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Sample records for hybridization fish results

  1. Insertional translocation detected using FISH confirmation of array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Hae L; Shaw, Chad; Ou, Zhishuo; Eng, Patricia A; Cooper, M Lance; Pursley, Amber N; Sahoo, Trilochan; Bacino, Carlos A; Chinault, A Craig; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Patel, Ankita; Lupski, James R; Cheung, Sau Wai

    2010-05-01

    Insertional translocations (ITs) are rare events that require at least three breaks in the chromosomes involved and thus qualify as complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR). In the current study, we identified 40 ITs from approximately 18,000 clinical cases (1:500) using array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in conjunction with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmation of the aCGH findings, and parental follow-up studies. Both submicroscopic and microscopically visible IT events were detected. They were divided into three major categories: (1) simple intrachromosomal and interchromosomal IT resulting in pure segmental trisomy, (2) complex IT involving more than one abnormality, (3) deletion inherited from a parent with a balanced IT resulting in pure segmental monosomy. Of the cases in which follow-up parental studies were available, over half showed inheritance from an apparently unaffected parent carrying the same unbalanced rearrangement detected in the propositi, thus decreasing the likelihood that these IT events are clinically relevant. Nevertheless, we identified six cases in which small submicroscopic events were detected involving known disease-associated genes/genomic segments and are likely to be pathogenic. We recommend that copy number gains detected by clinical aCGH analysis should be confirmed using FISH analysis whenever possible in order to determine the physical location of the duplicated segment. We hypothesize that the increased use of aCGH in the clinic will demonstrate that IT occurs more frequently than previously considered but can identify genomic rearrangements with unclear clinical significance.

  2. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  3. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (♀)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (♂), and RCC (2n=100) (♀)×blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (♂) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×CC (♂), bisexual fertile F3–F18 allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×BSB (♂), different ploidy fishes were obtained, including

  4. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ShaoJun

    2010-04-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (male), and RCC (2n=100) (female) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (male) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (female) x CC (male), bisexual fertile F(3)-F(18) allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (female) x BSB (male), different ploidy fishes were

  5. Hybrid seine for full fish community collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Waldt, Emily M.; Abbett, Ross; David, Anthony; Snyder, James

    2013-01-01

    Seines are simple and effective fish collection gears, but the net mesh size influences how well the catch represents the fish communities. We designed and tested a hybrid seine with a dual-mesh bag (1/4″ and 1/8″) and compared the fish assemblage collected by each mesh. The fine-mesh net retained three times as many fish and collected more species (as many as eight), including representatives of several rare species, than did the coarser mesh. The dual-mesh bag permitted us to compare both sizes and species retained by each layer and to develop species-specific abundance correction factors, which allowed comparison of catches with the coarse-mesh seine used for earlier collections. The results indicate that a hybrid seine with coarse-mesh wings and a fine-mesh bag would enhance future studies of fish communities, especially when small-bodied fishes or early life stages are the research focus.

  6. Marine genetic swamping: hybrids replace an obligately estuarine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David G; Gray, Charles A; West, Ronald J; Ayre, David J

    2010-02-01

    Populations of obligately estuarine taxa are potentially small and isolated and may lack genetic variation and display regional differentiation as a result of drift and inbreeding. Hybridization with a wide-ranging marine congener should introduce genetic variation and reduce the effects of inbreeding depression and genetic drift. However, high levels of hybridization can cause demographic and genetic swamping. In southeastern Australia hybridization occurs between obligately estuarine Black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri) and migratory marine Yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus australis). Here, we surveyed genetic variation at eight microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region of juvenile fish from five coastal lagoons (including temporal replication in two lagoons) (total n = 970) to determine the frequency and persistence of hybridization, and its likely consequence for the estuarine restricted A. butcheri. Of 688 juvenile fish genotyped 95% were either A. australis (347) or hybrids (309); only 5% (32) were A. butcheri. Most hybrids were later generation hybrids or A. butcheri backcrosses, which are likely multi-generational residents within lagoons. Far greater proportions of hybrid juveniles were found within two lagoons that are generally closed to the ocean (>90% hybrid fish within generally closed lagoons vs. 12-27% in permanently or intermittently open lagoons). In both lagoons, this was consistent across multiple cohorts of fish [79-97% hybrid fish (n = 282)]. Hybridization and introgression represent a major threat to the persistence of A. butcheri and have yet to be investigated for large numbers of estuarine taxa.

  7. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to the analysis of ... In this study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) as a culture-independent molecular ... a high percentage and took place in an oily biological system under aerobic ...

  8. Ancient hybridization and genomic stabilization in a swordtail fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Molly; Cui, Rongfeng; Powell, Daniel L; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A rapidly increasing body of work is revealing that the genomes of distinct species often exhibit hybrid ancestry, presumably due to postspeciation hybridization between closely related species. Despite the growing number of documented cases, we still know relatively little about how genomes evolve and stabilize following hybridization, and to what extent hybridization is functionally relevant. Here, we examine the case of Xiphophorus nezahualcoyotl, a teleost fish whose genome exhibits significant hybrid ancestry. We show that hybridization was relatively ancient and is unlikely to be ongoing. Strikingly, the genome of X. nezahualcoyotl has largely stabilized following hybridization, distinguishing it from examples such as human-Neanderthal hybridization. Hybridization-derived regions are remarkably distinct from other regions of the genome, tending to be enriched in genomic regions with reduced constraint. These results suggest that selection has played a role in removing hybrid ancestry from certain functionally important regions. Combined with findings in other systems, our results raise many questions about the process of genomic stabilization and the role of selection in shaping patterns of hybrid ancestry in the genome. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Study of the Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm for Hybrid Clustering

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    Hongwei Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic Artificial Fish Swarm (AFS Algorithm is a new type of an heuristic swarm intelligence algorithm, but it is difficult to optimize to get high precision due to the randomness of the artificial fish behavior, which belongs to the intelligence algorithm. This paper presents an extended AFS algorithm, namely the Cooperative Artificial Fish Swarm (CAFS, which significantly improves the original AFS in solving complex optimization problems. K-medoids clustering algorithm is being used to classify data, but the approach is sensitive to the initial selection of the centers with low quality of the divided cluster. A novel hybrid clustering method based on the CAFS and K-medoids could be used for solving clustering problems. In this work, first, CAFS algorithm is used for optimizing six widely-used benchmark functions, coming up with comparative results produced by AFS and CAFS, then Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is studied. Second, the hybrid algorithm with K-medoids and CAFS algorithms is used for data clustering on several benchmark data sets. The performance of the hybrid algorithm based on K-medoids and CAFS is compared with AFS and CAFS algorithms on a clustering problem. The simulation results show that the proposed CAFS outperforms the other two algorithms in terms of accuracy and robustness.

  10. Chromogenic in situ hybridization: a multicenter study comparing silver in situ hybridization with FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J M S; Campbell, Fiona M; Ibrahim, Merdol; Wencyk, Peter; Ellis, Ian; Kay, Elaine; Connolly, Yvonne; O'Grady, Anthony; Di Palma, Silvana; Starczynski, Jane; Morgan, John M; Jasani, Bharat; Miller, Keith

    2009-10-01

    Our purposes were to perform a robust assessment of a new HER2 chromogenic in situ hybridization test and report on concordance of silver in situ hybridization (SISH) data with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data and on intraobserver and interlaboratory scoring consistency. HER2 results were scored from 45 breast cancers in 7 laboratories using the Ventana (Tucson, AZ) INFORM HER-2 SISH assay and in 1 central laboratory using a standard FISH assay. Overall, 94.8% of cases were successfully analyzed by SISH across the 6 participating laboratories that reported data. Concordance for diagnosis of HER2 amplification by SISH compared with FISH was high (96.0% overall). Intraobserver variability (8.0%) and intersite variability (12.66%) of absolute HER2/chromosome 17 ratios appear to be tightly controlled across all 6 participating laboratories. The Ventana INFORM HER-2 SISH assay is robust and reproducible, shows good concordance with a standard FISH assay, and complies with requirements in national guidelines for performance of diagnostic tests.

  11. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH on the veterinary diagnostic field

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    Ján Dianovský

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding deals with of genomic changes detectable by FISH . The DSD syndrom in Yorkshire terrier 78,XY t (Y-;6p+ was observed by the use of X and Y FISH WCP probes. Following results indicated numerous genomic changes in cancers. Using comparative genomic hybridization numerous chromosomal rearrangements were detected, which indicated the heterogeneity in tumour growth. In Bernese Mountain Dog bitch,8 loses on chromosomes and gains on 18 different of chromosomes were detected. The last study was focused on chromosomal position and nucleotide sequencing of the LCA5L exons. Those were analysed in cattle of BTA1q44, sheep OAR1q43 and of CHI1q44 in the goats.

  12. Introgressive hybridization as a promoter of genome reshuffling in natural homoploid fish hybrids (Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae).

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    Pereira, C S A; Aboim, M A; Ráb, P; Collares-Pereira, M J

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and speciation by introgressive hybridization is currently one of the major challenges in evolutionary biology. Here, the analysis of hybridization between two pairs of Iberian Leuciscinae provided new data on independent hybrid zones involving Achondrostoma oligolepis (AOL) and Pseudochondrostoma duriense (PDU), and confirmed the occurrence of hybrids between AOL and Pseudochondrostoma polylepis (PPO). A multilevel survey combining morphological, genetic and cytogenomic markers on a vast population screening successfully sorted the selected fishes as admixed. Results were similar in both AOL × PDU and AOL × PPO systems. Overall, hybrid morphotypes, cytogenomic data and genetic profiling indicated preferential backcrossing and suggested AOL as a major genomic contributor. Moreover, results implied AOL as more permissive to introgression than PDU or PPO. Although PDU- and PPO-like individuals appeared more resilient to genome modifications, AOL appeared to be more involved and affected by the ongoing hybridization events, as chromosomal translocations were only found in AOL-like individuals. All hybrids analysed evidenced extensive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymorphism that was not found in parental species, but usually seen falling within the range of possible parental combinations. Yet, transgressive phenotypes that cannot be explained by normal recombination, including more rDNA clusters than expected or the occurrence of syntenic rDNAs, were also detected. Present results proved rapid genomic evolution providing the genetic novelty for species to persist. In addition, although the ultimate consequences of such apparently extensive and recurrent events remain unknown, modern genome-wide methodologies are of great promise towards answering questions concerning the causes, dynamics and impacts of hybridization.

  13. A New Type of Hybrid Fish-like Microrobot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Shu-Xiang Guo; Kinji Asaka

    2006-01-01

    In order to develop a new type of fish-like microrobot with swimming, walking, and floating motions, in our past research, we developed a hybrid microrobot actuated by ionic conducting polymer film (ICPF) actuators. But the microrobot had some problems in walking and floating motions. In this paper, we propose a concept of hybrid microrobot (see Fig. 1). The microrobot is actuated by a pair of caudal fins, a base with legs and an array of artificial swim bladders. We have developed a prototype of the base with legs and one artificial swim bladder, respectively, and carried out experiments for evaluating their characteristics. Experimental results show the base with legs can realize walking speed of 6 mm/s and rotating speed of 7.1 degrees/s respectively, and the prototype of the artificial swim bladder has a maximum floatage of 2.6 mN. The experimental results also indicate that the microrobot has some advantages, such as walking motion with 2 degrees of freedom, the walking ability on rough surface (sand paper), the controllable floatage, etc. This kind of fish-like microrobot is expected for industrial and medical applications.

  14. Mitochondrial Genome Variation after Hybridization and Differences in the First and Second Generation Hybrids of Bream Fishes.

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    Wei-Zhuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Hybridization plays an important role in fish breeding. Bream fishes contribute a lot to aquaculture in China due to their economically valuable characteristics and the present study included five bream species, Megalobrama amblycephala, Megalobrama skolkovii, Megalobrama pellegrini, Megalobrama terminalis and Parabramis pekinensis. As maternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome (mitogenome involves species specific regulation, we aimed to investigate in which way the inheritance of mitogenome is affected by hybridization in these fish species. With complete mitogenomes of 7 hybrid groups of bream species being firstly reported in the present study, a comparative analysis of 17 mitogenomes was conducted, including representatives of these 5 bream species, 6 first generation hybrids and 6 second generation hybrids. The results showed that these 17 mitogenomes shared the same gene arrangement, and had similar gene size and base composition. According to the phylogenetic analyses, all mitogenomes of the hybrids were consistent with a maternal inheritance. However, a certain number of variable sites were detected in all F1 hybrid groups compared to their female parents, especially in the group of M. terminalis (♀ × M. amblycephala (♂ (MT×MA, with a total of 86 variable sites between MT×MA and its female parent. Among the mitogenomes genes, the protein-coding gene nd5 displayed the highest variability. The number of variation sites was found to be related to phylogenetic relationship of the parents: the closer they are, the lower amount of variation sites their hybrids have. The second generation hybrids showed less mitogenome variation than that of first generation hybrids. The non-synonymous and synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS were calculated between all the hybrids with their own female parents and the results indicated that most PCGs were under negative selection.

  15. Parasitic fauna in hybrid tambacu from fish farms

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    Ronilson Macedo Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the parasitic fauna of hybrid tambacu (Colossoma macropomum x Piaractus mesopotamicus from fish farms and the host-parasite relationship. A hundred and fourteen fish were collected from four fish farms in Macapá, in the state of Amapá, Brazil, 80.7% of which were infected by: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora; Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida; Anacanthorus spatulatus, Notozothecium janauachensis, and Mymarothecium viatorum (Monogenoidea; Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae (Acanthocephala; Cucullanus colossomi (Nematoda; Perulernaea gamitanae (Lernaeidae; and Proteocephalidae larvae (Cestoda. A total of 8,136,252 parasites were collected from the examined fish. This is the first record of N. buttnerae, C. colossomi, N. janauachensis, M. viatorum, and Proteocephalidae for hybrid tambacu in Brazil. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most prevalent parasite, whereas endohelminths were the less. A positive correlation was observed between number of I. multifiliis and total length and weight of fish, as well as between number of P. gamitanae and total length. The infection by I. multifiliis had association with the parasitism by Monogenoidea. Low water quality contributes to high parasitism of hybrid tambacu by ectoparasites, which, however, does not influence the relative condition factor of fish.

  16. The chromosomal constitution of fish hybrid lineage revealed by 5S rDNA FISH.

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    Zhang, Chun; Ye, Lihai; Chen, Yiyi; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Yanhong; Tao, Min; Xiao, Yamei; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-12-03

    The establishment of the bisexual fertile fish hybrid lineage including the allodiploid and allotetraploid hybrids, from interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var. 2n = 100, 2n = AA) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. 2n = 100, 2n = BB) (♂), provided a good platform to investigate genetic relationship between the parents and their hybrid progenies. The chromosomal inheritance of diploid and allotetraploid hybrid progenies in successive generations, was studied by applying 5S rDNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. Signals of 5S rDNA distinguished the chromosomal constitution of common carp (B-genome) from red crucian carp (A-genome), in which two strong signals were observed on the first submetacentric chromosome, while no major signal was found in common carp. After fish hybridization, one strong signal of 5S rDNA was detected in the same locus on the chromosome of diploid hybrids. As expected, two strong signals were observed in 4nF3 tetraploid hybrids offspring and it is worth mentioning that two strong signals were detected in a separating bivalent of a primary spermatocyte in 4nF3. Furthermore, the mitosis of heterozygous chromosomes was shown normal and stable with blastular tissue histological studies. We revealed that 5S rDNA signal can be applied to discern A-genome from B-genome, and that 5S rDNA bearing chromosomes can be stably passed down in successive generations. Our work provided a significant method in fish breeding and this is important for studies in fish evolutionary biology.

  17. Current and historical hybridization with differential introgression among three species of cyprinid fishes (genus Cyprinella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Richard E; Vedala, Krishna C; Crowl, Tessa M; Ritterhouse, Lauren L

    2011-05-01

    Hybridization is common among freshwater fishes, particular among the Cyprinidae. We used two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene to characterize hybridization among two species pairs of Cyprinella in southwestern North America. Genalogical patterns revealed that C. lutrensis and C. venusta are currently hybridizing in several localities producing apparent F(1), F(2) and backcross generations, yet there was no evidence for introgression outside of local hybrid zones. Alternatively, mitochondrial haplotypes from C. lutrensis appear to have introgressed into a C. lepida population in the Nueces River completely replacing the native C. lepida haplotype. There was no evidence of introgression of nuclear DNA and there does not appear to be ongoing hybridization. The population of C. lepida from the nearby Frio River exhibits no evidence of hybridization with C. lutrensis. Thus, contact between C. lutrensis and C. venusta results in the formation of localized hybrid swarms, while contact between C. lutrensis and C. lepida has resulted in complete mitochondrial introgression in the Nueces River or no apparent hybridization in the Frio River. The three different outcomes of contact between these species illustrate the variable nature of interspecific reproductive interactions and provide an excellent system in which to better understand the factors influencing hybridization among freshwater fishes.

  18. The formation of the polyploid hybrids from different subfamily fish crossings and its evolutionary significance.

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    Liu, Shaojun; Qin, Qinbo; Xiao, Jun; Lu, Wenting; Shen, Jiamin; Li, Wei; Liu, Jifang; Duan, Wei; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Zhao, Rurong; Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Yun

    2007-06-01

    This study provides genetic evidences at the chromosome, DNA content, DNA fragment and sequence, and morphological levels to support the successful establishment of the polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp x blunt snout bream, which belonged to a different subfamily of fish (Cyprininae subfamily and Cultrinae subfamily) in the catalog. We successfully obtained the sterile triploid hybrids and bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (RCC) (female symbol) x blunt snout bream (BSB) (male symbol) as well as their pentaploid hybrids. The triploid hybrids possessed 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from BSB; the tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from BSB. The females of tetraploid hybrids produced unreduced tetraploid eggs that were fertilized with the haploid sperm of BSB to generate pentaploid hybrids with 172 chromosomes with three sets from BSB and two sets from RCC. The ploidy levels of triploid, tetraploid, and pentaploid hybrids were confirmed by counting chromosomal number, forming chromosomal karyotype, and measuring DNA content and erythrocyte nuclear volume. The similar and different DNA fragments were PCR amplified and sequenced in triploid, tetraploid hybrids, and their parents, indicating their molecular genetic relationship and genetic markers. In addition, this study also presents results about the phenotypes and feeding habits of polyploid hybrids and discusses the formation mechanism of the polyploid hybrids. It is the first report on the formation of the triploid, tetraploid, and pentaploid hybrids by crossing parents with a different chromosome number in vertebrates. The formation of the polyploid hybrids is potentially interesting in both evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  19. Neosho National Fish Hatchery contaminants survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish were collected from Neosho National Fish Hatchery (NNFH) to determine if metal or organic contaminants were elevated in the biota located on the hatchery. Whole...

  20. DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH in buccal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Cortés-Gutiérrez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH is a recently developed technique that allows cell-by-cell detection and quantification of DNA breakage in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. The present investigation was conducted to adapt the methodology of DBD-FISH to the visualization and evaluation of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells. DBD-FISH revealed that DNA damage increased significantly according to H2O2 concentration (r2=0.91. In conclusion, the DBD-FISH technique is easy to apply in buccal cells and provides prompt results that are easy to interpret. Future studies are needed to investigate the potential applicability of a buccal cell DBD-FISH model to human biomonitoring and nutritional work.

  1. DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) in buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; Fernández, J L; López-Fernández, C; Gosálvez, J

    2012-12-28

    DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) is a recently developed technique that allows cell-by-cell detection and quantification of DNA breakage in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. The present investigation was conducted to adapt the methodology of DBD-FISH to the visualization and evaluation of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells. DBD-FISH revealed that DNA damage increased significantly according to H2O2 concentration (r2=0.91). In conclusion, the DBD-FISH technique is easy to apply in buccal cells and provides prompt results that are easy to interpret. Future studies are needed to investigate the potential applicability of a buccal cell DBD-FISH model to human biomonitoring and nutritional work.

  2. Ancient hybridization fuels rapid cichlid fish adaptive radiations

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    Meier, Joana I.; Marques, David A.; Mwaiko, Salome; Wagner, Catherine E.; Excoffier, Laurent; Seehausen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why some evolutionary lineages generate exceptionally high species diversity is an important goal in evolutionary biology. Haplochromine cichlid fishes of Africa's Lake Victoria region encompass >700 diverse species that all evolved in the last 150,000 years. How this ‘Lake Victoria Region Superflock' could evolve on such rapid timescales is an enduring question. Here, we demonstrate that hybridization between two divergent lineages facilitated this process by providing genetic variation that subsequently became recombined and sorted into many new species. Notably, the hybridization event generated exceptional allelic variation at an opsin gene known to be involved in adaptation and speciation. More generally, differentiation between new species is accentuated around variants that were fixed differences between the parental lineages, and that now appear in many new combinations in the radiation species. We conclude that hybridization between divergent lineages, when coincident with ecological opportunity, may facilitate rapid and extensive adaptive radiation. PMID:28186104

  3. Inconsistent phylogeographic pattern between a sperm dependent fish and its host: in situ hybridization vs dispersal.

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    Vergilino, Roland; Leung, Christelle; Angers, Bernard

    2016-09-06

    Co-dispersal of sperm-dependent hybrids and their sexual relatives is expected to result in consistent spatial patterns between assemblages of hybrids and genetic structure of parental species. However, local hybridization events may blur this signal as assemblages could be organized under different connectivity constraints. This study aims at testing the hypothesis of local hybridization events by comparing the assemblage of hybrid fish Chrosomus eos-neogaeus to the genetic diversity of one of its parental species, Chrosomus eos. An extensive survey performed on a total of 132 sites located in two regions of Southern Quebec (West-Qc and East-Qc) revealed a distinct organization of hybrid lineages. One of the six hybrid lineages detected in West-Qc is widespread throughout this region resulting in a low α-diversity (1.38) and β-diversity (4.35). On the other hand, 36 hybrid lineages were detected in East-Qc and displayed narrow geographic distributions leading to a high α-diversity (2.30) and β-diversity (15.68). In addition, the C. eos multilocus haplotype of several of these hybrids is assigned to their respective sympatric C. eos population. Finally, contrasting with hybrids, the paternal species C. eos displayed a higher ρST in West-Qc (0.2300) than in East-Qc (0.0734). The unusually high diversity of hybrid lineages in East-Qc as well as the spatial organization and the close genetic relationship with C. eos sympatric populations support the hypothesis that multiple hybridization events occurred in situ. These findings coupled to the near absence of the maternal species Chrosomus neogeaus suggest that the decline of this species could be the trigger event at the origin of the high rates of spontaneous hybridization in this region.

  4. Telomere analysis of platyhelminths and acanthocephalans by FISH and Southern hybridization.

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    Bombarová, Marta; Vítková, Magda; Spakulová, Marta; Koubková, Bozena

    2009-11-01

    We examined the composition of telomeres in chromosomes of parasitic worms, representatives of the flatworm groups Monogenea and Cestoda (Platyhelminthes), and thorny-headed worms (Syndermata: Acanthocephala) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with different telomeric repeat probes. Our results show that the (TTAGGG)n sequence, supposed to be the ancestral telomeric repeat motif of Metazoa, is conserved in Monogenea (Paradiplozoon homoion) and Cestoda (Caryophyllaeus laticeps, Caryophyllaeides fennica, and Nippotaenia mogurndae) but not in Acanthocephala (Pomphorhynchus laevis and Pomphorhynchus tereticollis). In the Pomphorhynchus species, no hybridization signals were obtained with the "nematode" (TTAGGC)n, "arthropod" (TTAGG)n, and bdelloid (TGTGGG)n telomeric probes using FISH with their chromosomes and Southern hybridization with P. laevis DNA. Therefore, we suggest that parasitic Acanthocephala have evolved yet unknown telomeric repeat motifs or different mechanisms of telomere maintenance.

  5. Risk stratification of plasma cell neoplasm: insights from plasma cell-specific cytoplasmic immunoglobulin fluorescence in situ hybridization (cIg FISH) vs. conventional FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Henry; Yang, Hai-Su; Jagannath, Sundar; Stephenson, Christine F; Brenholz, Pauline; Mazumder, Amitabha; Chari, Ajai

    2012-10-01

    We directly compared the results of routine fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and plasma cell-specific cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) FISH from 75 paired samples for myeloma risk stratification. CIg FISH improves test specificity and sensitivity and tends to eliminate borderline results. It proves that most plasma cells (PCs) consistently carry the abnormality in myelomas with an IGH translocation, whereas routine FISH detects these cells only at variably low levels. Routine cytogenetic analysis of plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs) has a low sensitivity. Conventional fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is not plasma cell (PC) specific and results are diluted by other cells in the sample. Although PC-specific FISH testing has been recommended for multiple myeloma (MM) risk stratification, eg, by combining cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) staining with FISH, the benefits of cIg FISH have never been directly demonstrated in a controlled study. Seventy-five samples from patients with PCNs were analyzed by concomitant conventional FISH and cIg FISH with probes for t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16), -13, 17p-, and +3. The results were compared for their reliability, specificity, and consistency. Apart from marginally improving detection threshold in samples with low PC burden, cIg FISH identified more abnormal cases (50 vs. 47 cases) and more chromosome abnormalities (113 vs. 103 events) than did conventional FISH. It differentiated del(13q) in myelodysplasia from MM. Remarkably, cIg FISH consistently identified a high percentage of abnormal PCs in all cases. It detected IGH translocation in 78% to 100% of PCs in all but 2 positive cases, whereas conventional FISH detected 0% to 46% in these cases (median, 91% vs. 9%). The abnormal cells found in patients with 17p- were 19% to 96% by cIg FISH vs. 0% to 13% by conventional FISH (median, 54% vs. 9%). Cases with insufficient PCs for cIg FISH had only normal conventional FISH results. CIg FISH improves reliability of

  6. Clinical Application of Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) to Detect HER-2 Gene in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maurie Buehler; Ellie Guardino; Jung Sik Park; Eun Jeong Jang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of the detection of HER-2 gene by lfuorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in breast cancer and the correlation between HER-2 gene ampliifcation and clinicopathology of breast cancer. Methods:Parafifn-embedded breast inifltrating ductal carcinoma from 48 patients were detected by FISH and immunohistochemistry (IHC) respectively for comparing the results of two methods. Results: HER-2 protein expressions were classified into three groups (3+/2+/1+ or 0) and the positive rates of HER-2 gene ampliifcation by FISH were 77.8%, 57.1% and 10.5%, respectively. Of the 29 cases with positive axillary lymph node, 12 were with HER-2 gene ampliifcation (P0.05). Conclusion:The false positive and negative rates are higher in HER-2 protein expression by IHC. Compared with IHC, FISH, being more effective and precise, can be applied extensively in clinic. HER-2 gene ampliifcation is concerned with axillary nodes metastases.

  7. Report of analytical results from fish and salvaged eaglets

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These results summarized in this report are for fish that were collected from Crab Orchard Lake and are cross-checks with Illinois EPA. This memorandum report also...

  8. HER2 in situ hybridization in gastric and gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: comparison of automated dual ISH to FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Andrea; Brezden-Masley, Christine; Bauer, Sharon; Streutker, Catherine J

    2013-12-01

    Patients with gastric and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinomas that are HER2 positive by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or in situ hybridization show a significant survival benefit with trastuzumab therapy. In situ hybridization is traditionally done by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), despite some limitations. An alternative is the dual in situ hybridization (Dual ISH) technique that is fully automated and uses differentially labeled CEP17 and HER2 probes that can be read by light microscopy on 1 slide. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of Dual ISH in gastric/GEJ cancer and to compare the results with those obtained by IHC and FISH. Cases of gastric/GEJ adenocarcinoma were analyzed by IHC, FISH, and Dual ISH and the correlation between methods calculated. Results for 50 patients were available. There was a 98% (49/50) concordance rate between Dual ISH and FISH. One discrepant case was nonamplified by FISH but showed focal amplification by Dual ISH. Discrepancy was attributed to tumor heterogeneity, which was a frequent finding (78% of HER2-positive cases). There was excellent correlation between Dual ISH and FISH for assessment of HER2 amplification. Dual ISH was rapid, easy to interpret, and maintained cell morphology, which was valuable in identifying tumor heterogeneity.

  9. Metaphase FISH on a Chip: Miniaturized Microfluidic Device for Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar; Dimaki, Maria;

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA-FISH, the pr......Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA...

  10. Comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis of Her-2/neu oncoprotein overexpression in breast cancer: HercepTest (Dako) for manual testing and Her-2/neuTest 4B5 (Ventana) for Ventana BenchMark automatic staining system with correlation to results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Doris; Heim, Sibylle; Werhan, Cedric; Zeindl-Eberhart, Evelyn; Kirchner, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Overexpression of Her-2/neu-oncoprotein is used as marker for Herceptin therapy. To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of automatic immunohistochemistry (Benchmark, Ventana), we compared the results to the manual testing (Dako) in 130 breast carcinomas and validated the results by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Manual and automatic immunohistochemistry of Her-2/neu-oncoprotein using two different antibodies (HercepTest, Her-2/neuTest 4B5) was analyzed. FISH was performed in all cases with uncertain or strong overexpression in either immunohistochemical stainings or with different immunohistochemical results. Same immunohistochemical results were seen in 73.8%. Two cases with overexpression, detected with Her-2/neuTest 4B5 and confirmed by FISH, showed no overexpression using HercepTest. From 21 cases with 2+ by Her-2/neuTest 4B5, 15 cases had no gene amplification (two of them with 3+ HercepTest); three cases showed a gene amplification (one of them with failing overexpression by HercepTest); two other cases were polysomic; one could not be analyzed. Ventana immunohistochemistry seems to be of same reliability like Dako with a little better concordance to FISH in our study.

  11. Characterization of B chromosomes in Lilium hybrids through GISH and FISH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, S.L.; Marasek-Ciolakowska, A.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.F.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes and small aberrant chromosomes were detected in Lilium hybrids and characterized through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two small, supernumerary or B chromosomes were detected as extra chromosomes in a tetraploid plant

  12. Characterization of the Arachis (Leguminosae D genome using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH chromosome markers and total genome DNA hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Robledo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome markers were developed for Arachis glandulifera using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH of the 5S and 45S rRNA genes and heterochromatic 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI positive bands. We used chromosome landmarks identified by these markers to construct the first Arachis species ideogram in which all the homologous chromosomes were precisely identified. The comparison of this ideogram with those published for other Arachis species revealed very poor homeologies with all A and B genome taxa, supporting the special genome constitution (D genome of A. glandulifera. Genomic affinities were further investigated by dot blot hybridization of biotinylated A. glandulifera total DNA to DNA from several Arachis species, the results indicating that the D genome is positioned between the A and B genomes.

  13. Detection of airborne Legionella while showering using liquid impingement and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Ha, Thi-Lan; Robine, Enric; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Mathieu, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    Aerosols of water contaminated with Legionella bacteria constitute the only mode of exposure for humans. However, the prevention strategy against this pathogenic bacteria risk is managed through the survey of water contamination. No relationship linked the Legionella bacteria water concentration and their airborne abundance. Therefore, new approaches in the field of the metrological aspects of Legionella bioaerosols are required. This study was aimed at testing the main principles for bioaerosol collection (solid impaction, liquid impingement and filtration) and the in situ hybridization (FISH) method, both in laboratory and field assays, with the intention of applying such methodologies for airborne Legionella bacteria detection while showering. An aerosolization chamber was developed to generate controlled and reproducible L. pneumophila aerosols. This tool allowed the identification of the liquid impingement method as the most appropriate one for collecting airborne Legionella bacteria. The culturable fraction of airborne L. pneumophila recovered with the liquid impingement principle was 4 and 700 times higher compared to the impaction and filtration techniques, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of airborne L. pneumophila in the impinger fluid were on average 7.0 x 10(5) FISH-cells m(-3) air with the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method versus 9.0 x 10(4) CFU m(-3) air with the culture method. These results, recorded under well-controlled conditions, were confirmed during the field experiments performed on aerosols generated by hot water showers in health institutions. This new approach may provide a more accurate characterization of aerobiocontamination by Legionella bacteria.

  14. Effect of graded fingerlings on hybrid catfish food fish size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is not unusual to have both 0.5 lb and 5 lb fish harvested from a single-batch hybrid catfish production pond at the end of the growing season. When that happens, farmers may be docked for fish that are either larger or smaller than the processor’s preferred size range. This study was conducted t...

  15. Role of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in sequencing the tomato genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosomes at various stages of the cell cycle can be used for localization of DNA probes via Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). While mitotic metaphase chromosomes are demonstrably too short and compact for this purpose, long pachytene chromosomes are ideal. BACs that hybridize to euchrom...

  16. The Formation of the Polyploid Hybrids From Different Subfamily Fish Crossings and Its Evolutionary Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaojun; Qin, Qinbo; Xiao, Jun; Lu, Wenting; Shen, Jiamin; Li, Wei; Liu, Jifang; Duan, Wei; Zhang, Chun; Tao, De Min; Zhao, Rurong; Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Yun

    2007-01-01

    This study provides genetic evidences at the chromosome, DNA content, DNA fragment and sequence, and morphological levels to support the successful establishment of the polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp × blunt snout bream, which belonged to a different subfamily of fish (Cyprininae subfamily and Cultrinae subfamily) in the catalog. We successfully obtained the sterile triploid hybrids and bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (RCC) (♀) × blunt snout bream (BSB) (♂) as w...

  17. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis of primary ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Mine

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unknown whether primary ocular adnexal extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is a homogeneous entity, as there are few reports of the results of cytogenetic or molecular analyses of these tumors. Methods We performed interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis to detect translocations and aneuploidy in 34 cases of primary ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma, and reviewed the histopathological findings. Correlations between the results of FISH analysis, the histopathological features and the clinical data were also analyzed. Results Among the 34 cases, FISH analysis revealed t(14;18(q32;q21 in one case, trisomy 3 in 21 cases (62%, and trisomy 18 in 16 cases (47%. The cases with trisomy 18 had significantly more prominent lymphoepithelial lesions (LELs and less nodularity in the tumors. In regard to the clinical correlations, tumors with trisomy 18 were observed predominantly in females and younger patients; also, in the majority of the cases, the tumor was of conjunctival origin. All the cases with recurrence showed trisomy 18 in the tumor. Conclusion Primary ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma is a significantly heterogeneous entity. Cases with trisomy 18 may have unique clinicopathological features.

  18. Comparison Between Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were collected, for culture method and bacteria characterized by biochemical ... for 24 hours and later preserved in 70% alcohol before in situ hybridization test. ... were observed in 47 to 75% while the bacterium was isolated on culture in 7 ...

  19. Trade-off between morphological convergence and opportunistic diet behavior in fish hybrid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grey Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasive Chondrostoma nasus nasus has colonized part of the distribution area of the protected endemic species Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma. This hybrid zone is a complex system where multiple effects such as inter-species competition, bi-directional introgression, strong environmental pressure and so on are combined. Why do sympatric Chondrostoma fish present a unidirectional change in body shape? Is this the result of inter-species interactions and/or a response to environmental effects or the result of trade-offs? Studies focusing on the understanding of a trade-off between multiple parameters are still rare. Although this has previously been done for Cichlid species flock and for Darwin finches, where mouth or beak morphology were coupled to diet and genetic identification, no similar studies have been done for a fish hybrid zone in a river. We tested the correlation between morphology (body and mouth morphology, diet (stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and genomic combinations in different allopatric and sympatric populations for a global data set of 1330 specimens. To separate the species interaction effect from the environmental effect in sympatry, we distinguished two data sets: the first one was obtained from a highly regulated part of the river and the second was obtained from specimens coming from the less regulated part. Results The distribution of the hybrid combinations was different in the two part of the sympatric zone, whereas all the specimens presented similar overall changes in body shape and in mouth morphology. Sympatric specimens were also characterized by a larger diet behavior variance than reference populations, characteristic of an opportunistic diet. No correlation was established between the body shape (or mouth deformation and the stable isotope signature. Conclusion The Durance River is an untamed Mediterranean river despite the presence of numerous dams that split the river from

  20. Trade-off between morphological convergence and opportunistic diet behavior in fish hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corse, Emmanuel; Costedoat, Caroline; Pech, Nicolas; Chappaz, Rémi; Grey, Jonathan; Gilles, André

    2009-10-27

    The invasive Chondrostoma nasus nasus has colonized part of the distribution area of the protected endemic species Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma. This hybrid zone is a complex system where multiple effects such as inter-species competition, bi-directional introgression, strong environmental pressure and so on are combined. Why do sympatric Chondrostoma fish present a unidirectional change in body shape? Is this the result of inter-species interactions and/or a response to environmental effects or the result of trade-offs? Studies focusing on the understanding of a trade-off between multiple parameters are still rare. Although this has previously been done for Cichlid species flock and for Darwin finches, where mouth or beak morphology were coupled to diet and genetic identification, no similar studies have been done for a fish hybrid zone in a river. We tested the correlation between morphology (body and mouth morphology), diet (stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes) and genomic combinations in different allopatric and sympatric populations for a global data set of 1330 specimens. To separate the species interaction effect from the environmental effect in sympatry, we distinguished two data sets: the first one was obtained from a highly regulated part of the river and the second was obtained from specimens coming from the less regulated part. The distribution of the hybrid combinations was different in the two part of the sympatric zone, whereas all the specimens presented similar overall changes in body shape and in mouth morphology. Sympatric specimens were also characterized by a larger diet behavior variance than reference populations, characteristic of an opportunistic diet. No correlation was established between the body shape (or mouth deformation) and the stable isotope signature. The Durance River is an untamed Mediterranean river despite the presence of numerous dams that split the river from upstream to downstream. The sympatric effect on morphology and

  1. Interphase cytogenetics in pathology: principles, methods, and applications of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M; Wilkens, L; Aubele, M; Nolte, M; Zitzelsberger, H; Komminoth, P

    1997-01-01

    Characteristic chromosome aberrations have been identified in various tumors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using specific probes that are generated by vector cloning or in vitro amplification and labeled with fluorescent dyes allow for the detection of these genetic changes in interphase cells. This technique, that is also referred to as "interphase cytogenetics", can be performed in cytological preparations as well as in sections of routinely formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. In cancer research and diagnostics, interphase cytogenetics by FISH is used to detect numerical chromosome changes and structural aberrations, e.g., translocations, deletions, or amplifications. In this technical overview, we explain the principles of the FISH method and provide protocols for FISH in cytological preparations and paraffin sections. Moreover, possible applications of FISH are discussed.

  2. Characterization of the Arachis (Leguminosae) D genome using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome markers and total genome DNA hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Robledo; Guillermo Seijo

    2008-01-01

    Chromosome markers were developed for Arachis glandulifera using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the 5S and 45S rRNA genes and heterochromatic 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) positive bands. We used chromosome landmarks identified by these markers to construct the first Arachis species ideogram in which all the homologous chromosomes were precisely identified. The comparison of this ideogram with those published for other Arachis species revealed very poor homeologies with a...

  3. Metaphase FISH on a Chip: Miniaturized Microfluidic Device for Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Tommerup

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA-FISH, the process continues to be a manual, labour intensive, expensive and time consuming technique, often taking over 3–5 days, even in dedicated labs. We have developed a novel microFISH device to perform metaphase FISH on a chip which overcomes many shortcomings of the current laboratory protocols. This work also introduces a novel splashing device for preparing metaphase spreads on a microscope glass slide, followed by a rapid adhesive tape-based bonding protocol leading to rapid fabrication of the microFISH device. The microFISH device allows for an optimized metaphase FISH protocol on a chip with over a 20-fold reduction in the reagent volume. This is the first demonstration of metaphase FISH on a microfluidic device and offers a possibility of automation and significant cost reduction of many routine diagnostic tests of genetic anomalies.

  4. Behavioural isolation may facilitate homoploid hybrid speciation in cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selz, O. M.; Thommen, R.; Maan, M. E.; Seehausen, O.

    Hybrid speciation is constrained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow from the parental species. In the absence of post-mating isolation due to structural changes in the genome, or temporal or spatial premating isolation, another form of reproductive isolation would be needed for homoploid

  5. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  6. Behavioural isolation may facilitate homoploid hybrid speciation in cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selz, O. M.; Thommen, R.; Maan, M. E.; Seehausen, O.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid speciation is constrained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow from the parental species. In the absence of post-mating isolation due to structural changes in the genome, or temporal or spatial premating isolation, another form of reproductive isolation would be needed for homoploid hybri

  7. Hybrid FSO Radio (HFR): Some Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Scott H.; Hartley, W. Seth

    2002-12-01

    AirFiber's Hybrid Free Space Optics Radio (HFR) provides greater than 1 km range at 99.999% availability. The HFR does this by hitlessly combining the data streams from two data paths, one a free space optic (FSO), the other a 60 GHz millimeter wave system. FSO systems alone are limited in range to less than 500 meters in most cities in the world due to fog outages yet have modest attenuation in rain. Fog is transparent to 60 GHz systems yet they suffer from rain and clear air oxygen absorption. The HFR system uses the strengths of each of these very high bandwidth (up to 1.25 Gb/sec), unlicensed technologies, to provide 99.999% wireless availability at ranges greater than 1 km in all weather conditions. We present some range curves and data from the output of an AirFiber HFR system during a severe (300 dB/km) fog event of many hours duration.

  8. Salmonellae in fish feces analyzed by in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Qiong; Forstner, Michael R J; Bonner, Timothy H; Hahn, Dittmar

    2013-09-01

    The potential of fish to transfer salmonellae from heterogeneous aquatic biofilms into feces was assessed in controlled aquarium studies with Suckermouth Catfish Hypostomus plecostomus and with biofilms inoculated with salmonellae. Neither the presence of catfish nor inoculation with salmonellae had detectable effects on the abundance of the microbial community. Densities of the microbial community were about 10(5) cells/mL in the water during a 1-week period, whereas densities of the microbial community increased 10-fold (10(6) to 10(7) cells/mg) in catfish feces during the same period. Salmonellae were detected by both quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and situ hybridization in water samples immediately after inoculation, in numbers of about 10(4) cells/mL, representing up to 20% of the cells of the microbial community. Numbers decreased by three orders of magnitude within the first 3 d of the study, which represented only 0.01% of the community, and became undetectable after day 5. In catfish feces, numbers of Salmonella initially increased to up to 6% of the cells of the community but then declined. These results suggest that Salmonella are not biomagnified during gut passage, and thus, fish only provide a means for the translocation of this pathogen.

  9. In vitro formation and thermal transition of novel hybrid fibrils from type I fish scale collagen and type I porcine collagen

    OpenAIRE

    Song Chen, Toshiyuki Ikoma, Nobuhiro Ogawa, Satoshi Migita, Hisatoshi Kobayashi and Nobutaka Hanagata

    2010-01-01

    Novel type I collagen hybrid fibrils were fabricated by neutralizing a mixture of type I fish scale collagen solution and type I porcine collagen solution with a phosphate buffer saline at 28 °C. Their structure was discussed in terms of the volume ratio of fish/porcine collagen solution. Scanning electron and atomic force micrographs showed that the diameter of collagen fibrils derived from the collagen mixture was larger than those derived from each collagen, and all resultant fibrils exhib...

  10. When biogeographical provinces collide: Hybridization of reef fishes at the crossroads of marine biogeographical provinces in the Arabian Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Aim: Suture zones are areas where closely related species from different biogeographical regions come into contact and interbreed. This concept originated from the study of terrestrial ecosystems but it remains unclear whether a similar phenomenon occurs in the marine environment. Here we investigate a potential suture zone from a previously unknown hybrid hotspot at the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen), located in the Arabian Sea, where fauna from the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, western Indian Ocean and greater Indo-Polynesian Province intersect. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean. Methods: Putative hybrid reef fish were identified based on intermediate coloration and morphology. Underwater observations and collections were conducted to determine: (1) whether parent species form heterospecific social groups or breeding pairs; (2) the sex and reproductive status of morphologically intermediate individuals; and (3) whether parent species were forming mixed species associations owing to a dearth of conspecific partners. To support hybrid status, morphologically intermediate and parental individuals were genotyped using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), nuclear recombination-activating gene 2 (RAG2) and the nuclear TMO-4C4 (TMO) gene. Results: We observed putative hybrids involving 14 species from four reef fish families at Socotra. Most cases involved a parental species with a restricted distribution (e.g. Red Sea or Arabian Sea) and a broadly distributed Indo-Pacific species. In most cases, at least one of the parent species was rare at Socotra. Hybrid gene flow was largely unidirectional, and although introgression was rare, we found evidence that some butterflyfish and surgeonfish hybrids were fertile and formed breeding groups with parental species. Main conclusions: The rate of hybrid discovery at Socotra is much greater than that recorded elsewhere in the marine environment and involved both allopatric and

  11. Ocean warming, a rapid distributional shift, and the hybridization of a coastal fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Warren M; Henriques, Romina; Santos, Carmen V; Munnik, Kate; Ansorge, Isabelle; Dufois, Francois; Booth, Anthony J; Kirchner, Carola; Sauer, Warwick H H; Shaw, Paul W

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing awareness of large-scale climate-driven distribution shifts in the marine environment, no study has linked rapid ocean warming to a shift in distribution and consequent hybridization of a marine fish species. This study describes rapid warming (0.8 °C per decade) in the coastal waters of the Angola-Benguela Frontal Zone over the last three decades and a concomitant shift by a temperature sensitive coastal fish species (Argyrosomus coronus) southward from Angola into Namibia. In this context, rapid shifts in distribution across Economic Exclusive Zones will complicate the management of fishes, particularly when there is a lack of congruence in the fisheries policy between nations. Evidence for recent hybridization between A. coronus and a congener, A. inodorus, indicate that the rapid shift in distribution of A. coronus has placed adults of the two species in contact during their spawning events. Ocean warming may therefore revert established species isolation mechanisms and alter the evolutionary history of fishes. While the consequences of the hybridization on the production of the resource remain unclear, this will most likely introduce additional layers of complexity to their management.

  12. Prediction of melting temperatures in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedures using thermodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Guimarães, Nuno; Wengel, Jesper; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe

    2016-01-01

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA hybridization, i.e. the process of self-assembly of one, two or more complementary nucleic acid strands, has been studied for many years. The appearance of the nearest-neighbor model led to several theoretical and experimental papers on DNA thermodynamics that provide reasonably accurate thermodynamic information on nucleic acid duplexes and allow estimation of the melting temperature. Because there are no thermodynamic models specifically developed to predict the hybridization temperature of a probe used in a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure, the melting temperature is used as a reference, together with corrections for certain compounds that are used during FISH. However, the quantitative relation between melting and experimental FISH temperatures is poorly described. In this review, various models used to predict the melting temperature for rRNA targets, for DNA oligonucleotides and for nucleic acid mimics (chemically modified oligonucleotides), will be addressed in detail, together with a critical assessment of how this information should be used in FISH.

  13. Media composition influences yeast one- and two-hybrid results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Kim L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although yeast two-hybrid experiments are commonly used to identify protein interactions, the frequent occurrence of false negatives and false positives hampers data interpretation. Using both yeast one-hybrid and two-hybrid experiments, we have identified potential sources of these problems: the media preparation protocol and the source of the yeast nitrogen base may not only impact signal range but also effect whether a result appears positive or negative. While altering media preparation may optimize signal differences for individual experiments, media preparation must be reported in detail to replicate studies and accurately compare results from different experiments.

  14. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH for BCR/ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia after bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Lopes Ferrari Chauffaille

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Identification of Philadelphia chromosome or BCR/ABL gene rearrangement in chronic myeloid leukemia is important at diagnosis as well as after treatment. OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of karyotyping using fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH upon diagnosis and 1 year after bone marrow transplantation in 12 patients. TYPE OF STUDY: Diagnostic test and residual disease detection. SETTING: Hematology and Hemotherapy Department, Federal University of São Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil. SAMPLE: 12 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia at diagnosis and 1 year after bone marrow transplantation. DIAGNOSTIC TEST: Karyotyping was done in the usual way and the BCR/ABL gene-specific probe was used for FISH. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Disease at diagnosis and residual. RESULTS: At diagnosis, 10 patients presented t(9;22(q34.1;q11 as well as positive FISH. Two cases did not have metaphases but FISH was positive. After bone marrow transplantation, 8 patients presented normal karyotype, 1 had persistence of identifiable Philadelphia chromosome and 3 had no metaphases. Two cases showed complete chimera and 2 had donor and host cells simultaneously. FISH was possible in all cases after bone marrow transplantation and confirmed the persistence of identifiable Philadelphia chromosome clone in one patient, and identified another that did not present metaphases for analysis. Cases that showed mixed chimera in karyotype were negative for BCR/ABL by FISH. CONCLUSION: The applicability of FISH is clear, particularly for residual disease detection. Classical and molecular cytogenetics are complementary methods.

  15. itFISH: Enhanced Staining by Iterative Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Richard H; Martin, Benjamin L

    2017-03-20

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is an important tool for zebrafish research, particularly when observing the expression of two different genes in the same embryo. Peroxidase-catalyzed deposition of tyramide-conjugated dyes is a widely used and cost-effective approach to performing FISH. A major limitation of the technique is that it does not work well for weakly expressed genes. Here we present a method adapted from planarian research for use in zebrafish that provides a dramatic enhancement of weak staining. By iterating the antibody staining and development steps, a strong signal can be obtained from probes that were previously too weak to detect.

  16. Telomere Q-PNA-FISH--reliable results from stochastic signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cukusic Kalajzic

    Full Text Available Structural and functional analysis of telomeres is very important for understanding basic biological functions such as genome stability, cell growth control, senescence and aging. Recently, serious concerns have been raised regarding the reliability of current telomere measurement methods such as Southern blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Since telomere length is associated with age related pathologies, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, both at the individual and population level, accurate interpretation of measured results is a necessity. The telomere Q-PNA-FISH technique has been widely used in these studies as well as in commercial analysis for the general population. A hallmark of telomere Q-PNA-FISH is the wide variation among telomere signals which has a major impact on obtained results. In the present study we introduce a specific mathematical and statistical analysis of sister telomere signals during cell culture senescence which enabled us to identify high regularity in their variations. This phenomenon explains the reproducibility of results observed in numerous telomere studies when the Q-PNA-FISH technique is used. In addition, we discuss the molecular mechanisms which probably underlie the observed telomere behavior.

  17. Hybrid yarn for thermoplastic fibre composites. Summary of technical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lystrup, Aa.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a summary of the technical results obtained within the framework program: `Hybrid Yarn for Thermoplastic Fibre Composites`. The program which started at the 15th of June 1994 and expired at the 31st of December 1997, was a framework program under the Danish Materials Technology Program, MUP2. A new type of hybrid yarn for production of fibre composites with thermoplastic matrix material is developed and tested. A hybrid yarn is a commingled textured yarn consisting of structural fibres and thermoplastic fibres. In a subsequent heating and consolidation process the plastic fibres melt and become the matrix material in the formed fibre composite material. Two types of processing technology are developed and studied: Vacuum consolidation and press consolidation. Vacuum consolidation of hybrid yarn fabrics is suitable for fabrication of larger parts such as wind turbine blades, and press consolidation is a fast process suitable for smaller parts such as automobile body parts. To demonstrate the potential for industrial use of the developed hybrid yarn and process technologies a section of a wind turbine blade, an inspection cover and a car door-post have been produced. An environmental evaluation of the manufacture of hybrid yarn and composites shows that the use of the hybrid yarn is a gain for both the working environment and the external environment, compared to the use of thermosetting polymer composites. (au)

  18. Analysis of Single-cell Gene Transcription by RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronander, Elena; Bengtsson, Dominique C; Joergensen, Louise;

    2012-01-01

    and the consequence of differential binding on the clinical outcome of P. falciparum infections. Recently, the mutually exclusive transcription paradigm has been called into doubt by transcription assays based on individual P. falciparum transcript identification in single infected erythrocytic cells using RNA...... fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of var gene transcription by the parasite in individual nuclei of P. falciparum IE(1). Here, we present a detailed protocol for carrying out the RNA-FISH methodology for analysis of var gene transcription in single-nuclei of P. falciparum infected human...... erythrocytes. The method is based on the use of digoxigenin- and biotin- labeled antisense RNA probes using the TSA Plus Fluorescence Palette System(2) (Perkin Elmer), microscopic analyses and freshly selected P. falciparum IE. The in situ hybridization method can be used to monitor transcription...

  19. Design of Hybrid Solar and Wind Energy Harvester for Fishing Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjarnahor, D. A.; Hanifan, M.; Budi, E. M.

    2017-07-01

    In southern beach of West Java, Indonesia, there are many villagers live as fishermen. They use small boats for fishing, in one to three days. Therefore, they need a fish preservation system. Fortunately, the area has high potential of solar and wind energy. This paper presents the design of a hybrid solar and wind energy harvester to power a refrigerator in the fishing boat. The refrigerator should keep the fish in 2 - 4 °C. The energy needed is 720 Wh daily. In the area, the daily average wind velocity is 4.27 m/s and the sun irradiation is 672 W/m2. The design combined two 100W solar panels and a 300W wind turbine. The testing showed that the solar panels can harvest 815 - 817 Wh of energy, while the wind turbine can harvest 43 - 62 Wh of energy daily. Therefore, the system can fulfil the energy requirement in fishing boat, although the solar panels were more dominant. To install the wind turbine on the fishing-boat, a computational design had been conducted. The boat hydrostatic dimension was measured to determine its stability condition. To reach a stable equilibrium condition, the wind turbine should be installed no more than 1.7 m of height.

  20. Identification and characterization of marker chromosomes, de novo rearrangements and microdeletions in 100 cases with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.M.; Liu, Y.; Papenhausen, P.R. [Roche Biomedical Labs., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Results of molecular cytogenetic analysis are presented for 100 cases in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used as an adjunct to standard cytogenetics. Commercially available centromeric, telomeric, chromosome painting and unique sequence probes were used. Cases were from a 12-month period (June 1993-May 1994) and included examples of sex chromosome abnormalities (8), duplications (5), de novo translocations (6), satellited (12) and non-satellited (7) markers, and microdeletion syndromes (62). Satellited marker chromosomes were evaluated using a combination of DAPI/Distamycin A staining, hybridization with a classical satellite probe for chromosome 15 and hybridization with alpha-satellite probes for chromosomes 13, 14, 21 and 22. Markers positive for the chromosome 15 probe were further evaluated using unique sequence probes for the Prader-Willi/Angelman region. Microdeletion analysis was performed for Prader-Willi/Angelman (49) and DiGeorge/VCF (13) syndromes. Seven cases evaluated for Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome demonstrated evidence of a deletion within this region. Uniparental disomy analysis was available in cases where a deletion was not detected by FISH, yet follow-up was clinically indicated. Two cases evaluated for DiGeorge/VCF syndrome demonstrated molecular evidence of a deletion. Included in our analysis is an example of familial DiGeorge syndrome.

