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Sample records for hybridization fish applications

  1. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the field of genomics and meta-genomics have led to rapid and accurate strategies for the monitoring of microbial biodiversity and have revealed its potential for ... The relative abundance of members of the dominant bacteria in the oily water reactor was determined by FISH for 16S rRNA using EUB338 probes, ...

  2. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  3. Application of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Technique for the Detection of Genetic Aberration in Medical Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratan, Zubair Ahmed; Zaman, Sojib Bin; Mehta, Varshil; Haidere, Mohammad Faisal; Runa, Nusrat Jahan; Akter, Nasrin

    2017-06-09

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a macromolecule recognition technique, which is considered as a new advent in the field of cytology. Initially, it was developed as a physical mapping tool to delineate genes within chromosomes. The accuracy and versatility of FISH were subsequently capitalized upon in biological and medical research. This visually appealing technique provides an intermediate degree of resolution between DNA analysis and chromosomal investigations. FISH consists of a hybridizing DNA probe, which can be labeled directly or indirectly. In the case of direct labeling, fluorescent nucleotides are used, while indirect labeling is incorporated with reporter molecules that are subsequently detected by fluorescent antibodies or other affinity molecules. FISH is applied to detect genetic abnormalities that include different characteristic gene fusions or the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell or loss of a chromosomal region or a whole chromosome. It is also applied in different research applications, such as gene mapping or the identification of novel oncogenes. This article reviews the concept of FISH, its application, and its advantages in medical science.

  4. Interspecific hybridization among salmonid fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sano, S; Eguchi, H

    1968-01-01

    A series of experiments on interspecific hybridization among the salmonid fishes caught in the Chitose River, Lake Shikotsu and other places was carried out in order to know the developmental stages...

  5. Multicolor FISH probe sets and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Liehr, T; Starke, H.; Weise, A.; Lehrer, H.; Claussen, U

    2004-01-01

    Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays are nowadays indispensable for a precise description of complex chromosomal rearrangements. Routine application of such techniques on human chromosomes started in 1996 with the simultaneous use of all 24 human whole chromosome painting probes in multiplex-FISH (M-FISH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY). Since then different approaches for chromosomal differentiation based on multicolor-FISH (mFISH) as...

  6. Application of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method to study green tides in the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Chun; Liu, Qing; Yu, Ren-Cheng; Kang, Zhen-Jun; Guo, Wei; Ding, Yue-Min; Chen, Jian-Hua; Wang, Yun-Feng; Li, Yan; Yan, Tian; Zhou, Ming-Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Massive green tides of Ulva prolifera have been recorded consecutively since 2007 in the Yellow Sea (YS). It has been proposed that the floating green algae in the YS are originally from the culture rafts of Porphyra yezoensis in the Subei Shoal. However, there is still much debate about this, mainly due to the difficulty in rapid and accurate identification of U. prolifera. In this study, a developed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was adopted to identify U. prolifera and assess its relative abundance in the green algal community. Using this method, several processes related to the formation of green tides were studied, including: (1) variation of the relative abundance of U. prolifera in the green algal community attached to Porphyra rafts in the Subei Shoal; (2) contribution of the microscopic propagules in seawater to the U. prolifera population attached to the rafts; and (3) variation of the proportion of U. prolifera in the floating green algae in the YS. U. prolifera were detected in the green algae attached to Porphyra rafts from March to May 2012, where its relative abundance increased rapidly from 10% at the end of April to 40-60% in mid-May. Microscopic propagules of U. prolifera, which could be detected from seawater and sediment, contributed significantly to the dramatic increase of the attached U. prolifera on the Porphyra rafts. After the attached green algae were removed from the rafts, U. prolifera rapidly demonstrated dominance in the floating green algal community, and the proportion of U. prolifera increased gradually from south to north. Our conceptual model is that the germination of U. prolifera microscopic propagules on Porphyra rafts promotes the proliferation of attached U. prolifera on the rafts, which release more microscopic propagules into seawater and sediments after they became mature. This positive feedback enhances the dominance of U. prolifera in the attached green algal community in late May, which leads to the

  7. Development of automated brightfield double In Situ hybridization (BDISH application for HER2 gene and chromosome 17 centromere (CEN 17 for breast carcinomas and an assay performance comparison to manual dual color HER2 fluorescence In Situ hybridization (FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is a quantitative assay for selecting breast cancer patients for trastuzumab therapy. However, current HER2 FISH procedures are labor intensive, manual methods that require skilled technologists and specialized fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, FISH slides cannot be archived for long term storage and review. Our objective was to develop an automated brightfield double in situ hybridization (BDISH application for HER2 gene and chromosome 17 centromere (CEN 17 and test the assay performance with dual color HER2 FISH evaluated breast carcinomas. Methods The BDISH assay was developed with the nick translated dinitrophenyl (DNP-labeled HER2 DNA probe and DNP-labeled CEN 17 oligoprobe on the Ventana BenchMark® XT slide processing system. Detection of HER2 and CEN 17 signals was accomplished with the silver acetate, hydroquinone, and H2O2 reaction with horseradish peroxidase (HRP and the fast red and naphthol phosphate reaction with alkaline phosphatise (AP, respectively. The BDISH specificity was optimized with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded xenograft tumors, MCF7 (non-amplified HER2 gene and BT-474 (amplified HER2 gene. Then, the BDISH performance was evaluated with 94 routinely processed breast cancer tissues. Interpretation of HER2 and CEN 17 BDISH slides was conducted by 4 observers using a conventional brightfield microscope without oil immersion objectives. Results Sequential hybridization and signal detection for HER2 and CEN 17 ISH demonstrated both DNA targets in the same cells. HER2 signals were visualized as discrete black metallic silver dots while CEN 17 signals were detected as slightly larger red dots. Our study demonstrated a high consensus concordance between HER2 FISH and BDISH results of clinical breast carcinoma cases based on the historical scoring method (98.9%, Simple Kappa = 0.9736, 95% CI = 0.9222 – 1.0000 and

  8. Specialized fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques for leukaemia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Lyndal; Colman, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) provides one of the few ways of analysing the genotype of individual cells, an important consideration for mixed cell populations such as those found in leukaemia. A more sophisticated variation combines fluorescence immunophenotyping and FISH for specific leukaemia-associated chromosome rearrangements. Combined immunophenotyping and FISH is a powerful tool to identify the cell lineage in which the leukaemia-specific chromosome rearrangement occurs and has been used to identify putative pre-leukaemic cells in normal cord blood. Another valuable FISH-based research technique is multi-fluor FISH (M-FISH). This multicolour approach is effectively a molecular karyotype of individual cells and has a range of applications, from chromosome breakage studies and characterising mouse models of leukaemia, to providing a perfect complementary approach to the emerging genomic microarray technologies.

  9. FISH-ing for Genes: Modeling Fluorescence "in situ" Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck

    2006-01-01

    Teaching methods of genetic analysis such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be an important part of instructional units in biology, microbiology, and biotechnology. Experience, however, indicates that these topics are difficult for many students. The authors of this article describe how they created an activity that effectively…

  10. Reef fish hybridization: lessons learnt from butterflyfishes (genus Chaetodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Stefano R; van Herwerden, Lynne; Pratchett, Morgan S; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Fugedi, Anneli

    2012-02-01

    Natural hybridization is widespread among coral reef fishes. However, the ecological promoters and evolutionary consequences of reef fish hybridization have not been thoroughly evaluated. Butterflyfishes form a high number of hybrids and represent an appropriate group to investigate hybridization in reef fishes. This study provides a rare test of terrestrially derived hybridization theory in the marine environment by examining hybridization between Chaetodon trifasciatus and C. lunulatus at Christmas Island. Overlapping spatial and dietary ecologies enable heterospecific encounters. Nonassortative mating and local rarity of both parent species appear to permit heterospecific breeding pair formation. Microsatellite loci and mtDNA confirmed the status of hybrids, which displayed the lowest genetic diversity in the sample and used a reduced suite of resources, suggesting decreased adaptability. Maternal contribution to hybridization was unidirectional, and no introgression was detected, suggesting limited, localized evolutionary consequences of hybridization.Comparisons to other reef fish hybridization studies revealed that different evolutionary consequences emerge, despite being promoted by similar factors, possibly due to the magnitude of genetic distance between hybridizing species. This study highlights the need for further enquiry aimed at evaluating the importance and long-term consequences of reef fish hybridization.

  11. Application of flow cytometry for the identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis by peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, N F; Jardim, T; Almeida, C; Cerqueira, L; Almeida, A J; Rodrigues, F; Keevil, C W; Vieira, M J

    2011-10-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is considered to be one of the most common causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections, particularly in immune-compromised individuals. Here, we report the development and application of a novel peptide nucleic acid probe for the specific detection of S. epidermidis by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The theoretical estimates of probe matching specificity and sensitivity were 89 and 87%, respectively. More importantly, the probe was shown not to hybridize with closely related species such as Staphylococcus aureus. The method was subsequently successfully adapted for the detection of S. epidermidis in mixed-species blood cultures both by microscopy and flow cytometry.

  12. The chromosomal constitution of fish hybrid lineage revealed by 5S rDNA FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Ye, Lihai; Chen, Yiyi; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Yanhong; Tao, Min; Xiao, Yamei; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-12-03

    The establishment of the bisexual fertile fish hybrid lineage including the allodiploid and allotetraploid hybrids, from interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var. 2n = 100, 2n = AA) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. 2n = 100, 2n = BB) (♂), provided a good platform to investigate genetic relationship between the parents and their hybrid progenies. The chromosomal inheritance of diploid and allotetraploid hybrid progenies in successive generations, was studied by applying 5S rDNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. Signals of 5S rDNA distinguished the chromosomal constitution of common carp (B-genome) from red crucian carp (A-genome), in which two strong signals were observed on the first submetacentric chromosome, while no major signal was found in common carp. After fish hybridization, one strong signal of 5S rDNA was detected in the same locus on the chromosome of diploid hybrids. As expected, two strong signals were observed in 4nF3 tetraploid hybrids offspring and it is worth mentioning that two strong signals were detected in a separating bivalent of a primary spermatocyte in 4nF3. Furthermore, the mitosis of heterozygous chromosomes was shown normal and stable with blastular tissue histological studies. We revealed that 5S rDNA signal can be applied to discern A-genome from B-genome, and that 5S rDNA bearing chromosomes can be stably passed down in successive generations. Our work provided a significant method in fish breeding and this is important for studies in fish evolutionary biology.

  13. Trisomy 12 assessment by conventional fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), FISH in suspension (FISH-IS) and laser scanning cytometry (LSC) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Cuc H; Lower, Karen M; Macardle, Cindy; Kuss, Bryone J

    2017-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has an extremely heterogeneous clinical course, and prognostication is based on common genetic abnormalities which are detected by standard cytogenetic methods. However, current methods are restricted by the low number of cells able to be analyzed, resulting in the potential to miss clinically relevant sub-clonal populations of cells. A novel high throughput methodology called fluorescence in situ hybridization in suspension (FISH-IS) incorporates a flow cytometry-based imaging approach with automated analysis of thousands of cells. Here we have demonstrated that the FISH-IS technique is applicable to aneuploidy detection in CLL samples for a range of chromosomes using appropriate centromere probes. This method is able to accurately differentiate between monosomy, disomy and trisomy with a sensitivity of 1% in CLL. An analysis comparing conventional FISH, FISH-IS and laser scanning cytometry (LSC) is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hybrid Magnetics and Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wai Keung; Paasch, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid magnetic approach, merging two different magnetic core properites such as ferrite and iron powder cores, is an effective solution for power converter applications. It can offer similar magnetic properties to that of magnetic powder cores but showing less copper loss than powder cores. In...... operation and energy saving. Index Terms—magnetic devices, passive components, boost inductor....... In order to prevent ferrite core saturation, placing an effective air gap within the ferrite core is a key method to obtain optimum hybrid magnetic performance. Furthermore, a relatively large inductance at low loading current is an excellent way to minimze power loss in order to achieve high efficiency...

  15. Rapid genomic DNA changes in allotetraploid fish hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Ye, L H; Liu, Q Z; Peng, L Y; Liu, W; Yi, X G; Wang, Y D; Xiao, J; Xu, K; Hu, F Z; Ren, L; Tao, M; Zhang, C; Liu, Y; Hong, Y H; Liu, S J

    2015-06-01

    Rapid genomic change has been demonstrated in several allopolyploid plant systems; however, few studies focused on animals. We addressed this issue using an allotetraploid lineage (4nAT) of freshwater fish originally derived from the interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ♀, 2n=100) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., ♂, 2n=100). We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from allotetraploid hybrids in the 20th generation (F20) and sequenced 14 BAC clones representing a total of 592.126 kb, identified 11 functional genes and estimated the guanine-cytosine content (37.10%) and the proportion of repetitive elements (17.46%). The analysis of intron evolution using nine orthologous genes across a number of selected fish species detected a gain of 39 introns and a loss of 30 introns in the 4nAT lineage. A comparative study based on seven functional genes among 4nAT, diploid F1 hybrids (2nF1) (first generation of hybrids) and their original parents revealed that both hybrid types (2nF1 and 4nAT) not only inherited genomic DNA from their parents, but also demonstrated rapid genomic DNA changes (homoeologous recombination, parental DNA fragments loss and formation of novel genes). However, 4nAT presented more genomic variations compared with their parents than 2nF1. Interestingly, novel gene fragments were found for the iqca1 gene in both hybrid types. This study provided a preliminary genomic characterization of allotetraploid F20 hybrids and revealed evolutionary and functional genomic significance of allopolyploid animals.

  16. Recent advances in rice genome and chromosome structure research by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmido, Nobuko; Fukui, Kiichi; Kinoshita, Toshiro

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an effective method for the physical mapping of genes and repetitive DNA sequences on chromosomes. Physical mapping of unique nucleotide sequences on specific rice chromosome regions was performed using a combination of chromosome identification and highly sensitive FISH. Increases in the detection sensitivity of smaller DNA sequences and improvements in spatial resolution have ushered in a new phase in FISH technology. Thus, it is now possible to perform in situ hybridization on somatic chromosomes, pachytene chromosomes, and even on extended DNA fibers (EDFs). Pachytene-FISH allows the integration of genetic linkage maps and quantitative chromosome maps. Visualization methods using FISH can reveal the spatial organization of the centromere, heterochromatin/euchromatin, and the terminal structures of rice chromosomes. Furthermore, EDF-FISH and the DNA combing technique can resolve a spatial distance of 1 kb between adjacent DNA sequences, and the detection of even a 300-bp target is now feasible. The copy numbers of various repetitive sequences and the sizes of various DNA molecules were quantitatively measured using the molecular combing technique. This review describes the significance of these advances in molecular cytology in rice and discusses future applications in plant studies using visualization techniques. PMID:20154468

  17. MiL-FISH: Multilabeled Oligonucleotides for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Improve Visualization of Bacterial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Manuel; Wetzel, Silke; Liebeke, Manuel; Dubilier, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a vital tool for environmental and medical microbiology and is commonly used for the identification, localization, and isolation of defined microbial taxa. However, fluorescence signal strength is often a limiting factor for targeting all members in a microbial community. Here, we present the application of a multilabeled FISH approach (MiL-FISH) that (i) enables the simultaneous targeting of up to seven microbial groups using combinatorial labeling of a single oligonucleotide probe, (ii) is applicable for the isolation of unfixed environmental microorganisms via fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and (iii) improves signal and imaging quality of tissue sections in acrylic resin for precise localization of individual microbial cells. We show the ability of MiL-FISH to distinguish between seven microbial groups using a mock community of marine organisms and its applicability for the localization of bacteria associated with animal tissue and their isolation from host tissues using FACS. To further increase the number of potential target organisms, a streamlined combinatorial labeling and spectral imaging-FISH (CLASI-FISH) concept with MiL-FISH probes is presented here. Through the combination of increased probe signal, the possibility of targeting hard-to-detect taxa and isolating these from an environmental sample, the identification and precise localization of microbiota in host tissues, and the simultaneous multilabeling of up to seven microbial groups, we show here that MiL-FISH is a multifaceted alternative to standard monolabeled FISH that can be used for a wide range of biological and medical applications. PMID:26475101

  18. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signal analysis using automated generated projection images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingwei; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Yuhua; Liu, Hong; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy R; Zheng, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests provide promising molecular imaging biomarkers to more accurately and reliably detect and diagnose cancers and genetic disorders. Since current manual FISH signal analysis is low-efficient and inconsistent, which limits its clinical utility, developing automated FISH image scanning systems and computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes has been attracting research interests. To acquire high-resolution FISH images in a multi-spectral scanning mode, a huge amount of image data with the stack of the multiple three-dimensional (3-D) image slices is generated from a single specimen. Automated preprocessing these scanned images to eliminate the non-useful and redundant data is important to make the automated FISH tests acceptable in clinical applications. In this study, a dual-detector fluorescence image scanning system was applied to scan four specimen slides with FISH-probed chromosome X. A CAD scheme was developed to detect analyzable interphase cells and map the multiple imaging slices recorded FISH-probed signals into the 2-D projection images. CAD scheme was then applied to each projection image to detect analyzable interphase cells using an adaptive multiple-threshold algorithm, identify FISH-probed signals using a top-hat transform, and compute the ratios between the normal and abnormal cells. To assess CAD performance, the FISH-probed signals were also independently visually detected by an observer. The Kappa coefficients for agreement between CAD and observer ranged from 0.69 to 1.0 in detecting/counting FISH signal spots in four testing samples. The study demonstrated the feasibility of automated FISH signal analysis that applying a CAD scheme to the automated generated 2-D projection images.

