvent is heavy water for minor actinide annihilation in the blanket of a hybrid system. Due to the criticality conditions and the necessity of electric energy production, the blanket using plutonium dissolved in molten salts is the most convenient one. (author)

  10. Hybrid strategies in nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Hector M; Mullen, Thomas J; Zhang Pengpeng; Dewey, Daniel C; Claridge, Shelley A; Weiss, Paul S [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: psw@cnsi.ucla.edu

    2010-03-15

    Hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies combine the registration and addressability of conventional lithographic techniques with the chemical and physical functionality enabled by intermolecular, electrostatic and/or biological interactions. This review aims to highlight and to provide a comprehensive description of recent developments in hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies that enhance existing lithographic techniques or can be used to fabricate functional chemical patterns that interact with their environment. These functional structures create new capabilities, such as the fabrication of physicochemical surfaces that can recognize and capture analytes from complex liquid or gaseous mixtures. The nanolithographic techniques we describe can be classified into three general areas: traditional lithography, soft lithography and scanning-probe lithography. The strengths and limitations of each hybrid patterning technique will be discussed, along with the current and potential applications of the resulting patterned, functional surfaces.

  11. Multifaceted, cross-generational costs of hybridization in sibling Drosophila species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Myers

    Full Text Available Maladaptive hybridization, as determined by the pattern and intensity of selection against hybrid individuals, is an important factor contributing to the evolution of prezygotic reproductive isolation. To identify the consequences of hybridization between Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis, we estimated multiple fitness components for F1 hybrids and backcross progeny and used these to compare the relative fitness of parental species and their hybrids across two generations. We document many sources of intrinsic (developmental and extrinsic (ecological selection that dramatically increase the fitness costs of hybridization beyond the well-documented F1 male sterility in this model system. Our results indicate that the cost of hybridization accrues over multiple generations and reinforcement in this system is driven by selection against hybridization above and beyond the cost of hybrid male sterility; we estimate a fitness loss of >95% relative to the parental species across two generations of hybridization. Our findings demonstrate the importance of estimating hybridization costs using multiple fitness measures from multiple generations in an ecologically relevant context; so doing can reveal intense postzygotic selection against hybridization and thus, an enhanced role for reinforcement in the evolution of populations and diversification of species.

  12. Multifaceted, cross-generational costs of hybridization in sibling Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Erin M; Harwell, Tiffany I; Yale, Elizabeth L; Lamb, Abigail M; Frankino, W Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Maladaptive hybridization, as determined by the pattern and intensity of selection against hybrid individuals, is an important factor contributing to the evolution of prezygotic reproductive isolation. To identify the consequences of hybridization between Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis, we estimated multiple fitness components for F1 hybrids and backcross progeny and used these to compare the relative fitness of parental species and their hybrids across two generations. We document many sources of intrinsic (developmental) and extrinsic (ecological) selection that dramatically increase the fitness costs of hybridization beyond the well-documented F1 male sterility in this model system. Our results indicate that the cost of hybridization accrues over multiple generations and reinforcement in this system is driven by selection against hybridization above and beyond the cost of hybrid male sterility; we estimate a fitness loss of >95% relative to the parental species across two generations of hybridization. Our findings demonstrate the importance of estimating hybridization costs using multiple fitness measures from multiple generations in an ecologically relevant context; so doing can reveal intense postzygotic selection against hybridization and thus, an enhanced role for reinforcement in the evolution of populations and diversification of species.

  13. The tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.; Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    At a time when the potential benefits of various energy options are being seriously evaluated in many countries through-out the world, it is both timely and important to evaluate the practical application of fusion reactors for their economical production of nuclear fissile fuels from fertile fuels. The fusion hybrid reactor represents a concept that could assure the availability of adequate fuel supplies for a proven nuclear technology and have the potential of being an electrical energy source as opposed to an energy consumer as are the present fuel enrichment processes. Westinghouse Fusion Power Systems Department, under Contract No. EG-77-C-02-4544 with the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, has developed a preliminary conceptual design for an early twenty-first century fusion hybrid reactor called the commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). This design was developed as a first generation commercial plant producing fissile fuel to support a significant number of client Light Water Reactor (LWR) Plants. To the depth this study has been performed, no insurmountable technical problems have been identified. The study has provided a basis for reasonable cost estimates of the hybrid plants as well as the hybrid/LWR system busbar electricity costs. This energy system can be optimized to have a net cost of busbar electricity that is equivalent to the conventional LWR plant, yet is not dependent on uranium ore prices or standard enrichment costs, since the fusion hybrid can be fueled by numerous fertile fuel resources. A nearer-term concept is also defined using a beam driven fusion driver in lieu of the longer term ignited operating mode. (orig.)

  14. Hybride textuelle Strukturen und hybride textuelle Einheiten. Ein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carrying set of all hybrid hierarchical structures are element-heterogeneous whilst the structure- carrying set of all ... grams of hierarchical hybrid article structures, the nodes for those text segments that establish the hybrid status of .... der; d ∈ ArtA ⊣ G|WAr (= Artikelangabe, anhand derer das Genus (= G) und zugleich die ...

  15. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  16. Doubts about hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The natural draught wet cooling tower with a height of 160 m is considerably taller than the 80 m high hybrid cooling tower, but the latter has a considerably larger diameter. Spray losses for both types are about 4.5 kg/sec for a thermal output of 2500 MW. Apart from the pump load, the natural cooling tower requires no power. Apart from higher pump loads, the hybrid cooling tower requires power for the fans. The energy demand for this purpose is 1.5 to 3% of the nett powerstation output. For the Isar 2 nuclear powerstation this would mean a reduction in puput of about 35 MW. (orig.) [de

  17. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  18. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  19. Relative biocompatibility of micro-hybrid and nano-hybrid light-activated composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabisi Arigbede, Abiodun; Folasade Adeyemi, Bukola; Femi-Akinlosotu, Omowumi

    2017-01-01

    Background. In vitro studies have revealed a direct association between resin content and cytotoxicity of composite resins; however, implantation studies in this regard are sparse. This study investigates the relationship between filler content of composite resins and biocompatibility. Methods. This research employed twelve 180‒200-gr male Wistar rats, 1 nano-hybrid (Prime-Dent Inc.) and 1 micro-hybrid (Medental Inc.) composite resins containing 74% and 80‒90% filler content, respectively. The samples were assessed on the 2nd, 14th and 90th day of implantation. Four rats were allocated to each day in this experimental study. A section of 1.5mm long cured nano-hybrid and micro-hybrid materials were implanted into the right and left upper and lower limbs of the rats, respectively. Eight samples were generated on each day of observation. Inflammation was graded according to the criteria suggested by Orstavik and Major. Pearson's chi-squared test was employed to determine the relationship between the tissue responses of the two materials. Statistical significance was set at P resin had a score of 3.0 for cellular inflammation. On the 14th day, the micro-hybrid resin also exhibited a lower average grade for cellular inflammation. On the 90th day, the micro-hybrid resin had a higher grade of inflammation (0.9) compared to 0.3 recorded for nano-hybrid. The composite resins with higher filler content elicited a significantly lower grade of inflammation irrespective of the duration (χ=20.000, df=8, P=0.010) while the composite resins with lower filler content elicited a significantly lower inflammatory response on the 90th day (χ=4.000, df=1, P=0.046). Conclusion. The composite resins with higher filler content generally elicited significantly lower grades of inflammation, and the composite resins with lower filler content exhibited significantly lower inflammatory response on the 90th day of implantation.

  20. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  1. Security in hybrid cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the area of hybrid cloud computing, specifically with its security. The major aim of the thesis is to analyze and compare the chosen hybrid cloud providers. For the minor aim this thesis compares the security challenges of hybrid cloud as opponent to other deployment models. In order to accomplish said aims, this thesis defines the terms cloud computing and hybrid cloud computing in its theoretical part. Furthermore the security challenges for cloud computing a...

  2. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  3. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een

  4. Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytic...

  5. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  6. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  7. Hybridization of biomedical circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinard, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The design and fabrication of low power hybrid circuits to perform vital signs monitoring are reported. The circuits consist of: (1) clock; (2) ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner; (3) impedance pneumobraph and respiration rate processor; (4) hear/breath rate processor; (5) temperature monitor; and (6) LCD display.

  8. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-09-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates.

  9. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  10. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-01-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates

  11. Hybrid quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehrawat, Arun; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Zemann, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present a hybrid model of the unitary-evolution-based quantum computation model and the measurement-based quantum computation model. In the hybrid model, part of a quantum circuit is simulated by unitary evolution and the rest by measurements on star graph states, thereby combining the advantages of the two standard quantum computation models. In the hybrid model, a complicated unitary gate under simulation is decomposed in terms of a sequence of single-qubit operations, the controlled-z gates, and multiqubit rotations around the z axis. Every single-qubit and the controlled-z gate are realized by a respective unitary evolution, and every multiqubit rotation is executed by a single measurement on a required star graph state. The classical information processing in our model requires only an information flow vector and propagation matrices. We provide the implementation of multicontrol gates in the hybrid model. They are very useful for implementing Grover's search algorithm, which is studied as an illustrative example.

  12. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer's prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The hybrid

  13. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  14. Hybrid discrete choice models: Gained insights versus increasing effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariel, Petr; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid choice models expand the standard models in discrete choice modelling by incorporating psychological factors as latent variables. They could therefore provide further insights into choice processes and underlying taste heterogeneity but the costs of estimating these models often significantly increase. This paper aims at comparing the results from a hybrid choice model and a classical random parameter logit. Point of departure for this analysis is whether researchers and practitioners should add hybrid choice models to their suite of models routinely estimated. Our comparison reveals, in line with the few prior studies, that hybrid models gain in efficiency by the inclusion of additional information. The use of one of the two proposed approaches, however, depends on the objective of the analysis. If disentangling preference heterogeneity is most important, hybrid model seems to be preferable. If the focus is on predictive power, a standard random parameter logit model might be the better choice. Finally, we give recommendations for an adequate use of hybrid choice models based on known principles of elementary scientific inference. - Highlights: • The paper compares performance of a Hybrid Choice Model (HCM) and a classical Random Parameter Logit (RPL) model. • The HCM indeed provides insights regarding preference heterogeneity not gained from the RPL. • The RPL has similar predictive power as the HCM in our data. • The costs of estimating HCM seem to be justified when learning more on taste heterogeneity is a major study objective.

  15. Hybrid discrete choice models: Gained insights versus increasing effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariel, Petr, E-mail: petr.mariel@ehu.es [UPV/EHU, Economía Aplicada III, Avda. Lehendakari Aguire, 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain); Meyerhoff, Jürgen [Institute for Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, Technical University of Berlin, D-10623 Berlin, Germany and The Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Duesternbrooker Weg 120, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Hybrid choice models expand the standard models in discrete choice modelling by incorporating psychological factors as latent variables. They could therefore provide further insights into choice processes and underlying taste heterogeneity but the costs of estimating these models often significantly increase. This paper aims at comparing the results from a hybrid choice model and a classical random parameter logit. Point of departure for this analysis is whether researchers and practitioners should add hybrid choice models to their suite of models routinely estimated. Our comparison reveals, in line with the few prior studies, that hybrid models gain in efficiency by the inclusion of additional information. The use of one of the two proposed approaches, however, depends on the objective of the analysis. If disentangling preference heterogeneity is most important, hybrid model seems to be preferable. If the focus is on predictive power, a standard random parameter logit model might be the better choice. Finally, we give recommendations for an adequate use of hybrid choice models based on known principles of elementary scientific inference. - Highlights: • The paper compares performance of a Hybrid Choice Model (HCM) and a classical Random Parameter Logit (RPL) model. • The HCM indeed provides insights regarding preference heterogeneity not gained from the RPL. • The RPL has similar predictive power as the HCM in our data. • The costs of estimating HCM seem to be justified when learning more on taste heterogeneity is a major study objective.

  16. Rapid movement and instability of an invasive hybrid swarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotzbecker, Gregory J; Walters, David M; Blum, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Unstable hybrid swarms that arise following the introduction of non-native species can overwhelm native congeners, yet the stability of invasive hybrid swarms has not been well documented over time. Here, we examine genetic variation and clinal stability across a recently formed hybrid swarm involving native blacktail shiner (Cyprinella venusta) and non-native red shiner (C. lutrensis) in the Upper Coosa River basin, which is widely considered to be a global hot spot of aquatic biodiversity. Examination of phenotypic, multilocus genotypic, and mitochondrial haplotype variability between 2005 and 2011 revealed that the proportion of hybrids has increased over time, with more than a third of all sampled individuals exhibiting admixture in the final year of sampling. Comparisons of clines over time indicated that the hybrid swarm has been rapidly progressing upstream, but at a declining and slower pace than rates estimated from historical collection records. Clinal comparisons also showed that the hybrid swarm has been expanding and contracting over time. Additionally, we documented the presence of red shiner and hybrids farther downstream than prior studies have detected, which suggests that congeners in the Coosa River basin, including all remaining populations of the threatened blue shiner (Cyprinella caerulea), are at greater risk than previously thought.

  17. Long-range hybrid ridge and trench plasmonic waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Yusheng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong, Qihuang, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-23

    We report a class of long-range hybrid plasmon polariton waveguides capable of simultaneously achieving low propagation loss and tight field localization at telecommunication wavelength. The symmetric (quasi-symmetric) hybrid configurations featuring high-refractive-index-contrast near the non-uniform metallic nanostructures enable significantly improved optical performance over conventional hybrid waveguides, exhibiting considerably longer propagation distances and dramatically enhanced figure of merits for similar degrees of confinement. Compared to their traditional long-range plasmonic counterparts, the proposed hybrid waveguides put much less stringent requirements on index-matching conditions, demonstrating nice performance under a wide range of physical dimensions and robust characteristics against certain fabrication imperfections. Studies concerning crosstalk between adjacent identical waveguides further reveal their potential for photonic integrations. In addition, alternative configurations with comparable guiding properties to the structures in our case studies are also proposed, which can potentially serve as attractive prototypes for numerous high-performance nanophotonic components.

  18. Rapid hybridization of nucleic acids using isotachophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Moran; Han, Crystal M.; Liao, Joseph C.; Santiago, Juan G.

    2012-01-01

    We use isotachophoresis (ITP) to control and increase the rate of nucleic acid hybridization reactions in free solution. We present a new physical model, validation experiments, and demonstrations of this assay. We studied the coupled physicochemical processes of preconcentration, mixing, and chemical reaction kinetics under ITP. Our experimentally validated model enables a closed form solution for ITP-aided reaction kinetics, and reveals a new characteristic time scale which correctly predicts order 10,000-fold speed-up of chemical reaction rate for order 100 pM reactants, and greater enhancement at lower concentrations. At 500 pM concentration, we measured a reaction time which is 14,000-fold lower than that predicted for standard second-order hybridization. The model and method are generally applicable to acceleration of reactions involving nucleic acids, and may be applicable to a wide range of reactions involving ionic reactants. PMID:22733732

  19. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  20. Mirror hybrid reactor optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A system model of the mirror hybrid reactor has been developed. The major components of the model include (1) the reactor description, (2) a capital cost analysis, (3) various fuel management schemes, and (4) an economic analysis that includes the hybrid plus its associated fission burner reactors. The results presented describe the optimization of the mirror hybrid reactor, the objective being to minimize the cost of electricity from the hybrid fission-burner reactor complex. We have examined hybrid reactors with two types of blankets, one containing natural uranium, the other thorium. The major difference between the two optimized reactors is that the uranium hybrid is a significant net electrical power producer, whereas the thorium hybrid just about breaks even on electrical power. Our projected costs for fissile fuel production are approximately 50 $/g for 239 Pu and approximately 125 $/g for 233 U

  1. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  2. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  3. High rates of hybridisation reveal fragile reproductive barriers between endangered Australian sea snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Kate L; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Guinea, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    designations, but revealed high frequencies of hybrids on all four reefs and individuals of pure A. fuscus ancestry only at Scott and (historically) Ashmore. Most unexpectedly, 95% of snakes sampled at Hibernia were hybrids that resembled A. laevis in phenotype, revealing a collapse of reproductive barriers...... (‘reverse speciation’) at this reef. These results have dire implications for the conservation status of A. fuscus, and highlight the fragility of reproductive barriers in a recent marine radiation....

  4. Fine mapping of dominant X-linked incompatibility alleles in Drosophila hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matute, Daniel R; Gavin-Smyth, Jackie

    2014-04-01

    Sex chromosomes have a large effect on reproductive isolation and play an important role in hybrid inviability. In Drosophila hybrids, X-linked genes have pronounced deleterious effects on fitness in male hybrids, which have only one X chromosome. Several studies have succeeded at locating and identifying recessive X-linked alleles involved in hybrid inviability. Nonetheless, the density of dominant X-linked alleles involved in interspecific hybrid viability remains largely unknown. In this report, we study the effects of a panel of small fragments of the D. melanogaster X-chromosome carried on the D. melanogaster Y-chromosome in three kinds of hybrid males: D. melanogaster/D. santomea, D. melanogaster/D. simulans and D. melanogaster/D. mauritiana. D. santomea and D. melanogaster diverged over 10 million years ago, while D. simulans (and D. mauritiana) diverged from D. melanogaster over 3 million years ago. We find that the X-chromosome from D. melanogaster carries dominant alleles that are lethal in mel/san, mel/sim, and mel/mau hybrids, and more of these alleles are revealed in the most divergent cross. We then compare these effects on hybrid viability with two D. melanogaster intraspecific crosses. Unlike the interspecific crosses, we found no X-linked alleles that cause lethality in intraspecific crosses. Our results reveal the existence of dominant alleles on the X-chromosome of D. melanogaster which cause lethality in three different interspecific hybrids. These alleles only cause inviability in hybrid males, yet have little effect in hybrid females. This suggests that X-linked elements that cause hybrid inviability in males might not do so in hybrid females due to differing sex chromosome interactions.

  5. Sneutrino Hybrid Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We review the scenario of sneutrino hybrid inflation, where one of the singlet sneutrinos, the superpartners of the right-handed neutrinos, plays the role of the inflaton. In a minimal model of sneutrino hybrid inflation, the spectral index is given by ns ≅ 1 + 2γ. With γ = 0.025 ± 0.01 constrained by WMAP, a running spectral index vertical bar dns/dlnk vertical bar << vertical barγvertical bar and a tensor-to-scalar ratio r << γ2 are predicted. Small neutrino masses arise from the seesaw mechanism, with heavy masses for the singlet (s)neutrinos generated by the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field after inflation. The baryon asymmetry of the universe can be explained by non-thermal leptogenesis via sneutrino inflaton decay, with low reheat temperature TRH ≅ 106 GeV

  6. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    of the adversary, without being aware of the actual adversarial setting. Thus, hybrid-secure MPC protocols allow for graceful degradation of security. We present a hybrid-secure MPC protocol that provides an optimal trade-off between IT robustness and computational privacy: For any robustness parameter ρ ... obtain one MPC protocol that is simultaneously IT secure with robustness for up to t ≤ ρ actively corrupted parties, IT secure with fairness (no robustness) for up to t ... in the universal composability (UC) framework (based on a network of secure channels, a broadcast channel, and a common reference string). It achieves the bound on the trade-off between robustness and privacy shown by Ishai et al. [CRYPTO'06] and Katz [STOC'07], the bound on fairness shown by Cleve [STOC'86...

  7. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO

  8. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  9. Tokamak hybrid study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1976-09-01

    A report on one year of study of a tokamak hybrid reactor is presented. The plasma is maintained by both D and T beams. To obtain long burn times a poloidal field divertor is required. Both the single null and the double null style of divertor are considered. The blanket consists of a neutron multiplier region containing natural uranium followed by burner regions of molten salt (flibe) loaded with PuF 3 to enhance the energy multiplication. Economic analysis has been applied only recently to a variety of reactor sizes and plasma conditions. Early indications suggest that the most attractive hybrids will have large plasmas of major radius in excess of 8 meters

  10. Tokamak hybrid study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1976-01-01

    A report on one year of study of a tokamak hybrid reactor is given. The plasma is maintained by both D and T beams. To obtain long burn times a poloidal field divertor is required. Both the single null and the double null style of divertor are considered. The blanket consists of a neutron multiplier region containing natural uranium followed by burner regions of molten salt (flibe) loaded with PuF 3 to enhance the energy multiplication. Economic analysis has been applied only recently to a variety of reactor sizes and plasma conditions. Early indications suggest that the most attractive hybrids will have large plasmas of major radius in excess of 8 meters

  11. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  12. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  13. Mirror hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission hybrid is a combination of the fusion and fission processes, having features which are complementary. Fission energy is running out of readily available fuel, and fusion has extra neutrons which can be used to breed that fission fuel. Fusion would have to take on an extra burden of radioactivity, but this early application would give fusion, which does not work well enough now to make power, practical experience which may accelerate development of pure fusion

  14. The challenge of hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Caccia, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    Hybridization of pixel detector systems has to satisfy tight requirements: high yield, long term reliability, mechanical stability, thermal compliance and robustness have to go together with low passive mass added to the system, radiation hardness, flexibility in the technology end eventually low cost. The current technologies for the interconnection of the front-end chips and the sensor are reviewed and compared, together with the solutions for the interface to the far-end electronics.

  15. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  16. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Preparation and fluorescent recognition properties for fluoride of a nanostructured covalently bonded europium hybrid material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旭东; 李景印; 李亚娟; 耿丽君; 甄小丽; 于涛

    2015-01-01

    A novel covalently bonded Eu3+-based silica hybrid material was designed and its spectrophotometric anion sensing prop-erty was studied. The fluorescent receptor (europium complex) was covalently grafted to the silica matrix via a sol-gel approach. FTIR, UV-vis spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescent spectra were characterized, and the results revealed that the hybrid material with nanosphere structure displayed excellent photophysical property. In addition, the selective anion sensing property of the hybrid material was studied by UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. The results showed that the hybrid material exhibited a smart response with fluoride anions.

  18. Interspecific differentiation and hybridization in vanilla species (Orchidaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Siegismund

    1999-01-01

    Vanilla claviculata, V. barbellata and V. dilloniana are distributed throughout the Caribbean islands and are all found in Puerto Rico. The vegetative parts of the species are similar; however, their conspicuous flowers easily distinguish them. Electrophoresis of seven polymorphic enzymes reveale...... coexist. This suggests that the species may hybridize....

  19. Environmentally responsive optical microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Aizenberg, Michael; Kim, Philseok

    2016-01-05

    Microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies in which microactuators carrying designed surface properties to be revealed upon actuation are embedded in a layer of responsive materials. The microactuators in a microactuator array reversibly change their configuration in response to a change in the environment without requiring an external power source to switch their optical properties.

  20. Confinement Effects in Low-Dimensional Lead Iodide Perovskite Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Machteld E.; Fang, Honghua; Filip, Marina R.; Giustino, Feliciano; Baas, Jacobus; Blake, Graeme R.; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a layered solution crystal growth technique to synthesize high-quality single crystals of phenylalkylammonium lead iodide organic/inorganic hybrid compounds. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals low-dimensional structures consisting of inorganic sheets separated by bilayers of the organic

  1. Biomimetic synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite scaffolds by freeze

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this study is to biomimetically synthesize hydroxyapatite–hydrophilic polymer scaffolds for biomedical applications. This organic–inorganic hybrid has been structurally characterized and reveals a good microstructural control as seen by the SEM analysis and the nanosize of the particulates is confirmed by AFM ...

  2. Exploring the tensile strain energy absorption of hybrid modified epoxies containing soft particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadyan, M.; Bagheri, R.; Kouchakzadeh, M.A.; Hosseini Kordkheili, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Two epoxy systems have been modified by combination of fine and coarse modifiers. → While both hybrid systems reveal synergistic K IC , no synergism is observed in tensile test. → It is found that coarse particles induce stress concentration in hybrid samples. → Stress concentration leads to fracture of samples at lower energy absorption levels. -- Abstract: In this paper, tensile strain energy absorption of two different hybrid modified epoxies has been systematically investigated. In one system, epoxy has been modified by amine-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (ATBN) and hollow glass spheres as fine and coarse modifiers, respectively. The other hybrid epoxy has been modified by the combination of ATBN and recycled Tire particles. The results of fracture toughness measurement of blends revealed synergistic toughening for both hybrid systems in some formulations. However, no evidence of synergism is observed in tensile test of hybrid samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission optical microscope (TOM) and finite element (FEM) simulation were utilized to study deformation mechanisms of hybrid systems in tensile test. It is found that coarse particles induce stress concentration in hybrid samples. This produces non-uniform strain localized regions which lead to fracture of hybrid samples at lower tensile loading and energy absorption levels.