  1. Detection of VHSV IVb within the gonads of Great Lakes fish using in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussinee, L; Lumsden, J S

    2011-05-24

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb was recently detected as the cause of numerous mortality events in Great Lakes fish. In situ hybridization was used to examine the gonads from 13 fish, including freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens and muskellunge Esox masquinongy that were infected naturally, as well as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and fathead minnows Pimphales promelas, which were experimentally infected. Although the ovaries and testes of fish infected by VHSV IVb had few lesions, viral RNA was present in the ovaries of the rainbow trout and fathead minnow and was abundant in the gonads of muskellunge and in the ovaries of freshwater drum. Viral RNA was present mainly surrounding yolk vacuoles/granules or adjacent to the germinal vesicle, with lesser amounts found within the germinal vesicle, in the mesovarium and/or tunica albuginea and blood vessels of the ovary. Viral RNA was also found in and surrounding primary and secondary spermatocytes of the muskellunge.

  2. Detection of integrated herpesvirus genomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Benedikt B

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is widely used to visualize nucleotide sequences in interphase cells or on metaphase chromosomes using specific probes that are complementary to the respective targets. Besides its broad application in cytogenetics and cancer research, FISH facilitates the localization of virus genomes in infected cells. Some herpesviruses, including human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and Marek's disease virus (MDV), have been shown to integrate their genetic material into host chromosomes, which allows transmission of HHV-6 via the germ line and is required for efficient MDV-induced tumor formation. We describe here the detection by FISH of integrated herpesvirus genomes in metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei of herpesvirus-infected cells.

  3. In vitro formation and thermal transition of novel hybrid fibrils from type I fish scale collagen and type I porcine collagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Song; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Migita, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi [Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ikoma, Toshiyuki [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Hanagata, Nobutaka, E-mail: HANAGATA.Nobutaka@nims.go.j [Nanotechnology Innovation Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Novel type I collagen hybrid fibrils were fabricated by neutralizing a mixture of type I fish scale collagen solution and type I porcine collagen solution with a phosphate buffer saline at 28 {sup 0}C. Their structure was discussed in terms of the volume ratio of fish/porcine collagen solution. Scanning electron and atomic force micrographs showed that the diameter of collagen fibrils derived from the collagen mixture was larger than those derived from each collagen, and all resultant fibrils exhibited a typical D-periodic unit of {approx}67 nm, irrespective of volume ratio of both collagens. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed only one endothermic peak for the fibrils derived from collagen mixture or from each collagen solution, indicating that the resultant collagen fibrils were hybrids of type I fish scale collagen and type I porcine collagen.

  4. In vitro formation and thermal transition of novel hybrid fibrils from type I fish scale collagen and type I porcine collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Migita, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2010-06-01

    Novel type I collagen hybrid fibrils were fabricated by neutralizing a mixture of type I fish scale collagen solution and type I porcine collagen solution with a phosphate buffer saline at 28 °C. Their structure was discussed in terms of the volume ratio of fish/porcine collagen solution. Scanning electron and atomic force micrographs showed that the diameter of collagen fibrils derived from the collagen mixture was larger than those derived from each collagen, and all resultant fibrils exhibited a typical D-periodic unit of ~67 nm, irrespective of volume ratio of both collagens. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed only one endothermic peak for the fibrils derived from collagen mixture or from each collagen solution, indicating that the resultant collagen fibrils were hybrids of type I fish scale collagen and type I porcine collagen.

  5. In vitro formation and thermal transition of novel hybrid fibrils from type I fish scale collagen and type I porcine collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen, Toshiyuki Ikoma, Nobuhiro Ogawa, Satoshi Migita, Hisatoshi Kobayashi and Nobutaka Hanagata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel type I collagen hybrid fibrils were fabricated by neutralizing a mixture of type I fish scale collagen solution and type I porcine collagen solution with a phosphate buffer saline at 28 °C. Their structure was discussed in terms of the volume ratio of fish/porcine collagen solution. Scanning electron and atomic force micrographs showed that the diameter of collagen fibrils derived from the collagen mixture was larger than those derived from each collagen, and all resultant fibrils exhibited a typical D-periodic unit of ~67 nm, irrespective of volume ratio of both collagens. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed only one endothermic peak for the fibrils derived from collagen mixture or from each collagen solution, indicating that the resultant collagen fibrils were hybrids of type I fish scale collagen and type I porcine collagen.

  6. A simple protocol for attenuating the auto-fluorescence of cyanobacteria for optimized fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Perrine; Ploux, Olivier; Méjean, Annick

    2016-03-01

    Cyanobacteria contain pigments, which generate auto-fluorescence that interferes with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging of cyanobacteria. We describe simple chemical treatments using CuSO4 or H2O2 that significantly reduce the auto-fluorescence of Microcystis strains. These protocols were successfully applied in FISH experiments using 16S rRNA specific probes and filamentous cyanobacteria.

  7. Gill monogeneans of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) from the wild and fish farms in Perak, Malaysia: infection dynamics and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shen-Yin; Ooi, Ai-Lin; Wong, Wey-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Tilapia is one of the commercially important fish in Malaysia as well as in other parts of the world. An understanding of monogenean infection dynamics in tilapia fish may assist us in searching for some intervention measures in reducing the loss of fish caused by parasitic diseases. The present study aimed (1) to compare infection level of monogeneans between the wild and cultured Oreochromis niloticus, and between the cultured O. niloticus and cultured red hybrid tilapia, and (2) to examine the spatial distribution of monogenean species over the gills of the different host species. From a total of 75 fish specimens, six species of monogeneans from two genera: Cichlidogyrus (C. halli, C. mbirizei, C. sclerosus, C. thurstonae, C. tilapiae) and Scutogyrus (S. longicornis) were identified. Data showed that the infection level of cultured O. niloticus was higher than that of the wild O. niloticus, however, the former was lower than that of the cultured red hybrid tilapia. Higher species richness of monogeneans was observed in the cultured red hybrid tilapia as compared to the others. Results for spatial distribution showed that the monogeneans have no preference on the left or right sides of the gills. However, C. halli, C. mbirizei, and C. tilapiae showed preferences on specific gill arches in the cultured O. niloticus and red hybrid tilapia. In general, the gill arch IV harboured the least number of monogeneans. The susceptibility of monogenean infection between the different types of tilapia is discussed.

  8. Temperature controlling system based on FISH probe hybridization facility%基于FISH探针杂交设备的温度控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天庆; 张化; 张婉尧

    2015-01-01

    以玻片为基础的FISH,它的变性杂交过程完全实现自动化.FISH探针杂交仪内置一个ARM7微处理器,以控制不同温度变化,满足变性、杂交和固定温度等不同模式,可预置用按键编程进去的程序(显示屏上能指导编程),方便客户调用,提高工作效率.温度控制系统是FISH探针杂交设备的核心部分,决定了杂交仪的可靠性、稳定性及精准性.%By using FISH based on slide,automation in the degeneration process of hybrid can be achieved.Installed an internal ARM7 microprocessor,the FISH probe hybridization facility can control temperature,meet different modes such as denaturation,hybridization,fixed temperature,and so on.Procedure input by means of push-button can be preset(there are guidance on display screen)to make things easy for user,as a result,work efficiency can be improved.The temperature controlling system,which is the core of FISH probe hybridization facility and ensure its reliability,stability and accuracy.

  9. Development of a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for visualizing CGMMV in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shargil, D; Zemach, H; Belausov, E; Lachman, O; Kamenetsky, R; Dombrovsky, A

    2015-10-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), which belongs to the genus Tobamovirus, is a major pathogen of cucurbit crops grown indoors and in open fields. Currently, immunology (e.g., ELISA) and molecular amplification techniques (e.g., RT-PCR) are employed extensively for virus detection in plant tissues and commercial seed lots diagnostics. In this study, a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, using oligonucleotides whose 5'-terminals were labeled with red cyanine 3 (Cy3) or green fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), was developed for the visualization of the pathogen in situ. This simple and reliable method allows detection and localization of CGMMV in the vegetative and reproductive tissues of cucumber and melon. When this technique was applied in male flowers, anther tissues were found to be infected; whereas the pollen grains were found to be virus-free. These results have meaningful epidemiological implications for the management of CGMMV, particularly with regard to virus transfer via seed and the role of insects as CGMMV vectors.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Channa argus, Channa maculata and hybrid snakehead fish [Channa maculata (♀) × Channa argus (♂)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu-Ren; Ma, Ke-Yi; Xing, Zhi-Jun; Xie, Nan; Wang, Yu-Xi; Wang, Qun; Li, Jia-Le

    2013-06-01

    We sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of Channa argus, Channa maculata and their hybrid [C. maculata (♀) and C. argus (♂)]. All the three mitochondrial genomes contained the typical complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 control region. The entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of C. maculata was 16,559 bp long while the complete mtDNA molecule of C. argus and hybrid snakehead fish was 16,558 bp long. This is the first report on the complete mitogenome sequence of C. maculata and hybrid snakehead fish.

  11. Constraining hybrid inflation models with WMAP three-year results

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, A

    2006-01-01

    We reconsider the original model of quadratic hybrid inflation in light of the WMAP three-year results and study the possibility of obtaining a spectral index of primordial density perturbations, $n_s$, smaller than one from this model. The original hybrid inflation model naturally predicts $n_s\\geq1$ in the false vacuum dominated regime but it is also possible to have $n_s<1$ when the quadratic term dominates. We therefore investigate whether there is also an intermediate regime compatible with the latest constraints, where the scalar field value during the last 50 e-folds of inflation is less than the Planck scale.

  12. Detection of a complex translocation using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, B.A. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States); Abuelo, D.N. [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Mark, H.F. [Brown Univ. School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed the detection of a complex 3-way translocation in a patient with multiple congenital malformations and mental retardation. The patient was a 10-year-old girl with mental retardation, seizures, repaired cleft palate, esotropia, epicanthal folds, broad nasal bridge, upward slanting palpebral fissures, single transverse palmar crease, brachydactyly, hypoplastic nails, ectrodactyly between the third and fourth right toes, and hypoplasia of the left third toe. Chromosome analysis performed at birth was reported as normal. We performed high resolution banding analysis which revealed an apparently balanced translocation between chromosomes 2 and 9. However, because of her multiple abnormalities, further studies were ordered. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using chromosome painting probes revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,t(2;8;9) (2pter{yields}q31::8q21.2{yields}8qter; 8pter{yields}q21.2::2q31{yields}q34::9q34{yields}qter; 9pter{yields}q34::2q34{yields}qter). The 3-way translocation appears to be de novo, as neither parent is a translocation carrier. This case illustrates the importance of using FISH to further investigate cases of apparently balanced translocations in the presence of phenotypic abnormalities and/or mental retardation.

  13. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in raw bovine milk by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Tirodimos, Ilias; Bobos, Mattheos; Kalamaki, Mary S; Papageorgiou, Demetrios K; Arvanitidou, Malamatenia

    2011-12-02

    The transmission pathways of Helicobacter pylori in humans have not been fully elucidated. Research in the last decade has proposed that foodborne transmission, among others, may be a plausible route of human infection. Owing to the organism's fastidious growth characteristics and its ability to convert to viable, yet unculturable states upon exposure to stress conditions, the detection of H. pylori in foods via culture-dependent methods has been proven to be laborious, difficult and in most cases unsuccessful. Hence, nucleic acid-based methods have been proposed as alternative methods but, to date, only PCR-based methods have been reported in the literature. In the current study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for the detection of H. pylori in raw, bulk-tank bovine milk. After repeated milk centrifugation and washing steps, the bacterial flora of raw milk was subjected to fixation and permeabilization and H. pylori detection was conducted by FISH after hybridization with an H. pylori-specific 16S rRNA-directed fluorescent oligonucleotide probe. Using this protocol, H. pylori was detected in four out of the twenty (20%) raw milk samples examined. The data presented in this manuscript indicate that FISH can serve as an alternative molecular method for screening raw bovine milk for the presence of H. pylori.

  14. Segregation of Species-Specific Male Attractiveness in F2 Hybrid Lake Malawi Cichlid Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Svensson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the huge radiations of haplochromine cichlid fish in Lakes Malawi and Victoria, closely related species are often reproductively isolated via female mate choice although viable fertile hybrids can be produced when females are confined only with heterospecific males. We generated F2 hybrid males from a cross between a pair of closely related sympatric cichlid fish from Lake Malawi. Laboratory mate choice experiments using microsatellite paternity analysis demonstrated that F2 hybrid males differed significantly in their attractiveness to females of the two parental species, indicating heritable variation in traits involved in mate choice that may contribute to reproductive isolation between these species. We found no significant correlation between male mating success and any measurement of male colour pattern. A simple quantitative genetic model of reproductive isolation suggests that there may be as few as two chromosomal regions controlling species-specific attractiveness. We propose that adaptive radiation of Lake Malawi cichlids could be facilitated by the presence of genes with major effects on mate choice and reproductive isolation.

  15. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  16. Fully automated fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH staining and digital analysis of HER2 in breast cancer: a validation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M J van der Logt

    Full Text Available HER2 assessment is routinely used to select patients with invasive breast cancer that might benefit from HER2-targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to validate a fully automated in situ hybridization (ISH procedure that combines the automated Leica HER2 fluorescent ISH system for Bond with supervised automated analysis with the Visia imaging D-Sight digital imaging platform. HER2 assessment was performed on 328 formalin-fixed/paraffin-embedded invasive breast cancer tumors on tissue microarrays (TMA and 100 (50 selected IHC 2+ and 50 random IHC scores full-sized slides of resections/biopsies obtained for diagnostic purposes previously. For digital analysis slides were pre-screened at 20x and 100x magnification for all fluorescent signals and supervised-automated scoring was performed on at least two pictures (in total at least 20 nuclei were counted with the D-Sight HER2 FISH analysis module by two observers independently. Results were compared to data obtained previously with the manual Abbott FISH test. The overall agreement with Abbott FISH data among TMA samples and 50 selected IHC 2+ cases was 98.8% (κ = 0.94 and 93.8% (κ = 0.88, respectively. The results of 50 additionally tested unselected IHC cases were concordant with previously obtained IHC and/or FISH data. The combination of the Leica FISH system with the D-Sight digital imaging platform is a feasible method for HER2 assessment in routine clinical practice for patients with invasive breast cancer.

  17. Water quality and plankton communities in hybrid catfish (female channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus x male blue catfish, I. furcatus) ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve, 0.4-ha ponds were stocked with 10,000 hybrid catfish fingerlings in March 2015. Six ponds were partially harvested in August to remove fish larger than ~ 0.57 kg. All remaining fish were removed in October and November. Partial harvest of faster-growing fish removed ~26% of fish initially st...

  18. Discrimination of bacteriophage infected cells using locked nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (LNA-FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas Boas, Diana; Almeida, Carina; Sillankorva, Sanna; Nicolau, Ana; Azeredo, Joana; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage-host interaction studies in biofilm structures are still challenging due to the technical limitations of traditional methods. The aim of this study was to provide a direct fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method based on locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes, which targets the phage replication phase, allowing the study of population dynamics during infection. Bacteriophages specific for two biofilm-forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter, were selected. Four LNA probes were designed and optimized for phage-specific detection and for bacterial counterstaining. To validate the method, LNA-FISH counts were compared with the traditional plaque forming unit (PFU) technique. To visualize the progression of phage infection within a biofilm, colony-biofilms were formed and infected with bacteriophages. A good correlation (r = 0.707) was observed between LNA-FISH and PFU techniques. In biofilm structures, LNA-FISH provided a good discrimination of the infected cells and also allowed the assessment of the spatial distribution of infected and non-infected populations.

  19. Automation of ALK gene rearrangement testing with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaenepoel, Karen; Merkle, Dennis; Cabillic, Florian; Berg, Erica; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Grazioli, Vittorio; Herelle, Olga; Hummel, Michael; Le Calve, Michele; Lenze, Dido; Mende, Stefanie; Pauwels, Patrick; Quilichini, Benoit; Repetti, Elena

    2015-02-01

    In the past several years we have observed a significant increase in our understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive lung cancer. Specifically in the non-small cell lung cancer sub-types, ALK gene rearrangements represent a sub-group of tumors that are targetable by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Crizotinib, resulting in significant reductions in tumor burden. Phase II and III clinical trials were performed using an ALK break-apart FISH probe kit, making FISH the gold standard for identifying ALK rearrangements in patients. FISH is often considered a labor and cost intensive molecular technique, and in this study we aimed to demonstrate feasibility for automation of ALK FISH testing, to improve laboratory workflow and ease of testing. This involved automation of the pre-treatment steps of the ALK assay using various protocols on the VP 2000 instrument, and facilitating automated scanning of the fluorescent FISH specimens for simplified enumeration on various backend scanning and analysis systems. The results indicated that ALK FISH can be automated. Significantly, both the Ikoniscope and BioView system of automated FISH scanning and analysis systems provided a robust analysis algorithm to define ALK rearrangements. In addition, the BioView system facilitated consultation of difficult cases via the internet.

  20. The implementation of a hybrid resultant matrix formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shamsatun Nahar; Aris, Nor'aini

    2015-10-01

    The resultant matrix constructed in this paper is based on the Sylvester-Bèzout formulation which gives a hybrid resultant matrix consisting of the Sylvester and Bèzout blocks. In this work, a new algorithm for the construction has been developed and implemented as a computer package written in C++. The empirical results of the implementation on certain systems of multivariate polynomials are observed and compared to its mixed volume of subdivision Minkowski sum for determining the existence of exact resultant. An application for abstracting the resultant from the determinant of the matrix and determining the solutions of the given system of equations is illustrated.

  1. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assessment of chromosome copy number in sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, M.; Sigman, M.; Mark, H.F.L. [Brown Univ. School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 15% of all recognized pregnancies end in spontaneous abortions. The overall frequency of chromosome abnormalities in spontaneous abortions is approximately 50%. Thus aneuploidy is a significant cause of fetal wastage. In addition, structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosomes can also lead to birth defects, developmental delay, mental retardation and infertility. Conventional cytogenetic analysis via GTG- and other banding techniques is a powerful tool in the elucidation of the nature of chromosomal abnormalities. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) enables detection of numerical chromosomal abnormalities, especially trisomies, in intact cells. Using FISH and commercially available biotin-labeled probes, we have initiated a prospective study to assess specific chromosome copy number of preparations of unstained smears from men referred for a male infertility evaluation as well as smears from normal control males chosen randomly from the sample of sperm donors. A total of approximately 19,000 sperm nuclei have been examined thus far. Of those suitable for analysis, 7382 (38.75%) were normal possessing one copy of chromosome 8, 155 (0.81%) were disomic, and 15 (0.079%) had more than two copies of chromosome 8. Comparisons with data available in the literature will be discussed. Work is ongoing to increase the efficiency of hybridization using both reported and previously untried pretreatment and fixation protocols. We have also initiated studies using multicolor FISH with various chromosome enumeration probes. The assay described here is a potentially powerful tool for detecting rare events such as spontaneous germ cell aneuploidy, aneuploidy detected in semen from men with carcinoma in situ of the testis and aneuploidy induced by potential environmental genotoxicants. It can also be utilized for segregation analysis and for correlating chromosome copy number with germ cell morphology.

  2. CPV hybrid system in ISFOC building, first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Pablo; Alamillo, César; Gil, Eduardo; de la Rubia, Óscar; Martínez, María; Rubio, Francisca; Cadavid, Andros; Navarro, José; Hillenbrand, Sascha; Ballesteros-Sánchez, Isabel; Castillo-Cagigal, Manuel; Masa-Bote, Daniel; Matallanas, Eduardo; Caamaño-Martín, Estefanía; Gutiérrez, Álvaro

    2012-10-01

    PV Off-Grid systems have demonstrated to be a good solution for the electrification of remote areas [1]. A hybrid system is one kind of these systems. The principal characteristic is that it uses PV as the main generator and has a backup power supply, like a diesel generator, for instance, that is used when the CPV generation is not enough to meet demand. To study the use of CPV in these systems, ISFOC has installed a demonstration hybrid system at its headquarters. This hybrid system uses CPV technology as main generator and the utility grid as the backup generator. A group of batteries have been mounted as well to store the remaining energy from the CPV generator when nedeed. The energy flows are managed by a SMA system based on Sunny Island inverters and a Multicluster-Box (figure 1). The Load is the air-conditioning system of the building, as it has a consumption profile higher than the CPV generator and can be controlled by software [2]. The first results of this system, as well as the first chances of improvement, as the need of a bigger CPV generator and a better management of the energy stored in the batteries, are presented in this paper.

  3. Assessment of chromosomal abnormalities in sperm of infertile men using sperm karyotyping and multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosani, N.; Martin, R.H. [Alberta Children`s Hospital and Univ. of Calgary (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Individuals with male factor infertility resulting from idiopathic oligo-, astheno- or teratozoospermia are frequently offered IVF in an attempt to increase their chances of having a child. A concern remains whether these infertile males have an elevated risk of transmitting chromosomal abnormalities to their offspring. Sperm chromosomal complements from these men were assayed using the human sperm/hamster oocyte fusion system and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm nuclei. For each of 5 infertile patients, 100 sperm karyotypes were analyzed and multicolour FISH analysis was performed on a minimum of 10,000 sperm nuclei for each chromosome-specific DNA probe for chromosomes 1 (pUC1.77), 12 (D12Z3), X (XC) and Y (DYZ3). As a group, the infertile patients showed increased frequencies of both numerical ({chi}{sup 2}=17.26, {proportional_to} <0.001) and total abnormalities ({chi}{sup 2}=7.78, {proportional_to} <0.01) relative to control donors when assessed by sperm karyotypes. Analysis of sperm nuclei by FISH indicated a significant increase in the frequency of disomy for chromosome 1 in three of the five patients as compared to control donors ({chi}{sup 2}>8.35, {proportional_to} <0.005). In addition, the frequency of XY disomy was significantly higher in four of the five patients studied by FISH ({chi}{sup 2}>10.58, {proportional_to}<0.005), suggesting that mis-segregation caused by the failure of the XY bivalent to pair may play a role in idiopathic male infertility.

  4. Distribution characteristics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Typha latifolia constructed wetlands using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Inamori, Ryuhei; Gui, Ping; Xu, Kai-qin; Kong, Hai-nan; Matsumura, Masatoshi; Inamori, Yuhei

    2005-01-01

    A molecular biology method, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in which the pre-treatment was improved in allusion to the media of the constructed wetlands (CW), e.g. the soil and the grit, was used to investigate the vertical distribution characteristics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) quantity and the relation with oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in the Typha latifolia constructed wetlands under three different loadings in summer from May to September. Results showed that the quantity of the AOB decreased in the Typha latifolia CW with the increase of vertical depth. However, the AOB quantity was 2-4 times the quantity of the control in the root area. Additionally, ORP in the rhizosphere was found to be higher than other areas, which showed that Typha latifolia CW was in an aerobic state in summer when using simulated non-point sewage at the rural area of Taihu Lake in China and small town combined sewage.

  5. Feasibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect early gene changes in sputum cells from uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neft, R.E.; Rogers, J.L.; Belinsky, S.A. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that combined exposure to radon progeny and tobacco smoke produce a greater than additive or synergistic increase in lung cancer risk. Lung cancer results from multiple genetic changes over a long period of time. An early change that occurs in lung cancer is trisomy 7 which is found in 50% of non-small cell lung cancer and in the far margins of resected lung tumors. The 80% mortality associated with lung cancer is in part related to the high proportion of patients who present with an advanced, unresectable tumor. Therefore, early detection of patients at risk for tumor development is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Currently, it is difficult to detect lung cancer early while it is still amendable by surgery. Saccomanno, G. has shown that premalignant cytologic changes in sputum cells collected from uranium miners can be detected by a skilled, highly trained cytopathologist. A more objective alternative for identifying premalignant cells in sputum may be to determine whether an early genetic change such as trisomy 7 is present in these cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to identify cells with trisomy 7. The results of this investigation indicate that FISH may prove to be an accurate, efficient method to test at-risk individuals for genetic alterations in bronchial epithelial cells from sputum.

  6. [Interphase cytogenetics of the breast tumors with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on cytologic preparation--its practice and clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, M; Osamura, R Y

    1996-05-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study with the chromosome specific probes is performed in the interphase nuclei of the routinely processed cytologic preparation of the breast tumors. Numerical aberrations on the chromosomes 1, 3, 11 or 17 were detected in more than 80% of the malignant tumors, but not in the benign tumors. Marked heterogeneity of the polysomies is noted in the malignant tumor cells. A few malignant cases revealed monosomy of chromosome 17. No apparent correlation between the numerical abnormalities and the histological features in malignant tumors is identified. These results suggest that the interphase cytogenetics with FISH for the breast tumors may be useful for differential diagnosis of malignancy. The practice and the clinical applications of the FISH study are discussed.

  7. Validation of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH for multiple myeloma using CD138 positive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kiyomi Kishimoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm with acquired genetic abnormalities of clinical and prognostic importance. Multiple myeloma differs from other hematologic malignancies due to a high fraction of low proliferating malignant plasma cells and the paucity of plasma cells in bone marrow aspiration samples, making cytogenetic analysis a challenge. An abnormal karyotype is found in only one-third of patients with multiple myeloma and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization is the most useful test for studying the chromosomal abnormalities present in almost 90% of cases. However, it is necessary to study the genetic abnormalities in plasma cells after their identification or selection by morphology, immunophenotyping or sorting. Other challenges are the selection of the most informative FISH panel and determining cut-off levels for FISH probes. This study reports the validation of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization using CD138 positive cells, according to proposed guidelines published by the European Myeloma Network (EMN in 2012. METHOD: Bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma were used to standardize a panel of five probes [1q amplification, 13q14 deletion, 17p deletion, t(4;14, and t(14;16] in CD138+ cells purified by magnetic cell sorting. RESULTS: This test was validated with a low turnaround time and good reproducibility. Five of six samples showed genetic abnormalities. Monosomy/deletion 13 plus t(4;14 were found in two cases. CONCLUSION: This technique together with magnetic cell sorting is effective and can be used in the routine laboratory practice. In addition, magnetic cell sorting provides a pure plasma cell population that allows other molecular and genomic studies.

  8. Is fish oil good or bad for heart disease? Two trials with apparently conflicting results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, M L; Dunstan, F D J; George, C H

    2005-07-01

    Two successive randomized trials examined the effect of an increased intake of fatty fish, or the use of fish oil supplements, in reducing mortality in men with heart disease. The Diet and Reinfarction Trial (DART) was conducted in 2033 men who were recovering from acute myocardial infarction (MI). Those who were advised to eat fatty fish (or who opted to take fish oil capsules instead) had a 29% reduction in all-cause mortality over the following two years compared with those not so advised. The effect appeared in the first few months of the trial. The Diet and Angina Randomized Trial (DART 2) involved 3114 men with stable angina. Advice to eat fatty fish did not reduce mortality, and taking fish oil capsules was associated with a higher risk of cardiac and sudden death. The adverse effects of fish or fish oil were restricted to men not taking beta-blockers or dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers, and were greater in those taking digoxin. Evidence from other sources strongly suggests an anti-arrhythmic action of fish oil, particularly after MI or in the presence of acute ischemia. The apparently conflicting results of the two trials may reflect different actions of n-3 fatty acids in acute and chronic conditions, together with different effects of eating fish and taking fish oil capsules. A mechanism is proposed that could account for these findings.

  9. CONGESTION MANAGEMENT BY OPTIMAL ALLOCATION OF FACTS CONTROLLERS USING HYBRID FISH BEE OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thangalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Independent System Operator (ISO in the restructured power industry includes system control, capacity planning, transmission tariff and congestion management; the challenging task being minimizing the congestion. One of the popular techniques used to alleviate congestion is using Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS devices. The power system generally operates near its rated capacity in deregulated market because of intensive usage of transmission grids. So, the major issues that need to be addressed are improving the voltage profile and reducing the power loss in the electrical network. Motivation: The location of FACTS devices can improve the power flow in the line, maintain the bus profile and reduce the losses. However locating the ideal location is a NP problem. This study presents a novel heuristic method to determine the types of FACTS devices and its optimal location in a power system without violating the thermal and voltage limits. Power flow sensitivity index to find the optimal location of UPFC is suggested in this study. A hybrid fish bee swarm optimization is proposed which is based on Artificial Bee Colony (ABC and Fish School Search (FSS methods. This proposed algorithm is tested based on IEEE 30 bus system and line performances are studied.

  10. Trypanosomiasis in hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus and other freshwater fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promkhunthong, W.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The infestation of Trypanosoma sp. (Kinetoplastida in the hybrid catfish and some fresh water fish was studied showing such parasitic infestation was specific only in catfish. The virulence as determined by LD50 for 5 days was 2.28x1010 cell in a fish sample. The parasitic infestation caused hematological changes by the reduction of red as well as white blood cells. The reductions were highly significant as compared to the healthy sample (p<0.05 as noted by the red and white blood cell count which dropped from 2.14±0.48x106 to 1.62±0.27x106 cells/ml and from 1.45±3.76x105 to 2.42±0.78x104 cells/ml blood in the infested samples, respectively. Similar trend was noted for hemoglobin and hematocrit which dropped significantly (p<0.05. The hemoglobin in healthy fish is 7.075±0.929g/100g, which dropped to 6.268±0.697g/100g in the samples with infestation. The percentage of hematocrit in healthy sample is 25.275±3.318%, which dropped to 21.722±3.068% in the samples with infestation. The reverse trend was recognized for serum protein andleukocrit which increased in the samples with Trypanosoma sp. infestation. The density gradient centrifugation technique was employed in the isolation of parasites in which 50% Percoll solution in 0.85% final preparation of saline solution was capable of removing Trypanosoma sp. from the blood. The study of antibody levels in serum showed that the infested hybrid catfish could develop the antibody which reached a peak 14 days after the infestation. Trypanosoma sp. was unable to cause histological changes in the tissues of gill, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and intestine. Minor inflammations were observed, even the cases that large number of parasites were found in the tissues, blood streams and sinuses. Marked reductions were recorded for mature red blood cells while there were the formation of immature red blood and phagocytotic cells at higher rates as compared to the healthy individual.

  11. Relevant Results of Fish Consumer Benefits and Food Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianita BLEOJU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused upon the assessment of current consumer behavior as empirical arguments for designing and implementation of fish feeding and processing innovative biotechnologies which highly meet the exigencies of food safety and security. Recent studies on food consumer behavior are observing the rising awareness of food safety and the reinforcement of the preoccupation about the consequences of healthy diet in terms of prevention and cure as characteristics of life quality. The implications of these changes urge the reconsideration of communication strategy upon food chain in terms of completeness, correctness and continuity of consumer information.

  12. Results of a national survey of high-frequency fish consumers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stackelberg, Katherine; Li, Miling; Sunderland, Elsie

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to contaminants in fish may be associated with adverse health outcomes even as fish consumption is generally considered beneficial. Risk assessments conducted to support regulatory analyses rely on quantitative fish consumption estimates. Here we report the results of a national survey of high-frequency fish consumers (n = 2099) based on a survey population statistically representative of ~17.6 million U.S. individuals consuming three or more fish meals per week. The survey was conducted during 2013 using an on-line survey instrument. Total fish consumption averaged 111g/day from market, restaurant and self-caught sources. Depending on the season, the incidence of individuals reporting consumption of self-caught species ranged between 10-12% of our high-frequency fish consuming demographic, averaging approximately 30g/day and comprising 23% of total fish consumption from all sources of fish. Recreational or self-caught consumption rates vary regionally and are poorly understood, particularly for high-frequency consumers, making it difficult to support national-scale assessments. A divergence between sport-fishing and harvesting of fish as a food-staple is apparent in survey results given differences in consumption patterns with income and education. Highest consumption rates were reported for low income respondents more likely to harvest fish as a food staple. By contrast, the incidence of self-caught fish consumption was higher with income and education although overall consumption rates were lower. Regional differences were evident, with respondents from the East-South Central and New England regions reporting lowest consumption rates from self-caught fish on the order of 12-16g/day and those from Mountain, Pacific and Mid-Atlantic regions reporting highest rates ranging from 44 to 59g/day. Respondent-specific consumption rates together with national-level data on fish tissue concentrations of PCBs, MeHg, and PFOS suggest that 10-58% of respondents

  13. Karyotype of Zea luxurians and Z. mays subsp. mays using FISH/DAPI, and analysis of meiotic behavior of hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Graciela E; Poggio, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    The karyotypes of Zea luxurians and a race of maize from northwestern Argentina are described and compared using 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to localize the 180 bp knobs. The meiotic behavior of the F₁ artificial hybrids Z. luxurians × maize is also analyzed to determine the genomic relationships between both species. Neocentromere activity at knobs in the meiosis of the hybrids is particularly discussed. The meiotic behavior and the high pollen sterility of the hybrid revealed genetical and (or) chromosomal divergences, leading to postzygotic reproductive isolation among their parents. Here, we propose that maize shows lower genomic affinity to Z. luxurians than to other species of the genus with 2n = 20.

  14. Comparison of high resolution chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the laboratory evaluation of Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delach, J.A.; Rosengren, S.S.; Kaplan, L.; Greenstein, R.M.; Cassidy, S.B.; Benn, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    The development of probes containing segments of DNA from chromosome region 15q11-q13 provides the opportunity to confirm the diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We have evaluated FISH studies and high resolution chromosome banding studies in 14 patients referred to confirm or rule out AS. In four patients (three from the PWS category and 1 from the AS group) chromosome analysis suggested that a deletion was present but FISH failed to confirm the finding. In one AS group patient, FISH identified a deletion not detectable by high resolution banding. Review of the clinical findings in the discrepant cases suggested that FISH results were correct and high resolution findings were erroneous. Studies with a chromosome 15 alpha satellite probe (D15Z) on both normal and abnormal individuals suggested that incorrect interpretation of chromosome banding may occasionally be attributable to alpha satellite polymorphism but other variation of 15q11-q13 chromosome bands also contributes to misinterpretation. We conclude that patients who have been reported to have a cytogenetic deletion of 15q11-q13 and who have clinical findings inconsistent with PWS and AS should be re-evaluated by molecular genetic techniques. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. mRNA-targeted Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization (FISH) of Gram-negative Bacteria Without Template Amplification or Tyramide Signal Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, James R.; Culley, David E.; Chrisler, William B.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2007-12-01

    Technologies are needed to study gene expression at the level of individual cells within a population or microbial community. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) supplies high-resolution spatial information and has been widely applied to study microbial communities at the rRNA level. While mRNA-targeted FISH has been popular for studying gene expression in eukaryotic cells, very little success has been achieved with prokaryotes. At present, detection of specific mRNAs in individual prokaryotic cells requires the use of in situ-RT-PCR or tyramide signal amplification (TSA). In this study we used DNA oligonucleotide probes labeled with a single near-infrared dye in FISH assays to detect multicopy plasmid-based and endogenous mRNA molecules in Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We took advantage of the fact there is much less background signal produced by biological materials and support matrices in the near-infrared spectrum and thus long camera exposure times could be used. In addition, we demonstrate that a combination of probes targeting both rRNA and mRNA could be successfully employed within the same FISH assay. These results, as well as ongoing R&D improvements in NIR and infrared dyes, indicate the FISH approach we demonstrated could be applied in certain environmental settings to monitor gene expression in mixed populations.

  16. Multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to analyze multispecies oral biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Hellwig, Elmar; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) constitutes a favorable microbiological method for the analysis of spatial distribution of highly variable phenotypes found in multispecies oral biofilms. The combined use of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) produces high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) images of individual bacteria in their natural environment. Here, we describe the application of M-FISH on early (Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces naeslundii) and late colonizers (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Veillonella spp.) of in situ-formed oral biofilms, the acquisition of CLSM images, as well as the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these digitally obtained and processed images.

  17. ANALYS OF EXPERIMENTAL HYBRID CAR TESTING RESULTS ON URBAN DRIVING CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experimental hybrid car testing results are presented. The estimation of hybrid car draft-speed characteristics, energy and ecological indicators on urban driving cycle are given.

  18. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  19. Stunning fish with CO2 or electricity: contradictory results on behavioural and physiological stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräns, A; Niklasson, L; Sandblom, E; Sundell, K; Algers, B; Berg, C; Lundh, T; Axelsson, M; Sundh, H; Kiessling, A

    2016-02-01

    Studies that address fish welfare before slaughter have concluded that many of the traditional systems used to stun fish including CO2 narcosis are unacceptable as they cause avoidable stress before death. One system recommended as a better alternative is electrical stunning, however, the welfare aspects of this method are not yet fully understood. To assess welfare in aquaculture both behavioural and physiological measurements have been used, but few studies have examined the relationship between these variables. In an on-site study aversive behaviours and several physiological stress indicators, including plasma levels of cortisol and ions as well as blood physiological variables, were compared in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) stunned with CO2 or electricity. Exposure to water saturated with CO2 triggered aversive struggling and escape responses for several minutes before immobilization, whereas in fish exposed to an electric current immobilization was close to instant. On average, it took 5 min for the fish to recover from electrical stunning, whereas fish stunned with CO2 did not recover. Despite this, the electrically stunned fish had more than double the plasma levels of cortisol compared with fish stunned with CO2. This result is surprising considering that the behavioural reactions were much more pronounced following CO2 exposure. These contradictory results are discussed with regard to animal welfare and stress physiological responses. The present results emphasise the importance of using an integrative and interdisciplinary approach and to include both behavioural and physiological stress indicators in order to make accurate welfare assessments of fish in aquaculture.

  20. Studies of the Ecophysiology of Single Cells in Microbial Communities by (Quantitative) Microautoradiography and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (MAR-FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    Microautoradiography (MAR) in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful method of obtaining information about the ecophysiology of probe-defined single cells in mixed microbial communities. The incorporation of radiolabelled substrates can be quantified by automated...

  1. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Ortíz-Hernández, Brenda L; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Fernández, José Luis; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2013-02-19

    We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL), 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL), and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1.

  2. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; Ortíz-Hernández, Brenda L.; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I.; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Fernández, José Luis; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL), 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL), and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1. PMID:23429197

  3. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gosálvez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH. A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL, 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL, and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1.

  4. Magnetic Fe3O4/Ag Hybrid Nanoparticles as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate for Trace Analysis of Furazolidone in Fish Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wansong Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs composed of ferromagnetic and noble metal materials show dual functions of magnetic activity and local surface plasmon response and have great potential as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS in trace analysis. Easy-to-prepare superparamagnetic Fe3O4/Ag hybrid NPs were synthesized and optimized by adjusting the ratio of silver particles aggregated with APTMS-modified Fe3O4 NPs. The hybrid NPs were assembled under an external magnetic field before being used as substrate for SERS analysis. The SERS spectral features of furazolidone standard solution were clearly identified at concentrations as low as 40 ng mL−1, and furazolidone in fish feeds could be detected at 500 ng g−1. The results indicated that the Fe3O4/Ag hybrid NPs as SERS substrates had a great potential for detection of trace amount of furazolidone and other prohibited or restricted antibiotics in the animal and fish feeds.

  5. Comparison of immunohistochemistry (IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assessment for Her-2 status in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Minfang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concordance rate between IHC and FISH according to clinical performance is still controversial. We report a prospective study to reflect the concordance between IHC and FISH in Guilin city, People's Republic of China. Methods Fifty cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of breast tested by IHC and scored as 0, 1+, 2+ and 3+ by pathologists were further analyzed by FISH using a commercially available double-color probe, and the FISH findings were compared with IHC test results. Results A total concordance of 82.0% was observed with a Kappa coefficient of 0.640 (P Conclusion The IHC can be used firstly to screen the HER-2 status, and FISH can be used as a supplementary role to IHC and 2+ and some negative cases. And only those cases with Her-2 status of IHC 3+ or FISH positive should be treated with Herceptin.

  6. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using non-commercial probes in the diagnosis of clinically suspected microdeletion syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Halder

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: We conclude that FISH should not be the method of choice for clinically suspected microdeletion syndromes. We propose to follow strict clinical criteria for FISH testing or preferably to follow better methods (genotype first approach. Whole genome screening may be used as first line of test and FISH may be used for confirmation of screening result, screening of family members and prenatal diagnosis.

  8. Variability of ribosomal DNA sites in Festuca pratensis, Lolium perenne, and their intergeneric hybrids, revealed by FISH and GISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiazczyk, T; Taciak, M; Zwierzykowski, Z

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the variability of chromosomal location and number of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites in some diploid and autotetraploid Festuca pratensis and Lolium perenne cultivars, as well as on identification of rDNA-bearing chromosomes in their triploid and tetraploid F. pratensis × L. perenne hybrids. The rDNA loci were mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 25S rDNA probes, and the origin of parental genomes was verified by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with L. perenne genomic DNA as a probe, and F. pratensis genomic DNA as a block. FISH detected variation in the number and chromosomal location of both 5S and 45S rDNA sites. In F. pratensis mostly additional signals of 5S rDNA loci occurred, as compared with standard F. pratensis karyotypes. Losses of 45S rDNA loci were more frequent in L. perenne cultivars and intergeneric hybrids. Comparison of the F. pratensis and L. perenne genomes approved a higher number of rDNA sites as well as variation in chromosomal rDNA location in L. perenne. A greater instability of F. pratensis-genome-like and L. perenne-genome-like chromosomes in tetraploid hybrids was revealed, indicating gains and losses of rDNA loci, respectively. Our data indicate that the rDNA loci physically mapped on chromosomes 2 and 3 in F. pratensis and on chromosome 3 in L. perenne are useful markers for these chromosomes in intergeneric Festuca × Lolium hybrids.

  9. A populational survey of 45S rDNA polymorphism in the Jefferson salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke BI; James P.BOGART; Jinzhong FU

    2009-01-01

    The chromosomal localization of 45S ribosomal RNA genes in Ambystoma jeffersonianum was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA fragment as a probe (FISH-rDNA). Our results revealed the presence of rDNA polymorphism among A.jeffersonianum populations in terms of number, location and FISH signal intensity on the chromosomes. Nine rDNA cytotypes were found in ten geographically isolated populations and most of them contained derivative rDNA sites. Our preliminary study provides strong indication of karyotypic diversification of A.jeffersonianum that is demonstrated by intraspecific variation of 45S rDNA cytotypes. rDNA cytotype polymorphism has been described in many other caudate amphibians. We predict that habitat isolation, low dispersal ability and decline of effective population size could facilitate the fixation and accumulation of variable rDNA cytotypes during their chromosome evolution [Current Zoology 55(2):145-149,2009].

  10. A populational survey of 45S rDNA polymorphism in the Jefferson salamander Ambystoma jeffersonianum revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhong FU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The chromosomal localization of 45S ribosomal RNA genes in Ambystoma jeffersonianum was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA fragment as a probe (FISH-rDNA. Our results revealed the presence of rDNA polymorphism among A.jeffersonianum populations in terms of number, location and FISH signal intensity on the chromosomes. Nine rDNA cytotypes were found in ten geographically isolated populations and most of them contained derivative rDNA sites. Our preliminary study provides strong indication of karyotypic diversification of A.jeffersonianum that is demonstrated by intraspecific variation of 45S rDNA cytotypes. rDNA cytotype polymorphism has been described in many other caudate amphibians. We predict that habitat isolation, low dispersal ability and decline of effective population size could facilitate the fixation and accumulation of variable rDNA cytotypes during their chromosome evolution.

  11. Organic layers on silicon result in a unique hybrid fet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, E.J.; Albers, M.; Smet, de L.C.P.M.; Olthuis, W.; Zuilhof, H.; Sudholter, E.J.R.; Bergveld, P.; Berg, van den A.

    2008-01-01

    A Field-Effect Transistor (FET) is presented that combines the conventional lay-out of the silicon substrate (channel and source and drain connections) with a Si-C linked organic gate insulator contacted via an organic, conducting polymer. It is shown that this hybrid device combines the excellent e

  12. 21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... detection and enumeration of FISH signals in interphase nuclei of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human.... This device is intended for in vitro diagnostic use with FISH assays as an aid in the...

  13. Effects of the acute exposition to glyphosate-based herbicide on oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant responses in a hybrid Amazon fish surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhorin, Valéria Dornelles Gindri; Sinhorin, Adilson Paulo; Teixeira, Jhonnes Marcos dos Santos; Miléski, Kelly Márcia Lazarotto; Hansen, Paula Carine; Moreira, Paula Sueli Andrade; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins; Loro, Vania Lúcia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute glyphosate (active ingredient) exposure on the oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant defenses of a hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp). The fish were exposed to different herbicide concentrations for 96 h. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls and antioxidant responses were verified. The 15 mg a.pL(-1) of herbicide resulted in the death of 50% of the fish after 96 h. An increase in liver and muscle TBARS levels was observed when fish were exposed to the herbicide. The protein carbonyl content was also increased in the liver (4.5mg a.pL(-1) concentration) and brain (2.25 mg a.pL(-1) concentration). The antioxidant activities decreased in the liver and brain after exposure to herbicide. Levels of ascorbic acid in the liver (2.25 mg a.pL(-1) and 4.5 mg a.pL(-1) concentrations) and brain (2.25 mg a.pL(-1) concentration) were increased post-treatment. Levels of total thiols were increased in the liver and brain (2.25 mg L(-1) and 7.5mg a.pL(-1), respectively). Glyphosate exposure, at the tested concentrations affects surubim health by promoting changes that can affect their survival in natural environment. Some parameters as TBARS and protein carbonyl could be early biomarkers for Roundup exposure in this fish species.

  14. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Neto, Maressa; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Camacho, Juan Pedro Martínez; Bakkali, Mohammed; de Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil) and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept) easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers. PMID:24260650

  15. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maressa Ferreira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers.

  16. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  17. Mercury in fish and adverse reproductive outcomes: results from South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a metal with widespread distribution in aquatic ecosystems and significant neurodevelopmental toxicity in humans. Fish biomonitoring for total mercury has been conducted in South Carolina (SC) since 1976, and consumption advisories have been posted for many SC waterways. However, there is limited information on the potential reproductive impacts of mercury due to recreational or subsistence fish consumption. Methods To address this issue, geocoded residential locations for live births from the Vital Statistics Registry (1995–2005, N = 362,625) were linked with spatially interpolated total mercury concentrations in fish to estimate potential mercury exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. Generalized estimating equations were used to test the hypothesis that risk of low birth weight (LBW, mercury in fish, after adjustment for confounding. Separate analyses estimated term LBW and PTB risks using residential proximity to rivers with fish consumption advisories to characterize exposure. Results Term LBW was more likely among women residing in areas in the upper quartile of predicted total mercury in fish (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.09) or within 8 kilometers of a river with a ‘do not eat’ fish advisory (1.05; 1.00-1.11) compared to the lowest quartile, or rivers without fish consumption restrictions, respectively. When stratified by race, risks for term LBW or PTB were 10-18% more likely among African-American (AA) mothers living in areas with the highest total fish mercury concentrations. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the relationship between fish total mercury concentrations and adverse reproductive outcomes in a large population-based sample that included AA women. The ecologic nature of exposure assessment in this study precludes causal inference. However, the results suggest a need for more detailed investigations to characterize patterns of local

  18. Diagnosis of a constitutional five-chromosome rearrangement by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsien, F.; Shapira, E. [Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Carvalho, T. [Hospital Sarah Kubitschek, Brasilia (Brazil)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements are structural rearrangements involving at least three chromosomes and three or more chromosome breakpoints. Such karyotypes are often acquired during cancer multi-step development and in chromosome instability syndromes. However, extremely rare constitutional forms have been reported, most of which are incompatible with life. We present a 2-year-old female with de novo complex rearrangement consisting of five chromosomes and nine breakpoints. Clinical evaluation at two years of age revealed a weight of 5 kg, length of 66 cm, and had circumference of 38 cm, all below the 5th percentile, microcephaly, trigonocephaly, epicanthal folds, inguinal hernia, left clubfoot, hypertonicity, and developmental delay. The neurological examination revealed chorea-acanthocytosis and psychomotor delay. Cultured lymphocytes and fibroblasts revealed a karyotype consisting of five derivative chromosomes. The metaphases were further analyzed by FISH using chromosome-specific libraries and telomeric probes in order to delineate the composition of the rearranged chromosomes; FISH results demonstrated a karyotype of: 46,XX,1pter{r_arrow}1q25::1q42.1{r_arrow}1qter, 2pter{r_arrow}q32.3::1q32.3{r_arrow}2q41::2q37.3{r_arrow}2qter, 7qter{r_arrow}7q21.2::6q22.3{r_arrow}6qter::1q31{r_arrow}1q32.3::6p23{r_arrow}6q22.3, 7pter{r_arrow}7q21.1::6p23{r_arrow}6pter, 2q33{r_arrow}2q37, 1::9p21{r_arrow}9qter. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of FISH in characterizing complex chromosome rearrangements otherwise difficult to correctly interpret using classical cytogenetics alone.

  19. Resin infusion of layered metal/composite hybrid and resulting metal/composite hybrid laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of fabricating a metal/composite hybrid laminate is provided. One or more layered arrangements are stacked on a solid base to form a layered structure. Each layered arrangement is defined by a fibrous material and a perforated metal sheet. A resin in its liquid state is introduced along a portion of the layered structure while a differential pressure is applied across the laminate structure until the resin permeates the fibrous material of each layered arrangement and fills perforations in each perforated metal sheet. The resin is cured thereby yielding a metal/composite hybrid laminate.

  20. Fishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜群山

    2002-01-01

    @@ Last Saturday my cousin (表兄) came to my home. We were very happy to see each other. We decided that the next day we went to fish. We got up very early that day. When we left home,the moon could still be seen in the sky.

  1. Human disturbance causes the formation of a hybrid swarm between two naturally sympatric fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselman, Daniel J; Argo, Emily E; McBride, Meghan C; Bentzen, Paul; Schultz, Thomas F; Perez-Umphrey, Anna A; Palkovacs, Eric P

    2014-03-01

    Most evidence for hybrid swarm formation stemming from anthropogenic habitat disturbance comes from the breakdown of reproductive isolation between incipient species, or introgression between allopatric species following secondary contact. Human impacts on hybridization between divergent species that naturally occur in sympatry have received considerably less attention. Theory predicts that reinforcement should act to preserve reproductive isolation under such circumstances, potentially making reproductive barriers resistant to human habitat alteration. Using 15 microsatellites, we examined hybridization between sympatric populations of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (A. aestivalis) to test whether the frequency of hybridization and pattern of introgression have been impacted by the construction of a dam that isolated formerly anadromous populations of both species in a landlocked freshwater reservoir. The frequency of hybridization and pattern of introgression differed markedly between anadromous and landlocked populations. The rangewide frequency of hybridization among anadromous populations was generally 0-8%, whereas all landlocked individuals were hybrids. Although neutral introgression was observed among anadromous hybrids, directional introgression leading to increased prevalence of alewife genotypes was detected among landlocked hybrids. We demonstrate that habitat alteration can lead to hybrid swarm formation between divergent species that naturally occur sympatrically, and provide empirical evidence that reinforcement does not always sustain reproductive isolation under such circumstances.

  2. 77 FR 15039 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... 5. Fish Meal C. Farming Factors 1. Fingerlings, Fish Feed, Nutrients, Lime D. Other Surrogate Values...

  3. Simultaneous 16S and 18S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on LR White sections demonstrated in Vestimentifera (Siboglinidae) tubeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimak, Mario P; Toenshoff, Elena R; Bright, Monika

    2012-02-01

    Traditional morphological identification of invertebrate marine species is limited in early life history stages for many taxa. In this study, we demonstrate, by example of Vestimentiferan tubeworms (Siboglinidae, Polychaeta), that the simultaneous fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of both eukaryotic host and bacterial symbiont cells is possible on a single semi-thin (1 μm) section. This allows the identification of host specimens to species level as well as offering visualization of bacteria distributed within the host tissue. Previously published 18S rRNA host-specific oligonucleotide probes for Riftia pachyptila, Tevnia jerichonana and a newly designed Oasisia alvinae probe, as well as a 16S rRNA probe targeting symbionts found in all host species, were applied. A number of standard fixation and hybridization parameters were tested and optimized for the best possible signal intensity and cellular resolution. Ethanol conserved samples embedded in LR White low viscosity resin yielded the best results with regard to both signal intensity and resolution. We show that extended storage times of specimens does not affect the quality of signals attained by FISH and use our protocol to identify morphologically unidentifiable tubeworm individuals from a small data set, conforming to previous findings in succession studies of the Siboglinidae family.

  4. Fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH) for the localization of viruses and endosymbiotic bacteria in plant and insect tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliot, Adi; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Lebedev, Galina; Brumin, Marina; Cathrin, Pakkianathan Britto; Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Skaljac, Marisa; Belausov, Eduard; Czosnek, Henryk; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-02-24

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a name given to a variety of techniques commonly used for visualizing gene transcripts in eukaryotic cells and can be further modified to visualize other components in the cell such as infection with viruses and bacteria. Spatial localization and visualization of viruses and bacteria during the infection process is an essential step that complements expression profiling experiments such as microarrays and RNAseq in response to different stimuli. Understanding the spatiotemporal infections with these agents complements biological experiments aimed at understanding their interaction with cellular components. Several techniques for visualizing viruses and bacteria such as reporter gene systems or immunohistochemical methods are time-consuming, and some are limited to work with model organisms and involve complex methodologies. FISH that targets RNA or DNA species in the cell is a relatively easy and fast method for studying spatiotemporal localization of genes and for diagnostic purposes. This method can be robust and relatively easy to implement when the protocols employ short hybridizing, commercially-purchased probes, which are not expensive. This is particularly robust when sample preparation, fixation, hybridization, and microscopic visualization do not involve complex steps. Here we describe a protocol for localization of bacteria and viruses in insect and plant tissues. The method is based on simple preparation, fixation, and hybridization of insect whole mounts and dissected organs or hand-made plant sections, with 20 base pairs short DNA probes conjugated to fluorescent dyes on their 5' or 3' ends. This protocol has been successfully applied to a number of insect and plant tissues, and can be used to analyze expression of mRNAs or other RNA or DNA species in the cell.