  19. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique for studying the microbial communities in intestinal tissues of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique is very useful for the evaluation of microbial communities in various environments. It is possible to apply this technique to study the intestinal microflora in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. Different fixatives and storage temperature were tested in this technique. It was found that fixation with 10% buffered formalin for 12 hours and changed to 70% ethanol shown positive results when compared to the fixation with Davidson's fixative or RF fixative. The best signaling was obtainedfrom the samples which were stored in -20ºC. By using the DNA probe targeted to the Eubacteria domain (EUB338 probe, 5′-GCT GCC TCC CGT AGG AGT-3′ labeled with fluorescein as a hybridizing probe, it was found that most intestinal microflora were aggregated with the intestinal contents, or dispersed in the lumen. There was not evidence of the attachment of the microflora with the intestinal epithelium in this study.

  20. 21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH... Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4700 Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration... document entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Automated Fluorescence in situ...

  1. Metaphase FISH on a Chip: Miniaturized Microfluidic Device for Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar; Dimaki, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA-FISH, the pr...

  2. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  3. Biotechnology Applications in Fish Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule Baylan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to put cultured species on the market with high quality and few casualties, many important studies are carried out. Most of the researches are conducted in the development of feed and feed ingredients 30-60% of the production cost in farming. Therefore, in aquaculture, an interest in alternative feed ingredients is moving at a very fast rate. In this context, the use of enzymes, probiotics and prebiotics in animal feed has steadily increased in recent years with reasons such as effective control of fish diseases and prevention of infection, strengthening the immune system of fish, increase of the digestibility, reduction of the feed cost, reduction of larval-term mortality, provision of increase in growth, live weight gain, and getting rid of the negative effects of stress.

  4. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Lori [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  5. In situ hybridization; principles and applications: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nozhat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In situ hybridization (ISH is a method that uses labeled complementary single strand DNA or RNA to localize specific DNA or RNA sequences in an intact cell or in a fixed tissue section. The main steps of ISH consist of: probe selection, tissue or sample preparation, pre-hybridization treatment, hybridization and washing, detection and control procedure. Probe selection is one of the important aspects of successful hybridization. ISH sensitivity and specificity can be influenced by: probe construct, efficiency of labeling, percentage of GC, probe length and signal detection systems. Different methods such as nick translation, random priming, end tailing and T4 DNA polymerase replacement are used for probe generation. Both radioactive and non-radioactive labels can be used in order to probe labeling. Nucleic acid maintenance in samples, prevention of morphological changes of samples and probe penetration into tissue section are the main aims of sample preparation step. Then, a small amount of solution containing probe, is added on slides containing tissue sections for hybridization process, then slides are incubated overnight. Next day, washes are carried out to remove the probes which are not bound to target DNA or RNA. Finally, in order to be sure that the observed labeling is specific to the target sequence, using several control procedures is very important. Various techniques based on ISH consist of: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, spectral karyotyping (SKY and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (MFISH. One of the most common techniques of ISH is fluorescence in situ hybridization. FISH can be used to: 1 detect small deletions and duplications that are not visible using microscope analysis, 2 detect how many chromosomes of a certain type are present in each cell and 3 confirm rearrangements that are

  6. Mitochondrial Genome Variation after Hybridization and Differences in the First and Second Generation Hybrids of Bream Fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Zhuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Hybridization plays an important role in fish breeding. Bream fishes contribute a lot to aquaculture in China due to their economically valuable characteristics and the present study included five bream species, Megalobrama amblycephala, Megalobrama skolkovii, Megalobrama pellegrini, Megalobrama terminalis and Parabramis pekinensis. As maternal inheritance of mitochondrial genome (mitogenome involves species specific regulation, we aimed to investigate in which way the inheritance of mitogenome is affected by hybridization in these fish species. With complete mitogenomes of 7 hybrid groups of bream species being firstly reported in the present study, a comparative analysis of 17 mitogenomes was conducted, including representatives of these 5 bream species, 6 first generation hybrids and 6 second generation hybrids. The results showed that these 17 mitogenomes shared the same gene arrangement, and had similar gene size and base composition. According to the phylogenetic analyses, all mitogenomes of the hybrids were consistent with a maternal inheritance. However, a certain number of variable sites were detected in all F1 hybrid groups compared to their female parents, especially in the group of M. terminalis (♀ × M. amblycephala (♂ (MT×MA, with a total of 86 variable sites between MT×MA and its female parent. Among the mitogenomes genes, the protein-coding gene nd5 displayed the highest variability. The number of variation sites was found to be related to phylogenetic relationship of the parents: the closer they are, the lower amount of variation sites their hybrids have. The second generation hybrids showed less mitogenome variation than that of first generation hybrids. The non-synonymous and synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS were calculated between all the hybrids with their own female parents and the results indicated that most PCGs were under negative selection.

  7. DNA Mimics for the Rapid Identification of Microorganisms by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Vieira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is a well-established technique that is used for a variety of purposes, ranging from pathogen detection in clinical diagnostics to the determination of chromosomal stability in stem cell research. The key step of FISH involves the detection of a nucleic acid region and as such, DNA molecules have typically been used to probe for the sequences of interest. However, since the turn of the century, an increasing number of laboratories have started to move on to the more robust DNA mimics methods, most notably peptide and locked nucleic acids (PNA and LNA. In this review, we will cover the state-of-the-art of the different DNA mimics in regard to their application as efficient markers for the presence of individual microbial cells, and consider their potential advantages and pitfalls. Available PNA probes are then reassessed in terms of sensitivity and specificity using rRNA databases. In addition, we also attempt to predict the applicability of DNA mimics in well-known techniques attempting to detect in situ low number of copies of specific nucleic acid sequences such as catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD and recognition of individual genes (RING FISH.

  8. DNA mimics for the rapid identification of microorganisms by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Laura; Azevedo, Nuno F; Almeida, Carina; Jardim, Tatiana; Keevil, Charles William; Vieira, Maria J

    2008-10-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a well-established technique that is used for a variety of purposes, ranging from pathogen detection in clinical diagnostics to the determination of chromosomal stability in stem cell research. The key step of FISH involves the detection of a nucleic acid region and as such, DNA molecules have typically been used to probe for the sequences of interest. However, since the turn of the century, an increasing number of laboratories have started to move on to the more robust DNA mimics methods, most notably peptide and locked nucleic acids (PNA and LNA). In this review, we will cover the state-of-the-art of the different DNA mimics in regard to their application as efficient markers for the presence of individual microbial cells, and consider their potential advantages and pitfalls. Available PNA probes are then reassessed in terms of sensitivity and specificity using rRNA databases. In addition, we also attempt to predict the applicability of DNA mimics in well-known techniques attempting to detect in situ low number of copies of specific nucleic acid sequences such as catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD) and recognition of individual genes (RING) FISH.

  9. Systematic application of DNA fiber-FISH technique in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization on extended DNA (fiber-FISH is a powerful tool in high-resolution physical mapping. To introduce this technique into cotton, we developed the technique and tested it by deliberately mapping of telomere and 5S rDNA. Results showed that telomere-length ranged from 0.80 kb to 37.86 kb in three species, G. hirsutum, G. herbaceum and G. arboreum. However, most of the telomeres (>91.0% were below 10 kb. The length of 5S rDNA was revealed as 964 kb in G. herbaceum whereas, in G. arboreum, it was approximately three times longer (3.1 Mb. A fiber-FISH based immunofluorescence method was also described to assay the DNA methylation. Using this technique, we revealed that both telomere and 5S rDNA were methylated at different levels. In addition, we developed a BAC molecule-based fiber-FISH technique. Using this technique, we can precisely map BAC clones on each other and evaluated the size and location of overlapped regions. The development and application of fiber-FISH technique will facilitate high-resolution physical mapping and further directed sequencing projects for cotton.

  10. Capture antibody targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (CAT-FISH): dual labeling allows for increased specificity in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroot, Joyce M; Leach, Kelly M; Stroot, Peter G; Lim, Daniel V

    2012-02-01

    Pathogen detection using biosensors is commonly limited due to the need for sensitivity and specificity in detecting targets within mixed populations. These issues were addressed through development of a dual labeling method that allows for both liquid-phase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and capture antibody targeted detection (CAT-FISH). CAT-FISH was developed using Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus as representative bacteria, and processing techniques were evaluated with regard to FISH intensities and antibody recognition. The alternative fixative solution, methacarn, proved to be superior to standard solid-phase paraformaldehyde fixation procedures, allowing both FISH labeling and antibody recognition. CAT-FISH treated cells were successfully labeled with FISH probes, captured by immunomagnetic separation using fluorescent cytometric array beads, and detected using a cytometric array biosensor. CAT-FISH treated cells were detectable with LODs comparable to the standard antibody-based technique, (~10(3)cells/ml in PBS), and the technique was also successfully applied to two complex matrices. Although immunomagnetic capture and detection using cytometric arrays were demonstrated, CAT-FISH is readily applicable to any antibody-based fluorescence detection platform, and further optimization for sensitivity is possible via inclusion of fluorescently tagged antibodies. Since the confidence level needed for positive identification of a detected target is often paramount, CAT-FISH was developed to allow two separate levels of specificity, namely nucleic acid and protein signatures. With proper selection of FISH probes and capture antibodies, CAT-FISH may be used to provide rapid detection of target pathogens from within complex matrices with high levels of confidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Single-cell Gene Transcription by RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronander, Elena; Bengtsson, Dominique C; Joergensen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of var gene transcription by the parasite in individual nuclei of P. falciparum IE(1). Here, we present a detailed protocol for carrying out the RNA-FISH methodology for analysis of var gene transcription in single-nuclei of P. falciparum infected human...

  12. [Application of interphase FISH on cell smears in detection of hematological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wan-Ling; Liu, Cong-Yan; Li, Hui; He, Jing-Juan; Sun, Xue-Jing; Xu, Juan

    2010-02-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the application value of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on cell smears in hematological diseases. Both interphase FISH on peripheral blood smears and bone marrow smears treated by methanol/acetic acid, and routine interphase FISH of bone marrow cells dropped on slides were done at the same time, in order to detect Ph chromosome by BCR/ABL dual color, dual fusion probe in 20 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia which had been proven to display Ph chromosome positive. The results indicated that as compared with routine interphase FISH, the interphase FISH on cell smears could also offer reliable result. It is concluded that interphase FISH on cell smears is a kind of reliable and time-saving technique, which is also suitable for retrospective research and worthy to further apply in clinic.

  13. Date Palm Sex Differentiation Based on Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atia, Mohamed A M; Adawy, Sami S; El-Itriby, Hanaiya A

    2017-01-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) is used to visualize defined DNA sequences in cellular preparations by hybridization of complementary probe sequences. Recently, the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique has become a powerful and useful tool for the direct detection of specific DNA fragments in the genome. Ribosomal DNA genes (45S and 5S rDNA) are commonly used as markers for the physical mapping of plant chromosomes to analyze genomic organization. Here we describe cytological-based markers to differentiate date palm gender through localization of 45S and 5S rDNA markers on date palm chromosomes using FISH.

  14. Determination of the ruminant origin of bone particles using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecrenier, M. C.; Ledoux, Q.; Berben, G.; Fumière, O.; Saegerman, C.; Baeten, V.; Veys, P.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular biology techniques such as PCR constitute powerful tools for the determination of the taxonomic origin of bones. DNA degradation and contamination by exogenous DNA, however, jeopardise bone identification. Despite the vast array of techniques used to decontaminate bone fragments, the isolation and determination of bone DNA content are still problematic. Within the framework of the eradication of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (including BSE, commonly known as “mad cow disease”), a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol was developed. Results from the described study showed that this method can be applied directly to bones without a demineralisation step and that it allows the identification of bovine and ruminant bones even after severe processing. The results also showed that the method is independent of exogenous contamination and that it is therefore entirely appropriate for this application. PMID:25034259

  15. Tunable hybrid metasurfaces for MRI applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchelokova, Alena V.; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P.; Melchakova, Irina V.; Glybovski, Stanislav B.; Webb, Andrew G.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Belov, Pavel A.

    2017-09-01

    One of many exciting application of metasurfaces is in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally how to improve substantially the MRI sensitivity by employing the concept of hybrid metasurfaces. We design a novel hybrid metasurface as an array of nonmagnetic metallic wires with high-permittivity dielectric blocks at the edges. We demonstrate that tunability of this metasurface can be achieved via a change of the effective permittivity of blocks near the edges. Moreover, altering the coupling strength between the dielectric and metallic elements allows to obtain nearly homogeneous shapes of the near-field magnetic modes.

  16. Comparison Between Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven organs from each of the four pairs were swabbed for culture and tissues taken for FISH test to detect the presence of the bacterium in these birds. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected, for culture method and bacteria characterized by biochemical tests. While for FISH test, tissues were processed for ...

  17. Prediction of melting temperatures in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedures using thermodynamic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Guimarães, Nuno; Wengel, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    thermodynamics that provide reasonably accurate thermodynamic information on nucleic acid duplexes and allow estimation of the melting temperature. Because there are no thermodynamic models specifically developed to predict the hybridization temperature of a probe used in a fluorescence in situ hybridization......Abstract The thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA hybridization, i.e. the process of self-assembly of one, two or more complementary nucleic acid strands, has been studied for many years. The appearance of the nearest-neighbor model led to several theoretical and experimental papers on DNA...... (FISH) procedure, the melting temperature is used as a reference, together with corrections for certain compounds that are used during FISH. However, the quantitative relation between melting and experimental FISH temperatures is poorly described. In this review, various models used to predict...

  18. Fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques (FISH) to detect changes in CYP19a gene expression of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Woo; Tompsett, Amber; Zhang, Xiaowei; Newsted, John L; Jones, Paul D; Au, Doris; Kong, Richard; Wu, Rudolf S S; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive in situ hybridization methodology using fluorescence-labeled riboprobes (FISH) that allows for the evaluation of gene expression profiles simultaneously in multiple target tissues of whole fish sections of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). To date FISH methods have been limited in their application due to autofluorescence of tissues, fixatives or other components of the hybridization procedure. An optimized FISH method, based on confocal fluorescence microscopy was developed to reduce the autofluorescence signal. Because of its tissue- and gender-specific expression and relevance in studies of endocrine disruption, gonadal aromatase (CYP19a) was used as a model gene. The in situ hybridization (ISH) system was validated in a test exposure with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole. The optimized FISH method revealed tissue-specific expression of the CYP19a gene. Furthermore, the assay could differentiate the abundance of CYP19a mRNA among cell types. Expression of CYP19a was primarily associated with early stage oocytes, and expression gradually decreased with increasing maturation. No expression of CYP19a mRNA was observed in other tissues such as brain, liver, or testes. Fadrozole (100 microg/L) caused up-regulation of CYP19a expression, a trend that was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis on excised tissues. In a combination approach with gonad histology, it could be shown that the increase in CYP19a expression as measured by RT-PCR on a whole tissue basis was due to a combination of both increases in numbers of CYP19a-containing cells and an increase in the amount of CYP19a mRNA present in the cells.

  19. Influence of environment and mitochondrial heritage on the ecological characteristics of fish in a hybrid zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Stolzenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecological characteristics (growth, morphology, reproduction arise from the interaction between environmental factors and genetics. Genetic analysis of individuals' life history traits might be used to improve our understanding of mechanisms that form and maintain a hybrid zone. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A fish hybrid zone was used to characterize the process of natural selection. Data were collected during two reproductive periods (2001 and 2002 and 1117 individuals (nase, Chondrostama nasus nasus, sofie C. toxostoma toxostoma and hybrids were sampled. Reproductive dates of the two parental species overlapped at sympatric sites. The nase had an earlier reproductive period than the sofie; males had longer reproductive periods for both species. Hybridisation between female nase and male sofie was the most likely. Hybrids had a reproductive period similar to the inherited parental mitochondrial type. Growth and reproductive information from different environments has been synthesised following a bayesian approach of the von Bertalanffy model. Hybrid life history traits appear to link with maternal heritage. Hybrid size from the age of two and size at first maturity appeared to be closer to the size of the maternal origin species (nase or sofie. Median growth rates for hybrids were similar and intermediate between those of the parental species. We observed variable life history traits for hybrids and pure forms in the different parts of the hybrid zone. Geometrical analysis of the hybrid fish shape gave evidence of two main morphologies with a link to maternal heritage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Selective mating seemed to be the underlying process which, with mitochondrial heritage, could explain the evolution of the studied hybrid zone. More generally, we showed the importance of studies on hybrid zones and specifically the study of individuals' ecological characteristics, to improve our understanding of speciation.