  3. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  4. Rin4 causes hybrid necrosis and race-specific resistance in an interspecific lettuce hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Marieke J W; Zhang, Ningwen W; McHale, Leah K; Pelgrom, Koen; den Boer, Erik; Lindhout, Pim; Michelmore, Richard W; Visser, Richard G F; Niks, Rients E

    2009-10-01

    Some inter- and intraspecific crosses may result in reduced viability or sterility in the offspring, often due to genetic incompatibilities resulting from interactions between two or more loci. Hybrid necrosis is a postzygotic genetic incompatibility that is phenotypically manifested as necrotic lesions on the plant. We observed hybrid necrosis in interspecific lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Lactuca saligna) hybrids that correlated with resistance to downy mildew. Segregation analysis revealed a specific allelic combination at two interacting loci to be responsible. The allelic interaction had two consequences: (1) a quantitative temperature-dependent autoimmunity reaction leading to necrotic lesions, lethality, and quantitative resistance to an otherwise virulent race of Bremia lactucae; and (2) a qualitative temperature-independent race-specific resistance to an avirulent race of B. lactucae. We demonstrated by transient expression and silencing experiments that one of the two interacting genes was Rin4. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RIN4 is known to interact with multiple R gene products, and their interactions result in hypersensitive resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Site-directed mutation studies on the necrosis-eliciting allele of Rin4 in lettuce showed that three residues were critical for hybrid necrosis.

  5. Speciation driven by hybridization and chromosomal plasticity in a wild yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Nielly-Thibault, Lou; Charron, Guillaume; Eberlein, Chris; Verta, Jukka-Pekka; Samani, Pedram; Sylvester, Kayla; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Bell, Graham; Landry, Christian R

    2016-01-11

    Hybridization is recognized as a powerful mechanism of speciation and a driving force in generating biodiversity. However, only few multicellular species, limited to a handful of plants and animals, have been shown to fulfil all the criteria of homoploid hybrid speciation. This lack of evidence could lead to the interpretation that speciation by hybridization has a limited role in eukaryotes, particularly in single-celled organisms. Laboratory experiments have revealed that fungi such as budding yeasts can rapidly develop reproductive isolation and novel phenotypes through hybridization, showing that in principle homoploid speciation could occur in nature. Here, we report a case of homoploid hybrid speciation in natural populations of the budding yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus inhabiting the North American forests. We show that the rapid evolution of chromosome architecture and an ecological context that led to secondary contact between nascent species drove the formation of an incipient hybrid species with a potentially unique ecological niche.

  6. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  7. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types th......-style intensional models; we build, as simply as we can, hybrid logicover Henkin’s logic...

  8. Cytogenetics of Festulolium (Festuca x Lolium hybrids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecký, D; Lukaszewski, A J; Dolezel, J

    2008-01-01

    Grasses are the most important and widely cultivated crops. Among them, ryegrasses (Lolium spp.) and fescues (Festuca spp.) provide high quality fodder for livestock, are used for turf and amenity purposes, and play a fundamental role in environment protection. Species from the two genera display complementary agronomic characteristics and are often grown in mixtures. Breeding efforts to combine desired features in single entities culminated with the production of Festuca x Lolium hybrids. The so called Festuloliums enjoy a considerable commercial success with numerous cultivars registered all over the world. They are also very intriguing from a strictly cytogenetic point of view as the parental chromosomes recombine freely in hybrids. Until a decade ago this phenomenon was only known in general quantitative terms. The introduction of molecular cytogenetic tools such as FISH and GISH permitted detailed studies of intergeneric chromosome recombination and karyotyping of Festulolium cultivars. These tools were also invaluable in revealing the origin of polyploid fescues, and facilitated the development of chromosome substitution and introgression lines and physical mapping of traits of interest. Further progress in this area will require the development of a larger set of cytogenetic markers and high-resolution cytogenetic maps. It is expected that the Lolium-Festuca complex will continue providing opportunities for breeding superior grass cultivars and the complex will remain an attractive platform for fundamental research of the early steps of hybrid speciation and interaction of parental genomes, as well as the processes of chromosome pairing, elimination and recombination. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. [Super sweet corn hybrids adaptability for industrial processing. I freezing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Braunnier; Camacho, Candelario; Ortiz de Bertorelli, Ligia; De Venanzi, Frank

    2002-09-01

    With the purpose of evaluating adaptability to the freezing process of super sweet corn sh2 hybrids Krispy King, Victor and 324, 100 cobs of each type were frozen at -18 degrees C. After 120 days of storage, their chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were compared with a sweet corn su. Industrial quality of the process of freezing and length and number of rows in cobs were also determined. Results revealed yields above 60% in frozen corns. Length and number of rows in cobs were acceptable. Most of the chemical characteristics of super sweet hybrids were not different from the sweet corn assayed at the 5% significance level. Moisture content and soluble solids of hybrid Victor, as well as total sugars of hybrid 324 were statistically different. All sh2 corns had higher pH values. During freezing, soluble solids concentration, sugars and acids decreased whereas pH increased. Frozen cobs exhibited acceptable microbiological rank, with low activities of mesophiles and total coliforms, absence of psychrophiles and fecal coliforms, and an appreciable amount of molds. In conclusion, sh2 hybrids adapted with no problems to the freezing process, they had lower contents of soluble solids and higher contents of total sugars, which almost doubled the amount of su corn; flavor, texture, sweetness and appearance of kernels were also better. Hybrid Victor was preferred by the evaluating panel and had an outstanding performance due to its yield and sensorial characteristics.

  10. A putative hybrid swarm within Oonopsis foliosa (Asteraceae: Astereae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J.F.; Brown, G.K.

    2004-01-01

    Oo??nopsis foliosa var. foliosa and var. monocephala are endemic to short-grass steppe of southeastern Colorado and until recently were considered geographically disjunct. The only known qualitative feature separating these 2 varieties is floral head type; var. foliosa has radiate heads, whereas var. monocephala heads are discoid. Sympatry between these varieties is restricted to a small area in which a range of parental types and intermediate head morphologies is observed. We used distribution mapping, morphometric analyses, chromosome cytology, and pollen stainability to characterize the sympatric zone. Morphometrics confirms that the only discrete difference between var. foliosa and var. monocephala is radiate versus discoid heads, respectively. The outer florets of putative hybrid individuals ranged from conspicuously elongated yet radially symmetric disc-floret corollas, to elongated radially asymmetric bilabiate- or deeply cleft corollas, to stunted ray florets with appendages remnant of corolla lobes. Chromosome cytology of pollen mother cells from both putative parental varieties and a series of intermediate morphological types collected at the sympatric zone reveal evidence of translocation heterozygosity. Pollen stainability shows no significant differences in viability between the parental varieties and putative hybrids. The restricted distribution of putative hybrids to a narrow zone of sympatry between the parental types and the presence of meiotic chromosome-pairing anomalies in these intermediate plants are consistent with a hybrid origin. The high stainability of putative-hybrid pollen adds to a growing body of evidence that hybrids are not universally unfit.

  11. Mechanisms Underlying Mammalian Hybrid Sterility in Two Feline Interspecies Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian W; Seabury, Christopher M; Brashear, Wesley A; Li, Gang; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Murphy, William J

    2015-10-01

    The phenomenon of male sterility in interspecies hybrids has been observed for over a century, however, few genes influencing this recurrent phenotype have been identified. Genetic investigations have been primarily limited to a small number of model organisms, thus limiting our understanding of the underlying molecular basis of this well-documented "rule of speciation." We utilized two interspecies hybrid cat breeds in a genome-wide association study employing the Illumina 63 K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Collectively, we identified eight autosomal genes/gene regions underlying associations with hybrid male sterility (HMS) involved in the function of the blood-testis barrier, gamete structural development, and transcriptional regulation. We also identified several candidate hybrid sterility regions on the X chromosome, with most residing in close proximity to complex duplicated regions. Differential gene expression analyses revealed significant chromosome-wide upregulation of X chromosome transcripts in testes of sterile hybrids, which were enriched for genes involved in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Our expression results parallel those reported in Mus hybrids, supporting the "Large X-Effect" in mammalian HMS and the potential epigenetic basis for this phenomenon. These results support the value of the interspecies feline model as a powerful tool for comparison to rodent models of HMS, demonstrating unique aspects and potential commonalities that underpin mammalian reproductive isolation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Characterization of Polylactic Acid/ Microcrystalline Cellulose/ Montmorillonite Hybrid Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Arjmandi; Azman Hassan; Haafiz, M.K.M.; Zainoha Zakaria; Inuwa, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of montmorillonite (MMT)/ microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) hybrid fillers on mechanical properties and morphological characteristics of polylactic acid (PLA) composites. PLA/ MMT nano composites and PLA/ MMT/ MCC hybrid composites were prepared by solution casting method. Morphology and tensile properties of PLA composites were investigated using Field emission scanning electron microscopy and Instron tensile testing machine. The maximum tensile strength of PLA/ MMT nano composites was obtained with 5 phr contents of MMT, which corresponding to 30.75 MPa. Based on optimized formulation of PLA/ MMT nano composites (5 phr MMT contents), various amounts of MCC (0 to 7 phr) were added into optimum formulation of PLA/ MMT in order to produce PLA/ MMT/ MCC hybrid composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed some level of interaction between PLA and both MMT and MCC in the hybrid composites. However, the percent elongation at break of the hybrid composites was generally higher than PLA/ MMT nano composites. Additionally, Young's modulus of the PLA/ MMT/ MCC hybrid composites increased gradually with increasing of MCC contents and was higher than PLA/ MMT at all compositions. The present results are the first among a series of experiments that have been designed in order to probe the effect of MMT and MCC in the PLA. (author)

  13. Glueballs, hybrids, multiquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klempt, Eberhard [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitaet, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: klempt@hiskp.uni-bonn.de; Zaitsev, Alexander [Institute for High-Energy Physics, Moscow Region, RU-142284 Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2007-12-15

    Glueballs, hybrids and multiquark states are predicted as bound states in models guided by quantum chromo dynamics (QCD), by QCD sum rules or QCD on a lattice. Estimates for the (scalar) glueball ground state are in the mass range from 1000 to 1800 MeV, followed by a tensor and a pseudoscalar glueball at higher mass. Experiments have reported evidence for an abundance of meson resonances with 0{sup -+},0{sup ++} and 2{sup ++} quantum numbers. In particular, the sector of scalar mesons is full of surprises starting from the elusive {sigma} and {kappa} mesons. The a{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 0}(980), discussed extensively in the literature, are reviewed with emphasis on their Janus-like appearance as KK-bar molecules, tetraquark states or qq-bar mesons. Most exciting is the possibility that the three mesons f{sub 0}(1370), f{sub 0}(1500), and f{sub 0}(1710) might reflect the appearance of a scalar glueball in the world of quarkonia. However, the existence of f{sub 0}(1370) is not beyond doubt and there is evidence that both f{sub 0}(1500) and f{sub 0}(1710) are flavour octet states, possibly in a tetraquark composition. We suggest a scheme in which the scalar glueball is dissolved into the wide background into which all scalar flavour-singlet mesons collapse. There is an abundance of meson resonances with the quantum numbers of the {eta}. Three states are reported below 1.5GeV/c{sup 2} whereas quark models expect only one, perhaps two. One of these states, {iota}(1440), was the prime glueball candidate for a long time. We show that {iota}(1440) is the first radial excitation of the {eta} meson. Hybrids may have exotic quantum numbers which are not accessible by qq-bar mesons. There are several claims for J{sup PC}=1{sup -+} exotics, some of them with properties as predicted from the flux tube model interpreting the quark-antiquark binding by a gluon string. The evidence for these states depends partly on the assumption that meson-meson interactions are dominated by s

  14. The effects of hybridization on divergent venom phenotypes: Characterization of venom from Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus × Crotalus oreganus helleri hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cara Francesca; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-09-15

    sex-influenced development of metalloprotease activity, as seen in the ontogenetic shifts of the hybrid female, may influence the levels of expression of both type I and type II characteristics in hybrid venoms. Ultimately, the chronological analysis of this known hybrid system reveals the most distinct characteristics that can be used in determining successful hybridization between snakes that follow the type I-type II trend in rattlesnake venom composition, namely the presence of metalloprotease activity and Mojave toxin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  16. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  17. Hybrid Maritime Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Murphy, Martin; Hoffman, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Russia’s use of hybrid warfare techniques has raised concerns about the security of the Baltic States. Gary Schaub, Jr, Martin Murphy and Frank G Hoffman recommend a series of measures to augment NATO’s Readiness Action Plan in the Baltic region, including increasing the breadth and depth of naval...... exercises, and improving maritime domain awareness through cooperative programmes. They also suggest unilateral and cooperative measures to develop a sound strategic communications strategy to counter Moscow’s information operations, reduce dependence on Russian energy supplies and build the resilience...

  18. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  19. Hybrid Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter can be produced in the early universe via the freeze-in or freeze-out mechanisms. Both scenarios were investigated in references, but the production of dark matters via the combination of these two mechanisms are not addressed. In this paper we propose a hybrid dark matter model where dark matters have two components with one component produced thermally and the other one produced non-thermally. We present for the first time the analytical calculation for the relic abundance of th...

  20. Reflections on Intellectual Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimala Price

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the growing literature on interdisciplinarity and my own experiences as an intellectual hybrid, I discuss the personal and institutional challenges inherent in crossing disciplinary boundaries in the academy. I argue that boundary crossing is a natural occurrence and that the issue of (interdisciplinarity is a matter of degree and of determining who gets to define the boundaries. Defining boundaries is not merely an intellectual enterprise, but also a political act that delineates what is, or is not, legitimate scholarship. This issue is especially salient to women's and gender studies during times of economic distress and educational budget cuts.

  1. Localization of the glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in cartilage and bone cells of the rat. An in situ hybridization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Silvestrini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo localization of glucocorticoid receptor (GR mRNA expression was studied in the cartilage and bone cells of the femur of young adult rats to compare its distribution with that of the GR protein, which had previously been shown histochemically in the same areas. To achieve this, we used a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide as a probe, in line with the published human GR (hGR cDNA sequence. The probe was coupled to fluorescein (FL, applying a rapid Fast-Tag TM FL nucleic acid labeling method. Negative controls were achieved by using sense sequences of the hGR oligoprobe, similarly coupled by using the Fast-Tag TM FL labeling kit. Dewaxed sections were treated for in situ hybridization (ISH histochemistry with the antisense and sense oligoprobes. The ISH reaction product was more intense in the cytoplasm of proliferative and maturative chondrocytes of the growth plate cartilage than in that shown in the hypertrophic ones. In the metaphyseal secondary ossification zone, osteoblasts (OBs and osteocytes (OCs were variably labeled, whereas osteoclasts (OCLs were always intensely stained. The labeling was also visible in some bone marrow cells, in articular chondrocytes, in the cells of tendon-bone junctions, and in the perichondrium and periosteal cells. Our results confirm a cellular co-location of GR protein and mRNA. In agreement with GR immunolocalization, the variability of labeling appeared to be related to the cell cycle, the stage of differentiation and cell-type differences.

  2. Revealing the cerebral regions and networks mediating vulnerability to depression: oxidative metabolism mapping of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harro, Jaanus; Kanarik, Margus; Kaart, Tanel; Matrov, Denis; Kõiv, Kadri; Mällo, Tanel; Del Río, Joaquin; Tordera, Rosa M; Ramirez, Maria J

    2014-07-01

    The large variety of available animal models has revealed much on the neurobiology of depression, but each model appears as specific to a significant extent, and distinction between stress response, pathogenesis of depression and underlying vulnerability is difficult to make. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that depression occurs in biologically predisposed subjects under impact of adverse life events. We applied the diathesis-stress concept to reveal brain regions and functional networks that mediate vulnerability to depression and response to chronic stress by collapsing data on cerebral long term neuronal activity as measured by cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry in distinct animal models. Rats were rendered vulnerable to depression either by partial serotonergic lesion or by maternal deprivation, or selected for a vulnerable phenotype (low positive affect, low novelty-related activity or high hedonic response). Environmental adversity was brought about by applying chronic variable stress or chronic social defeat. Several brain regions, most significantly median raphe, habenula, retrosplenial cortex and reticular thalamus, were universally implicated in long-term metabolic stress response, vulnerability to depression, or both. Vulnerability was associated with higher oxidative metabolism levels as compared to resilience to chronic stress. Chronic stress, in contrast, had three distinct patterns of effect on oxidative metabolism in vulnerable vs. resilient animals. In general, associations between regional activities in several brain circuits were strongest in vulnerable animals, and chronic stress disrupted this interrelatedness. These findings highlight networks that underlie resilience to stress, and the distinct response to stress that occurs in vulnerable subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Obtaining of interspecific hybrids for pea introgressive breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vasilevich Bobkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Overcoming of reproductive isolation, identification and transfer of agronomic value genes from wild relatives into cultivated pea genomes is an important task for pea introgressive breeding. Materials and methods. Reciprocal hybridization of cultivated pea with wide set of P. fulvum accessions was conducted. Identification of hybrids was carried out with use of biochemical and morphological markers. Identification of unique protein was conducted with use of electrophoretic spectra of mature seeds. Results. Pea interspecific hybrids were obtained in two reciprocal directions of crosses. Cross efficiency in Р. sativum × P. fulvum and P. fulvum × Р. sativum combinations was 36 % and 7 %, respectively. All tested seeds in crosses Р. sativum × P. fulvum were hybrids. Crosses in direction P. fulvum × Р. sativum led to formation of puny seeds restricted in embryo growth. Protein markers of one seed derived in cross P. fulvum × Р. sativum proved its hybrid nature. Morphological markers demonstrated that plant derived from another cross was also a hybrid. Culture of immature embryos was developed for recovering plants in interspecific crosses. Morphogenic calli and regenerated plants were obtained in culture of immature embryos P. fulvum (И592589 × Р. sativum (Aest. Identification of unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was conducted. Inheritance of that protein was proved as monogenic dominant. Conclusion. Efficiency of hybridization in combination P. fulvum × Р. sativum was significantly less in compare to reciprocal one. All products of that cross combination were tested as hybrids. Unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was revealed as a result of mature seed electrophoretic spectra analysis. Inheritance of that protein was determined as monogenic dominant.

  4. The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah; Villareal, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-toface classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of…

  5. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  6. Selection against recombinant hybrids maintains reproductive isolation in hybridizing Populus species despite F1 fertility and recurrent gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Camille; Stölting, Kai N; Bresadola, Luisa; Fussi, Barbara; Heinze, Berthold; Wegmann, Daniel; Lexer, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Natural hybrid zones have proven to be precious tools for understanding the origin and maintenance of reproductive isolation (RI) and therefore species. Most available genomic studies of hybrid zones using whole- or partial-genome resequencing approaches have focused on comparisons of the parental source populations involved in genome admixture, rather than exploring fine-scale patterns of chromosomal ancestry across the full admixture gradient present between hybridizing species. We have studied three well-known European 'replicate' hybrid zones of Populus alba and P. tremula, two widespread, ecologically divergent forest trees, using up to 432 505 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. Estimates of fine-scale chromosomal ancestry, genomic divergence and differentiation across all 19 poplar chromosomes revealed strikingly contrasting results, including an unexpected preponderance of F1 hybrids in the centre of genomic clines on the one hand, and genomically localized, spatially variable shared variants consistent with ancient introgression between the parental species on the other. Genetic ancestry had a significant effect on survivorship of hybrid seedlings in a common garden trial, pointing to selection against early-generation recombinants. Our results indicate a role for selection against recombinant genotypes in maintaining RI in the face of apparent F1 fertility, consistent with the intragenomic 'coadaptation' model of barriers to introgression upon secondary contact. Whole-genome resequencing of hybridizing populations will clarify the roles of specific genetic pathways in RI between these model forest trees and may reveal which loci are affected most strongly by its cyclic breakdown. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Nonminimally coupled hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Seoktae; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the hybrid inflation model where the inflaton field is nonminimally coupled to gravity. In the Jordan frame, the potential contains φ 4 term as well as terms in the original hybrid inflation model. In our model, inflation can be classified into the type (I) and the type (II). In the type (I), inflation is terminated by the tachyonic instability of the waterfall field, while in the type (II) by the violation of slow-roll conditions. In our model, the reheating takes place only at the true minimum and even in the case (II) finally the tachyonic instability occurs after the termination of inflation. For a negative nonminimal coupling, inflation takes place in the vacuum-dominated region, in the large field region, or near the local minimum/maximum. Inflation in the vacuum-dominated region becomes either the type (I) or (II), resulting in a blue or red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, respectively. Inflation around the local maximum can be either the type (I) or the type (II), which results in the red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, while around the local minimum it must be the type (I), which results in the blue spectrum. In the large field region, to terminate inflation, potential in the Einstein frame must be positively tilted, always resulting in the red spectrum. We then numerically solve the equations of motion to investigate the whole dynamics of inflaton and confirm that the spectrum of curvature perturbations changes from red to blue ones as scales become smaller.

  8. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  9. Quadratic integrand double-hybrid made spin-component-scaled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brémond, Éric, E-mail: eric.bremond@iit.it; Savarese, Marika [CompuNet, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genoa (Italy); Sancho-García, Juan C.; Pérez-Jiménez, Ángel J. [Departamento de Química Física, Universidad de Alicante, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Adamo, Carlo [CompuNet, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genoa (Italy); Chimie ParisTech, PSL Research University, CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris IRCP, F-75005 Paris (France); Institut Universitaire de France, 103 Boulevard Saint Michel, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2016-03-28

    We propose two analytical expressions aiming to rationalize the spin-component-scaled (SCS) and spin-opposite-scaled (SOS) schemes for double-hybrid exchange-correlation density-functionals. Their performances are extensively tested within the framework of the nonempirical quadratic integrand double-hybrid (QIDH) model on energetic properties included into the very large GMTKN30 benchmark database, and on structural properties of semirigid medium-sized organic compounds. The SOS variant is revealed as a less computationally demanding alternative to reach the accuracy of the original QIDH model without losing any theoretical background.

  10. Heteroplasmon hybridization in stacked complementary plasmo-photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Choi, Bongseok

    2015-03-11

    We constructed plasmo-photonic crystals in which efficient light-trapping, plasmonic resonances couple with photonic guided resonances of large density of states and high-quality factor. We have numerically and experimentally shown that heteroplasmon hybrid modes emerge in stacked complementary (SC) plasmo-photonic crystals. The resonant electromagnetic-field distributions evidence that the two hybrid modes originate from two different heteroplasmons, exhibiting a large energy splitting of 300 meV. We further revealed a series of plasmo-photonic modes in the SC crystals.

  11. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  12. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  13. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  14. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  15. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  16. Conceptual innovations in hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A number of innovations in the conception of fusion-fission hybrid reactors, including the blanket, the fusion driver, the coupling of the fusion and the fission components as well as the application of hybrid reactors are described, and their feasibility assessed

  17. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  18. Laser driven fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Maniscalco, J.A.

    1977-11-01

    The role of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) as a fissile fuel and/or power producer is discussed. As long range options to supply the world energy needs, hybrid-fueled thermal-burner reactors are compared to liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). A discussion of different fuel cycles (thorium, depleted uranium, and spent fuel) is presented in order to compare the energy multiplication, the production of fissile fuel, the laser efficiency and pellet gain requirements of the hybrid reactor. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has collaborated with Bechtel Corporation and with Westinghouse in two engineering design studies of laser fusion driven hybrid power plants. The hybrid designs which have resulted from these two studies are briefly described and analyzed by considering operational parameters, such as energy multiplication, power density, burn-up and plutonium production as a function time

  19. Biological and mechanical evaluation of a Bio-Hybrid scaffold for autologous valve tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnavi, S [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, TN 600036 (India); Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Trivandrum, Kerala 695012 (India); Saravanan, U [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, TN 600036 (India); Arthi, N [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, TN 600036 (India); Bhuvaneshwar, G S [Department of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, TN 600036 (India); Kumary, T V [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Trivandrum, Kerala 695012 (India); Rajan, S [Madras Medical Mission, Institute of Cardio-Vascular Diseases, Mogappair, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600037 (India); Verma, R S, E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, TN 600036 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Major challenge in heart valve tissue engineering for paediatric patients is the development of an autologous valve with regenerative capacity. Hybrid tissue engineering approach is recently gaining popularity to design scaffolds with desired biological and mechanical properties that can remodel post implantation. In this study, we fabricated aligned nanofibrous Bio-Hybrid scaffold made of decellularized bovine pericardium: polycaprolactone-chitosan with optimized polymer thickness to yield the desired biological and mechanical properties. CD44{sup +}, αSMA{sup +}, Vimentin{sup +} and CD105{sup −} human valve interstitial cells were isolated and seeded on these Bio-Hybrid scaffolds. Subsequent biological evaluation revealed interstitial cell proliferation with dense extra cellular matrix deposition that indicated the viability for growth and proliferation of seeded cells on the scaffolds. Uniaxial mechanical tests along axial direction showed that the Bio-Hybrid scaffolds has at least 20 times the strength of the native valves and its stiffness is nearly 3 times more than that of native valves. Biaxial and uniaxial mechanical studies on valve interstitial cells cultured Bio-Hybrid scaffolds revealed that the response along the axial and circumferential direction was different, similar to native valves. Overall, our findings suggest that Bio-Hybrid scaffold is a promising material for future development of regenerative heart valve constructs in children. - Highlights: • We report detailed biological and mechanical investigations of a Bio-Hybrid scaffold. • Optimized polymer thickness yielded desired biological and mechanical properties. • Bio-Hybrid scaffold revealed hVIC proliferation with dense ECM deposition. • Biaxial testing indicated that Bio-Hybrid scaffolds are mechanically stronger than native valves. • Bio-Hybrid scaffold is a promising material for autologous valve tissue engineering.