  5. On the Translation of Hybridity in the Chinese Version of Saving Fish from Drowning in the Light of Bakhtin’s Theory of Dialogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zheng-yan; WANG Ji-ping

    2015-01-01

    In translation, hybridity often poses a big challenge to the translator, especially when the hybrid text is a novel. The au⁃thor of this paper hopes to contribute to the study of the translation of hybridity in English novels by drawing on Bakhtin ’s theory of dialogue. By analyzing the translation of linguistic hybridity in Saving Fish from Drowning, the author of this paper finds that the translation by Caiju is not good enough and tries to provide a new direction by virtue of which translators can choose right transla⁃tion strategies.

  6. Hybridization within Saccharomyces Genus Results in Homoeostasis and Phenotypic Novelty in Winemaking Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma da Silva

    Full Text Available Despite its biotechnological interest, hybridization, which can result in hybrid vigor, has not commonly been studied or exploited in the yeast genus. From a diallel design including 55 intra- and interspecific hybrids between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. uvarum grown at two temperatures in enological conditions, we analyzed as many as 35 fermentation traits with original statistical and modeling tools. We first showed that, depending on the types of trait--kinetics parameters, life-history traits, enological parameters and aromas -, the sources of variation (strain, temperature and strain * temperature effects differed in a large extent. Then we compared globally three groups of hybrids and their parents at two growth temperatures: intraspecific hybrids S. cerevisiae * S. cerevisiae, intraspecific hybrids S. uvarum * S. uvarum and interspecific hybrids S. cerevisiae * S. uvarum. We found that hybridization could generate multi-trait phenotypes with improved oenological performances and better homeostasis with respect to temperature. These results could explain why interspecific hybridization is so common in natural and domesticated yeast, and open the way to applications for wine-making.

  7. Fish predation on a Daphnia hybrid species complex: A factor explaining species coexistence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaak, P.; Hoekstra, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies on the life histories of Daphnia hybrids and their parental species have revealed that hybrids can combine an intermediate size with a relatively high reproductive rate, which might explain their success in many European lakes. Based on this information, we formulated the temporal

  8. Application and analysis of LNG cold energy for hybrid fishing vessel%混合动力渔船LNG冷量的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鹏威; 张建一; 詹鋆

    2012-01-01

    液化天然气(LNC)是清洁能源,同时又蕴含大量冷量,我国已经提出渔船推广使用LNG作为动力燃料.目前,渔船制冷能耗占全船能耗30%-40%.为了确定混合动力渔船中LNG的应用优势,本文结合实际生产中的50m型围网渔船进行了计算分析.结果显示,在该型渔船上采用柴油/天然气混合动力,替油率80%时每年可节省燃料费用61万元.将LNG冷量用于冷海水系统,每天可制取0℃冷海水10.4t,减少冷海水制冷系统工作时长1.6h,部分冷量用于系统的过冷循环,可使系统COP提高5.2%.分析表明,利用混合动力渔船的LNG冷能可显著节能,降低营运成本.%Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) is a clean energy with a lot of cold energy.Its use as engine fuel for fishing vessel is promoted currently in China.The energy consumption of refrigeration system in fishing vessels has accounted for 30% to 40% in total energy consumption.In order to determine the advantage of LNG applications in hybrid fishing vessel,some calculation and analysis are conducted based on 50 m model purse seine vessel.The results show that 610 thousands yuan can be saved annually if 80% of diesel oil is replaced by LNG on this type of fishing vessels.Meanwhile,10.4 t cold seawater in 0℃ can be produced and 1.6 hour of the system's working time can be reduced each day by use of the LNG cold energy.The COP can be improved by 5.2% when the surplus LNG cold energy is used for subcooled cycle of the refrigeration system.Energy cost can be significantly reduced by use of LNG cold energy in the hybrid fishing vessels based on the analysis.

  9. Action spectrum for melanoma induction in hybrid fish of the genus Xiphophorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R.B.

    1997-03-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a complicated disease that is dependent on a number of factors that influence its incidence in ways that are quantitatively uncertain. The incidence of CMM increases with proximity to the Equator -- an observation in line with the conclusion that sun exposure is the most important etiologic agent. However, the latitude effect does not implicate UVB because the intensities of all spectral regions increase toward the Equator. An understanding of the useful public health measures to lower the incidence of CMM would benefit greatly if the spectral region of sunlight implicated in melanoma incidence were known. Such knowledge requires animal models to evaluate the incidence as a function of wavelength. There are marsupial models, a transgenic mouse model, and a fish model. To date, only the fish model has been employed to obtain an action spectrum. The paper describes a fish model, implications of the fish spectrum, and epidemiological data.

  10. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  11. 78 FR 6297 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... been calculated in accordance with section 772 of the Act. Because Vietnam is a nonmarket economy... Vietnam: Final Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 12726... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of...

  12. Prediction of melting temperatures in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedures using thermodynamic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Guimarães, Nuno; Wengel, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA hybridization, i.e. the process of self-assembly of one, two or more complementary nucleic acid strands, has been studied for many years. The appearance of the nearest-neighbor model led to several theoretical and experimental papers on DNA thermody......Abstract The thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA hybridization, i.e. the process of self-assembly of one, two or more complementary nucleic acid strands, has been studied for many years. The appearance of the nearest-neighbor model led to several theoretical and experimental papers on DNA...... thermodynamics that provide reasonably accurate thermodynamic information on nucleic acid duplexes and allow estimation of the melting temperature. Because there are no thermodynamic models specifically developed to predict the hybridization temperature of a probe used in a fluorescence in situ hybridization...

  13. Hybridization leads to sensory repertoire expansion in a gynogenetic fish, the Amazon molly (poecilia formosa): a test of the hybrid-sensory expansion hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandkam, Benjamin A; Joy, Jeffrey B; Watson, Corey T; Gonzalez-Bendiksen, Pablo; Gabor, Caitlin R; Breden, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Expansions in sensory systems usually require processes such as gene duplication and divergence, and thus evolve slowly. We evaluate a novel mechanism leading to rapid sensory repertoire expansion: hybrid-sensory expansion (HSE). HSE occurs when two species with differently tuned sensory systems form a hybrid, bringing together alleles from each of the parental species. In one generation, a sensory repertoire is created that is the sum of the variance between parental species. The Amazon molly presents a unique opportunity to test the HSE hypothesis in a "frozen" hybrid. We compared opsin sequences of the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, to those of the parental species. Both parental species are homozygous at the RH2-1 locus and each of the four long wavelength sensitive loci, while P. formosa possess two different alleles at these loci; one matching each parental allele. Gene expression analysis showed P. formosa use the expanded opsin repertoire that was the result of HSE. Additionally, behavioral tests revealed P. formosa respond to colored stimuli in a manner similar or intermediate to the parental species P. mexicana and P. latipinna. Together these results strongly support the HSE hypothesis. Hybrid-sensory repertoire expansion is likely important in other hybrid species and in other sensory systems.

  14. Hybrid transvaginal cholecystectomy, clinical results and patient-reported outcomes of 50 consecutive cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezem, P.B. van den; Velthuis, S.; Lourens, H.J.; Samlal, R.A.; Cuesta, M.A.; Sietses, C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the clinical and cosmetic results of transvaginal hybrid cholecystectomy (TVC). BACKGROUND: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has been developed as a minimal invasive alternative for conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Altho

  15. Wandering Fish Bone: a Case of Pelvic Abscess due to Rectum Perforation Resulting from an Accidental Fish Bone Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirous Abbasi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish bone is the most common foreign body that is ingested accidentally and can be caused gastrointestinal complications such as perforation, abstraction, and abscess. We describe a 75-year-old man who suffered from constipation, diarrhea, and fever and chills for 3 months. He had mild tenderness in hypogasteric region and also mild tenderness and swelling on anterior rectal wall and prostate upon clinical examination. The abdominal and pelvic sonography and CT scan findings suggested existence of abscess in the space of between bladder and rectum. The patient underwent laparotomy to drainage the pelvic abscess. The surgeon found a 6-cm fish bone which was embedded in the abscess. The presented case indicated the importance of accidental fish bone ingestion and its possible complications. In addition, the patients with abdominal pain, GI bleeding, and fever of unknown origin living in the seaside regions, the wandering fish bone as a differential diagnosis should be kept in mind.

  16. Trade-off results and preliminary designs of Near-Term Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program involved the development of preliminary designs of electric/heat engine hybrid passenger vehicles. The preliminary designs were developed on the basis of mission analysis, performance specification, and design trade-off studies conducted independently by four contractors. THe resulting designs involve parallel hybrid (heat engine/electric) propulsion systems with significant variation in component selection, power train layout, and control strategy. Each of the four designs is projected by its developer as having the potential to substitute electrical energy for 40% to 70% of the petroleum fuel consumed annually by its conventional counterpart.

  17. Hybrid Spectral Micro-CT: System Design, Implementation, and Preliminary Results

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, James R; Xu, Qiong; Yu, Hengyong; Walsh, Michael; Butler, Anthony; Butler, Phillip; Cao, Guohua; Mohs, Aaron; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    Spectral CT has proven an important development in biomedical imaging, and there have been several publications in the past years demonstrating its merits in pre-clinical and clinical applications. In 2012, Xu et al. reported that near-term implementation of spectral micro-CT could be enhanced by a hybrid architecture: a narrow-beam spectral "interior" imaging chain integrated with a traditional wide-beam "global" imaging chain. This hybrid integration coupled with compressive sensing (CS)-based interior tomography demonstrated promising results for improved contrast resolution, and decreased system cost and radiation dose. The motivation for the current study is implementation and evaluation of the hybrid architecture with a first-of-its-kind hybrid spectral micro-CT system. Preliminary results confirm improvements in both contrast and spatial resolution. This technology is shown to merit further investigation and potential application in future spectral CT scanner design.

  18. Phylogeny-function analysis of (meta)genomic libraries: screening for expression of ribosomal RNA genes by large-insert library fluorescent in situ hybridization (LIL-FISH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leveau, J.H.J.; Gerards, S.; De Boer, W.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the utility of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in the screening of clone libraries of (meta)genomic or environmental DNA for the presence and expression of bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. To establish proof-of-principle, we constructed a fosmid-based library in Escherichia

  19. BAP1 immunohistochemistry and p16 FISH results in combination provide higher confidence in malignant pleural mesothelioma diagnosis: ROC analysis of the two tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Tomoyuki; Hamasaki, Makoto; Matsumoto, Shinji; Sato, Ayuko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Iwasaki, Akinori; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Oda, Yoshinao; Honda, Hiroshi; Nabeshima, Kazuki

    2016-10-01

    Differentiation of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) from benign mesothelial proliferation remains problematic. Loss of nuclear staining of BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1; detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC)) and homozygous deletion (HD) of p16 (detected using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)) are useful for differentiation of MPM from reactive mesothelial hyperplasia (RMH), but the correlation between BAP1 expression loss and p16 HD has not been fully described. We performed BAP1 IHC and p16-specific FISH for 40 MPM and 20 RMH cases, and measured proportions of cells showing BAP1 expression and p16 HD for each case. The diagnostic accuracy for MPM and the cut-off values of the two methods were assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. BAP1 expression loss, p16 HD and coexistence of both were present in 27 (67.5 %), 27 (67.5 %) and 17 (42.5 %) MPM cases, respectively. Three MPM cases (7.5 %) and all 20 RMH cases had neither BAP1 loss nor p16 HD. There was no correlation between the results of the two methods. Their combination showed higher sensitivity (92.5 %, 37/40) and estimated probability than BAP1 IHC and p16-specific FISH used alone. BAP1 IHC and p16-specific FISH have independent diagnostic value, and have increased reliability when used in combination, for MPM diagnosis.

  20. New DAPI and FISH findings on egg maturation processes in related hybridogenetic and parthenogenetic Bacillus hybrids (Insecta, Phasmatodea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescalchi, O; Scali, V

    2001-10-01

    Bacillus stick insects have proved adequate for studying a wide array of reproductive modes: sexual, parthenogenetic, hybridogenetic, androgenetic. Hybridogenetic strains (B. rossius-grandii) were thought to discard the paternal "grandii" haploset during first meiotic division and keep the "rossius" hemiclone, whereas the clonal B. whitei (=rossius/grandii) would maintain its hybrid structure by fusing back two nonsister nuclei-each derived from previously segregated heterospecific complements-by the end of the 2(nd) meiotic division. New investigations on laid eggs and ovariole squashes, either DAPI stained or FISH labeled, revealed that in hybridogens the "grandii" set is excluded from the germ line prior to meiosis and that a DNA extra-synthesis should occur to produce hemiclonal eggs after two cytologically normal meiotic divisions. On the other hand, in B. whitei eggs no genome segregation appears to occur and an intrameiotic DNA extra-synthesis must take place to produce 2n tetrachromatidic oocytes I; these divide twice and give unreduced clonal eggs. The new findings bring hybridogenetic oogenesis of Bacillus to be coincident with that of the known hemiclonal organisms and point to an independent onset of B. whitei from hemiclonal strains. In addition, B. whitei gains a closer resemblance to B. lynceorum owing to the sharing of a cytologically identical egg maturation mechanism, of the same maternal ancestor and of peculiar chromosomal features. It is here suggested that B. lynceorum originated from the incorporation of an "atticus" genome into a B. whitei egg, according to a pathway of repeated hybridization often occurred with other polyploid hybrids.

  1. Comprehensive meiotic segregation analysis of a 4-breakpoint t(1;3;6) complex chromosome rearrangement using single sperm array comparative genomic hybridization and FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornak, Miroslav; Vozdova, Miluse; Musilova, Petra; Prinosilova, Petra; Oracova, Eva; Linkova, Vlasta; Vesela, Katerina; Rubes, Jiri

    2014-10-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR) represent rare structural chromosome abnormalities frequently associated with infertility. In this study, meiotic segregation in spermatozoa of an infertile normospermic carrier of a 4-breakpoint t(1;3;6) CCR was analysed. A newly developed array comparative genomic hybridization protocol was used, and all chromosomes in 50 single sperm cells were simultaneously examined. Three-colour FISH was used to analyse chromosome segregation in 1557 other single sperm cells. It was also used to measure an interchromosomal effect; sperm chromatin structure assay was used to measure chromatin integrity. A high-frequency of unbalanced spermatozoa (84%) was observed, mostly arising from the 3:3 symmetrical segregation mode. Array comparative genomic hybridization was used to detect additional aneuploidies in two out of 50 spermatozoa (4%) in chromosomes not involved in the complex chromosome rearrangement. Significantly increased rates of diploidy and XY disomy were found in the CCR carrier compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Defective condensation of sperm chromatin was also found in 22.7% of spermatozoa by sperm chromatin structure assay. The results indicate that the infertility in the man with CCR and normal spermatozoa was caused by a production of chromosomally unbalanced, XY disomic and diploid spermatozoa and spermatozoa with defective chromatin condensation.

  2. 76 FR 15941 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the Sixth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    .... Frozen whole dressed fish are deheaded, skinned, and eviscerated. Steaks are bone-in, cross- section cuts... final weighted-average margins are listed below in the ``Final Results of the Reviews'' section of this... Joint Stock Company (``CL-Fish''). \\12\\ See Memorandum to the file, from Alex Villanueva,...

  3. Existence results for a system of coupled hybrid fractional differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Ntouyas, Sotiris K; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the existence of solutions for a system of coupled hybrid fractional differential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. We make use of the standard tools of the fixed point theory to establish the main results. The existence and uniqueness result is elaborated with the aid of an example.

  4. Hybrid Gear Preliminary Results-Application of Composites to Dynamic Mechanical Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Roberts Gary D.; Sinnamon, R.; Stringer, David B.; Dykas, Brian D.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2012-01-01

    Composite spur gears were fabricated and then tested at NASA Glenn Research Center. The composite material served as the web of the gear between the gear teeth and a metallic hub for mounting to the torque-applying shaft. The composite web was bonded only to the inner and outer hexagonal features that were machined from an initially all-metallic aerospace quality spur gear. The Hybrid Gear was tested against an all-steel gear and against a mating Hybrid Gear. As a result of the composite to metal fabrication process used, the concentricity of the gears were reduced from their initial high-precision value. Regardless of the concentricity error, the hybrid gears operated successfully for over 300 million cycles at 10000 rpm and 490 in.*lbs torque. Although the design was not optimized for weight, the composite gears were found to be 20% lighter than the all-steel gears. Free vibration modes and vibration/noise tests were also conduct to compare the vibration and damping characteristic of the Hybrid Gear to all-steel gears. The initial results indicate that this type of hybrid design may have a dramatic effect on drive system weight without sacrificing strength.

  5. Interpopulation hybridization results in widespread viability selection across the genome in Tigriopus californicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zieba Jennifer T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic interactions within hybrids influence their overall fitness. Understanding the details of these interactions can improve our understanding of speciation. One experimental approach is to investigate deviations from Mendelian expectations (segregation distortion in the inheritance of mapped genetic markers. In this study, we used the copepod Tigriopus californicus, a species which exhibits high genetic divergence between populations and a general pattern of reduced fitness in F2 interpopulation hybrids. Previous studies have implicated both nuclear-cytoplasmic and nuclear-nuclear interactions in causing this fitness reduction. We identified and mapped population-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and used these to examine segregation distortion across the genome within F2 hybrids. Results We generated a linkage map which included 45 newly elucidated SNPs and 8 population-diagnostic microsatellites used in previous studies. The map, the first available for the Copepoda, was estimated to cover 75% of the genome and included markers on all 12 T. californicus chromosomes. We observed little segregation distortion in newly hatched F2 hybrid larvae (fewer than 10% of markers at p Conclusion Adult male F2 hybrids between two populations of T. californius exhibit dramatic segregation distortion across the genome. Distorted loci are clustered within specific linkage groups, and the direction of distortion differs between chromosomes. This segregation distortion is due to selection acting between hatching and adulthood.

  6. Identification of intracellular bacteria in adenoid and tonsil tissue specimens: the efficiency of culture versus fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępińska, M; Olszewska-Sosińska, O; Lau-Dworak, M; Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, B; Trafny, E A

    2014-01-01

    Monocyte/macrophage cells from human nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue can be a source of bacteria responsible for human chronic and recurrent upper respiratory tract infection. Detection and characterization of pathogens surviving intracellularly could be a key element in bacteriological diagnosis of the infections as well as in the study on interactions between bacteria and their host. The present study was undertaken to assess the possibility of isolation of viable bacteria from the cells expressing monocyte/macrophage marker CD14 in nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue. Overall, 74 adenotonsillectomy specimens (adenoids and tonsils) from 37 children with adenoid hypertrophy and recurrent infections as well as 15 specimens from nine children with adenoid hypertrophy, which do not suffer from upper respiratory tract infections (the control group), were studied. The suitability of immunomagnetic separation for extraction of CD14(+) cells from lymphoid tissue and for further isolation of the intracellular pathogens has been shown. The coexistence of living pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes with the bacteria representing normal nasopharyngeal microbiota inside CD14(+) cells was demonstrated. Twenty-four strains of these pathogens from 32.4 % of the lysates of CD14(+) cells were isolated. Concurrently, the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a universal EUB388, and the species-specific probes demonstrated twice more often the persistence of these bacterial species in the lysates of CD14(+) cells than conventional culture. Although the FISH technique appears to be more sensitive than traditional culture in the intracellular bacteria identification, the doubts on whether the bacteria are alive, and therefore, pathogenic would still exist without the strain cultivation.

  7. Standardisation of EGFR FISH in colorectal cancer: results of an international interlaboratory reproducibility ring study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Fieuws, Steffen; Veronese, Silvio; Moroni, Mauro; Personeni, Nicola; Frattini, Milo; Torri, Valter; Cappuzzo, Federico; Borght, Sara Vander; Martin, Vittoria; Skokan, Margaret; Santoro, Armando; Gambacorta, Marcello; Tejpar, Sabine; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Siena, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Aims Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy number evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) can discriminate among KRAS wild-type patients those with better outcome to EGFR-targeted therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer, further enhancing selection of patients. Nevertheless, enumeration of gene copies is challenging and the lack of analytical standardisation has limited incorporation of the test into the clinical practice. We therefore assessed EGFR FISH interlaboratory consensus among five molecular diagnostic reference centres. Methods A set of 12 colorectal cancer samples circulated among laboratories, and samples were scored according to commonly agreed guidelines. Reproducibility was quantified using the standard error of measurement (SEM). Results A SEM of 0.865 and a within-subject coefficient of variation (WSCV) of 26.8% for mean EGFR gene/nuclei and a SEM of 0.235 and a WSCV of 19.4% for the mean EGFR gene/CEP7 ratio were observed. Measurement of the fraction of cells displaying chromosome 7 polysomy showed WSCV of 46.6%, 34.0% and 51.0% for percentage of cells displaying ≤2, ≥3 and ≥4 EGFR signals, respectively. Among different slides of the same specimen, the WSCV was 6.1% for mean EGFR gene/nuclei and 3.9% for mean of EGFR gene/CEP7 ratios. Conclusions Molecular diagnosis of EGFR gene copy number by FISH varied largely among pathology centres, with fluctuations covering the whole range of proposed cut-offs of predictive usefulness from literature. Definition of a detailed scoring system and implementation of comprehensive training programmes for laboratories are therefore necessary before including the test into clinical practice. PMID:22130903

  8. Trisomy 10p resulting from an inv dup of 10p defined by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, S.J.; Easterling, T.R.; Leppig, K.A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    De novo cases of trisomy for the entire short arm of chromosome 10 are infrequently reported and are most commonly the result of translocation of 10p to an acrocentric chromosome. Most reported cases of trisomy 10p are not trisomy for the complete short arm of chromosome 10, but are duplication, deficiency syndromes that result from either inheritance of an unbalanced translocation from a parent possessing a balanced reciprocal translocation, or from a recombinant chromosome derived from a parental pericentric inversion of chromosome 10. Here, we report a case of a de novo trisomy 10p that resulted from an inverted duplication of the entire short arm of chromosome 10. A 42 year old G7,P5,SAB1 woman was referred for amniocentesis because of advanced maternal age. Ultrasound examination at 17 weeks demonstrated a fetus of normal size with no apparent anatomic abnormalities. Cytogenetic evaluation demonstrated one homologue of chromosome 10 had a tandem inverted duplication of the short arm. The fetal karyotype was interpreted to be 46,XX,inv dup (10) (peter-cen::cen-p15::q11-pter). Parental karyotype are normal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a chromosome 10 paint, chromosome 10 centromere, and all telomere probe, confirmed the inverted duplication involved the entire short arm of chromosome 10. Termination of pregnancy was performed at 20 weeks gestation. Autopsy revealed multiple anomalies including low-set posteriorly rotated ears, cleft of the soft palate, ocular hypertelorism, small upturned nose, agenesis of the gallbladder, sacral hemivertebrae, and abnormal flexion of the thumbs. The fetal karyotype was confirmed by cytogenetic analysis in lung and kidney. This is the second reported case of a de novo tandem duplication of 10p of which we are aware, and the first using FISH technology to characterize the abnormality.

  9. Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): A Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    Friedrich, U. & Lenke, J. Improved Enumeration of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Mesophilic Dairy Starter Cultures by Using Multiplex Quantitative Real...messenger RNA using locked nucleic acid probes. Anal. Biochem. 390, 109-114 (2009). 13. Waters, L. & Storz, G. Regulatory RNAs in bacteria . Cell. 136, 615...Video Article Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): a Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection Kelly

  10. Phylogeny-function analysis of (meta)genomic libraries: screening for expression of ribosomal RNA genes by large-insert library fluorescent in situ hybridization (LIL-FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveau, Johan H J; Gerards, Saskia; de Boer, Wietse; van Veen, Johannes A

    2004-09-01

    We assessed the utility of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in the screening of clone libraries of (meta)genomic or environmental DNA for the presence and expression of bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. To establish proof-of-principle, we constructed a fosmid-based library in Escherichia coli of large-sized genomic DNA fragments of the mycophagous soil bacterium Collimonas fungivorans, and hybridized 768 library clones with the Collimonas-specific fluorescent probe CTE998-1015. Critical to the success of this approach (which we refer to as large-insert library FISH or LIL-FISH) was the ability to induce fosmid copy number, the exponential growth status of library clones in the FISH assay and the use of a simple pooling strategy to reduce the number of hybridizations. Twelve out of 768 E. coli clones were suspected to harbour and express Collimonas 16S rRNA genes based on their hybridization to CTE998-1015. This was confirmed by the finding that all 12 clones were also identified in an independent polymerase chain reaction-based screening of the same 768 clones using a primer set for the specific detection of Collimonas 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Fosmids isolated from these clones were grouped by restriction analysis into two distinct contigs, confirming that C. fungivorans harbours at least two 16S rRNA genes. For one contig, representing 1-2% of the genome, the nucleotide sequence was determined, providing us with a narrow but informative view of Collimonas genome structure and content.

  11. Some Results of Three Fish Population Surveys of Lake Drummond in the Great Dismal Swamp of Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dismal Swamp has been gradually changing for about three hundred years as a result of the interest it has created in many people. Although it is not the purpose of...

  12. Distinguishing between incomplete lineage sorting and genomic introgressions: complete fixation of allospecific mitochondrial DNA in a sexually reproducing fish (Cobitis; Teleostei, despite clonal reproduction of hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Choleva

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between hybrid introgression and incomplete lineage sorting causing incongruence among gene trees in that they exhibit topological differences requires application of statistical approaches that are based on biologically relevant models. Such study is especially challenging in hybrid systems, where usual vectors mediating interspecific gene transfers--hybrids with Mendelian heredity--are absent or unknown. Here we study a complex of hybridizing species, which are known to produce clonal hybrids, to discover how one of the species, Cobitis tanaitica, has achieved a pattern of mito-nuclear mosaic genome over the whole geographic range. We appplied three distinct methods, including the method using solely the information on gene tree topologies, and found that the contrasting mito-nuclear signal might not have resulted from the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we found two signs of hybridization events related to C. tanaitica; one concerning nuclear gene flow and the other suggested mitochondrial capture. Interestingly, clonal inheritance (gynogenesis of contemporary hybrids prevents genomic introgressions and non-clonal hybrids are either absent or too rare to be detected among European Cobitis. Our analyses therefore suggest that introgressive hybridizations are rather old episodes, mediated by previously existing hybrids whose inheritance was not entirely clonal. Cobitis complex thus supports the view that the type of resulting hybrids depends on a level of genomic divergence between sexual species.

  13. Detection of Inter-chromosomal Stable Aberrations by Multiple Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (mFISH) and Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) in Irradiated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rupak; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2017-01-11

    Ionizing radiation (IR) induces numerous stable and unstable chromosomal aberrations. Unstable aberrations, where chromosome morphology is substantially compromised, can easily be identified by conventional chromosome staining techniques. However, detection of stable aberrations, which involve exchange or translocation of genetic materials without considerable modification in the chromosome morphology, requires sophisticated chromosome painting techniques that rely on in situ hybridization of fluorescently labeled DNA probes, a chromosome painting technique popularly known as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH probes can be specific for whole chromosome/s or precise sub-region on chromosome/s. The method not only allows visualization of stable aberrations, but it can also allow detection of the chromosome/s or specific DNA sequence/s involved in a particular aberration formation. A variety of chromosome painting techniques are available in cytogenetics; here two highly sensitive methods, multiple fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY), are discussed to identify inter-chromosomal stable aberrations that form in the bone marrow cells of mice after exposure to total body irradiation. Although both techniques rely on fluorescent labeled DNA probes, the method of detection and the process of image acquisition of the fluorescent signals are different. These two techniques have been used in various research areas, such as radiation biology, cancer cytogenetics, retrospective radiation biodosimetry, clinical cytogenetics, evolutionary cytogenetics, and comparative cytogenetics.

  14. [Evaluation of peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) method in the identifi cation of Candida species isolated from blood cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Gonca; Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Atalay, Mustafa Altay

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, increased number of patients who are hospitalized in intensive care units, received immunosuppressive therapy and treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics that can lead an increase in the incidence of systemic candidiasis. In these patients, the most common clinical manifestation is candidemia. Since the identification of Candida species isolated from blood cultures is time consuming by conventional (morphological and biochemical) methods, rapid, reliable and accurate methods are needed. For this purpose novel systems have been developed to identify the agent directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) method for the identification of Candida species by comparing with the conventional methods. A total of 50 patients who were admitted to Erciyes University Medical Faculty Hospital clinics and followed with prediagnosis of systemic fungal infections whose blood cultures were positive for the yeasts between July 2011 and July 2012 were included in the study. The conventional identification of Candida isolates was performed by considering macroscopic and microscopic morphology, germ tube test, cycloheximide sensitivity, urease activity and carbohydrate assimilation patterns with API 20C AUX (bioMerieux, France) test. PNA FISH method was conducted by the use of a commercial kit namely Yeast Traffic Light(®) PNA FISH (AdvanDx, USA). According to morphological and biochemical characteristics (conventional methods), 19 (38%) out of 50 Candida isolates were identified as C.albicans, 12 (24%) as C.glabrata, five (10%) as C.parapsilosis, five (10%) as C.kefyr, four (8%) as C.krusei, two (4%) as C.guilliermondii, two (4%) as C.tropicalis and one (2%) as C.lusitaniae. On the other hand, 24 (48%) of the isolates were identified as C.albicans/C.parapsilosis (with green fluorescence), 16 (32%) as C.glabrata/C.krusei (with red fluorescence) and one (%2) as C.tropicalis (with yellow

  15. Terminology of gonadal anomalies in fish and amphibians resulting from chemical exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Markus; Murphy, Margaret B; Coady, Katherine K; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Jones, Paul D; Carr, James A; Solomon, Keith R; Smith, Ernest E; Van Der Kraak, Glen; Gross, Timothy; Du Preez, Louis; Kendall, Ronald J; Giesy, John P

    2006-01-01

    Given the recent increase in the number of studies describing the ability of chemicals to exert endocrine-disrupting effects, not only in fish but in a variety of other oviparous groups such as amphibians and reptiles, there is an urgent need to harmonize the terminology currently used in describing pathological changes of the gonads. In addition to difficulties in comparing results from different studies, there is also the risk of miscommunication by using terms that imply a certain clinical relevance which may not be true for the species examined. Especially in the case of the recent and controversial issue about potential effects of the triazine herbicide atrazine on amphibians, clinical terminology has been utilized beyond its true meaning by using terms such as "chemical castration" to describe occurrence of TOs or ovarian tissue in the testis of male frogs exposed to environmental chemicals (Hayes 2004). In clinical terminology, castration is defined as the removal of the gonads or their destruction by an external influence, resulting in a nonfertile organism. However, Hayes (2004) did not investigate any possible effects on the fertility of the test animals and thus did not know if these animals were truly castrated. Similarly, terms such as intersex, hermaphrodite, and sex reversal have been used in ways that appear inappropriate with regard to their clinical meaning in a series of different studies with fish or frogs (see previous sections for a detailed discussion). To ensure the appropriate use of certain terminology in a field as controversial and complex as the study of endocrine disruption, we have attempted, in this chapter, to harmonize the terminology used to describe changes in gonadal development of vertebrates such as fish and amphibians, especially frogs (see Table 3). Where appropriate, the terminology suggested was adopted directly from the clinical terminology. However, as outlined here there are substantial differences between the

  16. Breaking the host range: mandarin fish is susceptible to a vesiculovirus derived from snakehead fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodan; Wen, Yi; Hu, Xianqin; Wang, Wenwen; Liang, Xufang; Li, Jun; Vakharia, Vikram; Lin, Li

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Vesiculovirus, which belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae, can cause great economic loss in fish culture. In the present report, a vesiculovirus [named snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV)] was isolated from diseased hybrid snakehead fish. SHVV shared 94 % nucleotide sequence identity at the genomic level with Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV), which infects mandarin fish (S. chuatsi). We showed that SHVV was able to replicate and proliferate well in SSN-1 cells, which originate from striped snakehead fish (Channa striatus). Furthermore, mandarin fish was susceptible to SHVV by bath exposure, as well as by intraperitoneal injection. The infected fish showed typical clinical signs of rhabdovirus infection, including haemorrhage and oedema. Histopathological analysis revealed that extensive inflammation and necrosis were observed in the spleen, kidney, liver, heart and brain of the moribund mandarin fish. These results will shed new light on the epidemic of vesiculovirus infections among fish.

  17. Fuel consumption analysis of diesel-electric hybrid system of fishing boat%渔船柴电混合动力系统油耗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建军; 李胜勇

    2016-01-01

    为了探索海洋渔船推进系统的节油减排,以一艘安装有柴电混合动力系统,成功实现节能减排的金枪鱼延绳钓船为例,通过剖析柴电混合动力系统的结构,柴油机理论负荷特性,结合渔船实际使用情况,分析其节能原因。结果显示,渔船柴电混合动力系统在使用过程中,可根据工况需要,随意切换常规动力与电力推进系统;通过选择合理的主机工况,提高柴油机输出效率,降低柴油机油耗率;综合各种工况,能节油15%以上。研究表明,现阶段在金枪鱼延绳钓渔船上使用混合动力技术是可行的,能起到节能减排的作用。在核心技术不变的情况下,运用一些创新技术手段,如采用多机多桨拆分系统,赋予系统更高的智能调配作用,可以把混合动力系统推广到拖网渔船和围网渔船上。%In order to explore the energy conservation performance of ocean fishing boat propulsion systems,in this paper,a tuna longline vessel that has realized energy-saving and emission-reducing was taken as an example to analyze the reasons behind,through probing into the structure of its diesel-electric hybrid system, engine load characteristics and the actual using conditions of the vessel. The results showed that the diesel-electric hybrid system of the vessel in use can easily switch between the conventional power and the electricity propulsion systems in accordance with the actual working conditions; by selecting the reasonable working conditions of the main engine,the output efficiency of the diesel engine could thus be improved and the diesel fuel consumption rate decreased,and considering the various working conditions,the system could save energy by more than 15%.The research showed that,at present,using hybrid power technology in tuna longline vessels is feasible and can play a role in energy conservation. With the core technology remaining the same and by adopting some

  18. RESULTS OF SUGAR BEET PRODUCTION DEPENDING ON THE HYBRIDS SELECTION AND THE NUMBER OF FUNGICIDE APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kristek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the production values of 10 sugar beet hybrids was conducted on chernozem soil type in Eastern Croatia (Tovarniklocation. The used treatments with and without fungicides application were investigated in 2013 and 2014. Sugar beet hybrids used in the study originate from three market-leading sugar beet seed companies in Croatia, whose varieties provide disease tolerance to C. beticola. The years of the study were quite warm with higher mean monthly air temperature (°C and increased amount of rainfall, as compared to the long-term mean. In the second year of the study, due to increased amount of rainfall (mm in July and August, as well as the total loss ofstrobilurin efficiency and low effectiveness ofthe cyproconazole treatment, the destruction ofthe leaves by C. beticola Sacc. was significantly higher. The results of the study showed a huge coherence of sugar beet yield and quality with leaf conservation through the vegetation (the number of treatment, and with the hybrids. Due to leaves destruction on control treatments, as compared to fungicide application three times, the sugar beet root yield was reduced on the average by 9.79 t ha'1 (10.03%, sugar content by 0.69% (rel. 4.89% and sugar yield by 2.041 ha1 (17.04%. On the other hand, three fungicide applications increased the root yield by 4.881 ha1 (5.26%, sugar content by 0.52% and sugar yield by 0.99 t ha1 (9.01% as compared to one fungicide application. All sugar beet hybrids of the study were strongly negatively affected the control treatment, indicating repeated fungicide application against C. beticola as a regular agricultural practices. On the average, for all variations of fungicides applications, the sugar beet hybrid Jadranka had significantly higher root yield in comparison with other hybrids included in the study. Moreover, the highest sugar content achieved Sandor, Marianka and Kundera. Significantly higher sugar yield had a hybrid Jadranka.

  19. Generic advertising for fish: Results from a research-based campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2000-01-01

    Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish......, and actual consumption frequencies. In the pre-campaign survey (effective N =641), significant determinants of consumption frequency were availability in shops, meal preparation skills, and intentions to buy fresh fish. Consistent with the intended effects of the campaign, availabiity in shops and meal...... preparation skills lost their influence in the post-campaign survey (effective N = 523). Instead, family norms were the only direct as well as indirect (mediated by intention to buy) influences on consumption frequency. Mean levels of intention to buy and consumption frequency were significantly higher after...

  20. Generic advertising for fish: Results from a research-based campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2000-01-01

    , and actual consumption frequencies. In the pre-campaign survey (effective N =641), significant determinants of consumption frequency were availability in shops, meal preparation skills, and intentions to buy fresh fish. Consistent with the intended effects of the campaign, availabiity in shops and meal......Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish...... preparation skills lost their influence in the post-campaign survey (effective N = 523). Instead, family norms were the only direct as well as indirect (mediated by intention to buy) influences on consumption frequency. Mean levels of intention to buy and consumption frequency were significantly higher after...

  1. Chromosomal imbalances in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a meta-analysis of comparative genomic hybridization results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ping

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a highly prevalent disease in Southeast Asia and its prevalence is clearly affected by genetic background. Various theories have been suggested for its high incidence in this geographical region but to these days no conclusive explanation has been identified. Chromosomal imbalances identifiable through comparative genomic hybridization may shed some light on common genetic alterations that may be of relevance to the onset and progression of NPC. Review of the literature, however, reveals contradictory results among reported findings possibly related to factors associated with patient selection, stage of disease, differences in methodological details etc. To increase the power of the analysis and attempt to identify commonalities among the reported findings, we performed a meta-analysis of results described in NPC tissues based on chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization (CGH. This meta-analysis revealed consistent patters in chromosomal abnormalities that appeared to cluster in specific "hot spots" along the genome following a stage-dependent progression.

  2. Numbers and locations of native bacteria on field-grown wheat roots quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Michelle; Hugenholtz, Philip; White, Rosemary; Vinall, Kerry

    2006-05-01

    Native bacteria, Pseudomonas and filamentous bacteria were quantified and localized on wheat roots grown in the field using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Seminal roots were sampled through the season from unploughed soil in a conservation farming system. Such soils are spatially heterogeneous, and many roots grow slowly through hard soil with cracks and pores containing dead roots remnant from previous crops. Root and rhizosphere morphology, and contact with soil particles were preserved, and autofluorescence was avoided by observing sections in the far-red with Cy5 and Cy5.5 fluorochromes. Spatial analyses showed that bacteria were embedded in a stable matrix (biofilm) within 11 microm of the root surface (range 2-30 microm) and were clustered on 40% of roots. Half the clusters co-located with axial grooves between epidermal cells, soil particles, cap cells or root hairs; the other half were not associated with visible features. Across all wheat roots, although variable, bacteria averaged 15.4 x 10(5) cells per mm(3) rhizosphere, and of these, Pseudomonas and filaments comprised 10% and 4%, respectively, with minor effects of sample time, and no effect of plant age. Root caps were most heavily colonized by bacteria along roots, and elongation zones least heavily colonized. Pseudomonas varied little with root development and were 17% of bacteria on the elongation zone. Filamentous bacteria were not found on the elongation zone. The most significant factor to rhizosphere populations along a wheat root, however, was contact with dead root remnants, where Pseudomonas were reduced but filaments increased to 57% of bacteria (P < 0.001). This corresponded with analyses of root remnants showing they were heavily colonized by bacteria, with 48% filaments (P < 0.001) and 1.4%Pseudomonas (P = 0.014). Efforts to manage rhizosphere bacteria for sustainable agricultural systems should continue to focus on root cap and mucilage chemistry, and remnant roots as

  3. Regulation of the fishing activities in the lagoon of Venice, Italy: Results from a socio-economic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Silvestri, Silvia; Pellizzato, Michele; Boatto, Vasco

    2008-10-01

    In the last years, the overall fish industry in the lagoon of Venice has shown a gradual decline. In order to better understand this process, we carry out a socio-economic questionnaire next to the fisherman population. Questionnaire contains significant qualitative and quantitative data that allow us to evaluate the social and the cultural profile of the respondents, including information with respect to the different technological fishing characteristics involved, type and amount of the species harvested as well as the overall productivity of the activity. Furthermore, the questionnaire contains an economic valuation exercise so as to assess in monetary terms the preferences of the fishermen with respect to different alternative policy options that may characterize a future regulation of this economic activity. Estimation results show that fishermen welcome any regulation initiative that is characterized by: (1) banning all fishing activities during the night, (2) allocating fishing concessions areas to each fishermen in a way that minimize the distance between the fishing area and the harbor, and (3) by introducing of a labeling mechanism that certifies the origin of the product. Moreover, the underlying economic valuation mechanism reveals to sensitive to respondent's motivational profile, including the overall trust and confidence that fisherman community places on the current institutional bodies. This result reveals to be of particular significance when attempting the design of an efficient, widely supported regulation of the fishing activity in the lagoon of Venice.

  4. Nonlinear Analysis and Preliminary Testing Results of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2015-01-01

    A large test article was recently designed, analyzed, fabricated, and successfully tested up to the representative design ultimate loads to demonstrate that stiffened composite panels with through-the-thickness reinforcement are a viable option for the next generation large transport category aircraft, including non-conventional configurations such as the hybrid wing body. This paper focuses on finite element analysis and test data correlation of the hybrid wing body center section test article under mechanical, pressure and combined load conditions. Good agreement between predictive nonlinear finite element analysis and test data is found. Results indicate that a geometrically nonlinear analysis is needed to accurately capture the behavior of the non-circular pressurized and highly-stressed structure when the design approach permits local buckling.

  5. Linking fish and fluid behavior: Results from a physical model of turbulence and bioenergetics around large wood in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, D. D.; Walter, C.

    2013-12-01

    The re-introduction of large woody debris into streams and rivers for restoration purposes is rapidly growing, yet detailed, quantitative study linking the hydraulics around and fish use of large wood is lacking. This presentation summarizes the methods and results of a 1:1 scale physical model of a meander and a full channel jam, including observations of the flow field and fish behavior around the wood. Velocity measurements were made with an array of ADVs at 0.1m spacing. The flow field was analyzed to map hydraulic regions around the wood and characterize the location, circulation patterns, turbulent length scales, and turbulence intensities of dominant flow structures. Underwater videogrammetry was conducted using wild, juvenile steelhead and coho to 1) identify patches of salmonid use of the wood, 2) establish orientation of the fish relative to the flow field, 3) document tailbeat frequencies and focal point velocities, and 4) investigate the percent of time fish expend avoiding predation, foraging, and resting in regions of hydraulic refuge under and around the wood. Results indicate that four primary flow fields develop. In the first, flow is concentrated in a jet through the wood structure, where downstream velocities, turbulence intensities, and total energy are highest. Downstream of the wood, flow expansion results in three hydraulic regions, characterized by a) a large eddy of length scale equivalent to approximately one-half of the wetted channel width, b) a lower velocity, downstream oriented core, and c) an interface of strong hydraulic gradients between the eddy and downstream flow. Fish were predominantly observed in two locations. As expected, fish generally avoided the jet directly, but were observed seeking cover under a log located in an area of rapid flow on the downstream portion of the jet. The fish were also observed hiding and resting in the eddy downstream of the log, with little to no evidence of the expected movement into higher

  6. Finite Element Analysis and Test Results Comparison for the Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the comparison of test measurements and predictive finite element analysis results for a hybrid wing body center section test article. The testing and analysis efforts were part of the Airframe Technology subproject within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. Test results include full field displacement measurements obtained from digital image correlation systems and discrete strain measurements obtained using both unidirectional and rosette resistive gauges. Most significant results are presented for the critical five load cases exercised during the test. Final test to failure after inflicting severe damage to the test article is also documented. Overall, good comparison between predicted and actual behavior of the test article is found.

  7. Hybrid wind diesel system for a village in the Canary Islands. Operation results and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, I.; Arribas, L.; Gonzalez, A. [CIEMAT-IER, Madrid (Spain)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The first release from the operation data from the Hybrid Wind Diesel System carried-out one year ago in Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) are available. In this paper the results of the detailed analysis are presented, concerning the impact of the parameters from the different systems in the whole system. The performance of the operation strategy is demonstrated with computational results. Comparisons between different function modes are also included. These results show that the feasibility of the project is essentially affected by the wind energy penetration and by the reliability of the system. Finally, system energy balances will be given. (Author)

  8. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and sequential catalysed reporter deposition (2C-FISH for the flow cytometric sorting of freshwater ultramicrobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M Neuenschwander

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometric sorting is a powerful tool to physically separate cells within mixed microbial communities. If combined with phylogenetic staining (fluorescence in situ hybridization, FISH it allows to specifically sort defined genotypic microbial populations from complex natural samples. However, the targeted enrichment of freshwater ultramicrobacteria, such as members of the LD12 clade of Alphaproteobacteria (SAR11-IIIb, is still challenging. Current FISH protocols, even in combination with signal amplification by catalysed reporter deposition (CARD, are not sufficiently sensitive for the distinction of these bacteria from background noise by flow cytometry, presumably due to their low ribosome content and small cell sizes. We, therefore, modified a CARD based flow sorting protocol with the aim of increasing its sensitivity to a level sufficient for ultramicrobacteria. This was achieved by a second signal amplification step mediated by horseradish peroxidase labelled antibodies targeted to the fluorophores that were previously deposited by CARD-FISH staining. The protocol was tested on samples from an oligo-mesotrophic lake. Ultramicrobacteria affiliated with LD12 Alphaproteobacteria could be successfully sorted to high purity by flow cytometry. The ratios of median fluorescence signal to background ranged around 20, and hybridization rates determined by flow cytometry were comparable to those obtained by fluorescence microscopy. Potential downstream applications of our modified cell staining approach range from the analysis of microdiversity within 16S rRNA-defined populations to that of functional properties, such as the taxon-specific incorporation rates of organic substrates.

  9. Nitrifying bacterial communities in an aquaculture wastewater treatment system using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), 16S rRNA gene cloning, and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paungfoo, Chanyarat; Prasertsan, Poonsuk; Burrell, Paul C; Intrasungkha, Nugul; Blackall, Linda L

    2007-07-01

    Aquaculture, especially shrimp farming, has played a major role in the growth of Thailand's economy in recent years, as well as in many South East Asian countries. However, the nutrient discharges from these activities have caused adverse impacts on the quality of the receiving waterways. In particular nitrogenous compounds, which may accumulate in aquaculture ponds, can be toxic to aquatic animals and cause environmental problems such as eutrophication. The mineralization process is well known, but certain aspects of the microbial ecology of nitrifiers, the microorganisms that convert ammonia to nitrate, are poorly understood. A previously reported enrichment of nitrifying bacteria (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB)) from a shrimp farm inoculated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was studied by molecular methods. The initial identification and partial quantification of the nitrifying bacteria (AOB and NOB) were carried out by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using previously published 16S rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probes. The two dominant bacterial groups detected by FISH were from the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides and Proteobacteria (beta subdivision) phyla. Published FISH probes for Nitrobacter and Nitrospira did not hybridize to any of the bacterial cells. Therefore it is likely that new communities of NOBs, differing from previously reported ones, exist in the enrichments. Molecular genetic techniques (cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis) targeting the 16S rRNA genes from the nitrifying enrichments were performed to identify putative AOBs and NOBs.

  10. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  11. Mercury in fish and adverse reproductive outcomes: results from South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Burch, James B.; Wagner Robb, Sara; Puett, Robin; Cai, Bo; Wilkerson, Rebecca; Karmaus, Wilfried; Vena, John; Svendsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a metal with widespread distribution in aquatic ecosystems and significant neurodevelopmental toxicity in humans. Fish biomonitoring for total mercury has been conducted in South Carolina (SC) since 1976, and consumption advisories have been posted for many SC waterways. However, there is limited information on the potential reproductive impacts of mercury due to recreational or subsistence fish consumption. Methods To address this issue, geocoded residential locations f...

  12. speciation through asexuality in fish: postzygotic reproductive isolation may be completed in spite of fertility of hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Janko

    2015-12-01

    Altogether, it appears that initiation of hybrid asexuality and the completion of speciation process through formation of postRIMs are interconnected phenomena. Both processes are linked to the genetic divergence of hybridizing taxa: initially, hybridization between little diverged species leads to recombinant and fertile hybrids allowing intensive gene flow. As the hybridizing taxa continue to diverge, clonally reproducing hybrid females and sterile males become dominant and the gene flow ceases. The speciation may therefore be completed through asexuality of hybrids The work was supported by grant no. 13-12580S provided by the Czech Science Foundation (www.gacr.cz. Further support was provided by the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (www.cas.cz by the grant no. RVO 67985904

  13. Amplified RNA degradation in T7-amplification methods results in biased microarray hybridizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivell Richard

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amplification of RNA with the T7-System is a widely used technique for obtaining increased amounts of RNA starting from limited material. The amplified RNA (aRNA can subsequently be used for microarray hybridizations, warranting sufficient signal for image analysis. We describe here an amplification-time dependent degradation of aRNA in prolonged standard T7 amplification protocols, that results in lower average size aRNA and decreased yields. Results A time-dependent degradation of amplified RNA (aRNA could be observed when using the classical "Eberwine" T7-Amplification method. When the amplification was conducted for more than 4 hours, the resulting aRNA showed a significantly smaller size distribution on gel electrophoresis and a concomitant reduction of aRNA yield. The degradation of aRNA could be correlated to the presence of the T7 RNA Polymerase in the amplification cocktail. The aRNA degradation resulted in a strong bias in microarray hybridizations with a high coefficient of variation and a significant reduction of signals of certain transcripts, that seem to be susceptible to this RNA degrading activity. The time-dependent degradation of these transcripts was verified by a real-time PCR approach. Conclusions It is important to perform amplifications not longer than 4 hours as there is a characteristic 'quality vs. yield' situation for longer amplification times. When conducting microarray hybridizations it is important not to compare results obtained with aRNA from different amplification times.

  14. Dietary intake of Deepwater Horizon oil-injected live food fish by double-crested cormorants resulted in oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsos, Karen L; Perez, Cristina R; Muthumalage, Thivanka; Dean, Karen M; Cacela, Dave; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Cunningham, Fred; Bursian, Steven J; Link, Jane E; Shriner, Susan; Horak, Katherine; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-07-05

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill released 134 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico making it the largest oil spill in US history and exposing fish, birds, and marine mammals throughout the Gulf of Mexico to its toxicity. Fish eating waterbirds such as the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) were exposed to the oil both by direct contact with the oil and orally through preening and the ingestion of contaminated fish. This study investigated the effects of orally ingestedMC252 oil-contaminated live fish food by double-crested cormorants on oxidative stress. Total, reduced, and oxidized glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation were assessed in the liver tissues of control and treated cormorants. The results suggest that ingestion of the oil-contaminated fish resulted in significant increase in oxidative stress in the liver tissues of these birds. The oil-induced increase in oxidative stress could have detrimental impacts on the bird's life-history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Hybrid Model Ranking Search Result for Research Paper Searching on Social Bookmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pijitra jomsri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social bookmarking and publication sharing systems are essential tools for web resource discovery. The performance and capabilities of search results from research paper bookmarking system are vital. Many researchers use social bookmarking for searching papers related to their topics of interest. This paper proposes a combination of similarity based indexing “tag title and abstract” and static ranking to improve search results. In this particular study, the year of the published paper and type of research paper publication are combined with similarity ranking called (HybridRank. Different weighting scores are employed. The retrieval performance of these weighted combination rankings are evaluated using mean values of NDCG. The results suggest that HybridRank and similarity rank with weight 75:25 has the highest NDCG scores. From the preliminary result of experiment, the combination ranking technique provide more relevant research paper search results. Furthermore the chosen heuristic ranking can improve the efficiency of research paper searching on social bookmarking websites.

  16. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH screening for the 22q11.2 deletion in patients with clinical features of velocardiofacial syndrome but without cardiac anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sandrin-Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, a condition associated with 22q11.2 deletions, is characterized by a typical facies, palatal anomalies, learning disabilities, behavioral disturbances and cardiac defects. We investigated the frequency of these chromosomal deletions in 16 individuals with VCFS features who presented no cardiac anomalies, one of the main characteristics of VCFS. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with the N25 (D22S75; 22q11.2 probe revealed deletions in ten individuals (62%. Therefore, even in the absence of cardiac anomalies testing for the 22q11.2 microdeletions in individuals showing other clinical features of this syndrome is recommended.

  17. Simulation and experimental results of hybrid electric machine with a novel flux control strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paplicki Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents selected simulation and experimental results of a hybrid ECPMS-machine (Electric Controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine. This permanent magnets (PMs excited machine offers an extended magnetic field control capability which makes it suitable for battery electric vehicle (BEV drives. Rotor, stator and the additional direct current control coil of the machine are analyzed in detail. The control system and strategy, the diagram of power supply system and an equivalent circuit model of the ECPMS-machine are presented. Influence of the additional excitation on the performance parameters of the machine, such as: torque, efficiency, speed limits and back-EMF have also been discussed.

  18. Results of the Gore Hybrid Vascular Graft in Challenging Aortic Branch Revascularization during Complex Aneurysm Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Krause, Benjamin; Wipper, Sabine; Diener, Holger; Kölbel, Tilo; Debus, E Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    Prolonged organ ischemia during complex aortic surgery is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A novel hybrid graft (Gore Hybrid Vascular Graft) as composite of expanded polytetrafluorethylene vascular prosthesis that has a section reinforced with nitinol was investigated for feasibility and effectiveness during aortic repair. Retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients treated with the hybrid vascular graft (HVG). Indication for graft implantation was surgeon's preference for branch revascularization in challenging aortic repair. Within 26 months, 25 Gore HVGs and 17 conventional grafts were implanted in 12 patients (age, 73 years; range, 33-79 years, 8 men). Eleven patients were treated for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms and one for aortoiliac aneurysm (elective = 6, urgent = 6). Nine visceral debranching procedures, 2 Crawford procedures, and 1 repair of an internal iliac aneurysm were performed. The distribution of HVG use was left renal artery = 10, right renal artery = 9, superior mesenteric artery = 4, celiac trunk = 1, and internal iliac artery = 1. Time to restore visceral blood flow during visceral debranching was 7 ± 4 min for the Gore HVG vs. 12 ± 6 min for conventional grafts (P Gore HVG offers a new, simplified, and time-sparing technique for visceral anastomoses during complex aneurysm repair. However, long-term results are still lacking and need to be awaited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Terminology of Gonadal Anomalies in Fish and Amphibians Resulting from Chemical Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the terms that have been used to describe various types of gonadal deformities and lesions in amphibians and fish, identifies the body of literature that has reported effects on gonad morphology/histology, and suggests a standardized set of terms and definition...