  20. Influence of Environment and Mitochondrial Heritage on the Ecological Characteristics of Fish in a Hybrid Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Nicolas; Nguyen The, Bénédicte; Salducci, Marie Dominique; Cavalli, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Background Ecological characteristics (growth, morphology, reproduction) arise from the interaction between environmental factors and genetics. Genetic analysis of individuals' life history traits might be used to improve our understanding of mechanisms that form and maintain a hybrid zone. Methodology/Principal Findings A fish hybrid zone was used to characterize the process of natural selection. Data were collected during two reproductive periods (2001 and 2002) and 1117 individuals (nase, Chondrostama nasus nasus, sofie C. toxostoma toxostoma and hybrids) were sampled. Reproductive dates of the two parental species overlapped at sympatric sites. The nase had an earlier reproductive period than the sofie; males had longer reproductive periods for both species. Hybridisation between female nase and male sofie was the most likely. Hybrids had a reproductive period similar to the inherited parental mitochondrial type. Growth and reproductive information from different environments has been synthesised following a bayesian approach of the von Bertalanffy model. Hybrid life history traits appear to link with maternal heritage. Hybrid size from the age of two and size at first maturity appeared to be closer to the size of the maternal origin species (nase or sofie). Median growth rates for hybrids were similar and intermediate between those of the parental species. We observed variable life history traits for hybrids and pure forms in the different parts of the hybrid zone. Geometrical analysis of the hybrid fish shape gave evidence of two main morphologies with a link to maternal heritage. Conclusions/Significance Selective mating seemed to be the underlying process which, with mitochondrial heritage, could explain the evolution of the studied hybrid zone. More generally, we showed the importance of studies on hybrid zones and specifically the study of individuals' ecological characteristics, to improve our understanding of speciation. PMID:19536286

  1. Influence of environment and mitochondrial heritage on the ecological characteristics of fish in a hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Nicolas; Nguyen The, Bénédicte; Salducci, Marie Dominique; Cavalli, Laurent

    2009-06-18

    Ecological characteristics (growth, morphology, reproduction) arise from the interaction between environmental factors and genetics. Genetic analysis of individuals' life history traits might be used to improve our understanding of mechanisms that form and maintain a hybrid zone. A fish hybrid zone was used to characterize the process of natural selection. Data were collected during two reproductive periods (2001 and 2002) and 1117 individuals (nase, Chondrostama nasus nasus, sofie C. toxostoma toxostoma and hybrids) were sampled. Reproductive dates of the two parental species overlapped at sympatric sites. The nase had an earlier reproductive period than the sofie; males had longer reproductive periods for both species. Hybridisation between female nase and male sofie was the most likely. Hybrids had a reproductive period similar to the inherited parental mitochondrial type. Growth and reproductive information from different environments has been synthesised following a bayesian approach of the von Bertalanffy model. Hybrid life history traits appear to link with maternal heritage. Hybrid size from the age of two and size at first maturity appeared to be closer to the size of the maternal origin species (nase or sofie). Median growth rates for hybrids were similar and intermediate between those of the parental species. We observed variable life history traits for hybrids and pure forms in the different parts of the hybrid zone. Geometrical analysis of the hybrid fish shape gave evidence of two main morphologies with a link to maternal heritage. Selective mating seemed to be the underlying process which, with mitochondrial heritage, could explain the evolution of the studied hybrid zone. More generally, we showed the importance of studies on hybrid zones and specifically the study of individuals' ecological characteristics, to improve our understanding of speciation.

  2. Single-Molecule Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) of Circular RNA CDR1as.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocks, Christine; Boltengagen, Anastasiya; Piwecka, Monika; Rybak-Wolf, Agnieszka; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

    2018-01-01

    Individual mRNA molecules can be imaged in fixed cells by hybridization with multiple, singly labeled oligonucleotide probes, followed by computational identification of fluorescent signals. This approach, called single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (smRNA FISH), allows subcellular localization and absolute quantification of RNA molecules in individual cells. Here, we describe a simple smRNA FISH protocol for two-color imaging of a circular RNA, CDR1as, simultaneously with an unrelated messenger RNA. The protocol can be adapted to circRNAs that coexist with overlapping, noncircular mRNA isoforms produced from the same genetic locus.

  3. Hybrid Switch Reluctance Drives For Pump Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    The initial research problem is to investigate an alternative motor drive to the existing permanent magnet synchronous and brushless DC-motor drives for pump applications. A review of different motor types showed that a possible candidate for another low cost permanent magnet motor may be the sin......The initial research problem is to investigate an alternative motor drive to the existing permanent magnet synchronous and brushless DC-motor drives for pump applications. A review of different motor types showed that a possible candidate for another low cost permanent magnet motor may...... magnet motors. The focus of this thesis is regarding the design and control of a single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM) intended to drive e.g. a centrifugal pump. A single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor was designed with a novel stator pole shaping method and a new arrangement...

  4. Fish Stem Cells: Classification, Resources, Characteristics and Application Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehriban ÇEK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells, have the potential for self-renewal that can differ to the specialized cells. First studies on stem cells in fish started with zebra fish in 1992. In this review, classification, resources, vital importance, characteristics and application areas of fish stem cell were clarified.

  5. Fluorescence In situ Hybridization: Cell-Based Genetic Diagnostic and Research Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chenghua; Shu, Wei; Li, Peining

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a macromolecule recognition technology based on the complementary nature of DNA or DNA/RNA double strands. Selected DNA strands incorporated with fluorophore-coupled nucleotides can be used as probes to hybridize onto the complementary sequences in tested cells and tissues and then visualized through a fluorescence microscope or an imaging system. This technology was initially developed as a physical mapping tool to delineate genes within chromosomes. Its high analytical resolution to a single gene level and high sensitivity and specificity enabled an immediate application for genetic diagnosis of constitutional common aneuploidies, microdeletion/microduplication syndromes, and subtelomeric rearrangements. FISH tests using panels of gene-specific probes for somatic recurrent losses, gains, and translocations have been routinely applied for hematologic and solid tumors and are one of the fastest-growing areas in cancer diagnosis. FISH has also been used to detect infectious microbias and parasites like malaria in human blood cells. Recent advances in FISH technology involve various methods for improving probe labeling efficiency and the use of super resolution imaging systems for direct visualization of intra-nuclear chromosomal organization and profiling of RNA transcription in single cells. Cas9-mediated FISH (CASFISH) allowed in situ labeling of repetitive sequences and single-copy sequences without the disruption of nuclear genomic organization in fixed or living cells. Using oligopaint-FISH and super-resolution imaging enabled in situ visualization of chromosome haplotypes from differentially specified single-nucleotide polymorphism loci. Single molecule RNA FISH (smRNA-FISH) using combinatorial labeling or sequential barcoding by multiple round of hybridization were applied to measure mRNA expression of multiple genes within single cells. Research applications of these single molecule single cells DNA and RNA FISH

  6. Fluorescence In situ Hybridization: Cell-Based Genetic Diagnostic and Research Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghua Cui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is a macromolecule recognition technology based on the complementary nature of DNA or DNA/RNA double strands. Selected DNA strands incorporated with fluorophore-coupled nucleotides can be used as probes to hybridize onto the complementary sequences in tested cells and tissues and then visualized through a fluorescence microscope or an imaging system. This technology was initially developed as a physical mapping tool to delineate genes within chromosomes. Its high analytical resolution to a single gene level and high sensitivity and specificity enabled an immediate application for genetic diagnosis of constitutional common aneuploidies, microdeletion/microduplication syndromes and subtelomeric rearrangements. FISH tests using panels of gene-specific probes for somatic recurrent losses, gains and translocations have been routinely applied for hematologic and solid tumors and are one of the fastest-growing areas in cancer diagnosis. FISH has also been used to detect infectious microbials and parasites like malaria in human blood cells. Recent advances in FISH technology involve various methods for improving probe labeling efficiency and the use of super resolution imaging systems for direct visualization of intra-nuclear chromosomal organization and profiling of RNA transcription in single cells. Cas9-mediated FISH (CASFISH allowed in situ labeling of repetitive sequences and single-copy sequences without the disruption of nuclear genomic organization in fixed or living cells. Using oligopaint-FISH and super-resolution imaging enabled in situ visualization of chromosome haplotypes from differentially specified single-nucleotide polymorphism loci. Single molecule RNA FISH (smRNA-FISH using combinatorial labeling or sequential barcoding by multiple round of hybridization were applied to measure mRNA expression of multiple genes within single cells. Research applications of these single molecule single cells

  7. Confirmation of hybridity using GISH and determination of 18S rDNA copy number using FISH in interspecific F(1) hybrids of Tecoma (Bignoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Ryan N; Ruter, John M; Conner, Joann; Zeng, Yajuan; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2012-06-01

    Interspecific hybridization in Tecoma Juss. was conducted to develop novel forms for the nursery industry. We report fertile hybrids from the cross T. garrocha Hieron. (pistillate parent) × T. stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth. Leaf morphology of the F(1) hybrids of T. garrocha × T. stans was intermediate between the parents. GISH also confirmed hybridity. The F(1) hybrids were successfully backcrossed to both parents and self-pollinated to produce BC and F(2) progeny. Tecoma garrocha , T. stans, and T. guarume A. DC. 'Tangelo' were self-fertile. The F(1) hybrids also were crossed with T. capensis (Thunb.) Lindl. and T. guarume 'Tangelo', resulting in three-species hybrids. FISH conducted on F(1) hybrids identified four copies of the 18S internal transcribed spacer region. Further analysis using FISH has the potential to provide information on the evolution of Bignoniaceae and the potential role of polyploidy.

  8. Metaphase FISH on a chip: miniaturized microfluidic device for fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Shah, Pranjul; Dimaki, Maria; Tumer, Zeynep; Tommerup, Niels; Svendsen, Winnie E

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA-FISH, the process continues to be a manual, labour intensive, expensive and time consuming technique, often taking over 3 5 days, even in dedicated labs. We have developed a novel microFISH device to perform metaphase FISH on a chip which overcomes many shortcomings of the current laboratory protocols. This work also introduces a novel splashing device for preparing metaphase spreads on a microscope glass slide, followed by a rapid adhesive tape-based bonding protocol leading to rapid fabrication of the microFISH device. The microFISH device allows for an optimized metaphase FISH protocol on a chip with over a 20-fold reduction in the reagent volume. This is the first demonstration of metaphase FISH on a microfluidic device and offers a possibility of automation and significant cost reduction of many routine diagnostic tests of genetic anomalies.

  9. Metaphase FISH on a Chip: Miniaturized Microfluidic Device for Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Tommerup

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH is a major cytogenetic technique for clinical genetic diagnosis of both inherited and acquired chromosomal abnormalities. Although FISH techniques have evolved and are often used together with other cytogenetic methods like CGH, PRINS and PNA-FISH, the process continues to be a manual, labour intensive, expensive and time consuming technique, often taking over 3–5 days, even in dedicated labs. We have developed a novel microFISH device to perform metaphase FISH on a chip which overcomes many shortcomings of the current laboratory protocols. This work also introduces a novel splashing device for preparing metaphase spreads on a microscope glass slide, followed by a rapid adhesive tape-based bonding protocol leading to rapid fabrication of the microFISH device. The microFISH device allows for an optimized metaphase FISH protocol on a chip with over a 20-fold reduction in the reagent volume. This is the first demonstration of metaphase FISH on a microfluidic device and offers a possibility of automation and significant cost reduction of many routine diagnostic tests of genetic anomalies.

  10. Widespread hybridization and bidirectional introgression in sympatric species of coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2017-10-28

    Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems, where numerous closely related species often coexist. How new species arise and are maintained in these high geneflow environments have been long-standing conundrums. Hybridization and patterns of introgression between sympatric species provide a unique insight into the mechanisms of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. In this study, we investigate the extent of hybridization between two closely related species of coral reef fish: the common coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) and the bar-cheek coral trout (Plectropomus maculatus). Using a complementary set of 25 microsatellite loci, we distinguish pure genotype classes from first- and later-generation hybrids, identifying 124 interspecific hybrids from a collection of 2,991 coral trout sampled in inshore and mid-shelf reefs of the southern Great Barrier Reef. Hybrids were ubiquitous among reefs, fertile and spanned multiple generations suggesting both ecological and evolutionary processes are acting to maintain species barriers. We elaborate on these finding to investigate the extent of genomic introgression and admixture from 2,271 SNP loci recovered from a ddRAD library of pure and hybrid individuals. An analysis of genomic clines on recovered loci indicates that 261 SNP loci deviate from a model of neutral introgression, of which 132 indicate a pattern of introgression consistent with selection favouring both hybrid and parental genotypes. Our findings indicate genome-wide, bidirectional introgression between two sympatric species of coral reef fishes and provide further support to a growing body of evidence for the role of hybridization in the evolution of coral reef fishes.

  11. Water quality in hybrid catfish ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of United States catfish aquaculture involves hybrid catfish ('channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus x ' blue catfish I. furcatus) grown in ponds with abundant aeration and high feeding rates. High feeding rates cause water quality deterioration because most of the nitrogen, phosphorus...

  12. Evaluation of Application Space Expansion for the Sensor Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an instrument known as the sensor fish that can be released into downstream passage routes at hydropower facilities to collect data on the physical conditions that a fish might be exposed to during passage through a turbine. The US Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program sees value in expanding the sensor fish application space beyond large Kaplan turbines in the northwest United States to evaluate conditions to which a greater variety of fish species are exposed. Development of fish-friendly turbines requires an understanding of both physical passage conditions and biological responses to those conditions. Expanding the use of sensor fish into other application spaces will add to the knowledge base of physical passage conditions and could also enhance the use of sensor fish as a site-specific tool in mitigating potential impacts to fish populations from hydropower. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) National Hydropower Assessment Program (NHAAP) database contains hydropower facility characteristics that, along with national fish distribution data, were used to evaluate potential interactions between fish species and project characteristics related to downstream passage issues. ORNL developed rankings for the turbine types in the NHAAP database in terms of their potential to impact fish through injury or mortality during downstream turbine passage. National-scale fish distributions for 31 key migratory species were spatially intersected with hydropower plant locations to identify facilities where turbines with a high threat to fish injury or mortality overlap with the potential range of a sensitive fish species. A dataset was produced that identifies hydropower facilities where deployment of the sensor fish technology might be beneficial in addressing issues related to downstream fish passage. The dataset can be queried to target specific geographic regions, fish species, license expiration

  13. FISH and GISH: molecular cytogenetic tools and their applications in ornamental plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Adnan; Ramzan, Fahad; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2015-09-01

    The innovations in chromosome engineering have improved the efficiency of interrogation breeding, and the identification and transfer of resistance genes from alien to native species. Recent advances in molecular biology and cytogenetics have brought revolutionary, conceptual developments in mitosis and meiosis research, chromosome structure and manipulation, gene expression and regulation, and gene silencing. Cytogenetic studies offer integrative tools for imaging, genetics, epigenetics, and cytological information that can be employed to enhance chromosome and molecular genomic research in plant taxa. In situ hybridization techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), can identify chromosome morphologies and sequences, amount and distribution of various types of chromatin in chromosomes, and genome organization during the metaphase stage of meiosis. Over the past few decades, various new molecular cytogenetic applications have been developed. The FISH and GISH techniques present an authentic model for analyzing the individual chromosome, chromosomal segments, or the genomes of natural and artificial hybrid plants. These have become the most reliable techniques for studying allopolyploids, because most cultivated plants have been developed through hybridization or polyploidization. Moreover, introgression of the genes and chromatin from the wild types into cultivated species can also be analyzed. Since hybrid derivatives may have variable alien chromosome numbers or chromosome arms, the use of these approaches opens new avenues for accurately identifying genome differences.

  14. Prediction of melting temperatures in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedures using thermodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Guimarães, Nuno; Wengel, Jesper; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe

    2016-01-01

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA hybridization, i.e. the process of self-assembly of one, two or more complementary nucleic acid strands, has been studied for many years. The appearance of the nearest-neighbor model led to several theoretical and experimental papers on DNA thermodynamics that provide reasonably accurate thermodynamic information on nucleic acid duplexes and allow estimation of the melting temperature. Because there are no thermodynamic models specifically developed to predict the hybridization temperature of a probe used in a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure, the melting temperature is used as a reference, together with corrections for certain compounds that are used during FISH. However, the quantitative relation between melting and experimental FISH temperatures is poorly described. In this review, various models used to predict the melting temperature for rRNA targets, for DNA oligonucleotides and for nucleic acid mimics (chemically modified oligonucleotides), will be addressed in detail, together with a critical assessment of how this information should be used in FISH.

  15. Efficacy of two fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for diagnosing malignant pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosolen, Débora C B; Kulikowski, Leslie D; Bottura, Giorgio; Nascimento, Amon M; Acencio, Milena; Teixeira, Lisete; Vargas, Francisco S; Sales, Roberta K; Antonangelo, Leila

    2013-06-01

    It is difficult to differentiate tumor cells in pleural fluid from reactive benign mesothelium. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can increase diagnostic accuracy. Two hundred pleural fluid samples were analyzed by using FISH probes for chromosomes 11 and 17. Histological analysis was used to diagnose cancer. Clinical, radiological, and histological data were used to exclude malignancy. Eighty-two pleural effusion samples had positive cytology, 51 were benign, and 67 were atypical, but inconclusive. The 82 positive cases were confirmed to be malignant. Among the 51 negative cytology cases, videothoracoscopy-guided pleural biopsy revealed malignancy in three; aneuploid cells were detected by FISH in all cases. In 43 of the 67 cases with inconclusive cytology, malignancy was confirmed based on histology and fluorescence in situ hybridization. One case of parapneumonic effusion with no evidence of cancer during clinical follow-up had a suspicious cytology and positive fluorescence in situ hybridization result. The remaining 23 cases had no histological, radiological, clinical, or genetic evidence of malignancy. This study demonstrated that cytogenetic analysis of fresh pleural fluid samples using only two FISH probes is a valuable ancillary method for the identification of malignant pleural effusion, particularly in cases in which oncotic cytology is inconclusive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ocean warming, a rapid distributional shift, and the hybridization of a coastal fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Warren M; Henriques, Romina; Santos, Carmen V; Munnik, Kate; Ansorge, Isabelle; Dufois, Francois; Booth, Anthony J; Kirchner, Carola; Sauer, Warwick H H; Shaw, Paul W

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing awareness of large-scale climate-driven distribution shifts in the marine environment, no study has linked rapid ocean warming to a shift in distribution and consequent hybridization of a marine fish species. This study describes rapid warming (0.8 °C per decade) in the coastal waters of the Angola-Benguela Frontal Zone over the last three decades and a concomitant shift by a temperature sensitive coastal fish species (Argyrosomus coronus) southward from Angola into Namibia. In this context, rapid shifts in distribution across Economic Exclusive Zones will complicate the management of fishes, particularly when there is a lack of congruence in the fisheries policy between nations. Evidence for recent hybridization between A. coronus and a congener, A. inodorus, indicate that the rapid shift in distribution of A. coronus has placed adults of the two species in contact during their spawning events. Ocean warming may therefore revert established species isolation mechanisms and alter the evolutionary history of fishes. While the consequences of the hybridization on the production of the resource remain unclear, this will most likely introduce additional layers of complexity to their management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effect of Dry Ice Application in Fish Hold of Fishing Boat on the Fish Quality and Fisherman Income

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Alam Baheramsyah; Amiadji,; Abdul R. Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study presents the effect of dry ice application in the fish hold of fishing boat on the fish quality and fisherman income. Dry ice is made with compressed CO2 gas to produce hot, high-pressure gas. Hot gas then cooled to condense into liquid CO2, which is still high pressure. Dry ice can be used to cool a room and can reach temperatures under 0°C. Approach: Objectives of this study are to know the effect of the use of cooling applications by using dry ice as a coo...