  20. Genetic molecular analysis of Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae hybrids using SRAP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Mishra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Coffea arabica (arabica coffee, the phenotypic as well as genetic variability has been found low because of the narrow genetic basis and self fertile nature of the species. Because of high similarity in phenotypic appearance among the majority of arabica collections, selection of parental lines for inter-varietals hybridization and identification of resultant hybrids at an early stage of plant growth is difficult. DNA markers are known to be reliable in identifying closely related cultivars and hybrids. Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP is a new molecular marker technology developed based on PCR. In this paper, sixty arabica-hybrid progenies belonging to six crosses were analyzed using 31 highly polymorphic SRAP markers. The analysis revealed seven types of SRAP marker profiles which are useful in discriminating the parents and hybrids. The number of bands amplified per primer pair ranges from 6.13 to 8.58 with average number of seven bands. Among six hybrid combinations, percentage of bands shared between hybrids and their parents ranged from 66.29% to 85.71% with polymorphic bands varied from 27.64% to 60.0%. Percentage of hybrid specific fragments obtained in various hybrid combinations ranged from 0.71% to 10.86% and ascribed to the consequence of meiotic recombination. Based on the similarity index calculation, it was observed that F1 hybrids share maximum number of bands with the female parent compared to male parent. The results obtained in the present study revealed the effectiveness of SRAP technique in cultivar identification and hybrid analysis in this coffee species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 607-617. Epub 2011 June 01.

  1. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  2. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V=Δ"4(1+acos (ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ϵ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  3. Hybrid powertrain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Ricardo C.; O'Neil, Walter K.; Preston, David M.

    2005-09-20

    A hybrid powertrain system is provided that includes a first prime mover having a rotational output, a second prime mover having a rotational output, and a transmission having a main shaft supporting at least two main shaft gears thereon. The transmission includes a first independent countershaft drivingly connected to the first prime mover and including at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. A second independent countershaft is drivingly connected to the second prime mover and includes at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. The ratio gears on the first and second countershafts cooperate with the main shaft gears to provide at least one gear ratio between the first and second countershafts and the main shaft. A shift control mechanism selectively engages and disengages the first and second countershafts for rotation with the main shaft.

  4. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  5. Hyper- and hybrid nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanna; Gessner, Manuel; Li, Weidong; Smerzi, Augusto

    2018-02-01

    The controlled generation and identification of quantum correlations, usually encoded in either qubits or continuous degrees of freedom, builds the foundation of quantum information science. Recently, more sophisticated approaches, involving a combination of two distinct degrees of freedom, have been proposed to improve on the traditional strategies. Hyperentanglement describes simultaneous entanglement in more than one distinct degree of freedom, whereas hybrid entanglement refers to entanglement shared between a discrete and a continuous degree of freedom. In this work we propose a scheme that allows us to combine the two approaches, and to extend them to the strongest form of quantum correlations. Specifically, we show how two identical, initially separated particles can be manipulated to produce Bell nonlocality among their spins, among their momenta, as well as across their spins and momenta. We discuss possible experimental realizations with atomic and photonic systems.

  6. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  7. Hybrid Magnetic Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kevin; Crawford, Christopher; Mullins, Andrew; Porter, Greg; Blanton, Hunter; Johnstone, Connor; Kistler, Ben; Olivera, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    The search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron requires the ambient magnetic field to be on the pT scale which is accomplished with large magnetic shielding rooms. These rooms are fitted with large mu-metal sheets to allow for passive cancellation of background magnetic fields. Active shielding technology cannot uniformly cancel background magnetic fields. These issues can be remedied by combining the methods into a hybrid system. The design used is composed of panels that have an active layer of cancellation between two sheets of mu-metal. The panels form a cube and draw in magnetic fields perpendicular to the surface which can then be reduced using active shielding. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Contract DE-SC0008107.

  8. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    “hubris” that is so much taken for granted in contemporary science and engineering discourses and practices with a sense of cooperation and social responsibility. The book portrays the history of science and technology as an underlying tension between hubris – literally the ambition to “play god...... an alternative approach, devoting special attention to the role played by social and cultural movements in the making of science and technology. They show how social and cultural movements, from the Renaissance of the late 15th century to the environmental and global justice movements of our time, have provided......” on the part of many a scientist and engineer and neglect the consequences - and a hybrid imagination, connecting scientific “facts” and technological “artifacts” with cultural understanding. The book concludes with chapters on the recent transformations in the modes of scientific and technological production...

  9. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time......-derivatives in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  10. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-02

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  12. Enzymatic synthesis of lignin-siloxane hybrid functional polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Endry Nugroho; Kudanga, Tukayi; Fischer, Roman; Eichinger, Reinhard; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Guebitz, Georg M

    2012-02-01

    This study combines the properties of siloxanes and lignin polymers to produce hybrid functional polymers that can be used as adhesives, coating materials, and/or multifunctionalized thin-coating films. Lignin-silica hybrid copolymers were synthesized by using a sol-gel process. Laccases from Trametes hirsuta were used to oxidize lignosulphonates to enhance their reactivity towards siloxanes and then were incorporated into siloxane precursors undergoing a sol-gel process. In vitro copolymerization studies using pure lignin monomers with aminosilanes or ethoxytrimethylsilane and analysis by ²⁹Si NMR spectroscopy revealed hybrid products. Except for kraft lignin, an increase in lignin concentration positively affected the tensile strength in all samples. Similarly, the viscosity generally increased in all samples with increasing lignin concentration and also affected the curing time. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-01

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  14. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  15. Origin and cross-century dynamics of an avian hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rozo, Andrea; Tenorio, Elkin A; Carling, Matthew D; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2017-12-15

    Characterizations of the dynamics of hybrid zones in space and time can give insights about traits and processes important in population divergence and speciation. We characterized a hybrid zone between tanagers in the genus Ramphocelus (Aves, Thraupidae) located in southwestern Colombia. We evaluated whether this hybrid zone originated as a result of secondary contact or of primary differentiation, and described its dynamics across time using spatial analyses of molecular, morphological, and coloration data in combination with paleodistribution modeling. Models of potential historical distributions based on climatic data and genetic signatures of demographic expansion suggested that the hybrid zone likely originated following secondary contact between populations that expanded their ranges out of isolated areas in the Quaternary. Concordant patterns of variation in phenotypic characters across the hybrid zone and its narrow extent are suggestive of a tension zone, maintained by a balance between dispersal and selection against hybrids. Estimates of phenotypic cline parameters obtained using specimens collected over nearly a century revealed that, in recent decades, the zone appears to have moved to the east and to higher elevations, and may have become narrower. Genetic variation was not clearly structured along the hybrid zone, but comparisons between historical and contemporary specimens suggested that temporal changes in its genetic makeup may also have occurred. Our data suggest that the hybrid zone likey resulted from secondary contact between populations. The observed changes in the hybrid zone may be a result of sexual selection, asymmetric gene flow, or environmental change.

  16. Hybrid silica luminescent materials based on lanthanide-containing lyotropic liquid crystal with polarized emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanova, N.M., E-mail: natsel@mail.ru [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation); Vandyukov, A.E.; Gubaidullin, A.T. [A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of the Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Acad. Arbuzov Str., Kazan 420088 (Russian Federation); Galyametdinov, Y.G. [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    This paper represents the template method for synthesis of hybrid silica films based on Ln-containing lyotropic liquid crystal and characterized by efficient luminescence. Luminescence films were prepared in situ by the sol–gel processes. Lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) mesophases C{sub 12}H{sub 25}O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 10}H/Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O containing Ln (III) ions (Dy, Tb, Eu) were used as template. Polarized optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and FT-IR-spectroscopy were used for characterization of liquid crystal mesophases and hybrid films. The morphology of composite films was studied by the atomic force microscopy method (AFM). The optical properties of the resulting materials were evaluated. It was found that hybrid silica films demonstrate significant increase of their lifetime in comparison with an LLC system. New effects of linearly polarized emission revealed for Ln-containing hybrid silica films. Polarization in lanthanide-containing hybrid composites indicates that silica precursor causes orientation of emitting ions. - Highlights: • We suggest a new simple approach for creating luminescence hybrid silica films. • Ln-containing hybrid silica films demonstrate yellow, green and red emissions. • Tb(III)-containing hybrid film have a high lifetime. • We report effects of linearly polarized emission in hybrid film.

  17. Interspecific somatic hybrid plants between eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Solanum torvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, A; Sink, K C

    1988-10-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts of eggplant (cv Black Beauty) and of Solanum torvum (both 2n=2x=24) were fused using a modification of the Menczel and Wolfe PEG/DMSO procedure. Protoplasts post-fusion were plated at 1 × 10(5)/ml in modified KM medium, which inhibited division of S. torvum protoplasts. One week prior to shoot regeneration, ten individual calluses had a unique light-green background and were verified as cell hybrids by the presence of the dimer isozyme patterns for phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT). Hybridity was also confirmed at the plant stage by DNA-DNA hybridization to a pea 45S ribosomal RNA gene probe. The ten somatic hybrid plants were established in the greenhouse and exhibited intermediate morphological characteristics such as leaf size and shape, flower size, shape, color and plant stature. Their chromosome number ranged from 46-48 (expected 2n=4x=48) and pollen viability was 5%-70%. In vitro shoots taken from the ten hybrid plants exhibited resistance to a verticillium wilt extract. Total DNA from the ten hybrids was restricted and hybridized with a 5.9 kb Oenothera chloroplast cytochrome f gene probe, a 2.4 kb EcoRI clone encoding mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II from maize and a 22.1 kb Sal I mitochondrial clone from Nicotiana sylvestris. Southern blot hybridization patterns showed that eight of ten somatic hybrids contained the eggplant cpDNA, while two plants contained the cpDNA hybridization patterns of both parents. The mtDNA analysis revealed the presence of novel bands, loss of some specific parental bands and mixture of specific bands from both parents in the restriction hybridization profiles of the hybrids.

  18. Assessing the bioconfinement potential of a Nicotiana hybrid platform for use in plant molecular farming applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J Hollis; Mundell, Richard E; Millwood, Reginald J; Chambers, Orlando D; Stewart, C Neal; Davies, H Maelor

    2013-08-06

    The introduction of pharmaceutical traits in tobacco for commercial production could benefit from the utilization of a transgene bioconfinement system. It has been observed that interspecific F1Nicotiana hybrids (Nicotiana tabacum × Nicotiana glauca) are sterile and thus proposed that hybrids could be suitable bioconfined hosts for biomanufacturing. We genetically tagged hybrids with green fluorescent protein (GFP), which was used as a visual marker to enable gene flow tracking and quantification for field and greenhouse studies. GFP was used as a useful proxy for pharmaceutical transgenes. Analysis of DNA content revealed significant genomic downsizing of the hybrid relative to that of N. tabacum. Hybrid pollen was capable of germination in vitro, albeit with a very low frequency and with significant differences between plants. In two field experiments, one each in Tennessee and Kentucky, we detected outcrossing at only one location (Tennessee) at 1.4%. Additionally, from 50 hybrid plants at each field site, formation of 84 and 16 seed was observed, respectively. Similar conclusions about hybrid fertility were drawn from greenhouse crosses. In terms of above-ground biomass, the hybrid yield was not significantly different than that of N. tabacum in the field. N. tabacum × N. glauca hybrids show potential to contribute to a bioconfinement- and biomanufacturing host system. Hybrids exhibit extremely low fertility with no difference of green biomass yields relative to N. tabacum. In addition, hybrids are morphologically distinguishable from tobacco allowing for identity preservation. This hybrid system for biomanufacturing would optimally be used where N. glauca is not present and in physical isolation of N. tabacum production to provide total bioconfinement.

  19. Hybrid computing - Generalities and bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, Daniele

    1970-01-01

    This note presents the content of a research thesis. It describes the evolution of hybrid computing systems, discusses the benefits and shortcomings of analogue or hybrid systems, discusses the building up of an hybrid system (requires properties), comments different possible uses, addresses the issues of language and programming, discusses analysis methods and scopes of application. An appendix proposes a bibliography on these issues and notably the different scopes of application (simulation, fluid dynamics, biology, chemistry, electronics, energy, errors, space, programming languages, hardware, mechanics, and optimisation of equations or processes, physics) [fr

  20. Research of a hybrid undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Youwu; Wu Bing; Liu Bo

    1995-12-01

    A 1.5 m tapered hybrid undulator has been designed and built for mid-infrared free electron laser experiments at CIAE. The undulator utilizes the REC-steel hybrid configuration. The magnetic gap and magnetic field taper can be continuously adjusted. The rms error of the peak field is less than 0.53%. The electron trajectory deviation is around 0.03 mm. The design of undulator, sorting of magnets in hybrid undulator using simulated annealing technique, the motion of electron beam in the ideal and measured magnetic field, magnetic field measurement technique and magnetic field adjustment are described. (6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab)

  1. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...... and growth of pollen tubes, as well as lower frequencies of pollen tubes were observed in specific cross-combinations. Post-fertilization barriers related to endosperm development and hybrid incompatibility were also observed in Kalanchoë and Hibiscus genus, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative...

  2. Triplex in-situ hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresco, Jacques R.; Johnson, Marion D.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for detecting in situ the presence of a target sequence in a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment, which comprises: a) contacting in situ under conditions suitable for hybridization a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment with a detectable third strand, said third strand being capable of hybridizing to at least a portion of the target sequence to form a triple-stranded structure, if said target sequence is present; and b) detecting whether hybridization between the third strand and the target sequence has occured.

  3. Evolution of hybrid defect networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2009-01-01

    We apply a recently developed analytic model for the evolution of monopole networks to the case of monopoles attached to one string, usually known as hybrid networks. We discuss scaling solutions for both local and global hybrid networks, and also find an interesting application for the case of vortons. Our quantitative results agree with previous estimates in indicating that the hybrid networks will usually annihilate soon after the string-forming phase transition. However, we also show that in some specific circumstances these networks can survive considerably more than a Hubble time.

  4. Program Hybrid/GDH. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.; Bisplinghoff, J.

    1975-10-01

    This code is the most recent in a series of codes for doing a-priori pre-equilibrium decay calculations. It has been written to permit the user to exercise many options at time of execution. It will, for example, permit calculation with either Hybrid model or the geometry dependent Hybrid model (GDH). Intranuclear transition rates can be calculated using either a nucleon-nucleon scattering approach (improved over earlier results) or based on the imaginary optical potential. Transition rates based on exciton lifetimes can be selected (as suggested in the Hybrid model formulation) or an average lifetime for each n-exciton configuration may be selected

  5. Hybrid incompatibilities in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia: negative effects of hemizygosity and the identification of transmission ratio distortion loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koevoets, T; Niehuis, O; van de Zande, L; Beukeboom, L W

    2012-03-01

    The occurrence of hybrid incompatibilities forms an important stage during the evolution of reproductive isolation. In early stages of speciation, males and females often respond differently to hybridization. Haldane's rule states that the heterogametic sex suffers more from hybridization than the homogametic sex. Although haplodiploid reproduction (haploid males, diploid females) does not involve sex chromosomes, sex-specific incompatibilities are predicted to be prevalent in haplodiploid species. Here, we evaluate the effect of sex/ploidy level on hybrid incompatibilities and locate genomic regions that cause increased mortality rates in hybrid males of the haplodiploid wasps Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia longicornis. Our data show that diploid F(1) hybrid females suffer less from hybridization than haploid F(2) hybrid males. The latter not only suffer from an increased mortality rate, but also from behavioural and spermatogenic sterility. Genetic mapping in recombinant F(2) male hybrids revealed that the observed hybrid mortality is most likely due to a disruption of cytonuclear interactions. As these sex-specific hybrid incompatibilities follow predictions based on Haldane's rule, our data accentuate the need to broaden the view of Haldane's rule to include species with haplodiploid sex determination, consistent with Haldane's original definition.

  6. Heterosis and correlation in interspecific and intraspecific hybrids of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, S; Hussain, S B; Manzoor, H; Quereshi, M K; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Shehzad, A N; Rasul, S; Manzoor, S A

    2016-06-24

    Interspecific and intraspecific hybrids show varying degrees of heterosis for yield and yield components. Yield-component traits have complex genetic relationships with each other. To determine the relationship of yield-component traits and fiber traits with seed cotton yield, six lines (Bt. CIM-599, CIM-573, MNH-786, CIM-554, BH-167, and GIZA-7) and three test lines (MNH-886, V4, and CIM-557) were crossed in a line x tester mating design. Heterosis was observed for seed cotton yield, fiber traits, and for other yield-component traits. Heterosis in interspecific hybrids for seed cotton yield was more prominent than in intraspecific hybrids. The interspecific hybrid Giza-7 x MNH-886 had the highest heterosis (114.77), while among intraspecific hybrids, CIM-554 x CIM-557 had the highest heterosis (61.29) for seed cotton yield. A major trait contributing to seed cotton yield was bolls/plant followed by boll weight. Correlation studies revealed that bolls/plant, boll weight, lint weight/boll, lint index, seed index, lint/seed, staple length, and staple strength were significantly and positively associated with seed cotton yield. Selection based on boll weight, boll number, lint weight/boll, and lint index will be helpful for improving cotton seed yield.

  7. Study of flax hybrid preforms reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, B. A

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine the thermal, viscoelastic and mechanical behaviour of flax preform hybrid composites. • The thermal stability of the matrix decrease with increasing volume fraction of flax preforms. • The effect of number of preform layers and the lay-up architecture were studied.. • Morphological study on the fractured surface of the composite laminate is carried out. - Abstracts: This study investigates the thermal, mechanical and thermomechanical properties of flax hybrid preform reinforced epoxy composites. Flax plain weave fabric and 1 × 1 weft rib knitted structures were together used as reinforcements and the composites were produced using hand lay-up technique. Specimen preparation and testing were carried out as per ASTM standards. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a decrease in thermal stability of the matrix polymer with the incorporation of flax hybrid preform. The dynamic mechanical analysis revealed a shift in the T g with the addition of flax hybrid preforms. Mechanical data obtained showed that tensile strength and stiffness is a product of the fibre/matrix synergy, whereas the compressive strength and stiffness are contributed by the reinforcing matrix. Additionally, investigation show that laminate with knitted preform as skin layer exhibits superior mechanical properties. However, improved tensile properties at lower fibre volume fraction, reinforces the opinion that hybrid preform composites can offer significant benefits in terms of performance, weight and overall cost. The failure mechanism was analysed, by scanning electron microscope (SEM)

  8. Performance estimation of photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Xuan, Yimin; Yang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical model for evaluating the efficiency of concentrating PV–TE (photovoltaic–thermoelectric) hybrid system is developed in this paper. Hybrid systems with different photovoltaic cells are studied, including crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, silicon thin-film photovoltaic cell, polymer photovoltaic cell and copper indium gallium selenide photovoltaic cell. The influence of temperature on the efficiency of photovoltaic cell has been taken into account based on the semiconductor equations, which reveals different efficiency temperature characteristic of polymer photovoltaic cells. It is demonstrated that the polycrystalline silicon thin-film photovoltaic cell is suitable for concentrating PV–TE hybrid system through optimization of the convection heat transfer coefficient and concentrating ratio. The polymer photovoltaic cell is proved to be suitable for non-concentrating PV–TE hybrid system. - Highlights: • Performances of four types of photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid systems are studied. • Temperature is one of dominant factors of affecting the conversion efficiency of PV–TE systems. • One can select a proper PV–TE assembly system according to given operating conditions

  9. Compositional Modelling of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we present a modelling framework for compositional modelling of stochastic hybrid systems. Hybrid systems consist of a combination of continuous and discrete dynamics. The state space of a hybrid system is hybrid in the sense that it consists of a continuous component and a discrete

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . A wide variety of hybrid electric vehicle models is currently available. Although HEVs are often -go traffic), further improving fuel economy. Mild hybrid systems cannot power the vehicle using Hybrid Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric

  11. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Evaluations Hybrid Electric Vehicle Evaluations How Hybrid Electric Vehicles Work Hybrid electric vehicles combine a primary power source, an energy storage system, and an is used to propel the vehicle during normal drive cycles. The batteries supply additional power for

  12. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications Hybrid Electric Vehicle Publications The following technical papers, conference papers, and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hybrid electric fleet vehicle Class 8 Hybrid Electric Delivery Trucks. Mike Lammert. (2011) FedEx Delivery Trucks In-Use and Vehicle

  13. Hybridization and management of oak populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver Gailing

    2017-01-01

    Hybridization can result in the transfer of adaptations among species and may contribute to speciation processes. On the other hand, hybridization can also result in a loss of species diversity due to asymmetric gene flow between species (genetic swamping) and in low hybrid fitness. An understanding of the outcomes of interspecific hybridization is crucial for the...

  14. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  15. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  16. HYBRIDIZATION AND CHAMELEONIC JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Schryver Kurtz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto aborda a crescente hibridização entre o Jornalismo e demais formatos midiáticos como resultado natural de um processo que já está na própria raiz da comunicação enquanto atividade histórica. A lógica interna e as potencialidades estéticas e discursivas do fenômeno são analisadas a partir das convergências entre jornalismo e cinema. Para tanto, utiliza o falso documentário Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido por natureza, postulado como um microcosmo rico em pistas e sugestões para refletir sobre a fusão entre conteúdos informativos e não informativos.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hibridização; Jornalismo; Cinema; Zelig.       ABSTRACT The text discusses the growing hybridization between journalism and other media formats as a natural result of a process that is already in the very root of communication while historical activity. The internal logic and the aesthetic and discursive potential of the phenomenon are analyzed through the convergences between journalism and cinema. Therefore, uses the mockumentary Zelig (1983, filmic text of Woody Allen, hybrid by nature, postulated as a microcosm rich in clues and suggestions to reflect about the merger between informative and uninformative content.      KEYWORDS: Hybridization; Journalism; Cinema; Zelig.     RESUMEN El texto aborda la creciente hibridación entre el periodismo y otros formatos de medios como um resultado natural de un proceso que ya está en la raíz misma de la comunicación mientras actividad histórica. Se analizan la lógica interna y el potencial estético y discursivo del fenómeno a través de las convergencias entre el periodismo y el cine. Para ello, utiliza el falso documental Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido en su naturaleza, postulado como un microcosmos rico en pistas y sugerencias para reflexionar sobre la fusión entre contenidos informativos y no informativos.      PALABRAS CLAVE: Hibridaci

  17. On the Likely Utility of Hybrid Weights Optimized for Variances in Hybrid Error Covariance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, E.; Hodyss, D.; Kuhl, D.; Bishop, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    Because of imperfections in ensemble data assimilation schemes, one cannot assume that the ensemble covariance is equal to the true error covariance of a forecast. Previous work demonstrated how information about the distribution of true error variances given an ensemble sample variance can be revealed from an archive of (observation-minus-forecast, ensemble-variance) data pairs. Here, we derive a simple and intuitively compelling formula to obtain the mean of this distribution of true error variances given an ensemble sample variance from (observation-minus-forecast, ensemble-variance) data pairs produced by a single run of a data assimilation system. This formula takes the form of a Hybrid weighted average of the climatological forecast error variance and the ensemble sample variance. Here, we test the extent to which these readily obtainable weights can be used to rapidly optimize the covariance weights used in Hybrid data assimilation systems that employ weighted averages of static covariance models and flow-dependent ensemble based covariance models. Univariate data assimilation and multi-variate cycling ensemble data assimilation are considered. In both cases, it is found that our computationally efficient formula gives Hybrid weights that closely approximate the optimal weights found through the simple but computationally expensive process of testing every plausible combination of weights.