  20. Terminology of Gonadal Anomalies in Fish and Amphibians Resulting from Chemical Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the terms that have been used to describe various types of gonadal deformities and lesions in amphibians and fish, identifies the body of literature that has reported effects on gonad morphology/histology, and suggests a standardized set of terms and definition...

  1. Different surrounding landscapes may result in different fish assemblages in East African seagrass beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbosch, M.; Grol, M.G.G.; Nagelkerken, I.; Velde, G. van der

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have considered how seagrass fish assemblages are influenced by surrounding habitats. This information is needed for a better understanding of the connectivity between tropical coastal ecosystems. To study the effects of surrounding habitats on the composition, diversity and densities of

  2. Measuring the economic value of alternative clam fishing management practices in the Venice Lagoon: results from a conjoint valuation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Rossetto, Luca; de Blaeij, Arianne

    2004-11-01

    This article focuses on the economic valuation of alternative clam management practices in the Venice Lagoon. The proposed valuation method is characterized by the design of a survey questionnaire applied to the fishermen population. In each questionnaire, two fishing alternatives are described. The respondent is asked to choose one of them. This valuation method, referred in the article as conjoint valuation, gives sufficient flexibility to set, alter, and combine the valuation of different clam management practices. Furthermore, this approach presents an important advantage to the well-known contingent valuation method since it makes the monetary valuation of each management attribute possible. Estimation results show that all three attributes used in the questionnaire to describe and value different clam management practices—price of the annual permit and fishing technological system—are statistically robust, indicating that fishermen bear a utility change whenever these attributes change. In particular, fishermen's willingness to pay for a larger clam fishing area ranges between 568 and 811 € per year. In addition, an individual's willingness to pay for a fishing practice exclusively based on the vibrant rake system ranges between 1005 and 2456 €. Finally, the adoption of a clam fish management practice in the Venice Lagoon that is exclusively based on the use of manual rakes, which is associated with the lowest damage to the lagoon ecosystem, will represent a welfare loss of 5904 € per fisherman per year. Combining such a value estimate with the total number of fishermen currently operating in the Lagoon of Venice, the welfare loss associated with the adoption of this type of clam management policy amounts to 11.8 € million per year. This figure can be regarded as an upper bound to the cost of implementation of a clam fishing system anchored in the use of manual, ecosystem friendly rakes.

  3. Insights into food preference in hybrid F1 of Siniperca chuatsi (♀) × Siniperca scherzeri (♂) mandarin fish through transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Sun, Jian; Li, Ling; Yu, Ying; Huang, Wei; Qu, Chun-Mei; Cao, Liang; Bai, Xiao-Li; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2013-09-05

    As economically relevant traits, feeding behavior and food preference domestication determine production cost and profitability. Although there are intensive research efforts on feeding behavior and food intake, little is known about food preference. Mandarin fish accept only live prey fish and refuse dead prey fish or artificial diets. Very little is currently known about the genes regulating this unique food preference. Using transcriptome sequencing and digital gene expression profiling, we identified 1,986 and 4,526 differentially expressed genes in feeders and nonfeeders of dead prey fish, respectively. Up-regulation of Crbp, Rgr and Rdh8, and down-regulation of Gc expression, consistent with greater visual ability in feeders, could promote positive phototaxis. Altered expressions of period, casein kinase and Rev-erbα might reset circadian phase. Down-regulation of orexigenic and up-regulation of anorexigenic genes in feeders were associated with lower appetite. The mRNA levels of Creb, c-fos, C/EBP, zif268, Bdnf and Syt were dramatically decreased in feeders, which might result in significant deficiency in memory retention of its natural food preference (live prey fish). There were roughly 100 times more potential SNPs in feeders than in nonfeeders. In summary, differential expression in the genes identified shed new light on why mandarin fish only feed on live prey fish, with pathways regulating retinal photosensitivity, circadian rhythm, appetite control, learning and memory involved. We also found dramatic difference in SNP abundance in feeders vs nonfeeders. These differences together might account for the different food preferences. Elucidating the genes regulating the unique food preference (live prey fish) in mandarin fish could lead to a better understanding of mechanisms controlling food preference in animals, including mammals.

  4. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Hugo B; Feldheim, Kevin A; Jones, Geoffrey P; Ma, Kayan; Mansour, Hicham; Perumal, Sadhasivam; Williamson, David H; Berumen, Michael L

    2014-06-01

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species.

  5. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, H.B.

    2014-04-24

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. 2014 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Further Tests of Changes in Fish Escape Behavior Resulting from Sublethal Stresses Associated with Hydroelectric Turbine Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, M.G.

    2004-10-20

    and another 70 under control conditions (either transferred from the holding tank or injected into the Alden loop downstream of turbine). The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a startle response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of the maximum C-shape, time to completion of the C-shape, completeness of the C-shape, direction of turn, and degree of turn. The data were evaluated for statistical significance and patterns of response were identified. The most immediate measure of potential changes in fish behavior was whether test and control fish exhibited a startle response. Unlike earlier studies, there was no significant difference among the treatment group and the controls for startle response. The majority of rainbow trout in all groups responded to the startle stimulus. There were however, significant differences in some of the particular aspects of the subsequent escape behavior. The time to first reaction, the duration of the reaction, and the times associated with maximum C-shape formation were all significantly different between the tank controls and the two groups of fish injected into the Alden turbine loop. There were no significant differences in behavioral responses between the trout passed through the turbine runner and those injected downstream of the runner. Other behavioral parameters, such as C-shape completeness ratio, were not significantly affected. The effect of the Alden turbine loop on some aspects of the escape behavior suggest that the process of movement through the system is important, but that the role of the added stress, if any, of passage through the turbine runner is minimal. It may be important that statistically significant differences in timing of phases of the startle response were detected, even though the majority of stressed fish still exhibited the startle response. This is in contrast to earlier studies, where timing of phases of the

  7. A Synthesis of Hybrid RANS/LES CFD Results for F-16XL Aircraft Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckring, James M.; Park, Michael A.; Hitzel, Stephan M.; Jirasek, Adam; Lofthouse, Andrew J.; Morton, Scott A.; McDaniel, David R.; Rizzi, Arthur M.

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis is presented of recent numerical predictions for the F-16XL aircraft flow fields and aerodynamics. The computational results were all performed with hybrid RANS/LES formulations, with an emphasis on unsteady flows and subsequent aerodynamics, and results from five computational methods are included. The work was focused on one particular low-speed, high angle-of-attack flight test condition, and comparisons against flight-test data are included. This work represents the third coordinated effort using the F-16XL aircraft, and a unique flight-test data set, to advance our knowledge of slender airframe aerodynamics as well as our capability for predicting these aerodynamics with advanced CFD formulations. The prior efforts were identified as Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project International, with the acronyms CAWAPI and CAWAPI-2. All information in this paper is in the public domain.

  8. Alterations in gill structure in tropical reef fishes as a result of elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, A J; Gardiner, N M; Couturier, C S; Stecyk, J A W; Nilsson, G E; Munday, P L; Rummer, J L

    2014-09-01

    Tropical regions are expected to be some of the most affected by rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs) because seasonal temperature variations are minimal. As temperatures rise, less oxygen dissolves in water, but metabolic requirements of fish and thus, the demand for effective oxygen uptake, increase. Gill remodelling is an acclimation strategy well documented in freshwater cyprinids experiencing large seasonal variations in temperature and oxygen as well as an amphibious killifish upon air exposure. However, no study has investigated whether tropical reef fishes remodel their gills to allow for increased oxygen demands at elevated temperatures. We tested for gill remodelling in five coral reef species (Acanthochromis polyacanthus, Chromis atripectoralis, Pomacentrus moluccensis, Dascyllus melanurus and Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus) from populations in northern Papua New Guinea (2° 35.765' S; 150° 46.193' E). Fishes were acclimated for 12-14 days to 29 and 31°C (representing their seasonal range) and 33 and 34°C to account for end-of-century predicted temperatures. We measured lamellar perimeter, cross-sectional area, base thickness, and length for five filaments on the 2nd gill arches and qualitatively assessed 3rd gill arches via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All species exhibited significant differences in the quantitative measurements made on the lamellae, but no consistent trends with temperature were observed. SEM only revealed alterations in gill morphology in P. moluccensis. The overall lack of changes in gill morphology with increasing temperature suggests that these near-equatorial reef fishes may fail to maintain adequate O2 uptake under future climate scenarios unless other adaptive mechanisms are employed.

  9. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  10. Drowning among the lakeside fishing communities in Uganda: results of a community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobusingye, Olive; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Magoola, Joseph; Atuyambe, Lynn; Olange, Olakunle

    2017-09-01

    The study aimed to determine the drowning burden in four Ugandan lakeside districts; the prevalence of life jacket use, and community knowledge and attitudes regarding water safety. Subjects were recruited as they disembarked from boats. A structured questionnaire was used for demographics, experience on water, details of incidents in water, and awareness of drowning prevention measures. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews were held. The study interviewed 544 participants; 81.1% male, 86.8% below 45 years, and 51.1% involved in the fishing industry. A quarter (26.1%) of the respondents were observed wearing life jackets as they disembarked. Participants who had been in a boat that nearly capsized (57.8%), or that actually capsized (21.7%), were no more likely to wear life jackets than those who had not had these experiences. Three quarters (73.2%) did not know how to call for rescue, and only 48.7% could swim. There drowning fatality rate in this community was 502 deaths per 100,000 population. Majority of drowning events occurred during transportation (51.7%) or fishing (39.0%). The most frequently mentioned factors were stormy weather and overloading. Drowning is a common threat to young adults in the fishing communities around Lake Victoria. Few preventive interventions are in place.

  11. Neuroplastic reactivity of fish induced by altered gravity conditions: a review of recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmann, H.; Anken, R. H.

    A review is being presented concerning behavioural, biochemical, histochemical and electronmicroscopical data on the influence of altered gravitational forces on the swimming performance and on the neuronal differentiation of the brain of cichlid fish larvae and adult swordtail fish that had been exposed to hyper-gravity (3g in laboratory centrifuges), hypo-gravity (>10^-2g in a fast-rotating clinostat) and to near weightlessness (10^-4g aboard the spacelab D-2 mission). After long-term alterations of gravity (and parallel light deprivation), initial disturbances in the swimming behaviour followed by a stepwise regain of normal swimming modes are induced. Parallely, neuroplastic reactivities on different levels of investigation were found, such as adaptive alterations of activities of various enzymes in whole brain as well as in specific neuronal integration centers and an intraneuronal reactivity on ultrastructural level in individual brain parts and in the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. Taken together, these data reveal distinct adaptive neuroplastic reactions of fish to altered gravity conditions.

  12. Rapid discrimination of Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, and H. haemolyticus by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and two matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS platforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Frickmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to considerable differences in pathogenicity, Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae and H. haemolyticus have to be reliably discriminated in routine diagnostics. Retrospective analyses suggest frequent misidentifications of commensal H. haemolyticus as H. influenzae. In a multi-center approach, we assessed the suitability of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS for the identification of H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae and H. haemolyticus to species level. METHODOLOGY: A strain collection of 84 Haemophilus spp. comprising 50 H. influenzae, 25 H. parainfluenzae, 7 H. haemolyticus, and 2 H. parahaemolyticus including 77 clinical isolates was analyzed by FISH with newly designed DNA probes, and two different MALDI-TOF-MS systems (Bruker, Shimadzu with and without prior formic acid extraction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among the 84 Haemophilus strains analyzed, FISH led to 71 correct results (85%, 13 uninterpretable results (15%, and no misidentifications. Shimadzu MALDI-TOF-MS resulted in 59 correct identifications (70%, 19 uninterpretable results (23%, and 6 misidentifications (7%, using colony material applied directly. Bruker MALDI-TOF-MS with prior formic acid extraction led to 74 correct results (88%, 4 uninterpretable results (5% and 6 misidentifications (7%. The Bruker MALDI-TOF-MS misidentifications could be resolved by the addition of a suitable H. haemolyticus reference spectrum to the system's database. In conclusion, no analyzed diagnostic procedure was free of errors. Diagnostic results have to be interpreted carefully and alternative tests should be applied in case of ambiguous test results on isolates from seriously ill patients.

  13. New results concerning the plum pox virus epidemiology and resistance of plum cultivars, hybrids and rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoiu, N; Maxim, A; Vladianu, D; Platon, I; Balaci, R

    1998-09-01

    Our recent results on the plum pox virus (PPV) epidemiology show that PPV spreads very rapidly in plum tree plantations in the contaminated areas. A clearing of the PPV-infected trees reduces significantly the spread of the virus but does not eliminate the disease. Some plum tree cultivars, hybrids and rootstocks (Scoldus, Alina, Cristi, BN 1/8Fl, BN 2Gr. etc) showing field resistance could not be infected with PPV by natural way. However, they could be infected with PPV by artificial inoculation except for the plum tree cv. Local of Dragasani and the BN 4Kr myrobalan, which proved to be immune to PPV. PPV was not transmitted through seeds in plum tree and myrobalan in the nursery. The Hyalopterus pruni aphids were found PPV-positive by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  14. Fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification for an active pelvis orthosis: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kebin; Parri, Andrea; Yan, Tingfang; Wang, Long; Munih, Marko; Vitiello, Nicola; Wang, Qining

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification method for an active pelvis orthosis. Locomotion information measured by the onboard hip joint angle sensors and the pressure insoles is used to classify five locomotion modes, including two static modes (sitting, standing still), and three dynamic modes (level-ground walking, ascending stairs, and descending stairs). The proposed method classifies these two kinds of modes first by monitoring the variation of the relative hip joint angle between the two legs within a specific period. Static states are then classified by the time-based absolute hip joint angle. As for dynamic modes, a fuzzy-logic based method is proposed for the classification. Preliminary experimental results with three able-bodied subjects achieve an off-line classification accuracy higher than 99.49%.

  15. Effect of tannic acid-fish scale gelatin hydrolysate hybrid nanoparticles on intestinal barrier function and α-amylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Jung; Ho, Yi-Cheng; Jiang, Shun-Zhou; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2015-07-01

    Practical application of tannic acid is limited because it readily binds proteins to form insoluble aggregates. In this study, tannic acid was self-assembled with fish scale gelatin hydrolysates (FSGH) to form stable colloidal complex nanoparticles. The nanoparticles prepared from 4 mg ml(-1) tannic acid and 4 mg ml(-1) FSGH had a mean particle size of 260.8 ± 3.6 nm, and showed a positive zeta potential (20.4 ± 0.4 mV). The nanoparticles acted as effective nano-biochelators and free radical scavengers because they provided a large number of adsorption sites for interaction with heavy metal ions and scavenging free radicals. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cu(2+) ions was 123.5 mg g(-1) and EC50 of DPPH radical scavenging activity was 21.6 ± 1.2 μg ml(-1). Hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of the nanoparticles were investigated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The copper-chelating capacity and free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were associated with their capacity to inhibit Cu(2+) ion-induced barrier impairment and hyperpermeability of Caco-2 intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ). However, α-amylase inhibitory activity of the nanoparticles was significantly lower than that of free tannic acid. The results suggest that the nanoparticles can ameliorate Cu(2+) ion induced intestinal epithelial TJ dysfunction without severely inhibiting the activity of the digestive enzymes.

  16. High Temperature Induced Glume Closure Resulted in Lower Fertility in Hybrid Rice Seed Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haoliang; Zhang, Binglin; Zhang, Yunbo; Chen, Xinlan; Xiong, Hui; Matsui, Tsutomu; Tian, Xiaohai

    2017-01-01

    Predicted climate changes, in particular, the increased dimension and frequency of heat waves, are expected to affect crop growth in the future seriously. Hybrid rice relies on seed production from male sterile and restorer lines. Experiments were conducted over two consecutive years to compare the high temperature tolerance of parents of different hybrid rice combinations, in terms of fertility rate, flowering pattern, pollination and physiological parameters of the lodicule. Three male sterile lines and a broad compatibility restorer line (as pollen donor and conventional variety as well) were grown to heading stage and then treated with average daily temperatures of 26°C (range 23–30°C), 28°C (25–32°C), and 30°C (26–34°C), respectively, continued for 5–7 days each in a natural light phytotron which simulated the local typical high temperature weather in the field. The results indicated that male sterile lines were more sensitive to high temperature than the restorer line for fertility rate, and the sensitivity varied between varieties. The fertility rate of the restorer line was maintained at about 90% under the high temperature treatments, while it decreased in the male sterile lines by 23.3 and 48.1% at 28 and 30°C, respectively. The fertility rate of the most sensitive line declined by 70%, and the tolerant line declined by 34% at 30°C. Glume closure in the male sterile lines was a major reason for the reduced fertility rate under high temperature, which is closely correlated with carbohydrates content and the vascular bundle pattern in the lodicule. The present study identified a useful trait to select male sterile lines with high temperature tolerance for seed production. PMID:28105031

  17. The prospects for hybrid electric vehicles, 2005-2020 : results of a Delphi Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, H. K.; Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-22

    The introduction of Toyota's hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the Prius, in Japan has generated considerable interest in HEV technology among US automotive experts. In a follow-up survey to Argonne National Laboratory's two-stage Delphi Study on electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) during 1994-1996, Argonne researchers gathered the latest opinions of automotive experts on the future ''top-selling'' HEV attributes and costs. The experts predicted that HEVs would have a spark-ignition gasoline engine as a power plant in 2005 and a fuel cell power plant by 2020. The projected 2020 fuel shares were about equal for gasoline and hydrogen, with methanol a distant third. In 2020, HEVs are predicted to have series-drive, moderate battery-alone range and cost significantly more than conventional vehicles (CVs). The HEV is projected to cost 66% more than a $20,000 CV initially and 33% more by 2020. Survey respondents view batteries as the component that contributes the most to the HEV cost increment. The mean projection for battery-alone range is 49 km in 2005, 70 km in 2010, and 92 km in 2020. Responding to a question relating to their personal vision of the most desirable HEV and its likely characteristics when introduced in the US market in the next decade, the experts predicted their ''vision'' HEV to have attributes very similar to those of the ''top-selling'' HEV. However, the ''vision'' HEV would cost significantly less. The experts projected attributes of three leading batteries for HEVs and projected acceleration times on battery power alone. The resulting battery packs are evaluated, and their initial and replacement costs are analyzed. These and several other opinions are summarized.

  18. RESULTS ON THE FLOWERING STAGE IN THE ROMANIAN-GROWN SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. ION

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the results of the research carried out on forty sunflowerhybrids in southern Romania (15 km far from northeastern Bucharest, under the2004 and 2006 climatic conditions, regarding the flowering stage, the period andthe duration of flowering process within the crop, respectively. The studied hybridswere the following: Favorit, Festiv, Florina, Jupiter, Alcazar, Top 75, Venus, Alex,Saturn, Minunea, HS 2442, HS 2606, Milenium, Romina, Performer, Select, Justin,Splendor, Hercule, Felix, and twenty foreign hybrids cultivated in Romania:Huracan, Kasol, Lindor, Masai, Mateol, Podium, Saxo, Sunko, Fly, Rigasol, RigasolOR, Fleuret OR, Arena, Melody, NK Armoni, Alexandra, NK Dolbi, NK Ferti,Opera PR, Sanay.At the studied sunflower hybrids were performed the following determinations:sum of growing degree days (GDD from plant emergency (i.e. when 75% ofthe plants emerged to the beginning of the flowering process within the crop(i.e. when 10% of the sunflower heads are flowered;date for the first sunflower heads flowering;date for the beginning of the flowering process, i.e. when 10% of the sunflowerheads have flowered in the whole crop;date for the plain flowering phase, i.e. when 50% of the total sunflower headshave flowered;date for the full-flower phase, i.e. when all the sunflower head in the crop haveflowered;date for the time when only 10% of the sunflower heads were still in flower;date for the end of flowering, i.e. when no sunflower heads are in flower in thewhole crop;number of days between different flowering stages.

  19. Behavior of meiotic chromosomes in Pinus wallichiana, P. strobus and their hybrid and nrDNA localization in pollen mother cells of the hybrid by using FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hui-Sheng; Zhang, Da-Ming; Fu, Cheng-Xin; Hong, De-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The complete process of meiosis was investigated in Pinus wallichiana, P. strobus and their artificial hybrid (F1) using microsporocytes. It is revealed that there were slightly lower chiasma frequency, lower ring bivalent frequency, lower meiotic index and distinctly higher frequency of aberrance (chromosomal bridges, fragments or micronuclei) in pollen mother cells (PMCs) of the hybrid (F1) than those of the parental species, which showed a certain degree of differentiation between homologous chromosomes of the two parents. However, relatively higher frequency of ring bivalents and higher meiotic index in all the three entities indicate the great stability of genomes of parental species, and the differentiation of genomes between the two parents must have been slight. Total nineteen signal loci of 18S rDNA were observed in nine bivalents of the hybrid (F1), among which one bivalent bears two loci, while the others have only one. It is suggested that distinct differentiation at genetic level existed in homologous chromosomes of the two parental species, whereas only slight differentiation at karyotypic and genomic levels take place between the parent species.

  20. Behavior of Meiotic Chromosomes in Pinus wallichiana, P. strobus and Their Hybrid and nrDNA Localization in Pollen Mother Cells of the Hybrid by Using FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Sheng Deng; Da-Ming Zhang; Cheng-Xin Fu; De-Yuan Hong

    2008-01-01

    The complete process of meiosis was investigated in Pinus wallichiana, P. strobus and their artificial hybrid (F1) using microsporocytes. It is revealed that there were slightly lower chiasma frequency, lower ring bivalent frequency, lower meiotic Index and distinctly higher frequency of aberrance (chromosomal bridges, fragments or micronuclei) in pollen mother cells (PMCs) of the hybrid (F1) than those of the parental species, which showed a certain degree of differentiation between homologous chromosomes of the two parents. However, relatively higher frequency of ring bivalents and higher meiotic index in all the three entities indicate the great stability of genomes of parental species, and the differentiation of genomes between the two parents must have been slight. Total nineteen signal loci of 18S rDNA were observed in nine bivalents of the hybrid (F1), among which one bivalent bears two loci, while the others have only one. It is suggested that distinct differentiation at genetic level existed in homologous chromosomes of the two parental species, whereas only slight differentiation at karyotypic and genomic levels take place between the parent species.

  1. 荧光原位杂交法(FISH)快速检测尿液中金黄色葡萄球菌%Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Rapidly Detects Staphylococcus Aureus in Urinary Tract Infection Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴青; 李艳; 汪明; 顾剑; 胡慧霞; 徐万洲; 韦传东; 吴泽刚

    2011-01-01

    目的 利用荧光原位杂交法快速检测尿液中的金黄色葡萄球菌,筛查金黄色葡萄球菌所致的尿路感染.方法 针对金黄色葡萄球菌16sRNA设计荧光标记的核苷酸探针,利用荧光原位杂交技术(FISH)对132例疑似尿路感染患者中段尿标本进行检测;同时进行中段尿培养.结果 荧光原位杂交法检测阳性的有9例,与中段尿培养比较,其敏感度为100.0%,特异度为99.2%,阳性预期值为90.0%,阴性预期值为100.0%.结论 荧光原位杂交能快速检测尿液中的金黄色葡萄球菌,对金黄色葡萄球菌所致的尿路感染进行快速诊断.%Objective The rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus in urine by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)method. Screening urinary tract infection (UTIs) caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Methods Probes that were specific for Staphylococcus aureus were designed based on the conserved 16 s RNA sequences. Detected a total of 132 urine samples using FISH method. And all of tbese samples tested via traditional culturing techniques. Results 9 of these samples tested positive for a UTI via FISH analysis. Compared to conventional methods of bacterial identification,the FISH method had a sensitivity of 100.0% ,specificity of 99. 2%,positive expected value of 90. 0% and negative expected value of 100. 0%. Conclusion FISH had the potential to become an extremely useful diagnostic tool for UTIs because it has a quick turnaround time and high accuracy.

  2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) technique combined with karyotyping analysis in prenatal diagnosis%FISH技术在产前诊断中的应用价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈国松; 张甦; 何平亚; 方嵘

    2011-01-01

    目的 使用荧光原位杂交(FISH)技术对常见胎儿染色体数目异常进行快速诊断,结合羊水细胞培养染色体核型分析技术形成产前诊断体系,并对其临床应用价值进行评价.方法 应用诊断最常见染色体病的5种染色体(13、18、21、X和Y)特异性FISH探针对480例未经培养羊水细胞进行产前诊断,并和同时进行的羊水培养染色体核型分析相比较.结果 480例未经培养羊水细胞FISH实验全部获得检测结果,并发现21-三体综合征2例,18-三体综合征1例,克氏综合征1例,特纳综合征 1例,与羊水培养染色体分析结果一致,但报告时间(2至3d)与羊水染色体分析报告时间(2~3周)相比大为缩短.受固有技术限制有6例结构异常未能检出,但应用FISH技术对其中1例与性染色体有关的结构异常进行辅助诊断,获得了成功.结论 FISH技术在常见染色体数目异常产前诊断中应用行之有效,与羊水染色体核型分析技术相结合,将使产前诊断更加高效和安全.%To evaluate the clinical application of the combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)technique and karyotyping analysis in prenatal diagnosis.MethodsFISH technology with the centromeric probes of chromo-some 13, 18, 21 ,X and Y was applied in 480 amniotic fluid specimens, the results were compared with those of the G banding karyotypes from standard cytogenetic analysis in cultured amniotic fluid cells.ResultsTotal 480 uncultured amniotic fluid speci-mens were successfully tested by FISH and two Down' s syndrome, one Edwards syndrome, one Klinefelter syndrome and one Turner syndrome were detected. The results obtained by FISH were consistent with those from karyotyping analysis. FISH (2-3 days) was faster than karyotyping(2-3 weeks) to get results. Karyotypes analysis detected 6 cases of chromosome structural abnormalities which were not detected by FISH, however, one of them with a sex chromosome-related structural

  3. 77 FR 27435 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final... order on certain frozen fish fillets (``frozen fish fillets'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam..., 2010, through January 31, 2011. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic...

  4. Diagnosis of human papillomatosis by polymerase chain reaction in cases of divergence between results of hybrid capture and papanicolaou cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Garcez Novaes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As various types of human papillomavirus (HPV are involved in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, correct diagnosis is of fundamental importance for screening programs. We evaluated the divergence of results between Papanicolaou cytology and hybrid capture by PCR detection of HPV DNA . A transversal study was conducted on 70 women attending private gynecological clinics in Brasilia, Brazil. PCRs were conducted with specific primers for general and high-risk HPV DNA. Based on the PCR results, hybrid capture was a superior diagnostic technique. When Papanicolaou was compared with the molecular biology methods, it was found that a positive Papanicolaou result does not necessarily indicate the presence of HPV. The agreement between PCR and hybrid capture results can be attributed to the fact that both methods detect latent infection, while Papanicolaou detects only microscopic cellular alterations.

  5. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  6. Interim Evaluation Results from New Flyer/Allison Hybrid Buses at King County Metro: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eberts, E.; Eudy, L.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric articulated transit buses operated by King County Metro.

  7. Fuel Economy and Performance of Mild Hybrids with Ultracapacitors: Simulations and Vehicle Test Results (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Pesaran, A.; Lustbader, J.; Tataria, H.

    2009-06-01

    NREL worked with GM and demonstrated equivalent performance in the Saturn Vue Belt Alternator Starter (BAS) hybrid vehicle whether running with its stock batteries or a retrofit ultracapacitor system.

  8. Fish oil feeding is associated with an increased accumulation of dietary lipids in enterocytes: Results from an in vivo study in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Marckmann, P.; Hansen, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Chronic fish oil consumption is associated with reduced postprandial lipaemia, but the mechanism behind this effect is not fully understood. We studied whether lipid absorption might be altered in rats fed fish oil. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed fish oil enriched chow (n = 6...... contents of enterocytes were determined by liquid scintillation counting. Two other groups of rats (2 x 6) fed the experimental diets were given an oral fat load and fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken. Results: The accumulation of H-3-lipids in enterocytes was higher in rats fed fish oil...... than in controls (area under the H-3-lipid time curve: 1041.3 versus 670.3 nmol oleic acid x min/mug DNA, P acids occurred in rats fed fish oil. The amount of non-absorbed H-3-lipid tended to be higher in the fish...

  9. Fully Automated Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) Staining and Digital Analysis of HER2 in Breast Cancer : A Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Logt, Elise M. J.; Kuperus, Deborah A. J.; van Setten, Jan W.; van den Heuvel, Marius C.; Boers, James. E.; Schuuring, Ed; Kibbelaar, Robby E.

    2015-01-01

    HER2 assessment is routinely used to select patients with invasive breast cancer that might benefit from HER2-targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to validate a fully automated in situ hybridization (ISH) procedure that combines the automated Leica HER2 fluorescent ISH system for Bond with su

  10. Monitoring of wild fish health at selected sites in the Great Lakes Basin: methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki; Mazik, Patricia M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Braham, Ryan; Hahn, Cassidy; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam

    2014-01-01

    During fall 2010 and spring 2011, a total of 119 brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), 136 white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), 73 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and 59 largemouth bass (M. salmoides) were collected from seven Great Lakes Basin Areas of Concern and one Reference Site. Comprehensive fish health assessments were conducted in order to document potential adverse affects from exposure to complex chemical mixtures. Fish were necropsied on site, blood samples obtained, pieces of liver, spleen, kidney, gill and any abnormalities placed in fixative for histopathology. Liver samples were saved for gene expression analysis and otoliths were removed for aging. A suite of fish health indicators was developed and implemented for site comparisons and to document seasonal effects and species differences in response to environmental conditions. Organism level (grossly visible lesions, condition factor), tissue level (microscopic pathology, organosomatic indices, micronuclei, and other nuclear abnormalities), plasma factors (reproductive steroid hormones, vitellogenin), and molecular (gene expression) indicators were included. This report describes the methods and preliminary results.

  11. Male 11-ketotestosterone levels change as a result of being watched in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzieweczynski, Teresa L; Eklund, Amy C; Rowland, William J

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of nesting status and the presence of an audience on 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) levels in male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Prior studies have demonstrated that both nesting status, an indicator of territory-holding power and reproductive state, and the sex of a conspecific audience lead to differences in male behavior during aggressive encounters. Since behavioral changes have already been demonstrated, we chose to investigate whether 11KT levels were also influenced by nesting status and audience presence as 11KT both stimulates, and is stimulated by, reproductive and aggressive behaviors in male teleosts. Male 11KT levels were measured from water samples taken from containers holding fish both before and after interaction. Males interacted under three treatment conditions: no audience, female audience, and male audience. Within these treatments were two nest paradigms: both males had nests or neither male had a nest. 11KT levels varied depending on nesting status and audience type. In general, 11KT levels were lower in interacting males when a female audience was present or when males had nests. Overall, 11KT showed increases or decreases as aggression increased or decreased, as shown by already established behavioral findings [see Dzieweczynski T.L., Green T.M., Earley R.L., Rowland W.J., 2005. Audience effect is context dependent in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Behav. Ecol. 16, 1025-1030; Doutrelant, C., McGregor, P.K., Oliveira, R.F., 2001. Effect of an audience on intrasexual communication in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Behav. Ecol. 12, 283-286.]. Our results suggest that 11KT levels are influenced by reproductive status, as indicated by nest ownership, and audience presence and are most likely modulated by territorial behavior and social environment.

  12. Further Tests of Changes in Fish Escape Behavior Resulting from Sublethal Stresses Associated with Hydroelectric Turbine Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, M.G.

    2004-10-20

    and another 70 under control conditions (either transferred from the holding tank or injected into the Alden loop downstream of turbine). The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a startle response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of the maximum C-shape, time to completion of the C-shape, completeness of the C-shape, direction of turn, and degree of turn. The data were evaluated for statistical significance and patterns of response were identified. The most immediate measure of potential changes in fish behavior was whether test and control fish exhibited a startle response. Unlike earlier studies, there was no significant difference among the treatment group and the controls for startle response. The majority of rainbow trout in all groups responded to the startle stimulus. There were however, significant differences in some of the particular aspects of the subsequent escape behavior. The time to first reaction, the duration of the reaction, and the times associated with maximum C-shape formation were all significantly different between the tank controls and the two groups of fish injected into the Alden turbine loop. There were no significant differences in behavioral responses between the trout passed through the turbine runner and those injected downstream of the runner. Other behavioral parameters, such as C-shape completeness ratio, were not significantly affected. The effect of the Alden turbine loop on some aspects of the escape behavior suggest that the process of movement through the system is important, but that the role of the added stress, if any, of passage through the turbine runner is minimal. It may be important that statistically significant differences in timing of phases of the startle response were detected, even though the majority of stressed fish still exhibited the startle response. This is in contrast to earlier studies, where timing of phases of the

  13. Fuel cell-hybrid switch locomotive for Los Angeles : test results (part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.R.; Hess, K.S.; Erickson, T.L.; Dippo, J.L. [Vehicle Projects LLC, Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described the development of a prototype fuel cell-powered shunt locomotive for urban rail use. The prototype was funded by a public-private partnership involving the BNSF Railway Company and the United States Department of Defense in an effort to reduce air pollution in urban railyards; increase energy security of the rail transport system by using hydrogen as fuel; reduce atmospheric greenhouse-gas emissions; and serve as a mobile backup power source for critical infrastructure on military bases. Railyard demonstrations were performed at the Commerce and Hobart railyards in the Los Angeles metro area. The hybrid locomotive is the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle built today. It weighs 127 tonnes and gets continuous net power of 250 kW from its PEM fuel cell prime mover. Its transient power is well in excess of 1 MW. Its fourteen carbon-fiber composite compressed-hydrogen storage tanks, located at the roofline, have a combined storage of 70 kg at 350 bar. The system provides fuel for a rigorous 8-10 hour shunt-locomotive duty cycle. This paper focused on test results for this locomotive which was scheduled for completion by the end of 2008.

  14. First Results from a Coherence Imaging Diagnostic for the Compact Toroidal Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.; Johnson, C. A.; Maurer, D. A.; Allen, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    An optical coherence imaging diagnostic is being commissioned for time-resolved measurements (~ 10 ms) of ion emissivity, velocity, and temperature in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment. The Coherence Imaging (CI) technique measures the spectral coherence of an emission line with an imaging interferometer of fixed delay. CI has a number of advantages when compared to dispersive Doppler spectroscopy, including higher throughput and the capability to provide 2D spectral images, making it advantageous for investigating the non-axisymmetric geometry of CTH plasmas. A spectral survey of the visible and ultraviolet emission for a range of CTH discharges has identified helium and carbon impurity lines that will be utilized for CI measurements in CTH. First CI measurements of He II (468.6 nm) emission from CTH plasmas will be presented along with interferograms from a calibration light source and details of the instrument design. Results from this diagnostic will aid in characterizing the equilibrium ion parameters in both the edge and core of CTH plasmas for planned island divertor and MHD mode-locking experiments. Work supported by USDoE grant DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  15. Resolving colocalization of bacteria and metal(loid)s on plant root surfaces by combining fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with multiple-energy micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (ME μXRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeker, Linnea K; Root, Robert A; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2016-12-01

    Metal(loid)-contamination of the environment due to anthropogenic activities is a global problem. Understanding the fate of contaminants requires elucidation of biotic and abiotic factors that influence metal(loid) speciation from molecular to field scales. Improved methods are needed to assess micro-scale processes, such as those occurring at biogeochemical interfaces between plant tissues, microbial cells, and metal(loid)s. Here we present an advanced method that combines fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with synchrotron-based multiple-energy micro-focused X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging (ME μXRF) to examine colocalization of bacteria and metal(loid)s on root surfaces of plants used to phytostabilize metalliferous mine tailings. Bacteria were visualized on a small root section using SytoBC nucleic acid stain and FISH probes targeting the domain Bacteria and a specific group (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, or Actinobacteria). The same root region was then analyzed for elemental distribution and metal(loid) speciation of As and Fe using ME μXRF. The FISH and ME μXRF images were aligned using ImageJ software to correlate microbiological and geochemical results. Results from quantitative analysis of colocalization show a significantly higher fraction of As colocalized with Fe-oxide plaques on the root surfaces (fraction of overlap 0.49±0.19) than to bacteria (0.072±0.052) (pbacteria that colocalized with metal(loid)s, Actinobacteria, known for their metal tolerance, had a higher correlation with both As and Fe than Alphaproteobacteria or Gammaproteobacteria. This method demonstrates how coupling these micro-techniques can expand our understanding of micro-scale interactions between roots, metal(loid)s and microbes, information that should lead to improved mechanistic models of metal(loid) speciation and fate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diet and lifestyle factors associated with fish consumption in men and women: a study of whether gender differences can result in gender-specific confounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wennberg Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish consumption and intake of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a prospective study from northern Sweden showed that high consumption of fish is associated with an increased risk of stroke in men, but not in women. The current study aimed to determine if fish consumption is differently related to lifestyle in men compared with women in northern Sweden. Methods Lifestyle information on 32,782 men and 34,866 women (aged 30–60 years was collected between 1992 and 2006 within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (a health intervention in northern Sweden. Spearman correlations coefficients (Rs were calculated between self-reported consumption of fish and other food items. Lifestyle variables were compared between fish consumption categories. Results Fish consumption was positively associated with other foods considered healthy (e.g., root vegetables, lettuce/cabbage/spinach/broccoli, chicken, and berries; Rs = 0.21-0.30, as well as with other healthy lifestyle factors (e.g., exercise and not smoking and a higher educational level, in both men and women. The only gender difference found, concerned the association between fish consumption and alcohol consumption. Men who were high consumers of fish had a higher intake of all types of alcohol compared with low to moderate fish consumers. For women, this was true only for wine. Conclusions Except for alcohol, the association between fish consumption and healthy lifestyle did not differ between men and women in northern Sweden. It is important to adjust for other lifestyle variables and socioeconomic variables in studies concerning the effect of fish consumption on disease outcome.

  17. Mortality of centrarchid fishes in the Potomac drainage: Survey results and overview of potential contributing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Starliper, Clifford E.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Barbash, P.; Hedrick, J.D.; Reeser, S.J.; Mullican, J.E.; Kelble, J.

    2010-01-01

    Skin lesions and spring mortality events of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and selected other species were first noted in the South Branch of the Potomac River in 2002. Since that year morbidity and mortality have also been observed in the Shenandoah and Monocacy rivers. Despite much research, no single pathogen, parasite, or chemical cause for the lesions and mortality has been identified. Numerous parasites, most commonly trematode metacercariae and myxozoans; the bacterial pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, and Flavobacterium columnare; and largemouth bass virus have all been observed. None have been consistently isolated or observed at all sites, however, nor has any consistent microscopic pathology of the lesions been observed. A variety of histological changes associated with exposure to environmental contaminants or stressors, including intersex (testicular oocytes), high numbers of macrophage aggregates, oxidative damage, gill lesions, and epidermal papillomas, were observed. The findings indicate that selected sensitive species may be stressed by multiple factors and constantly close to the threshold between a sustainable (healthy) and nonsustainable (unhealthy) condition. Fish health is often used as an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health, and these findings raise concerns about environmental degradation within the Potomac River drainage. Unfortunately, while much information has been gained from the studies conducted to date, due to the multiple state jurisdictions involved, competing interests, and other issues, there has been no coordinated approach to identifying and mitigating the stressors. This synthesis emphasizes the need for multiyear, interdisciplinary, integrative research to identify the underlying stressors and possible management actions to enhance ecosystem health.

  18. Proceedings of the Mongolian Biodiversity Databank Workshop: Assessing the Conservation Status of Mongolian Mammals and Fishes: III – Fishes: Assessment Results and Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne F. Ocock

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mongolian Biodiversity Databank Workshop was held at the National University of Mongolia and Hustai National Park from 1 st October to 4 th November, 2005. As part of the workshop, a working group of fish experts assessed the conservation status of all Mongolian fishes using the IUCN Catego - ries and Criteria. Of the 64 fish species found in Mongolia, 48 were assessed, with 16 considered Not Applicable (NA by the working group. Only one species, the Siberian sturgeon ( Acipenser baerii was assessed as Critically Endangered (CR in Mongolia, however six species were assigned Endangered (EN status. Four were found to be Vulnerable (VU and three were assessed to be Near Threatened (NT. Forty-eight percent of Mongolian fishes were Data Deficient (DD and 25% were Least Concern (LC. The north-east of Mongolia was most species rich, particularly the Onon River basin and Buir Lake. There was no trend for where the most threatened species occurred as they were found throughout the north of Mongolia. Hunting/fishing was the greatest threat to Mongolian fishes, followed by resource extraction and pollution.

  19. International, collaborative assessment of limitations of chromosome-specific probes (CSP) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH): Analysis of expected detections in 73,000 prenatal cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.I.; Henry, G.P.; Miller, W.A. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    FISH and CSP have been proposed to reduce karyotyping need. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential efficacy of CSP-FISH using currently available probes (13, 18, 21, X, & Y) in large, prenatal diagnostic centers. Results (1990-1993) from 7 centers in 4 countries were divided by those expected to be detectable by currently available probes, and those which would be missed assuming 10% probe efficacy. 72,994 karyotypes included 699 trisomy 21`s, 352 trisomy 18`s, 136 trisomy 13`s, 358 sex chromosome aneuploidies, 70 triploidies, and 855 others (translocations, inversions, deletions, markers). Of 2,613 abnormalities, 1,745 would be detectable (66.8%). [Detroit 55.7%, Stockholm 68.3%, Boston 52.6%, Denver 61.3%, Muenster 77.0%, London 84.5%, Philadelphia 69.4%]. Centers with high proportions of referrals for ultrasound anomalies had the highest CSP-FISH positives secondary to increased T 18 & 13. We conclude: (1) 73,000 karyotypes show relatively consistent incidences of the common trisomies, sex chromosome abnormalities, and other chromosome abnormalities among the centers. (2) The proportion expected detectable by FISH-CSP technology varies from 52.6% to 84.5%, averaging 66.8%. (3) 1/3 of the karyotypic abnormalities would be missed, and therefore, replacement of complete karyotyping with FISH would have unacceptably high false-negative rates for routine evaluation. (4) FISH-CSP, while useful when positive for anomalies, is not sufficient when negative to obviate the need for a complete karyotype.

  20. Research Regarding the Hybrids Resulted from the Domestic Pig and the Wild Boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted between 2005-2009 in Barzava, Arad county. The villagers breed pigs traditionally, the animals having the freedom to roam the outskirts of the villages. Over the years the domestic sows (Sus scrofa domesticus which had been let by their owners to roam the forests for mast and acorn, have mated with wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus, thus obtaining crossbreeds in various colours – either resembling the female or the male. In Bazava the total number of swine is 1820 specimens out of which 546 is formed by hybrids or crossbreeds in 2009. In the case of these hybrids the length of the head together with that of the trunk can reach 150-170 cm. An adult male can have a weight of 150-200 kg and the female 100-150 kg. These specimens are easily recognizable by the fact that they have the trunk covered in thick, long, spiky hairs. There are also other external characteristics of these crossbreeds. Data has been gathered on what concerns the colour and the length of the hair, external features, maintenance and feeding. Behavioural observations have been made also. The local people appreciate a lot these hybrids because of their qualitative meat, out of which they obtain traditional dishes, combining this meat with that from domestic pigs and veal. Moreover, the maintenance of these hybrids is very low-cost, the only conditions which have to be met being simple shelters during the night and during the winter. The demand for such animals is great. These hybrids are being bought by the Zoos or are used for repopulating the areas in which the wild boars are on the verge of extinction because of excessive poaching. Foreign buyers are also interested in these hybrids, wanting to breed them in special parks and then to organize hunting outings.

  1. 75 FR 38985 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the Fifth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final... review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From...

  2. 75 FR 56062 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ...., Ltd., Vinh Hoan, QVD, South Vina, and CL-Fish A designation as a non-market economy (``NME'') remains... Philippines, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan are exporters of frozen fish fillets, and, thus... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice...

  3. Dietary Mercury Exposure Resulted in Behavioral Differences in Mice Contaminated with Fish-Associated Methylmercury Compared to Methylmercury Chloride Added to Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Bourdineaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets.

  4. Phenotypic consequences of a mosaic marker chromosome identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as being derived from chromosome 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, J.H.; Zhou, X.; Pletcher, B.A. [Cornell Univ. Medical College, Manhasset, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    De novo marker chromosomes are detected in 1 in 2500 amniotic fluid samples and are associated with a 10-15% risk for phenotypic abnormality. FISH can be utilized as a research tool to identify the origins of marker chromosomes. The phenotypic consequences of a marker chromosome derived from the short arm of chromosome 16 are described. A 26-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 28 weeks gestation because of a prenatally diagnosed tetralogy of Fallot. Follow-up ultrasounds also showed ventriculomegaly and cleft lip and palate. 32 of 45 cells had the karyotype 47,XY,+mar; the remaining cells were 46,XY. The de novo marker chromosome was C-band positive and non-satellited and failed to stain with distamycin A/DAPI. At birth the ultrasound findings were confirmed and dysmorphic features and cryptorchidism were noted. Although a newborn blood sample contained only normal cells, mosaicism was confirmed in 2 skin biopsies. FISH using whole-chromosome painting and alpha-satellite DNA probes showed that the marker chromosome had originated from chromosome 16. As proximal 16q is distamycin A/DAPI positive, the marker is apparently derived from proximal 16p. At 15 months of age, this child is hypotonic, globally delayed and is gavage-fed. His physical examination is significant for microbrachycephaly, a round face, sparse scalp hair, ocular hypertelorism, exotropia, a flat, wide nasal bridge and tip, mild micrognathia, and tapered fingers with lymphedema of hands and feet. Inguinal hernias have been repaired. His features are consistent with those described for patients trisomic for most or all of the short arm of chromosome 16. Marker chromosomes derived from the short arm of chromosome 16 appear to have phenotypic consequences. As the origin of more marker chromosomes are identified using FISH, their karyotype/phenotype correlations will become more apparent, which will permit more accurate genetic counseling.

  5. Hybridization among wild boars, local breeds and commercial breeds - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    . A better understanding of the hybridization levels at European scale would provide an important tool for the development of management plans aimed at reducing human conflict but also at preserving biodiversity and genetic differentiation. Additionally, this information would provide new perspectives...

  6. Latest beam test results from RICH prototypes using hybrid photo detectors and multi anode PMTs

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, E; Barber, G J; Bibby, J H; Brook, N H; Duane, A; Easo, S; Eklund, L; Gibson, V; Gys, Thierry; Halley, A W; Harnew, N; John, M; Piedigrossi, D; Simmons, B; Smale, N J; Teixeira-Dias, P; Websdale, David M; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, Ken H

    1999-01-01

    Beam tests were performed in 1998 to investigate the performance of a prototype of the downstream RICH of the LHCb using hybrid photo- diodes and multi anode PMTs. The angular resolutions obtained from these photodetectors under various experimental configurations are compared with the expectations from simulation. (6 refs).

  7. Latest beam test results from RICH prototypes using hybrid photo detectors and multi anode PMTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, E.; Alemi, M.; Barber, G.; Bibby, J.H.; Brook, N.H.; Duane, A.; Easo, S.; Eklund, L.; Gibson, V.; Gys, T.; Halley, A.W.; Harnew, N.; John, M.; Piedigrossi, D.; Simmons, B.; Smale, N.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Websdale, D.; Wotton, S.A.; Wyllie, K

    1999-08-21

    Beam tests were performed in 1998 to investigate the performance of a prototype of the downstream RICH of the LHCb using hybrid photo-diodes and multi anode PMTs. The angular resolutions obtained from these photodetectors under various experimental configurations are compared with the expectations from simulation.

  8. An inverse association between preserved fish and prostate cancer: results from a population-based case-control study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Kym; Fritschi, Lin; Johnson, Kenneth C

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that fish consumption may be a protective factor against the development of prostate cancer. We investigated the association between prostate cancer risk and fresh and preserved fish consumption among participants of a population-based case-control study (1,534 cases, 1,607 controls). Fish intake was measured using a dietary questionnaire that collected both frequency of consumption of a given portion size. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated an inverse association between preserved fish and prostate cancer risk for all levels of consumption, but reductions only reached statistical significance for the category of 1 to 3 servings of preserved fish per month (odds ratio = 0.78, confidence interval = 0.64-0.95). Consumption of any fat or energy from preserved fish was also associated with reduced risk. There was no suggestion of reduced prostate cancer risk with consumption of fresh and canned fish. Our results suggest that consumption of preserved fish may reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer.

  9. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish: results of a national pilot study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Alejandro J; Brain, Richard A; Usenko, Sascha; Mottaleb, Mohammad A; O'Donnell, John G; Stahl, Leanne L; Wathen, John B; Snyder, Blaine D; Pitt, Jennifer L; Perez-Hurtado, Pilar; Dobbins, Laura L; Brooks, Bryan W; Chambliss, C Kevin

    2009-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are being increasingly reported in a variety of biological matrices, including fish tissue; however, screening studies have presently not encompassed broad geographical areas. A national pilot study was initiated in the United States to assess the accumulation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish sampled from five effluent-dominated rivers that receive direct discharge from wastewater treatment facilities in Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Orlando, Florida; Phoenix, Arizona; and West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA. Fish were also collected from the Gila River, New Mexico, USA, as a reference condition expected to be minimally impacted by anthropogenic influence. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of pharmaceuticals revealed the presence of norfluoxetine, sertraline, diphenhydramine, diltiazem, and carbamazepine at nanogram-per-gram concentrations in fillet composites from effluent-dominated sampling locations; the additional presence of fluoxetine and gemfibrozil was confirmed in liver tissue. Sertraline was detected at concentrations as high as 19 and 545 ng/g in fillet and liver tissue, respectively. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of personal care products in fillet composites revealed the presence of galaxolide and tonalide at maximum concentrations of 2,100 and 290 ng/g, respectively, and trace levels of triclosan. In general, more pharmaceuticals were detected at higher concentrations and with greater frequency in liver than in fillet tissues. Higher lipid content in liver tissue could not account for this discrepancy as no significant positive correlations were found between accumulated pharmaceutical concentrations and lipid content for either tissue type from any sampling site. In contrast, accumulation of the personal care products galaxolide and tonalide was significantly related to lipid content. Results suggest that the detection of

  10. Further tests of changes in fish escape behavior resulting from sublethal stresses associated with hydroelectric turbine passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, John G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Fish that pass through a hydroelectric turbine may not be killed directly, but may nonetheless experience sublethal stresses that will increase their susceptibility to predators (indirect mortality). There is a need to develop reliable tests for indirect mortality so that the full consequences of passage through turbines (and other routes around a hydroelectric dam) can be assessed. The most commonly used laboratory technique for assessing susceptibility to predation is the predator preference test. This report evaluates the field application of a new technique that may be valuable for assessing indirect mortality, based on changes in a behavioral response to a startling stimulus (akin to perceiving an approaching predator). The study compared the behaviors of 70 fish passed through the turbine and another 70 under control conditions (either transferred from the holding tank or injected into the Alden loop downstream of turbine). The resulting image files were analyzed for a variety of behavioral measures including: presence of a startle response, time to first reaction, duration of reaction, time to formation of the maximum C-shape, time to completion of the C-shape, completeness of the C-shape, direction of turn, and degree of turn. The data were evaluated for statistical significance and patterns of response were identified.

  11. New cold-water coral occurrences in the Eastern Ionian Sea: Results from experimental long line fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytilineou, Ch.; Smith, C. J.; Anastasopoulou, A.; Papadopoulou, K. N.; Christidis, G.; Bekas, P.; Kavadas, S.; Dokos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge on the cold-water corals (CWCs) occurring in the deep waters of Eastern Ionian Sea (E. Mediterranean) has improved with new species records and information related to their occurrence, abundance, distribution, morphological and other characteristics. Data were collected from accidental coral catches during experimental long-line fishing using two different hook sizes (No. 7 targeting hake and No. 9 targeting blackspot seabream). Eight coral taxa were identified, with new records for the E. Ionian Sea for Antipathes dichotoma, Desmophyllum dianthus, Swiftia pallida and Pennatula phosphorea. CWCs occurred in 72% of the long lines and most of them were entire and live (except Leiopathes glaberrima). The most frequently caught coral group was Antipatharia. Isidella elongata and A. dichotoma presented the highest abundance. The main bulk of the corals was caught between 500 and 600 m depth. Some of the identified corals (L. glaberrima and I. elongata) seemed to have more close relationships with some species of the fish assemblage (Galeus melastomus, Helicolenus dactylopterus) inhabiting the study area. Species richness and coral catch in numbers were higher for the smaller hook size (No. 9), which caught the larger entire living colonies of A. dichotoma, L. glaberrima and I. elongata. As a result, the corals collected during the present study, characterized by slow growth rates and high longevities, could be considered vulnerable to the gear used in blackspot seabream fishery; this implies the need for more research, monitoring, protection and sustainable management.

  12. Genetic identification of F1 and post-F1 serrasalmid juvenile hybrids in Brazilian aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Teruo Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Juvenile fish trade monitoring is an important task on Brazilian fish farms. However, the identification of juvenile fish through morphological analysis is not feasible, particularly between interspecific hybrids and pure species individuals, making the monitoring of these individuals difficult. Hybrids can be erroneously identified as pure species in breeding facilities, which might reduce production on farms and negatively affect native populations due to escapes or stocking practices. In the present study, we used a multi-approach analysis (molecular and cytogenetic markers to identify juveniles of three serrasalmid species (Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus mesopotamicus and Piaractus brachypomus and their hybrids in different stocks purchased from three seed producers in Brazil. The main findings of this study were the detection of intergenus backcrossing between the hybrid ♀ patinga (P. mesopotamicus×P. brachypomus×♂ C. macropomum and the occurrence of one hybrid triploid individual. This atypical specimen might result from automixis, a mechanism that produces unreduced gametes in some organisms. Moreover, molecular identification indicated that hybrid individuals are traded as pure species or other types of interspecific hybrids, particularly post-F1 individuals. These results show that serrasalmid fish genomes exhibit high genetic heterogeneity, and multi-approach methods and regulators could improve the surveillance of the production and trade of fish species and their hybrids, thereby facilitating the sustainable development of fish farming.