  18. Applications of the Sensor Fish Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-08-28

    The Sensor Fish is an autonomous device developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Army Corps of Engineers (COE) to better understand the physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro-turbines and other dam bypass alternatives. Since its initial development in 1997, the Sensor Fish has undergone several design changes to improve its function and extend the range of its use. The most recent Sensor Fish design, the six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) device, has been deployed successfully to characterize the environment fish experience when they pass through several hydroelectric projects along main stem Columbia and Snake Rivers in the Pacific Northwest. Just as information gathered from crash test dummies can affect automobile design with the installation of protective designs to lessen or prevent human injury, having sensor fish data to quantify accelerations, rotations, and pressure changes, helps identify fish injury mechanisms such as strike, turbulent shear, pressure, and inertial effects, including non-lethal ones such as stunning or signs of vestibular disruption that expose fish to a higher risk of predation by birds and piscivorous fish downstream following passage.

  19. Multiplex Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (PNA-FISH) for Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Antonio; Cerca, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular method used to identify and quantify microorganisms in a wide range of samples. This technique combines the simplicity of microscopic observation and the specificity of DNA/rRNA hybridization, allowing detection of selected bacterial species and morphologic visualization. Here, we describe a quantitative molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, based on the classical Nugent score. Our probes are able to differentiate Lactobacillus spp. and Gardnerella vaginalis from the other undefined bacterial species considered in the Nugent score.

  20. Visualization of mcr mRNA in a methanogen by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an oligonucleotide probe and two-pass tyramide signal amplification (two-pass TSA-FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kengo; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Harada, Hideki

    2006-09-01

    Two-pass tyramide signal amplification-fluorescence in situ hybridization (two-pass TSA-FISH) with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled oligonucleotide probe was applied to detect prokaryotic mRNA. In this study, mRNA of a key enzyme for methanogenesis, methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcr), in Methanococcus vannielii was targeted. Applicability of mRNA-targeted probes to in situ hybridization was verified by Clone-FISH. It was observed that sensitivity of two-pass TSA-FISH was significantly higher than that of TSA-FISH, which was further increased by the addition of dextran sulphate in TSA working solution. Signals from two-pass TSA-FISH were more reliable compared to the weak, spotty signals yielded by TSA-FISH.

  1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the microbiological diagnostic routine laboratory: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Zautner, Andreas Erich; Moter, Annette; Kikhney, Judith; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Stender, Henrik; Poppert, Sven

    2017-05-01

    Early identification of microbial pathogens is essential for rational and conservative antibiotic use especially in the case of known regional resistance patterns. Here, we describe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as one of the rapid methods for easy identification of microbial pathogens, and its advantages and disadvantages for the diagnosis of pathogens in human infections in the laboratory diagnostic routine. Binding of short fluorescence-labeled DNA or nucleic acid-mimicking PNA probes to ribosomes of infectious agents with consecutive analysis by fluorescence microscopy allows identification of bacterial and eukaryotic pathogens at genus or species level. FISH analysis leads to immediate differentiation of infectious agents without delay due to the need for microbial culture. As a microscopic technique, FISH has the unique potential to provide information about spatial resolution, morphology and identification of key pathogens in mixed species samples. On-going automation and commercialization of the FISH procedure has led to significant shortening of the time-to-result and increased test reliability. FISH is a useful tool for the rapid initial identification of microbial pathogens, even from primary materials. Among the rapidly developing alternative techniques, FISH serves as a bridging technology between microscopy, microbial culture, biochemical identification and molecular diagnostic procedures.

  2. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Assays for Diagnosing Malaria in Endemic Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jyotsna; Mark, Olivia; Weltman, Helena; Barcelo, Nicolas; Lo, Wai; Wronska, Danuta; Kakkilaya, Srinivas; Rao, Aravinda; Bhat, Shalia T.; Sinha, Ruchi; Omar, Sabah; Moro, Manuel; Gilman, Robert H.; Harris, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a responsible for approximately 600 thousand deaths worldwide every year. Appropriate and timely treatment of malaria can prevent deaths but is dependent on accurate and rapid diagnosis of the infection. Currently, microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood smears is the method of choice for diagnosing malaria. Although it has limited sensitivity and specificity in field conditions, it still remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria. Here, we report the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) based method for detecting malaria infection in blood smears and describe the use of an LED light source that makes the method suitable for use in resource-limited malaria endemic countries. The Plasmodium Genus (P-Genus) FISH assay has a Plasmodium genus specific probe that detects all five species of Plasmodium known to cause the disease in humans. The P. falciparum (PF) FISH assay and P. vivax (PV) FISH assay detect and differentiate between P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively from other Plasmodium species. The FISH assays are more sensitive than Giemsa. The sensitivities of P-Genus, PF and PV FISH assays were found to be 98.2%, 94.5% and 98.3%, respectively compared to 89.9%, 83.3% and 87.9% for the detection of Plasmodium, P. falciparum and P. vivax by Giemsa staining respectively. PMID:26333092

  3. Yeasts identification in microfluidic devices using peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, André M; Cruz-Moreira, Daniela; Cerqueira, Laura; Miranda, João M; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2017-03-01

    Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) is a highly specific molecular method widely used for microbial identification. Nonetheless, and due to the detection limit of this technique, a time-consuming pre-enrichment step is typically required before identification. In here we have developed a lab-on-a-chip device to concentrate cell suspensions and speed up the identification process in yeasts. The PNA-FISH protocol was optimized to target Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a common yeast that is very relevant for several types of food industries. Then, several coin-sized microfluidic devices with different geometries were developed. Using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we modeled the hydrodynamics inside the microchannels and selected the most promising options. SU-8 structures were fabricated based on the selected designs and used to produce polydimethylsiloxane-based microchips by soft lithography. As a result, an integrated approach combining microfluidics and PNA-FISH for the rapid identification of S. cerevisiae was achieved. To improve fluid flow inside microchannels and the PNA-FISH labeling, oxygen plasma treatment was applied to the microfluidic devices and a new methodology to introduce the cell suspension and solutions into the microchannels was devised. A strong PNA-FISH signal was observed in cells trapped inside the microchannels, proving that the proposed methodology works as intended. The microfluidic designs and PNA-FISH procedure described in here should be easily adaptable for detection of other microorganisms of similar size.

  4. Design of Hybrid Solar and Wind Energy Harvester for Fishing Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjarnahor, D. A.; Hanifan, M.; Budi, E. M.

    2017-07-01

    In southern beach of West Java, Indonesia, there are many villagers live as fishermen. They use small boats for fishing, in one to three days. Therefore, they need a fish preservation system. Fortunately, the area has high potential of solar and wind energy. This paper presents the design of a hybrid solar and wind energy harvester to power a refrigerator in the fishing boat. The refrigerator should keep the fish in 2 - 4 °C. The energy needed is 720 Wh daily. In the area, the daily average wind velocity is 4.27 m/s and the sun irradiation is 672 W/m2. The design combined two 100W solar panels and a 300W wind turbine. The testing showed that the solar panels can harvest 815 - 817 Wh of energy, while the wind turbine can harvest 43 - 62 Wh of energy daily. Therefore, the system can fulfil the energy requirement in fishing boat, although the solar panels were more dominant. To install the wind turbine on the fishing-boat, a computational design had been conducted. The boat hydrostatic dimension was measured to determine its stability condition. To reach a stable equilibrium condition, the wind turbine should be installed no more than 1.7 m of height.

  5. Application of Genomic In Situ Hybridization in Horticultural Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Ramzan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular cytogenetic techniques, such as in situ hybridization methods, are admirable tools to analyze the genomic structure and function, chromosome constituents, recombination patterns, alien gene introgression, genome evolution, aneuploidy, and polyploidy and also genome constitution visualization and chromosome discrimination from different genomes in allopolyploids of various horticultural crops. Using GISH advancement as multicolor detection is a significant approach to analyze the small and numerous chromosomes in fruit species, for example, Diospyros hybrids. This analytical technique has proved to be the most exact and effective way for hybrid status confirmation and helps remarkably to distinguish donor parental genomes in hybrids such as Clivia, Rhododendron, and Lycoris ornamental hybrids. The genome characterization facilitates in hybrid selection having potential desirable characteristics during the early hybridization breeding, as this technique expedites to detect introgressed sequence chromosomes. This review study epitomizes applications and advancements of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH techniques in horticultural plants.

  6. Studies of the Ecophysiology of Single Cells in Microbial Communities by (Quantitative) Microautoradiography and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (MAR-FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    Microautoradiography (MAR) in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful method of obtaining information about the ecophysiology of probe-defined single cells in mixed microbial communities. The incorporation of radiolabelled substrates can be quantified by automated...... image analysis (MARQuant). Quantification of MAR signals can answer more specific questions regarding metabolic activity and function of the microbes. Here, we give an overview of how to use MAR-FISH in various ecosystems and provide a detailed protocol for MAR-FISH, including sampling, incubation...... with radiotracers, the MAR procedure in combination with FISH and other staining techniques, microscopy, and troubleshooting. A description of the MARQuant image analysis tool, including examples of its application, is also provided....

  7. METALLIC AND HYBRID NANOSTRUCTURES: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S.

    2012-05-02

    This book chapter presents an overview of research conducted in our laboratory on preparation, optical and physico-chemical properties of metallic and nanohybrid materials. Metallic nanoparticles, particularly gold, silver, platinum or a combination of those are the main focus of this review manuscript. These metallic nanoparticles were further functionalized and used as templates for creation of complex and ordered nanomaterials with tailored and tunable structural, optical, catalytic and surface properties. Controlling the surface chemistry on/off metallic nanoparticles allows production of advanced nanoarchitectures. This includes coupled or encapsulated core-shell geometries, nano-peapods, solid or hollow, monometallic/bimetallic, hybrid nanoparticles. Rational assemblies of these nanostructures into one-, two- and tridimensional nano-architectures is described and analyzed. Their sensing, environmental and energy related applications are reviewed.

  8. Risk stratification of plasma cell neoplasm: insights from plasma cell-specific cytoplasmic immunoglobulin fluorescence in situ hybridization (cIg FISH) vs. conventional FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Henry; Yang, Hai-Su; Jagannath, Sundar; Stephenson, Christine F; Brenholz, Pauline; Mazumder, Amitabha; Chari, Ajai

    2012-10-01

    We directly compared the results of routine fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and plasma cell-specific cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) FISH from 75 paired samples for myeloma risk stratification. CIg FISH improves test specificity and sensitivity and tends to eliminate borderline results. It proves that most plasma cells (PCs) consistently carry the abnormality in myelomas with an IGH translocation, whereas routine FISH detects these cells only at variably low levels. Routine cytogenetic analysis of plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs) has a low sensitivity. Conventional fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is not plasma cell (PC) specific and results are diluted by other cells in the sample. Although PC-specific FISH testing has been recommended for multiple myeloma (MM) risk stratification, eg, by combining cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) staining with FISH, the benefits of cIg FISH have never been directly demonstrated in a controlled study. Seventy-five samples from patients with PCNs were analyzed by concomitant conventional FISH and cIg FISH with probes for t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16), -13, 17p-, and +3. The results were compared for their reliability, specificity, and consistency. Apart from marginally improving detection threshold in samples with low PC burden, cIg FISH identified more abnormal cases (50 vs. 47 cases) and more chromosome abnormalities (113 vs. 103 events) than did conventional FISH. It differentiated del(13q) in myelodysplasia from MM. Remarkably, cIg FISH consistently identified a high percentage of abnormal PCs in all cases. It detected IGH translocation in 78% to 100% of PCs in all but 2 positive cases, whereas conventional FISH detected 0% to 46% in these cases (median, 91% vs. 9%). The abnormal cells found in patients with 17p- were 19% to 96% by cIg FISH vs. 0% to 13% by conventional FISH (median, 54% vs. 9%). Cases with insufficient PCs for cIg FISH had only normal conventional FISH results. CIg FISH improves reliability of

  9. Clinical application of fluorescence in situ hybridization for prenatal diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-fang JIANG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish and optimize the procedures of fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH), and evaluate its clinical value in rapid prenatal diagnosis of fetal numerical abnormality of chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, Y. Methods Amniotic fluid or fetal blood was sampled by routine invasive procedures. After the amniotic fluid cells or fetal blood cells were separated and sequentially processed with hypotonic solution, fixation solution, smear and high temperature, they were hybridized in situ with two panels of specific fluorescence probes to detect numerical abnormality of chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, Y. All the samples were also cultured and analyzed for their karyotype by conventional methods. Results When it was used as a diagnostic criterion of chromosomal number that the fluorescence signals were observed in ≥90% cells, GLP 13/GLP 21 probe panel showed 2 green/2 red fluorescence signals and CSP18/CSP X/CSP Y probe panel showed 2 blue/2 yellow (female or 2 blue/1 yellow/1 red fluorescence signals (male under normal condition. The test reports of all 196 cases were sent out in 72-96 hours, and 7 cases of Down syndrome, 2 cases of trisomy 18 and 1 case of sex chromosomal numerical abnormality were detected, which were accordant with karyotype analysis results reported one month later. Conclusions FISH has potential for clinical application, and is applicable to rapid prenatal diagnosis of fetal numerical abnormality of chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, Y. The rapid FISH, together with conventional karyotyping, offer a valuable means for prenatal diagnosis of fetal aneuploidies.

  10. Detection of airborne Legionella while showering using liquid impingement and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Ha, Thi-Lan; Robine, Enric; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Mathieu, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    Aerosols of water contaminated with Legionella bacteria constitute the only mode of exposure for humans. However, the prevention strategy against this pathogenic bacteria risk is managed through the survey of water contamination. No relationship linked the Legionella bacteria water concentration and their airborne abundance. Therefore, new approaches in the field of the metrological aspects of Legionella bioaerosols are required. This study was aimed at testing the main principles for bioaerosol collection (solid impaction, liquid impingement and filtration) and the in situ hybridization (FISH) method, both in laboratory and field assays, with the intention of applying such methodologies for airborne Legionella bacteria detection while showering. An aerosolization chamber was developed to generate controlled and reproducible L. pneumophila aerosols. This tool allowed the identification of the liquid impingement method as the most appropriate one for collecting airborne Legionella bacteria. The culturable fraction of airborne L. pneumophila recovered with the liquid impingement principle was 4 and 700 times higher compared to the impaction and filtration techniques, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of airborne L. pneumophila in the impinger fluid were on average 7.0 x 10(5) FISH-cells m(-3) air with the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method versus 9.0 x 10(4) CFU m(-3) air with the culture method. These results, recorded under well-controlled conditions, were confirmed during the field experiments performed on aerosols generated by hot water showers in health institutions. This new approach may provide a more accurate characterization of aerobiocontamination by Legionella bacteria.

  11. Water quality and plankton communities in hybrid catfish (female channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus x male blue catfish, I. furcatus) ponds after partial fish harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve, 0.4-ha ponds were stocked with 10,000 hybrid catfish fingerlings in March 2015. Six ponds were partially harvested in August to remove fish larger than ~ 0.57 kg. All remaining fish were removed in October and November. Partial harvest of faster-growing fish removed ~26% of fish initially st...

  12. Detection of trisomy 12 by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes L.F. Chauffaille

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL presents a varying incidence of karyotypic abnormalities whose detection is complicated by difficulties in obtaining mitosis for analysis in this type of mature lymphocyte disorder. Since the introduction of molecular cytogenetics (FISH = fluorescent in situ hybridization, applying centromeric probes for chromosome 12 has made it possible to detect a higher percentage of trisomy 12 cases. The objective of the present study was to detect trisomy 12 by FISH (alpha satellite probe in 13 patients with CLL whose karyotypes by G-banding were either normal or inadequate. Using this method trisomy 12 was detected in three patients in a percentage of positive cells varying from 55.5% to 79%, showing that FISH is a sensitive and highly specific method for trisomy detection and should be routinely performed when the karyotype is normal.A leucemia linfocítica crônica (CLL apresenta incidência variável de anomalias de cariótipo devido às dificuldades em se obter mitose para análise. Desde a introdução da citogenética molecular (FISH = hibridação in situ por fluorescência usando sonda centromérica para o cromossomo 12 foi possível detectar uma maior porcentagem de casos com trissomia 12. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de detectar trissomia 12 por FISH (sonda alfa satélite em 13 pacientes com CLL cujos cariótipos por banda G haviam sido normais ou sem resultado. Três pacientes apresentaram trissomia 12 por este método com uma porcentagem de células trissômicas variando de 55,5 a 79%, demonstrando que a FISH é um método sensível e altamente específico para detecção de trissomia 12.