  18. Design and measuring of a tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber for terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Min; Liu, Shui Jie; Xu, Bang Li; Wang, Jie; Huang, Hua Qing

    2018-04-01

    A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber is designed and experimentally produced in THz band. The hybrid metamaterial absorber contains two dielectric layers: SU-8 and VO2 layers. An absorption peak reaching to 83.5% is achieved at 1.04 THz. The hybrid metamaterial absorber exhibits high absorption when the incident angle reaches to 45°. Measured results indicate that the absorption amplitude and peak frequency of the hybrid metamaterial absorber is tunable in experiments. It is due to the insulator-to-metal phase transition is achieved when the measured temperature reaches to 68 °C. Moreover, the hybrid metamaterial absorber reveals high figure of merit (FOM) value when the measured temperature reaches to 68 °C.

  19. Post-Impact and Open Hole Tensile Of Kenaf Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, S.; Salleh, Z.; Masdek, N. R. N. M.; Taib, Y. M.; Azhar, I. I. S.; Hyie, K. M.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, kenaf hybrid glass composites has been used for a vast field of study throughout the globe. There are several compositions and orientation of kenaf hybrid glass composites that has been studied. With regards to the study that has been done, this study will be focussing on a 90FG/0/90/90/0/90FG orientation of kenaf hybrid glass composites. Polyester resin is used as a matrix to these hybrid composites. Impacted and open hole specimens were then analyzed through tensile test. All specimens were fabricated by using the cold press hand lay-up technique. The results revealed that the hybrid composites were hardly affected by the impact up to 6J. After 6J the impacted specimens experienced a significant damage for both strength and modulus. The same goes to open hole specimens where the same trend of tensile properties were observed as impacted specimens.

  20. Optical Properties of Hybrid Nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    owner

    K. George Thomas. Photosciences & Photonics Group. National Institute for Interdisciplinary. Science and Technology (NIIST), CSIR,. Trivandrum- 695 019, INDIA. (kgt@vsnl.com). Optical Properties of Hybrid. Nanomaterials ...

  1. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  2. MTU hybrid powerpack for railcars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Ingo; Schmalzing, Claus-Oliver [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH (Germany); Werner, Claus [DB RegioNetz Verkehrs GmbH (Germany); Bold, Uwe [DB Systemtechnik Engineering Kassel (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Up to 25 percent lower fuel consumption and emission-free train movements in station areas are possible with the MTU hybrid drive system. First field tests on tracks of the Deutsche Bahn started in autumn 2011. (orig.)

  3. Design Procedure for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Tjelflaat, Per Olaf

    Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation....... Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC....... The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed....

  4. Epigenomics: dissecting hybridization and polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Scott A

    2017-06-19

    Epigenetic profiling in diploid, allopolyploid, and domesticated cotton shows that despite most DNA methylation being conserved and stably inherited, alterations likely due to hybridization and domestication affect gene expression.

  5. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  6. Optimizing hybrid spreading in metapopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Miller, Joel C; Cox, Ingemar J; Chain, Benjamin M

    2015-04-29

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by local spreading, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and global spreading, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemics, and examine the optimum balance between spreading mechanisms in terms of achieving the maximum outbreak size. We show the existence of critically hybrid epidemics where neither spreading mechanism alone can cause a noticeable spread but a combination of the two spreading mechanisms would produce an enormous outbreak. Our results provide new strategies for maximising beneficial epidemics and estimating the worst outcome of damaging hybrid epidemics.

  7. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-01-01

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during

  8. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  9. Hybrid Materials for Molecular Sieves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Klein, Lisa; Aparicio, Mario; Jitianu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid microporous organosilica membranes for molecular separations made by acid-catalyzed solgel synthesis from bridged silsesquioxane precursors have demonstrated good performance in terms of flux and selectivity and remarkable hydrothermal stability in various pervaporation and gas separation

  10. Hybrid quantum-classical master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    We discuss hybrid master equations of composite systems, which are hybrids of classical and quantum subsystems. A fairly general form of hybrid master equations is suggested. Its consistency is derived from the consistency of Lindblad quantum master equations. We emphasize that quantum measurement is a natural example of exact hybrid systems. We derive a heuristic hybrid master equation of time-continuous position measurement (monitoring). (paper)

  11. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  12. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    OpenAIRE

    Renuganth Varatharajoo; Ramly Ajir; Tamizi Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS) consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl...

  13. Optimizing Hybrid Spreading in Metapopulations.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Miller, J. C.; Cox, I. J.; Chain, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by local spreading, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and global spreading, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemic...

  14. Optimizing Hybrid Spreading in Metapopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Miller, Joel C.; Cox, Ingemar J.; Chain, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by local spreading, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and global spreading, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemic...

  15. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  16. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  17. Hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  18. Protaper--hybrid technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Stephane; Lumley, Philip; Tomson, Phillip; Pertot, Wilhelm-Joseph; Machtou, Pierre

    2008-03-01

    Crown down preparation is the most known and described technique since the introduction of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments in endodontics. This technique gives good results but has limitations, such as not addressing the initial anatomy of oval or dumb-bell shaped canals. The specific design of the Protaper instruments allows use of them with a different technique and, specifically, with a brushing motion in the body of the canal. The recent introduction of hand Protaper files has expanded the range of application of this system, especially in curved canals. The 'hybrid technique', using rotary and hand files, and the advantages of the combination of both instruments, are clearly described in this article. Used with this technique, the Protaper is a very safe system to use, and more controllable, for both inexperienced and experienced practitioners alike, than other systems. To understand the precautions needed with rotary files, and how to use them to preserve the anatomy of the canal and get a tapered shaping, even in severely curved canals.

  19. Comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G

    2005-01-01

    Altering DNA copy number is one of the many ways that gene expression and function may be modified. Some variations are found among normal individuals ( 14, 35, 103 ), others occur in the course of normal processes in some species ( 33 ), and still others participate in causing various disease states. For example, many defects in human development are due to gains and losses of chromosomes and chromosomal segments that occur prior to or shortly after fertilization, whereas DNA dosage alterations that occur in somatic cells are frequent contributors to cancer. Detecting these aberrations, and interpreting them within the context of broader knowledge, facilitates identification of critical genes and pathways involved in biological processes and diseases, and provides clinically relevant information. Over the past several years array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) has demonstrated its value for analyzing DNA copy number variations. In this review we discuss the state of the art of array CGH and its applications in medical genetics and cancer, emphasizing general concepts rather than specific results.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of orbital hybridization in carbon nanotubes under radial deformation using π-orbital axis vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Ohnishi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When a radial strain is applied to a carbon nanotube (CNT, the increase in local curvature induces orbital hybridization. The effect of the curvature-induced orbital hybridization on the electronic properties of CNTs, however, has not been evaluated quantitatively. In this study, the strength of orbital hybridization in CNTs under homogeneous radial strain was evaluated quantitatively. Our analyses revealed the detailed procedure of the change in electronic structure of CNTs. In addition, the dihedral angle, the angle between π-orbital axis vectors of adjacent atoms, was found to effectively predict the strength of local orbital hybridization in deformed CNTs.

  1. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  2. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  3. Properties of halloysite nanotube-epoxy resin hybrids and the interfacial reactions in the systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Mingxian; Guo Baochun; Du Mingliang; Cai Xiaojia; Jia Demin [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2007-11-14

    A naturally occurred microtubullar silicate, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), was co-cured with epoxy/cyanate ester resin to form organic-inorganic hybrids. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the hybrids with low HNT concentration was found to be substantially lower than that of the plain cured resin. The moduli of the hybrids in the glassy state and rubbery state were significantly higher than those for the plain cured resin. The dispersion of HNTs in the resin matrix was very uniform as revealed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. The interfacial reactions between the HNTs and cyanate ester (CE) were revealed by the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The substantially increased properties of the hybrids were attributed to the covalent bonding between the nanotubes and the matrix.

  4. Properties of halloysite nanotube-epoxy resin hybrids and the interfacial reactions in the systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Mingxian; Guo Baochun; Du Mingliang; Cai Xiaojia; Jia Demin

    2007-01-01

    A naturally occurred microtubullar silicate, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), was co-cured with epoxy/cyanate ester resin to form organic-inorganic hybrids. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the hybrids with low HNT concentration was found to be substantially lower than that of the plain cured resin. The moduli of the hybrids in the glassy state and rubbery state were significantly higher than those for the plain cured resin. The dispersion of HNTs in the resin matrix was very uniform as revealed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. The interfacial reactions between the HNTs and cyanate ester (CE) were revealed by the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The substantially increased properties of the hybrids were attributed to the covalent bonding between the nanotubes and the matrix

  5. Self-organizing bioinspired oligothiophene–oligopeptide hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey K. Shaytan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this minireview, we survey recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, and modeling of new oligothiophene–oligopeptide hybrids capable of forming nanostructured fibrillar aggregates in solution and on solid substrates. Compounds of this class are promising for applications because their self-assembly and stimuli-responsive properties, provided by the peptide moieties combined with the semiconducting properties of the thiophene blocks, can result in novel opportunities for the design of advanced smart materials. These bio-inspired molecular hybrids are experimentally shown to form stable fibrils as visualized by AFM and TEM. While the experimental evidence alone is not sufficient to reveal the exact molecular organization of the fibrils, theoretical approaches based on quantum chemistry calculations and large-scale atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are attempted in an effort to reveal the structure of the fibrils at the nanoscale. Based on the combined theoretical and experimental analysis, the most likely models of fibril formation and aggregation are suggested.

  6. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  7. Hybrid-Based Dense Stereo Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Ting, H. W.; Jaw, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Stereo matching generating accurate and dense disparity maps is an indispensable technique for 3D exploitation of imagery in the fields of Computer vision and Photogrammetry. Although numerous solutions and advances have been proposed in the literature, occlusions, disparity discontinuities, sparse texture, image distortion, and illumination changes still lead to problematic issues and await better treatment. In this paper, a hybrid-based method based on semi-global matching is presented to tackle the challenges on dense stereo matching. To ease the sensitiveness of SGM cost aggregation towards penalty parameters, a formal way to provide proper penalty estimates is proposed. To this end, the study manipulates a shape-adaptive cross-based matching with an edge constraint to generate an initial disparity map for penalty estimation. Image edges, indicating the potential locations of occlusions as well as disparity discontinuities, are approved by the edge drawing algorithm to ensure the local support regions not to cover significant disparity changes. Besides, an additional penalty parameter 𝑃𝑒 is imposed onto the energy function of SGM cost aggregation to specifically handle edge pixels. Furthermore, the final disparities of edge pixels are found by weighting both values derived from the SGM cost aggregation and the U-SURF matching, providing more reliable estimates at disparity discontinuity areas. Evaluations on Middlebury stereo benchmarks demonstrate satisfactory performance and reveal the potency of the hybrid-based dense stereo matching method.

  8. Exclusive neuronal expression of SUCLA2 in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobolyi, Arpád; Ostergaard, Elsebet; Bagó, Attila G

    2015-01-01

    associated with SUCLA2 mutations, the precise localization of SUCLA2 protein has never been investigated. Here, we show that immunoreactivity of A-SUCL-β in surgical human cortical tissue samples was present exclusively in neurons, identified by their morphology and visualized by double labeling...... was absent in glial cells, identified by antibodies directed against the glial markers GFAP and S100. Furthermore, in situ hybridization histochemistry demonstrated that SUCLA2 mRNA was present in Nissl-labeled neurons but not glial cells labeled with S100. Immunoreactivity of the GTP-forming β subunit (G......-SUCL-β) encoded by SUCLG2, or in situ hybridization histochemistry for SUCLG2 mRNA could not be demonstrated in either neurons or astrocytes. Western blotting of post mortem brain samples revealed minor G-SUCL-β immunoreactivity that was, however, not upregulated in samples obtained from diabetic versus non...

  9. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase dispersed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide hybrid biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-01-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on enhanced and fast direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) at enzyme dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide (MWCNT/GO) hybrid biocomposite was developed. The fabricated hybrid biocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The TEM image of hybrid biocomposite reveals that a thin layer of GOx was covered on the surface of MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. IR results validate that the hybrid biocomposite was formed through the electrostatic interactions between GOx and MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. Further, MWCNT/GO hybrid composite has also been characterized by TEM and UV-visible spectroscopy. A pair of well-defined redox peak was observed for GOx immobilized at the hybrid biocomposite electrode than that immobilized at the MWCNT modified electrode. The electron transfer rate constant (Ks) of GOx at the hybrid biocomposite was calculated to be 11.22s(-1). The higher Ks value revealed that fast DET of GOx occurred at the electrode surface. Moreover, fabricated biosensor showed a good sensitivity towards glucose oxidation over a linear range 0.05-23.2mM. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 28μM. The good features of the proposed biosensor could be used for the accurate detection of glucose in the biological samples. © 2013.

  10. Mechanisms of Transmission Ratio Distortion at Hybrid Sterility Loci Within and Between Mimulus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Kerwin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid incompatibilities are a common correlate of genomic divergence and a potentially important contributor to reproductive isolation. However, we do not yet have a detailed understanding of how hybrid incompatibility loci function and evolve within their native species, or why they are dysfunctional in hybrids. Here, we explore these issues for a well-studied, two-locus hybrid incompatibility between hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1 and hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2 in the closely related yellow monkeyflower species Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. By performing reciprocal backcrosses with introgression lines (ILs, we find evidence for gametic expression of the hms1-hms2 incompatibility. Surprisingly, however, hybrid transmission ratios at hms1 do not reflect this incompatibility, suggesting that additional mechanisms counteract the effects of gametic sterility. Indeed, our backcross experiment shows hybrid transmission bias toward M. guttatus through both pollen and ovules, an effect that is particularly strong when hms2 is homozygous for M. nasutus alleles. In contrast, we find little evidence for hms1 transmission bias in crosses within M. guttatus, providing no indication of selfish evolution at this locus. Although we do not yet have sufficient genetic resolution to determine if hybrid sterility and transmission ratio distortion (TRD map to the same loci, our preliminary fine-mapping uncovers a genetically independent hybrid lethality system involving at least two loci linked to hms1. This fine-scale dissection of TRD at hms1 and hms2 provides insight into genomic differentiation between closely related Mimulus species and reveals multiple mechanisms of hybrid dysfunction.

  11. Mechanisms of Transmission Ratio Distortion at Hybrid Sterility Loci Within and Between Mimulus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Rachel E; Sweigart, Andrea L

    2017-11-06

    Hybrid incompatibilities are a common correlate of genomic divergence and a potentially important contributor to reproductive isolation. However, we do not yet have a detailed understanding of how hybrid incompatibility loci function and evolve within their native species, or why they are dysfunctional in hybrids. Here, we explore these issues for a well-studied, two-locus hybrid incompatibility between hybrid male sterility 1 ( hms1 ) and hybrid male sterility 2 ( hms2 ) in the closely related yellow monkeyflower species Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus By performing reciprocal backcrosses with introgression lines (ILs), we find evidence for gametic expression of the hms1-hms2 incompatibility. Surprisingly, however, hybrid transmission ratios at hms1 do not reflect this incompatibility, suggesting that additional mechanisms counteract the effects of gametic sterility. Indeed, our backcross experiment shows hybrid transmission bias toward M. guttatus through both pollen and ovules, an effect that is particularly strong when hms2 is homozygous for M. nasutus alleles. In contrast, we find little evidence for hms1 transmission bias in crosses within M. guttatus , providing no indication of selfish evolution at this locus. Although we do not yet have sufficient genetic resolution to determine if hybrid sterility and transmission ratio distortion (TRD) map to the same loci, our preliminary fine-mapping uncovers a genetically independent hybrid lethality system involving at least two loci linked to hms1 This fine-scale dissection of TRD at hms1 and hms2 provides insight into genomic differentiation between closely related Mimulus species and reveals multiple mechanisms of hybrid dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Kerwin and Sweigart.

  12. Hybrid platform. Economical hybrid drive for commercial vehicles; Hybrid Plattform. Wirtschaftlicher Hybridantrieb fuer Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, S.; Lamke, M.; Mohr, M.; Sedlacek, M.; Speck, F.D. [ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Up to now, hybrid systems have been adapted to their specific requirements in the various applications for trucks, buses as well as mobile and building machines. From a technical point of view, this does indeed result in optimized hybrid drives for each single vehicle application, but due to small volumes, such single developments are critical from a business point of view. ZF Friedrichshafen AG is providing a solution to the technical and economical requirements of the cost-sensitive CV segment in the form of a modular CV parallel hybrid platform composed of a hybrid module system, an inverter, a battery system, and a hybrid software integrated into the overall vehicle. Thanks to the intelligent combination of assemblies and the use of as many identical parts as possible, platforms are realized which cover power ranges between 60 and 120 kW, voltage ranges between 350 and 650 V, and battery capacities between 2 and 4 kWh. The dimensions of the platform elements are such that integration into the diverse commercial vehicle applications is made easy. The hybrid software required for the vehicle-specific functions is also configurable for the mentioned CV applications. (orig.)

  13. A Novel of Hybrid Maintenance Management Models for Industrial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Zulkifli

    2010-01-01

    It is observed through empirical studies that the effectiveness of industrial process have been increased by a well organized of machines maintenance structure. In current research, a novel of maintenance concept has been designed by hybrid several maintenance management models with Decision Making Grid (DMG), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fuzzy Logic. The concept is designed for maintenance personnel to evaluate and benchmark the maintenance operations and to reveal important maintena...

  14. Hybrid Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks: Controlling Framework Porosity and Functionality by Mixed-Linker Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Thompson, Joshua A.

    2012-05-22

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a subclass of nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that exhibit zeolite-like structural topologies and have interesting molecular recognition properties, such as molecular sieving and gate-opening effects associated with their pore apertures. The synthesis and characterization of hybrid ZIFs with mixed linkers in the framework are described in this work, producing materials with properties distinctly different from the parent frameworks (ZIF-8, ZIF-90, and ZIF-7). NMR spectroscopy is used to assess the relative amounts of the different linkers included in the frameworks, whereas nitrogen physisorption shows the evolution of the effective pore size distribution in materials resulting from the framework hybridization. X-ray diffraction shows these hybrid materials to be crystalline. In the case of ZIF-8-90 hybrids, the cubic space group of the parent frameworks is continuously maintained, whereas in the case of the ZIF-7-8 hybrids there is a transition from a cubic to a rhombohedral space group. Nitrogen physisorption data reveal that the hybrid materials exhibit substantial changes in gate-opening phenomena, either occurring at continuously tunable partial pressures of nitrogen (ZIF-8-90 hybrids) or loss of gate-opening effects to yield more rigid frameworks (ZIF-7-8 hybrids). With this synthetic approach, significant alterations in MOF properties may be realized to suit a desired separation or catalytic process. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Physical, structural and thermomechanical properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, N., E-mail: naheedchem@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Paridah, M.T. [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdan, K. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, N.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-12-01

    The present research study deals with the fabrication of kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites by the incorporation of oil palm nano filler, montmorillonite (MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) at 3% loading, through hand lay-up technique. Effect of adding different nano fillers on the physical (density), structural [X-ray diffraction (XRD)] and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) of kenaf/epoxy composites were carried out. Density results revealed that the incorporation of nano filler in the kenaf/epoxy composites increases the density which in turn increases the hardness of the hybrid nanocomposites. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of nano fillers in the structure of their respective fabricated hybrid nanocomposites. All hybrid nanocomposites displayed lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. Overall results predicted that the properties improvement in nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy was quite comparable to MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively lesser to OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and higher with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. The improvement ascribed due to improved interfacial bonding or cross linking between kenaf fibers and epoxy matrix by addition of nano filler. - Highlights: • Nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up. • Effect of nano OPEFB on density & structure of kenaf/epoxy were investigated. • Thermal expansion coefficients of kenaf/epoxy and hybrid nanocomposites evaluated. • Comparative studies were made with MMT and OMMT kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites.

  16. Restriction endonuclease analysis of chloroplast DNA in interspecies somatic Hybrids of Petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Cocking, E C; Bovenberg, W A; Kool, A J

    1982-12-01

    Restriction endonuclease cleavage pattern analysis of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of three different interspecific somatic hybrid plants revealed that the cytoplasms of the hybrids contained only cpDNA of P. parodii. The somatic hybrid plants analysed were those between P. parodii (wild type) + P. hybrida (wild type); P. parodii (wild type)+P. inflata (cytoplasmic albino mutant); P. parodii (wild type) + P. parviflora (nuclear albino mutant). The presence of only P. parodii chloroplasts in the somatic hybrid of P. parodii + P. inflata is possibly due to the stringent selection used for somatic hybrid production. However, in the case of the two other somatic hybrids P. parodii + P. hybrida and P. parodii + P. parviflora it was not possible to determine whether the presence of only P. parodii chloroplasts in these somatic hybrid plants was due to the nature of the selection schemes used or simply occurred by chance. The relevance of such somatic hybrid material for the study of genomic-cytoplasmic interaction is discussed, as well as the use of restriction endonuclease fragment patterns for the analysis of taxonomic and evolutionary inter-relationships in the genus Petunia.

  17. Physical, structural and thermomechanical properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, N.; Paridah, M.T.; Abdan, K.; Ibrahim, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    The present research study deals with the fabrication of kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites by the incorporation of oil palm nano filler, montmorillonite (MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) at 3% loading, through hand lay-up technique. Effect of adding different nano fillers on the physical (density), structural [X-ray diffraction (XRD)] and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) of kenaf/epoxy composites were carried out. Density results revealed that the incorporation of nano filler in the kenaf/epoxy composites increases the density which in turn increases the hardness of the hybrid nanocomposites. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of nano fillers in the structure of their respective fabricated hybrid nanocomposites. All hybrid nanocomposites displayed lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. Overall results predicted that the properties improvement in nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy was quite comparable to MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively lesser to OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and higher with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. The improvement ascribed due to improved interfacial bonding or cross linking between kenaf fibers and epoxy matrix by addition of nano filler. - Highlights: • Nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up. • Effect of nano OPEFB on density & structure of kenaf/epoxy were investigated. • Thermal expansion coefficients of kenaf/epoxy and hybrid nanocomposites evaluated. • Comparative studies were made with MMT and OMMT kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites.

  18. A hybrid system using a regenerative electrochemical cycle to harvest waste heat from the proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Rui; Li, Baode; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A new hybrid system consisting of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) subsystem and a TREC (thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle) subsystem is proposed to convert the waste heat produced by the PEMFC system into electricity. The performance of the hybrid system and its corresponding subsystems is analyzed. Results reveal that there exists optimal current densities of the PEMFC and TREC systems leading to the maximum power output of the hybrid system. With the maximum power output as the objective function, an optimization of the hybrid system based on genetic algorithm method is conducted under different operating temperatures of the PEMFC subsystem. The power output of the hybrid system is 6.85%–20.59% larger than that of the PEMFC subsystem. And the total electrical efficiency is improved by 2.74%–8.27%. The corresponding electrical efficiency of the TREC is 4.56%–13.81%. The hybrid system proposed in this paper could contribute to utilizing the fuel energy more efficiently and sufficiently. - Highlights: • A hybrid power system consisting of a PEMFC and a TREC subsystems is proposed. • Parameters' impacts on performance of the hybrid system have been analyzed. • The maximum power output of the hybrid system is investigated based on genetic algorithm. • Total power output of the hybrid system is 7.63%–18.84% larger than that of the PEMFC subsystem.

  19. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase dispersed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide hybrid biocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Chen, Shen-Ming, E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net

    2014-01-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on enhanced and fast direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) at enzyme dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide (MWCNT/GO) hybrid biocomposite was developed. The fabricated hybrid biocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The TEM image of hybrid biocomposite reveals that a thin layer of GOx was covered on the surface of MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. IR results validate that the hybrid biocomposite was formed through the electrostatic interactions between GOx and MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. Further, MWCNT/GO hybrid composite has also been characterized by TEM and UV–visible spectroscopy. A pair of well-defined redox peak was observed for GOx immobilized at the hybrid biocomposite electrode than that immobilized at the MWCNT modified electrode. The electron transfer rate constant (K{sub s}) of GOx at the hybrid biocomposite was calculated to be 11.22 s{sup −1}. The higher K{sub s} value revealed that fast DET of GOx occurred at the electrode surface. Moreover, fabricated biosensor showed a good sensitivity towards glucose oxidation over a linear range 0.05–23.2 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 28 μM. The good features of the proposed biosensor could be used for the accurate detection of glucose in the biological samples. - Highlights: • An amperometric glucose biosensor has been developed at MWCNT/GO hybrid biocomposite. • Enhanced and fast direct electron transfer kinetics of glucose oxidase has been achieved at hybrid biocomposite. • Hybrid biocomposite has been characterized by TEM, IR and Raman spectroscopy. • Highly sensitive and selective for glucose determination.