  13. Subtelomeric rearrangements in Indian children with idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay: Frequency estimation & clinical correlation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shruthi; Koshy, Teena; Vekatachalam, Perumal; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Yesodharan, Dhanya; Gowrishankar, Kalpana; Kumar, Jeevan; Ravichandran, Latha; Joseph, Santhosh; Chandrasekaran, Anupama; Paul, Solomon F. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Subtelomeres are prone to deleterious rearrangements owing to their proximity to unique sequences on the one end and telomeric repetitive sequences, which increase their tendency to recombine, on the other end. These subtelomeric rearrangements resulting in segmental aneusomy are reported to contribute to the aetiology of idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD). We undertook this study to estimate the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in children with ID/DD. Methods: One hundred and twenty seven children with idiopathic ID/DD were tested for subtelomeric rearrangements using karyotyping and FISH. Blood samples were cultured, harvested, fixed and GTG-banded using the standard protocols. Results: Rearrangements involving the subtelomeres were observed in 7.8 per cent of the tested samples. Detection of rearrangements visible at the resolution of the karyotype constituted 2.3 per cent, while those rearrangements detected only with FISH constituted 5.5 per cent. Five deletions and five unbalanced translocations were detected. Analysis of parental samples wherever possible was informative regarding the inheritance of the rearrangement. Interpretation & conclusions: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements observed in this study was within the reported range of 0-35 per cent. All abnormal genotypes were clinically correlated. Further analysis with array technologies presents a future prospect. Our results suggest the need to test individuals with ID/DD for subtelomeric rearrangements using sensitive methods such as FISH. PMID:27934799

  14. Subtelomeric rearrangements in Indian children with idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay: Frequency estimation & clinical correlation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Subtelomeres are prone to deleterious rearrangements owing to their proximity to unique sequences on the one end and telomeric repetitive sequences, which increase their tendency to recombine, on the other end. These subtelomeric rearrangements resulting in segmental aneusomy are reported to contribute to the aetiology of idiopathic intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD. We undertook this study to estimate the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in children with ID/DD. Methods: One hundred and twenty seven children with idiopathic ID/DD were tested for subtelomeric rearrangements using karyotyping and FISH. Blood samples were cultured, harvested, fixed and GTG-banded using the standard protocols. Results: Rearrangements involving the subtelomeres were observed in 7.8 per cent of the tested samples. Detection of rearrangements visible at the resolution of the karyotype constituted 2.3 per cent, while those rearrangements detected only with FISH constituted 5.5 per cent. Five deletions and five unbalanced translocations were detected. Analysis of parental samples wherever possible was informative regarding the inheritance of the rearrangement. Interpretation & conclusions: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements observed in this study was within the reported range of 0-35 per cent. All abnormal genotypes were clinically correlated. Further analysis with array technologies presents a future prospect. Our results suggest the need to test individuals with ID/DD for subtelomeric rearrangements using sensitive methods such as FISH.

  15. Bounded hybrid superiority in an avian hybrid zone: effects of mate, diet, and habitat choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, T P; Ellis, J C; Annett, C A; Pierotti, R

    2000-10-01

    There has been considerable debate in the study of hybrid zones as to whether hybrids may be superior to parental types within the area of contact (bounded hybrid superiority). In birds, naturally occurring hybridization is relatively common, and hybridization within this group always involves mate choice. If hybrids are superior, females choosing heterospecific mates should be expected to show higher fitness under the conditions prevalent in the hybrid zone. Hybrid superiority under these circumstances would reduce reinforcement and thereby help to maintain the hybrid zone. To examine this issue, we studied reproductive performances of hybrids and parental species of gulls (Larus occidentalis and Larus glaucescens) at two colonies within a linear hybrid zone along the west coast of the United States. This hybrid zone contains predominantly gulls of intermediate phenotype. Previous studies indicated that hybrids were superior to one or both parental types, but provided no data on possible mechanisms that underlie this hybrid superiority. Using a hybrid index designed specifically for these species, we identified to phenotype more than 300 individuals associated with nests, including both individual males and females within 73 pairs in the central portion of the hybrid zone and 74 pairs in the northern portion of the hybrid zone. There was little evidence of assortative mating, and what little there was resulted solely because of pairings within intergrades. In the central hybrid zone, females paired with hybrid males produced larger clutches and hatched and fledged more chicks compared with females paired to western gull males. This was a result of heavy predation on eggs in sand habitat, where male western gulls established territories. In contrast, many hybrid males established territories in vegetated cover that was less vulnerable to predation. In the northern part of the hybrid zone, clutch size did not differ among pair categories, however, there were

  16. A radiation hybrid map of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) based on 1581 markers: Synteny analysis with model fish genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Richard; Senger, Fabrice; Rakotomanga, Michaelle; Sadequi, Naoual; Volckaert, Filip A M; Hitte, Christophe; Galibert, Francis

    2010-10-01

    The selective breeding of fish for aquaculture purposes requires the understanding of the genetic basis of traits such as growth, behaviour, resistance to pathogens and sex determinism. Access to well-developed genomic resources is a prerequisite to improve the knowledge of these traits. Having this aim in mind, a radiation hybrid (RH) panel of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was constructed from splenocytes irradiated at 3000 rad, allowing the construction of a 1581 marker RH map. A total of 1440 gene markers providing ~4400 anchors with the genomes of three-spined stickleback, medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish, helped establish synteny relationships with these model species. The identification of Conserved Segments Ordered (CSO) between sea bass and model species allows the anticipation of the position of any sea bass gene from its location in model genomes. Synteny relationships between sea bass and gilthead seabream were addressed by mapping 37 orthologous markers. The sea bass genetic linkage map was integrated in the RH map through the mapping of 141 microsatellites. We are thus able to present the first complete gene map of sea bass. It will facilitate linkage studies and the identification of candidate genes and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). The RH map further positions sea bass as a genetic and evolutionary model of Perciformes and supports their ongoing aquaculture expansion.

  17. Recent Results with a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector for a novel parallax-free PET Scanner for Brain Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Joram, Christian; Mathot, Serge; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, Peter; Ciocia, F; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Vilardi, I; Argentieri, A; Corsi, F; Dragone, A; Pasqua, D

    2007-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and test results of a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics. Both the photodetector and its VLSI readout electronics are custom designed and have been tailored to the requirements of a recently proposed novel geometrical concept of a Positron Emission Tomograph. Emphasis is laid on the PET specific features of the device. The detector has been fabricated in the photocathode facility at CERN.

  18. Recent results with a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector for a novel, parallax-free PET Scanner for Brain Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braem, A. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Chesi, E. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Joram, C. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Mathot, S. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Seguinot, J. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Weilhammer, P. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Peter.Weilhammer@cern.ch; Ciocia, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); De Leo, R. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Nappi, E. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Vilardi, I. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Argentieri, A. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and Politechnic of Bari, Bari (Italy); Corsi, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and Politechnic of Bari, Bari (Italy); Dragone, A. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and Politechnic of Bari, Bari (Italy); Pasqua, D. [INFN, Sezione di Bari and Politechnic of Bari, Bari (Italy)

    2007-02-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and test results of a segmented Hybrid Photon Detector with integrated auto-triggering front-end electronics. Both the photodetector and its VLSI readout electronics are custom designed and have been tailored to the requirements of a recently proposed novel geometrical concept of a Positron Emission Tomograph. Emphasis is laid on the PET specific features of the device. The detector has been fabricated in the photocathode facility at CERN.

  19. Preliminary Modelling Results for an Otto Cycle/Stirling Cycle Hybrid-engine-based Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Barry; McGovern, Jim; Feidt, Michel; Petrescu, Stoian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary data and results for a system mathematical model for a proposed Otto Cycle / Stirling Cycle hybrid-engine-based power generation system. The system is a combined cycle system with the Stirling cycle machine operating as a bottoming cycle on the Otto cycle exhaust. The application considered is that of a stationary power generation scenario wherein the Stirling cycle engine operates as a waste heat recovery device on the exhaust stream of the Otto cycle engine. ...

  20. Jovian Plasma Torus Interaction with Europa: 3D Hybrid Kinetic Simulation. First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Paterson, W. R.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Simpson, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa-moon-magnetosphere system with respect to variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flyby measurements from the Galileo orbiter mission, and for planning flyby and orbital measurements, (including the surface and atmospheric compositions) for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa (Cassidy etal.,2007;Shematovichetal.,2005). In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyro radius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ion velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field (assuming an initial Maxwellian velocity distribution for upstream background ions).Non-thermal distributions of upstream plasma will be addressed in future work. Photoionization,electron-impact ionization, charge exchange and collisions between the ions and neutrals are also included in our model. We consider two models for background plasma:(a) with O(++) ions; (b) with O(++) and S(++) ions. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended cold population (Cassidyetal.,2007). A few first simulations already include an induced magnetic dipole; however, several important effects of induced magnetic fields arising from oceanic shell conductivity will be addressed in later work.

  1. 75 FR 4350 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... food-size fish because it is only a processor of fish fillets and had no hatchery or farming FOPs... reported distance from the domestic supplier to the factory of production or the distance from the nearest seaport to the factory of production where appropriate. This adjustment is in accordance with court...

  2. 77 FR 56180 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Philippines, Indonesia and India. \\39\\ See Department Policy Bulletin No. 04.1: Non-Market Economy Surrogate... reliable broad market average for purposes of valuing whole live fish. Therefore, for the preliminary... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of...

  3. Disturbance mediated effects of fishes on stream ecosystem processes: concepts and results from highly variable prairie streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream fishes can have strong top-down and bottom-up effects on ecosystem processes. However, the dynamic nature of streams constrains our ability to generalize these effects across systems with different disturbance regimes and species composition. To evaluate the role of fishes following disturb...

  4. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique for studying the microbial communities in intestinal tissues of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique is very useful for the evaluation of microbial communities in various environments. It is possible to apply this technique to study the intestinal microflora in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. Different fixatives and storage temperature were tested in this technique. It was found that fixation with 10% buffered formalin for 12 hours and changed to 70% ethanol shown positive results when compared to the fixation with Davidson's fixative or RF fixative. The best signaling was obtainedfrom the samples which were stored in -20ºC. By using the DNA probe targeted to the Eubacteria domain (EUB338 probe, 5′-GCT GCC TCC CGT AGG AGT-3′ labeled with fluorescein as a hybridizing probe, it was found that most intestinal microflora were aggregated with the intestinal contents, or dispersed in the lumen. There was not evidence of the attachment of the microflora with the intestinal epithelium in this study.

  5. Reticulate phylogeny of gastropod-shell-breeding cichlids from Lake Tanganyika – the result of repeated introgressive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanc Michel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tribe Lamprologini is the major substrate breeding lineage of Lake Tanganyika's cichlid species flock. Among several different life history strategies found in lamprologines, the adaptation to live and breed in empty gastropod shells is probably the most peculiar. Although shell-breeding arose several times in the evolutionary history of the lamprologines, all obligatory and most facultative shell-breeders belong to the so called "ossified group", a monophyletic lineage within the lamprologine cichlids. Since their distinctive life style enables these species to live and breed in closest vicinity, we hypothesized that these cichlids might be particularly prone to accidental hybridization, and that introgression might have affected the evolutionary history of this cichlid lineage. Results Our analyses revealed discrepancies between phylogenetic hypotheses based on mitochondrial and nuclear (AFLP data. While the nuclear phylogeny was congruent with morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics, several species – usually highly specialized shell-breeders – were placed at contradicting positions in the mitochondrial phylogeny. The discordant phylogenies strongly suggest repeated incidents of introgressive hybridization between several distantly related shell-breeding species, which reticulated the phylogeny of this group of cichlids. Long interior branches and high bootstrap support for many interior nodes in the mitochondrial phylogeny argue against a major effect of ancient incomplete lineage sorting on the phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, we provide morphological and genetic (mtDNA and microsatellites evidence for ongoing hybridization among distantly related shell-breeders. In these cases, the territorial males of the inferred paternal species are too large to enter the shells of their mate, such that they have to release their sperm over the entrance of the shell to fertilize the eggs. With sperm

  6. PMC- FISHs in Hybrids of Tetraploid Cultivated and Diploid Wild Gossypium Species%四倍体栽培棉与二倍体野生棉杂种PMC-FISH研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌键; 王坤波; 邹美娟; 宋国立; 王春英; 彭仁海; 刘方; 黎绍惠; 张香娣; 王玉红

    2009-01-01

    ad + 7Ⅱdd + 5Ⅰa + 7Ⅰd for (AD)1D5 (G. hirsutum × G. raimondii), 1Ⅴaaaad +1Ⅲadd + 2Ⅱad + 8Ⅱdd + 6Ⅰa + 5Ⅰd for (AD)2D4 (G. barbadense × G. aridum), 2Ⅲadd (adc or acc) + 1Ⅱaa + 9Ⅰa + 4Ⅱcc (dc or dd) + 14Ⅰd (c) for (AD)1C3 (G. hirsutum × G. australe), and 1Ⅱaa + 1Ⅱad (ac)+ 10Ⅰa + 6Ⅱcc (dc or dd) + 13Ⅰd (c) for (AD)1C1-n (G. hirsutum × G. nandewarense), respectively. While the two cultivated tetraploid species, G. hirsutum (AD)1 and G. barbadense (AD)2, which were used for the triploid female parents, displayed the same chromosome configuration as 13Ⅱaa + 13Ⅱdd. It is obvious that there were more bivalents but less univalents in ADD [(AD)1D5 and (AD)2D4] type than that in ADC [(AD)1C3 and (AD)1C1-n] type of triploid F1 hybrids and with fewer A-subgenome univalents and more A-subgenome combined pairings in ADD than in ADC type of triploid F1 hybrids. The results indicated that specific relationship of AD cultivated tetraploid species with D genome may be much closer than with C genome, and that the PMC-FISH technology may play an irreplaceable role in the specific relationship analyses of triploid F1 hybrids in Gossypium.

  7. Hybrid pigments resulting from several guest dyes onto γ-alumina host: A spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Erik; Ibarra, Ilich A.; Guzmán, Ariel; Lima, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    The synthesis of hybrid pigments was made from combination of γ-Al2O3 and some organic chromophores such as carminic acid, alizarin, purpurin, curcumin, fluorescein and betacyanins. The γ-Al2O3 was obtained through sol-gel synthesis with 2-propanol and aluminium tri-sec-butoxide (ATB). This article presents some spectroscopic evidences related to the formation of aluminium complexes between coordinative unsaturated sites (CUS) of aluminium and some organic groups (carboxylic acid, quaternary ammonium and β-keto enol) present in the chromophores structure. The physicochemical properties upcoming from a spectroscopic analysis point out that these materials can be applied in the design of new materials with potential uses in artworks and in the field of cultural heritage.

  8. RESULTS CONCERNING THE MELLIFEROUS CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS CULTIVATED IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ION

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the melliferous characteristics of thirty three sunflowerhybrids studied in the period 2002-2006 in South Romania. The studied hybridswere the following: Festiv, Florom 350, Alex, Romina, Performer, Turbo, Favorit,Justin, Splendor, Trajano, Hercule, Felix, Select and 20 being foreign hybrids(Melody, Sunko, Sanay, Kasol, NK Dolbi, NK Ferti, NK Armoni, Opera PR, Rigasol,Huracan, Podium, Fleuret OR, Rigasol, OR, Mateol, Lindor, Fly, Arena, Alexandra,Masai, SaxoIn order to evaluate the quantity of sugar per hectare and further the potential yieldof honey per hectare, the nectar secretion (capillaries method, the sugarconcentration of the nectar (refractometer method, the number of flowers per headand the number of plants per hectare were determined during field studies.

  9. 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), including testing the PHEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 12,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt PHEV (VIN 1G1RD6E48BU100815). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  10. 2011 Honda CR-Z 2982 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Tyler [Intertek Testing Services NA, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Center for Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology (CECET); Wishart, Jeffrey [Intertek Testing Services NA, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Center for Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology (CECET); Shirk, Matthew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C64BS002982). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. 2011 Honda CR-Z 4466 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C67BS004466). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 6063 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Toyota Prius HEV (VIN JTDKN3DU5A0006063). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of Spontaneous Interspecific Hybrid Between Oryza sativa and Oryza minuta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-deng YI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH is a powerful tool to characterize parental chromosomes in interspecific hybrids, including the behaviour of autosynapsis and chromosome pairing. It was used to distinguish the chromosomes of Oryza sativa from wild species in a spontaneous interspecific hybrid and to investigate the chromosome pairing at metaphase I in meiosis of the hybrid in this study. The hybrid was a triploid with 36 chromosomes according to the chromosome number investigated in mitosis of root tips. During metaphase I of meiosis in the hybrid, less chromosome pairing was observed and most of the chromosomes existed as univalent. Based on GISH and FISH (Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses, the chromosomes of the hybrid were composed of genomes A, B and C. Thus, it was believed that the hybrid was the result of natural hybridization between cultivated rice and wild species O. minuta which was planted in experimental fields.

  14. 应用FISH-AFLP技术分析平欧杂种榛主栽品种的遗传关系%Analysis of the Genetic Relationship of the Main Cultivars of Ping’ou Hybrid Hazelnut (C. heterophylla×C. avellana) by FISH-AFLP Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马庆华; 陈新; 赵天田; 刘庆忠; 王贵禧

    2013-01-01

    [目的]建立平欧杂种榛FISH-AFLP技术体系,并应用该技术分析平欧杂种榛主栽品种的遗传关系。[方法]以达维等10个主栽品种为试材,经 DNA 提取、PstⅠ/MseⅠ双酶切,进行 FISH-AFLP 反应,数据转换为“0-1”矩阵后,使用NTSYS pc 2.11F和Popgene 1.32软件进行数据分析并作图。[结果]从64对引物中,筛选出15对多态性强的PstⅠ/MseⅠ引物,共获得1739条谱带,引物平均多态带比率97.94%;平欧杂种榛主栽品种的相似性系数为0.7556-0.8543,当阈值为0.8398时,可分成4个AFLP群,其中,玉坠(84-310)、辽榛4号(85-41)和平欧69号(84-69)单独为1群,其他品种为1群;平欧杂种榛主栽品种的有效等位基因数、基因多样度、Shannon信息指数分别为1.3921、0.2482和0.3957,具有较高的遗传多样性;研究获得的特征条带可用于平欧杂种榛主栽品种的快速鉴别。[结论]由于平欧杂种榛的实生选优群体是多亲本组合的混合后代,因此,该群体是一个具有高度遗传多样性的群体,主栽品种间存在复杂的亲缘关系;研究构建的FISH-AFLP技术流程、筛选得到的引物以及分析得到的各项遗传参数,可为其他榛属植物的相关研究提供参考。%[Objective]The objective of this study is to establish FISH-AFLP analysis system for Ping’ou hybrid hazelnut and analyze the genetic relationship of the main cultivars.[Method]Ten main cultivars, such as Dawei, were selected as materials. High-quality genomic DNA was extracted with improved CTAB method, and the purified DNA samples were digested with PstⅠ/MseⅠ. After ligation reaction, the samples were used to perform FISH-AFLP detection. The information of all bands was converted into“0-1”matrix. NTSYS pc 2.11F and Popgene 1.32 software were used to conduct the data analysis and plotting.[Result]The results showed that:15 PstⅠ/MseⅠ primer pairs were selected from 64

  15. Proceedings of the Mongolian Biodiversity Databank Workshop: Assessing the Conservation Status of Mongolian Mammals and Fishes: I - Results and Outputs of the Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Clark

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mongolian Biodiversity Databank Workshop was held at the National University of Mongolia and Hustai National Park from 1 st October to 4 th November, 2005. Participants assessed the conserva- tion status of all Mongolian mammals and fishes using the IUCN Categories and Criteria, and also met the other main objectives of the workshop, including: creating a Biodiversity Databank, revising species lists and maps for Mongolian mammals and fishes, and developing Summary Conservation Action Plans for a number of threatened or commercially important species. This article includes information about the IUCN Categories and Criteria used to assess Mongolian mammals and fish and these outputs. The Biodiversity Databank holds baseline data on the ecology, distribution, threats, conservation measures, and conservation status for all Mongolian mammals and fishes. Revised species lists have been agreed upon for the Biodiversity Databank project including 128 native species of mammals and 64 native spe- cies of fish. Digital maps have been produced for all mammals and fish, where data exists. Results of the workshop should provide baseline information for conservation of Mongolian biodiversity and provide resources for researchers.

  16. Chromosome painting by GISH and multi-color FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful cytogenetic technique for identifying chromosomes and mapping specific genes and DNA sequences on individual chromosomes. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and multi-color FISH (mc-FISH) represent two special types of FISH techniques. Both ...

  17. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2010/2011 : Individual refuge results for Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Big Muddy NFWR and is part of the USGS Data Series 643. The survey was conducted to better...

  18. Preliminary Results for Biochemical Profile Before Slaughtering and Meat Quality of Three Beef Commercial Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA NARCISA POSTOLACHE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is subscribed of an extensive project that has as main objective the production of crossbred specialized beef hybrids from reformed Romanian Black Spotted cattle's with bulls from breeds specialized for meat production (Blue Blanch Belgique, Aberdeen-Angus and Limousin. Averaged biochemical indicators analyzed showed a normal state of animal's health. The obtained half-breeds products (bulls were raised under semi-intensively conditions and slaughtered at 12 months of age. Live weight, back-fat thickness and carcass traits were significantly influenced by breed, all fat parameters being lower at this age than at standard minimum age of slaughter for meat production (18 months. Drip loss and chemical composition were similar for the breeds. The meat was lighter and pH24 values of longissimus muscle were between 5.57 and 5.64. Sensory panel tenderness and Warner-Bratzler shear force values indicated tougher meat at RBSxAA than at RBSxL1 or RBSxBBB. Differences in meat quality were probably due to the combined effects of brute chemical composition and pH dynamic during ripening. It is concluded that slaughtering steers at younger ages may require supplementary feeding, being recommended a slaughter age between 18 and 25 months old.

  19. Radiological impact of the nuclear power plant accident on freshwater fish in Fukushima: An overview of monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Toshihiro; Tomiya, Atsushi; Enomoto, Masahiro; Sato, Toshiyuki; Morishita, Daigo; Izumi, Shigehiko; Niizeki, Kouji; Suzuki, Shunji; Morita, Takami; Kawata, Gyo

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide ((131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs) concentrations of monitored freshwater fish species collected from different habitats (rivers, lakes, and culture ponds) in Fukushima Prefecture during March 2011-December 2014 (total 16 species, n = 2692) were analyzed to present a detailed description of radionuclide contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, and to elucidate species-specific spatiotemporal declining trends of (137)Cs concentration for their respective habitats. Low concentrations of (131)I (≤24 Bq kg(-1)-wet) were detected from only 11 samples collected during March-June 2011, demonstrating that (131)I transferred to freshwater fish were not intense. In river and lake fishes, a more gradual decrease and higher radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) concentrations were observed than in culture pond fishes, which strongly implied that radiocesium in freshwater fish species was mainly bioaccumulated through the food web in the wild. During 2011-2014, percentages above the Japanese regulatory limit of 100 Bq kg(-1)-wet for radiocesium in river and lake fish (14.0% and 39.6%, respectively) were higher than in monitored marine fish (9.9%), indicating longer-term contamination of freshwater fish species, especially in lakes. Higher radiocesium concentrations (maximum 18.7 kBq kg(-1)-wet in Oncorhynchus masou) were found in the northwestern areas from the FDNPP with higher deposition. However, radiocesium contamination levels were regarded as 1-2 orders of magnitude less than those after the Chernobyl accident. Lagged increase of (137)Cs concentration and longer ecological half-lives (Teco: 1.2-2.6 y in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) were observed in carnivorous salmonids (O. masou, Salvelinus leucomaenis), whereas a rapid increase and decrease of (137)Cs concentration and shorter Teco (0.99 and 0.69 y) were found in herbivorous and planktivorous osmerids (Plecoglossus altivelis, Hypomesus nipponensis) with

  20. Different gene expression profiles in normo- and dyslipidemic men after fish oil supplementation: results from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Simone

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have suggested the benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs on cardiovascular health, but only limited data are available describing n-3 PUFA regulated pathways in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 PUFA administration on whole genome expression profiles in the blood of normo- and dyslipidemic subjects. Methods Differentially expressed genes were detected after four hours, one week and twelve weeks of supplementation with either fish oil (FO or corn oil in normo- and dyslipidemic men using whole genome microarrays. Results Independent of the oil, a significantly higher number of genes was regulated in dyslipidemic subjects compared to normolipidemic subjects. Pathway analyses discovered metabolisms dominantly affected by FO after twelve weeks of supplementation, including the lipid metabolism, immune system and cardiovascular diseases. Several pro-inflammatory genes, in particular, were down-regulated in dyslipidemic subjects, indicating the immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory capability of FO and its bioactive FAs, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Conclusions This is the first study showing significant differences in gene expression profiles between normo- and dyslipidemic men after FO supplementation. Further studies need to clarify the exact role of n-3 PUFAs in pathways and metabolisms which were identified as being regulated after FO supplementation in this study. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT01089231

  1. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  2. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development IV: fish mortality resulting from turbine passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turbak, S. C.; Reichle, D. R.; Shriner, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    This document presents a state-of-the-art review of literature concerning turbine-related fish mortality. The review discusses conventional and, to a lesser degree, pumped-storage (reversible) hydroelectric facilities. Much of the research on conventional facilities discussed in this report deals with studies performed in the Pacific Northwest and covers both prototype and model studies. Research conducted on Kaplan and Francis turbines during the 1950s and 1960s has been extensively reviewed and is discussed. Very little work on turbine-related fish mortality has been undertaken with newer turbine designs developed for more modern small-scale hydropower facilities; however, one study on a bulb unit (Kaplan runner) has recently been released. In discussing turbine-related fish mortality at pumped-storage facilities, much of the literature relates to the Ludington Pumped Storage Power Plant. As such, it is used as the principal facility in discussing research concerning pumped storage.

  3. An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G

    2010-09-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels.

  4. Reduced growth in hybrid tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus ×O. Niloticus) at intermediate stocking density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cui, Yi-Bo; Yang, Yun-Xia; Cai, Fa-Sheng

    2002-12-01

    Hybrid tilapia were reared at densities of 1, 5 or 10 fish per tank for four weeks. Mortality was 0 at 1 and 10 fish per tank, but was 25% at 5 fish per tank. Specific growth rate was highest at 1 fish per tank, and lowest at 5 fish per tank. The lower growth rate at the intermediate stocking density was associated with reduced feed efficiency, but there was no reduction in feed intake or digestibility. The results suggested increased metabolic cost caused by aggressive behaviour at intermediate stocking density, which can be suppressed by a further increase in density.

  5. REDUCED GROWTH IN HYBRID TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS MOSSAMBICUS×O. NILOTICUS) AT INTERMEDIATE STOCKING DENSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩; 崔奕波; 杨云霞; 蔡发盛

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid tilapia were reared at densities of 1, 5 or 10 fish per tank for four weeks. Mortality was 0 at 1 and 10 fish per tank, but was 25% at 5 fish per tank. Specific growth rate was highest at 1 fish per tank, and lowest at 5 fish per tank. The lower growth rate at the intermediate stocking density was associated with reduced feed efficiency, but there was no reduction in feed intake or digestibility. The results suggested increased metabolic cost caused by aggressive behaviour at intermediate stocking density, which can be suppressed by a further increase in density.

  6. Interspecific mating of the introduced bumblebee Bombus terrestris and the native Japanese bumblebee Bombus hypocrita sapporoensis results in inviable hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbe, Yuya; Okada, Ikuko; Yoneda, Masahiro; Goka, Koichi; Tsuchida, Koji

    2008-10-01

    The bumblebee Bombus terrestris is not only an effective pollinator, but also a potential invasive alien species outside its native range. Recently, nearly 30% of queens of the Japanese native species Bombus hypocrita sapporoensis and B. hypocrita hypocrita were estimated to copulate with B. terrestris males in the field, suggesting that indigenous bumblebees could be genetically deteriorated through hybrid production with the introduced species. In this study, we evaluated hybrid production between the introduced B. terrestris and the indigenous B. hypocrita sapporoensis under laboratory conditions. The hatching rate of eggs derived from interspecific matings was 0% and 8.6% depending on the direction of the cross, which was significantly lower than that from intraspecific matings of B. terrestris (76.9%) and B. hypocrita sapporoensis (78.9%). Genetic studies using microsatellite markers revealed that both haploid and diploid individuals were present in the egg stage, whereas all hatched larvae were haploid. In addition, histological studies revealed that eggs derived from interspecific matings terminated development 2 days after oviposition. These results strongly suggested that eggs derived from interspecific matings are inviable due to post-mating isolation mechanisms. Mass release of exotic pollinators could cause serious population declines of native bumblebee species.

  7. 76 FR 35403 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Comparable Merchandise C. Data Considerations Comment II: Surrogate Values A. Financial Ratios i. Whether To Reject Gemini's Financial Ratios Due to the Subsidies Listed in the Financial Statement ii. Which Financial Statements Represent the Best Source for Calculating Financial Ratios B. Byproducts i. Fish...

  8. Leptin stimulates hepatic growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor gene expression in a teleost fish, the hybrid striped bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eugene T; Douros, Jonathan D; Hurt, David A; Borski, Russell J

    2016-04-01

    Leptin is an anorexigenic peptide hormone that circulates as an indicator of adiposity in mammals, and functions to maintain energy homeostasis by balancing feeding and energy expenditure. In fish, leptin tends to be predominantly expressed in the liver, another important energy storing tissue, rather than in fat depots as it is in mammals. The liver also produces the majority of circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which comprise the mitogenic component of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF endocrine growth axis. Based on similar regulatory patterns of leptin and IGFs that we have documented in previous studies on hybrid striped bass (HSB: Morone saxatilis×Morone chrysops), and considering the co-localization of these peptides in the liver, we hypothesized that leptin might regulate the endocrine growth axis in a manner that helps coordinate somatic growth with energy availability. Using a HSB hepatocyte culture system to simulate autocrine or paracrine exposure that might occur within the liver, this study examines the potential for leptin to modulate metabolism and growth through regulation of IGF gene expression directly, or indirectly through the regulation of GH receptors (GHR), which mediate GH-induced IGF expression. First, we verified that GH (50nM) has a classical stimulatory effect on IGF-1 and additionally show it stimulates IGF-2 transcription in hepatocytes. Leptin (5 and/or 50nM) directly stimulated in vitro GHR2 gene expression within 8h of exposure, and both GHR1 and GHR2 as well as IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression after 24h. Cells were then co-incubated with submaximal concentrations of leptin and GH (25nM each) to test if they had a synergistic effect on IGF gene expression, possibly through increased GH sensitivity following GHR upregulation by leptin. In combination, however, the treatments only had an additive effect on stimulating IGF-1 mRNA despite their capacity to increase GHR mRNA abundance. This suggests that leptin's stimulatory

  9. Anisakid nematodes as possible markers to trace fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ferrantelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a total of 949 fish samples were analysed for the identification of nematode larvae belonging to the Anisakidae family. Biomolecular application for the identification of Anisakidae larvae can be an optimal instrument for the traceability of fish products, described on the Reg. EC 178/2002. Results confirm a correlation between geographical distribution of fishes and presence of specific Anisakid larvae. FAO 37 zone (Mediterranean sea showed a prevailing distribution of Anisakis pegreffii and a minimal presence of A. simplex s.s. in hybrid form with Anisakis pegreffii. FAO 27 zone showed a prevailing distribution of A. simplex s.s. in fish like Brosme (Brosme brosme and infestation prevalence of Pseudoterranova krabbei and P. decipiens s.s. in Gadus morhua. Obtained results validate the hypothesis that molecular biology methods for identifying Anisakidae larvae are effective traceability markers of fish products.

  10. Characterizations of Polystyrene-Based Hybrid Particles Containing Hydrophobic Mg(OH2 Powder and Composites Fabricated by Employing Resultant Hybrid Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Kimura

    2007-01-01

    unchanged, even when the ST-1 powder content increased from 10 to 50 phr. Furthermore, a composite fabricated by employing the hybrid particles achieved homogenous distribution of ST-1 powder and showed a higher oxygen index than that of a composite fabricated by directly mixing of PS pellets and ST-1 powder.

  11. Mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in Asian market fish: a response to results from mercury biomonitoring in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Wendy; Chang, Moses; Arnason, John; Jeffery, Nancy; Kricheff, Judith; Kass, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    In 2004, the New York City (NYC) Health and Nutrition Examination Survey measured the highest blood mercury levels in Asian and foreign-born Chinese demographic groups. Fish consumption was the strongest predictor of exposure. The survey did not inquire about consumption of individual species, and subsequent visits to fish markets serving the Asian community suggested that many popular species lack contaminant data. Our objective was to supplement existing information on contaminants in commercial fish by collecting data on species present in markets serving the Asian community. We measured total mercury and the sum of 101 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in 282 individual specimens of 19 species or products from retail fish markets in Chinese neighborhoods in NYC. Species were selected based on their volume in the market, and an absence or insufficiency of national data on mercury levels. PCBs were measured because they are also contaminants of concern. All measurements were made on a wet weight basis on whole fillets (with skin) or products (drained of liquid). Mean mercury levels ranged from below the limit of detection (0.004microg/g) in tilapia to 0.229microg/g in tilefish. The highest mercury level (1.150microg/g) was measured in a tilefish specimen, and mercury levels in tilefish increased with the specimen size. Mean PCB levels ranged from 1ng/g in red snapper to 98ng/g in buffalo carp. The highest PCB levels were measured in a buffalo carp (469ng/g) and a yellow croaker (495ng/g). Species-specific differences in PCB levels accounted for only 6.3% of total variability, in contrast with 39.2% for mercury. Although we did not measure high mean mercury levels in the species we sampled, frequent consumption of fish with low to moderate levels can also elevate blood mercury. The data we collected can be used to guide fish consumption in Asian communities. However, risk-benefit trade-offs also need to be considered.

  12. Technological exploration of BAC-FISH on mitotic chromosomes of maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongsheng TAO; Zuxin ZHANG; Yonglin CHEN; Lijia LI; Yonglian ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    The rice BAC-DNA was used as probes and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to the interphase and metaphase mitotic chromosomes of maize. To optimize the BAC-FISH technique, we respect-ively assayed the effect of several factors, including maize or rice genomic Cot DNA used as blocking reagent of DNA, washing temperatures and FAD concentration in the washing buffer and in the hybrid solution. The results show that Cot DNA of maize genome blocked the repet-itive sequence of the rice BAC-DNA when the Cot value was below 50. Meanwhile, it was necessary to adjust the Cot value according to the different probes and their ratios. Decreasing the concentration of FAD in the hybridization mixtures, adjusting the washing rate after hybridization, and most especially, blocking the rice-specific repetitive sequences of BAC-DNA could improve the positive signals of BAC-FISH.

  13. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  14. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  15. Experimental results for improving the matrix condition using a hybrid optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Iftach; Mendlovic, David

    2012-03-01

    We present preliminary experimental results for implementing the "blurred trajectories" method on three parallel optics (PO) systems. The "main" system and "auxiliary" optics were simple laboratory graded lenses attached to an iris diaphragm. When applying the blurred trajectories method we first show an improvement in the matrix condition, as the matrix condition number decreased in a range of factors of 3 to 418 relative to the main system. Following that, image restoration by weak regularization was performed so that the system matrix condition dominated the restoration process. It was shown that the restoration results of the PO are better than those of the main system and the auxiliary optics separately. In addition, the quality of the restoration follows the system's matrix condition. The improvement in the matrix condition achieved by the PO system improved the immunity to detection noise. Finally, a comparison to Wiener filtering restoration shows that it is also generally inferior to the proposed method.

  16. Experimental Results of Aquasol Project: Development of an Advanced Hybrid Solar-Gas Multi-Effect Distillation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, D.; Blanco, J.; Lozano, A.; Malato, S.; Maldonado, M. I.; Fernandez, P.

    2006-07-01

    Main objective of R and D AQUASOL Project has been the development of a zero-discharge, improved cost and energy-efficient seawater desalination technology based on the multi-effect distillation (MED) process. During the course of the demonstration phase, an advanced hybrid solar/gas desalination system has been implemented at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria installations, in order to evaluate under real atmospheric conditions its reliability and energy efficiency. This paper shows the first results obtained of the MED unit performance working with a 500-m2 CPC solar collector field and the new double-effect absorption (H2O-LiBr) heat pump, which has allowed a very important increase in the overall thermal efficiency of the process. (Author)

  17. Global effects of transmitted shock wave propagation through the Earth's inner magnetosphere: First results from 3-D hybrid kinetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2016-09-01

    We use a new hybrid kinetic model to simulate the response of ring current, outer radiation belt, and plasmaspheric particle populations to impulsive interplanetary shocks. Since particle distributions attending the interplanetary shock waves and in the ring current and radiation belts are non-Maxwellian, wave-particle interactions play a crucial role in energy transport within the inner magnetosphere. Finite gyroradius effects become important in mass loading the shock waves with the background plasma in the presence of higher energy ring current and radiation belt ions and electrons. Initial results show that shocks cause strong deformations in the global structure of the ring current, radiation belt, and plasmasphere. The ion velocity distribution functions at the shock front, in the ring current, and in the radiation belt help us determine energy transport through the Earth's inner magnetosphere.

  18. Three- to five-year results with the cementless Harris-Galante acetabular component used in hybrid total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienapfel, H; Pitzer, W; Griss, P

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we present our 3- to 5-year results after hybrid total hip replacement using the cementless porous coated Harris-Galante acetabular component and the cemented Griss femoral component in 39 patients with 40 implantations. Postoperatively, mild to moderate pain was experienced by 16.1% of patients, mostly following hard activity. A slight to moderate limp occurred in 24.2%. All patients were able to walk more than 1000 m. Full-time use of support was required by 2.8%. The postoperative range of motion was increased in 93.9%. Radiographically, none of the acetabular or femoral components had to be classified as unstable. Only one acetabular component displayed complete (i.e., along all interface zones) radiolucency and was therefore classified as possibly unstable.

  19. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in different ploidy levels cross-breeding of lily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available 21 crossing were conducted between Asiatic Lily with different ploidy levels, the results showed that the interploidy hybridization between diploid and tetraploid lilies was not as successful as intraploidy hybridization. Regardless of male sterility, triploid lilies could be used as female parents in the hybridization which the progenies were aneuploidy. 3x×4x crosses could be cultured more successfully than 3x×2x crosses. 45S rDNA was mapped on the chromosomes of seven Lilium species and their progenies using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. FISH revealed six to sixteen 45S rDNA gene loci, and normally the sites were not in pairs. The asymmetry indexes of LA (Longiflorum hybrids × Asiatic hybrids hybrids was higher than Asiatic hybrids, the evolution degree was LA hybrids > Asiatic hybrids. 45S rDNA distributed variably on chromosome 1-10 and 12 among Asiatic hybrids. Chromosome 1 had invariable sites of 45S rDNA in all Asiatic hybrids, which could be considered as the characteristic of Asiatic hybrids. LA hybrid 'Freya' had two sites of 45S rDNA on one homologous chromosome 5, and also it could be found in the progenies. The karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA as probe were applied to identify the different genotypes of 9 hybrids. Typical chromosomes with parental signal sites could be observed in all the genotypes of hybrids, it was confirmed that all the hybrids were true.

  20. Comparative analysis of results of treatment patients with severe spinal deformities using screw and a hybrid hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Baklanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: evaluation of efficacy of operative treatment with the use of screw and hybrid metal constructions in idiopathic scoliosis associated with severe spine deformities. Material and methods: The outcomes of treatment of 34 patients aged 15 to 27 years old with severe scoliosisoperated on using screw metal constructions, were reviewed. 22 patients operated on with the use of hybrid metal constructions, made a control group. The groups were compared by the following parameters: pre- and postoperative Cobb angle, deformity mobility according to traction test, total sagittal/frontal balance, CT apical vertebra rotation, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, the number of instrumented vertebrae, and correction failure at 24-hr spondylograms. Results: Group A (screw spine fixation demonstrated better outcomes compared to group B (combined spine fixation in the following parameters. Postoperative correction was 48% and 41%;apical vertebra rotation decreased from 78° to 55° (30% and from 74° to 59°(21%;total sagittal/frontal balance decreased from 39/25 mmto 14/12 mm (64/52% and from 35/26 mm to 16/15 mm (55/43%, correspondingly. These results suggest better trunk compensation and postoperative correction in a group of patients with screw fixation. Smaller values of correction failure of the main arc as well as insignificant increase of thoracic kyphosis in the postoperative period (24 months 3.8%/4.3% in group A compared to 6.2%/7.5% in group B testify to greater reliability and stability of ‘all screw’ metal constructions. The number of fixed elements was on average one more in a group with combined fixation (13 and 14, correspondingly.

  1. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development IV: Fish Mortality Resulting From Turbine Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turbak, Susan C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reichle, Donna R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shriner, Carole R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide summary information for use by potential developers and regulators of small-scale hydroelectric projects (defined as existing dams that can be retrofitted to a total site capacity of ≤30 MW), where turbine-related mortality of fish is a potential issue affecting site-specific development. Mitigation techniques for turbine-related mortality are not covered in this report.

  2. Fish as a proxy for African paleogeography: results from both extant and fossil taxa and prospects to constrain faunal exchange pathway through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Olga; Joordens, Josephine; Dettai, Agnès; Christ, Leemans; Pinton, Aurélie

    2016-04-01

    reveal ancient distributions. The further we are going back in time the more they will constitute most of or the whole relevant sample. Our results also suggest that information on the (paleo)ecology of the fish provides useful data notably to qualify the aquatic systems that have prevailed at the time of connection between basins. So, changes in basin geomorphology constrain fish evolution, and thus we are able to reconstruct and date these changes thanks to fish evolution studies. Since it is widely agreed that the identification of corridors and barriers is critical to understand faunal exchange, we are convinced that for each case study, we can identify the fish (either fossil or extant) that will provide a relevant "geomorphological model". To validate this approach, our current project aims to identify the exchange corridor that may have intermittently existed between the Chad and Turkana basins during the last 3 million years [6]. These corridors may have constituted possible pathways for interbasinal exchange of large mammals at a key time period of Australopithecine evolution. We will end our presentation with preliminary results concerning phylogeography of the extant catfish Synodontis schall, one of our three model species. [1] Pinton A., Otero O. in progress - How much do fish distribution depend on drainage system history? the case study of continental Africa. [2] Pinton A., Agnèse J.F., Paugy D., Otero O. 2013 - A large-scale phylogeny of Synodontis (Mochokidae, Siluriformes) reveals the influence of geological events on continental diversity during the Cenozoic. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 66 (2013): 1027-1040. [3] Otero O. 2011 - Current knowledge and new assumptions on the evolutionary history of the African lungfish, Protopterus, based on a review of its fossil record. Fish & Fisheries, 2011(12): 235-255. [4] Otero O., Pinton A., Mackaye H.T., Likius A., Vignaud P., Brunet M. 2009 - Fishes and palaeogeography of the African drainage basins

  3. Simulation of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power train of an automated guided vehicle and comparison with experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bram Veenhuizen; J.C.N. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    At HAN University research has been started into the development of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train to be used in an automated guided vehicle. For this purpose a test facility is used with the possibility to test all important functional aspects of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train. In this

  4. Simulation of the PEM fuel cell hybrid power train of an automated guided vehicle and comparison with experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuizen, Bram; Bosma, J.C.N.

    2009-01-01

    At HAN University research has been started into the development of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train to be used in an automated guided vehicle. For this purpose a test facility is used with the possibility to test all important functional aspects of a PEM fuel cell hybrid power train. In this pape

  5. THE EFFECT OF FISH FEEDING WITH ADDITIVES NUPRO® AND BIO-MOS® ON THE RESULTS OF THE REARING OF AGE-1+ CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Vaschenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of feed fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing of age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Methodology. The study of the effect of feeding fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L. of “Nyvka” scaled intrabreed type were performed based on the conventional methodology. The experiments were carried out in ponds condition of the research farm "Nyvka" of the Institute of Fisheries during 3 months. For the experiments, we used 0.5 ha ponds, which were stocked with age-1 carp. The stocking density was 3000 individuals per ha or 1500 individuals per pond. Findings. The study demonstrated that feeding age-1+ carp with the balanced combined feed PKS 111 2/2/4 enriched with the food additives NUPRO® (5% and BIO-MOS® (2% increased the intensity of their growth compared to that in the control group of fish, which were fed with the combined feed of the same composition but without feed additives. Using these additives in the combined feed composition increased fish growth by 12.4% when BIO-MOS® was used and by 57.3% with NUPRO®. The fish output increased by 2% and 4%, respectively. Feed costs reduced by 2.8 an 2.6 versus 3 kg/ha in the control group. All hydrochemical indices in the experimental ponds were within normal limits and temperature condition was optimal for fish growth and metabolism. Therefore, adding these feed additives in age-1+ carp diet allows obtaining additional weight gain and more effective utilization of the feed used. Originality. The analysis of the effect of adding the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® into combined on productive parameters of age-1+ carp of “Nyvka” scaled intrabreed type was carried out for the first time. Practical value. The feed additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® are recommended to be used when feeding age-1+ carp for increasing fish productivity and reducing feed costs.

  6. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-01-01

    The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain ...

  7. Progress in molecular diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth-disease type 1 (CMT 1, HMSN I) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-detection of a potential genetic mosaicism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, K.; Liehr. T.; Ekici, A. [Institute for Human Genetics, Erlange (Germany)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We tested 20 CMT 1 patients characterized according to the criteria of the European CMT consortium by Southern hybridization of MspI restricted genomic DNA with probes pVAW409R1, pVAW412Hec and pEW401HE. In 11 of the 20 CMT 1 cases (55%), we observed a duplication in 17q11.2; one patient had a dinucleotide insertion in exon 6 of the PO-gene (5%). One HNPP case had a typical 17p11.2 deletion. Analysis of CA-repeats was performed with primers RM11GT and Mfd41; SSCP-analysis of the PO, PMP22 and Cx32-genes is in progress. FISH was carried out with probe pVAW409R1. 125 interphase nuclei were analyzed for each proband by counting the signals per nucleus. Normal cells show a characteristic distribution of signals: 1 signal in 5.9% of nuclei, 2 in 86.3% and 3 in 7.8%. A duplication is indicated by a shift to 3 signals in more than approximately 60% and 2 in less than 25% of the nuclei. In contrast, the 17p11.2 deletion of the HNPP patient shifts to 82.4% of nuclei with a single hybridization signal versus 14.4% with 2 signals. We detected one case with significantly abnormal distribution of interphase nuclei hybridization signals compared to cultures of normal cells and to those with 17p11.2 duplication or deletion: 3.2% nuclei revealed 1 signal, 48.0% two signals and 48.8% 3 signals, indicating a pathogenic but moderate dosis increase compared to the throughout duplicated cases. FISH with probe pVAW409R1 is a versatile tool to detect the HNPP deletion both in interphase nuclei and in metaphase chromosomes. In CMT 1 disease interphase nuclei are required for FISH analysis due to the small duplication of 1.5 Mbp. In contrast to Southern techniques, FISH is able to detect genetic mosaicism.

  8. Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of Spontaneous Interspecific Hybrid Between Oryza sativa and Oryza minuta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Chuan-deng; CHENG Xu; WANG Bei-bei; LIANG Guo-hua; GONG Zhi-yun; TANG Shu-zhu; GU Ming-hong

    2008-01-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) is a powerful tool to characterize parental chromosomes in interspecific hybrids, including the behaviour of autosynapsis and chromosome paidng. It was used to distinguish the chromosomes of Oryza sativa from wild species in a spontaneous interspecific hybdd and to investigate the chromosome pairing at metaphase I in meiosis of the hybdd in this study. The hybrid was a triploid with 36 chromosomes according to the chromosome nurnber investigated in mitosis of root tips. During metaphase I of meiosis in the hybrid, less chromosome pairing was observed and most of the chromosomes existed as univalent. Based on GISH and FISH (Fluorescent in situ hybridization) analyses, the chromosomes of the hybrid were composed of genomes A, B and C. Thus, it was believed that the hybrid was the result of natural hybridization between cultivated rice and wild species O. minuta which was planted in experimental fields.

  9. Development and characterization of interspecific hybrids between Oryza sativa and O. latifolia by in situ hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI ChuanDeng; TANG ShuZhu; ZHOU Yong; LIANG GuoHua; GONG ZhiYun; GU MingHong

    2008-01-01

    Oryza sativa and O. latifolia belong to the AA and CCDD genomes of Oryza, respectively. In this study, interspecific hybrids of these species were obtained using the embryo rescue technique. Hybrid pani-cle traits, such as long awns, small grain, exoteric large purple stigma, grain shattering and dispersed panicles, resemble that of the paternal parent, O. latifolia, whereas there is obvious heterosis in such respects as plant height, tillering ability and vegetative vigor. Chromosome pairing and the genomic components of the hybrid were subsequently investigated using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Based on the mitotic metaphase chromosome numbers of the root tips investigated, the hybrid is a triploid with 36 chromosomes. The genomic con-stitution of the hybrid is ACD. In the meiotic metaphase I of the hybrid pollen mother cell, poor chro-mosome pairing was identified and most of the chromosomes were univalent, which resulted in com-plete male sterility in the hybrid.

  10. Turbulent mixing at high Schmidt number: new results from a hybrid spectral compact finite difference and dual grid resolution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, M. P.; Yeung, P. K.; Gotoh, T.

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent mixing at high Schmidt number (Sc) (low molecular diffusivity) is characterized by fluctuations that arise at sub-Kolmogorov scales and are hence difficult to resolve or measure. Simulations in the recent past have provided some basic results but were still limited in either the Reynolds number or the Schmidt number. We have developed a massively parallel implementation of a hybrid pseudo-spectral and combined compact finite difference technique where the velocity and scalar fields are computed at different grid resolutions (the latter up to 81923). A specific target is the scalar field maintained by a uniform mean gradient at Taylor-scale Reynolds number 140 and Sc = 512 , which is comparable to the value (700) for salinity in the ocean. Preliminary results at moderately high Sc are in support of Batchelor (k-1) scaling for the spectrum in the viscous-convective range, followed by exponential fall-off in the viscous-diffusive range. Data over a wide range of Reynolds and Schmidt numbers are used to examine the approach to local isotropy and a saturation of intermittency suggested by previous work. Supported by NSF Grant ACI-1036170 and a subaward via UIUC.

  11. Evaluación de los desechos de pescado frescos y ensilados en la alimentación de híbridos de Clarias gariepinus X C. macrocephalus (Fresh fishing offals and silage evaluation for hybrid of Clarias gariepinus X C. macrocephalus feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llanes Iglesias, José E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe evaluó el uso de los desechos frescos de pescado y sus respectivos ensilados por vías biológica y bioquímica, como única fuente de proteína animal en dietas húmedas para alevines de híbridos de Clarias gariepinus X C. macrocephalus (4,53+ 0,05g, las que fueron comparadas con un Alimento Comercial (20% de harina de desechos de pescado durante 60 días. Los resultados mostraron que los mejores indicadores de crecimiento y utilización de la proteína fueron obtenidos con los desechos frescos, los que difirieron significativamente (P85%, fue similar entre las dietas. Los ensilados y la harina de pescado no difirieron significativamente en los indicadores evaluados, siendo una alternativa para la producción de alimentos acuícola para países en vía de desarrollo. AbstractThis study evaluated the use of fresh fishes wastes and their respectives silages by biologic and quimic methodogies like only one source of animal protein in moist diets for hybrid of Clarias gariepinus X C. macrocephalus (4,53+ 0,05g. These were compared with a comercial foods (20% of fish wastes meal, during 60 days. The results showed that better growth and use of protein were obtened with fresh waste, what were differed significatively (P<0.05, to silage and fish meal. Beside, the use of food conversión was similar between the diets. The silage and fish meal did not differ significatively in the indicators evaluated.

  12. 荧光原位杂交技术在检测胎儿染色体亚显微结构异常中的应用%Application of the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on the prenatal diagnosis of the subtle chromosomal aberrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹爱华; 刘舒; 潘小英; 傅文婷; 王继成; 卢建; 杨洁霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the diagnostic value of the fluorescent in situ hybridization on detection of subtle chromosomal aberrations in cultured amniotic fluid cells. Methods Amniocenteses were performed in a pregnant women of 18 gestational weeks, and metaphase FISH was followed because the results of amniotic fluid karyotype and ultrasound were disagree with each other. The metaphase chromosomes were hybridized in situ with the human centromere probes of chromosome 18,X,Y and site specific probe of chromosome 13,21. The treated slides were examined and taken photos under the carl zeiss fluoromicroscope. Result Subtle translocation of chromosome Y was detected by FISH. Conclusion Our result indicated that it is very helpful for the diagnosis of subtle chromosomal aberrations by combining FISH with traditional karyotype analysis.%目的 探讨荧光原位杂交(FISH)技术在诊断培养后的羊水细胞染色体亚显微结构异常中的应用价值.方法 对1例18孕周,经典细胞遗传学羊水染色体核型分析结果与B超检查结果有不符合的胎儿,应用FISH的18号、X、Y染色体着丝粒探针和13、21号染色体位点特异性探针,对培养后的羊水中期细胞标本进行检测.结果 共分析了22个独立细胞克隆的分裂象,发现胎儿染色体存在两种核型嵌合,结果记为:mos 45,X[20]/46,XY[2];FISH检测发现此胎儿核型存在Y染色体亚显微小片段易位.结论 FISH技术结合传统细胞遗传学核型分析,对于诊断染色体亚显微结构异常非常重要.