  13. High performance hybrid magnetic structure for biotechnology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, David E [El Cerrito, CA; Pollard, Martin J [El Cerrito, CA; Elkin, Christopher J [San Ramon, CA

    2009-02-03

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetic or magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are further improvements to aspects of the hybrid magnetic structure, including additional elements and for adapting the use of the hybrid magnetic structure for use in biotechnology and high throughput processes.

  14. Discrimination of bacteriophage infected cells using locked nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (LNA-FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas Boas, Diana; Almeida, Carina; Sillankorva, Sanna; Nicolau, Ana; Azeredo, Joana; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage-host interaction studies in biofilm structures are still challenging due to the technical limitations of traditional methods. The aim of this study was to provide a direct fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method based on locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes, which targets the phage replication phase, allowing the study of population dynamics during infection. Bacteriophages specific for two biofilm-forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter, were selected. Four LNA probes were designed and optimized for phage-specific detection and for bacterial counterstaining. To validate the method, LNA-FISH counts were compared with the traditional plaque forming unit (PFU) technique. To visualize the progression of phage infection within a biofilm, colony-biofilms were formed and infected with bacteriophages. A good correlation (r = 0.707) was observed between LNA-FISH and PFU techniques. In biofilm structures, LNA-FISH provided a good discrimination of the infected cells and also allowed the assessment of the spatial distribution of infected and non-infected populations.

  15. Cytogenetic analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to evaluate occupational exposure to carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sram, Radim J; Beskid, Olena; Binkova, Blanka; Rossner, Pavel; Smerhovsky, Zdenek

    2004-04-01

    Chromosomal aberrations determined by conventional method or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with whole chromosome painting are used as biomarkers of effect. Groups occupationally exposed to 1,3-butadiene (BD), acrylonitrile, ethyl benzene and benzene in petrochemical industry, and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) from ambient air were followed by conventional method and FISH painting for chromosomes # 1 and # 4, in total 383 subjects, including controls. No effect was observed by either method with exposure to 1,3-butadiene acrylonitrile < 0.3mg/m(3). Ethyl benzene and benzene exposure significantly increased chromosomal aberrations by both methods, which decreased after the implementation of preventive measures. The genomic frequency of translocations by FISH calculated as FG/100 was significantly increased in city policemen versus control group exposed to c-PAHs from ambient air (1.72+/-1.57 versus 1.25+/-1.11, P<0.05). The method of FISH with whole chromosome painting seems to be more sensitive to detect chromosomal injury by occupational exposure to carcinogens than conventional method.

  16. Development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method for rapid detection of Ulva prolifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Chun; Liu, Qing; Kang, Zhen-Jun; Yu, Ren-Cheng; Yan, Tian; Zhou, Ming-Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Large-scale green tides have occurred consecutively since 2007 in the Yellow Sea (YS), China. The dominant causative species of the green tides has been identified as Ulva prolifera. The origin of green tides in the YS has been traced back to the Subei Shoal based on the results of remote-sensing, numerical simulations and field investigations. However, it is difficult to study the early development of green tides in the Subei Shoal because of the mixture of multiple green algae and the morphological diversity of U. prolifera when under variable environmental conditions. In this study, a rapid and accurate fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was developed to detect U. prolifera from the community of green algae targeting the 5S rDNA spacer region of U. prolifera. Two specific probes, 5S-1 and 5S-2, were designed based on the sequences of the 5S rDNA spacer regions of U. prolifera, Ulva linza and Ulva flexuosa. Specificity of the FISH method was tested using the six species of green algae commonly occurring in the Subei Shoal, including U. prolifera, U. linza, U. flexuosa, Ulva compressa, Ulva pertusa and Blidingia sp. The results showed that only U. prolifera could be labeled with both probes. Probe 5S-1, which showed a much higher labeling efficiency on U. prolifera, was ultimately selected as the probe for the FISH detection. The sample preparation method was optimized, particularly for the mature green algae, by the addition of cellulase and proteinase K in the pre-hybridization solution. Labeling efficiency with the probe 5S-1 reached 96% on average under the optimized conditions. The successful development of the FISH method has been applied to qualitative and quantitative analysis of field samples collected from the YS, and the results indicate a potential use in future green algae studies.

  17. Integrated graphene/nanoparticle hybrids for biological and electronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim Truc; Zhao, Yanli

    2014-06-21

    The development of novel graphene/nanoparticle hybrid materials is currently the subject of tremendous research interest. The intrinsic exceptional assets of both graphene (including graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and nanoparticles render their hybrid materials synergic properties that can be useful in various applications. In this feature review, we highlight recent developments in graphene/nanoparticle hybrids and their promising potential in electronic and biological applications. First, the latest advances in synthetic methods for the preparation of the graphene/nanoparticle hybrids are introduced, with the emphasis on approaches to (1) decorate nanoparticles onto two-dimensional graphene and (2) wrap nanoparticles with graphene sheets. The pros and cons of large-scale synthesis are also discussed. Then, the state-of-the-art of graphene/nanoparticle hybrids in electronic and biological applications is reviewed. For electronic applications, we focus on the advantages of using these hybrids in transparent conducting films, as well as energy harvesting and storage. Biological applications, electrochemical biosensing, bioimaging, and drug delivery using the hybrids are showcased. Finally, the future research prospects and challenges in this rapidly developing area are discussed.

  18. Theory and application of semiochemicals in nuisance fish control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Peter W.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Controlling unwanted, or nuisance, fishes is becoming an increasingly urgent issue with few obvious solutions. Because fish rely heavily on semiochemicals, or chemical compounds that convey information between and within species, to mediate aspects of their life histories, these compounds are increasingly being considered as an option to help control wild fish. Possible uses of semiochemicals include measuring their presence in water to estimate population size, adding them to traps to count or remove specific species of fish, adding them to waterways to manipulate large-scale movement patterns, and saturating the environment with synthesized semiochemicals to disrupt responses to the natural cue. These applications may be especially appropriate for pheromones, chemical signals that pass between members of same species and which also have extreme specificity and potency. Alarm cues, compounds released by injured fish, and cues released by potential predators also could function as repellents and be especially useful if paired with pheromonal attractants in “push-pull” configurations. Approximately half a dozen attractive pheromones now have been partially identified in fish, and those for the sea lamprey and the common carp have been tested in the field with modest success. Alarm and predator cues for sea lamprey also have been tested in the laboratory and field with some success. Success has been hampered by our incomplete understanding of chemical identity, a lack of synthesized compounds, the fact that laboratory bioassays do not always reflect natural environments, and the relative difficulty of conducting trials on wild fishes because of short field seasons and regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, workers continue efforts to identify pheromones because of the great potential elucidated by insect control and the fact that few tools are available to control nuisance fish. Approaches developed for nuisance fish also could be applied to valued fishes, which

  19. Graphene Hybrid Materials in Gas Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Usman; Dickert, Franz L.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, a two dimensional structure of carbon atoms, has been widely used as a material for gas sensing applications because of its large surface area, excellent conductivity, and ease of functionalization. This article reviews the most recent advances in graphene hybrid materials developed for gas sensing applications. In this review, synthetic approaches to fabricate graphene sensors, the nano structures of hybrid materials, and their sensing mechanism are presented. Future perspectives of this rapidly growing field are also discussed. PMID:26690156

  20. Applicability of Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube for fish waste removal from fish cages in Sanggou Bay, P. R. China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Jinghui; Jiang, Zengjie; Jansen, Henrice M.; Hu, Fawen; Fang, Jianguang; Liu, Yi; Gao, Yaping; Du, Meirong

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the applicability of integrated polychaete-fish culture for fish waste removal to offset negative impact induced by organic benthic enrichment. A field study demonstrated that deposition rate was significantly higher underneath the fish farm than that in control

  1. Modification of equine sperm chromatin decondensation method to use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Jabłońska

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is widely used in the study of chromosome structure and organization. Cytogenetic evaluation of chromosomes using FISH technique plays an increasingly important role in diagnosing karyotype changes in both somatic and reproductive cells. The aim of the study was to optimize the conditions of stallion sperm decondensation, which have a significant effect on the results of fluorescence in situ hybridization. Appropriate type and time of decondensation was chosen for the sperm of every stallion. It was found that decondensation performed using a preparation incubated in DTT solution for 1.5 minutes and in SDS solution for 10 seconds proved effective for stallions no. 1 and 2. An alternative decondensation method performed in an Eppendorf tube, with incubation in DTT solution for 1 minute and in SDS solution for 5 seconds proved effective for stallions no. 3 and 4. Decondensation using DTT and papain solution, a method successfully used for bull spermatozoa, proved inadequate for horse spermatozoa.

  2. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in different ploidy levels cross-breeding of lily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Jingmao; Zhang, Yiying; Zhang, Yue; Xu, Shunchao; Lu, Yingmin

    2015-01-01

    21 crossing were conducted between Asiatic Lily with different ploidy levels, the results showed that the interploidy hybridization between diploid and tetraploid lilies was not as successful as intraploidy hybridization. Regardless of male sterility, triploid lilies could be used as female parents in the hybridization which the progenies were aneuploidy. 3x×4x crosses could be cultured more successfully than 3x×2x crosses. 45S rDNA was mapped on the chromosomes of seven Lilium species and their progenies using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH revealed six to sixteen 45S rDNA gene loci, and normally the sites were not in pairs. The asymmetry indexes of LA (Longiflorum hybrids × Asiatic hybrids) hybrids was higher than Asiatic hybrids, the evolution degree was LA hybrids > Asiatic hybrids. 45S rDNA distributed variably on chromosome 1-10 and 12 among Asiatic hybrids. Chromosome 1 had invariable sites of 45S rDNA in all Asiatic hybrids, which could be considered as the characteristic of Asiatic hybrids. LA hybrid 'Freya' had two sites of 45S rDNA on one homologous chromosome 5, and also it could be found in the progenies. The karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA as probe were applied to identify the different genotypes of 9 hybrids. Typical chromosomes with parental signal sites could be observed in all the genotypes of hybrids, it was confirmed that all the hybrids were true.

  3. A simple protocol for attenuating the auto-fluorescence of cyanobacteria for optimized fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Perrine; Ploux, Olivier; Méjean, Annick

    2016-03-01

    Cyanobacteria contain pigments, which generate auto-fluorescence that interferes with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging of cyanobacteria. We describe simple chemical treatments using CuSO4 or H2O2 that significantly reduce the auto-fluorescence of Microcystis strains. These protocols were successfully applied in FISH experiments using 16S rRNA specific probes and filamentous cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. New insights on the sister lineage of percomorph fishes with an anchored hybrid enrichment dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornburg, Alex; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Brooks, Willa; Spriggs, Elizabeth; Eytan, Ron I; Moore, Jon A; Wainwright, Peter C; Lemmon, Alan; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Near, Thomas J

    2017-05-01

    Percomorph fishes represent over 17,100 species, including several model organisms and species of economic importance. Despite continuous advances in the resolution of the percomorph Tree of Life, resolution of the sister lineage to Percomorpha remains inconsistent but restricted to a small number of candidate lineages. Here we use an anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) dataset of 132 loci with over 99,000 base pairs to identify the sister lineage of percomorph fishes. Initial analyses of this dataset failed to recover a strongly supported sister clade to Percomorpha, however, scrutiny of the AHE dataset revealed a bias towards high GC content at fast-evolving codon partitions (GC bias). By combining several existing approaches aimed at mitigating the impacts of convergence in GC bias, including RY coding and analyses of amino acids, we consistently recovered a strongly supported clade comprised of Holocentridae (squirrelfishes), Berycidae (Alfonsinos), Melamphaidae (bigscale fishes), Cetomimidae (flabby whalefishes), and Rondeletiidae (redmouth whalefishes) as the sister lineage to Percomorpha. Additionally, implementing phylogenetic informativeness (PI) based metrics as a filtration method yielded this same topology, suggesting PI based approaches will preferentially filter these fast-evolving regions and act in a manner consistent with other phylogenetic approaches aimed at mitigating GC bias. Our results provide a new perspective on a key issue for studies investigating the evolutionary history of more than one quarter of all living species of vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. HYBRID COOLING SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1980-03-01

    Mar 1, 1980 ... ABSTRACT. A hybrid cooling System was constructed and tested for glass-ware and plastic-ware production. The unit utilizes water-in-air stream to cool molds in glass and plastic forming processes. The rate of heat transfer between the mold surface and the two component two-phase stream was.

  6. Evaluation of heat engine for hybrid vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    The status of ongoing heat-engine developments, including spark-ignition, compression-ignition, internal-combustion, and external-combustion engines is presented. The potential of engine concepts under consideration for hybrid vehicle use is evaluated, using self-imposed criteria for selection. The deficiencies of the engines currently being evaluated in hybrid vehicles are discussed. Focus is on recent research with two-stroke, rotary, and free-piston engines. It is concluded that these engine concepts have the most promising potential for future application in hybrid vehicles. Recommendations are made for analysis and experimentation to evaluate stop-start and transient emission behavior of recommended engine concepts.

  7. Trade-off between morphological convergence and opportunistic diet behavior in fish hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corse, Emmanuel; Costedoat, Caroline; Pech, Nicolas; Chappaz, Rémi; Grey, Jonathan; Gilles, André

    2009-10-27

    The invasive Chondrostoma nasus nasus has colonized part of the distribution area of the protected endemic species Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma. This hybrid zone is a complex system where multiple effects such as inter-species competition, bi-directional introgression, strong environmental pressure and so on are combined. Why do sympatric Chondrostoma fish present a unidirectional change in body shape? Is this the result of inter-species interactions and/or a response to environmental effects or the result of trade-offs? Studies focusing on the understanding of a trade-off between multiple parameters are still rare. Although this has previously been done for Cichlid species flock and for Darwin finches, where mouth or beak morphology were coupled to diet and genetic identification, no similar studies have been done for a fish hybrid zone in a river. We tested the correlation between morphology (body and mouth morphology), diet (stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes) and genomic combinations in different allopatric and sympatric populations for a global data set of 1330 specimens. To separate the species interaction effect from the environmental effect in sympatry, we distinguished two data sets: the first one was obtained from a highly regulated part of the river and the second was obtained from specimens coming from the less regulated part. The distribution of the hybrid combinations was different in the two part of the sympatric zone, whereas all the specimens presented similar overall changes in body shape and in mouth morphology. Sympatric specimens were also characterized by a larger diet behavior variance than reference populations, characteristic of an opportunistic diet. No correlation was established between the body shape (or mouth deformation) and the stable isotope signature. The Durance River is an untamed Mediterranean river despite the presence of numerous dams that split the river from upstream to downstream. The sympatric effect on morphology and

  8. Trade-off between morphological convergence and opportunistic diet behavior in fish hybrid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grey Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasive Chondrostoma nasus nasus has colonized part of the distribution area of the protected endemic species Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma. This hybrid zone is a complex system where multiple effects such as inter-species competition, bi-directional introgression, strong environmental pressure and so on are combined. Why do sympatric Chondrostoma fish present a unidirectional change in body shape? Is this the result of inter-species interactions and/or a response to environmental effects or the result of trade-offs? Studies focusing on the understanding of a trade-off between multiple parameters are still rare. Although this has previously been done for Cichlid species flock and for Darwin finches, where mouth or beak morphology were coupled to diet and genetic identification, no similar studies have been done for a fish hybrid zone in a river. We tested the correlation between morphology (body and mouth morphology, diet (stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and genomic combinations in different allopatric and sympatric populations for a global data set of 1330 specimens. To separate the species interaction effect from the environmental effect in sympatry, we distinguished two data sets: the first one was obtained from a highly regulated part of the river and the second was obtained from specimens coming from the less regulated part. Results The distribution of the hybrid combinations was different in the two part of the sympatric zone, whereas all the specimens presented similar overall changes in body shape and in mouth morphology. Sympatric specimens were also characterized by a larger diet behavior variance than reference populations, characteristic of an opportunistic diet. No correlation was established between the body shape (or mouth deformation and the stable isotope signature. Conclusion The Durance River is an untamed Mediterranean river despite the presence of numerous dams that split the river from

  9. Reassignment of chicken W chromosome sequences to the Z chromosome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglec, R; Ezaz, T; Graves, J A M

    2007-01-01

    There is much interest in the gene content of the small heterochromatic W chromosome of the chicken, on the supposition that it may contain sex-determining genes. A considerable region in the chicken genome has been assigned to the W chromosome on the basis of its repetitive sequences. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) we localized five Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) onto female chicken metaphase spreads. We physically mapped these BACs to the Z chromosome. The chicken genome database, however, assigned all five BACs to the W chromosome. Our results demonstrate that the 17 genes on these BACs are Z-specific, and points to the inadequacy of assigning regions of the genome based exclusively on repetitive sequences. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Cold Water Fish Gelatin Methacryloyl Hydrogel for Tissue Engineering Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jeong Yoon

    Full Text Available Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA is a versatile biomaterial that has been used in various biomedical fields. Thus far, however, GelMA is mostly obtained from mammalian sources, which are associated with a risk of transmission of diseases, such as mad cow disease, as well as certain religious restrictions. In this study, we synthesized GelMA using fish-derived gelatin by a conventional GelMA synthesis method, and evaluated its physical properties and cell responses. The lower melting point of fish gelatin compared to porcine gelatin allowed larger-scale synthesis of GelMA and enabled hydrogel fabrication at room temperature. The properties (mechanical strength, water swelling degree and degradation rate of fish GelMA differed from those of porcine GelMA, and could be tuned to suit diverse applications. Cells adhered, proliferated, and formed networks with surrounding cells on fish GelMA, and maintained high initial cell viability. These data suggest that fish GelMA could be utilized in a variety of biomedical fields as a substitute for mammalian-derived materials.