  20. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase dispersed in multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide hybrid biocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2014-01-01

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on enhanced and fast direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) at enzyme dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide (MWCNT/GO) hybrid biocomposite was developed. The fabricated hybrid biocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The TEM image of hybrid biocomposite reveals that a thin layer of GOx was covered on the surface of MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. IR results validate that the hybrid biocomposite was formed through the electrostatic interactions between GOx and MWCNT/GO hybrid composite. Further, MWCNT/GO hybrid composite has also been characterized by TEM and UV–visible spectroscopy. A pair of well-defined redox peak was observed for GOx immobilized at the hybrid biocomposite electrode than that immobilized at the MWCNT modified electrode. The electron transfer rate constant (K s ) of GOx at the hybrid biocomposite was calculated to be 11.22 s −1 . The higher K s value revealed that fast DET of GOx occurred at the electrode surface. Moreover, fabricated biosensor showed a good sensitivity towards glucose oxidation over a linear range 0.05–23.2 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 28 μM. The good features of the proposed biosensor could be used for the accurate detection of glucose in the biological samples. - Highlights: • An amperometric glucose biosensor has been developed at MWCNT/GO hybrid biocomposite. • Enhanced and fast direct electron transfer kinetics of glucose oxidase has been achieved at hybrid biocomposite. • Hybrid biocomposite has been characterized by TEM, IR and Raman spectroscopy. • Highly sensitive and selective for glucose determination

  1. The use of hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment with special attention to nitrogen removal: a review of a recent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan

    2013-09-15

    The hybrid systems were developed in the 1960s but their use increased only during the late 1990 s and in the 2000s mostly because of more stringent discharge limits for nitrogen and also more complex wastewaters treated in constructed wetlands (CWs). The early hybrid CWs consisted of several stages of vertical flow (VF) followed by several stages of horizontal flow (HF) beds. During the 1990 s, HF-VF and VF-HF hybrid systems were introduced. However, to achieve higher removal of total nitrogen or to treat more complex industrial and agricultural wastewaters other types of hybrid constructed wetlands including free water surface (FWS) CWs and multistage CWs have recently been used as well. The survey of 60 hybrid constructed wetlands from 24 countries reported after 2003 revealed that hybrid constructed wetlands are primarily used on Europe and in Asia while in other continents their use is limited. The most commonly used hybrid system is a VF-HF constructed wetland which has been used for treatment of both sewage and industrial wastewaters. On the other hand, the use of a HF-VF system has been reported only for treatment of municipal sewage. Out of 60 surveyed hybrid systems, 38 have been designed to treat municipal sewage while 22 hybrid systems were designed to treat various industrial and agricultural wastewaters. The more detailed analysis revealed that VF-HF hybrid constructed wetlands are slightly more efficient in ammonia removal than hybrid systems with FWS CWs, HF-VF systems or multistage VF and HF hybrid CWs. All types of hybrid CWs are comparable with single VF CWs in terms of NH4-N removal rates. On the other hand, CWs with FWS units remove substantially more total nitrogen as compared to other types of hybrid constructed wetlands. However, all types of hybrid constructed wetlands are more efficient in total nitrogen removal than single HF or VF constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanical and thermal design of hybrid blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    The thermal and mechanical aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design considerations are discussed. This paper is intended as a companion to that of J. D. Lee of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on the nuclear aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design. The major design characteristics of hybrid reactor blankets are discussed with emphasis on the areas of difference between hybrid reactors and standard fusion or fission reactors. Specific examples are used to illustrate the design tradeoffs and choices that must be made in hybrid reactor design. These examples are drawn from the work on the Mirror Hybrid Reactor

  3. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  4. Case for the fusion hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The use of nuclear fusion to produce fuel for nuclear fission power stations is discussed in the context of a crucial need for future energy options. The fusion hybrid is first considered as an element in the future of nuclear fission power to provide long term assurance of adequate fuel supplies for both breeder and convertor reactors. Generic differences in neutronic characteristics lead to a fuel production potential of fusion-fission hybrid systems which is significantly greater than that obtainable with fission systems alone. Furthermore, cost benefit studies show a variety of scenarios in which the hybrid offers sufficient potential to justify development costs ranging in the tens of billions of dollars. The hybrid is then considered as an element in the ultimate development of fusion electric power. The hybrid offers a near term application of fusion where experience with the requisite technologies can be derived as a vital step in mapping a credible route to eventual commercial feasibility of pure fusion systems. Finally, the criteria for assessment of future energy options are discussed with prime emphasis on the need for rational comparision of alternatives

  5. Hybrid magnets at Tohoku University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Yoshio; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Noto, Koshichi; Hoshi, Akira; Miura, Shigeto; Watanabe, Kazuo; Kido, Giyuu

    1984-01-01

    The High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials was established in April 1981 at Tohoku University in order to provide research facilities for the development of superconducting materials suitable for superconducting magnets for the plasma confinement in fusion reactors. Main facilities of this laboratory are three hybrid magnets up to 30 Tesla dc magnetic fields with inner bores from 32 to 52mm in diameter. The magnets consist of superconducting outer solenoids and water-cooled inner ones with a maximum steady power dissipation of 8 MW. The design and construction of these three hybrid magnets have finished in last three years, and two of them (HM-3;20T, 32 mm bore and HM-2; 23T, 52 mm bore) have already opened to scientists and engineers in the superconductivity and other fields. The rated field of the third hybrid magnet (HM-1) is 31 (or 29) Tesla in a bore of 32 (or 52) mm in diameter. By this hybrid system we have succeeded to produce 29.3 Tesla on April 21, 1984. Detailed descriptions are presented on the superconducting magnets, power supplies and cooling systems for them, water-cooled magnets, dc-high power source and water-cooled system for them, the monitoring and control system for the hybrid magnets including a super-minicomputer system, a hard-wired interlock system for the safety of human beings and machines, and so on. The fourth hybrid magnet system which aims at 35 Tesla as the next phase is also discussed. (author)

  6. Assessing hybrid sterility in Oryza glaberrima x O. sativa hybrid progenies by PCR marker analysis and crossing with wide compatibility varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Sigrid; Miézan, Kouamé M

    2003-09-01

    Interspecific crossing of the African indigenous rice Oryza glaberrima with Oryza sativa cultivars is hindered by crossing barriers causing 100% spikelet sterility in F(1) hybrids. Since hybrids are partially female fertile, fertility can be restored by back crossing (BC) to a recurrent male parent. Distinct genetic models on spikelet sterility have been developed predicting, e.g., the existence of a gamete eliminator and/or a pollen killer. Linkage of sterility to the waxy starch synthase gene and the chromogen gene C, both located on chromosome 6, have been demonstrated. We selected a segregating BC(2)F(3) population of semi-sterile O. glaberrima x O. sativa indica hybrid progenies for analyses with PCR markers located at the respective chromosome-6 region. These analyses revealed that semi-sterile plants were heterozygous for a marker (OSR25) located in the waxy promoter, whereas fertile progenies were homozygous for the O. glaberrima allele. Adjacent markers showed no linkage to spikelet sterility. Semi-sterility of hybrid progenies was maintained at least until the F(4) progeny generation, suggesting the existence of a pollen killer in this plant material. Monitoring of reproductive plant development showed that spikelet sterility was at least partially due to an arrest of pollen development at the microspore stage. In order to address the question whether genes responsible for F(1) sterility in intraspecific hybrids ( O. sativa indica x japonica) also cause spikelet sterility in interspecific hybrids, crossings with wide compatibility varieties (WCV) were performed. WCV accessions possess "neutral" S-loci ( S(n)) improving fertility in intraspecific hybrids. This experiment showed that the tested S(n)-loci had no fertility restoring effect in F(1) interspecific hybrids. Pollen development was completely arrested at the microspore stage and grains were never obtained after selfing. This suggests that distinct or additional S-loci are responsible for sterility

  7. Parotid hybrid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo C, Gustavo; Seymour M, Camila; Fernandez R, Lara; Villanueva I, Maria Elena; Scott C, Carlos; Celedon L, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands represent 33%-10% of head and neck neoplasms. The most common location is the parotid gland, accounting for 50%-85% of the cases, with 20%-30% of them being malignant. The following are known to be indicative of a malignant tumor: fast growing, painless mass, associated facial paralysis and lymphadenopathy. Most parotid neoplasm derive from a single histological type but eventually the development of more than one type on the same gland can occur. This paper presents a case of a parotid neoplasm with two different histological tumors, with uncharacteristic clinical presentation. The patient presented initially with ear pain and otorrhoea, in the clinical examination highlighted an external auditory canal tumor. The complementary study revealed a parotid neoplasm and a total resection of the gland was performed. The biopsy revealed an adenoid-cystic carcinoma with differentiated basaloid areas. Adjuvant radio-chemotherapy was administered, and the imaging control with PET-CT showed no evidence of recurrence or dissemination of the tumor

  8. Review of laser hybrid welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus

    2004-01-01

    In this artucle an overview og the hybrid welding process is given. After a short historic overview, a review of the fundamental phenomenon taking place when a laser (CO2 or Nd:YAG) interacts in the same molten pool as a more conventional source of energy, e.g. tungsten in-active gas, plasma......, or metal inactive gas/metal active gas.This is followed by reports of how the many process parameters governing the hybrid welding process can be set and how the choice of secondary energy source, shielding gas, etc. can affect the overall welding process....

  9. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I.; Fenstad, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA, have been sparsely described. The Nordic Arthroplasty....... Patients and methods - From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk...

  10. Hard electroproduction of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; LPT Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; ); Wallon, S.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the sizeable cross section for deep exclusive electroproduction of an exotic J PC = 1 -+ hybrid meson in the Bjorken regime. The production amplitude scales like the one for usual meson electroproduction, i.e. as 1/Q 2 . This is due to the non-vanishing leading twist distribution amplitude for the hybrid meson, which may be normalized thanks to its relation to the energy momentum tensor and to the QCD sum rules technique. The hard amplitude is considered up to next-to-leading order in as and we explore the consequences of fixing the renormalization scale ambiguity through the BLM procedure. (author)

  11. Inference in hybrid Bayesian networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas D.; Rumi, Rafael; Salmeron, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Bayesian networks (BNs) have become increasingly popular for building statistical models of complex systems. This is particularly true for boolean systems, where BNs often prove to be a more efficient modelling framework than traditional reliability techniques (like fault trees and reliability block diagrams). However, limitations in the BNs' calculation engine have prevented BNs from becoming equally popular for domains containing mixtures of both discrete and continuous variables (the so-called hybrid domains). In this paper we focus on these difficulties, and summarize some of the last decade's research on inference in hybrid Bayesian networks. The discussions are linked to an example model for estimating human reliability.

  12. Hybrid Magnetics and Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wai Keung; Paasch, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid magnetic approach, merging two different magnetic core properites such as ferrite and iron powder cores, is an effective solution for power converter applications. It can offer similar magnetic properties to that of magnetic powder cores but showing less copper loss than powder cores....... In order to prevent ferrite core saturation, placing an effective air gap within the ferrite core is a key method to obtain optimum hybrid magnetic performance. Furthermore, a relatively large inductance at low loading current is an excellent way to minimze power loss in order to achieve high efficiency...

  13. Essentialism, hybridism and cultural critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    to social and cultural critique. Through a critical discussion of the concept of hybridity, I argue that rather than expecting to find definite emancipating or suppressing capacities connected to constructions of the ‘hybrid' and the ‘pure', we should focus on how these two poles are invested with meaning...... and related to power. Hence, while insisting on Cultural Studies' commitment to social and cultural critique, I argue that this critique would benefit from an analytical sensitivity towards the uses and abuses of the discursive power to designate meaningful and legitimate subject positions, rather than...

  14. Hybrid Simulation of Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Jacob Herold

    experiment. The technique has primarily been used within earthquake engineering but many other fields of engineering have utilized the method with benefit. However, these previous efforts have focused on structures with a simple boundary between the numerical and physical substructure i.e. few degrees...... the transfer system and the control and monitoring techniques in the shared boundary is therefore a key issue in this type of hybrid simulation. During the research, hybrid simulation platforms have been programmed capable of running on different time scales with advanced control and monitoring techniques...

  15. Cluster synchronization in community network with hybrid coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lixin; Jiang, Jun; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A community network model with hybrid coupling is proposed. • Control scheme is designed via combining adaptive external coupling strength and feedback control. • The influence of topology structure on synchronization of community network is discussed. - Abstract: A general model of community network with hybrid coupling is proposed in this paper. In the community network model with hybrid coupling, the inner connections are in the same type of coupling within the same community and in different types of coupling in different communities. The connections between different pair of communities are also nonidentical. Cluster synchronization of community network with hybrid coupling is investigated via adaptive couplings control scheme. Effective controllers are designed for constructing an effective control scheme and adjusting automatically the adaptive external coupling strength by taking external coupling strength as adaptive variables on a small fraction of network edges. Moreover, the impact of the topology on the synchronizability of community network is investigated. The numerical results reveal that the number of links between communities and the degree of the connector nodes have significant effects on the synchronization performance.

  16. Novel Thiol-Ene Hybrid Coating for Metal Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Taghavikish

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid anticorrosion coating with dual network of inorganic (Si–O–Si and organic bonds (C–S–C was prepared on metal through an in situ sol-gel and thiol-ene click reaction. This novel interfacial thin film coating incorporates (3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTS and 1,4-di(vinylimidazolium butane bisbromide based polymerizable ionic liquid (PIL to form a thiol-ene based photo-polymerized film, which on subsequent sol-gel reaction forms a thin hybrid interfacial layer on metal surface. On top of this PIL hybrid film, a self-assembled nanophase particle (SNAP coating was employed to prepare a multilayer thin film coating for better corrosion protection and barrier performance. The novel PIL hybrid film was characterised for structure and properties using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The corrosion protection performance of the multilayer coating was examined using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The results reveal that this novel double layer coating on metal offers excellent protection against corrosion and has remarkably improved the barrier effect of the coating.

  17. A model for particle acceleration in lower hybrid collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retterer, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    A model for particle acceleration during the nonlinear collapse of lower hybrid waves is described. Using the Musher-Sturman wave equation to describe the effects of nonlinear processes and a velocity diffusion equation for the particle velocity distribution, the model self-consistently describes the exchange of energy between the fields and the particles in the local plasma. Two-dimensional solutions are presented for the modulational instability of a plane wave and the collapse of a cylindrical wave packet. These calculations were motivated by sounding rocket observations in the vicinity of auroral arcs in the Earth close-quote s ionosphere, which have revealed the existence of large-amplitude lower-hybrid wave packets associated with ions accelerated to energies of 100 eV. The scaling of the sizes of these wave packets is consistent with the theory of lower-hybrid collapse and the observed lower-hybrid field amplitudes are adequate to accelerate the ionospheric ions to the observed energies

  18. Recent hybridization between Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Kanako; Suzuki, Yumi; Tachi, Eiko; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Nakao, Minoru; Nkouawa, Agathe; Yanagida, Testuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira; Sato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2012-06-01

    Five Taenia tapeworms collected from humans in Tibetan Plateau, Sichuan, China, where three species of human Taenia are sympatrically endemic, were examined for the mitochondrial cox1 gene and two nuclear genes, ef1 and elp. Phylogenetic analyses of these genes revealed that two adult worms showed nuclear-mitochondrial discordance, suggesting that they originated from hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. One of two worms had T. asiatica-type mtDNA, whereas another worm had T. saginata-type mtDNA, indicating that reciprocal hybridization between T. saginata and T. asiatica could occur. The worm having T. asiatica-type mtDNA was heterozygous at both nuclear loci with T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles. In another worm, the ef1 locus was heterozygous with a T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles, while the elp locus was homozygous with T. saginata-type alleles. Self-fertilization is the main reproductive method of the genus Taenia. Since self-fertilization represents a type of inbreeding, each locus in the offspring would become homozygous over generations with genetic drift. The fact that some nuclear loci are still heterozygous means that hybridization might have occurred recently. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is probably an ongoing event in many areas in which they are sympatrically endemic. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybrid membranes of polyamide applied in treatment of waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Keila Machado de; Araujo, Edcleide Maria; Lira, Helio de Lucena, E-mail: keilamachadodemedeiros@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Lima, Diego de Farias; Lima, Carlos Antonio Pereira de [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba (UEPB), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental

    2017-03-15

    In this work, it was prepared hybrid membranes of polyamide6 (PA6) with montmorillonite (MMT) and porogenic agent (CaCl{sub 2} ). The hybrid membranes with CaCl{sub 2} were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosimetry by mercury intrusion (PMI), flux measurements and rejection. By means of X-ray diffraction, it was revealed that the hybrid membranes with CaCl{sub 2} have an exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structure. For FTIR and DSC of hybrid membranes with CaCl{sub 2} , it was found that the spectra and the crystalline melting temperature remained virtually unchanged compared to PA6 membrane. From the SEM images, it was observed that the addition of the MMT and the CaCl{sub 2} in the membrane of PA6 caused an increase in the amount of pores the surface and cross section of these membranes. By PMI, it was observed that the presence of MMT and CaCl{sub 2} in the membrane caused an increase in the average diameters of pores. The water-oil separation tests, indicated a significant reduction of oil in the permeate, allowing treatment of wastewater contaminated with oil. (author)

  20. Hybridization thermodynamics of DNA bound to gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was used to study the thermodynamics of hybridization on DNA-functionalized colloidal gold nanoparticles. When compared to the thermodynamics of hybridization of DNA that is free in solution, the differences in the values of the Gibbs free energy of reaction, Δ r G o , the enthalpy, Δ r H o , and entropy, Δ r S o , were small. The change in Δ r G o between the free and bound states was always positive but with statistical significance outside the 95% confidence interval, implying the free DNA is slightly more stable than when in the bound state. Additionally, ITC was also able to reveal information about the binding stoichiometry of the hybridization reactions on the DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles, and indicates that there is a significant fraction of the DNA on gold nanoparticle surface that is unavailable for DNA hybridization. Furthermore, the fraction of available DNA is dependent on the spacer group on the DNA that is used to span the gold surface from that to the probe DNA.

  1. Hybrid membranes of polyamide applied in treatment of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Keila Machado de; Araujo, Edcleide Maria; Lira, Helio de Lucena; Lima, Diego de Farias; Lima, Carlos Antonio Pereira de

    2017-01-01

    In this work, it was prepared hybrid membranes of polyamide6 (PA6) with montmorillonite (MMT) and porogenic agent (CaCl 2 ). The hybrid membranes with CaCl 2 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosimetry by mercury intrusion (PMI), flux measurements and rejection. By means of X-ray diffraction, it was revealed that the hybrid membranes with CaCl 2 have an exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structure. For FTIR and DSC of hybrid membranes with CaCl 2 , it was found that the spectra and the crystalline melting temperature remained virtually unchanged compared to PA6 membrane. From the SEM images, it was observed that the addition of the MMT and the CaCl 2 in the membrane of PA6 caused an increase in the amount of pores the surface and cross section of these membranes. By PMI, it was observed that the presence of MMT and CaCl 2 in the membrane caused an increase in the average diameters of pores. The water-oil separation tests, indicated a significant reduction of oil in the permeate, allowing treatment of wastewater contaminated with oil. (author)

  2. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone’s health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP, the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR, artificial neural network (ANN, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and support vector regression (SVR techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models.

  3. Hybrid Polymer-Network Hydrogels with Tunable Mechanical Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Czarnecki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid polymer-network gels built by both physical and covalent polymer crosslinking combine the advantages of both these crosslinking types: they exhibit high mechanical strength along with excellent fracture toughness and extensibility. If these materials are extensively deformed, their physical crosslinks can break such that strain energy is dissipated and irreversible fracturing is restricted to high strain only. This mechanism of energy dissipation is determined by the kinetics and thermodynamics of the physical crosslinking contribution. In this paper, we present a poly(ethylene glycol (PEG based material toolkit to control these contributions in a rational and custom fashion. We form well-defined covalent polymer-network gels with regularly distributed additional supramolecular mechanical fuse links, whose strength of connectivity can be tuned without affecting the primary polymer-network composition. This is possible because the supramolecular fuse links are based on terpyridine–metal complexation, such that the mere choice of the fuse-linking metal ion adjusts their kinetics and thermodynamics of complexation–decomplexation, which directly affects the mechanical properties of the hybrid gels. We use oscillatory shear rheology to demonstrate this rational control and enhancement of the mechanical properties of the hybrid gels. In addition, static light scattering reveals their highly regular and well-defined polymer-network structures. As a result of both, the present approach provides an easy and reliable concept for preparing hybrid polymer-network gels with rationally designed properties.

  4. From hybrid-media system to hybrid-media politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Burkal, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    ’ media use is changing rapidly; 15%–16% of Danish candidates used Twitter in 2011 but 68% in 2015. In this large-sample content analysis, party leaders have high traditional-news-media and low Twitter presence, and younger candidates visa-versa, but some politicians have high presence in both. Hybrid...

  5. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed

  6. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  7. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Newly Obtained Interspecific Hybrids in the Campanula Genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Catharina Röper

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridisation creates new phenotypes within several ornamental plant species including the Campanula genus. We have employed phenotypic and genotypic methods to analyse and evaluate interspecific hybridisation among cultivars of four Campanula species, i.e. C. cochleariifolia, C. isophylla, C. medium and C. formanekiana. Hybrids were analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, flow cytometry and biometrical measurements. Results of correlation matrices demonstrated heterogeneous phenotypes for the parental species, which confirmed our basic premise for new phenotypes of interspecific hybrids. AFLP assays confirmed the hybridity and identified self-pollinated plants. Limitation of flow cytometry analysis detection was observed while detecting the hybridity status of two closely related parents, e.g. C. cochleariiafolia × C. isophylla. Phenotypic characteristics such as shoot habitus and flower colour were strongly influenced by one of the parental species in most crosses. Rooting analysis revealed that inferior rooting quality occurred more often in interspecific hybrids than in the parental species. Only interspecific hybrid lines of C. formanekiana 'White' × C. medium 'Pink' showed a high rooting level. Phenotype analyses demonstrated a separation from the interspecific hybrid lines of C. formanekiana 'White' × C. medium 'Pink' to the other clustered hybrids of C. formanekiana and C. medium. In our study we demonstrated that the use of correlation matrices is a suitable tool for identifying suitable cross material. This study presents a comprehensive overview for analysing newly obtained interspecific hybrids. The chosen methods can be used as guidance for analyses for further interspecific hybrids in Campanula, as well as in other ornamental species.

  8. Mitotic and meiotic irregularities in somatic hybrids of Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, A M; Schoenmakers, H C; Kamstra, S; Eden, J; Koornneef, M; Jong, J H

    1994-10-01

    Chromosome numbers were determined in metaphase complements of root-tip meristems of 107 tomato (+) potato somatic hybrids, obtained from five different combinations of parental genotypes. Of these hybrids 79% were aneuploid, lacking one or two chromosomes in most cases. All four hybrids that were studied at mitotic anaphase of root tips showed laggards and bridges, the three aneuploids in a higher frequency than the single euploid. Hybrid K2H2-1C, which showed the highest percentage of aberrant anaphases, possessed 46 chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with total genomic DNA showed that this hybrid contained 23 tomato, 22 potato, and 1 recombinant chromosome consisting of a tomato chromosome arm and a potato chromosome arm. The potato parent of K2H2-1C was aneusomatic in its root tips with a high frequency of monosomic and trisomic cells and a relatively high frequency of cells with one fragment or telosome. Meiotic analyses of three tomato (+) potato somatic hybrids revealed laggards, which occurred most frequently in the triploid hybrids, and bridges, which were frequently present in pollen mother cells (PMCs) at anaphase I of hypotetraploid K2H2-1C. We observed putative trivalents in PMCs at diakinesis and metaphase I of eutriploid A7-82A and quadrivalents in part of the PMCs of hypotetraploid K2H2-1C, suggesting that homoeologous recombination between tomato and potato chromosomes occurred in these hybrids. All three hybrids showed a high percentage of first division restitution, giving rise to unreduced gametes. However, shortly after the tetrad stage all microspores completely degenerated, resulting in exclusively sterile pollen.