  13. School meals with fish affect serum vitamin d in 8-11 year-old children - preliminary results from the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.-M.;

    Nordic Diet (NND) school meals with two weekly fish servings affect serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and bone in children. Methods The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy NND) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomized controlled cross......-over intervention. A total of 784 third and fourth graders received NND school meals for 3 months and habitual packed lunch for 3 months. Dietary intake and serum 25(OH)D was measured, and DXA-scans performed, at baseline and after each dietary period. Results Intake of fatty fish (? 3.6-7.2 g/d) and vitamin D (? 0...... Body Less Head size-adjusted Bone Mineral Content than the control diet, but lower in May/June (pschool meals affected vitamin D intake and ?status, and seemed to mitigate children?s decreases in 25(OH...

  14. Food and nutrient intakes of French frequent seafood consumers with regard to fish consumption recommendations: results from the CALIPSO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirot, Véronique; Dumas, Céline; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Margaritis, Irène

    2011-05-01

    Besides providing n-3 fatty acids with nutritional and health benefits, seafood consumption may contribute to the reduction of nutrient prevalences of inadequacy. To evaluate the contributions of seafood and other food groups to nutrient intakes of frequent seafood consumers, food consumption was evaluated through an FFQ on 991 French men and women (18-81 years) consuming seafood at least twice a week. Intakes, prevalence of inadequacies, risks of upper limit excess and food contributions to intakes were assessed for thirty-three nutrients. Mean fat contributions to total energy intakes (38·3 and 39·0 % for men and women, respectively) met French recommendations, but mean carbohydrate intakes (40·9 and 39·7 %, respectively) were insufficient. Micronutrient inadequacies were lower than in the French general population, the highest being for vitamin C (41·3 and 40·1 % for men and women, respectively), vitamin E (35·0 and 35·3 % for men and women, respectively) and Mg (37·5 and 25·5 % for men and women, respectively). Upper safety limits (USL) were exceeded mostly for Zn (6·2 %), Ca (3·7 %), retinol (2·0 %) and Cu (0·9 %). Mean contributions of seafood to vitamin D, B12, I and Se intakes ranged 40-65 %. Molluscs and crustaceans significantly contributed to vitamin B12 (13·7 %), Cu (11·4 %), Fe (11·5 %), Zn (8·4 %) and I (6·1 %) intakes, and canned fish contributed to vitamin D intake (13·4 %). Besides fish, contributions of mollusc and crustacean consumption to nutrient intakes should be considered from a public health viewpoint. Consuming seafood at least twice a week induces moderate inadequacies and risks of exceeding USL for some micronutrients, whereas macronutrient intakes remained imbalanced.

  15. Fish Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  16. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a clear and consistent manner, so that consumers with food allergies and their caregivers can be informed as ... the menu, cross-contact with fish is possible. Ethnic ... fish. Avoid foods like fish sticks and anchovies. Some individuals with ...

  17. DNA breakage detection-fish (DBD-FISH): effect of unwinding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Gundín, F; Gosálvez, J; de la Torre, J; Fernández, J L

    2000-09-20

    DBD-FISH is a new procedure that allows detection and quantification of DNA breakage in situ within specific DNA target sites. Cells embedded in an agarose matrix on a slide are treated in an alkaline unwinding solution to transform DNA breaks into single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). After removal of proteins, DNA probes are hybridized and detected. DNA breaks increase the ssDNA and relax supercoiling of DNA loops, so more probe hybridizes, thereby increasing the surface area and fluorescence intensity of the FISH signal. The probe selects the chromatin area to be analysed. In order to restrict the extension of unwound ssDNA to a region closer to the origin of the DNA break, human leukocytes were processed for DBD-FISH with a whole genome probe, after a 10 Gy dose of X-rays, for various unwinding times: 5, 2 min and 30s. Two cell populations were detected after 30s, but not with the 5 or 2 min unwinding times. One cell group had small to medium haloes corresponding to the relaxation of DNA supercoiling after DAPI staining, and strong DBD-FISH labelling of induced DNA breaks, whereas the other cell group showed big haloes of DNA loop unfolding and an absence of DBD-FISH labelling. The latter group was similar to cells processed by DBD-FISH without the unwinding step. Thus, they should correspond to cells unaffected by the alkaline unwinding solution, possibly because very brief unwinding times do not allow the diffusion of the alkali into the cells deep within the gel, thus biasing the results. Taking this into account, 2 min seems to be the minimum unwinding time required for an accurate detection of a signal by DBD-FISH.

  18. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species of swordtails and platies (Pisces: Genus Xiphophorus uncovers a hybrid origin of a swordtail fish, Xiphophorus monticolus, and demonstrates that the sexually selected sword originated in the ancestral lineage of the genus, but was lost again secondarily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ji Hyoun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Males in some species of the genus Xiphophorus, small freshwater fishes from Meso-America, have an extended caudal fin, or sword – hence their common name “swordtails”. Longer swords are preferred by females from both sworded and – surprisingly also, non-sworded (platyfish species that belong to the same genus. Swordtails have been studied widely as models in research on sexual selection. Specifically, the pre-existing bias hypothesis was interpreted to best explain the observed bias of females in presumed ancestral lineages of swordless species that show a preference for assumed derived males with swords over their conspecific swordless males. However, many of the phylogenetic relationships within this genus still remained unresolved. Here we construct a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of all 26 known Xiphophorus species, including the four recently described species (X. kallmani, X. mayae, X. mixei and X. monticolus. We use two mitochondrial and six new nuclear markers in an effort to increase the understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the species in this genus. Based on the phylogeny, the evolutionary history and character state evolution of the sword was reconstructed and found to have originated in the common ancestral lineage of the genus Xiphophorus and that it was lost again secondarily. Results We estimated the evolutionary relationships among all known species of the genus Xiphophorus based on the largest set of DNA markers so far. The phylogeny indicates that one of the newly described swordtail species, Xiphophorus monticolus, is likely to have arisen through hybridization since it is placed with the southern platyfish in the mitochondrial phylogeny, but with the southern swordtails in the nuclear phylogeny. Such discordance between these two types of markers is a strong indication for a hybrid origin. Additionally, by using a maximum likelihood approach the possession of the sexually

  19. Role of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH in the diagnosis of spindle and round cell tumors of the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: In summary we advise an immunohistochemical panel for round/spindle cell tumors of the kidney and for unclear cases we advise to add (FISH to get the correct diagnosis, as they are completely different regarding surgical approach and post-operative adjuvant therapy.

  20. Consumption of meat and fish and risk of lung cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Büchner, Frederike L; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Agudo, Antonio; Gram, Inger Torhild; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Berrino, Franco; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José-Maria; Rodríguez, Laudina; Sánchez, María-José; Rasmuson, Torgny; Hallmans, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Katsoulis, Michael; Oikonomou, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Peeters, Petra H M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Brennan, Paul; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Xun, Wei W; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio

    2011-06-01

    Evidence from case-control studies, but less so from cohort studies, suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer. Therefore, this association was evaluated in the frame of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, EPIC. Data from 478,021 participants, recruited from 10 European countries, who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-2000 were evaluated; 1,822 incident primary lung cancer cases were included in the present evaluation. Relative risk estimates were calculated for categories of meat intake using multi-variably adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. In addition, the continuous intake variables were calibrated by means of 24-h diet recall data to account for part of the measurement error. There were no consistent associations between meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer. Neither red meat (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.89-1.27 per 50 g intake/day; calibrated model) nor processed meat (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.95-1.34 per 50 g/day; calibrated model) was significantly related to an increased risk of lung cancer. Also, consumption of white meat and fish was not associated with the risk of lung cancer. These findings do not support the hypothesis that a high intake of red and processed meat is a risk factor for lung cancer.

  1. A Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph for the Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy of Exoplanet Systems: Recent Results and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Gordon, Brian; Krist, John; Mawet, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    We report our best laboratory contrast demonstrations achieved to date. We review the design, fabrication, performance, and future prospects of a hybrid focal plane occulter for exoplanet coronagraphy. Composed of thickness-profiled metallic and dielectric thin films vacuum deposited on a fused silica substrate, the hybrid occulter uses two superimposed thin films for control over both the real and imaginary parts of the complex attenuation pattern. Together with a deformable mirror for adjustment of wavefront phase, the hybrid Lyot coronagraph potentially exceeds billion-to one contrast over dark fields extending to within angular separations of 3 lambda/D (3 x the cosmological constant / diameter of the telescope) from the central star, over spectral bandwidths of 20 percent or more, and with throughput efficiencies up to 60 percent. We report laboratory contrasts of 3 x 10 (sup -10) degrees over 2 percent bandwidths, 6 x 10 (sup -10) degrees over 10 percent bandwidths, and 2 x 10 (sup -9) over 20 percent bandwidths, achieved across high contrast fields extending from an inner working angle of 3 lambda/D to a radius of 15 lambda/D. Occulter performance is analyzed in light of recent experiments and optical models, and prospects for further improvements are summarized. The science capabilities of the hybrid Lyot coronagraph are compared with requirements of the ACCESS mission, a representative exoplanet space telescope concept study for the direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanet systems. This work has been supported by NASA's Technology Demonstration for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM) program.

  2. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2012: Individual refuge results for La Crosse District, Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for La Crosse District, Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge and is part of...

  3. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR gene copy number (GCN correlates with clinical activity of irinotecan-cetuximab in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer: a fluorescence in situ (FISH and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scartozzi Mario

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background K-RAS wild type colorectal tumors show an improved response rate to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. Nevertheless 70% to 40% of these patients still does not seem to benefit from this therapeutic approach. FISH EGFR GCN has been previously demonstrated to correlate with clinical outcome of colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. CISH also seemed able to provide accurate EGFR GCN information with the advantage of a simpler and reproducible technique involving immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Based on these findings we investigated the correlation between both FISH and CISH EGFR GCN and clinical outcome in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan-cetuximab. Methods Patients with advanced K-RAS wild-type, colorectal cancer receiving irinotecan-cetuximab after failure of irinotecan-based chemotherapy were eligible. A cut-off value for EGFR GCN of 2.6 and 2.12 for FISH and CISH respectively was derived from ROC curve analysis. Results Forty-four patients were available for analysis. We observed a partial remission in 9 (60% and 2 (9% cases with a FISH EGFR GCN ≥ 2.6 and Conclusion FISH and CISH EGFR GCN may both represent effective tools for a further patients selection in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab.

  4. Detection of MDM2/CDK4 amplification in lipomatous soft tissue tumors from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue: comparison of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creytens, David; van Gorp, Joost; Ferdinande, Liesbeth; Speel, Ernst-Jan; Libbrecht, Louis

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the detection of MDM2 and CDK4 amplification was evaluated in lipomatous soft tissue tumors using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), a PCR-based technique, in comparison with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These 2 techniques were evaluated in a series of 77 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lipomatous tumors (27 benign adipose tumors, 28 atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas, 18 dedifferentiated liposarcomas, and 4 pleomorphic liposarcomas). Using MLPA, with a cut-off ratio of >2, 36/71 samples (22 atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas, and 14 dedifferentiated liposarcomas) showed MDM2 and CDK4 amplification. Using FISH as gold standard, MLPA showed a sensitivity of 90% (36/40) and a specificity of 100% (31/31) in detecting amplification of MDM2 and CDK4 in lipomatous soft tissue tumors. In case of high-level amplification (MDM2-CDK4/CEP12 ratio >5), concordance was 100%. Four cases of atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (4/26, 15%) with a low MDM2 and CDK4 amplification level (MDM2-CDK4/CEP12 ratio ranging between 2 and 2.5) detected by FISH showed no amplification by MLPA, although gain of MDM2 and CDK4 (ratios ranging between 1.6 and 1.9) was seen with MLPA. No amplification was detected in benign lipomatous tumors and pleomorphic liposarcomas. Furthermore, there was a very high concordance between the ratios obtained by FISH and MLPA. In conclusion, MLPA proves to be an appropriate and straightforward technique for screening MDM2/CDK4 amplification in lipomatous tumors, especially when a correct cut-off value and reference samples are chosen, and could be considered a good alternative to FISH to determine MDM2 and CDK4 amplification in liposarcomas. Moreover, because MLPA, as a multiplex technique, allows simultaneous detection of multiple chromosomal changes of interest, it could be in the future a very reliable and fast molecular analysis on

  5. Distribution of Aeromonas Species in the Intestinal Tracts of River Fish

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Aeromonas isolates were obtained from fish intestines, water, and sediments from an urban river and identified by the DNA-DNA microplate hybridization method. The isolates were Aeromonas veronii (22%), Aeromonas caviae (18%), Aeromonas hydrophila (13%), Aeromonas sobria (8%), Aeromonas jandaei (7%), and other Aeromonas spp. (33%). Aeromonas species occurred at high densities with high incidences, regardless of season. The results strongly suggest that aeromonads are indigenous in fish intesti...

  6. Annual trends in catchability and fish stock assessments

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    A key assumption of many fish stock assessment models is that catchability is constant over time. We assume here that trends in catchability may occur through fishing power creeping. The tuning fleets, which are prone to fishing power development, may be identified using the "Hybrid" method. A range of catchability trends, including values derived from the "Hybrid" method, is then implemented to standardise the fishing effort of some tuning fleets used in the stock assessments performed by XS...

  7. Hybrids between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus: karyotype, allozyme and RAPD analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Feng; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dongdong; Zhu, Xiangping; Ni, Jing; Wu, Zhihao; Xu, Yongli; Wang, Xincheng; Zhang, Peijun

    2009-05-01

    The hybrid between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus was produced by artificial insemination of olive flounder eggs with stone flounder sperm. Sinistral and dextral are two types of hybrid progeny after metamorphosis. Karyotypes of both hybrid flounders are the same as those of the two parental species. Of the 22 loci examined from 12 allozymes, 12 confirmed hybridization of the paternal and maternal loci in hybrids and no difference was found in allozyme patterns of sinistral and dextral hybrid fishes. RAPD patterns of these specimens were also studied with 38 primers selected from 104 tested. Among them, the PCR products of 30 primers showed hybridization of the paternal and maternal bands. Genetic variation between hybrids and their parental stocks was analyzed by RAPD using 10 of the above 38 primers. The average heterozygosity and genetic distance were calculated. The results suggested that the filial generation could inherit a little more genetic materials from paternal fish than that from maternal fish.

  8. Hybrids between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus: karyotype, allozyme and RAPD analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Feng; WANG Wei; XU Dongdong; ZHU Xiangping; NI Jing; WU Zhihao; XU Yongli; WANG Xincheng; ZHANG Peijun

    2009-01-01

    The hybrid between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus was produced by artificial insemination of olive flounder eggs with stone flounder Sperm. Sinistral and dextral are two types of hybrid progeny after metamorphosis. Karyotypes of both hybrid flounders are the same as those of the two parental species. Of the 22 loci examined from 12 allozymes,12 confirmed hybridization of the paternal and matemal loci in hybrids and no difference was found in allozyme patterns of sinistral and dextral hybrid fishes. RAPD patterns of these specimens were also studied with 38 primers selected from 104 tested. Among them, the PCR products of 30 primers showed hybridization of the paternal and maternal bands. Genetic variation between hybrids and their parental stocks was analyzed by RAPD using 10 of the above 38 primers. The average heterozygosity and genetic distance were calculated. The results suggested that the filial generation could inherit a little more genetic materials from paternal fish than that from maternal fish.

  9. Analysis of piscicultural-biological results of works with Russian sturgeon brood fish at the sturgeon hatchery “Lebyazhy” (Astrakhan region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Kononenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The state of world stocks of sturgeons is on the edge of catastrophe. These species are either extinct or under threat of extinction under human impacts. At the same time, there are enterprises, fish hatcheries, which deal with restoration and replenishment of natural stocks with of endangered fish species. One of such hatcheries is the sturgeon hatchery “Lebyazhy” (Astrakhan region, Russian Federation. The aim of the study was an analysis of piscicultural-biological features of the Russian sturgeon brood fish. During the study, which was conducted in April–May 2011, 34 Russian sturgeon females were used in two rounds, 17 individuals each. For stimulating gametes maturation, the Derzhavin’s physiological method was used. Caviar was obtained by stripping the eggs under strict hygienic and sanitary norms. Eggs fertilization with the semi-dry method used the male milt that bought at the “Raskat” LLC. Egg stickiness elimination was performed with the aid of talc and apparatuses for the egg stickiness elimination. Eggs incubation was performed in the “Osetr” apparatuses until yolk-sac larvae hatching. The domesticated fish were subjected to bonitation for determining their readiness for spawning. As a result of this bonitation, the brood fish were separated into two groups: first round of rearing works: females with mean weight of 34.8 kg and age of 9 years; second round: females with mean weight of 32.3 kg and the same age. Among injected females of the first round, 100% positive reaction for the stimulating injection was observed, but 95% – among females of the second round. Maturation time of females of both rounds varied from 25 to 30 hours. The maturation state of gametes of sturgeon females or males was determined based on samples obtained. 90.2 kg of eggs were obtained from females of the first round. At the same time, the maximum quantity was observed in the female of 50.5 kg – 9.2 kg of caviar, and the least quantity

  10. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - III. Subdwarf B stars with V1093 Her and hybrid (DW Lyn) type pulsations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, M.D.; Kawaler, Stephen D.; Østensen, Roy H.

    2010-01-01

    1093 Her (PG 1716) class or a hybrid star with both short and long periods. The apparently non-binary long-period and hybrid pulsators are described here. The V1093 Her periods range from 1 to 4.5 h and are associated with g-mode pulsations. Three stars also exhibit short periods indicative of p......We present the discovery of non-radial pulsations in five hot subdwarf B (sdB) stars based on 27 d of nearly continuous time series photometry using the Kepler spacecraft. We find that every sdB star cooler than ≈27 500 K that Kepler has observed (seven so far) is a long-period pulsator of the V......-modes with periods of 2-5 min and in addition, these stars exhibit periodicities between both classes from 15 to 45 min. We detect the coolest and longest-period V1093 Her-type pulsator to date, KIC010670103 (Teff≈ 20 900 K, Pmax≈ 4.5 h) as well as a suspected hybrid pulsator, KIC002697388, which is extremely cool...

  11. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Young-Deuk

    2016-05-03

    In this paper, a hybrid desalination system consisting of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and adsorption desalination (AD) units, designated as VMD-AD cycle, is proposed. The synergetic integration of the VMD and AD is demonstrated where a useful effect of the AD cycle is channelled to boost the operation of the VMD process, namely the low vacuum environment to maintain the high pressure gradient across the microporous hydrophobic membrane. A solar-assisted multi-stage VMD-AD hybrid desalination system with temperature modulating unit is first designed, and its performance is then examined with a mathematical model of each component in the system and compared with the VMD-only system with temperature modulating and heat recovery units. The total water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150 m2 of evacuated-tube collectors and 10 m3 seawater storage tanks, both annual collector efficiency and solar fraction are close to 60%.

  12. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Deuk; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, Kim Choon; Amy, Gary L; Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid desalination system consisting of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and adsorption desalination (AD) units, designated as VMD-AD cycle, is proposed. The synergetic integration of the VMD and AD is demonstrated where a useful effect of the AD cycle is channelled to boost the operation of the VMD process, namely the low vacuum environment to maintain the high pressure gradient across the microporous hydrophobic membrane. A solar-assisted multi-stage VMD-AD hybrid desalination system with temperature modulating unit is first designed, and its performance is then examined with a mathematical model of each component in the system and compared with the VMD-only system with temperature modulating and heat recovery units. The total water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150 m(2) of evacuated-tube collectors and 10 m(3) seawater storage tanks, both annual collector efficiency and solar fraction are close to 60%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  14. Optimized Fast-FISH with a-satellite probes: acceleration by microwave activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durm M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown for several DNA probes that the recently introduced Fast-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization technique is well suited for quantitative microscopy. For highly repetitive DNA probes the hybridization (renaturation time and the number of subsequent washing steps were reduced considerably by omitting denaturing chemical agents (e.g., formamide. The appropriate hybridization temperature and time allow a clear discrimination between major and minor binding sites by quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The well-defined physical conditions for hybridization permit automatization of the procedure, e.g., by a programmable thermal cycler. Here, we present optimized conditions for a commercially available X-specific a-satellite probe. Highly fluorescent major binding sites were obtained for 74oC hybridization temperature and 60 min hybridization time. They were clearly discriminated from some low fluorescent minor binding sites on metaphase chromosomes as well as in interphase cell nuclei. On average, a total of 3.43 ± 1.59 binding sites were measured in metaphase spreads, and 2.69 ± 1.00 in interphase nuclei. Microwave activation for denaturation and hybridization was tested to accelerate the procedure. The slides with the target material and the hybridization buffer were placed in a standard microwave oven. After denaturation for 20 s at 900 W, hybridization was performed for 4 min at 90 W. The suitability of a microwave oven for Fast-FISH was confirmed by the application to a chromosome 1-specific a-satellite probe. In this case, denaturation was performed at 630 W for 60 s and hybridization at 90 W for 5 min. In all cases, the results were analyzed quantitatively and compared to the results obtained by Fast-FISH. The major binding sites were clearly discriminated by their brightness

  15. Production of reproductively sterile fish: A mini-review of germ cell elimination technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ten-Tsao; Zohar, Yonathan

    2015-09-15

    As seafood consumption shifts from fisheries harvests to artificially propagated aquatic species, the increase of aquaculture activities poses a biological threat to our environment. Selectively bred, non-native and (eventually) genetically engineered farmed fish may escape from aquaculture operations, propagate and/or interbreed with wild stocks and subsequently alter the genetic makeup of populations in the environment. Thus, an effective strategy for bio-containment of farmed fish is critically needed. Farming reproductively sterile fish is the most environmentally sustainable approach to ensure complete bio-containment in large-scale aquaculture operations. Chromosome set manipulations to produce sterile fish, including polyploidy and hybridization, are currently the most common practices in the aquaculture industry. However, they do not always result in 100% sterility of the treated fish. Moreover, triploid fish typically do not perform as well as the non-manipulated diploids under commercial culture conditions. In the last half decade, several genetic engineering methods have been developed to produce sterile fish. In this review, we will address the latest technologies that use transgenic approaches to eliminate germ cells, resulting in the production of sterile fish. These latest advances also led us to the development of egg/embryo immersion methodologies to deliver and screen compounds that can be used to eliminate primordial germ cells and produce sterile fish. This emerging non-transgenic strategy for the production of reproductively sterile fish in aquaculture will also be discussed.

  16. Fast-FISH Detection and Semi-Automated Image Analysis of Numerical Chromosome Aberrations in Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Esa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique called Fast-FISH in combination with semi-automated image analysis was applied to detect numerical aberrations of chromosomes 8 and 12 in interphase nuclei of peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow cells from patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL. Commercially available α-satellite DNA probes specific for the centromere regions of chromosome 8 and chromosome 12, respectively, were used. After application of the Fast-FISH protocol, the microscopic images of the fluorescence-labelled cell nuclei were recorded by the true color CCD camera Kappa CF 15 MC and evaluated quantitatively by computer analysis on a PC. These results were compared to results obtained from the same type of specimens using the same analysis system but with a standard FISH protocol. In addition, automated spot counting after both FISH techniques was compared to visual spot counting after standard FISH. A total number of about 3,000 cell nuclei was evaluated. For quantitative brightness parameters, a good correlation between standard FISH labelling and Fast-FISH was found. Automated spot counting after Fast-FISH coincided within a few percent to automated and visual spot counting after standard FISH. The examples shown indicate the reliability and reproducibility of Fast-FISH and its potential for automatized interphase cell diagnostics of numerical chromosome aberrations. Since the Fast-FISH technique requires a hybridization time as low as 1/20 of established standard FISH techniques, omitting most of the time consuming working steps in the protocol, it may contribute considerably to clinical diagnostics. This may especially be interesting in cases where an accurate result is required within a few hours.

  17. 膀胱移行细胞癌各分期分级中荧光原位杂交检测敏感性比较%Evaluation on significance of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for detection of bladder cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀红; 杜雨; 张道新; 田野

    2011-01-01

    Objective In order to look for a better non - invasive method for diagnosing bladder cancer, the fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH ) technique had been applied in diagnosis of bladder cancer. Methods FISH and cytological analysis were performed simultaneously on urine - exfoliated cells from 138 patients with hematuria. Chromosomal abnormalities and gene mutation were determined by FISH with probes for chromosomes 3,7, 17 and pl6. The sensitivity of FISH and cytological examination in diagnosing transitional cell carcinoma of bladder was studied and compared. Results Big and irregular cell nuclei and position effect variegation were seen in some cells ( P < 0. 05 ). In stage Tl bladder cancer, the sensitivity of FISH and cytological analysis was 83 . 6 % and 31.3% respectively, while in stage T2 - T4 , their sensitivity was 100 % and 55. 6 % respectively. Their sensitivity was 36. 3 % and 9.1% respectively with grade Gl versus 95. 2 % and 42. 9 % respectively with grade G2, and the sensitivity was 100 % and 50 % respectively with grade G3 ( P < 0. 05 ) in a comparable manner. There was significant difference in total sensitivity for diagnosis and staging of transitional cell carcinoma of bladder between FISH and cytological examination ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion FISH is more sensitive than cytological examination, hence it may be applied as a valuable method for diagnosing transitional cell carcinoma of bladder.%目的 评价荧光原位杂交(FISH)在诊断膀胱移行细胞癌各分期分级中的敏感性.方法 应用荧光标记的3、7、17号染色体及p16基因探针检测138例血尿患者尿液中脱落细胞的染色体及基因畸变情况,根据诊断标准计算FISH诊断膀胱移行细胞癌的敏感性.同时留取上述患者尿液送病理科行尿找瘤细胞检查,并比较两种方法对膀胱移行细胞癌的诊断效能.结果 FISH图像中细胞核大且不规则者更易观察到染色体基因异常情况,并可见具有较多染

  18. Detection of denitrification genes by in situ rolling circle amplification - fluorescence in situ hybridization (in situ RCA-FISH) to link metabolic potential with identity inside bacterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A target-primed in situ rolling circle amplification (in situ RCA) protocol was developed for detection of single-copy genes inside bacterial cells and optimized with Pseudomonas stutzeri, targeting nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase genes (nirS and nosZ). Two padlock probes were designed per gene......). Nevertheless, multiple genes (nirS and nosZ; nirS and the 16S rRNA gene) could be detected simultaneously in P. stutzeri. Environmental application of in situ RCA-FISH was demonstrated on activated sludge by the differential detection of two types of nirS-defined denitrifiers; one of them was identified...

  19. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-02 Among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Sea Fish); Resultados del Ejercicio Interlaboratorios de Radiactividad Ambiental CSN/CIEMAT-02 (Fauna Marina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero gonzalez, M. L.

    2003-07-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-02 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC Harmonized Protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical laboratories. The test sample was a reference materials provided by the IAEA-MEL (IAE Marine Environmental Laboratory, Monaco), a sea fish containing environmental levels of U-238, U-234, K-40, Pb-210, Ra-226, Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-(239+240), Am-241 and Tc-99. The results of the exercise were computed for 32 participating laboratories, and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score approach. A raised percentage of satisfactory laboratory performance has been obtained for all the analysis, being the best performance in gamma measurements. The laboratories have made an effort to calculate the combined uncertainty of the radiochemical determinations. Most of the laboratories have demonstrated its competence in performing the study analysis and also the adequate measuring capability of their detection equipment even in conditions close to detection limits. The study has shown the capacity of participant laboratories to perform radioactive determinations in environmental sea fish samples with satisfactory quality levels. (Author) 6 refs.

  20. Results after 19 years of testing in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Blada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Full-sib families were generated from a factorial design between seven female trees of P. strobus and four male trees of P. wallichiana to combine the rapid growth of former species with high resistance to blisterrust (Cronartium ribicola of the latter one. At age two the hybrid families were artificially inoculated with blister-rust and at age six theywere field planted. Total height growth, diameter at 1.3 m, basal area, stem volume, stem straightness and tree survival were measuredat age 19 after planting. Significant (p<0.05 and highly significant (p<0.01; p<0.001 differences among female effects were found for all tested traits including survival suggesting that nuclear additive genescontrolled these traits. Male effects were significant only for stem straightness. In all but one trait the σ2GCA: σ2SCA and σ2GCA-F : σ2GCA-M ratios were in favour of additive variance suggestingthat this variance should be used in the breeding strategy. Narrow-sense heritability at family level was 0.778 for volume growth rateand 0.861 for survival; such high values indicate that the breeding programme, has good chances of success. Two of the 11 tested parentsexhibited significant positive g.c.a. effects for survival after heavy blister-rust inoculation. One parent exhibited highly significantpositive g.c.a. effects for volume growth rate. The three good general combiners should be taken into account in the breeding programme.Estimate of the high-parent heterosis was negative for the volume but positive for survival. For volume, the hybrid mean was 5.9% lowerthan the mean of the eastern white pine but 85.4% greater than blue pine bulk lot for survival. Estimate of low-parent heterosis for survivalwas also positive; i. e. the hybrid population mean was 537.5% greater than eastern white pine. If the hybrids will be used in operationalplanting programs, a variable genetic gain between 6.0 and 10.5% for volume and between 6

  1. Results after 19 years of testing in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Blada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Full-sib families were generated from a factorial design between seven female trees of P. strobus and four male trees of P. wallichiana to combine the rapid growth of former species with high resistance to blisterrust (Cronartium ribicola of the latter one. At age two the hybrid families were artificially inoculated with blister-rust and at age six theywere field planted. Total height growth, diameter at 1.3 m, basal area, stem volume, stem straightness and tree survival were measuredat age 19 after planting. Significant (p<0.05 and highly significant (p<0.01; p<0.001 differences among female effects were found for all tested traits including survival suggesting that nuclear additive genescontrolled these traits. Male effects were significant only for stem straightness. In all but one trait the σ2GCA: σ2SCA and σ2GCA-F : σ2GCA-M ratios were in favour of additive variance suggestingthat this variance should be used in the breeding strategy. Narrow-sense heritability at family level was 0.778 for volume growth rateand 0.861 for survival; such high values indicate that the breeding programme, has good chances of success. Two of the 11 tested parentsexhibited significant positive g.c.a. effects for survival after heavy blister-rust inoculation. One parent exhibited highly significantpositive g.c.a. effects for volume growth rate. The three good general combiners should be taken into account in the breeding programme.Estimate of the high-parent heterosis was negative for the volume but positive for survival. For volume, the hybrid mean was 5.9% lowerthan the mean of the eastern white pine but 85.4% greater than blue pine bulk lot for survival. Estimate of low-parent heterosis for survivalwas also positive; i. e. the hybrid population mean was 537.5% greater than eastern white pine. If the hybrids will be used in operationalplanting programs, a variable genetic gain between 6.0 and 10.5% for volume and between 6

  2. Results of Short-Period Helicopter System Identification Using Output-Error and Hybrid Search-Gradient Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Vieira Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the problem of parameter estimation of the uncoupled, linear, short-period aerodynamic derivatives of a “Twin Squirrel” helicopter in level flight and constant speed. A flight test campaign is described with respect to maneuver specification, flight test instrumentation, and experimental data collection used to estimate the aerodynamic derivatives. The identification problem is solved in the time domain using the output-error approach, with a combination of Genetic Algorithm (GA and Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithms. The advantages of this hybrid GA and gradient-search methodology in helicopter system identification are discussed.

  3. Is it possible to preserve lumbar lordosis after hybrid stabilization? Preliminary results of a novel rigid-dynamic stabilization system in degenerative lumbar pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, Matteo; Cavagnaro, Luca; Basso, Marco; Zanirato, Andrea; Felli, Lamberto; Formica, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the results of a novel rigid-dynamic stabilization technique in lumbar degenerative segment diseases (DSD), expressly pointing out the preservation of postoperative lumbar lordosis (LL). Forty-one patients with one level lumbar DSD and initial disc degeneration at the adjacent level were treated. Circumferential lumbar arthrodesis and posterior hybrid instrumentation were performed to preserve an initial disc degeneration above the segment that has to be fused. Clinical and spino-pelvic parameters were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. At 2-year follow-up, a significant improvement of clinical outcomes was reported. No statistically significant difference was noted between postoperative and 2-year follow-up in LL and in disc/vertebral body height ratio at the upper adjacent fusion level. When properly selected, this technique leads to good results. A proper LL should be achieved after any hybrid stabilization to preserve the segment above the fusion.

  4. LCA of Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products.......The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products....

  5. Catching and rearing postlarval cleaner shrimp for the aquarium trade: results from a WorldFish Center project in Solomon Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Hair, C.; Warren, R.; Tewaki, A.; de Haro, C; Phillips, W.

    2004-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2003, the WorldFish Center in Solomon Islands conducted research into the feasibility of a new fishery based on the capture and culture of postlarval coral reef fish for the live fish trade. The work was carried out in two phases: a research phase from late 1999 to the end of 2002; and a “finetuning” phase in 2003. Most of the species were of value to the marine aquarium trade, with very few live reef food fish recorded. The most valuable ornamentals were the banded cle...

  6. Antarctic Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  7. 75 FR 12726 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Results''). \\2\\ See Memorandum to the File from Alan Ray, Case Analyst, through Alex Villanueva, Program...); Memorandum to the File from Javier Barrientos, Senior Case Analyst, through Alex Villanueva, Program Manager... File from Alexis Polovina, Case Analyst, through Alex Villanueva, Program Manager, Final...

  8. Fluorescent in situ hybridization for evaluation of Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, S.L.; Cummins, J.H. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-07-17

    We have found fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results more reliavle than high resolution chromosome analysis for the diagnosis of Prader-Willi (PWS) or Angelman syndromes (AS). Specifically, we have found success in the detection of 15q11q13 deletions among 55 cases. Our study suggests that FISH analysis using PWS/AS probes can facilitate diagnostic evaluation of these cases for deletions. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Fish Dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  10. Self-consistent kinetic simulations of lower hybrid drift instability resulting in electron current driven by fusion products in tokamak plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, J W S; Dendy, R O

    2010-01-01

    We present particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of minority energetic protons in deuterium plasmas, which demonstrate a collective instability responsible for emission near the lower hybrid frequency and its harmonics. The simulations capture the lower hybrid drift instability in a regime relevant to tokamak fusion plasmas, and show further that the excited electromagnetic fields collectively and collisionlessly couple free energy from the protons to directed electron motion. This results in an asymmetric tail antiparallel to the magnetic field. We focus on obliquely propagating modes under conditions approximating the outer mid-plane edge in a large tokamak, through which there pass confined centrally born fusion products on banana orbits that have large radial excursions. A fully self-consistent electromagnetic relativistic PIC code representing all vector field quantities and particle velocities in three dimensions as functions of a single spatial dimension is used to model this situation, by evolving the in...

  11. School meals with fish affect serum vitamin d in 8-11 year-old children - preliminary results from the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.-M.

    Background and aims Few foods contain vitamin D and many children fail to meet recommended intakes, including Danish children. This may promote low serum concentrations, particularly as cutaneous vitamin D production is negligible during winter/spring at Northern latitudes. Aims To examine if New......-over intervention. A total of 784 third and fourth graders received NND school meals for 3 months and habitual packed lunch for 3 months. Dietary intake and serum 25(OH)D was measured, and DXA-scans performed, at baseline and after each dietary period. Results Intake of fatty fish (? 3.6-7.2 g/d) and vitamin D (? 0...... Body Less Head size-adjusted Bone Mineral Content than the control diet, but lower in May/June (pvitamin D intake and ?status, and seemed to mitigate children?s decreases in 25(OH...

  12. Partial results regarding the selection of some nut tree hybrids in order to obtain generative mother plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Teodora STANCIOIU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the establishment of nut tree plantations is continuously expanding, yet the seeding material production has never raised up to the level of cultivators requirements.In our country, although the mother plants are confirmed as Targu Jiu 1, Secular and recently Portval, because of lack of seed tree materials, at present, most of the varieties are being grafted on saplings proceeded from a mixture of genotypes belonging to the species of Juglans regia.By studying the rich stock of germoplasma, present in the district of Gorj, 20 hybrids, that have appropriate features to their formation as mother plants have been collected, so that they might improve the existing variety.

  13. Radical hybrid video-assisted thoracic segmentectomy: long-term results of minimally invasive anatomical sublobar resection for treating lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Morihito; Tsutani, Yasuhiro; Ikeda, Takuhiro; Misumi, Keizo; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Miyata, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the results of radical segmentectomy achieved through a hybrid video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) approach that used both direct vision and television monitor visualization at a median follow-up of over 5 years. Between April 2004 and October 2010, 102 consecutive patients able to tolerate lobectomy to treat clinical T1N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) underwent hybrid VATS segmentectomy in which we used electrocautery without a stapler to divide the intersegmental plane detected by selective jet ventilation in addition to the path of the intersegmental veins. Curative resection was achieved in all patients. The median surgical duration and blood loss during the surgery were 129 min (range, 60-275 min) and 50 ml (range, 10-350 ml), respectively. The complication rate was 9.8% (10/102) with the most frequent being prolonged air leak, and there was no case of in-hospital death or 30-day mortality post procedure. Five and seven patients developed locoregional and distant recurrences, respectively. The overall and disease-free 5-year survival rates were 89.8% and 84.7%, respectively. Radical hybrid VATS segmentectomy including atypical resection of (sub)segments is a useful option for clinical stage-I NSCLC. The exact identification of anatomical intersegmental plane followed by dissection using electrocautery is critical from oncological and functional perspectives.

  14. Report on Fish Springs - 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses field survey results from several trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge during the summer of 1958. The following information is...

  15. Combating Illegal Fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Stanciu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing is a worldwide phenomenon. Its extent and its environmental,economic and social consequences are such that it has become a priority issue at international level. IUU fishingcontributes to the depletion of fish stocks and jeopardises protection and recovery measures put in place to ensure theviability of resources. It represents unfair competition for those who exploit fish resources legally. The Commissionhave been involved in the fight against IUU fishing for over a decade and in 2002 the Commission adopted an ActionPlan against IUU fishing inspired by the FAOs International Plan of Action to prevent, deter and eliminate IUUfishing of 2001. However, despite regional and international efforts to stop IUU fishing the phenomenon is still agrowing problem and as a result, the European Community intensified its action towards IUU fishing by launching aconsultation process in 2007. A Proposal to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing was adopted in October 2007and a Regulation to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing was adopted on 29September 2008, after a unanimous political agreement.

  16. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  17. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  18. Simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lan-Tian; Meng, Zhenyu; Shao, Fangwei; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A highly useful tool for studying lncRNAs is simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH, which reveals the localization and quantitative information of RNA and DNA in cellular contexts. However, a simple combination of RNA FISH and DNA FISH often generates disappointing results because the fragile RNA signals are often damaged by the harsh conditions used in DNA FISH for denaturing the DNA. Here, we describe a robust and simple RNA-DNA FISH protocol, in which amino-labeled nucleic acid probes are used for RNA FISH. The method is suitable to detect single-RNA molecules simultaneously with DNA.

  19. Chronic voluntary alcohol consumption results in tolerance to sedative/hypnotic and hypothermic effects of alcohol in hybrid mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozburn, Angela Renee; Harris, R Adron; Blednov, Yuri A

    2013-03-01

    The continuous two-bottle choice test is the most common measure of alcohol consumption but there is remarkably little information about the development of tolerance or dependence with this procedure. We showed that C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ and FVB/NJ×C57BL/6JF1 hybrid mice demonstrate greater preference for and consumption of alcohol than either parental strain. In order to test the ability of this genetic model of high alcohol consumption to produce neuroadaptation, we examined development of alcohol tolerance and dependence after chronic self-administration using a continuous access two-bottle choice paradigm. Ethanol-experienced mice stably consumed about 16-18 g/kg/day of ethanol. Ethanol-induced withdrawal severity was assessed (after 59 days of drinking) by scoring handling-induced convulsions; withdrawal severity was minimal and did not differ between ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice. After 71 days of drinking, the rate of ethanol clearance was similar for ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice. After 77 days of drinking, ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) was tested daily for 5 days. Ethanol-experienced mice had a shorter duration of LORR. For both ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice, blood ethanol concentrations taken at gain of righting reflex were greater on day 5 than on day 1, indicative of tolerance. After 98 days of drinking, ethanol-induced hypothermia was assessed daily for 3 days. Both ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice developed rapid and chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia, with significant group differences on the first day of testing. In summary, chronic, high levels of alcohol consumption in F1 hybrid mice produced rapid and chronic tolerance to both the sedative/hypnotic and hypothermic effects of ethanol; additionally, a small degree of metabolic tolerance developed. The development of tolerance supports the validity of using this model of high alcohol consumption in genetic studies of alcoholism.

  20. Hybrid recoil mass analyzer at IUAC – First results using gas-filled mode and future plans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Madhavan; S Nath; T Varughese; J Gehlot; A Jhingan; P Sugathan; A K Sinha; R Singh; K M Varier; M C Radhakrishna; E Prasad; S Kalkal; G Mohanto; J J Das; Rakesh Kumar; R P Singh; S Muralithar; R K Bhowmik; A Roy; Rajesh Kumar; S K Suman; A Mandal; T S Datta; J Chacko; A Choudhury; U G Naik; A J Malyadri; M Archunan; J Zacharias; S Rao; Mukesh Kumar; P Barua; E T Subramanian; K Rani; B P Ajith Kumar; K S Golda

    2010-08-01

    Hybrid recoil mass analyzer (HYRA) is a unique, dual-mode spectrometer designed to carry out nuclear reaction and structure studies in heavy and medium-mass nuclei using gas-filled and vacuum modes, respectively and has the potential to address newer domains in nuclear physics accessible using high energy, heavy-ion beams from superconducting LINAC accelerator (being commissioned) and ECR-based high current injector system (planned) at IUAC. The first stage of HYRA is operational and initial experiments have been carried out using gas-filled mode for the detection of heavy evaporation residues and heavy quasielastic recoils in the direction of primary beam. Excellent primary beam rejection and transmission efficiency (comparable with other gas-filled separators) have been achieved using a smaller focal plane detection system. There are plans to couple HYRA to other detector arrays such as Indian national gamma array (INGA) and 4 spin spectrometer for ER tagged spectroscopic/spin distribution studies and for focal plane decay measurements.

  1. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  2. Annual trends in catchability and fish stock assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Ulrich, Clara; Korsbrekke, K.;

    2003-01-01

    A key assumption of many fish stock assessment models is that catchability is constant over time. We assume here that trends in catchability may occur through fishing power creeping. The tuning fleets, which are prone to fishing power development, may be identified using the "Hybrid" method...

  3. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2010/2011 : Individual refuge results for the McGregor District, Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for the McGregor District, Upper Mississippi River NWFR and is part of the USGS Data Series 643....

  4. Ammonia toxicity in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, D J; Tsui, T K N

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia is present in the aquatic environment due to agricultural run-off and decomposition of biological waste. Ammonia is toxic to all vertebrates causing convulsions, coma and death, probably because elevated NH4+ displaces K+ and depolarizes neurons, causing activation of NMDA type glutamate receptor, which leads to an influx of excessive Ca2+ and subsequent cell death in the central nervous system. Present ammonia criteria for aquatic systems are based on toxicity tests carried out on, starved, resting, non-stressed fish. This is doubly inappropriate. During exhaustive exercise and stress, fish increase ammonia production and are more sensitive to external ammonia. Present criteria do not protect swimming fish. Fish have strategies to protect them from the ammonia pulse following feeding, and this also protects them from increases in external ammonia, as a result starved fish are more sensitive to external ammonia than fed fish. There are a number of fish species that can tolerate high environmental ammonia. Glutamine formation is an important ammonia detoxification strategy in the brain of fish, especially after feeding. Detoxification of ammonia to urea has also been observed in elasmobranches and some teleosts. Reduction in the rate of proteolysis and the rate of amino acid catabolism, which results in a decrease in ammonia production, may be another strategy to reduce ammonia toxicity. The weather loach volatilizes NH3, and the mudskipper, P. schlosseri, utilizes yet another unique strategy, it actively pumps NH4+ out of the body.

  5. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  6. An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age

    OpenAIRE

    Beare, D.J.; Hoelker, F.; Engelhard, G.H.; McKenzie, E; Reid, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, ...

  7. Does genetic distance between parental species influence outcomes of hybridization among coral reef butterflyfishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Stefano R; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Pratchett, Morgan S; Bay, Line K; Van Herwerden, Lynne

    2014-06-01

    Christmas Island is located at the overlap of the Indian and Pacific Ocean marine provinces and is a hot spot for marine hybridization. Here, we evaluate the ecological framework and genetic consequences of hybridization between butterflyfishes Chaetodon guttatissimus and Chaetodon punctatofasciatus. Further, we compare our current findings to those from a previous study of hybridization between Chaetodon trifasciatus and Chaetodon lunulatus. For both species groups, habitat and dietary overlap between parental species facilitate frequent heterospecific encounters. Low abundance of potential mates promotes heterospecific pair formation and the breakdown of assortative mating. Despite similarities in ecological frameworks, the population genetic signatures of hybridization differ between the species groups. Mitochondrial and nuclear data from C. guttatissimus × C. punctatofasciatus (1% divergence at cyt b) show bidirectional maternal contributions and relatively high levels of introgression, both inside and outside the Christmas Island hybrid zone. In contrast, C. trifasciatus × C. lunulatus (5% cyt b divergence) exhibit unidirectional mitochondrial inheritance and almost no introgression. Back-crossing of hybrid C. guttatissimus × C. punctatofasciatus and parental genotypes may eventually confound species-specific signals within the hybrid zone. In contrast, hybrids of C. trifasciatus and C. lunulatus may coexist with and remain genetically distinct from the parents. Our results, and comparisons with hybridization studies in other reef fish families, indicate that genetic distance between hybridizing species may be a factor influencing outcomes of hybridization in reef fish, which is consistent with predictions from terrestrially derived hybridization theory. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cortisol release in response to UVB exposure in Xiphophorus fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Adam J; Boswell, Mikki; Downs, Kevin P; Pasquali, Amanda; Walter, Ronald B

    2014-06-01

    Xiphophorus fishes are comprised of 26 known species. Interspecies hybridization between select species has been utilized to produce experimental models to study melanoma development. Xiphophorus melanoma induction protocols utilize ultraviolet light (UVB) to induce DNA damage and associated downstream tumorigenesis. However, the impact of induced stress caused by the UVB treatment of the experimental animals undergoing tumor induction protocols has not been assessed. Stress is an adaptive physiological response to excessive or unpredictable environmental stimuli. The stress response in fishes may be measured by an assay of cortisol released into the water. Here, we present results from investigations of stress response during an experimental treatment and UVB exposure in Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B, Xiphophorus couchianus, and F1 interspecies hybrids produced from the mating X. maculatus Jp 163 B×X. couchianus. Overall, cortisol release rates for males and females after UVB exposure showed no statistical differences. At lower UVB doses (8 and 16kJ/m(2)), X. couchianus exhibited 2 fold higher levels of DNA damage then either X. maculatus or the F1 hybrid. However, based on the cortisol release rates, none of the fish types tested induced a primary stress response at the UVB lower doses (8 and 16kJ/m(2)). In contrast, at a very high UVB dose (32kJ/m(2)) both X. maculatus and the F1 hybrid showed a 5 fold increase in the cortisol release rate. To determine the effect of pigmentation on UVB induced stress, wild type and albino Xiphophorus hellerii were exposed to UVB (32kJ/m(2)). Albino X. hellerii exhibited 3.7 fold increase in the cortisol release while wild type X. hellerii did not exhibit a significant cortisol response to UVB. Overall, the data suggest the rather low UVB doses often employed in tumor induction protocols do not induce a primary stress response in Xiphophorus fishes.

  9. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur

  10. THE RESEARCH IN FISH GENETICS IN CROATIA AND FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Treer

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a review on fish genetics research in Croatia and former Yugoslavia, based on the analyses of all the articles published in four main journals (Ribarstvo Jugoslavije, Morsko ribarstvo, Ichthyologia and Acta Adriatica since 1945 till disintegration of Yugoslavia in 1991. Most of the papers cover the fields on cytogenetics and hybridization (24 and 13 respectively. Eight papers were on fish selection and five on population genetics. Apart from those, five papers were written by foreign authors. Two groups of researchers from the University of Sarajevo were specially active. One of them lead by B e r b e r o v i ć and S o f r a d ž i j a did extensive work in cytogenetics, analyzing the karyotypes of many fish species, some of them endemic. Another one lead by V u k o v i ć , investigated some natural hybrids and created many of them artificially, particulary among cyprinids. These results are presented in a special table. Contrary to the mountainous Bosnia where this type of research was of systematic and ecologic importance, in Croatia whwrw aquaculture was highly developed, the approach was quite different. The scientists from the University of Zagreb, H a b e k o v i ć and T u r k , studied the hybridization and selection of important cultured cyprinids. Apart from these scientific groups, many papers were published by A l - S a b t i , who later became world famous in fish cytogenetics. The works of many other authors who contributed with papers in different fields of fish genetics are also described.

  11. Comparison of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Low and High Throughput HER2 Genetic Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tim S; Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Kofoed, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    results show that the differences between the HER2 genetic assays do not have an effect on the analytic performance and the CISH technology is superior to high throughput HER2 genetic testing due to scanning speed, while the IQ-FISH may still be a choice for fast low throughput HER2 genetic testing.......The purpose was to evaluate and compare 5 different HER2 genetic assays with different characteristics that could affect the performance to analyze the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) gene copy number under low and high throughput conditions. The study included 108 tissue samples from breast...... cancer patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results scored as 0/1+, 2+, and 3+. HER2 genetic status was analysed using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Scoring results were documented through digital image analysis. The cancer region...

  12. Combining M-FISH and Quantum Dot technology for fast chromosomal assignment of transgenic insertions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Mohammed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical mapping of transgenic insertions by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH is a reliable and cost-effective technique. Chromosomal assignment is commonly achieved either by concurrent G-banding or by a multi-color FISH approach consisting of iteratively co-hybridizing the transgenic sequence of interest with one or more chromosome-specific probes at a time, until the location of the transgenic insertion is identified. Results Here we report a technical development for fast chromosomal assignment of transgenic insertions at the single cell level in mouse and rat models. This comprises a simplified 'single denaturation mixed hybridization' procedure that combines multi-color karyotyping by Multiplex FISH (M-FISH, for simultaneous and unambiguous identification of all chromosomes at once, and the use of a Quantum Dot (QD conjugate for the transgene detection. Conclusions Although the exploitation of the unique optical properties of QD nanocrystals, such as photo-stability and brightness, to improve FISH performance generally has been previously investigated, to our knowledge this is the first report of a purpose-designed molecular cytogenetic protocol in which the combined use of QDs and standard organic fluorophores is specifically tailored to assist gene transfer technology.

  13. Formation of diploid and triploid hybrid groupers (hybridization of Epinephelus coioides ♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂) and their 5S gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Qin, Qinbo; Yang, Huirong; Li, Shuisheng; Hu, Chaoqun; Wang, Yude; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Shaojun; Lin, Haoran

    2016-10-07

    Interspecies hybridization is widely used to achieve heterosis or hybrid vigor, which has been observed and harnessed by breeders for centuries. Natural allopolyploid hybrids generally exhibit more superior heterosis than both the diploid progenies and their parental species. However, polyploid formation processes have been long ignored, the genetic basis of heterosis in polyploids remains elusive. In the present study, triploid hybrids had been demonstrated to contain two sets of chromosomes from mother species and one set from father species. Cellular polyploidization process in the embryos had been traced. The triploid hybrids might be formed by failure formation of the second polarized genome during the second meiosis stage. Four spindle centers were observed in anaphase stage of the first cell division. Three spindle centers were observed in side of cell plate after the first cell division. The 5S rDNA genes of four types of groupers were cloned and analyzed. The diploid and triploid hybrids had been proved to contain the tandem chimera structures which were recombined by maternal and paternal monomer units. The results indicated that genome re-fusion had occurred in the hybrid progenies. To further elucidate the genetic patterns of diploid and triploid hybrids, fluorescence chromosome location had been carried out, maternal 5S gene (M-386) were used as the probe. The triploid hybrids contained fewer fluorescence loci numbers than the maternal species. The results indicated that participation of paternal 5S gene in the triploid hybrid genome had degraded the match rates of M-386 probe. Our study is the first to investigate the cellular formation processes of natural allopolyploids in hybrid fish, the cellular polyploidization process may be caused by failure formation of the second polarized genome during the meiosis, and our results will provide the molecular basis of hybrid vigor in interspecies hybridization.

  14. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  15. Validation of break-apart and fusion MYC probes using a digital fluorescence in situ hybridization capture and imaging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Liew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Detection of MYC translocations using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is important in the evaluation of lymphomas, in particular, Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Our aim was to validate a digital FISH capture and imaging system for the detection of MYC 8q24 translocations using LSI-MYC (a break-apart probe and MYC 8;14 translocation using IGH-MYC (a fusion probe. Materials and Methods: LSI-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from 35 patients. IGH-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from forty patients. Sections were processed for FISH and analyzed using traditional methods. FISH slides were then analyzed using the GenASIs capture and analysis system. Results: Results for LSI-MYC had a high degree of correlation between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Results for IGH-MYC had a 100% concordance between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Conclusion: Annotated whole slide images of H and E and FISH sections can be digitally aligned, so that areas of tumor within a section can be matched and evaluated with a greater degree of accuracy. Images can be archived permanently, providing a means for examining the results retrospectively. Digital FISH imaging of the MYC translocations provides a better diagnostic tool compared to traditional methods for evaluating lymphomas.