  11. Cold Water Fish Gelatin Methacryloyl Hydrogel for Tissue Engineering Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee Jeong; Shin, Su Ryon; Cha, Jae Min; Lee, Soo-Hong; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Do, Jeong Tae; Song, Hyuk; Bae, Hojae

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) is a versatile biomaterial that has been used in various biomedical fields. Thus far, however, GelMA is mostly obtained from mammalian sources, which are associated with a risk of transmission of diseases, such as mad cow disease, as well as certain religious restrictions. In this study, we synthesized GelMA using fish-derived gelatin by a conventional GelMA synthesis method, and evaluated its physical properties and cell responses. The lower melting point of fish gelatin compared to porcine gelatin allowed larger-scale synthesis of GelMA and enabled hydrogel fabrication at room temperature. The properties (mechanical strength, water swelling degree and degradation rate) of fish GelMA differed from those of porcine GelMA, and could be tuned to suit diverse applications. Cells adhered, proliferated, and formed networks with surrounding cells on fish GelMA, and maintained high initial cell viability. These data suggest that fish GelMA could be utilized in a variety of biomedical fields as a substitute for mammalian-derived materials.

  12. APPLICATION OF FISH AND MICROAUTORADIOGRAPHY TO DETERMINE MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ACTIVITY IN SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes is a well established technique for identifying populations of microorganisms at various taxonomic levels in natural and engineered systems. The strength of this technique over alternative nuclei...

  13. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and sequential catalysed reporter deposition (2C-FISH for the flow cytometric sorting of freshwater ultramicrobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M Neuenschwander

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometric sorting is a powerful tool to physically separate cells within mixed microbial communities. If combined with phylogenetic staining (fluorescence in situ hybridization, FISH it allows to specifically sort defined genotypic microbial populations from complex natural samples. However, the targeted enrichment of freshwater ultramicrobacteria, such as members of the LD12 clade of Alphaproteobacteria (SAR11-IIIb, is still challenging. Current FISH protocols, even in combination with signal amplification by catalysed reporter deposition (CARD, are not sufficiently sensitive for the distinction of these bacteria from background noise by flow cytometry, presumably due to their low ribosome content and small cell sizes. We, therefore, modified a CARD based flow sorting protocol with the aim of increasing its sensitivity to a level sufficient for ultramicrobacteria. This was achieved by a second signal amplification step mediated by horseradish peroxidase labelled antibodies targeted to the fluorophores that were previously deposited by CARD-FISH staining. The protocol was tested on samples from an oligo-mesotrophic lake. Ultramicrobacteria affiliated with LD12 Alphaproteobacteria could be successfully sorted to high purity by flow cytometry. The ratios of median fluorescence signal to background ranged around 20, and hybridization rates determined by flow cytometry were comparable to those obtained by fluorescence microscopy. Potential downstream applications of our modified cell staining approach range from the analysis of microdiversity within 16S rRNA-defined populations to that of functional properties, such as the taxon-specific incorporation rates of organic substrates.

  14. Transgenic fish systems and their application in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhyun; Green, Jon M; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-02-01

    The use of transgenics in fish is a relatively recent development for advancing understanding of genetic mechanisms and developmental processes, improving aquaculture, and for pharmaceutical discovery. Transgenic fish have also been applied in ecotoxicology where they have the potential to provide more advanced and integrated systems for assessing health impacts of chemicals. The zebrafish (Daniorerio) is the most popular fish for transgenic models, for reasons including their high fecundity, transparency of their embryos, rapid organogenesis and availability of extensive genetic resources. The most commonly used technique for producing transgenic zebrafish is via microinjection of transgenes into fertilized eggs. Transposon and meganuclease have become the most reliable methods for insertion of the genetic construct in the production of stable transgenic fish lines. The GAL4-UAS system, where GAL4 is placed under the control of a desired promoter and UAS is fused with a fluorescent marker, has greatly enhanced model development for studies in ecotoxicology. Transgenic fish have been developed to study for the effects of heavy metal toxicity (via heat-shock protein genes), oxidative stress (via an electrophile-responsive element), for various organic chemicals acting through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, thyroid and glucocorticoid response pathways, and estrogenicity. These models vary in their sensitivity with only very few able to detect responses for environmentally relevant exposures. Nevertheless, the potential of these systems for analyses of chemical effects in real time and across multiple targets in intact organisms is considerable. Here we illustrate the techniques used for generating transgenic zebrafish and assess progress in the development and application of transgenic fish (principally zebrafish) for studies in environmental toxicology. We further provide a viewpoint on future development opportunities.

  15. ECOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY APPLICATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SEX REVERSAL OF FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnair, Alistair; Lokman, P Mark; Closs, Gerard P; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-03-01

    Environmental sex reversal (ESR), which results in a mismatch between genotypic and phenotypic sex, is well documented in numerous fish species and may be induced by chemical exposure. Historically, research involving piscine ESR has been carried out with a view to improving profitability in aquaculture or to elucidate the processes governing sex determination and sexual differentiation. However, recent studies in evolution and ecology suggest research on ESR now has much wider applications and ramifications. We begin with an overview of ESR in fish and a brief review of the traditional applications thereof. We then discuss ESR and its potential demographic consequences in wild populations. Theory even suggests sex-reversed fish may be purposefully released to manipulate population dynamics. We suggest new research directions that may prove fruitful in understanding how ESR at the individual level translates to population-level processes. In the latter portion of the review we focus on evolutionary applications of ESR. Sex-reversal studies from the aquaculture literature provide insight in to the evolvability of determinants of sexual phenotype. Additionally, induced sex reversal can provide information about the evolution of sex chromosomes and sex-linked traits. Recently, naturally occurring ESR has been implicated as a mechanism contributing to the evolution of sex chromosomes.

  16. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using non-commercial probes in the diagnosis of clinically suspected microdeletion syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Ashutosh; Jain, Manish; Chaudhary, Isha; Gupta, Neerja; Kabra, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Microdeletion syndromes are characterized by small (Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique is commonly used for precise genetic diagnosis of microdeletion syndromes. This study was conducted to assess the role of FISH in the diagnosis of suspected microdeletion syndrome. FISH was carried out on 301 clinically suspected microdeletion syndrome cases for the confirmation of clinical diagnosis using non-commercial probes. Of these, 177 cases were referred for 22q11.2 microdeletion, 42 cases were referred for William syndrome, 38 cases were referred for Prader Willi/Angelman and 44 cases were referred for other suspected microdeletion syndromes. FISH was confirmatory in 23 cases only (7.6%). There were 17 cases of 22q11.2 microdeletion, four cases of Prader Willi syndrome and two cases of William syndrome. We conclude that FISH should not be the method of choice for clinically suspected microdeletion syndromes. We propose to follow strict clinical criteria for FISH testing or preferably to follow better methods (genotype first approach). Whole genome screening may be used as first line of test and FISH may be used for confirmation of screening result, screening of family members and prenatal diagnosis.

  17. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, H.B.

    2014-04-24

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. 2014 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 77 FR 15378 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and Certificate of Use AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and Certificate of Use (CBP Form 5125). This... forms of information. Title: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and...

  19. Java EE 7 with GlassFish 4 Application Server

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a practical guide and follows a very user-friendly approach. The book aims to get the reader up to speed in Java EE 7 development. All major Java EE 7 APIs and the details of the GlassFish 4 server are covered followed by examples of their use.If you are a Java developers who wants to become proficient with Java EE 7 this book is ideal for you. Readers are expected to have some experience with Java and to have developed and deployed applications in the past, but don't need any previous knowledge of Java EE or J2EE. It teaches the reader how to use GlassFish 4 to develop and deploy

  20. SWISTRACK - AN OPEN SOURCE, SOFTWARE PACKAGE APPLICABLE TO TRACKING OF FISH LOCOMOTION AND BEHAVIOUR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    Denham Cook, John Atkins and John Stetfensen 1st International FitFish Workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish, Barcelona 2010. PC based tracking of fish is a valuable method for monitoring fish behaviour in experimental tanks, Tracking of fish movements enables quantification of variables...... effective background subtraction algorithms and filters ensuring smooth tracking of fishApplication of tags of different colour enables the software to track multiple fish without the problem of track exchange between individuals • Low processing requirements enable tracking in real-time • Further...

  1. Comparison of HER2 status determination methods in HER2 (2+) patients: Manual fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) vs. dual silver enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivanoglu, Burcin; Serin, Gurdeniz; Yeniay, Levent; Zekioglu, Osman; Gokmen, Erhan; Ozdemir, Necmettin

    2017-12-01

    HER2 amplification has been demonstrated in 15-25% of invasive breast carcinomas and can be assessed using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization methods. Here, we compared the accuracy of dual SISH to manual FISH in HER2 (2+) breast carcinoma and evaluated the feasibility of dual SISH method in routine practice. Sixty HER2 (2+) consecutive tumor samples diagnosed between January 2009 and February 2013 were selected. Demographic, histological and immunohistochemical features and FISH results were recruited from patient records and compared to dual SISH results. Nine (15%) of the 60 tumor samples were excluded from statistical analysis due to lack of interpretable SISH signals. HER2 staining percentages by immunohistochemistry differed between 20 and 80%. HER2 amplification was shown in 7 (13.7%) and 8 (15.7%) patients by FISH and SISH, respectively. Very good agreement was observed between FISH and SISH methods (kappa value: 0.92). Significant correlation was found between HER2 staining percentage and FISH positivity, in contrast to SISH positivity (p=0.012 vs. p=0.069). Our results are consistent with previously reported literature, indicating SISH can be used to determine HER2 status. However, preanalytical and analytical problems may cause inadequate or uncountable signals, making interpretation impossible for the pathologist and highlighting the importance of standardization and quality control programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multifunctional Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles combine several properties into one stable construct, providing a very promising tool for the medical world. However, converting the theoretical designs into a usable application is a multi-step process that usually costs a lot of time, effort and money. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to advance the research of designing multifunctional nanoparticles. The first part of the thesis covers the production of in situ surface functionalized polymer nanoparticles ...

  3. Autonomic Management of Application Workflows on Hybrid Computing Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjoo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a programming and runtime framework that enables the autonomic management of complex application workflows on hybrid computing infrastructures. The framework is designed to address system and application heterogeneity and dynamics to ensure that application objectives and constraints are satisfied. The need for such autonomic system and application management is becoming critical as computing infrastructures become increasingly heterogeneous, integrating different classes of resources from high-end HPC systems to commodity clusters and clouds. For example, the framework presented in this paper can be used to provision the appropriate mix of resources based on application requirements and constraints. The framework also monitors the system/application state and adapts the application and/or resources to respond to changing requirements or environment. To demonstrate the operation of the framework and to evaluate its ability, we employ a workflow used to characterize an oil reservoir executing on a hybrid infrastructure composed of TeraGrid nodes and Amazon EC2 instances of various types. Specifically, we show how different applications objectives such as acceleration, conservation and resilience can be effectively achieved while satisfying deadline and budget constraints, using an appropriate mix of dynamically provisioned resources. Our evaluations also demonstrate that public clouds can be used to complement and reinforce the scheduling and usage of traditional high performance computing infrastructure.

  4. Applicability of Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube for fish waste removal from fish cages in Sanggou Bay, P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jinghui; Jiang, Zengjie; Jansen, Henrice M.; Hu, Fawen; Fang, Jianguang; Liu, Yi; Gao, Yaping; Du, Meirong

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the applicability of integrated polychaete-fish culture for fish waste removal to offset negative impact induced by organic benthic enrichment. A field study demonstrated that deposition rate was significantly higher underneath the fish farm than that in control area. The material settling under the farm was characterized by a high amount of fish feces (45%) and uneaten feed (27%). Both feeding rate (FR) and apparent digestibility rate (ADR) increased with decreasing body weight, as was indicated by significantly a higher rate observed for the groups containing smaller individuals in a lab study. The nutrient in fresh deposited material (De) was higher than that in sediments collected under the farm (Se), resulting in lower feces production but higher apparent digestibility rate for the De group as feeding rate was similar. Consequently, higher nutrient removal efficiency was observed in the De group. A mass balance approach indicated that approximately 400-500 individuals m-2 is required for removing all waste materials deposited underneath the fish farm, whereas abundance can be lower (about 300-350 individuals m-2) when only the fish waste needs to be removed. The results showed that a significant amount of waste had been accumulated in the fish cages in Sanggou Bay. The integration of fish with P. aibuhitensis seems promising for preventing organic pollution in the sediment and therefore is an effective strategy for mitigating negative effect of fish farms. Thus such integration can become a new IMTA (integrated multi-trophic aquaculture) model in Sanggou Bay.

  5. When biogeographical provinces collide: Hybridization of reef fishes at the crossroads of marine biogeographical provinces in the Arabian Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Aim: Suture zones are areas where closely related species from different biogeographical regions come into contact and interbreed. This concept originated from the study of terrestrial ecosystems but it remains unclear whether a similar phenomenon occurs in the marine environment. Here we investigate a potential suture zone from a previously unknown hybrid hotspot at the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen), located in the Arabian Sea, where fauna from the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, western Indian Ocean and greater Indo-Polynesian Province intersect. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean. Methods: Putative hybrid reef fish were identified based on intermediate coloration and morphology. Underwater observations and collections were conducted to determine: (1) whether parent species form heterospecific social groups or breeding pairs; (2) the sex and reproductive status of morphologically intermediate individuals; and (3) whether parent species were forming mixed species associations owing to a dearth of conspecific partners. To support hybrid status, morphologically intermediate and parental individuals were genotyped using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), nuclear recombination-activating gene 2 (RAG2) and the nuclear TMO-4C4 (TMO) gene. Results: We observed putative hybrids involving 14 species from four reef fish families at Socotra. Most cases involved a parental species with a restricted distribution (e.g. Red Sea or Arabian Sea) and a broadly distributed Indo-Pacific species. In most cases, at least one of the parent species was rare at Socotra. Hybrid gene flow was largely unidirectional, and although introgression was rare, we found evidence that some butterflyfish and surgeonfish hybrids were fertile and formed breeding groups with parental species. Main conclusions: The rate of hybrid discovery at Socotra is much greater than that recorded elsewhere in the marine environment and involved both allopatric and

  6. Stabilization of Finite Automata with Application to Hybrid Systems Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Imura, Jun-ichi; Hiraishi, Kunihiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the state feedback stabilization problem of a deterministic finite automaton (DFA), and its application to stabilizing model predictive control (MPC) of hybrid systems. In the modeling of a DFA, a linear state equation representation recently proposed by the authors is used. First, this representation is briefly explained. Next, after the notion of equilibrium points and stabilizability of the DFA are defined, a necessary and sufficient condition for the DFA to be stabili...

  7. Novel Hybrid Flax Reinforced Supersap Composites in Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jinchun Zhu; Kirsi Immonen; Christophe Avril; James Brighton; Huijun Zhu; Hrushikesh Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    Flax fibre bio-epoxy composites have not found many commercial uses in structural applications on account of their lack of cost efficiency and high susceptibility to environmental changes. Non-woven flax mats were subjected to alkali, acetylation, silane and enzymatic treatment, and then combined with untreated unidirectional (UD) flax fabrics to make hybrid flax bio-epoxy composites. Mechanical and environmental resistance (aging) tests were performed on the treated flax fibres. The glass tr...

  8. Automated segmentation and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) signals in interphase nuclei of pap-smear specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy R.; Li, Yuhua; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2009-02-01

    Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology is a potential and promising molecular imaging tool, which can be applied to screen and detect cervical cancer. However, manual FISH detection method is a subjective, tedious, and time-consuming process that results in a large inter-reader variability and possible detection error (in particular for heterogeneous cases). Automatic FISH image analysis aims to potentially improve detection efficiency and also produce more accurate and consistent results. In this preliminary study, a new computerized scheme is developed to automatically segment analyzable interaphase cells and detect FISH signals using digital fluorescence microscopic images acquired from Pap-smear specimens. First, due to the large intensity variations of the acquired interphase cells and overlapping cells, an iterative (multiple) threshold method and a feature-based classifier are applied to detect and segment all potentially analyzable interphase nuclei depicted on a single image frame. Second, a region labeling algorithm followed up a knowledge-based classifier is implemented to identify splitting and diffused FISH signals. Finally, each detected analyzable cell is classified as normal or abnormal based on the automatically counted number of FISH signals. To test the performance of this scheme, an image dataset involving 250 Pap-smear FISH image frames was collected and used in this study. The overall accuracy rate for segmenting analyzable interphase nuclei is 86.6% (360/424). The sensitivity and specificity for classifying abnormal and normal cells are 88.5% and 86.6%, respectively. The overall cell classification agreement rate between our scheme and a cytogeneticist is 86.6%. The testing results demonstrate the feasibility of applying this automated scheme in FISH image analysis.