  9. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  10. Hybrid phonons in nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Ridley, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    Crystalline semiconductor nanostructures have special properties associated with electrons and lattice vibrations and their interaction, and this is the topic of the book. The result of spatial confinement of electrons is indicated in the nomenclature of nonostructures: quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots. Confinement also has a profound effect on lattice vibrations and an account of this is the prime focus. The documentation of the confinement of acoustic modes goes back to Lord Rayleigh’s work in the late nineteenth century, but no such documentation exists for optical modes. Indeed, it is only comparatively recently that any theory of the elastic properties of optical modes exists, and the account given in the book is comprehensive. A model of the lattice dynamics of the diamond lattice is given that reveals the quantitative distinction between acoustic and optical modes and the difference of connection rules that must apply at an interface. The presence of interfaces in nanostructures forces ...

  11. Rin4 Causes Hybrid Necrosis and Race-Specific Resistance in an Interspecific Lettuce Hybrid[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Marieke J.W.; Zhang, Ningwen W.; McHale, Leah K.; Pelgrom, Koen; den Boer, Erik; Lindhout, Pim; Michelmore, Richard W.; Visser, Richard G.F.; Niks, Rients E.

    2009-01-01

    Some inter- and intraspecific crosses may result in reduced viability or sterility in the offspring, often due to genetic incompatibilities resulting from interactions between two or more loci. Hybrid necrosis is a postzygotic genetic incompatibility that is phenotypically manifested as necrotic lesions on the plant. We observed hybrid necrosis in interspecific lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Lactuca saligna) hybrids that correlated with resistance to downy mildew. Segregation analysis revealed a specific allelic combination at two interacting loci to be responsible. The allelic interaction had two consequences: (1) a quantitative temperature-dependent autoimmunity reaction leading to necrotic lesions, lethality, and quantitative resistance to an otherwise virulent race of Bremia lactucae; and (2) a qualitative temperature-independent race-specific resistance to an avirulent race of B. lactucae. We demonstrated by transient expression and silencing experiments that one of the two interacting genes was Rin4. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RIN4 is known to interact with multiple R gene products, and their interactions result in hypersensitive resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Site-directed mutation studies on the necrosis-eliciting allele of Rin4 in lettuce showed that three residues were critical for hybrid necrosis. PMID:19855048

  12. Constructing decidable hybrid systems with velocity bounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belta, C.; Habets, L.C.G.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the question of bi-similarity between hybrid systems and their discrete quotients is studied from a new point of view. We consider two classes of hybrid systems: piecewise affine hybrid systems on simplices and piecewise multi-affine systems on multi-dimensional rectangles. Given a

  13. Deriving simulators for hybrid Chi models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van D.A.; Man, K.L.; Reniers, M.A.; Rooda, J.E.; Schiffelers, R.R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The hybrid Chi language is formalism for modeling, simulation and verification of hybrid systems. The formal semantics of hybrid Chi allows the definition of provably correct implementations for simulation, verification and realtime control. This paper discusses the principles of deriving an

  14. Hybrid Doctoral Program: Innovative Practices and Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvich, Dori; Manning, JoAnn; McCormick, Kathy; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on how one mid-Atlantic University innovatively incorporated technology into the development of a hybrid doctoral program in educational leadership. The paper describes a hybrid doctoral degree program using a rigorous design; challenges of reworking a traditional syllabus of record to a hybrid doctoral program; the perceptions…

  15. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the

  16. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  17. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  18. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid ...

  19. Morphological and genetic diversity in Callithrix hybrids in an anthropogenic area in southeastern Brazil (Primates: Cebidae: Callitrichinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrielle M. Cezar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two species of Callithrix, C. jacchus (Linnaeus, 1758 and C. penicillata (É. Geoffroy, 1812, are considered invasive in Rio de Janeiro. This study determined the genetic and morphological diversity and verified the species involved in the hybridization of 10 individuals from the municipalities of Silva Jardim (N = 9 and Rio das Ostras (N = 1. We compared the external morphology and skull of C. jacchus (N = 15 and C. penicillata (N = 14 specimens deposited in the collection of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro (MN- UFRJ. Phylogenetic (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference and phylogeographical analyses (network analysis were performed based on cytochrome b sequences. These analyses included hybrids from the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (N = 3, C. penicillata (N = 2, C. jacchus (N = 2, C. geoffroyi (N = 2, C. kuhlii (N = 2, C. aurita (N = 1, and as outgroups, Mico emiliae (N = 1 and Saguinus mystax (N = 1. The pelage and skull characters of most hybrids were more closely related to C. jacchus. Skull morphometric analysis revealed an intermediate state for the hybrids. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a high similarity between the hybrids and C. penicillata. Six haplotypes of hybrids were identified. Network analysis including them and C. penicillata recovered the topology generated by phylogenetic analysis. The results corroborate that C. jacchus and C. penicillata participate in the hybridization process. There was no geographic structure between hybrids from the coastal lowlands and from the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro.

  20. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous ...

  1. Hybrid mesons with auxiliary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisseret, F.; Mathieu, V.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid mesons are exotic mesons in which the color field is not in the ground state. Their understanding deserves interest from a theoretical point of view, because it is intimately related to nonperturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, it seems that some recently detected particles, such as the π 1 (1600) and the Y(4260), are serious hybrid candidates. In this work, we investigate the description of such exotic hadrons by applying the auxiliary fields technique (also known as the einbein field method) to the widely used spinless Salpeter Hamiltonian with appropriate linear confinement. Instead of the usual numerical resolution, this technique allows to find simplified analytical mass spectra and wave functions of the Hamiltonian, which still lead to reliable qualitative predictions. We analyse and compare two different descriptions of hybrid mesons, namely a two-body q system with an excited flux tube, or a three-body qg system. We also compute the masses of the 1 -+ hybrids. Our results are shown to be in satisfactory agreement with lattice QCD and other effective models. (orig.)

  2. The threat of hybrid Phytophthoras

    Science.gov (United States)

    The majority of invasive plant pathogens have resulted from the introduction of exotic organisms. However, another mechanism for invasiveness results from hybridization between species. This phenomenon has been documented in plants and animals, but its role in plant pathology has only recently been ...

  3. Hybrid cycles for micro generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanari, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the main features of two emerging technologies in the field of small-scale power generation, micro turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, discussing the extremely high potential of their combination into hybrid cycles and their possible role for distributed cogeneration [it

  4. Inference in hybrid Bayesian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Bayesian Networks (BNs) have become increasingly popular for building statistical models of complex systems. This is particularly true for boolean systems, where BNs often prove to be a more efficient modelling framework than traditional reliability-techniques (like fault trees...... decade's research on inference in hybrid Bayesian networks. The discussions are linked to an example model for estimating human reliability....

  5. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...

  6. Transgressive Hybrids as Hopeful Monsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich-Reed, Dylan R; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

    2013-06-01

    The origin of novelty is a critical subject for evolutionary biologists. Early geneticists speculated about the sudden appearance of new species via special macromutations, epitomized by Goldschmidt's infamous "hopeful monster". Although these ideas were easily dismissed by the insights of the Modern Synthesis, a lingering fascination with the possibility of sudden, dramatic change has persisted. Recent work on hybridization and gene exchange suggests an underappreciated mechanism for the sudden appearance of evolutionary novelty that is entirely consistent with the principles of modern population genetics. Genetic recombination in hybrids can produce transgressive phenotypes, "monstrous" phenotypes beyond the range of parental populations. Transgressive phenotypes can be products of epistatic interactions or additive effects of multiple recombined loci. We compare several epistatic and additive models of transgressive segregation in hybrids and find that they are special cases of a general, classic quantitative genetic model. The Dobzhansky-Muller model predicts "hopeless" monsters, sterile and inviable transgressive phenotypes. The Bateson model predicts "hopeful" monsters with fitness greater than either parental population. The complementation model predicts both. Transgressive segregation after hybridization can rapidly produce novel phenotypes by recombining multiple loci simultaneously. Admixed populations will also produce many similar recombinant phenotypes at the same time, increasing the probability that recombinant "hopeful monsters" will establish true-breeding evolutionary lineages. Recombination is not the only (or even most common) process generating evolutionary novelty, but might be the most credible mechanism for sudden appearance of new forms.

  7. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    and placement machinery. This opens up the possibility for both an automated manufacturing process and an automated production process of toroidal magnetics such as power inductors, filtering inductors, air core inductors, transformers etc. Both the proposed hybrid and the common wire wound winding...

  8. Hybrid technology for regional railcars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Christoph [DVV Eurailpress, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    It is possible to reduce the fuel consumed by diesel railcars operating short-distance regional services by making use of newly developed hybrid technology. Voith Turbo is setting out to produce evidence of that through two completely different projects. (orig.)

  9. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  10. Organic and hybrid solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a comprehensive evaluation of organic and hybrid solar cells and identifies their fundamental principles and numerous applications. Great attention is given to the charge transport mechanism, donor and acceptor materials, interfacial materials, alternative electrodes, device engineering and physics, and device stability. The authors provide an industrial perspective on the future of photovoltaic technologies.

  11. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynen, I.; Quievy, N.; Bailly, C.; Bollen, P.; Detrembleur, C.; Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I.; Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and ∼1 S/m electrical conductivity. → New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. → The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. → A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. → The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  12. Information transmission on hybrid networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongbin; Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Li, Jie; Ji, Bo; Gakis, Konstantinos; Pardalos, Panos M.

    2018-01-01

    Many real-world communication networks often have hybrid nature with both fixed nodes and moving modes, such as the mobile phone networks mainly composed of fixed base stations and mobile phones. In this paper, we discuss the information transmission process on the hybrid networks with both fixed and mobile nodes. The fixed nodes (base stations) are connected as a spatial lattice on the plane forming the information-carrying backbone, while the mobile nodes (users), which are the sources and destinations of information packets, connect to their current nearest fixed nodes respectively to deliver and receive information packets. We observe the phase transition of traffic load in the hybrid network when the packet generation rate goes from below and then above a critical value, which measures the network capacity of packets delivery. We obtain the optimal speed of moving nodes leading to the maximum network capacity. We further improve the network capacity by rewiring the fixed nodes and by considering the current load of fixed nodes during packets transmission. Our purpose is to optimize the network capacity of hybrid networks from the perspective of network science, and provide some insights for the construction of future communication infrastructures.

  13. Role of hybrid ratio in microstructural, mechanical and sliding wear properties of the Al5083/Graphitep/Al2O3p a surface hybrid nanocomposite fabricated via friction stir processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafapour Asl, A.; Khandani, S.T.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid ratio of each reinforcement phase in hybrid composite can be defined as proportion of its volume to total reinforcement volume of the composite. The hybrid ratio is an important factor which controls the participation extent of each reinforcement phase in overall properties of hybrid composites. Hence, in the present work, surface hybrid nanocomposites of Al5083/Graphite p /Al 2 O 3p with different hybrid ratios were fabricated by friction stir processing method. Subsequently, effect of hybrid ratio on microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were utilized to perform microstructural observation on the samples. Hardness value measurements, tensile and pin on disk dry sliding wear tests were carried out to investigate effect of hybrid ratio on mechanical and tribological properties of the nanocomposites. Microstructural investigations displayed better distribution with less agglomeration of reinforcement for lower volume fraction of reinforcement for both alumina and graphite particles. Hardness value, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and wear rate of the nanocomposites revealed a two stage form along with hybrid ratio variation. The results are discussed based on microstructural observations of the nanocomposites and worn surface analyses.

  14. Somatostatin receptor 2 knockout/lacZ knockin mice show impaired motor coordination and reveal sites of somatostatin action within the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jeremy P; Hathway, Gareth J; Clarke, Neil J; Jowett, Mike I; Topps, Stephanie; Kendrick, Keith M; Humphrey, Patrick P A; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Emson, Piers C

    2003-05-01

    The peptide somatostatin can modulate the functional output of the basal ganglia. The exact sites and mechanisms of this action, however, are poorly understood, and the physiological context in which somatostatin acts is unknown. Somatostatin acts as a neuromodulator via a family of five 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors, SSTR1-5, one of which, SSTR2, is known to be functional in the striatum. We have investigated the role of SSTR2 in basal ganglia function using mice in which Sstr2 has been inactivated and replaced by the lacZ reporter gene. Analysis of Sstr2lacZ expression in the brain by beta-galactosidase histochemistry demonstrated a widespread pattern of expression. By comparison to previously published in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical data, Sstr2lacZ expression was shown to accurately recapitulate that of Sstr2 and thus provided a highly sensitive model to investigate cell-type-specific expression of Sstr2. In the striatum, Sstr2 expression was identified in medium spiny projection neurons restricted to the matrix compartment and in cholinergic interneurons. Sstr2 expression was not detected in any other nuclei of the basal ganglia except for a sparse number of nondopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Microdialysis in the striatum showed Sstr2-null mice were selectively refractory to somatostatin-induced dopamine and glutamate release. In behavioural tests, Sstr2-null mice showed normal levels of locomotor activity and normal coordination in undemanding tasks. However, in beam-walking, a test of fine motor control, Sstr2-null mice were severely impaired. Together these data implicate an important neuromodulatory role for SSTR2 in the striatum.

  15. Shape Memory Composite Hybrid Hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Scarborough, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are two conventional types of hinges for in-space deployment applications. The first type is mechanically deploying hinges. A typical mechanically deploying hinge is usually composed of several tens of components. It is complicated, heavy, and bulky. More components imply higher deployment failure probability. Due to the existence of relatively moving components among a mechanically deploying hinge, it unavoidably has microdynamic problems. The second type of conventional hinge relies on strain energy for deployment. A tape-spring hinge is a typical strain energy hinge. A fundamental problem of a strain energy hinge is that its deployment dynamic is uncontrollable. Usually, its deployment is associated with a large impact, which is unacceptable for many space applications. Some damping technologies have been experimented with to reduce the impact, but they increased the risks of an unsuccessful deployment. Coalescing strain energy components with shape memory composite (SMC) components to form a hybrid hinge is the solution. SMCs are well suited for deployable structures. A SMC is created from a high-performance fiber and a shape memory polymer resin. When the resin is heated to above its glass transition temperature, the composite becomes flexible and can be folded or packed. Once cooled to below the glass transition temperature, the composite remains in the packed state. When the structure is ready to be deployed, the SMC component is reheated to above the glass transition temperature, and it returns to its as-fabricated shape. A hybrid hinge is composed of two strain energy flanges (also called tape-springs) and one SMC tube. Two folding lines are placed on the SMC tube to avoid excessive strain on the SMC during folding. Two adapters are used to connect the hybrid hinge to its adjacent structural components. While the SMC tube is heated to above its glass transition temperature, a hybrid hinge can be folded and stays at folded status after the temperature

  16. Mixing of maize and wheat genomic DNA by somatic hybridization in regenerated sterile maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarka, B.; Göntér, I.; Molnár-Láng, M.; Mórocz, S.; Dudits, D.

    2002-07-01

    Intergeneric somatic hybridization was performed between albino maize ( Zea mays L.) protoplasts and mesophyll protoplasts of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) by polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments. None of the parental protoplasts were able to produce green plants without fusion. The maize cells regenerated only rudimentary albino plantlets of limited viability, and the wheat mesophyll protoplasts were unable to divide. PEG-mediated fusion treatments resulted in hybrid cells with mixed cytoplasm. Six months after fusion green embryogenic calli were selected as putative hybrids. The first-regenerates were discovered as aborted embryos. Regeneration of intact, green, maize-like plants needed 6 months of further subcultures on hormone-free medium. These plants were sterile, although had both male and female flowers. The cytological analysis of cells from callus tissues and root tips revealed 56 chromosomes, but intact wheat chromosomes were not observed. Using total DNA from hybrid plants, three RAPD primer combinations produced bands resembling the wheat profile. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using total wheat DNA as a probe revealed the presence of wheat DNA islands in the maize chromosomal background. The increased viability and the restored green color were the most-significant new traits as compared to the original maize parent. Other intermediate morphological traits of plants with hybrid origin were not found.

  17. Biological and mechanical evaluation of a Bio-Hybrid scaffold for autologous valve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnavi, S; Saravanan, U; Arthi, N; Bhuvaneshwar, G S; Kumary, T V; Rajan, S; Verma, R S

    2017-04-01

    Major challenge in heart valve tissue engineering for paediatric patients is the development of an autologous valve with regenerative capacity. Hybrid tissue engineering approach is recently gaining popularity to design scaffolds with desired biological and mechanical properties that can remodel post implantation. In this study, we fabricated aligned nanofibrous Bio-Hybrid scaffold made of decellularized bovine pericardium: polycaprolactone-chitosan with optimized polymer thickness to yield the desired biological and mechanical properties. CD44 + , αSMA + , Vimentin + and CD105 - human valve interstitial cells were isolated and seeded on these Bio-Hybrid scaffolds. Subsequent biological evaluation revealed interstitial cell proliferation with dense extra cellular matrix deposition that indicated the viability for growth and proliferation of seeded cells on the scaffolds. Uniaxial mechanical tests along axial direction showed that the Bio-Hybrid scaffolds has at least 20 times the strength of the native valves and its stiffness is nearly 3 times more than that of native valves. Biaxial and uniaxial mechanical studies on valve interstitial cells cultured Bio-Hybrid scaffolds revealed that the response along the axial and circumferential direction was different, similar to native valves. Overall, our findings suggest that Bio-Hybrid scaffold is a promising material for future development of regenerative heart valve constructs in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of novel biocompatible hybrid nanocomposites based on polyurethane-silica prepared by sol gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashti, Ali [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yahyaei, Hossein [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firoozi, Saman [Department of Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezani, Sara [Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahiminejad, Ali [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Roya [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Science, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzaneh, Khadijeh [Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, Mohsen [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanbari, Hossein, E-mail: hghanbari@tums.ac.ir [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Medical Biomaterials Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Due to high biocompatibility, polyurethane has found many applications, particularly in development of biomedical devices. A new nanocomposite based on thermoset polyurethane and silica nanoparticles was synthesized using sol-gel method. Sol-gel process was fulfilled in two acidic and basic conditions by using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethoxyisocyanatesilane as precursors. The hybrid films characterized for mechanical and surface properties using tensile strength, contact angle, ATR-FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the hybrids were assessed using standard MTT, LDH and TUNEL assays. The results revealed that incorporation of silica nanoparticles was significantly improved tensile strength and mechanical properties of the hybrids. Based on the contact angle results, silica nanoparticles increased hydrophilicity of the hybrids. Biocompatibility by using human lung epithelial cell line (MRC-5) demonstrated that the hybrids were significantly less cytotoxic compared to pristine polymer as tested by MTT and LDH assays. TUNEL assay revealed no signs of apoptosis in all tested samples. The results of this study demonstrated that incorporation of silica nanoparticles into polyurethane lead to the enhancement of biocompatibility, indicating that these hybrids could potentially be used in biomedical field in particular as a new coating for medical implants. - Highlights: • Nanocomposites based on polyurethane and nanosilica prepared by sol-gel method fabricated • Addition of inorganic phase improved mechanical properties. • Nanosilica prepared by sol-gel method increased hydrophilicity. • By adding nanosilica to polyurethane biocompatibility increased significantly.

  19. Toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules: bio-organometallics and its toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Tomoya; Hara, Takato; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Bio-organometallics is a research strategy of biology that uses organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. The molecules are expected to exhibit useful bioactivities based on the unique structure formed by interaction between the organic structure and intramolecular metal(s). However, studies on both biology and toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules have been incompletely performed. There can be two types of toxicological studies of bio-organometallics; one is evaluation of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules and the other is analysis of biological systems from the viewpoint of toxicology using organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. Our recent studies indicate that cytotoxicity of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is nontoxic in inorganic forms can be more toxic than that of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is toxic in inorganic forms when the structure of the ligand is the same. Additionally, it was revealed that organic-inorganic hybrid molecules are useful for analysis of biological systems important for understanding the toxicity of chemical compounds including heavy metals.

  20. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Jones, Leslie A.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Boyer, Matthew C.; Leary, Robb F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Luikart, Gordon; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-07-01

    Climate change will decrease worldwide biodiversity through a number of potential pathways, including invasive hybridization (cross-breeding between invasive and native species). How climate warming influences the spread of hybridization and loss of native genomes poses difficult ecological and evolutionary questions with little empirical information to guide conservation management decisions. Here we combine long-term genetic monitoring data with high-resolution climate and stream temperature predictions to evaluate how recent climate warming has influenced the spatio-temporal spread of human-mediated hybridization between threatened native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world's most widely introduced invasive fish. Despite widespread release of millions of rainbow trout over the past century within the Flathead River system, a large relatively pristine watershed in western North America, historical samples revealed that hybridization was prevalent only in one (source) population. During a subsequent 30-year period of accelerated warming, hybridization spread rapidly and was strongly linked to interactions between climatic drivers--precipitation and temperature--and distance to the source population. Specifically, decreases in spring precipitation and increases in summer stream temperature probably promoted upstream expansion of hybridization throughout the system. This study shows that rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

  1. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Jones, Leslie A.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Leary, Robb F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Luikart, Gordon; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will decrease worldwide biodiversity through a number of potential pathways, including invasive hybridization (cross-breeding between invasive and native species). How climate warming influences the spread of hybridization and loss of native genomes poses difficult ecological and evolutionary questions with little empirical information to guide conservation management decisions. Here we combine long-term genetic monitoring data with high-resolution climate and stream temperature predictions to evaluate how recent climate warming has influenced the spatio-temporal spread of human-mediated hybridization between threatened native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world’s most widely introduced invasive fish. Despite widespread release of millions of rainbow trout over the past century within the Flathead River system, a large relatively pristine watershed in western North America, historical samples revealed that hybridization was prevalent only in one (source) population. During a subsequent 30-year period of accelerated warming, hybridization spread rapidly and was strongly linked to interactions between climatic drivers—precipitation and temperature—and distance to the source population. Specifically, decreases in spring precipitation and increases in summer stream temperature probably promoted upstream expansion of hybridization throughout the system. This study shows that rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

  2. Stabilization process in Saccharomyces intra and interspecific hybrids in fermentative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the genetic stabilization of artificial intra- (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and interspecific (S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii) hybrids under wine fermentative conditions. Large-scale transitions in genome size and genome reorganizations were observed during this process. Interspecific hybrids seem to need fewer generations to reach genetic stability than intraspecific hybrids. The largest number of molecular patterns recovered among the derived clones was observed for intraspecific hybrids, particularly for those obtained by rare-mating. Molecular marker analyses revealed that unstable clones could change during the industrial process to obtain active dry yeast. When no changes in molecular markers and ploidy were observed after this process, no changes in genetic composition were confirmed by comparative genome hybridization, considering the clone as a stable hybrid. According to our results, under these conditions, fermentation steps 3 and 5 (30-50 generations) would suffice to obtain genetically stable interspecific and intraspecific hybrids, respectively. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  3. Exploring the potential of Saccharomyces eubayanus as a parent for new interspecies hybrid strains in winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Frederico; Krogerus, Kristoffer; Castillo, Sandra; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Dequin, Sylvie; Gibson, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Yeast cryotolerance brings some advantages for wine fermentations, including the improved aromatic complexity of white wines. Naturally cold-tolerant strains are generally less adept at wine fermentation but fermentative fitness can potentially be improved through hybridization. Here we studied the potential of using hybrids involving Saccharomyces eubayanus and a S. cerevisiae wine strain for low-temperature winemaking. Through screening the performance in response to variable concentrations of sugar, nitrogen and temperature, we isolated one hybrid strain that exhibited the superior performance. This hybrid strain was propagated and dried in pilot scale and tested for the fermentation of Macabeu and Sauvignon blanc grape musts. We obtained highly viable active dry yeast, which was able to efficiently ferment the grape musts with superior production of aroma active volatiles, in particular, 2-phenylethanol. The genome sequences of the hybrid strains revealed variable chromosome inheritance among hybrids, particularly within the S. cerevisiae subgenome. With the present paper, we expand the knowledge on the potentialities of using S. eubayanus hybrids in industrial fermentation at beverages other than lager beer. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Performance evaluation of commercial maize hybrids across diverse Terai environments during the winter season in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Prasad Tripathi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid maize cultivars of multinational seed companies are gradually being popular among the farmers in Nepal. This paper reports on research finding of 117 maize hybrids of 20 seed companies assessed for grain yield and other traits at three sites in winter season of 2011 and 2012. The objective of the study was to identify superior maize hybrids suitable for winter time planting in eastern, central and inner Terai of Nepal. Across site analysis of variance revealed that highly significant effect of genotype and genotype × environment interaction (GEI on grain yield of commercial hybrids. Overall, 47 genotypes of 16 seed companies identified as high yielding and stable based on superiority measures. The statistical analysis ranked topmost three genotypes among tested hybrids as P3856 (10515 kg ha-1, Bisco prince (8763 kg ha-1 as well as Shaktiman (8654 kg ha-1 in the first year; and 3022 (8378 kg ha-1, Kirtiman manik (8323 kg ha-1 as well as Top class (7996 kg ha-1 in the second year. It can be concluded that stable and good performing hybrids identified as potential commercial hybrids for general cultivation on similar environments in Nepal.