  16. Validation of break-apart and fusion MYC probes using a digital fluorescence in situ hybridization capture and imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Michael; Rowe, Leslie; Clement, Parker W.; Miles, Rodney R.; Salama, Mohamed E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Detection of MYC translocations using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is important in the evaluation of lymphomas, in particular, Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Our aim was to validate a digital FISH capture and imaging system for the detection of MYC 8q24 translocations using LSI-MYC (a break-apart probe) and MYC 8;14 translocation using IGH-MYC (a fusion probe). Materials and Methods: LSI-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from 35 patients. IGH-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from forty patients. Sections were processed for FISH and analyzed using traditional methods. FISH slides were then analyzed using the GenASIs capture and analysis system. Results: Results for LSI-MYC had a high degree of correlation between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Results for IGH-MYC had a 100% concordance between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Conclusion: Annotated whole slide images of H and E and FISH sections can be digitally aligned, so that areas of tumor within a section can be matched and evaluated with a greater degree of accuracy. Images can be archived permanently, providing a means for examining the results retrospectively. Digital FISH imaging of the MYC translocations provides a better diagnostic tool compared to traditional methods for evaluating lymphomas. PMID:27217970

  17. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  18. Managing conflicts arising from fisheries enhancements based on non-native fishes in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellender, B R; Woodford, D J; Weyl, O L F; Cowx, I G

    2014-12-01

    Southern Africa has a long history of non-native fish introductions for the enhancement of recreational and commercial fisheries, due to a perceived lack of suitable native species. This has resulted in some important inland fisheries being based on non-native fishes. Regionally, these introductions are predominantly not benign, and non-native fishes are considered one of the main threats to aquatic biodiversity because they affect native biota through predation, competition, habitat alteration, disease transfer and hybridization. To achieve national policy objectives of economic development, food security and poverty eradication, countries are increasingly looking towards inland fisheries as vehicles for development. As a result, conflicts have developed between economic and conservation objectives. In South Africa, as is the case for other invasive biota, the control and management of non-native fishes is included in the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act. Implementation measures include import and movement controls and, more recently, non-native fish eradication in conservation priority areas. Management actions are, however, complicated because many non-native fishes are important components in recreational and subsistence fisheries that contribute towards regional economies and food security. In other southern African countries, little attention has focussed on issues and management of non-native fishes, and this is cause for concern. This paper provides an overview of introductions, impacts and fisheries in southern Africa with emphasis on existing and evolving legislation, conflicts, implementation strategies and the sometimes innovative approaches that have been used to prioritize conservation areas and manage non-native fishes.

  19. Fishing TaSC Interacting Protein in Wheat Using Split Ubiquitin Yeast Two Hybrid System%利用分裂泛素酵母双杂交技术钓取小麦TaSC互作蛋白质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺芳芳; 杨旭; 武小翠; 刘晓梅; 葛荣朝; 赵宝存

    2013-01-01

      TaSC (Triticum asetivum L. salt-tolerance related gene, GenBank 登录号为 AY956330)是从小麦耐盐突变体RH8706-49中克隆的高盐诱导表达的耐盐相关基因.以该基因编码的蛋白质TaSC为诱饵,运用分裂泛素酵母双杂交技术从小麦 cDNA 表达文库中钓取互作蛋白质,筛选到一个编码小麦未知功能蛋白质的基因(GenBank 登录号为AK336035),命名为TaSCIP1(TaSC interaction protein 1).双分子荧光互补(BiFC)实验证实TaSCIP1与TaSC存在互作.该互作蛋白的分离有利于进一步研究TaSC基因的耐盐机制.%The TaSC (Triticum asetivum L. salt-tolerance related gene, GenBank accession number AY956330) has been cloned from wheat salt tolerant mutant RH 8706-49, which is induced by high salinity. To fish interacting proteins of this gene, we used TaSC protein as bait to hybrid with the wheat cDNA expression library using the split ubiquitin yeast two hybrid system in this experiment. A novel wheat gene (GenBank accession number AK336035) encoding a protein with unknown function was isolated, which was designated TaSCIP1 (TaSC interaction protein 1). Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiment con-firmed the interaction between proteins TaSCIP1 and TaSC. The separation of TaSC-interacting protein is beneficial to disclose the mechanism of salt tolerance gene TaSC.

  20. Suppression subtractive hybridization and its application to fish gene cloning%抑制消减杂交(SSH)及其在鱼类基因克隆中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程起群

    2004-01-01

    There are 10 percent to 15 percent genes expression in certain cells during the life time of fishes like other vertebrates. The genes were different at different development stage, under different physiological conditions, and in different kinds of cells. So comparing the differences of gene expression in different cells can help us understand the genetic nature of phenotypic differences, and understand the basic information of life period, and find the genes in relation to development and diseases, and finally benefit mankind. Several methods were developed to clone differential expression gene in recent years. They are subtractive hybridization (SH), differential display (DD),representional difference analysis (RDA), and so on. These methods all have postive influences on cloning special genes, but they all have some defects, such as higher false-positive, lower replication, lower sensitive and difficulty to manipulate. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was developed by Diatchenko et al in 1996. SSH was based on suppression PCR and combines normalization and subtraction in a single procedure. It is a more effective and convenient method than all others mentioned above. The principle and the rules of manipulation of SSH in detail was illuminated and the novel genes cloned by SSH was listed. They are immune related genes and reproduction and development related genes. The reproduction and development related genes are as follows: ZP3, Cyclin A2,CBI02, YA2, FSTRAP. The immune related genes are as follows: NKEF(natural killer enhancing factor), CC chemokine, CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR4, AIF-1(allograft inflammatory factor-1), IL-1β(inteleukin-1), FcεRIγ(γ submit of high affinity Fc receptor for IgE), SSA(serum amyloid A), LECT2 (leucocyte cell-derived hemotaxin 2), GMFβ(glia maturation factorβ), CD45, Lysozyme C, PBEF (Pre-B cell enhancing factor), C-type lectin,PTX(Pentraxin), IL-1RⅡ, IL-8-1ike CXC chemokine, TF(tissue factor), trout chemokine 2, TNF decoy

  1. 2607份羊水样本的改良FISH检测结果与羊水培养核型分析结果的对比%Comparison of results of improved FISH and conventional karyotyping analysis of 2607 amniotic fluid samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳彦; 刘艳秋; 黄宁; 谢康

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay and conventional karyotyping analysis for the detection of chromosomal aneuploidies.Methods In total 2607 amniotic fluid samples were subjected to an improved FISH technique.Meanwhile, karyotype analysis was also ordered for each sample.Results Of the 2607 samples, 62 abnormalities were identified by FISH, which included 62 cases of trisomy 21, 5 cases of 45,X, 12 cases of trisomy 18, 3 cases of trisomy 13, and 1 case of 47, XYY.Conventional karyotyping analysis has identified 63 cases of trisomy 21, 5 cases of 45, X, 12 cases of trisomy 18, 3 cases of trisomy 13, 1 case of 47, XYY, and 57 cases of balanced translocations.The success rate of FISH detection was 98.4% for trisomy 21, and 100% for 45 ,X, trisomy 18 and trisomy 13.Conclusion For the detection of chromosomal aneuploidies, FISH assay is quick, simple, accurate and can reduce workload when aminocyte culture has failed.As an auxiliary method for amniocytic analysis, it can provide reference for the consultation of those with advanced age and high pregnancy risk.%目的 探讨荧光原位杂交(fluorescence in situ hybridization,FISH)技术在产前诊断中对常见染色体非整倍体的快速诊断结果是否与传统核型分析结果一致.方法 改良FISH技术,延长低渗时间和改变洗涤方法,对2607份未培养羊水行快速染色体非整倍体遗传疾病诊断,同时平行进行羊水培养核型分析.结果 2607份羊水中,FISH检测出了62例21三体、5例45,X、12例18三体、3例13三体和1例47,XYY;羊水培养核型分析结果:63例21三体、5例45,X、12例18三体、3例13三体、1例47,XYY和57例平衡异位携带者.与羊水核型分析结果对比,FISH技术对21三体检出率为98.4%,对13、18、性染色体数目异常检出率为100%.结论 FISH技术能快速准确的检测常见染色体非整倍体异常,检测过程耗时短,对标本要求低,并且能够在羊

  2. Abnormalities occurring during female gametophyte development result in the diversity of abnormal embryo sacs and leads to abnormal fertilization in indica/japonica hybrids in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu-Xiang; Hu, Chao-Yue; Lu, Yong-Gen; Li, Jin-Quan; Liu, Xiang-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Embryo sac abortion is one of the major reasons for sterility in indica/japonica hybrids in rice. To clarify the causal mechanism of embryo sac abortion, we studied the female gametophyte development in two indica/japonica hybrids via an eosin B staining procedure for embryo sac scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. Different types of abnormalities occurred during megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis were demonstrated. The earliest abnormality was observed in the megasporocyte. A lot of the chalazal-most megaspores were degenerated before the mono-nucleate embryo sac stage. Disordered positioning of nucleus and abnormal nucellus tissue were characteristics of the abnormal female gametes from the mono-nucleate to four-nucleate embryo sac stages. The abnormalities that occurred from the early stage of the eight-nucleate embryo sac development to the mature embryo sac stage were characterized by smaller sizes and wrinkled antipodals. Asynchronous nuclear migration, abnormal positioning of nucleus, and degeneration of egg apparatus were also found at the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in five major types of abnormal embryo sacs. These abnormal embryo sacs led to abnormal fertilization. Hand pollination using normal pollens on the spikelets during anthesis showed that normal pollens could not exclude the effect of abnormal embryo sac on seed setting.

  3. Abnormalities Occurring during Female Gametophyte Development Result in the Diversity of Abnormal Embryo Sacs and Leads to Abnormal Fertilization in indicaljaponica Hybrids in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xiang Zeng; Chao-Yue Hu; Yong-Gen Lu; Jin-Quan Li; Xiang-Dong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Embryo sac abortion is one of the major masons for sterility in indicaljaponica hybrids In rice. To clarify the causal mechanism of embryo sac abortion, we studied the female gametophyte development in two indicaljaponica hybrids via an eosin B staining procedure for embryo sac scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. Different types of abnormalities occurred during megasporogenesis and megagamatogenesis were demonstrated. The earliest abnormality was observed in the megasporocyte. A lot of the chalazal-most megaspores were degenerated before the mono-nucleate embryo sac stage. Disordered positioning of nucleus and abnormal nucallus tissue were characteristics of the abnormal female gametes from the mono-nucleate to four-nucleate embryo sac stages. The abnormalities that occurred from the early stage of the eight-nucleate embryo sac development to the mature embryo sac stage were characterized by smaller sizes and wrinkled antipodals. Asynchronous nuclear migration, abnormal positioning of nucleus, and degeneration of egg apparatus were also found at the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in five major types of abnormal embryo sacs. These abnormal embryo sacs led to abnormal fertilization. Hand pollination using normal pollens on the spikelets during anthesis showed that normal pollens could not exclude the effect of abnormal embryo sac on seed setting.

  4. Fish freshness rapid detection based on fish-eye image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zang, Yue; Wo, Qiqi; Zou, Chen; Wang, Nan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Dadong

    Study a new method for detecting fish freshness. During the experiment, we choose freshest fish-eyes images via digital camera to add computing the synthesis of the latest fish-eye image .Next figure out every image's signal strength. Finally, we analysis relation between the change of the image's energy and the value (pH, electrical conductivity, TVBN) by Modeling of Partial Least Squares Regression. The result shows that we can detect freshness of fish quickly, conveniently, simply and accurately through the fish-eye image energy change.

  5. Protocols for Pachytene Chromosome and DNA Fiber FISH in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ren-hai; LING Jian; WANG Kun-bo; WANG Chun-ying; SONG Guo-li; LIU Fang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become the most important technique in plant molecular cytogenetics research.FISH-based physical mapping provides a valuable complementary approach in genome sequeneing to measure the physical distances between adjacent BAC contigs and delineating the structure and DNA composition of genomic regions of centromere and telomere.The accuracy and precision of the FISH-base physical maps depend on the resolution power of FISH.

  6. Fish Oil and Post-Operative Atrial Fibrillation – Results of the Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Prevention of Post-Operative Atrial Fibrillation (OPERA) Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Marchioli, Roberto; Macchia, Alejandro; Silletta, Maria G.; Ferrazzi, Paolo; Gardner, Timothy J.; Latini, Roberto; Libby, Peter; Lombardi, Federico; O’Gara, Patrick T.; Page, Richard L.; Tavazzi, Luigi; Tognoni, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Context Post-operative atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) is one of the most common complications of cardiac surgery and significantly increases morbidity and healthcare utilization. A few small trials have evaluated whether long-chain n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce post-op AF, with mixed results. Objective To determine whether peri-operative n-3-PUFA supplementation reduces post-op AF. Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, clinical trial. Patients A total of 1,516 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery across 28 centers in the US, Italy, and Argentina, enrolled between Aug 2010 and Jun 2012. Inclusion criteria were broad; the main exclusions were regular use of fish oil or absence of sinus rhythm at enrollment. Forty-eight percent of screened patients and 94% of eligible patients were enrolled. Intervention Patients were randomized to receive fish oil (1 g capsules containing ≥840 mg n-3-PUFA as ethyl esters) or placebo, with pre-operative loading of 10g over 3-5 days (or 8g over 2 days) followed post-operatively by 2g/d until hospital discharge or post-op day10, whichever first. Main Outcome Measures The primary endpoint was occurrence of post-op AF >30 sec. We also evaluated post-op AF lasting >1hr, resulting in symptoms, or treated with cardioversion; other secondary post-op AF endpoints; other tachyarrhythmias; hospital utilization; and major adverse cardiovascular events, 30-day mortality, bleeding, and other adverse events. All endpoints and analyses plans were prespecified. Results At enrollment, mean±SD age was 64±13 years, 72.2% were male, and 51.8% had planned valvular surgery. The primary endpoint occurred in 233 (30.7%) and 227 (30.0%) patients assigned to placebo and n-3-PUFA, respectively (OR=0.96, 95%CI=0.77-1.20; P=0.74). None of the secondary endpoints were significantly different, including post-op AF that was sustained, symptomatic, or treated (n=231 [30.5%] vs. n=224 [29.6%], P=0.70) or number of

  7. On the role of contamination and hybridism in formation of the composite Raumid pluton granites (Pamir Mnts.): Results of Sm-Nd Isotope Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, V. N.; Shatagin, K. N.; Kramchaninov, A. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents isotope Sm-Nd data obtained for bulk samples of granites of all 8 emplacement phases of the Raumid granite massif, which occurred 35 Ma ago at a hypabyssal depth during the orogenic stage of development of Southern Pamir fold system. The 147Sm/144Nd ratio in studied collection of granite samples ranges between 0.091 and 0.323; the ɛNd( T) value is-4.0. The Sm-Nd isotope study results suggest that all granite varieties distinguished in the Raumid massif are comagmatic formations and contamination and hybridization processes did not play any role in REE distribution in granites. At this, the source of parental magma did not change during granite generation. We assume that the only process, resulted in the trace element evolution in granites, was differentiation of three batches of magma sequentially uplifted from the source.

  8. Modified cIg-FISH protocol for multiple myeloma in routine cytogenetic laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Leena; Lin, Adeline; Chua, Constance; Chng, Wee Joo

    2014-01-01

    The International Myeloma Working Group recommends that fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) be performed on specifically identified plasma cells (PC). This is because chromosomal abnormalities are not frequently detected by traditional karyotyping due to the low proliferative rate of PC in multiple myeloma (MM). Conventional FISH enhances the sensitivity but lacks the specificity, as it does not distinguish PC from other hematopoetic cells. To fulfill this recommendation, PC need to be selected either by flow cytometry or immunomagnetic bead-based PC sorting or by concomitant labeling of the cytoplasmic immunoglobulin light chain, which allows for unambiguous identification. These techniques require expertise, time, and funding and are not easily incorporated into the routine workflow of the cytogenetic laboratory. We have modified and refined the technique using fixed cell pellets to achieve nicely separated and easily identifiable PC. With immunostaining and subsequent FISH (i.e., cytoplasmic immunoglobulin FISH, cIg-FISH), this technique can be easily incorporated into every cytogenetic laboratory. Twenty samples from patients with MM were subjected to routine FISH, cIg-FISH, and chromosomal karyotyping and the results were compared. Three FISH probes, which enabled detection of the t(4;14), t(14;16) and deletion of TP53, were used to validate this modified technique successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  10. Enhanced prostaglandin F2α formation in human pregnancy and the effect of increased oily fish intake: results from the Salmon in Pregnancy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Miles, Elizabeth A; Vlachava, Maria; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Noakes, Paul S; Diaper, Norma D; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Basu, Samar

    2012-01-01

    Oily fish intake during pregnancy may reduce the risk of allergic diseases in infancy possibly by shifts in the fatty acid balance and subsequent altered prostaglandin (PG) formation. This intervention is the first study to evaluate if increased oily fish intake affects in vivo PGF(2α) formation during pregnancy. British pregnant women were randomised to two portions of farmed salmon weekly (n=47), or maintenance of their normal diet low in fish (n=41), from pregnancy week 20 until parturition. The concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) were higher and the concentration of arachidonic acid in plasma PC was lower in the salmon group than the control group at weeks 34 and 38 of pregnancy. PGF(2α) formation was evaluated by urinary measurement of 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2α), a major PGF(2α) metabolite, at 20, 34 and 38 weeks. In both the salmon and control groups urinary 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2α) concentrations increased significantly during pregnancy, which may be of physiological importance. Oily fish intervention altered fatty acid concentrations but did not affect urinary 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2α) concentrations in pregnant women.

  11. Bathyal demersal fishes of Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone region (49-54°N) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, I: Results from trawl surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Nicola J.; Shields, Mark A.; Crockard, Deborah; Priede, Imants G.

    2013-12-01

    Demersal fishes were sampled by single-warp otter trawl (OTSB) at three sites on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), to the northeast (NE), northwest (NW) and southeast (SE) of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone at approximately 2500 m depth. The mean abundance was 4109 fish km-2 (SD 3714) and biomass 897.1 kg km-2 (SD 842.9) compared with 1996 fish km-2 (SD 1497) and 721.2 kg km-2 (SD 387) at the same depth on the Porcupine Seabight (PSB) segment of the NE Atlantic Ocean margin from previous studies. There was no significant difference in biomass or abundance between the three sites on the MAR, nor in comparison with the ocean margin. A total of fish 22 species were recorded at the three MAR sites with evidence of highest species richness at the SE site. No unique species were found on the ridge; but there were differences in species composition between the PSB and the MAR. Coryphaenoides brevibarbis and Antimora rostrata were important at both the NE and NW trawl sites on the MAR whereas Halosauropsis macrochir was most important in the SE. We conclude that the MAR is an important habitat for species otherwise confined to narrow strips of appropriate depth around the North Atlantic Ocean margins. The MAR supports similar population densities to ocean margin settings but with differences in relative importance of different species between regions.

  12. An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beare, D.J.; Hoelker, F.; Engelhard, G.H.; McKenzie, E.; Reid, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open

  13. Fighting fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchi, E.; Guerrini, V.; Rinaldi, S.; Schaeffer, G.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce new combinatorial structures, called fighting fish, that generalize directed convex polyominoes by allowing them to branch out of the plane into independent substructures. On the one hand the combinatorial structure of fighting fish appears to be particularly rich: we show that their generating function with respect to the perimeter and number of tails is algebraic, and we conjecture a mysterious multivariate equidistribution property with the left ternary trees introduced by Del Lungo et al On the other hand, fighting fish provide a simple and natural model of random branching surfaces which displays original features: in particular, we show that the average area of a uniform random fighting fish with perimeter 2n is of order n 5/4: to the best of our knowledge this behaviour is non-standard and suggests that we have identified a new universality class of random structures. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  14. Spoof Plasmon Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon hybridization between closely spaced nanoparticles yields new hybrid modes not found in individual constituents, allowing for the engineering of resonance properties and field enhancement capabilities of metallic nanostructure. Experimental verifications of plasmon hybridization have been thus far mostly limited to optical frequencies, as metals cannot support surface plasmons at longer wavelengths. Here, we introduce the concept of 'spoof plasmon hybridization' in highly conductive metal structures and investigate experimentally the interaction of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in adjacent metal disks corrugated with subwavelength spiral patterns. We show that the hybridization results in the splitting of spoof plasmon modes into bonding and antibonding resonances analogous to molecular orbital rule and plasmonic hybridization in optical spectrum. These hybrid modes can be manipulated to produce enormous field enhancements (larger than 5000) by tuning the separation between disks or alte...

  15. Recent Advances in Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 廸弘; Michihiro C., Yoshida; 北海道大学理学部附属動物染色体研究施設; Chromosome Research Unit, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedures that directly couple molecular and cytological information allow precise visualization of DNA sequences on metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei. These techniques can be used to identify chromosomes, detect chromosomal aberrations, and analyze linear and spetial genome organization. FISH procedures are also used to clinical fields for diagnosis of disease-related chromosome changes and tumor biology.

  16. Reciprocal exchange of minor components of type 1 and F1C fimbriae results in hybrid organelles with changed receptor specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Kreft, B

    1994-01-01

    recognition proteins present in the organelles as minor structural elements. The organization of the fim and foc gene clusters encoding these fimbriae, as well as the structures of the organelles, are very similar, although the actual sequence homology of the structural elements is not remarkable; notably...... to epithelial cells in the collecting ducts of the human kidney as well as to cells of various cell lines. This report addresses the question of fimbrial promiscuity. Our data indicate that minor fimbrial structural elements can be exchanged between the two fimbrial systems, resulting in hybrid organelles...... with changed receptor specificity. This is the first study on reciprocal exchange of structural components from two different fimbrial systems....

  17. Simulation results for PLATO: a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector with a low energy threshold for fusion plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, A.; Menouni, M.; Pangaud, P.; Fenzi, C.; Colledani, G.; Moureau, G.; Escarguel, A.; Morel, C.

    2017-01-01

    PLATO is a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector that has been designed to meet the specifications for plasma diagnostics for the WEST tokamak platform (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) in southern France, with potential perspectives for ITER. PLATO represents a customized solution that fulfills high sensitivity, low dispersion and high photon counting rate. The PLATO prototype matrix is composed of 16 × 18 pixels with a 70 μm pixel pitch. New techniques have been used in analog sensitive blocks to minimize noise coupling through supply rails and substrate, and to suppress threshold dispersion across the matrix. The PLATO ASIC is designed in CMOS 0.13 μm technology and was submitted for a fabrication run in June 2016. The chip is designed to be bump-bonded to a silicon sensor. This paper presents pixel architecture as well as simulation results while highlighting novel solutions.

  18. Comparative studies on histological and ultra-structure of the pituitary of different ploidy level fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Yu; LIU Shaojun; HUANG Weiren; ZHANG Jian; SUN Yuandong; ZHANG Chun; CHEN Song; LIU Jinghui; LIU Yun

    2006-01-01

    The histological and ultra-structure of the pituitary in diploid red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.), triploid crucian carp and allotetraploid hybrids within and after the breeding season were comparatively studied. The result showed that there were six endocrine cell types in the pituitary of these three kinds of fishes, and there was an obvious difference in cell size among different ploidy level fishes. As for the same type of pituitary cells, the cell size was increased gradually with the increasing ploidy level. In the breeding season, the allotetraploid hybrids had higher proportion of gonadotropin cells (GTH) than triploids, and the triploids had higher proportion of GTH than diploids. The results were related to the earlier sexual maturity of allotetraploid hybrids and sterility of triploid cruclan carp. On the other hand, among the three kinds of fishes, the proportion of somatotropin (STH)cells in triploids crucian carp was the highest, whereas that in allotetraploid hybrids was the lowest.The results might be connected with the faster growth rate of triploids and slower growth rate of allotetraploid hybrids. In addition, in GTH cells of meso-adenohypophysis after the breeding season,there were many endocrine particles in triploids, while those endocrine particles were released from the cells in allotetraploids and diploids. This result showed that the sterility of triploid crucian carp might be related to the hormone which was not released from the GTH cells. In a word, the present study indicated that the differences in the structure of pituitary among different ploidy level fishes contributed to their difference in the growth rate and gonadal development.

  19. APPLICATION OF TWO-COLOR INTERPHASE FISH USING SEX PROBE IN ALLOGENEIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾慧兰; 李建勇; 朱康儿; 薛永权; 李杨秋; 刘晓力; 过宇

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the significance of two-color interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using X and Y centromere probe in the engraftment estimation and minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). Methods: Samples from 12 cases patients in different periods after alloSCT were detected by interphase FISH. Results: All of the 12 patients were proved to obtain engraftment 22(35 days after alloSCT. While traditional karyotype showed as 100%XX or 100%XY invariably, FISH showed different percentages of donor original sex chromosome. Conclusion: Two-color interphase FISH is a more sensitive and simple test for engraftment evaluation and MRD monitoring post SCT, though, it can not entirely replace traditional karyotype analysis and gene detection by RT-PCR.

  20. Olfactory toxicity in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B; Baldwin, David H; Hara, Toshiaki J; Ross, Peter S; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Olfaction conveys critical environmental information to fishes, enabling activities such as mating, locating food, discriminating kin, avoiding predators and homing. All of these behaviors can be impaired or lost as a result of exposure to toxic contaminants in surface waters. Historically, teleost olfaction studies have focused on behavioral responses to anthropogenic contaminants (e.g., avoidance). More recently, there has been a shift towards understanding the underlying mechanisms and functional significance of contaminant-mediated changes in fish olfaction. This includes a consideration of how contaminants affect the olfactory nervous system and, by extension, the downstream physiological and behavioral processes that together comprise a normal response to naturally occurring stimuli (e.g., reproductive priming or releasing pheromones). Numerous studies spanning several species have shown that ecologically relevant exposures to common pollutants such as metals and pesticides can interfere with fish olfaction and disrupt life history processes that determine individual survival and reproductive success. This represents one of the pathways by which toxic chemicals in aquatic habitats may increasingly contribute to the decline and at-risk status of many commercially and ecologically important fish stocks. Despite our emerging understanding of the threats that pollution poses for chemical communication in aquatic communities, many research challenges remain. These include: (1) the determination of specific mechanisms of toxicity in the fish olfactory sensory epithelium; (2) an understanding of the impacts of complex chemical mixtures; (3) the capacity to assess olfactory toxicity in fish in situ; (4) the impacts of toxins on olfactory-mediated behaviors that are still poorly understood for many fish species; and (5) the connections between sublethal effects on individual fish and the long-term viability of wild populations. This review summarizes and integrates

  1. Why do fish school?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matz LARSSON

    2012-01-01

    Synchronized movements (schooling) emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO) of a predator.Moreover,prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators.The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling.The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey,possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal,but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish,resulting in size homogeneity and,accordingly,an increased capacity for moving in synchrony.Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL) may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming,such as neighbour body-size,speed,and location.When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex.Quiet intervals will be few.Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously,providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals.Besides,synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL.Turning preference bias,well-functioning sense organs,good health,and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors und aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery.Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formarion,reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms,which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain [Current Zoology 58 (1):116-128,2012].

  2. FISH of uncultured amniocytes for prenatal diagnosis: Experience in 24 cases using commercially available probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weremowicz, S.; Sandstrom, M.McH.; Walsh, K.A. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Rapid prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal aneuploidies is being requested increasingly by physicians at our institution. We report our experience in providing rapid diagnoses in prenatal samples referred following an abnormal ultrasound examination (n=22) and for confirmation of trisomy 21 prior to selective termination in a twin gestation (n=22). Uncultured amniocytes (46,XY) and cultured lymphocytes (46,SY) were used as control cells and a DXZ1 probe was hybridized separately from the test probes as a control probe. In 23 cases our FISH interpretation was concordant with the cytogenetic analysis. In one case referred to rule out trisomy 21 in which cystic hygroma was detected on ultrasound exam in a 35 y.o. G2 P1, a FISH interpretation of disomy 21 was based on 18% of cells with 1 signal, 65% with 2, 15% with 3, and 2% with 4; the large percentage of 3 signals was also reported. Cytogenetic analysis was 47,XX,+21 in 63 metaphases. Subsequent FISH analysis of metaphases revealed a large number of chromosomes 21 with only one site of hybridization that might have contributed to the discordant interpretation. Whether this result reflects population polymorphism in hybridization of this cosmid remains to be elucidated. Our findings confirm use of FISH as an invaluable adjunct to conventional cytogenetics; however, results must be interpreted cautiously until larger numbers of cases have been analyzed to detect potentially rare events.

  3. Magnetic Fields of Be Stars: Preliminary Results from a Hybrid Analysis of the MiMeS Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, G. A.; Petit, V.; Grunhut, J. H.; Neiner, C.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    In the context of the MiMeS survey of magnetism in massive stars, 85 classical Be stars were observed in circular polarization with the aim of detecting magnetic fields at their surfaces. No direct evidence of such fields is found, in contrast to the significant rate of detection (5-10%) in non-Be B-type stars. In this paper we describe the sample properties, the methodology and the data quality. We describe a novel method, previously applied to Herbig Ae/Be stars, that allows us to infer upper limits on organized (dipolar) magnetic fields present in the photospheres of our targets. We review the characteristics and robustness of this null result, and discuss its implications.

  4. Detection of salmonellae from fish in a natural river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, James; Wheeler, Phil E; Obafemi, Shola; Valdez, Jessica; Forstner, Michael R J; Bonner, Timothy H; Hahn, Dittmar

    2008-09-01

    Sediment, water, and fish gut samples taken at three sites near the headwaters of the San Marcos River, Texas, were analyzed for salmonellae Salmonella spp. by culture and molecular techniques. While enrichment cultures from sediment and water samples from the two uppermost sites were negative for salmonellae in polymerase chain reaction analyses, both sediment and water samples were positive at the downstream site. At all sites, salmonellae were present in the guts of different fishes (e.g., largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus). The highest percentage of detection (33% of analyzed fish) occurred at the downstream site, whereas detection percentages at the upper two sites were 18% and 17%. Detection of salmonellae was usually limited to one segment of the gut (i.e., upper or lower part). Serovars were highly variable among individuals and differed between the upper and lower gut in the only individual (a common carp) that had salmonellae in both gut segments. In situ hybridization demonstrated that salmonellae were normally associated with particulate material in the gut and occurred in highly variable numbers ranging from an occasional organism to a majority of the gut microbe population. These results demonstrate the presence of different serovars of potentially human pathogenic salmonellae among four ecologically distinct fishes within natural environments. They also suggest that salmonellae are not components of the indigenous microbial community in fish intestines but rather are ingested with particulate material.

  5. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  6. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  7. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  8. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  9. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of old G-banded and mounted chromosome preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, A M; Pandis, N; Bomme, L;

    1997-01-01

    , that the amount of added probe is increased approximately 2.5 times, and that the amplification of signals is performed twice. The applicability of the method, which allows double painting with two differently labeled probes using two differently fluorescing colors, was tested on 11 cases involving different......An improved method for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) investigation of old, previously G-banded, mounted chromosome preparations with chromosome specific painting probes and centromere-specific probes is described. Before hybridization, the slides are incubated in xylene until...... the coverslips detach spontaneously; any mechanical manipulation will jeopardize the results. The success of chromosome painting is improved by excluding the regular RNase treatment step prior to hybridization. Additional changes compared with standard FISH protocols are that the 2 x SSC step is omitted...

  10. The fish sexual development test: an OECD test guideline proposal with possible relevance for environmental risk assessment. Results from the validation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Kinnberg, Karin Lund;

    2010-01-01

    The Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT) has gone through two validations as an OECD test guideline for the detection of endocrine active chemicals with different modes of action. The validation has been finalized on four species: Zebrafish (Danio rerio), Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), three...... spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and with four model compounds: the weak estrogens 4-tert Octylphenol and 4-tert pentylphenol, the aromatase inhibitor prochloraz and the androgen dihydrotestosterone. All species were tested in different laboratories...

  11. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  12. 雌核发育二倍体鲫鲤及其他倍性鱼cdc2基因cDNA全序列克隆及表达%The cloning of cdc2 cDNAs and a comparative study of its expression in different ploidy fishes including the diploid gynogenetic hybrid of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶敏; 刘少军; 钟欢; 周毅; 宋灿; 张纯; 刘筠

    2013-01-01

    Cdc2(Cyclin Dependent Kinase,namely CDK1)encoded by cdc2 gene and CyclinB combination regulates G2/M transition. To find out molecular mechanism that diploid hybrid fish could produce diploid gamete,the full length cDNAs of cdcl in the third gynogenetic generation(G3) ,red crucian carp( Carassius auratus red var. ) ,triploid crucian carp and allotetraploid were obtained by PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Our data showed that all the cDNAs of cdcl gene in the four different ploidy fishes encode a protein of 302 amino acids containing a domain (PSTAVRE) which combine Cyclins. A high homology of 97. 6% of the Cdc2 protein can be drawn by comparing the amino acid sequences in these four fishes, which indicates the higher conservative function and evolution of Cdc2 protein in these four fishes. A comparative expression pattern of cdcl in early-stage gonads of G3 and different ploidy fishes was carried out by Realtime PCR using specific primers against the same sequences of coding regions in the four fishes. The results showed that the expression of cdcl in the ovary of G3 was higher than those of red crucian carp and triploid crucian carp, while lower than that of allotetraploid, which, at the molecular level, indicates existence of polyploid oogonia in early-stage gonads of G3. The higher expression of cdcl in G3 suggests that consecutive S-phase replication may occur without intervening mitosis, which might be related to the formation mechanisms for the diploid eggs generated by diploid hybrids.%为研究雌核发育二倍体鲫鲤产生二倍体卵子的分子机制,实验采用PCR和cDNA末端快速分离法,克隆获得了雌核发育二倍体鲫鲤第三代(G3)、二倍体红鲫、三倍体湘云鲫和四倍体鲫鲤的细胞周期相关基因——cdc2基因cDNA全序列.结果显示,4种不同倍性鱼cdc2基因均编码含有302个氨基酸蛋白,而且编码的蛋白都含有与其他CDK激酶相当保守的序列PSTAVRE;同源性分析发现,4

  13. The intake of long chain omega 3 fatty acids through fish versus capsules results in greater increments of their plasma levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visioli Francesco

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Omega 3 fatty acids from fish appear to be more cardioprotective than equivalent amounts provided as capsules. We gave volunteers, for six weeks, either 100 g\\\\day of salmon, providing 383 mg of EPA and 544 mg of DHA or one or three capsules of fish oil\\\\day, providing 150 mg of EPA and 106 mg of DHA or 450 mg of EPA and 318 mg of DHA. We also re-evaluated data from a previous study carried out with the same design. Marked increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentrations (μg\\\\mg total lipid and percentages of total fatty acids were recorded at the end of either treatment. Such increments were linearly and significantly correlated with the dose after capsule administration. Notably, increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentration after salmon intake were significantly higher than after administration of capsules. In fact, the same increments would be obtained with at least two- and nine-fold higher doses of EPA and DHA, respectively, if administered with capsules rather than salmon. In turn, we provide experimental evidence that omega 3 fatty acids from fish are more effectively incorporated into plasma lipids than when administered as capsules and that increments in plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA given as capsules are linearly correlated with their intakes.

  14. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  15. Risk assessment models in genetics clinic for array comparative genomic hybridization: Clinical information can be used to predict the likelihood of an abnormal result in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Rachel M; Mercurio, Laura; Kanter, Rebecca; Doyle, Richard; Abuelo, Dianne; Morrow, Eric M; Shur, Natasha

    2013-03-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) testing can diagnose chromosomal microdeletions and duplications too small to be detected by conventional cytogenetic techniques. We need to consider which patients are more likely to receive a diagnosis from aCGH testing versus patients that have lower likelihood and may benefit from broader genome wide scanning. We retrospectively reviewed charts of a population of 200 patients, 117 boys and 83 girls, who underwent aCGH testing in Genetics Clinic at Rhode Island hospital between 1 January/2008 and 31 December 2010. Data collected included sex, age at initial clinical presentation, aCGH result, history of seizures, autism, dysmorphic features, global developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia and failure to thrive. aCGH analysis revealed abnormal results in 34 (17%) and variants of unknown significance in 24 (12%). Patients with three or more clinical diagnoses had a 25.0% incidence of abnormal aCGH findings, while patients with two or fewer clinical diagnoses had a 12.5% incidence of abnormal aCGH findings. Currently, we provide families with a range of 10-30% of a diagnosis with aCGH testing. With increased clinical complexity, patients have an increased probability of having an abnormal aCGH result. With this, we can provide individualized risk estimates for each patient.

  16. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  17. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  18. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  19. Fishing degrades size structure of coral reef fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James P W; Williams, Ivor D; Edwards, Andrew M; McPherson, Jana; Yeager, Lauren; Vigliola, Laurent; Brainard, Russell E; Baum, Julia K

    2017-03-01

    Fishing pressure on coral reef ecosystems has been frequently linked to reductions of large fishes and reef fish biomass. Associated impacts on overall community structure are, however, less clear. In size-structured aquatic ecosystems, fishing impacts are commonly quantified using size spectra, which describe the distribution of individual body sizes within a community. We examined the size spectra and biomass of coral reef fish communities at 38 US-affiliated Pacific islands that ranged in human presence from near pristine to human population centers. Size spectra 'steepened' steadily with increasing human population and proximity to market due to a reduction in the relative biomass of large fishes and an increase in the dominance of small fishes. Reef fish biomass was substantially lower on inhabited islands than uninhabited ones, even at inhabited islands with the lowest levels of human presence. We found that on populated islands size spectra exponents decreased (analogous to size spectra steepening) linearly with declining biomass, whereas on uninhabited islands there was no relationship. Size spectra were steeper in regions of low sea surface temperature but were insensitive to variation in other environmental and geomorphic covariates. In contrast, reef fish biomass was highly sensitive to oceanographic conditions, being influenced by both oceanic productivity and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that community size structure may be a more robust indicator than fish biomass to increasing human presence and that size spectra are reliable indicators of exploitation impacts across regions of different fish community compositions, environmental drivers, and fisheries types. Size-based approaches that link directly to functional properties of fish communities, and are relatively insensitive to abiotic variation across biogeographic regions, offer great potential for developing our understanding of fishing impacts in coral reef ecosystems. © 2016

  20. Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: results from the EPIC-Oxford study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Francesca L; Steur, Marinka; Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2011-02-01

    Vegetarians and vegans exclude certain food sources of vitamin D from their diet, but it is not clear to what extent this affects plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The objective was to investigate differences in vitamin D intake and plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. A cross-sectional analysis. United Kingdom. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in 2107 white men and women (1388 meat eaters, 210 fish eaters, 420 vegetarians and eighty-nine vegans) aged 20-76 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations reflected the degree of animal product exclusion and, hence, dietary intake of vitamin D; meat eaters had the highest mean intake of vitamin D (3·1 (95 % CI 3·0, 3·2) μg/d) and mean plasma 25(OH)D concentrations (77·0 (95 % CI 75·4, 78·8) nmol/l) and vegans the lowest (0·7 (95 % CI 0·6, 0·8) μg/d and 55·8 (95 % CI 51·0, 61·0) nmol/l, respectively). The magnitude of difference in 25(OH)D concentrations between meat eaters and vegans was smaller (20 %) among those participants who had a blood sample collected during the summer months (July-September) compared with the winter months (38 %; January-March). The prevalence of low plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D (vegans than in meat and fish eaters; diet is an important determinant of plasma 25(OH)D in this British population.

  1. TA3 - Dosimetry and instrumentation supply of the M-Fish technique to the Fish-3 painting technique for analysing translocations: A radiotherapy-treated patient study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouzoulet, F.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Giraudet, A.L.; Vaurijoux, A.; Voisin, P.A.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph.; Roy, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Lab. de Dosimetrie Biologique, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Bourhis, J. [Laboratoire UPRES EA 27-10, Radiosensibilite des Tumeurs et Tissus sains, PR1, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Currently, the chromosome translocation study is the best method to estimate the dose of an old radiation exposure. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (F.I.S.H.) technique allows an easy detection of this kind of aberrations. However, as only a few number of chromosomes is usually painted, some bias could skew the result. To evaluate the advantage of using full genome staining (M-F.I.S.H. technique) compared with three chromosomes labelling (F.I.S.H.-3 painting), we compared translocation yields in radiotherapy treated patients. Methods: Chromosome aberration analyses were performed on peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of two patients treated for a throat cancer by radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained, before, along the treatment and six or four months later. For each sample, a dicentrics analysis was performed together with translocation analysis either with F.I.S.H.-3 painting or M-F.I.S.H.. Results: By confronting results from the F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique and the M-F.I.S.H. technique, significant differences were revealed. The translocations yield seemed to be stable with the F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique whereas it is not the case with the M-F.I.S.H. technique. This difference in results was explained by the bias induced by F.I.S.H.-3 Painting technique in the visualisation of complex aberrations. Furthermore, we found the presence of a clone bearing a translocation involving a painted chromosome. Conclusions: According to the potential bias of F.I.S.H.-3 painting on translocations study, the M-F.I.S.H. technique should provide more precise and reproducible results. Because of its more difficult implement, it seems hardly applicable to retrospective dosimetry instead of F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique. (authors)

  2. BayFish: Bayesian inference of transcription dynamics from population snapshots of single-molecule RNA FISH in single cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mariana Gomez-Schiavon; Liang-Fu Chen; Anne E West; Nicolas E Buchler

    2017-01-01

    Single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) provides unparalleled resolution in the measurement of the abundance and localization of nascent and mature RNA transcripts in fixed, single cells...

  3. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  4. Prenatal detection of aneuploidies using fluorescence in situ hybridization: A preliminary experience in an Indian set up

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vaidehi Jobanputra; Kalol Kumar Roy; Kiran Kucheria

    2002-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful molecular cytogenetic technique which allows rapid detection of aneuploidies on interphase cells and metaphase spreads. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FISH as a tool in prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidies in high risk pregnancies in an Indian set up. Prenatal diagnosis was carried out in 88 high-risk pregnancies using FISH and cytogenetic analysis. Multicolour commercially available FISH probes specific for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y were used. Interphase FISH was done on uncultured cells from chorionic villus and amniotic fluid samples. FISH on metaphase spreads was done from cord blood samples. The results of FISH were in conformity with the results of cytogenetic analysis in all the normal and aneuploid cases except in one case of structural chromosomal abnormality. The hybridization efficiency of the 5 probes used for the detection of aneuploidies was 100%. Using these probes FISH assay yielded discrete differences in the signal profiles between cytogenetically normal and abnormal samples. The overall mean interphase disomic signal patterns of chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y were 94.45%; for interphase trisomic signal pattern of chromosome 21 was 97.3%. Interphase FISH is very useful in urgent high risk cases. The use of FISH overcomes the difficulties of conventional banding on metaphase spreads and reduces the time of reporting. However, with the limited number of probes used, the conventional cytogenetic analysis serves as a gold standard at present. It should be employed as an adjunctive tool to conventional cytogenetics.

  5. Insight into octoploid strawberry (Fragaria) subgenome composition revealed by GISH analysis of pentaploid hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Poulsen, Elizabeth G; Davis, Thomas M

    2016-02-01

    As the product of interspecific hybridization between its two ancestral octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) species (Fragaria chiloensis and F. virginiana), the cultivated strawberry (F. ×ananassa) is among the most genomically complex of crop plants, harboring subgenomic components derived from as many as four different diploid ancestors. To physically visualize the octoploids' subgenome composition(s), we launched molecular cytogenetic studies using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), comparative GISH (cGISH), and rDNA-FISH techniques. First, GISH resolution in Fragaria was tested by using diploid and triploid hybrids with predetermined genome compositions. Then, observation of an octoploid genome was implemented by hybridizing chromosomes of pentaploid (2n = 5x = 35) hybrids from F. vesca × F. virginiana with genomic DNA probes derived from diploids (2n = 2x = 14) F. vesca and F. iinumae, which have been proposed by phylogenetic studies to be closely related to the octoploids yet highly divergent from each other. GISH and cGISH results indicated that octoploid-derived gametes (n = 4x = 28) carried seven chromosomes with hybridization affinities to F. vesca, while the remaining 21 chromosomes displayed varying affinities to F. iinumae, indicating differing degrees of subgenomic contribution to the octoploids by these two putatively ancestral diploids. Combined rDNA-FISH revealed severe 25S rDNA loss in both the F. vesca- and F. iinumae-like chromosome groups, while only the prior group retained its 5S loci.

  6. SWALLOWED FISH BONES IN MALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacko HB

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the different aspects, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic of 114 cases of fish bones in the upper digestive tract . Methods: One hundred fourteen patients with fish bones suspected in the upper digestive tract were admitted in our department between February 2010 and October 2012. Results: There was a predominance of the male: 66 men (58%. The average age of the patients was 26 years with extremes 3 to 62 years old. The tongue base and vallecula are constituted the principals locations 66.66%. In the majority of the cases the fish bones were removed by direct pharyngoscopy in 43.86 %. We have not notified any serious complications. Conclusion: Therefore this study shows the foreign fish bones are frequently just as well in children as adult. The fish bones are particularly lodged in tongue base. The classical methods of extraction are permit to remove the all foreign fish bones.

  7. Effects of growth hormone transgenesis on metabolic rate, exercise performance and hypoxia tolerance in tilapia hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, DJ; Martinez, R; Morales, A

    2003-01-01

    Swimming respirometry was employed to compare inactive metabolic rate (Rr), maximum metabolic rate (Rmax), resultant aerobic scope and maximum sustainable (critical) swimming speed (Ucrit), in growth hormone transgenic (GHT) and wild-type (W) tilapia Oreochromis sp. hybrids. Although the Rr of GHT...... tilapia also exhibited the same capacity to regulate oxygen uptake during progressive hypoxia, despite the fact that the GHT fish were defending a higher demand for O2. The results indicate that ectopic expression of GH raises metabolic rate in tilapia, but the fish compensate for this metabolic load...

  8. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  9. Growth Performance, Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Backcross and Reciprocal Hybrid Catfish Reared in Net Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiboon Panase

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the growth performance, Length-Weight Relationship (LWR and condition factor (k-value of reciprocal backcross hybrid catfish (RCBC, Pangasianodon gigas (femalexF1 hybrid (male catfish and backcross hybrid catfish (BC, P. gigas (malexF1 hybrid (female catfish. Moreover, this study also compared the above mentioned species of catfish were compared with P. gigas and F1 hybrid P. gigas (malexP. hypophthalmus (female catfish. The fish were reared in net cages for 5 months (October, 2013-March, 2014. The results showed that, Weight Gain (WG and average daily weight gain (ADG were the highest among the P. gigas (34.45 and 0.20, respectively. The Length Gain (LG, average daily length gain (ADL and Specific Growth Rate (SGR were highest among the RCBC (10.66, 0.062 and 2.34, respectively. While the survival rate (55% was highest among the BC. The Feed Conversion Rate (FCR showed high numbers in all fish except the hybrids. On the other hand, the hybrid species showed lower results in all growth indices except for the survival rate but which had as high a tendency as the RCBC. The LWR revealed “b” values for the P. gigas, RCBC, BC and F1 hybrid that were 2.94, 3.12, 2.67 and 2.03 indicating that P. gigas and RCBC displayed isometric growth while others showed allometric growth. The k-values for each month showed significant differences (p0.05. The results from this study revealed that the RCBC is suitable for the aquaculture industry and moreover, the information collected in this study on LWR and the condition factor of each fish will be useful for fishery management.

  10. Fish oil quality of by-product (fish skin from swangi fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Huli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin of swangi fish is a potential fish skin to be produced for fish oil. The objectives of this research were aimed to determine the yield and the best quality of fish oil and also to compare fatty acid profile of the fish according to different extraction methods. Fish oil extractions were used by wet rendering method with extraction temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100°C for 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Fish oil quality was determined by the chemical oil characteristics i.e. PV, FFA, AV, anisidin, and TOTOX. Fatty acid profile was analyzed using gas chromatography (Shimadzu. The results of the study showed that the highest fish oil yield in each treatment was obtained extraction temperature of 60°C for 30 minutes with percentage of 0.33, (70°C for 30 minutes 0.46, (80°C for 30 minutes 1.23, (90°C for 20 minutes 1.14 and (100°C for 20 minutes 0.84. These values were lower compare to Bligh & Dyer and Soxhlet methods. Then, the best fish oil quality was resulted on temperature extraction of 60°C for 30 minutes with PV, FFA, anisidin, AV, and TOTOX were 9.17 meq/kg, 6.92%, 13,77 mg KOH/g, 0.86 meq/kg and 19.19 meq/kg, respectively. FUFA fatty acid compositions of swangi skin fish oil especially EPA and DHA in wet rendering method were gained 0.73% and 2.53%, respectively. These results were lower than Bligh & Dyer method which was consisted of 3.66% (EPA, and 13.29% (DHA and also Soxhlet extraction method with value of EPA was 2.78% and DHA was 9.62%.Keywords: EPA, extraction temperature, DHA, fish oil quality, fish skin

  11. FLUORESCENT TRANSGENIC FISH IN PERU: BIOSAFETY AND RISK ANALYSIS PENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotto, Carlos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Transgenesis involves processes of molecular genetic manipulation of DNAwhich seeks to "introduce genes" of interest from one organism into the genetic material of another to obtain goods or services. The resulting organism is called a Genetically Modified Organism or GMO. It shows the first case of transgenic fluorescent fish as a real example of GMOs existing in Peru. Reproduction and hybridization in confined environments, provide new approaches to biosecurity decision-makers about this new technological contribution to the task of Peru.

  12. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  13. Fish Vaccine Development and Use to Prevent Streptococcal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important pathogen of tilapia, hybrid striped bass and trout raised in intensive aquaculture is Streptococcus sp., a cause of severe economic losses in the fish farming industry. Infected fish experience severe to moderate mortality due to Streptococcus iniae and/or S. agalactiae. The diseased ...

  14. Archaeological resources of Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge: Preliminary report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document presents results of an archeological survey of two caves located in the Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. It was concluded that the Fish Springs...

  15. Commercial fish price shock behaviour in Akwa Ibom State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly price of low quality fresh fish; high quality fresh fish; low quality dry fish; high ... (fisherman price) and its corresponding urban price alone the food chain. The result confirmed significant short and long run market integration between ...

  16. High-resolution chromosome mapping of BACs using multi-colour FISH and pooled-BAC FISH as a backbone for sequencing tomato chromosome 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinay, Dóra; Chang, Song-Bin; Khrustaleva, Ludmila; Peters, Sander; Schijlen, Elio; Bai, Yuling; Stiekema, Willem J; van Ham, Roeland C H J; de Jong, Hans; Klein Lankhorst, René M

    2008-11-01

    Within the framework of the International Solanaceae Genome Project, the genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is currently being sequenced. We follow a 'BAC-by-BAC' approach that aims to deliver high-quality sequences of the euchromatin part of the tomato genome. BACs are selected from various libraries of the tomato genome on the basis of markers from the F2.2000 linkage map. Prior to sequencing, we validated the precise physical location of the selected BACs on the chromosomes by five-colour high-resolution fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping. This paper describes the strategies and results of cytogenetic mapping for chromosome 6 using 75 seed BACs for FISH on pachytene complements. The cytogenetic map obtained showed discrepancies between the actual chromosomal positions of these BACs and their markers on the linkage group. These discrepancies were most notable in the pericentromere heterochromatin, thus confirming previously described suppression of cross-over recombination in that region. In a so called pooled-BAC FISH, we hybridized all seed BACs simultaneously and found a few large gaps in the euchromatin parts of the long arm that are still devoid of seed BACs and are too large for coverage by expanding BAC contigs. Combining FISH with pooled BACs and newly recruited seed BACs will thus aid in efficient targeting of novel seed BACs into these areas. Finally, we established the occurrence of repetitive DNA in heterochromatin/euchromatin borders by combining BAC FISH with hybridization of a labelled repetitive DNA fraction (Cot-100). This strategy provides an excellent means to establish the borders between euchromatin and heterochromatin in this chromosome.

  17. FISH-mapped CEPH YACs spanning 0 to 46 cM on human chromosome 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray-Ward, P.; Bowlus, C.; Choi, J. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-15

    Seventy-six CEPH YACs were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to human metaphase chromosomes. These clones have been ordered from pter to 46 cM by combining the results of FISH with sequence-tagged site content mapping using data from the public databases. This created a minimal tiling path containing at least 37 Mb of human genomic DNA from 0 to 46 cM on chromosome 6 that contains up to four gaps not greater than 200 kb. These data provide an integration of the FLpter physical map values with cytogenetic band localization and markers on the genetic and radiation hybrid maps. We also assessed YAC chimerism and placed three additional Whitehead contigs within the integrated map. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed.

  19. Inspection report: Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses results of a reconnaissance trip conducted at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following is outlined; land condition, presence of...

  20. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  1. Biodiversity of arctic marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Møller, Peter Rask; Steinke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic and distributional information on each fish species found in arctic marine waters is reviewed, and a list of families and species with commentary on distributional records is presented. The list incorporates results from examination of museum collections of arctic marine fishes dating b...

  2. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jakub G; Appleby, Paul N; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jakub G.; Appleby, Paul N.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Key, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30 251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. PMID:27101764

  4. [Fluorescence in situ hybridization with DNA probes derived from individual chromosomes and chromosome regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, A G; Karamysheva, T V; Rubtsov, N B

    2014-01-01

    A significant part of the eukaryotic genomes consists of repetitive DNA, which can form large clusters or distributed along euchromatic chromosome regions. Repeats located in chromosomal regions make a problem in analysis and identification of the chromosomal material with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In most cases, the identification of chromosome regions using FISH requires detection of the signal produced with unique sequences. The feasibility, advantages and disadvantages of traditional methods of suppression of repetitive DNA hybridization, methods of repeats-free probe construction and methods of chromosome-specific DNA sequences visualization using image processing of multicolor FISH results are considered in the paper. The efficiency of different techniques for DNA probe generation, different FISH protocols, and image processing of obtained microscopic images depends on the genomic size and structure of analyzing species. This problem was discussed and different approaches were considered for the analysis of the species with very large genome, rare species and species which specimens are too small in size to obtain the amount of genomic and Cot-1 DNA required for suppression of repetitive DNA hybridization.

  5. Construction of a repeat-free dual color fluorescent in situ hybridization probe for ROS1 gene in non-small cell lung cancer diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程弘夏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a repeat-free ROS1 gene fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH)probe,and to compare its efficacy with those of commercial FISH probes in non-small cell lung cancer.Methods The probe was constructed by combining human Cot-1 DNA genome into double-stranded sequence,and then digested by duples specific nuclease to establish a repeat-free sequene.The final repeat-free ROS1 FISH probe was labeled by red and green fluoresceins.Results Compared

  6. Experimental Results and Model Calculations of a Hybrid Adsorption-Compression Heat Pump Based on a Roots Compressor and Silica Gel-Water Sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; De Boer, R.; Wemmers, A.K.; Smeding, S.F.; Veldhuis, J.B.J.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, J.A.