  9. Peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) assay for specific detection of Mycobacterium immunogenum and DNA-FISH assay for analysis of pseudomonads in metalworking fluids and sputum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, Suresh B; Kapoor, Renuka; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2008-01-01

    Specific and rapid detection and quantification of mycobacteria in contaminated metalworking fluid (MWF) are problematic due to complexity of the matrix and heavy background co-occurring microflora. Furthermore, cross-reactivity among neighboring species of Mycobacterium makes species differentiation difficult for this genus. Here, we report for the first time a species-specific peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) method for Mycobacterium immunogenum, a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species prevalent in MWF and implicated in occupational lung disease hypersensitivity pneumonitis and pseudo-outbreaks. A novel species-specific 14-bp PNA probe was designed for M. immunogenum based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence and was validated for specificity, by testing against a panel of other phylogenetically closely related rapidly growing mycobacteria and representative species of gram-positive, gram-negative, and acid fast organisms. In addition, a DNA-FISH protocol was optimized for co-detection of Pseudomonas, the most predominantly co-occurring genus in contaminated MWF. Reliable quantification for both the test organisms was achieved at or above a cell density of 10(3)cellsml(-1), a recognized minimum limit for microscopic quantification. The mycobacterial PNA-FISH assay was successfully adapted to human sputum demonstrating its potential for clinical diagnostic applications in addition to industrial MWF monitoring, to assess MWF-associated exposures and pseudo-outbreaks.

  10. Dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complexes and related pathogens in cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Jyotsna; Weltman, Helena; Narciso, Patricia; Murphy, Christina; Poruri, Akhila; Baliga, Shrikala; Sharon, Leesha; York, Mary; Cunningham, Gail; Miller, Steve; Caviedes, Luz; Gilman, Robert; Desmond, Edward; Ramasamy, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Two rapid dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were evaluated for detecting M. tuberculosis and related pathogens in cultures. The MN Genus-MTBC FISH assay uses an orange fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and a green fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium and Nocardia genera (MN Genus) to detect and distinguish MTBC from other Mycobacteria and Nocardia. A complementary MTBC-MAC FISH assay uses green and orange fluores...

  11. Evolutionary impacts of hybridization and interspecific gene flow on an obligately estuarine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D G; Gray, C A; West, R J; Ayre, D J

    2009-01-01

    For free-spawning estuarine taxa, gene flow among estuaries may occur via hybridization with mobile congeners. This phenomenon has rarely been investigated, but is probably susceptible to anthropogenic disturbance. In eastern Australia, the estuarine Black Bream Acanthopagrus butcheri and marine Yellowfin Bream Acanthopagrus australis have overlapping distributions and the potential to hybridize. We used surveys of microsatellite and mtDNA variation in 565 adults from 25 estuaries spanning their distributional range to characterize the species and their putative hybrids. Hybrids were widespread (68% of estuaries) and hybrid frequencies varied greatly among estuaries (0-58%). Most (88%) were classed as advanced generation backcrosses with A. butcheri and displayed A. butcheri mtDNA haplotypes. We found most hybrids in the three estuaries within the zone of sympatry (57%). Our study highlights the underemphasized importance of estuaries as sites of hybridization and suggests that hybridization is driven both by opportunity for contact and human activity.

  12. Technical Note: Determination of the metabolically active fraction of benthic foraminifera by means of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, C.; Sabbatini, A.; Luna, G. M.; Nardelli, M. P.; Sbaffi, T.; Morigi, C.; Danovaro, R.; Negri, A.

    2011-08-01

    Benthic foraminifera are an important component of the marine biota, but protocols for investigating their viability and metabolism are still extremely limited. Classical studies on benthic foraminifera have been based on direct counting under light microscopy. Typically, these organisms are stained with Rose Bengal, which binds proteins and other macromolecules, but does not allow discrimination between viable and recently dead organisms. The fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) represents a new and useful approach to identify living cells possessing an active metabolism. Our work is the first test of the suitability of the FISH technique, based on fluorescent probes targeting the 18S rRNA, to detect live benthic foraminifera. The protocol was applied on Ammonia group and Miliolids, as well as on agglutinated polythalamous (i.e., Leptohalysis scottii and Eggerella scabra) and soft-shelled monothalamous (i.e., Psammophaga sp. and saccamminid morphotypes) taxa. The results from FISH analyses were compared with those obtained, on the same specimens assayed with FISH, from microscopic analysis of the cytoplasm colour, presence of pigments and pseudopodial activity. Our results indicate that FISH targets only metabolically active foraminifera, and allows discerning from low to high cellular activity, validating the hypothesis that the intensity of the fluorescent signal emitted by the probe is dependent upon the physiological status of cells. These findings support the usefulness of this molecular approach as a key tool for obtaining information on the physiology of living foraminifera, both in field and experimental settings.

  13. Application of FISH technology for microbiological analysis: current state and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Benedetta; Ercolini, Danilo; Gatti, Monica; Neviani, Erasmo

    2006-12-01

    In order to identify and quantify the microorganisms present in a certain ecosystem, it has become necessary to develop molecular methods avoiding cultivation, which allows to characterize only the countable part of the microorganisms in the sample, therefore losing the information related to the microbial component which presents a vitality condition, although it cannot duplicate in culture medium. In this context, one of the most used techniques is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with ribosomal RNA targeted oligonucleotide probes. Owing to its speed and sensitivity, this technique is considered a powerful tool for phylogenetic, ecological, diagnostic and environmental studies in microbiology. Through the use of species-specific probes, it is possible to identify different microorganisms in complex microbial communities, thus providing a solid support to the understanding of inter-species interaction. The knowledge of the composition and distribution of microorganisms in natural habitats can be interesting for ecological reasons in microbial ecology, and for safety and technological aspects in food microbiology. Methodological aspects, use of different probes and applications of FISH to microbial ecosystems are presented in this review.

  14. A Review of Artificial Lateral Line in Sensor Fabrication and Bionic Applications for Robot Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guijie; Wang, Anyi; Wang, Xinbao; Liu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Lateral line is a system of sense organs that can aid fishes to maneuver in a dark environment. Artificial lateral line (ALL) imitates the structure of lateral line in fishes and provides invaluable means for underwater-sensing technology and robot fish control. This paper reviews ALL, including sensor fabrication and applications to robot fish. The biophysics of lateral line are first introduced to enhance the understanding of lateral line structure and function. The design and fabrication o...

  15. Identification and characterization of marker chromosomes, de novo rearrangements and microdeletions in 100 cases with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.M.; Liu, Y.; Papenhausen, P.R. [Roche Biomedical Labs., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Results of molecular cytogenetic analysis are presented for 100 cases in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used as an adjunct to standard cytogenetics. Commercially available centromeric, telomeric, chromosome painting and unique sequence probes were used. Cases were from a 12-month period (June 1993-May 1994) and included examples of sex chromosome abnormalities (8), duplications (5), de novo translocations (6), satellited (12) and non-satellited (7) markers, and microdeletion syndromes (62). Satellited marker chromosomes were evaluated using a combination of DAPI/Distamycin A staining, hybridization with a classical satellite probe for chromosome 15 and hybridization with alpha-satellite probes for chromosomes 13, 14, 21 and 22. Markers positive for the chromosome 15 probe were further evaluated using unique sequence probes for the Prader-Willi/Angelman region. Microdeletion analysis was performed for Prader-Willi/Angelman (49) and DiGeorge/VCF (13) syndromes. Seven cases evaluated for Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome demonstrated evidence of a deletion within this region. Uniparental disomy analysis was available in cases where a deletion was not detected by FISH, yet follow-up was clinically indicated. Two cases evaluated for DiGeorge/VCF syndrome demonstrated molecular evidence of a deletion. Included in our analysis is an example of familial DiGeorge syndrome.

  16. Application of biotechnology in fish breeding. II: production of highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aims to produce a highly immune, genetically modified redbelly tilapia, Tilapia zillii with accelerated growth as a result of direct injection of shark (Squalus acanthias L.) DNA into skeletal muscles of fish fingerlings at concentrations of 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/fish. The results showed that the fish injected with ...

  17. Prenatal detection of structural abnormalities of chromosome 18: associations with interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and maternal serum screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Michael D; Gill, Prabhcharan; Krew, Michael; Schwartz, Stuart

    2002-08-01

    We describe two cases of prenatally ascertained isochromosome 18. Case 1 included both an isochromosome 18p and an isochromosome 18q, while Case 2 involved only an isochromosome 18q. Both of these cases were associated with a positive maternal serum triple screen trisomy 18 risk (greater than 1 in 100 risk). In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on uncultured amniotic fluid interphase cells in both cases looking for aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y. The results of the interphase analyses support the common knowledge that careful interpretation of interphase FISH analysis is necessary and that results should be followed by full cytogenetic analysis. To our knowledge these are the first reported cases of structurally abnormal chromosomes 18 being associated with a positive maternal serum triple screen for trisomy 18. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Population cage experiments with a vertebrate: The temporal demography and cytonuclear genetics of hybridization on Gambusia fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Kim T.; Avise, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The dynamics of mitochondrial and multilocus nuclear genotypic frequencies were monitored for 2 yr in experimental populations established with equal numbers of two poeciliid fishes (Gambusia affinis and Gambusia holbrooki) that hybridize naturally in the southeastern United States. In replicated "small-pool" populations (experiment I), 1018 sampled individuals at six time periods revealed an initial flush of hybridization, followed by a rapid decline in frequencies of G. affinis nuclear and mitochondrial alleles over 64 wk. Decay of gametic and cytonuclear disequilibria differed from expectations under random mating as well as under a model of assortative mating involving empirically estimated mating propensities. In two replicate "large-pond" populations (experiment II), 841 sampled individuals across four reproductive cohorts revealed lower initial frequencies of F1 hybrids than in experiment I, but again G. holbrooki alleles achieved high frequencies over four generations (72 wk). Thus, evolution within experimental Gambusia hybrid populations can be extremely rapid, resulting in consistent loss of G. affinis nuclear and cytoplasmic alleles. Concordance in results between experiments and across genetic markers suggests strong directional selection favoring G. holbrooki genotypes. Results are interpreted in light of previous reports of genotype-specific differences in life-history traits, reproductive ecology, patterns of recruitment, and size-specific mortality, and in the context of patterns of introgression previously studied indirectly from spatial observations on cytonuclear genotypes in natural Gambusia populations.

  19. A new type of homodiploid fish derived from the interspecific hybridization of female common carp × male blunt snout bream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi; Ye, Xiaolan; Wang, Yude; Chen, Yuting; Lin, Bowen; Yi, Zhenfeng; Mao, Zhuangwen; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhao, Rurong; Wang, Juan; Zhou, Rong; Ren, Li; Yao, Zhanzhou; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Xiao, Jun; Qin, Qinbo; Liu, Shaojun

    2017-06-23

    It is commonly believed that hybridization might lead to the formation of new polyploidy species, but it is unclear whether hybridization can produce a new homodiploid species. Here, we report the spontaneous occurrence of a new crucian carp-like homodiploid fish (2n = 100) that originated from the interspecific hybridization of female common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Cyprininae, 2n = 100) × male blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala, Cultrinae, 2n = 48). The phenotype and reproductive traits of this new crucian carp-like homodiploid fish were found to be very similar to those of the existing diploid species (diploid crucian carp; Carassius auratus). FISH and 5S rDNA analyses revealed that the genotype of the crucian carp-like homodiploid fish differs from those of its parents but is closely related to that of diploid crucian carp. The results provide evidence of the existence of a possible route through which the distant hybridization of this cross can generate crucian carp. The new type of homodiploid fish is of great value in fish genetic breeding and for studying the early evolutionary process.

  20. Optimization of a peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) method for the detection of bacteria and disclosure of a formamide effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rita S; Guimarães, Nuno; Madureira, Pedro; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2014-10-10

    Despite the fact that fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a well-established technique to identify microorganisms, there is a lack of understanding concerning the interaction of the different factors affecting the obtained fluorescence. In here, we used flow cytometry to study the influence of three essential factors in hybridization - temperature, time and formamide concentration - in an effort to optimize the performance of a Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) probe targeting bacteria (EUB338). The PNA-FISH optimization was performed with bacteria representing different families employing response surface methodology. Surprisingly, the optimum concentration of formamide varied according to the bacterium tested. While hybridization on the bacteria possessing the thickest peptidoglycan was more successful at nearly 50% (v/v) formamide, hybridization on all other microorganisms appeared to improve with much lower formamide concentrations. Gram staining and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to confirm that the overall effect of formamide concentration on the fluorescence intensity is a balance between a harmful effect on the bacterial cell envelope, affecting cellular integrity, and the beneficial denaturant effect in the hybridization process. We also conclude that microorganisms belonging to different families will require different hybridization parameters for the same FISH probe, meaning that an optimum universal PNA-FISH procedure is non-existent for these situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An autosomal locus controls sex reversal in interspecific XY hybrids of the medaka fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, M; Takehana, Y; Fukuda, Y; Naruse, K; Sakaizumi, M; Hamaguchi, S

    2011-12-01

    Although the two medaka species Oryzias latipes and O. curvinotus share the sex-determining gene Dmy, XY sex reversal occurs in interspecific hybridization between O. latipes females of the Hd-rR inbred strain and O. curvinotus males. In this Hd-rR-curvinotus mating, all XX and XY hybrids developed as females. In this study, we used another O. latipes inbred strain (HNI) for the mating, and found that 23% of XY hybrids developed as males, although all XX and the remaining XY hybrids developed as females. Linkage analysis using 236 XY hybrid males obtained from (Hd-rR × HNI) F(1) females showed that a single major locus, Hybrid maleless (Hml), on autosomal linkage group 17, contributed to the strain difference in the XY sex reversal. Furthermore, we found that crossing females of a different O. latipes inbred strain, HO4C, did not cause XY sex reversal in the interspecific hybrids, and that the XY hybrids from (Hd-rR × HO4C) F(1) females showed a 1:1 sex ratio. XY hybrid males had the HO4C allele at sequence-tagged site loci around the Hml locus whereas XY females had the Hd-rR allele, confirming the strong contribution of this locus to XY sex reversal. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed a reduced expression of Dmy(curvinotus) in XY fry of the Hd-rR-curvinotus hybrids at hatching. These results suggest that the Hd-rR allele at the Hml locus interfere with the function of Dmy(curvinotus) on a hybrid background, thus resulting in XY sex reversal.

  2. Recent progress in theranostic applications of hybrid gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharatape, Alireza; Salehi, Roya

    2017-09-29

    A significant area of research is theranostic applications of nanoparticles, which involves efforts to improve delivery and reduce side effects. Accordingly, the introduction of a safe, effective, and, most importantly, renewable strategy to target, deliver and image disease cells is important. This state-of-the-art review focuses on studies done from 2013 to 2016 regarding the development of hybrid gold nanoparticles as theranostic agents in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and infectious disease. Several syntheses (chemical and green) methods of gold nanoparticles and their applications in imaging, targeting, and delivery are reviewed; their photothermal efficiency is discussed as is the toxicity of gold nanoparticles. Owing to the unique characterizations of hybrid gold nanoparticles and their potential to be developed as multifunctional, we predict they will present an undeniable role in clinical studies and provide treatment platforms for various diseases. Thus, their clearance and interactions with extra- and intra-cellular molecules need to be considered in future projects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A Hybrid Imperative and Functional Molecular Mechanics Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Deboni

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanics applications model the interactions among large ensembles of discrete particles. They are used where probabilistic methods are inadequate, such as drug chemistry. This methodology is difficult to parallelize with good performance, due to its poor locality, uneven partitions, and dynamic behavior. Imperative programs have been written that attempt this on shared and distributed memory machines. Given such a program, the computational kernel can be rewritten in Sisal, a functional programming language, and integrated with the rest of the imperative program under the Sisal Foreign Language Interface. This allows minimal effort and maximal return from parallelization work, and leaves the work appropriate to imperative implementation in its original form. We describe such an effort, focusing on the parts of the application that are appropriate for Sisal implementation, the specifics of mixed-language programming, and the complex performance behavior of the resulting hybrid code.

  4. Application of Costing Techniques in Ornamental Fish Culture

    OpenAIRE

    T. Umamaheswari; Jayaraman, R; Felix, N

    2017-01-01

    Indian fisheries resources need to be properly utilized for more foreign exchange earnings and for upgrading livelihood of ornamental fish farmers and entrepreneurs. Madurai district was purposively chosen as it is marked as an ornamental hub in South Tamil Nadu and offers a huge market for many goods and services including aquarium fishes. The primary data was collected from a random sample of 22 ornamental fish farmers using a pre-tested survey schedule during the year 2002-2003 with an obj...

  5. microFIND(®) approach to fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Andrea; Barborini, Emanuele; Carbone, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    FISH technology has gained increasing attention in the management of cancer disease, either for predictive or prognostic indications. Molecular cytogenetics has greatly improved diagnostic capability of classical cytogenetics analysis of metaphase-based chromosome for the identification of genetic aberrations. The availability of a large number of fluorescent probes, each specific for different genetic lesions, together with a robust protocol for interphase FISH, provide the pathologist with the essential tools for an accurate evaluation of patient's disease. Hemato-oncological and many of the solid tumors have been comprehensively characterized by peculiar genetic defects and are now routinely evaluated by interphase FISH. Despite the reliability of the method, which has undergone only minor changes since the 1970s, FISH assay is still hampered by reagents cost, preventing its adoption in large-scale oncological screening. In this chapter we describe a major improvement of interphase FISH assay for cytological samples through the description of the miniaturized device microFIND(®) that offers, besides reduction of cost per assay, a completely novel vision to the FISH technology, thanks to the perspective of full automation of FISH assay using a dedicated robotic platform for microFIND(®) handling, (not presently described in the chapter).