  5. Alterations in the extracellular matrix organization associated with the reexpression of tumorigenicity in human cell hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der, C J; Stanbridge, E J

    1980-10-15

    The expression of fibronectin on the cell surface was evaluated on a series of intraspecific human cell hybrids formed between HeLa and normal fibroblast strains. Although these hybrids continued to express many of the in vitro transformation properties of their corresponding tumorigenic HeLa parent, they were now unable to form tumors when inoculated into athymic nude mice. From these suppressed hybrid populations, rare tumorigenic segregant subpopulations arose which had regained their tumorigenic capacity. A comparison of the expression of fibronectin on the cell surface was made between these tumorigenic segregant cell lines and their corresponding non-tumorigenic HeLa/fibroblast hybrid. Following specific immunofluorescent staining for fibronectin, a striking alteration in the cell surface organization was observed to correspond with the reexpression of tumorigenicity in these hybrids. Tumorigenic HeLa/fibroblast hybrids were also significantly altered in both their cellular and colonial morphology. Double immunofluorescent staining to simultaneously visualize both surface fibronectin and collagen revealed that these two extracellular matrix proteins displayed an extensive degree of codistribution and expressed a coordinate shift in organization which correlated with the appearance of tumorigenic segregant hybrid populations. These observations are in agreement with the apparently close structural association between fibronectin and collagen and suggest that the organization of these two components in the extracellular matrix may be an important determinant for in vivo growth potential.

  6. Genomic structural variation-mediated allelic suppression causes hybrid male sterility in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rongxin; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xupeng; Wu, Jiang; Jin, Weiwei; Zhao, Xiucai; Xie, Xianrong; Zhu, Qinlong; Tang, Huiwu; Li, Qing; Chen, Letian; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2017-11-03

    Hybrids between divergent populations commonly show hybrid sterility; this reproductive barrier hinders hybrid breeding of the japonica and indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies. Here we show that structural changes and copy number variation at the Sc locus confer japonica-indica hybrid male sterility. The japonica allele, Sc-j, contains a pollen-essential gene encoding a DUF1618-domain protein; the indica allele, Sc-i, contains two or three tandem-duplicated ~ 28-kb segments, each carrying an Sc-j-homolog with a distinct promoter. In Sc-j/Sc-i hybrids, the high-expression of Sc-i in sporophytic cells causes suppression of Sc-j expression in pollen and selective abortion of Sc-j-pollen, leading to transmission ratio distortion. Knocking out one or two of the three Sc-i copies by CRISPR/Cas9 rescues Sc-j expression and male fertility. Our results reveal the gene dosage-dependent allelic suppression as a mechanism of hybrid incompatibility, and provide an effective approach to overcome the reproductive barrier for hybrid breeding.

  7. Performance evaluation and parametric optimum design of a molten carbonate fuel cell-thermophotovoltaic cell hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhimin; Liao, Tianjun; Zhou, Yinghui; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A molten carbonate fuel cell-thermophotovoltaic cell hybrid system is established. • The performance characteristics of the hybrid system are systematically evaluated. • The optimal regions of the power output density and efficiency are determined. • The values of key parameters at the maximum power output density are calculated. • The proposed system is proved to have advantages over other hybrid systems. - Abstract: A new model of the hybrid system composed of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a thermophotovoltaic cell (TPVC) is proposed to recovery the waste heat produced by the MCFC. Expressions for the power output and the efficiency of the hybrid system are analytically derived. The performance characteristics of the hybrid system are evaluated. It is found that when the current density of the MCFC, voltage output of the TPVC, electrode area ratio of the MCFC to the TPVC, and energy gap of the material in the photovoltaic cell are optimally chosen, the maximum power output density of the hybrid system is obviously larger than that of the single MCFC. Moreover, the improved percentages of the maximum power output density of the proposed model relative to that of the single MCFC are calculated for differently operating temperatures of the MCFC and are compared with those of some MCFC-based hybrid systems reported in the literature, and consequently, the advantages of the MCFC-TPVC hybrid system are revealed.

  8. A hybrid air conditioner driven by a hybrid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alili, Ali

    The objective of this thesis is to search for an efficient way of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications. The current solar Air Conditioners (A/C)s suffer from low Coefficient of Performance (COP) and performance degradation in hot and humid climates. By investigating the possible ways of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications, the bottlenecks in these approaches were identified. That resulted in proposing a novel system whose subsystem synergy led to a COP higher than unity. The proposed system was found to maintain indoor comfort at a higher COP compared to the most common solar A/Cs, especially under very hot and humid climate conditions. The novelty of the proposed A/C is to use a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector, which outputs thermal and electrical energy simultaneously, to drive a hybrid A/C. The performance of the hybrid A/C, which consists of a desiccant wheel, an enthalpy wheel, and a vapor compression cycle (VCC), was investigated experimentally. This work also explored the use of a new type of desiccant material, which can be regenerated with a low temperature heat source. The experimental results showed that the hybrid A/C is more effective than the standalone VCC in maintaining the indoor conditions within the comfort zone. Using the experimental data, the COP of the hybrid A/C driven by a hybrid solar collector was found to be at least double that of the current solar A/Cs. The innovative integration of its subsystems allows each subsystem to do what it can do best. That leads to lower energy consumption which helps reduce the peak electrical loads on electric utilities and reduces the consumer operating cost since less energy is purchased during the on peak periods and less solar collector area is needed. In order for the proposed A/C to become a real alternative to conventional systems, its performance and total cost were optimized using the experimentally validated model. The results showed that for an

  9. Muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases with myopathic pathology reveal common alterations in mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, Balaraju; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Nalini, Atchayaram; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2016-07-01

    Muscle diseases are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and manifest as dystrophic, inflammatory and myopathic pathologies, among others. Our previous study on the cardiotoxin mouse model of myodegeneration and inflammation linked muscle pathology with mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies from muscle disease patients, represented by dysferlinopathy (dysfy) (dystrophic pathology; n = 43), polymyositis (PM) (inflammatory pathology; n = 24), and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) (distal myopathy; n = 31) were analyzed. Mitochondrial damage (ragged blue and COX-deficient fibers) was revealed in dysfy, PM, and DMRV cases by enzyme histochemistry (SDH and COX-SDH), electron microscopy (vacuolation and altered cristae) and biochemical assays (significantly increased ADP/ATP ratio). Proteomic analysis of muscle mitochondria from all three muscle diseases by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated down-regulation of electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunits, assembly factors and Krebs cycle enzymes. Interestingly, 80 of the under-expressed proteins were common among the three pathologies. Assay of ETC and Krebs cycle enzyme activities validated the MS data. Mitochondrial proteins from muscle pathologies also displayed higher tryptophan (Trp) oxidation and the same was corroborated in the cardiotoxin model. Molecular modeling predicted Trp oxidation to alter the local structure of mitochondrial proteins. Our data highlight mitochondrial alterations in muscle pathologies, represented by morphological changes, altered mitochondrial proteome and protein oxidation, thereby establishing the role of mitochondrial damage in human muscle diseases. We investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies

  10. Strontium eluting graphene hybrid nanoparticles augment osteogenesis in a 3D tissue scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare hybrid nanoparticles of graphene sheets decorated with strontium metallic nanoparticles and demonstrate their advantages in bone tissue engineering. Strontium-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO_Sr) hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized by the facile reduction of graphene oxide and strontium nitrate. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that the hybrid particles were composed of RGO sheets decorated with 200-300 nm metallic strontium particles. Thermal gravimetric analysis further confirmed the composition of the hybrid particles as 22 wt% of strontium. Macroporous tissue scaffolds were prepared by incorporating RGO_Sr particles in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). The PCL/RGO_Sr scaffolds were found to elute strontium ions in aqueous medium. Osteoblast proliferation and differentiation was significantly higher in the PCL scaffolds containing the RGO_Sr particles in contrast to neat PCL and PCL/RGO scaffolds. The increased biological activity can be attributed to the release of strontium ions from the hybrid nanoparticles. This study demonstrates that composites prepared using hybrid nanoparticles that elute strontium ions can be used to prepare multifunctional scaffolds with good mechanical and osteoinductive properties. These findings have important implications for designing the next generation of biomaterials for use in tissue regeneration.The objective of this work was to prepare hybrid nanoparticles of graphene sheets decorated with strontium metallic nanoparticles and demonstrate their advantages in bone tissue engineering. Strontium-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO_Sr) hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized by the facile reduction of graphene oxide and strontium nitrate. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that the hybrid particles were composed of RGO sheets decorated with 200-300 nm metallic strontium

  11. Overview of hybrid electric vehicle trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haomiao; Yang, Weidong; Chen, Yingshu; Wang, Yun

    2018-04-01

    With the increase of per capita energy consumption, environmental pollution is worsening. Using new alternative sources of energy, reducing the use of conventional fuel-powered engines is imperative. Due to the short period, pure electric vehicles cannot be mass-produced and there are many problems such as imperfect charging facilities. Therefore, the development of hybrid electric vehicles is particularly important in a certain period. In this paper, the classification of hybrid vehicle, research status of hybrid vehicle and future development trends of hybrid vehicles is introduced. It is conducive to the public understanding of hybrid electric vehicles, which has a certain theoretical significance.

  12. Genetic engineering with tobacco protoplasts. [Hybridization by fusion of leaf protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H H

    1976-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization by fusion of leaf protoplasts of Nicotiana glauca (GG) and N. langsdorffii (LL) was confirmed and extended. Enzymatic digestion of leaf tissues to obtain protoplats was followed by fusion with the aid of polyethylene glycol. The hybrid calli were selected by their better growth on defined culture media. Mature hybrid plants were identified by their morphology and tumor formation. Cytological examination revealed a range in chromosome numbers from 56 to 64 rather than the amphiploid GGLL number of 42. About 75 percent of the hybrids were fertile. The potential range in combining widely disparate genotypes by somatic cell fusion was demonstrated by fusing tobacco GGLL protoplasts with human HeLa cells. The HeLa nucleus was observed inside the plant protoplasts, thus forming an interkingdom heterokaryon.

  13. Commencement Speech as a Hybrid Polydiscursive Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Викторовна Иванова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Discourse and media communication researchers pay attention to the fact that popular discursive and communicative practices have a tendency to hybridization and convergence. Discourse which is understood as language in use is flexible. Consequently, it turns out that one and the same text can represent several types of discourses. A vivid example of this tendency is revealed in American commencement speech / commencement address / graduation speech. A commencement speech is a speech university graduates are addressed with which in compliance with the modern trend is delivered by outstanding media personalities (politicians, athletes, actors, etc.. The objective of this study is to define the specificity of the realization of polydiscursive practices within commencement speech. The research involves discursive, contextual, stylistic and definitive analyses. Methodologically the study is based on the discourse analysis theory, in particular the notion of a discursive practice as a verbalized social practice makes up the conceptual basis of the research. This research draws upon a hundred commencement speeches delivered by prominent representatives of American society since 1980s till now. In brief, commencement speech belongs to institutional discourse public speech embodies. Commencement speech institutional parameters are well represented in speeches delivered by people in power like American and university presidents. Nevertheless, as the results of the research indicate commencement speech institutional character is not its only feature. Conceptual information analysis enables to refer commencement speech to didactic discourse as it is aimed at teaching university graduates how to deal with challenges life is rich in. Discursive practices of personal discourse are also actively integrated into the commencement speech discourse. More than that, existential discursive practices also find their way into the discourse under study. Commencement

  14. Coulomb Mediated Hybridization of Excitons in Coupled Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelt, P-L; Gawarecki, K; Müller, K; Waeber, A M; Bechtold, A; Oberhofer, K; Daniels, J M; Klotz, F; Bichler, M; Kuhn, T; Krenner, H J; Machnikowski, P; Finley, J J

    2016-02-19

    We report Coulomb mediated hybridization of excitonic states in optically active InGaAs quantum dot molecules. By probing the optical response of an individual quantum dot molecule as a function of the static electric field applied along the molecular axis, we observe unexpected avoided level crossings that do not arise from the dominant single-particle tunnel coupling. We identify a new few-particle coupling mechanism stemming from Coulomb interactions between different neutral exciton states. Such Coulomb resonances hybridize the exciton wave function over four different electron and hole single-particle orbitals. Comparisons of experimental observations with microscopic eight-band k·p calculations taking into account a realistic quantum dot geometry show good agreement and reveal that the Coulomb resonances arise from broken symmetry in the artificial semiconductor molecule.

  15. Experimental investigation of cyclic hygrothermal aging of hybrid composite

    KAUST Repository

    El Yagoubi, Jalal

    2013-04-05

    This work provides an experimental investigation of the cyclic hygrothermal aging of a hybrid composites. We aimed to propose a general framework in the view to further optimize polymer-based composites. It reports experimental data and relevant observations collected during an aging campaign (up to 2000 cycles) where anhydride-cured epoxy samples as well as composites samples are exposed to environmental conditions. The data gathered during the whole campaign reveals that (1) the polymer displays a non-classical sorption behavior (2) the volume change is correlated to the mass uptake (3) the elastic modulus is correlated to the glass transition temperature. Matrix and interface degradation of the hybrid composite is monitored by means of microstructural observations. © 2013 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy systems in forecasting regional electricity loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Ping-Feng [Department of Information Management, National Chi Nan University, 1 University Road, Puli, Nantou 545, Taiwan (China)

    2006-09-15

    Because of the privatization of electricity in many countries, load forecasting has become one of the most crucial issues in the planning and operations of electric utilities. In addition, accurate regional load forecasting can provide the transmission and distribution operators with more information. The hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy system was originally designed to solve control and pattern recognition problems. The main objective of this investigation is to develop a hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy system for time series forecasting (HEFST) and apply the proposed model to forecast regional electricity loads in Taiwan. Additionally, a scaled conjugate gradient learning method is employed in the supervised learning phase of the HEFST model. Subsequently, numerical data taken from the existing literature is used to demonstrate the forecasting performance of the HEFST model. Simulation results reveal that the proposed model has better forecasting performance than the artificial neural network model and the regression model. Thus, the HEFST model is a valid and promising alternative for forecasting regional electricity loads. (author)

  17. Experimental investigation of cyclic hygrothermal aging of hybrid composite

    KAUST Repository

    El Yagoubi, Jalal; Lubineau, Gilles; Saghir, Shahid; Selvakumaran, Lakshmi; Askari, Abe H.; Brown, Arlene M.

    2013-01-01

    This work provides an experimental investigation of the cyclic hygrothermal aging of a hybrid composites. We aimed to propose a general framework in the view to further optimize polymer-based composites. It reports experimental data and relevant observations collected during an aging campaign (up to 2000 cycles) where anhydride-cured epoxy samples as well as composites samples are exposed to environmental conditions. The data gathered during the whole campaign reveals that (1) the polymer displays a non-classical sorption behavior (2) the volume change is correlated to the mass uptake (3) the elastic modulus is correlated to the glass transition temperature. Matrix and interface degradation of the hybrid composite is monitored by means of microstructural observations. © 2013 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonadditive protein accumulation patterns in Maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids during embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Caroline; Schützenmeister, André; Schütz, Wolfgang; Madlung, Johannes; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2010-12-03

    Heterosis describes the superior performance of heterozygous F(1)-hybrid plants compared to their homozygous parental inbred lines. In the present study, heterosis was detected for length, weight, and the time point of seminal root primordia initiation in maize (Zea mays L.) embryos of the reciprocal F(1)-hybrids UH005xUH250 and UH250xUH005. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) proteome survey of the most abundant proteins of the reciprocal hybrids and their parental inbred lines 25 and 35 days after pollination revealed that 141 of 597 detected proteins (24%) exhibited nonadditive accumulation in at least one hybrid. Approximately 44% of all nonadditively accumulated proteins displayed an expression pattern that was not distinguishable from the low parent value. Electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analyses and subsequent functional classification of the 141 proteins revealed that development, protein metabolism, redox-regulation, glycolysis, and amino acid metabolism were the most prominent functional classes among nonadditively accumulated proteins. In 35-day-old embryos of the hybrid UH250xUH005, a significant up-regulation of enzymes related to glucose metabolism which often exceeded the best parent values was observed. A comparison of nonadditive protein accumulation between rice and maize embryo data sets revealed a significant overlap of nonadditively accumulated proteins suggesting conserved organ- or tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms in monocots related to heterosis.

  19. Gasoline hybrid pneumatic engine for efficient vehicle powertrain hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    The largest applied convertors in passenger cars are the internal combustion engines – gasoline, diesel, adapted also for operating on alternative fuels and hybrid modes. The number of components that are necessary to realize modern future propulsion system is inexorably increasing. The need for efficiency improvement of the vehicle energy system induces the search for an innovative methodology during the design process. In this article the compressed air is investigated as an innovative solu...

  20. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

  1. ‘Some strange monster of the isle’: l’hybride dans The Tempest ‘Some strange monster of the isle’: the Hybrid in Perspective in The Tempest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Drouet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the hybrid and how it is put into perspective on Prospero’s island. First Caliban is examined as both a biological and cultural hybrid pervading the imaginary field and as the touchstone of the related dialectics of rejection and appropriation. Then, from a metaphorical point of view, Prospero’s island is regarded as a cabinet of curiosities in which hybrid creatures—of which Caliban is one—fill the castaways with either wonder or horror; Prospero’s project and that of creators of cabinets as “encyclopaedias of the visible world” (Evans’ phrase may hence be paralleled. Finally, the hybrid as revealing hubris, Prospero’s “Promethean attitude” (Hadot’s term and the irreducible quality of the hybrid are examined.

  2. Puzzles in modern biology. I. Male sterility, failure reveals design [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Frank

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many human males produce dysfunctional sperm. Various plants frequently abort pollen. Hybrid matings often produce sterile males. Widespread male sterility is puzzling. Natural selection prunes reproductive failure. Puzzling failure implies something that we do not understand about how organisms are designed. Solving the puzzle reveals the hidden processes of design.

  3. Vegetative and adaptive traits predict different outcomes for restoration using hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Crystal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – Hybridization has been implicated as a driver of speciation, extinction, and invasiveness, but can also provide resistant breeding stock following epidemics. However, evaluating the appropriateness of hybrids for use in restoration programs is difficult. Past the F1 generation, the proportion of a progenitor’s genome can vary widely, as can the combinations of parental genomes. Detailed genetic analysis can reveal this information, but cannot expose phenotypic alterations due to heterosis, transgressive traits, or changes in metabolism or development. In addition, because evolution is often driven by extreme individuals, decisions based on phenotypic averages of hybrid classes may have unintended results. We demonstrate a strategy to evaluate hybrids for use in restoration by visualizing hybrid phenotypes across selected groups of traits relative to both progenitor species. Specifically, we used discriminant analysis to differentiate among butternut (Juglans cinerea L., black walnut (J. nigra L., and Japanese walnut (J. ailantifolia Carr. var. cordiformis using vegetative characters and then with functional adaptive traits associated with seedling performance. When projected onto the progenitor trait space, naturally occurring hybrids (J. ×bixbyi Rehd. between butternut and Japanese walnut showed introgression towards Japanese walnut at vegetative characters but exhibited a hybrid swarm at functional traits. Both results indicate that hybrids have morphological and ecological phenotypes that distinguish them from butternut, demonstrating a lack of ecological equivalency that should not be carried into restoration breeding efforts. Despite these discrepancies, some hybrids were projected into the space occupied by butternut seedlings’ 95% confidence ellipse, signifying that some hybrids were similar at the measured traits. Determining how to consistently identify these individuals is imperative for future breeding and species

  4. Novel Platinum (Pt)-Vandetanib Hybrid Compounds: Design, Synthesis and Investigation of Anti-cancer Activity and Mechanism of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Rong

    of them formed mono-dentate adducts. Moreover, hybrid compounds exhibited low toxicity in human normal kidney cells. Compounds maintained the inhibition selectivity towards EGFR from the results of kinase inhibition profiling and cell-free kinase inhibition assay. Hybrids formed strong H-bond at D800 on EGFR. Pt-vandetanib hybrids were highly effective against HCC827 cells harboring sensitizing EGFR mutation. Importantly, relative resistant rate of hybrids were much smaller than vandetanib in H1975 cells. Western blot analysis results revealed that the hybrid compounds could efficiently inhibit EGFR phosphorylation in a dose dependent manner in HCC827. While, inhibition of p-EGFR was not as good as the original TKI in H1975 cells. However, the hybrid compounds induced DNA damage and caused apoptosis of the NSCLC cells. Both of the two pathways were contributed to cancer cell death and overcome vandetanib resistance. Pt-vandetanib hybrids showed little resistance in cisplatin resistant cell line KB-CP20. Drug accumulation evaluation revealed that cisplatin accumulation in CP20 cells decreased to one eighth of that in the parental KB3.1 cells. While hybrids maintained similar drug accumulation extent in both cells lines. Mechanistic study showed that hybrid compounds could induce DNA damage and cause apoptosis, whereas cisplatin failed to cause DNA damage in KB-CP20 cells. Oncoprotein CIP2A was overexpressed in CP20 cell and was ascribed to CDDP resistance. The hybrids inhibited CIP2A expression and downstream AKT phosphorylation. It was hypothesized that downregulation of CIP2A contributed to circumvention platinum resistance. Conclusion: Novel Pt-vandetanib hybrid compounds were able to overcome vandetanib resistance in H1975 cells by maintaining inhibition to the EGFR and inducing DNA damage and apoptosis. Moreover, Pt-vandetanib hybrid compounds behaved low toxicity and overcome cisplatin resistance by being "non-substrate" to efflux transporter and successfully

  5. Bigger hybrid loader on the drawing board : Mining Technologies International hybrid gets rave reviews for power and comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollinsky, N.

    2010-12-01

    This article presented a hybrid loader that reduces diesel emissions in underground mining. Sudbury-based Mining Technologies International (MTI) plans to build a 4 cubic yard loader in 2011, following the successful trial of a smaller 1.5 cubic yard machine at the CANMET experimental mine in Val d'Or, Quebec. The prototype hybrid loader was equipped with a metal hydride battery pack and a 2-cylinder, 35 hp Deutz engine. Performance testing revealed that the machine is capable of providing much more torque than originally expected and that it has more power compared to a mechanical drive machine. Operators at the CANMET mine also gave the hybrid loader high marks for comfort. The MTI loaders are equipped with a load sensing hydraulics system to eliminate jarring movement. The prototype experienced some premature failures in the flex coupling, which was subsequently replaced at the MTI shop in Sudbury. The primary reason for building the hybrid loader was to reduce diesel emissions underground in anticipation of stricter emission standards planned by the Mine Safety and Health Administration, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and CANMET for 2014. Compared to a conventional machine, there is virtually no exhaust from the hybrid loader. It is an ideal machine for a mine with very limited ventilation. Since the loader runs off the battery, MTI is currently looking at battery technologies other than metal hydrides to obtain a much higher energy density. Diesel is used to recharge the loader, and eliminates the need to plug in the unit between shifts. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  6. Genetic basis to hybrid inviability is more complex than hybrid male sterility in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundus, Joanna D; Wang, Donglin; Cutter, Asher D

    2018-04-07

    Hybrid male sterility often evolves before female sterility or inviability of hybrids, implying that the accumulation of divergence between separated lineages should lead hybrid male sterility to have a more polygenic basis. However, experimental evidence is mixed. Here, we use the nematodes Caenorhabditis remanei and C. latens to characterize the underlying genetic basis of asymmetric hybrid male sterility and hybrid inviability. We demonstrate that hybrid male sterility is consistent with a simple genetic basis, involving a single X-autosome incompatibility. We also show that hybrid inviability involves more genomic compartments, involving diverse nuclear-nuclear incompatibilities, a mito-nuclear incompatibility, and maternal effects. These findings demonstrate that male sensitivity to genetic perturbation may be genetically simple compared to hybrid inviability in Caenorhabditis and motivates tests of generality for the genetic architecture of hybrid incompatibility across the breadth of phylogeny.