    2013-10-15

    Thermally driven sorption systems can provide significant energy savings, especially in industrial applications. The driving temperature for operation of such systems limits the operating window and can be a barrier for market-introduction. By adding a compressor, the sorption cycle can be run using lower waste heat temperatures. ECN has recently started the development of such a hybrid heat pump. The final goal is to develop a hybrid heat pump for upgrading lower (<100C) temperature industrial waste heat to above pinch temperatures. The paper presents the first measurements and model calculations of a hybrid heat pump system using a water-silica gel system combined with a Roots type compressor. From the measurements can be seen that the effect of the compressor is dependent on where in the cycle it is placed. When placed between the evaporator and the sorption reactor, it has a considerable larger effect compared to the compressor placed between the sorption reactor and the condenser. The latter hardly improves the performance compared to purely heat-driven operation. This shows the importance of studying the interaction between all components of the system. The model, which shows reasonable correlation with the measurements, could proof to be a valuable tool to determine the optimal hybrid heat pump configuration.

  7. Detection of Embryo Sex Chromosome by Dual Color Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘群; 朱桂金

    2003-01-01

    Summary: In order to evaluate the effects of sex chromosomal mosaicism on the accuracy of single-cell gender diagnosis, sex chromosomes of 21 normal fertilized embryos were detected by dual colorfluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). The results showed that 4 embryos had sex chromosomalmosaicism (19%) and the remaining 17 showed uniformly XX or XY signals in all blastomeres. Inconclusion, identification of sex by dual color FISH analysis of a single cell was accurate and efficient,and sex chromosomal mosaicism would not affect preimplantation gender diagnosis.

  8. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S Quilodrán

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  9. Analysis on screen results of cervical cancer for 2 739 women in fishing village and countryside%渔农村妇女2739人宫颈癌筛选结果的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周悠燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analysis the screen results of cervical cancer and improve prevention for women with cervical cancer in fishing village and countryside. Method Analyze the information on cervical cancer for 2739 women in fishing village and countryside. Analyze the relation between age, marriage, education level, medical insurance, economic conditions and positive screen result of cervical cancer. Result 51 of 2739 women show positive results. Women with older age, lower education level and poorer economic conditions tend to have a higher rate of positive result. Conclusion Enhancing health education for women with cervical cancer in fishing village and countryside can improve the early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment of cervical cancer.%目的 分析渔农村妇女宫颈癌筛选的结果,提出对策.方法 对渔农村妇女 2 739 人的宫颈癌筛选资料进行分析,了解渔农村妇女年龄、婚姻状况、文化程度、医疗保险及经济状况与宫颈癌筛选阳性之间关系.结果 2 739 人中,宫颈癌筛选阳性检出 51 人,年龄越大阳性检出率越高,文化程度越低、经济状况越差阳性检出率越高.结论 加强渔农村妇女保健及健康教育工作,促使宫颈癌早发现、早诊断、早治疗.

  10. The costs of a big brain: extreme encephalization results in higher energetic demand and reduced hypoxia tolerance in weakly electric African fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhum, Kimberley V; Freiler, Megan K; Wang, Robert; Carlson, Bruce A

    2016-12-28

    A large brain can offer several cognitive advantages. However, brain tissue has an especially high metabolic rate. Thus, evolving an enlarged brain requires either a decrease in other energetic requirements, or an increase in overall energy consumption. Previous studies have found conflicting evidence for these hypotheses, leaving the metabolic costs and constraints in the evolution of increased encephalization unclear. Mormyrid electric fishes have extreme encephalization comparable to that of primates. Here, we show that brain size varies widely among mormyrid species, and that there is little evidence for a trade-off with organ size, but instead a correlation between brain size and resting oxygen consumption rate. Additionally, we show that increased brain size correlates with decreased hypoxia tolerance. Our data thus provide a non-mammalian example of extreme encephalization that is accommodated by an increase in overall energy consumption. Previous studies have found energetic trade-offs with variation in brain size in taxa that have not experienced extreme encephalization comparable with that of primates and mormyrids. Therefore, we suggest that energetic trade-offs can only explain the evolution of moderate increases in brain size, and that the energetic requirements of extreme encephalization may necessitate increased overall energy investment.

  11. Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenberg, J.R.

    1993-03-04

    Genetic mapping is approached using the techniques of high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This technology and the results of its application are designed to rapidly generate whole genome as tool box of expressed sequence to speed the identification of human disease genes. The results of this study are intended to dovetail with and to link the results of existing technologies for creating backbone YAC and genetic maps. In the first eight months, this approach generated 60--80% of the expressed sequence map, the remainder expected to be derived through more long-term, labor-intensive, regional chromosomal gene searches or sequencing. The laboratory has made significant progress in the set-up phase, in mapping fetal and adult brain and other cDNAs, in testing a model system for directly linking genetic and physical maps using FISH with small fragments, in setting up a database, and in establishing the validity and throughput of the system.

  12. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L.; Bennett, John M.; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%–20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34+) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34+ peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34+ blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). PMID:25344522

  13. Karyotype variability in tropical maize sister inbred lines and hybrids compared with KYS standard line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondin, Mateus; Santos-Serejo, Janay A; Bertäo, Mônica R; Laborda, Prianda; Pizzaia, Daniel; Aguiar-Perecin, Margarida L R

    2014-01-01

    Maize karyotype variability has been extensively investigated. The identification of maize somatic and pachytene chromosomes has improved with the development of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using tandemly repeated DNA sequences as probes. We identified the somatic chromosomes of sister inbred lines that were derived from a tropical flint maize population (Jac Duro [JD]), and hybrids between them, using FISH probes for the 180-bp knob repeat, centromeric satellite (CentC), centromeric satellite 4 (Cent4), subtelomeric clone 4-12-1, 5S ribosomal DNA and nucleolus organizing region DNA sequences. The observations were integrated with data based on C-banded mitotic metaphases and conventional analysis of pachytene chromosomes. Heterochromatic knobs visible at pachynema were coincident with C-bands and 180-bp FISH signals on somatic chromosomes, and most of them were large. Variation in the presence of some knobs was observed among lines. Small 180-bp knob signals were invariant on the short arms of chromosomes 1, 6, and 9. The subtelomeric 4-12-1 signal was also invariant and useful for identifying some chromosomes. The centromere location of chromosomes 2 and 4 differed from previous reports on standard maize lines. Somatic chromosomes of a JD line and the commonly used KYS line were compared by FISH in a hybrid of these lines. The pairing behavior of chromosomes 2 and 4 at pachytene stage in this hybrid was investigated using FISH with chromosome-specific probes. The homologues were fully synapsed, including the 5S rDNA and CentC sites on chromosome 2, and Cent4 and subtelomeric 4-12-1 sites on chromosome 4. This suggests that homologous chromosomes could pair through differential degrees of chromatin packaging in homologous arms differing in size. The results contribute to current knowledge of maize global diversity and also raise questions concerning the meiotic pairing of homologous chromosomes possibly differing in their amounts of repetitive DNA.

  14. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  15. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  16. Fish Immunoglobulins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashoof, Sara; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglobulin isotype or taxonomic group and what exemplifies an exception. PMID:27879632

  17. The use of interphase FISH for prenatal diagnosis of Pallister-Killian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery-Rushton, P A; Stadler, M P; Kochmar, S J; McPherson, E; Surti, U; Hogge, W A

    1997-03-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (tetrasomy 12p) is a relatively rare aneuploidy syndrome characterized by the presence of mosaicism for an isochromosome 12p [i(12p)]. We report two new cases diagnosed following chorionic villus sampling and an abnormal ultrasound, respectively. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to enumerate the number of interphase cells containing the isochromosome. The results of these studies illustrate the importance of the use of interphase FISH to detect the presence of the i(12p) in uncultured, non-dividing cells. A review of the literature identified 23 additional cases of Pallister-Killian syndrome diagnosed prenatally. Approximately 50 per cent of these cases were associated with the presence of a congenital diaphragmatic hernia. We suggest that a perinatal-lethal form of Pallister-Killian syndrome is underdiagnosed and recommend that all cases of prenatally detected diaphragmatic hernia be tested for Pallister-Killian syndrome using interphase FISH on uncultured amniocytes.

  18. Breeding and reproduction of transgenic fish fluorescent in captivity: a prospective scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scotto Espinoza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduction, breeding and hybridization of fluorescent transgenic fish in Peruvian territory has been going since 2006 as demonstrated in laboratory tests reported in this article. He has spoken to Peru Law No. 29811 establishing the moratorium on the production of income and living modified organisms into the country for a period of 10 years for cultivation or breeding, including water, to be released into the environment. The paper shows the existence of aquatic LMOs that are being propagated commercially by aquarists and / or ornamental fish farmers out of control and could potentially be released into the environment. However, preliminary results on the other side could initiate a first analysis and risk management at the laboratory and / or under controlled conditions with these organisms (zebra fish case that could provide the basis for future decision making relevant to the introduction of GMOs for any scientific purpose, commercial, environmental or other national interest not yet glimpsed.

  19. Anchoring novel molecular biomarker responses to traditional responses in fish exposed to environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Patricia [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Pacheco, Mario [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Lourdes Pereira, M. [CICECO and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Mendo, Sonia [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rotchell, Jeanette M., E-mail: J.Rotchell@sussex.ac.u [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    The responses of Dicentrarchus labrax and Liza aurata to aquatic pollution were assessed in a contaminated coastal lagoon, using both traditional and novel biomarkers combined. DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, was higher in both fish species from the contaminated sites, whereas levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression were not significantly altered. The liver histopathological analysis also revealed significant lesions in fish from contaminated sites. Alterations in ras and xpf genes were analysed and additional pollutant-responsive genes were identified. While no alterations were found in ras gene, a downregulation of xpf gene was observed in D. labrax from a contaminated site. Suppression subtractive hybridization applied to D. labrax collected at a contaminated site, revealed altered expression in genes involved in energy metabolism, immune system activity and antioxidant response. The approach and results reported herein demonstrate the utility of anchoring traditional biomarker responses alongside novel biomarker responses. - Novel molecular biomarkers of aquatic environmental contamination in fish.

  20. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization is more informative than conventional karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization in the analysis of first-trimester spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jinsong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH is a new technique for detecting submicroscopic deletions and duplications, and can overcome many of the limitations associated with classic cytogenetic analysis. However, its clinical use in spontaneous abortion needs comprehensive evaluation. We used aCGH to investigate chromosomal imbalances in 100 spontaneous abortions and compared the results with G-banding karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Inconsistent results were verified by quantitative fluorescence PCR. Results Abnormalities were detected in 61 cases. aCGH achieved the highest detection rate (93.4%, 57/61 compared with traditional karyotyping (77%, 47/61 and FISH analysis (68.9%, 42/61. aCGH identified all chromosome abnormalities reported by traditional karyotyping and interphase FISH analysis, with the exception of four triploids. It also detected three additional aneuploidy cases in 37 specimens with ‘normal’ karyotypes, one mosaicism and 10 abnormalities in 14 specimens that failed to grow in vitro. Conclusions aCGH analysis circumvents many limitations in traditional karyotyping or FISH. The accuracy and efficiency of aCGH in spontaneous abortions highlights its clinical usefulness for the future. As aborted tissues have the potential to be contaminated with maternal cells, the threshold value of detection in aCGH should be lowered to avoid false negatives.

  1. The Danish Experience with Transferable Fishing Concessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    this the chapter looks upon the objective and the ends which were formulated as the purpose of the Danish privatization and introduction of transferable fishing quotas. The result is a huge profit driven concentration and monopolization process undermining most fishing communities, making fisheries heavily...... dependent upon the struggles on the financial markets, replacing sustainable fishing methods with heavy buttom trawling and undermining the future of young people in the fishing industry....

  2. Fishing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  3. Deep Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  4. Investigation of Collective Behaviour and Electrocommunication in the Weakly Electric Fish, Mormyrus rume, through a biomimetic Robotic Dummy Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Elisa; Worm, Martin; Mintchev, Stefano; van der Wiel, Marleen; Benelli, Giovanni; von der Emde, Gerhard; Stefanini, Cesare

    2016-12-01

    A robotic fish has been developed to create a mixed bio-hybrid system made up of weakly electric fish and a mobile dummy fish. Weakly electric fish are capable of interacting with each other via sequences of self-generated electric signals during electrocommunication. Here we present the design of an artificial dummy fish, which is subsequently tested in behavioural experiments. The robot consists of two parts: a flexible tail that can move at different frequencies and amplitudes, performing a carangiform oscillation, and a rigid head containing the motor for the tail oscillation. The dummy fish mimics the weakly electric fish Mormyrus rume in morphology, size and electric signal generation. In order to study electrical interactions, the dummy fish is equipped with ten electrodes that record electric signals of nearby real fish and generate electric dipole fields around itself that are similar to those produced by real fish in both waveform and sequence. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that the dummy fish is able to recruit both single individuals and groups of M. rume from a shelter into an exposed area. The development of an artificial dummy fish may help to understand fundamental aspects of collective behaviour in weakly electric fish and the properties necessary to initiate and sustain it in closed-loop feedback experiments based on electrocommunication.

  5. Fluorescence in situ hybridization as adjunct to cytology improves the diagnosis and directs estimation of prognosis of malignant pleural effusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jingquan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of malignant cells in effusions by conventional cytology is hampered by its limited sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH as adjuncts to conventional cytologic examination in patients with malignant pleural effusions. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 93 inpatients with pleural effusions (72 malignant pleural effusions metastatic from 11 different organs and 21 benign over 23 months. All the patients came from Chinese northeast areas. Aspirated pleural fluid underwent cytologic examination and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for aneuploidy. We used FISH in single-colour or if appropriate in dual-colour evaluation to detect chromosomal aberrations (chromosomes 7, 11, and 17 in effusion cells as markers of malignancy, to raise the diagnostic yield and identified the efficiency by diagnostic biopsy. Predominant cytogenetic anomalies and patterns of intratumor cytogenetic heterogeneity were brought in relation to overall survival rate. Results Cytology alone confirmed malignant pleural effusions in 45 of 72 patients (sensitivity 63%, whereas FISH alone positively identified 48 of 72 patients (sensitivity 67%. Both tests had high specificity in predicting benign effusions. If cytology and FISH were considered together, they exhibited 88% sensitivity and 94.5% specificity in discriminating benign and malignant effusions. Combined, the two assays were more sensitive than either test alone. Although the positive predictive value of each test was 94.5%, the negative predictive value of cytology and FISH combined was 78%, better than 47% and 44% for FISH and cytology alone, respectively. There was a significantly prolonged survival rate for patients with aneuploidy for chromosome 17. Conclusions FISH in combination with conventional cytology is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for detecting

  6. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species of swordtails and platies (Pisces: Genus Xiphophorus) uncovers a hybrid origin of a swordtail fish, Xiphophorus monticolus, and demonstrates that the sexually selected sword originated in the ancestral lineage of the genus, but was lost again secondarily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Hyoun; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B; Meyer, Axel

    2013-01-29

    Males in some species of the genus Xiphophorus, small freshwater fishes from Meso-America, have an extended caudal fin, or sword - hence their common name "swordtails". Longer swords are preferred by females from both sworded and - surprisingly also, non-sworded (platyfish) species that belong to the same genus. Swordtails have been studied widely as models in research on sexual selection. Specifically, the pre-existing bias hypothesis was interpreted to best explain the observed bias of females in presumed ancestral lineages of swordless species that show a preference for assumed derived males with swords over their conspecific swordless males. However, many of the phylogenetic relationships within this genus still remained unresolved. Here we construct a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of all 26 known Xiphophorus species, including the four recently described species (X. kallmani, X. mayae, X. mixei and X. monticolus). We use two mitochondrial and six new nuclear markers in an effort to increase the understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the species in this genus. Based on the phylogeny, the evolutionary history and character state evolution of the sword was reconstructed and found to have originated in the common ancestral lineage of the genus Xiphophorus and that it was lost again secondarily. We estimated the evolutionary relationships among all known species of the genus Xiphophorus based on the largest set of DNA markers so far. The phylogeny indicates that one of the newly described swordtail species, Xiphophorus monticolus, is likely to have arisen through hybridization since it is placed with the southern platyfish in the mitochondrial phylogeny, but with the southern swordtails in the nuclear phylogeny. Such discordance between these two types of markers is a strong indication for a hybrid origin. Additionally, by using a maximum likelihood approach the possession of the sexually selected sword trait is shown to be the most likely

  7. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  8. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  9. Fish ladders: safe fish passage or hotspot for predation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for

  10. Role of RT-PCR and FISH in diagnosis and monitoring of acute promyelocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Polampalli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with a presence of Promyelocytic Leukemia-Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha (PML-RARA genes rearrangement predict a favorable response to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, and a significant improvement in survival. Therefore, establishing the presence of PML-RARA rearrangement is important for optimal patient management. Aim: The objective of this study is to compare and assess the role of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in the diagnosis and long-term monitoring of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL. Materials and Methods: We compared 145 samples received at different interval of times to analyze the sensitivity of RT-PCR and FISH. Results: The failure rate for RT-PCR was 4% at baseline, 13% at induction, and 0% at the end of consolidation. And for FISH it was 8% at baseline, 38% at induction, and 66% at the end of consolidation. The predictive values of relapse in the patients who were positive and negative by RT-PCR, at the end of induction, were 60 % and 3%, respectively, and at end of consolidation it was 67 % and 4%, respectively. On the other hand the predictive values of relapse in patients who were positive and negative by FISH at end of induction were 57 % and 6%, respectively; while at end of consolidation it was 14% who were negative by FISH. Conclusion: Both RT-PCR and FISH are important for the diagnosis of APL cases, as both techniques complement each other in the absence or failure of any one of them. However, RT-PCR is more sensitive than FISH for the detection of minimal residual disease in the long-term monitoring of these patients. The present study shows that the predictive value of relapse is more associated with minimal residual disease (MRD results by RT-PCR than that by FISH.

  11. Learning from Fish: Kinematics and Experimental Hydrodynamics for Roboticists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George V. Lauder; Peter G. A. Madden

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, experimental analyses of the biomechanics of locomotion in fishes have generated a number of key findings that are relevant to the construction of biomimetic fish robots. In this paper, we present 16 results from recent experimental research on the mechanics, kinematics, fluid dynamics, and control of fish locomotion that summarize recent work on fish biomechanics. The findings and principles that have emerged from biomechanical studies of fish locomotion provide important insights into the functional design of fishes and suggest specific design features relevant to construction of robotic fish-inspired vehicles that underlie the high locomotor performance exhibited by fishes.

  12. Correlation between apparent diffusion coefficients and standardized uptake values in hybrid {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR: Preliminary results in rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ju Hye [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Ihn Ho; Chun, Kyung Ah; Kong, Eun Jung; Kwon, Sang Don; Kim, Jae Hwang [Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) share the same role in clinical oncology and it is feasible to obtain the standardized uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) simultaneously by emerging the hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR). This study investigated the correlation between the ADCs of rectal cancer lesions and their SUVs derived from hybrid PET/MR. Nine patients with histologically proven rectal adenocarcinoma (5 men, 4 women; mean age, 70 ± 15.91 years) underwent torso {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and regional hybrid {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR sequentially. A fixed threshold value of 40 % of maximum uptake was used to determine tumor volume of interest (VOI) on PET image; SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, and SUV{sub mean} were calculated automatically. A single freehand region of interest (ROI) was drawn on high b-value (b1000) DWI image and copied to corresponding ADC map to determine the ADCmean of rectal cancer lesion. Spearman'rank correlation coefficient (ρ) was calculated to determine the correlation between SUVs and ADC values. SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, and SUV{sub mean} derived by hybrid PET/MR were 12.35 ± 4.66 (mean ± standard deviation), 9.66  ± 3.15 and 7.41 ± 2.54, respectively. The ADCmean value of rectal cancer lesions was 1.02 ± 0.08 × 10{sup -3}mm{sup 2}/s. ADCmean was significantly and inversely correlated with SUV values (SUV{sub max}, ρ = -0.95, p < 0.001; SUV{sub peak}, ρ = -0.93, p < 0.001; SUV{sub mean}, ρ = -0.91, p = 0.001). This preliminary hybrid PET/MR study demonstrates a significant inverse correlation exists between metabolic activity on {sup 18}F-FDG PET and water diffusion on DWI in rectal cancer.

  13. Molecular cytogenetics of pituitary adenomas, assessed by FISH technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogeorgos, George

    2004-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) represents a moden molecular pathology technique, alternative to conventional cytogenetics (karyotyping). In addition to metaphase spreads, it can be applied directly to interphase nuclei. The latter makes the FISH technique powerful for pathologists for it integrates molecular genetics and classic cytogenetics and brings them together to a single framework for morphologic evaluation. Interphase FISH can be applied to imprints from fresh tissue or to paraffin sections after proteinase K digestion. Centromeric, telomeric and locus DNA-sequence specific probes can be used to identify aneuploidy or gene mutations. Several protocols combine molecular cytogenetics with classic karyotyping. Other sophisticated, FISH-based protocols have been introduced. Among them, comparative genomic hybridization is very important for it can detect non-balanced chromosomal aberrations of uncultured tumor cells and provide overall genomic information in a single experiment. This review presents the principles and applications of FISH technique for the investigation of the cytogenetic background of pituitary adenomas.

  14. The formation of diploid and triploid hybrids of female grass carp × male blunt snout bream and their 5S rDNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiguo; Xie, Lihua; Li, Tangluo; Liu, Shaojun; Xiao, Jun; Hu, Jie; Wang, Jing; Qin, Qinbo; Liu, Yun

    2013-11-23

    Hybridization is a useful strategy to alter the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring. It could transfer the genome of one species to another through combing the different genome of parents in the hybrid offspring. And the offspring may exhibit advantages in growth rate, disease resistance, survival rate and appearance, which resulting from the combination of the beneficial traits from both parents. Diploid and triploid hybrids of female grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus, GC, Cyprininae, 2n = 48) × male blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala, BSB, Cultrinae, 2n = 48) were successfully obtained by distant hybridization. Diploid hybrids had 48 chromosomes, with one set from GC and one set from BSB. Triploid hybrids possessed 72 chromosomes, with two sets from GC and one set from BSB.The morphological traits, growth rates, and feeding ecology of the parents and hybrid offspring were compared and analyzed. The two kinds of hybrid offspring exhibited significantly phenotypic divergence from GC and BSB. 2nGB hybrids showed similar growth rate compared to that of GC, and 3nGB hybrids significantly higher results. Furthermore, the feeding ecology of hybrid progeny was omnivorous.The 5S rDNA of GC, BSB and their hybrid offspring were also cloned and sequenced. There was only one type of 5S rDNA (designated type I: 180 bp) in GC and one type of 5S rDNA (designated type II: 188 bp) in BSB. However, in the hybrid progeny, diploid and triploid hybrids both inherited type I and type II from their parents, respectively. In addition, a chimera of type I and type II was observed in the genome of diploid and triploid hybrids, excepting a 10 bp of polyA insertion in type II sequence of the chimera of the diploid hybrids. This is the first report of diploid and triploid hybrids being produced by crossing GC and BSB, which have the same chromosome number. The obtainment of two new hybrid offspring has significance in fish genetic breeding. The results illustrate the effect

  15. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C

    2015-05-26

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches.

  16. Sport Fishing Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...

  17. Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  18. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  19. Got a Sick Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  20. 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study Fish Tissue Data Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) is providing the fish tissue results from the 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study (GLHHFTS). This document includes the “data dictionary” for Mercury, PFC, PBDE and PCBs.

  1. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-27) - Abbot Creek Fish Barrier Project (Hungry Horse Mitigation / Habitat Improvements)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarde, Richard [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-06-28

    BPA proposes to fund a fishery enhancement project where a fish passage barrier will be installed in Abbot Creek to remove introduced rainbow trout and prevent hybridization with westslope cutthroat trout. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) will operate a fish trap downstream of the barrier for 6-10 consecutive years to manually remove the rainbow trout and hybrid spawners from the population. Removal of rainbow trout and hybrids from the stream will eradicate the existing hybrid population spawning in Abbot Creek and ultimately reduce the threat of hybridization in the Flathead River system. Pending completion of a successful disease screening and authorization from MFWP Fish Health Committee, live fish captured in the fish trap will be transported to a nearby close-basin lake for use in MFWP’s Urban Fishing Program.

  2. Prenatal detection of chromosome aneuploidies in uncultured chorionic villus samples by FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryndorf, T.; Christensen, B.; Vad, M.; Philip, J. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    We developed a 1-d FISH assay for detection of numerical chromosome abnormalities in uncultured chorionic villus samples (CVS). Probes specific for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y were used to determine ploidy by analysis of signal number in hybridized nuclei. Aneuploidy detection using this assay was directly compared with the results obtained by conventional cytogenetic analysis in a consecutive, clinical study of 2,709 CVS and placental samples. The FISH assay yielded discrete differences in the signal profiles between cytogenetically normal and abnormal samples. On the basis of these results, we generated FISH-assay cutoff values that discriminated between karyotypically normal and aneuploid samples. Samples with mosaicism and a single sample with possible heritable small chromosome X probe target were exceptions and showed poor agreement between FISH results and conventional cytogenetics. We conclude that the FISH assay may act as a more accurate and less labor-demanding alternative to {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} CVS analysis. 22 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Fluorescent in situ hybridization as an adjunct to conventional cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, H F

    1994-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that exploits the availability of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) technology. In metaphase FISH, a specific nucleic acid sequence (probe) is bound to the homologous segment on a metaphase chromosome in a fixed preparation on a glass slide. The presence of a region-specific DNA sequence in a nondividing cell can be detected using interphase FISH. Interphase cytogenetics via FISH can be performed on fixed cells harvested during a routine culture, on tissue sections and on many cytologic specimens. Specific examples of clinical and research applications are discussed to illustrate the utility of FISH in the detection of constitutional and acquired chromosomal abnormalities.

  4. Fish mycobacteriosis (Tuberculosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, T.J.; Wood, J.W.

    1959-01-01

    The etiologic agent for the bacterial disease, "fish tuberculosis" (more correctly "mycobacteriosis"), was first observed in carp in 189& from a pond in France. Subsequently similar agents have been isolated from or observed in fish in fresh water, salt water, and brackish water, in fish in aquaria, hatcheries, and natural habitat~ (wild populations of fish). The disease has been recognized as an important infection among hatchery reared salmonid fishes on the West Coast of the United States, and in aquarium fishes such as the neon tetra, the Siamese fighting fish, and in salt water fish held in zoological displays.

  5. No Fishing Now,More Fish Later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Fishing ban for ecological purposes starts on the Pearl River Since April1,a two-month ban on fishing has been imposed on the Pearl River valley in south China.It is the first fishing ban in this area with the purpose of preserving biodiversity in China’s third longest

  6. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...

  7. Integrated karyotyping of sorghum by in situ hybridization of landed BACs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Soon; Childs, Kevin L; Islam-Faridi, M Nurul; Menz, Monica A; Klein, Robert R; Klein, Patricia E; Price, H James; Mullet, John E; Stelly, David M

    2002-04-01

    The reliability of genome analysis and proficiency of genetic manipulation are increased by assignment of linkage groups to specific chromosomes, placement of centromeres, and orientation with respect to telomeres. We have endeavored to establish means to enable these steps in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), the genome of which contains ca. 780 Mbp spread across n = 10 chromosomes. Our approach relies on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and integrated structural genomic resources, including large-insert genomic clones in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. To develop robust FISH probes, we selected sorghum BACs by association with molecular markers that map near the ends of linkage groups, in regions inferred to be high in recombination. Overall, we selected 22 BACs that encompass the 10 linkage groups. As a prelude to development of a multiprobe FISH cocktail, we evaluated BAC-derived probes individually and in small groups. Biotin- and digoxygenin-labeled probes were made directly from the BAC clones and hybridized in situ to chromosomes without using suppressive unlabelled C0t-1 DNA. Based on FISH-signal strength and the relative degree of background signal, we judged 19 BAC-derived probes to be satisfactory. Based on their relative position, and collective association with all 10 linkage groups, we chose 17 of the 19 BACs to develop a 17-locus probe cocktail for dual-color detection. FISH of the cocktail allowed simultaneous identification of all 10 chromosomes. The results indicate that linkage and physical maps of sorghum allow facile selection of BAC clones according to position and FISH-signal quality. This capability will enable development of a high-quality molecular cytogenetic map and an integrated genomics system for sorghum, without need of chromosome flow sorting or microdissection. Moreover, transgeneric FISH experiments suggest that the sorghum system might be applicable to other Gramineae.

  8. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedgepeth, J (Tenera Environmental, LLC); Johnson, Gary E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J (BioSonics Inc.)

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  9. Low levels of hybridization between sympatric Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) highlights their genetic distinctiveness and ecological segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-McNally, Shannan L; Quinn, Thomas P; Taylor, Eric B

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the extent of interspecific hybridization and how ecological segregation may influence hybridization requires comprehensively sampling different habitats over a range of life history stages. Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden (S. malma) are recently diverged salmonid fishes that come into contact in several areas of the North Pacific where they occasionally hybridize. To better quantify the degree of hybridization and ecological segregation between these taxa, we sampled over 700 fish from multiple lake (littoral and profundal) and stream sites in two large, interconnected southwestern Alaskan lakes. Individuals were genotyped at 12 microsatellite markers, and genetic admixture (Q) values generated through Bayesian-based clustering revealed hybridization levels generally lower than reported in a previous study (Dolly Varden and Arctic char tended to make different use of stream habitats with the latter apparently abandoning streams for lake habitats after 2-3 years of age. Our results support the distinct biological species status of Dolly Varden and Arctic char and suggest that ecological segregation may be an important factor limiting opportunities for hybridization and/or the ecological performance of hybrid char.

  10. Two molecular markers based on mitochondrial genomes for varieties identification of the northern snakehead (Channa argus) and blotched snakehead (Channa maculata) and their reciprocal hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xincheng, Zhang; Kunci, Chen; Xinping, Zhu; Jian, Zhao; Qing, Luo; Xiaoyou, Hong; Wei, Li; Fengfang, Xiao

    2015-08-01

    The northern snakehead (Channa argus) and blotched snakehead (Channa maculata) and their reciprocal hybrids have played important roles in the Chinese freshwater aquaculture industry, with an annual production in China exceeding 400 thousand tons. While these are popular aquaculture breeds in China, it is not easy to identify northern snakehead, blotched snakehead, and their hybrids. Thus, a method should be developed to identify these varieties. To distinguish between the reciprocal hybrids (C. argus ♀ × C. maculata ♂ and C. maculata ♀ × C. argus ♂), the mitochondrial genome sequences of northern snakehead and blotched snakehead and their reciprocal hybrids were compared. Following the alignment and analysis of mtDNA sequences of northern snakehead, blotched snakehead and their hybrids, two pairs of specific primers were designed based on identified differences ranging from 12S rRNA to 16S rRNA gene. The BY1 primers amplified the same bands in the blotched snakehead and the hybrid (C. maculata ♀ × C. argus ♂), while producing no products in northern snakehead and the hybrid (C. argus ♀ × C. maculata ♂). Amplification with WY1 yielded the opposite results. Then, 30 individuals per fish were randomized to verify the primers, and the results showed that the primers were specific for breeds, as intended. The specific primers can not only simply distinguish between two kinds of hybrids, but also rapidly identify the two parents. This study provides a method of molecular marker identification to identify reciprocal hybrids.

  11. Biphasic Chromatin Structure and FISH Signals Reflect Intranuclear Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti P. Chaudhuri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the two parental allelic genes may selectively be expressed, regulated by imprinting, X-inactivation or by other less known mechanisms. This study aims to reflect on such genetic mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Slides from short term cultures or direct smears of blood, bone marrow and amniotic fluids were hybridized with FISH probes singly, combined or sequentially. Two to three hundred cells were examined from each preparation. Results and Aignificance: A small number of cells (up to about 5%, more frequent in leukemia cases, showed the twin features: (1 nuclei with biphasic chromatin, one part decondensed and the other condensed; and (2 homologous FISH signals distributed equitably in those two regions. The biphasic chromatin structure with equitable distribution of the homologous FISH signals may correspond to the two sets of chromosomes, supporting observations on ploidywise intranuclear order. The decondensed chromatin may relate to enhanced transcriptions or advanced replications. Conclusions: Transcriptions of only one of the two parental genomes cause allelic exclusion. Genomes may switch with alternating monoallelic expression of biallelic genes as an efficient genetic mechanism. If genomes fail to switch, allelic exclusion may lead to malignancy. Similarly, a genome-wide monoallelic replication may tilt the balance of heterozygosity resulting in aneusomy, initiating early events in malignant transformation and in predicting cancer mortality.

  12. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  13. Cryogenic design and test results of 30-m flexible hybrid energy transfer line with liquid hydrogen and superconducting MgB2 cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuk, V. V.; Blagov, E. V.; Antyukhov, I. V.; Firsov, V. P.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Nosov, A. A.; Fetisov, S. S.; Zanegin, S. Yu.; Svalov, G. G.; Rachuk, V. S.; Katorgin, B. I.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present the development of a new hybrid energy transfer line with 30 m length. The line is essentially a flexible 30 m hydrogen cryostat that has three sections with different types of thermal insulation in each section: simple vacuum superinsulation, vacuum superinsulation with liquid nitrogen precooling and active evaporating cryostatting (AEC) system. We performed thermo-hydraulic tests of the cryostat to compare three thermo-insulating methods. The tests were made at temperatures from 20 to 26 K, hydrogen flow from 70 to 450 g/s and pressure from 0.25 to 0.5 MPa. It was found that AEC thermal insulation was the most effective in reducing heat transfer from room temperature to liquid hydrogen in ∼10 m section of the cryostat, indicating that it can be used for long superconducting power cables. High voltage current leads were developed as well. The current leads and superconducting MgB2 cable passed high voltage DC test up to 50 kV DC. Critical current of the cable at ∼21 K was 3500 A. It means that the 30 m hybrid energy system developed is able to deliver ∼50-60 MW of chemical power and ∼50-75 MW of electrical power, i.e. up to ∼135 MW in total.

  14. A three-step workflow procedure for the interpretation of array-based comparative genome hybridization results in patients with idiopathic mental retardation and congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poot, Martin; Hochstenbach, Ron

    2010-08-01

    One of the aims of clinical genetics is to identify gene mutations or genomic rearrangements that may underlie complex presentations of phenotypic features, such as multiple congenital malformations and mental retardation. During the decade after publication of the first article on array-based comparative genome hybridization, this technique has supplemented karyotyping as the prime genome-wide screening method in patients with idiopathic multiple congenital malformations and mental retardation. The use of this novel, discovery-based, approach has dramatically increased the detection rate of genomic imbalances. Array-based comparative genome hybridization detects copy number changes in the genome of patients and healthy subjects, some of which may represent phenotypically neutral copy number variations. This prompts the need for properly distinguishing between those copy number changes that may contribute to the clinical phenotype amid a pool of neutral copy number variations. We briefly review the characteristics of copy number changes in relation to their clinical relevance. Second, we discuss several published workflow schemes to identify copy number changes putatively contributing to the phenotype, and third, we propose a three-step procedure aiming to rapidly evaluate copy number changes on a case-by-case basis as to their potential contribution to the phenotype of patients with idiopathic multiple congenital malformations and mental retardation. This workflow is gene-centered and should aid in identification of disease-related candidate genes and in estimating the recurrence risk for the disorder in the family.

  15. Identification of embryonic chromosomal abnormality using FISH-based preimplantaion genetic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 徐晨明; 金帆; 钱羽力

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Embryonic chromosomal abnormality is one of the main reasons for in vitro fertilization (IVF)failure. This study aimed at evaluating the value of Fluorescence in-situ Hybridization (FISH)-based Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in screening for embryonic chromosomal abnormality to increase the successful rate of IVF. Method:Ten couples, four with high risk of chromosomal abnormality and six infertile couples, underwent FISH-based PGD during IVF procedure. At day 3, one or two blastomeres were aspirated from each embryo. Biopsied blastomeres were examined using FISH analysis to screen out embryos with chromosomal abnormalities. At day 4, embryos without detectable chromosomal abnormality were transferred to the mother bodies as in regular IVF. Results: Among 54 embryos screened using FISH-based PGD, 30 embryos were detected to have chromosomal abnormalities. The 24 healthy embryos were implanted,resulting in four clinical pregnancies, two of which led to successful normal birth of two healthy babies; one to ongoing pregnancy during the writing of this article; and one to ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: FISH-based PGD is an effective method for detecting embryonic chromosomal abnormality, which is one of the common causes of spontaneous miscarriages and chromosomally unbalanced offsprings.

  16. Identification of embryonic chromosomal abnormality using FISH-based preimplantaion genetic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 徐晨明; 金帆; 钱羽力

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Embryonic chromosomal abnormality is one of the main reasons for in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. This study aimed at evaluating the value of Fluorescence in-situ Hybridization (FISH)-based Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in screening for embryonic chromosomal abnormality to increase the successful rate of IVF. Method: Ten couples, four with high risk of chromosomal abnormality and six infertile couples, underwent FISH-based PGD during IVF procedure. At day 3, one or two blastomeres were aspirated from each embryo. Biopsied blastomeres were examined using FISH analysis to screen out embryos with chromosomal abnormalities. At day 4, embryos without detectable chromosomal abnormality were transferred to the mother bodies as in regular IVF. Results: Among 54 embryos screened using FISH-based PGD, 30 embryos were detected to have chromosomal abnormalities. The 24 healthy embryos were implanted, resulting in four clinical pregnancies, two of which led to successful normal birth of two healthy babies; one to ongoing pregnancy during the writing of this article; and one to ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: FISH-based PGD is an effective method for detecting embryonic chromosomal abnormality, which is one of the common causes of spontaneous miscarriages and chromosomally unbalanced offsprings.

  17. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay); the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010). This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E) the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores) shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable positive economic

  18. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Nakamura

    Full Text Available Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay; the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010. This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable

  19. Climate Change and Fish Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Paul P. S.; Lassa, Jonatan; Caballero-Anthony, Mely

    Human consumption of fish has been trending upwards in the past decades and this is projected to continue. The main sources of fish are from wild fisheries (marine and freshwater) and aquaculture. Climate change is anticipated to affect the availability of fish through its effect on these two sources as well as on supply chain processes such as storage, transport, processing and retail. Climate change is known to result in warmer and more acid oceans. Ocean acidification due to higher CO2 concentration levels at sea modifies the distribution of phytoplankton and zooplankton to affect wild, capture fisheries. Higher temperature causes warm-water coral reefs to respond with species replacement and bleaching, leading to coral cover loss and habitat loss. Global changes in climatic systems may also cause fish invasion, extinction and turnover. While this may be catastrophic for small scale fish farming in poor tropical communities, there are also potential effects on animal protein supply shifts at local and global scales with food security consequences. This paper discusses the potential impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture in the Asian Pacific region, with special emphasis on Southeast Asia. The key question to be addressed is “What are the impacts of global climate change on global fish harvests and what does it mean to the availability of fish?”

  20. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the tissue detection of bacterial pathogens associated with porcine infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Jensen, Louise Kruse; Barington, Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    sequences within intact cells. FISH allows direct histological localization of the bacteria in the tissue and thereby a correlation between the infection and the histopathological changes present. This chapter presents protocols for FISH identification of bacterial pathogens in fixed deparaffinized tissue......Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an efficient technique for the identification of specific bacteria in tissue of both experimental and spontaneous infections. The method detects specific sequences of nucleic acids by hybridization of fluorescently labeled probes to complementary target...

  1. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for the Tissue Detection of Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Porcine Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvang Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Louise Kruse; Barington, Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    sequences within intact cells. FISH allows direct histological localization of the bacteria in the tissue and thereby a correlation between the infection and the histopathological changes present. This chapter presents protocols for FISH identification of bacterial pathogens in fixed deparaffinized tissue......Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an efficient technique for the identification of specific bacteria in tissue of both experimental and spontaneous infections. The method detects specific sequences of nucleic acids by hybridization of fluorescently labeled probes to complementary target...

  2. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  3. FISH analysis of the integra-tion patterns in transgenicrice co-transformed by micro-projectile bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we localized transferred barnase-ps1 and pHctinG DNA sequences onto chromosomes of two transgenic rice plants, named Q12 and Q13, both of which were produced by micro-projectile bombardment. In both Q12 and Q13, each detected cell showed 2-3 signal spots on their chromosomes respectively. The signals of both barnase-ps1 and pHctinG were mostly detected in the adjacent chromosomal sites in which their signals were overlapped and could be recognized by the signal color on the metaphase chromosomes. Fiber FISH further demonstrated that the multiple copies in each of the two DNA sequences distributed adjacently on the DNA fiber in Q13. Combined with the results of Southern hybridization, the possible integration patterns in transgenic rice co-transformed by micro-projectile bombardment have been discussed.

  4. Same-day prenatal diagnosis of common chromosomal aneuploidies using microfluidics-fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sherry S Y; Chua, Cuiwen; Gole, Leena; Biswas, Arijit; Koay, Evelyn; Choolani, Mahesh

    2012-04-01

    Rapid molecular prenatal diagnostic methods, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative fluorescence-PCR, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, can detect common fetal aneuploidies within 24 to 48 h. However, specific diagnosis or aneuploidy exclusion should be ideally available within the same day as fetal sampling to alleviate parental anxiety. Microfluidic technologies integrate different steps into a microchip, saving time and costs. We have developed a cost-effective, same-day prenatal diagnostic FISH assay using microfluidics. Amniotic fluids (1-4 mL from 40 pregnant women at 15-22 weeks of gestation) were fixed with Carnoy's before loading into the microchannels of a microfluidic FISH-integrated nanostructured device. The glass slides were coated with nanostructured titanium dioxide to facilitate cell adhesion. Pretreatment and hybridization were performed within the microchannels. Fifty nuclei were counted by two independent analysts, and all results were validated with their respective karyotypes. Of the 40 samples, we found three cases of fetal aneuploidies (trisomies 13, 18, and 21), whereas the remaining 37 cases were normal. Results were concordant with their karyotypes and ready to be released within 3 h of sample receipt. Microfluidic FISH, using 20-fold less than the recommended amount of probe, is a cost-effective method to diagnose common fetal aneuploidies within the same day of fetal sampling.

  5. New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design, Volume II of IV, Results of Laboratory and Field Research on New Concepts in Weir and Pool Fishways, 1982-1984 Final Project Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaserude, Robert G.; Orsborn, John F.

    1985-08-01

    A comprehensive review of fishway design practice led to new design concepts that had previously been untested. This concept was based on the observation that fish can be stimulated to leap when presented with certain hydraulic conditions. A laboratory test program was conducted to develop this concept into a new fishway configuration. Field testing revealed that components of the new design improved fish passage. Verification of the initial premise that fish can be stimulated to leap needs further study.

  6. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  7. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  8. Cryptic Translocation Identification in Human and Mouse using Several Telomeric Multiplex FISH (TM-FISH) Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henegariu, O; Artan, S; Greally, J M; Chen, X-N; Korenberg, J R; Vance, G H; Stubbs, L; Bray-Ward, P; Ward, D C

    2003-08-19

    Experimental data published in recent years showed that up to 10% of all cases with mild to severe idiopathic mental retardation may result from small rearrangements of the subtelomeric regions of human chromosomes. To detect such cryptic translocations, we developed a ''telomeric'' multiplex FISH assay, using a set of previously published and commercially available subtelomeric probes. This set of probes includes 41 cosmid/PAC/P1 clones located from less than 100kb to about 1 Mb from the end of the chromosomes. Similarly, a published mouse probe set, comprised of BACs hybridizing to the closest known marker toward the centromere and telomere of each mouse chromosome, was used to develop a mouse-specific ''telomeric'' M-FISH. Three different combinatorial labeling strategies were used to simultaneously detect all human sub-telomeric regions on one slide. The simplest approach uses only three fluors, and can be performed in laboratories lacking sophisticated imaging equipment or personnel highly trained in cytogenetics. A standard fluorescence microscope equipped with only three filters is sufficient. Fluor-dUTPs and labeled probes can be custom-made, thus dramatically reducing costs. Images can be prepared using generic imaging software (Adobe Photoshop), and analysis performed by simple visual inspection.

  9. The design of a microscopic system for typical fluorescent in-situ hybridization applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dingrong; Xie, Shaochuan

    2013-12-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a modern molecular biology technique used for the detection of genetic abnormalities in terms of the number and structure of chromosomes and genes. The FISH technique is typically employed for prenatal diagnosis of congenital dementia in the Obstetrics and Genecology department. It is also routinely used to pick up qualifying breast cancer patients that are known to be highly curable by the prescription of Her2 targeted therapy. During the microscopic observation phase, the technician needs to count typically green probe dots and red probe dots contained in a single nucleus and calculate their ratio. This procedure need to be done to over hundreds of nuclei. Successful implementation of FISH tests critically depends on a suitable fluorescent microscope which is primarily imported from overseas due to the complexity of such a system beyond the maturity of the domestic optoelectrical industry. In this paper, the typical requirements of a fluorescent microscope that is suitable for FISH applications are first reviewed. The focus of this paper is on the system design and computational methods of an automatic florescent microscopy with high magnification APO objectives, a fast spinning automatic filter wheel, an automatic shutter, a cooled CCD camera used as a photo-detector, and a software platform for image acquisition, registration, pseudo-color generation, multi-channel fusing and multi-focus fusion. Preliminary results from FISH experiments indicate that this system satisfies routine FISH microscopic observation tasks.

  10. Using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization to Identify DMD/BMD Deletion Carriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-li WANG; Yan-ping XIAO; Xiu-rong JIANG

    2003-01-01

    Objective To identify the deletions in Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) Methods The exon-specific cosmid DNA probes (representing 18 exons) were used to perform one-color FISH on metaphase and interphase preparations. The peripheral blood samples from 9 normal people (4 males and 5 females) and 5 females from independent deletion DMD/BMD families, as well as 2 amniotic fluid specimens and 2 chorionic villus samples (CVS) from normal pregnant females were analyzed.Results 72%~100% of peripheral blood lymphocyte metaphases or interphases, 60%~70% of amniocyte interphases, and 95~99% of chorionic villus cell interphases showed expected signals. One suspected female was identified as deletion carriers and two were excluded.Conclusion FISH in combination with other available techniques allows efficient screening of DMD/BMD deletion carriers, which also lay the ground work for prenatal diagnosis for potential fetal carriers.

  11. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  12. FISH detection of chromosome 15 deletions in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, I.; Chadwick, D.; Chitayat, D. [Hospital for Sick Children and Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-03-29

    We have evaluated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for the clinical laboratory detection of the 15q11-q13 deletion seen in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) using probes for loci D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10, and GABRB3. In a series of 118 samples from patients referred for PWS or AS, 29 had deletions by FISH analysis. These included two brothers with a paternally transmitted deletion detectable with the probe for SNRPN only. G-banding analysis was less sensitive for deletion detection but useful in demonstrating other cytogenetic alterations in four cases. Methylation and CA-repeat analyses of 15q11-q13 were used to validate the FISH results. Clinical findings of patients with deletions were variable, ranging from newborns with hypotonia as the only presenting feature to children who were classically affected. We conclude that FISH analysis is a rapid and reliable method for detection of deletions within 15q11-q13 and whenever a deletion is found, FISH analysis of parental chromosomes should also be considered. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  14. Meiotic behaviour of individual chromosomes in allotriploid Alstroemeria hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, S A; de Jong, J H; Jacobsen, E; Ramanna, M S; Kuipers, A G J

    2004-07-01

    Chromosome association and chiasma formation were studied in pollen mother cells at metaphase I of four allotriplod BC1 plants (2n=3x=24) obtained from the backcross of the hybrid Alstroemeria aurea x A. inodora with its parent A. inodora. We distinguished the chromosomes of both parental species by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), whereas the individual chromosomes were identified on the basis of their multicolour FISH banding patterns obtained after a second hybridization with two species-specific satellite repeats as probes. All the four BC1 plants possessed two genomes of A. inodora and one of A. aurea. Variable numbers of recombinant chromosomes, resulting from meiotic recombination in the interspecific hybrid, were present in these plants. The homologous A. inodora chromosomes generally formed bivalents, leaving the homoeologous A. aurea chromosomes unassociated. High frequencies of trivalents were observed for the chromosome sets that contained recombinant chromosomes, even when the recombinant segments were small. Chromosome associations in the trivalents were restricted to homologous segments. The implications of the absence of homoeologous chromosome pairing on gamete constitution and prospects for introgression in Alstroemeria are discussed.

  15. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...... viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies...... for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fish have been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain...

  16. Effects of herbicides on fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Keith R.; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Volz, David

    2013-01-01

    Herbicides are used to control weeds and are usually targeted to processes and target sites that are specific to plants. As a result, most herbicides are not acutely toxic to fish. Exceptions to this general rule are uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and some herbicides that interfere...... have been observed in fish exposed to herbicides, these have either been observed at large concentrations that would be rarely found in surface waters inhabited by fish or, as in the case of behavior and olfaction, have not been linked to ecologically relevant responses on survival, growth, development......, and reproduction. As with all pesticides, herbicides may have indirect effects in fish. These effects are mediated by herbicide-induced changes in food webs or in the physical environment. Indirect effects can only occur if direct effects occur first and would be mediated by the killing of plants by herbicides...

  17. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  18. Renal and urinary findings in 20 patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH Achados renais e urinários em 20 pacientes com síndrome de Williams-Beuren diagnosticados pelo teste de hibridização in situ por fluoresceína (FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Mizuho Miura Sugayama

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare multiple anomalies/mental retardation syndrome caused by deletion of contiguous genes at chromosome region 7q11.23. The aim of this work was to determine the frequency and the types of renal and urinary tract anomalies in 20 patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome. METHODS: The fluorescence in situ hybridization test using a LSI Williams syndrome region DNA probe was performed for all 20 patients to confirm the diagnosis of Williams-Beuren syndrome. A prospective study was performed in order to investigate renal and urinary aspects using laboratory assays to check renal function, ultrasonography of the kidneys and urinary tract, voiding cystourethrogram and urodynamics. RESULTS: Deletion of the elastin gene (positive fluorescence in situ hybridization test was found in 17 out of 20 patients. Renal alterations were diagnosed in 5 of 17 (29% the patients with the deletion and in 1 of 3 patients without the deletion. Fourteen patients with the deletion presented dysfunctional voiding. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 3 patients with deletions and 1 of these presented bilateral stenosis of the renal arteries. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the high incidence of renal and urinary abnormalities in Williams-Beuren syndrome, performing a systematic laboratory and sonographic evaluation of the patients is recommended.OBJETIVO: A síndrome de Williams-Beuren é uma rara síndrome de deleção de genes contíguos que cursa com múltiplas anomalias congênitas, deficiência mental e anomalias renais e urinárias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a freqüência e os tipos de anomalias renais e urinárias em 20 pacientes com síndrome de Williams-Beuren diagnosticados pelo teste de hibridização in situ por fluorescência. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se prospectivamente os aspectos renais e urinários através de avaliação laboratorial da função renal, ultrassonografia de rins e vias urinárias, uretrocistografia

  19. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in uncultured amniocytes for detection of aneuploidy in 4210 prenatal cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Chan-wei; WANG Shu-yu; MA Yan-min; LAN Yong-lian; SI Yan-mei; YU Lan; ZHOU Li-ying

    2011-01-01

    Background Almost all reported fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) kits for prenatal diagnosis use probes from foreign (non-Chinese) countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability of domestic (Chinese) FISH probe sets to detect aneuploidies of chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y related to prenatal diagnosis in 4210 cases.Methods Cytogenetic karyotyping was carded out as a standard prenatal diagnostic test, and amniotic fluid cell interphase FISH analysis was performed using two sets of probes (centromeric probes for chromosomes 18, X, and Y,and locus-specific probes for chromosomes 13 and 21) provided by GP Medical Technologies, Beijing, China. Then we compared the two results and found the performance characteristics for informative FISH results of aneuploidies by the domestic kit probes.Results In 4210 cases, 4126 cases generated karyotype results and 133 abnormal karyotypes (including 97 aneuploidies) were found. The FISH results of 98 cases (among them, 31 cases gave normal cytogenetic results) were uninformative. The rate of abnormal cases was 3.2% (133/4126). For the abnormal karyotypes, the rate of aneuploidy was 72.9% (97/133). Among the 97 aneuploidies, there were 58 cases of trisomy 21 (58/97, 59.8%), four cases of trisomy 13, 23 cases of trisomy 18, and 12 cases of sex chromosomal aneuploidies. The total concordance of the two methods was 97.9% (95/97; two cases were mosaics that had a low percentage of abnormal cells), and the concordance of trisomy 21, 13, and 18 by the two methods was 100%.Conclusions The two sets of the domestic FISH kit probes are reliable for prenatal diagnosis. The results demonstrate that FISH is a rapid and accurate clinical method for prenatal identification of chromosome aneuploidies.

  20. Embryonic and genetic manipulation in fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Fishes, the biggest and most diverse community in vertebrates are good experimental models for studies of cell and developmental biology by many favorable charac teristics. Nuclear transplantation in fish has been thor oughly studied in China since 1960s. Fish nuclei of em bryonic cells from different genera were transplanted into enucleated eggs generating nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrids of adults. Most importantly, nuclei of cultured goldfish kid ney cells had been reprogrammed in enucleated eggs to support embryogenesis and ontogenesis of a fertile fish. This was the first case of cloned fish with somatic cells. Based on the technique of microinjection, recombinant MThGH gene has been transferred into fish eggs and the first batch of transgenic fish were produced in 1984. The behavior of foreign gene was characterized and the onset of the foreign gene replication occurred between the blas tula to gastrula stages and random integration mainly oc curred at later stages of embryogenesis. This eventually led to the transgenlc mosaicism. The MThGH-transferred common carp enhanced growth rate by 2-4 times in the founder juveniles and doubled the body weight in the adults. The transgenic common carp were more efficient in utilizing dietary protein than the controls. An “all-fish” gene construct CAgcGH has been made by splicing the common carpβ-actin gene (CA) promoter onto the grass carp growth hormone gene (gcGH) coding sequence. The CAgcGH-transferred Yellow River Carp have also shown significantly fast-growth trait. Combination of techniques * Corresponding author, Fax: 0086-27-87876624 E-mail: zyzhu@ihb.ac.cn of fish cell culture, gene transformation with cultured cells and nuclear transplantation should be able to generate ho mogeneous strain of valuable transgenic fish to fulfil human requirement in 21st century.