  7. Histomorfometria e histoquímica dos ovários, tubas e útero de ratas hipotireóideas em metaestro-diestro Histomorphometry and histochemistry of the ovaries, oviduct and uterus in hypothyroid rats in the metaestrus-diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A foliculogênese ovariana foi estudada em ratas adultas Wistar, hipotireóideas na fase de metaestro-diestro. O hipotireoidismo foi induzido pela administração oral e diária de propiltiouracil (1mg/animal. As ratas eutireóideas receberam placebo. Após 120 dias de tratamento, foi colhido o plasma para dosagem de tiroxina livre, progesterona e estradiol após o que foram sacrificadas para colheita dos ovários, tubas e útero, para avaliação histomorfométrica e histoquímica. O hipotireoidismo reduziu significativamente o peso dos ovários e o número de folículos secundários e terciários e de corpos lúteos sem, no entanto, alterar a porcentagem de folículos atrésicos e o número de folículos primários e pré-ovulatórios. As células da granulosa dos folículos secundários das ratas hipotireóideas apresentavam núcleo pequeno com significativa redução do número de regiões organizadoras de nucléolo (NORs. Essas mudanças não alteraram os valores periféricos de estradiol e de progesterona. Houve redução significativa da espessura do endométrio, do número de glândulas endometriais e da altura do epitélio do infundíbulo.Ovarian folicullogenesis was studied in adult Wistar rats. The animals were hypothyroid in the metaestrus/diestrus phase of the estrous cycle. Hypothyroidism was induced by oral treatment with 1mg/animal of propylthiouracil. Euthyroid rats were kept under the same experimental conditions receiving placebo. After 120 days under treatment, all animals were killed and plasma was taken to assessing free thyroxine, progesterone, and estradiol. The ovaries, tubes and uterus were sampled for histomorphometric and histochemistry evaluation. Hypothyroidism significantly reduced the weight of the ovaries and the number of secondary and tertiary follicles, and corpora luteum. The number of atretic follicles as well as primary and pre-ovulatory follicles was not affected. Granulosa cells in the secondary follicles

  8. X chromosome control of meiotic chromosome synapsis in mouse inter-subspecific hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Bhattacharyya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid sterility (HS belongs to reproductive isolation barriers that safeguard the integrity of species in statu nascendi. Although hybrid sterility occurs almost universally among animal and plant species, most of our current knowledge comes from the classical genetic studies on Drosophila interspecific crosses or introgressions. With the house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus and Mus m. domesticus as a model, new research tools have become available for studies of the molecular mechanisms and genetic networks underlying HS. Here we used QTL analysis and intersubspecific chromosome substitution strains to identify a 4.7 Mb critical region on Chromosome X (Chr X harboring the Hstx2 HS locus, which causes asymmetrical spermatogenic arrest in reciprocal intersubspecific F1 hybrids. Subsequently, we mapped autosomal loci on Chrs 3, 9 and 13 that can abolish this asymmetry. Combination of immunofluorescent visualization of the proteins of synaptonemal complexes with whole-chromosome DNA FISH on pachytene spreads revealed that heterosubspecific, unlike consubspecific, homologous chromosomes are predisposed to asynapsis in F1 hybrid male and female meiosis. The asynapsis is under the trans- control of Hstx2 and Hst1/Prdm9 hybrid sterility genes in pachynemas of male but not female hybrids. The finding concurred with the fertility of intersubpecific F1 hybrid females homozygous for the Hstx2(Mmm allele and resolved the apparent conflict with the dominance theory of Haldane's rule. We propose that meiotic asynapsis in intersubspecific hybrids is a consequence of cis-acting mismatch between homologous chromosomes modulated by the trans-acting Hstx2 and Prdm9 hybrid male sterility genes.

  9. X chromosome control of meiotic chromosome synapsis in mouse inter-subspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Reifova, Radka; Gregorova, Sona; Simecek, Petr; Gergelits, Vaclav; Mistrik, Martin; Martincova, Iva; Pialek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiri

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid sterility (HS) belongs to reproductive isolation barriers that safeguard the integrity of species in statu nascendi. Although hybrid sterility occurs almost universally among animal and plant species, most of our current knowledge comes from the classical genetic studies on Drosophila interspecific crosses or introgressions. With the house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus and Mus m. domesticus as a model, new research tools have become available for studies of the molecular mechanisms and genetic networks underlying HS. Here we used QTL analysis and intersubspecific chromosome substitution strains to identify a 4.7 Mb critical region on Chromosome X (Chr X) harboring the Hstx2 HS locus, which causes asymmetrical spermatogenic arrest in reciprocal intersubspecific F1 hybrids. Subsequently, we mapped autosomal loci on Chrs 3, 9 and 13 that can abolish this asymmetry. Combination of immunofluorescent visualization of the proteins of synaptonemal complexes with whole-chromosome DNA FISH on pachytene spreads revealed that heterosubspecific, unlike consubspecific, homologous chromosomes are predisposed to asynapsis in F1 hybrid male and female meiosis. The asynapsis is under the trans- control of Hstx2 and Hst1/Prdm9 hybrid sterility genes in pachynemas of male but not female hybrids. The finding concurred with the fertility of intersubpecific F1 hybrid females homozygous for the Hstx2(Mmm) allele and resolved the apparent conflict with the dominance theory of Haldane's rule. We propose that meiotic asynapsis in intersubspecific hybrids is a consequence of cis-acting mismatch between homologous chromosomes modulated by the trans-acting Hstx2 and Prdm9 hybrid male sterility genes.

  10. Polyetheretherketone Hybrid Composites with Bioactive Nanohydroxyapatite and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyetheretherketone (PEEK hybrid composites reinforced with inorganic nanohydroxyapatite (nHA and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT were prepared by melt-compounding and injection molding processes. The additions of nHA and MWNT to PEEK were aimed to increase its elastic modulus, tensile strength, and biocompatibility, rendering the hybrids suitable for load-bearing implant applications. The structural behavior, mechanical property, wettability, osteoblastic cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of the PEEK/nHA-MWNT hybrids were studied. X-ray diffraction and SEM observation showed that both nHA and MWNT fillers are incorporated into the polymer matrix of PEEK-based hybrids. Tensile tests indicated that the elastic modulus of PEEK can be increased from 3.87 to 7.13 GPa by adding 15 vol % nHA and 1.88 vol % MWNT fillers. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the PEEK/(15% nHA-(1.88% MWNT hybrid were 64.48 MPa and 1.74%, respectively. Thus the tensile properties of this hybrid were superior to those of human cortical bones. Water contact angle measurements revealed that the PEEK/(15% nHA-(1.88% MWNT hybrid is hydrophilic due to the presence of nHA. Accordingly, hydrophilic PEEK/(15% nHA-(1.88% MWNT hybrid promoted the adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts on its surface effectively on the basis of cell culture, fluorescence microscopy, MTT assay, WST-1 assay, alkaline phosphatase activity, and Alizarin red staining tests. Thus the PEEK/(15% nHA-(1.88% MWNT hybrid has the potential to be used for fabricating load-bearing bone implants.

  11. Male sex interspecies divergence and down regulation of expression of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila sterile hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Vignesh; Civetta, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Male sex genes have shown a pattern of rapid interspecies divergence at both the coding and gene expression level. A common outcome from crosses between closely-related species is hybrid male sterility. Phenotypic and genetic studies in Drosophila sterile hybrid males have shown that spermatogenesis arrest is postmeiotic with few exceptions, and that most misregulated genes are involved in late stages of spermatogenesis. Comparative studies of gene regulation in sterile hybrids and parental species have mainly used microarrays providing a whole genome representation of regulatory problems in sterile hybrids. Real-time PCR studies can reject or reveal differences not observed in microarray assays. Moreover, differences in gene expression between samples can be dependant on the source of RNA (e.g., whole body vs. tissue). Here we survey expression in D. simulans, D. mauritiana and both intra and interspecies hybrids using a real-time PCR approach for eight genes expressed at the four main stages of sperm development. We find that all genes show a trend toward under expression in the testes of sterile hybrids relative to parental species with only the two proliferation genes (bam and bgcn) and the two meiotic class genes (can and sa) showing significant down regulation. The observed pattern of down regulation for the genes tested can not fully explain hybrid male sterility. We discuss the down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids between closely-related species within the contest of rapid divergence experienced by the male genome, hybrid sterility and possible allometric changes due to subtle testes-specific developmental abnormalities.

  12. X Chromosome Control of Meiotic Chromosome Synapsis in Mouse Inter-Subspecific Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Reifova, Radka; Gregorova, Sona; Simecek, Petr; Gergelits, Vaclav; Mistrik, Martin; Martincova, Iva; Pialek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid sterility (HS) belongs to reproductive isolation barriers that safeguard the integrity of species in statu nascendi. Although hybrid sterility occurs almost universally among animal and plant species, most of our current knowledge comes from the classical genetic studies on Drosophila interspecific crosses or introgressions. With the house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus and Mus m. domesticus as a model, new research tools have become available for studies of the molecular mechanisms and genetic networks underlying HS. Here we used QTL analysis and intersubspecific chromosome substitution strains to identify a 4.7 Mb critical region on Chromosome X (Chr X) harboring the Hstx2 HS locus, which causes asymmetrical spermatogenic arrest in reciprocal intersubspecific F1 hybrids. Subsequently, we mapped autosomal loci on Chrs 3, 9 and 13 that can abolish this asymmetry. Combination of immunofluorescent visualization of the proteins of synaptonemal complexes with whole-chromosome DNA FISH on pachytene spreads revealed that heterosubspecific, unlike consubspecific, homologous chromosomes are predisposed to asynapsis in F1 hybrid male and female meiosis. The asynapsis is under the trans- control of Hstx2 and Hst1/Prdm9 hybrid sterility genes in pachynemas of male but not female hybrids. The finding concurred with the fertility of intersubpecific F1 hybrid females homozygous for the Hstx2Mmm allele and resolved the apparent conflict with the dominance theory of Haldane's rule. We propose that meiotic asynapsis in intersubspecific hybrids is a consequence of cis-acting mismatch between homologous chromosomes modulated by the trans-acting Hstx2 and Prdm9 hybrid male sterility genes. PMID:24516397

  13. Preparation of an amide group-connected graphene-polyaniline nanofiber hybrid and its application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianhua, Liu; Junwei, An; Yecheng, Zhou; Yuxiao, Ma; Mengliu, Li; Mei, Yu; Songmei, Li

    2012-06-27

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofiber is grafted onto graphene to obtain a novel graphene-polyaniline (GP) hybrid. Graphene is activated using SOCl2 and reacts with PANI to form an amide group that intimately connects graphene and PANI. The existence of the amide group and its anchoring effect in the GP hybrid are confirmed and characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, Raman, XPS and quantum chemistry analyses. Electrochemical tests reveal that the GP hybrid has high capacitance performances of 579.8 and 361.9 F g(-1) at current densities of 0.3 and 1 A g(-1). These values indicate superiority to materials interacted by van der Waals force. Long-term charge/discharge tests at high current densities show that the GP hybrid preserves 96% of its initial capacitance, demonstrating good electrochemical stability. The improved electrochemical performance suggests promising application of the GP hybrid in high-performance supercapacitors.

  14. Graphene-cobaltite-Pd hybrid materials for use as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Awasthi, Rahul; Singh, Ravindra Nath; Sinha, Akhoury Sudhir Kumar

    2013-12-14

    Hybrid materials comprising of Pd, MCo2O4 (where M = Mn, Co or Ni) and graphene have been prepared for use as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells. Structural and electrochemical characterizations were carried out using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, chronoamperometry and cyclic, CO stripping, and linear sweep voltammetries. The study revealed that all the three hybrid materials are active for both methanol oxidation (MOR) and oxygen reduction (ORR) reactions in 1 M KOH. However, the Pd-MnCo2O4/GNS hybrid electrode exhibited the greatest MOR and ORR activities. This active hybrid electrode has also outstanding stability under both MOR and ORR conditions, while Pt- and other Pd-based catalysts undergo degradation under similar experimental conditions. The Pd-MnCo2O4/GNS hybrid catalyst exhibited superior ORR activity and stability compared to even Pt in alkaline solutions.

  15. Stochastic effects in hybrid inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jérôme; Vennin, Vincent

    2012-02-01

    Hybrid inflation is a two-field model where inflation ends due to an instability. In the neighborhood of the instability point, the potential is very flat and the quantum fluctuations dominate over the classical motion of the inflaton and waterfall fields. In this article, we study this regime in the framework of stochastic inflation. We numerically solve the two coupled Langevin equations controlling the evolution of the fields and compute the probability distributions of the total number of e-folds and of the inflation exit point. Then, we discuss the physical consequences of our results, in particular, the question of how the quantum diffusion can affect the observable predictions of hybrid inflation.

  16. Towards an expansive hybrid psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological artefacts. It is argued that the mind is normative in the sense that mental processes do not simply happen, but can be done more or less well, and thus are subject to normative appraisal. The expanded hybrid psychology......This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions, depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré’s hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded significantly by including the four...... is meant to assist in integrating theoretical perspectives and research interests that are often thought of as incompatible, among them neuroscience, phenomenology of the body, social practice theory and technology studies. A main point of the article is that these perspectives each are necessary...

  17. Adaptive hybrid control of manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Simple methods for the design of adaptive force and position controllers for robot manipulators within the hybrid control architecuture is presented. The force controller is composed of an adaptive PID feedback controller, an auxiliary signal and a force feedforward term, and it achieves tracking of desired force setpoints in the constraint directions. The position controller consists of adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers and an auxiliary signal, and it accomplishes tracking of desired position trajectories in the free directions. The controllers are capable of compensating for dynamic cross-couplings that exist between the position and force control loops in the hybrid control architecture. The adaptive controllers do not require knowledge of the complex dynamic model or parameter values of the manipulator or the environment. The proposed control schemes are computationally fast and suitable for implementation in on-line control with high sampling rates.

  18. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    gramians. Generalized gramians are the solutions to the observability and controllability Lyapunov inequalities. In the first framework the projection matrices are found based on the common generalized gramians. This framework preserves the stability of the original switched system for all switching...... is guaranteed to be preserved for arbitrary switching signal. To compute the common generalized gramians linear matrix inequalities (LMI’s) need to be solved. These LMI’s are not always feasible. In order to solve the problem of conservatism, the second framework is presented. In this method the projection......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...

  19. Hybrid inflation exit through tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbrecht, Bjoern; Konstandin, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    For hybrid inflationary potentials, we derive the tunneling rate from field configurations along the flat direction towards the waterfall regime. This process competes with the classically rolling evolution of the scalar fields and needs to be strongly subdominant for phenomenologically viable models. Tunneling may exclude models with a mass scale below 10 12 GeV, but can be suppressed by small values of the coupling constants. We find that tunneling is negligible for those models, which do not require fine tuning in order to cancel radiative corrections, in particular for GUT-scale SUSY inflation. In contrast, electroweak scale hybrid inflation is not viable, unless the inflaton-waterfall field coupling is smaller than approximately 10 -11

  20. The fusion-fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.

    1985-01-01

    As the history of the development of fusion energy shows, a sustained controlled fusion reaction is much more difficult to produce than rapid uncontrolled release of fusion energy. Currently, the ''magnetic bottle'' technique shows sufficient progress that it might applied for the commercial fuel production of /sup 233/U, suitable for use in fission reactors, by developing a fusion-fission hybrid. Such a device would consist of a fusion chamber core surrounded by a region containing cladded uranium pellets cooled by helium, with lithium salts also present to produce tritium to refuel the fusion process. Successful development of this hybrid might be possible within 10 y, and would provide both experience and funds for further development of controlled fusion energy

  1. Position list word aligned hybrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    Compressed bitmap indexes are increasingly used for efficiently querying very large and complex databases. The Word Aligned Hybrid (WAH) bitmap compression scheme is commonly recognized as the most efficient compression scheme in terms of CPU efficiency. However, WAH compressed bitmaps use a lot...... of storage space. This paper presents the Position List Word Aligned Hybrid (PLWAH) compression scheme that improves significantly over WAH compression by better utilizing the available bits and new CPU instructions. For typical bit distributions, PLWAH compressed bitmaps are often half the size of WAH...... bitmaps and, at the same time, offer an even better CPU efficiency. The results are verified by theoretical estimates and extensive experiments on large amounts of both synthetic and real-world data....

  2. Complex Hybrid Inflation and Baryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Delepine, David; Martinez, Carlos; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2006-01-01

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U(1) global symmetry associated to the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vev of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations.

  3. Complex Hybrid Inflation and Baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delepine, David; Martinez, Carlos; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2007-01-01

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U(1) global symmetry associated with the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations

  4. Complex hybrid inflation and baryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine, David; Martínez, Carlos; Ureña-López, L Arturo

    2007-04-20

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U(1) global symmetry associated with the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations.

  5. Energy Efficient Hydraulic Hybrid Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Karl-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency of propulsion systems for cars, trucks and construction machineries has become one of the most important topics in today’s mobile system design, mainly because of increased fuel costs and new regulations about engine emissions, which is needed to save the environment. To meet the increased requirements on higher efficiency and better functionality, components and systems have been developed over the years. For the last ten years the development of hybrid systems can be divid...

  6. Photosystem Inspired Peptide Hybrid Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    materials defined at the molecular level. We propose a novel way to make hybrid catalyst composed of inorganic nanomaterials and peptides. The...Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR)/ IOA Arlington, Virginia 22203 Air Force Research Laboratory Air...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY SNUR&DB FOUNDATION RESEARCH PARK CENTER SEOUL, 151742 KR 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  7. Active and Passive Hybrid Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, James R.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid ocean wind sensor (HOWS) can map ocean vector wind in low to hurricane-level winds, and non-precipitating and precipitating conditions. It can acquire active and passive measurements through a single aperture at two wavelengths, two polarizations, and multiple incidence angles. Its low profile, compact geometry, and low power consumption permits installation on air craft platforms, including high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

  8. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  9. Hybrid Maritime Satellite Communication Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Thomas Gunst

    Hybrid antennas for a maritime satellite communication terminal with simultaneous operation at L- and Ka-band have been investigated. The frequency bands of interest are 1; 525:0 1; 660:5 MHz (RX+TX, RHCP), 19:7 20:2 (RX, LHCP) and 29:5 30:0 GHz (TX, RHCP), which are all part of the Inmarsat BGAN...

  10. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Larrain, Diego; Favrat, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The wast...

  11. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Favrat, Daniel; Larrain, Diego; Allani, Yassine

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The waste heat from both...

  12. Hybrid dynamics for currency modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Theodosopoulos, Ted; Trifunovic, Alex

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple hybrid dynamical model as a tool to investigate behavioral strategies based on trend following. The multiplicative symbolic dynamics are generated using a lognormal diffusion model for the at-the-money implied volatility term structure. Thus, are model exploits information from derivative markets to obtain qualititative properties of the return distribution for the underlier. We apply our model to the JPY-USD exchange rate and the corresponding 1mo., 3mo., 6mo. and 1yr. im...

  13. CERN manufactured hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    These hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) produce an electric signal from a single photon. An electron is liberated from a photocathode and accelerated to a silicon pixel array allowing the location of the photon on the cathode to be recorded. The electronics and optics for these devices have been developed in close collaboration with industry. HPDs have potential for further use in astrophysics and medical imaging.

  14. Unicystic ameloblastoma with diverse mural proliferation - a hybrid lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadesh, Jyothi; Rayapati, Dilip Kumar; Maligi, Prathima M; Ramachandra, Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    A 46-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment, complaining of swelling on the right mandibular molar region. Radiographic examination revealed a well defined multilocular radiolucent lesion with root resorption of right lower anteriors and molars. Following biopsy, a diagnosis of unicystic ameloblastoma of mural type was made and hemimandibulectomy was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen exhibited a unicystic ameloblastoma of luminal, intraluminal, and mural type. Intraluminal proliferation was of plexiform pattern and mural proliferation showed unusual histopathological findings, which revealed follicular, acanthomatous areas coexisted with desmoplastic areas. This mural picture was similar to the so-called 'hybrid lesion of ameloblastoma', whose biological profile is not elicited due to the lack of adequate published reports. Two years follow up till date has not revealed any signs of recurrence.

  15. Unicystic ameloblastoma with diverse mural proliferation - a hybrid lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadesh, Jyothi [Sri Siddhartha Dental College and Hospital, (India); Rayapati, Dilip Kumar; Maligi, Prathima M; Ramachandra, Prashanth [Dayananda Sagar College of Dental Sciences, Bengaluru (India)

    2011-03-15

    A 46-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment, complaining of swelling on the right mandibular molar region. Radiographic examination revealed a well defined multilocular radiolucent lesion with root resorption of right lower anteriors and molars. Following biopsy, a diagnosis of unicystic ameloblastoma of mural type was made and hemimandibulectomy was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen exhibited a unicystic ameloblastoma of luminal, intraluminal, and mural type. Intraluminal proliferation was of plexiform pattern and mural proliferation showed unusual histopathological findings, which revealed follicular, acanthomatous areas coexisted with desmoplastic areas. This mural picture was similar to the so-called 'hybrid lesion of ameloblastoma', whose biological profile is not elicited due to the lack of adequate published reports. Two years follow up till date has not revealed any signs of recurrence.

  16. The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

  17. Hybrid rail gun electromagnetic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.W.; Hachen, H.; Lee, A.; Legh, G.; Lin, T.; Mattay, S.; Wipf, S.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on hybrid rail accelerators are presented. It is shown that the side surface areas and in some cases sabots of the projectile can be used to provide substantial amount of additional thrust. Moreover, it is shown that in most cases examined, external magnetic fields can be conveniently incorporated in the accelerator designs to supplement the rail-induced fields. Total thrusts in excess of 10 MN for kilogram-sized projectiles can in principle be established with driving currents of the order of 1 MA. No obvious stress limitations are foreseen. The percentages of thrust from external magnetic fields are sufficiently high that the use of which should be encouraged. The increased flexibility in the projectile shapes available permits the use of the proposed hybrid electromagnetic launcher technology in a variety of new areas, such as thrust boosts in conventional chemical rockets and other similar applications. Furthermore, the additional thrust obtained from the use of side surface areas greatly increases the maximum permissable thrust otherwise limited by material strength considerations. Thrust analyses for projectiles in several hybrid rail accelerator designs are discussed. Some laboratory experimental observations are presented

  18. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.S. Veras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza–Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.

  19. The conference hybrid control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieci, A.; Caucik, J.; Macko, J.

    2008-01-01

    An original concept of a hybrid control room was developed for the Mochovce-3 and Mochovce-4 reactor units which are under construction. The basic idea underlying the concept is that the control room should be a main working place for the operators (reactor operator and turbine operator) and for the shift supervisor, designed as a comprehensive unit desk shaped so that all members of the control room crew are in a face-to-face contact constantly. The main desk consists of three clearly identified areas serving the operators and the unit supervisor as their main working places. A soft control system is installed at the main working places. A separate safety-related working place, designed as a panel with classical instrumentations at the conference hybrid control room, is provided in case of abnormal conditions or emergency situation. Principles of ergonomics and cognitive engineering were taken into account when designing the new conference hybrid control room for the Mochovce-3 and -4 reactor units. The sizes, propositions, shapes and disposition of the equipment at the control room have been created and verified by using virtual reality tools. (orig.)

  20. The future of hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangraefschepe, F.; Menegazzi, P.

    2004-12-15

    This new demand from the U.S. market is being taken very seriously by key players in the field. GM and Daimler Chrysler have announced an alliance for the joint development of a hybrid vehicle scheduled to reach the market by 2007. Development projects of this type will require capital investment of several hundred million dollars over the period. Given that it is now imperative to cut greenhouse gas emissions, the hybrid vehicle offers a credible alternative. It is already on the market, despite the constraints inherent to a configuration combining an electric motor and an internal combustion engine, and despite the added cost. The technical choices are complex and varied, depending on the objectives: potential CO{sub 2} emissions gains range from a few percentage points to over 45%, depending on the engine/motor architecture. The gasoline hybrid vehicle is emerging as an alternative to the diesel engine, especially in Japan and the United States, but its growth will depend on the ability of the motor industry to reduce the added cost.