  6. Automation of ALK gene rearrangement testing with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaenepoel, Karen; Merkle, Dennis; Cabillic, Florian; Berg, Erica; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Grazioli, Vittorio; Herelle, Olga; Hummel, Michael; Le Calve, Michele; Lenze, Dido; Mende, Stefanie; Pauwels, Patrick; Quilichini, Benoit; Repetti, Elena

    2015-02-01

    In the past several years we have observed a significant increase in our understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive lung cancer. Specifically in the non-small cell lung cancer sub-types, ALK gene rearrangements represent a sub-group of tumors that are targetable by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Crizotinib, resulting in significant reductions in tumor burden. Phase II and III clinical trials were performed using an ALK break-apart FISH probe kit, making FISH the gold standard for identifying ALK rearrangements in patients. FISH is often considered a labor and cost intensive molecular technique, and in this study we aimed to demonstrate feasibility for automation of ALK FISH testing, to improve laboratory workflow and ease of testing. This involved automation of the pre-treatment steps of the ALK assay using various protocols on the VP 2000 instrument, and facilitating automated scanning of the fluorescent FISH specimens for simplified enumeration on various backend scanning and analysis systems. The results indicated that ALK FISH can be automated. Significantly, both the Ikoniscope and BioView system of automated FISH scanning and analysis systems provided a robust analysis algorithm to define ALK rearrangements. In addition, the BioView system facilitated consultation of difficult cases via the internet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of modified atmosphere packaging on aquacultured fish and fish products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouletis, Achilleas D; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2017-07-24

    The aquaculture industry has undergone a rapid and continuous growth during the last decade due to increased demands in seafood consumption and reduced pelagic fish production. The aquaculture sector can provide products with a consistent flow and quality standards to cover the market's needs. The modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technique has evolved over the last two decades and many reports indicate its beneficial effect on many quality parameters during fish and shellfish preservation. The use of MAP can clearly offer an advantage to the safer distribution of quality aquacultured fishery products. This article summarizes most of the experimental data of packaging techniques applied (MAP, VP, various pretreatments and packaging materials) on aquacultured fish and fish products to provide a clear view of the potential for a future commercial use.

  8. Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) to Monitor the State of Arm Cohesion in Prometaphase and Metaphase I Drosophila Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Adrienne T; Bickel, Sharon E

    2017-12-06

    In humans, chromosome segregation errors in oocytes are responsible for the majority of miscarriages and birth defects. Moreover, as women age, their risk of conceiving an aneuploid fetus increases dramatically and this phenomenon is known as the maternal age effect. One requirement for accurate chromosome segregation during the meiotic divisions is maintenance of sister chromatid cohesion during the extended prophase period that oocytes experience. Cytological evidence in both humans and model organisms suggests that meiotic cohesion deteriorates during the aging process. In addition, segregation errors in human oocytes are most prevalent during meiosis I, consistent with premature loss of arm cohesion. The use of model organisms is critical for unraveling the mechanisms that underlie age-dependent loss of cohesion. Drosophila melanogaster offers several advantages for studying the regulation of meiotic cohesion in oocytes. However, until recently, only genetic tests were available to assay for loss of arm cohesion in oocytes of different genotypes or under different experimental conditions. Here, a detailed protocol is provided for using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to directly visualize defects in arm cohesion in prometaphase I and metaphase I arrested Drosophila oocytes. By generating a FISH probe that hybridizes to the distal arm of the X chromosome and collecting confocal Z stacks, a researcher can visualize the number of individual FISH signals in three dimensions and determine whether sister chromatid arms are separated. The procedure outlined makes it possible to quantify arm cohesion defects in hundreds of Drosophila oocytes. As such, this method provides an important tool for investigating the mechanisms that contribute to cohesion maintenance as well as the factors that lead to its demise during the aging process.

  9. Action spectrum for melanoma induction in hybrid fish of the genus Xiphophorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R.B.

    1997-03-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a complicated disease that is dependent on a number of factors that influence its incidence in ways that are quantitatively uncertain. The incidence of CMM increases with proximity to the Equator -- an observation in line with the conclusion that sun exposure is the most important etiologic agent. However, the latitude effect does not implicate UVB because the intensities of all spectral regions increase toward the Equator. An understanding of the useful public health measures to lower the incidence of CMM would benefit greatly if the spectral region of sunlight implicated in melanoma incidence were known. Such knowledge requires animal models to evaluate the incidence as a function of wavelength. There are marsupial models, a transgenic mouse model, and a fish model. To date, only the fish model has been employed to obtain an action spectrum. The paper describes a fish model, implications of the fish spectrum, and epidemiological data.

  10. QUANTITATIVE IMAGING AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION (FISH) OF AUREOBASIDIUM PULLULANS. (R823845)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractImage and multifactorial statistical analyses were used to evaluate the intensity of fluorescence signal from cells of three strains of A. pullulans and one strain of Rhodosporidium toruloides, as an outgroup, hybridized with either a universal o...

  11. Rapid identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) from culture and paraffin-embedded tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ralf M; Frickmann, Hagen; Elschner, Mandy; Melzer, Falk; Neubauer, Heinrich; Gauthier, Yves P; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2011-11-01

    We evaluated newly developed probes for rapid identification of Burkholderia (B.) pseudomallei and B. mallei and differentiation from B. thailandensis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH correctly identified 100% of the tested B. pseudomallei (11), B. mallei (11), and B. thailandensis (1) strains, excluded 100% of all tested negative controls (61), and allowed demonstration of B. pseudomallei infection in a paraffin-embedded spleen tissue sample of an experimentally infected mouse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid molecular cytogenetic analysis of X-chromosomal microdeletions: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for complex glycerol kinase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, K.C.; Lindsay, E.A.; McCabe, E.R.B. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-17

    Diagnosis of X-chromosomal microdeletions has relied upon the traditional methods of Southern blotting and DNA amplification, with carrier identification requiring time-consuming and unreliable dosage calculations. In this report, we describe rapid molecular cytogenetic identification of deleted DNA in affected males with the Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome (complex glycerol kinase deficiency, CGKD) and female carriers for this disorder. CGKD deletions involve the genes for glycerol kinase, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and/or adrenal hypoplasia congenita. We report an improved method for diagnosis of deletions in individuals with CGKD and for identification of female carriers within their families using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a cosmid marker (cosmid 35) within the glycerol kinase gene. When used in combination with an Xq control probe, affected males demonstrate a single signal from the control probe, while female carriers demonstrate a normal chromosome with two signals, as well as a deleted chromosome with a single signal from the control probe. FISH analysis for CGKD provides the advantages of speed and accuracy for evaluation of submicroscopic X-chromosome deletions, particularly in identification of female carriers. In addition to improving carrier evaluation, FISH will make prenatal diagnosis of CGKD more readily available. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  13. A high-resolution cat radiation hybrid and integrated FISH mapping resource for phylogenomic studies across Felidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian W; Raudsepp, Terje; Pearks Wilkerson, Alison J; Agarwala, Richa; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Houck, Marlys; Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Murphy, William J

    2009-04-01

    We describe the construction of a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH) map of the domestic cat genome, which includes 2662 markers, translating to an estimated average intermarker distance of 939 kilobases (kb). Targeted marker selection utilized the recent feline 1.9x genome assembly, concentrating on regions of low marker density on feline autosomes and the X chromosome, in addition to regions flanking interspecies chromosomal breakpoints. Average gap (breakpoint) size between cat-human ordered conserved segments is less than 900 kb. The map was used for a fine-scale comparison of conserved syntenic blocks with the human and canine genomes. Corroborative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data were generated using 129 domestic cat BAC clones as probes, providing independent confirmation of the long-range correctness of the map. Cross-species hybridization of BAC probes on divergent felids from the genera Profelis (serval) and Panthera (snow leopard) provides further evidence for karyotypic conservation within felids, and demonstrates the utility of such probes for future studies of chromosome evolution within the cat family and in related carnivores. The integrated map constitutes a comprehensive framework for identifying genes controlling feline phenotypes of interest, and to aid in assembly of a higher coverage feline genome sequence.

  14. Hybrid Geoid Model: Theory and Application in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Daniel; Camargo, Paulo O; Guimarães, Gabriel N

    2017-01-01

    Determination of the ellipsoidal height by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is becoming better known and used for purposes of leveling with the aid of geoid models. However, the disadvantage of this method is the quality of the geoid models, which degrade heights and limit the application of the method. In order to provide better quality in transforming height using GNSS leveling, this research aims to develop a hybridization methodology of gravimetric geoid models EGM08, MAPGEO2015 and GEOIDSP2014 for the State of São Paulo, providing more consistent models with GNSS technology. Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural networks were used to obtain the corrector surface, based on differences between geoid model undulations and the undulations obtained by GNSS tracking in benchmarks. The experiments showed that the most suitable interpolation for correction modeling is the linear RBF. Checkpoints indicate that the geoid hybrid models feature root mean square deviation ± 0.107, ± 0.104 and ± 0.098 m, respectively. The results shows an improvement of 30 to 40% in consistencies compared with the gravimetric geoids, providing users with better quality in transformation of geometric to orthometric heights.

  15. Hybrid Magnetic Core-Shell Nanophotocatalysts for Environmental Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaulden, Patrick [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona Hunyadi [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-07-29

    This research study describes a facile sol-gel method to creating hybrid iron (III) oxide/silica/titania nanomaterials decorated with gold nanoparticles for use in environmental applications. The multi-functional composition of the nanomaterials allows for photocatalyzed reactions to occur in both the visible and the UV range. The morphologies, elemental composition, and surface charge of the nanoparticles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and Phase Analysis Light Scattering (PALS), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized hybrid nanoparticles for breaking down a model analyte, methyl orange (MO), was then evaluated using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The efficiency of the photocatalyst under UV light irradiation was measured and compared to other well-studied nanophotocatalysts, namely titanium oxide and iron oxide nanoparticles. The concentration dependence of both the photocatalyst and the analyte was also investigated. By utilizing the known UV-active properties of TiO2, the magnetic properties of Fe2O3, the optical properties of gold in the visible range of the spectrum, and the high stability of silica, a novel, highly efficient photocatalyst that is active on a broad range of the spectrum (UV-Vis) can be created to destroy organic pollutants in wastewater streams.

  16. Hybrid Geoid Model: Theory and Application in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL ARANA

    Full Text Available Determination of the ellipsoidal height by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS is becoming better known and used for purposes of leveling with the aid of geoid models. However, the disadvantage of this method is the quality of the geoid models, which degrade heights and limit the application of the method. In order to provide better quality in transforming height using GNSS leveling, this research aims to develop a hybridization methodology of gravimetric geoid models EGM08, MAPGEO2015 and GEOIDSP2014 for the State of São Paulo, providing more consistent models with GNSS technology. Radial Basis Function (RBF neural networks were used to obtain the corrector surface, based on differences between geoid model undulations and the undulations obtained by GNSS tracking in benchmarks. The experiments showed that the most suitable interpolation for correction modeling is the linear RBF. Checkpoints indicate that the geoid hybrid models feature root mean square deviation ± 0.107, ± 0.104 and ± 0.098 m, respectively. The results shows an improvement of 30 to 40% in consistencies compared with the gravimetric geoids, providing users with better quality in transformation of geometric to orthometric heights.

  17. Investigations into the application of a new sonar system for assessing fish passage in Alaskan rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwen, Deborah; Maxwell, Suzanne; Pfisterer, Carl

    2004-05-01

    Over a two-year period (2002-2003) the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG) has evaluated a relatively new sonar technology at several sites in Alaska to determine its applicability to counting migrating fish in rivers. The new system, called a dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON), is a high-definition imaging sonar designed and manufactured by the University of Washingtons Applied Physics Lab for military applications such as diver detection and underwater mine identification. Studies conducted in 2002 in a clearwater stream with high fish passage rates (5000 fish/hour) demonstrated that the DIDSON could provide accurate estimates of fish migrating upstream in rivers. Additional studies conducted in 2002 with live tethered fish indicated that size information could be derived from the cameralike images produced by the DIDSON system at ranges up to 12 m. In 2003, ADFG deployed DIDSON systems to assess fish passage in five Alaskan rivers. In each river, the DIDSON system was deployed in the side-looking configuration typically used in riverine sonar applications for estimating fish passage. Preliminary results from experiments in both 2002 and 2003 indicate that the DIDSON provides significant improvements in our ability to detect, track, and determine the direction of travel of migrating fish in rivers.

  18. Ionocovalency and Applications 1. Ionocovalency Model and Orbital Hybrid Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghe Zhang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionocovalency (IC, a quantitative dual nature of the atom, is defined and correlated with quantum-mechanical potential to describe quantitatively the dual properties of the bond. Orbiotal hybrid IC model scale, IC, and IC electronegativity scale, XIC, are proposed, wherein the ionicity and the covalent radius are determined by spectroscopy. Being composed of the ionic function I and the covalent function C, the model describes quantitatively the dual properties of bond strengths, charge density and ionic potential. Based on the atomic electron configuration and the various quantum-mechanical built-up dual parameters, the model formed a Dual Method of the multiple-functional prediction, which has much more versatile and exceptional applications than traditional electronegativity scales and molecular properties. Hydrogen has unconventional values of IC and XIC, lower than that of boron. The IC model can agree fairly well with the data of bond properties and satisfactorily explain chemical observations of elements throughout the Periodic Table.

  19. Novel Hybrid Flax Reinforced Supersap Composites in Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchun Zhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flax fibre bio-epoxy composites have not found many commercial uses in structural applications on account of their lack of cost efficiency and high susceptibility to environmental changes. Non-woven flax mats were subjected to alkali, acetylation, silane and enzymatic treatment, and then combined with untreated unidirectional (UD flax fabrics to make hybrid flax bio-epoxy composites. Mechanical and environmental resistance (aging tests were performed on the treated flax fibres. The glass transition temperature was detected at about 75 °C with little effect of treatments. Untreated composites were found to have a tensile strength of 180 MPa while no significant improvement was observed for any of the treatments, which are also not environmentally friendly. The amiopropyltriethoxysilane (APS composites after Xenon aging, retained the tensile strength of 175 MPa and a modulus of 11.5 GPa, while untreated composites showed 35% reduction in elastic modulus.

  20. Determination of the metabolically active fraction of benthic foraminifera by means of Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, C.; Sabbatini, A.; Luna, G. M.; Morigi, C.; Danovaro, R.; Negri, A.

    2010-10-01

    Benthic foraminifera are an important component of the marine living biota, but protocols for investigating their viability and metabolism are still extremely limited. Classical studies on benthic foraminifera have been based on direct counting under light microscopy. Typically these organisms are stained with Rose Bengal, which binds proteins and other macromolecules, but this approach does not allow discriminating between viable and recently dead organisms. The fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) represents a potentially useful approach identifying living cells with active metabolism cells. In this work, we tested for the first time the suitability of the FISH technique based on fluorescent probes targeting the 18S rRNA, to detect these live benthic protists. The protocol was applied on the genus Ammonia, on the Miliolidae group and an attempt was made also with agglutinated species (i.e., Leptohalysis scottii and Eggerella scabra). In addition microscopic analysis of the cytoplasm colour, presence of pigments and, sometimes, those of pseudopodial activity where conducted. The results of the present study indicate that FISH targeted only live and metabolically active foraminifera. These results allowed to identify as "live", cells improperly classified as "dead" by means of the classical technique (Type I error) and vice versa to identify as dead the foraminifera without rRNA, but stained using Rose Bengal (Type II error). In addition, the comparative FISH analysis of starved and actively growing cells demonstrated that individuals with active metabolism were stained more intensively than starved cells. This finding supports the hypothesis that the physiological status of cells can be directly related with the intensity of the fluorescent signal emitted by the fluorescent probe. We conclude that the use of molecular approaches could represent a key tool for acquiring crucial information on living foraminifera specimens and for investigating their

  1. Fluctuation localization imaging-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (fliFISH) for accurate detection and counting of RNA copies in single cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yi; Hu, Dehong; Markillie, Lye Meng; Chrisler, William B.; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Ansong, Charles K.; Sussel, Lori; Orr, Galya

    2018-01-25

    Quantitative gene expression analysis in intact single cells can be achieved using single molecule- based fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH). This approach relies on fluorescence intensity to distinguish between true signals, emitted from an RNA copy hybridized with multiple FISH sub-probes, and background noise. Thus, the precision in smFISH is often compromised by partial or nonspecific binding of sub-probes and tissue autofluorescence, limiting its accuracy. Here we provide an accurate approach for setting quantitative thresholds between true and false signals, which relies on blinking frequencies of photoswitchable dyes. This fluctuation localization imaging-based FISH (fliFISH) uses blinking frequency patterns, emitted from a transcript bound to multiple sub-probes, which are distinct from blinking patterns emitted from partial or nonspecifically bound sub-probes and autofluorescence. Using multicolor fliFISH, we identified radial gene expression patterns in mouse pancreatic islets for insulin, the transcription factor, NKX2-2, and their ratio (Nkx2-2/Ins2). These radial patterns, showing higher values in β cells at the islet core and lower values in peripheral cells, were lost in diabetic mouse islets. In summary, fliFISH provides an accurate, quantitative approach for detecting and counting true RNA copies and rejecting false signals by their distinct blinking frequency patterns, laying the foundation for reliable single-cell transcriptomics.

  2. Risk Management for Complex Calculations: EuSpRIG Best Practices in Hybrid Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cernauskas, Deborah; Kumiega, Andrew; VanVliet, Ben

    2008-01-01

    As the need for advanced, interactive mathematical models has increased, user/programmers are increasingly choosing the MatLab scripting language over spreadsheets. However, applications developed in these tools have high error risk, and no best practices exist. We recommend that advanced, highly mathematical applications incorporate these tools with spreadsheets into hybrid applications, where developers can apply EuSpRIG best practices. Development of hybrid applications can reduce the pote...

  3. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  4. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Electrospin Hybrid Process for Protective Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitchuli Gangadharan, Narendiran

    2011-12-01

    Chemical and biological (C-B) warfare agents like sarin, sulfur mustard, anthrax are usually dispersed into atmosphere in the form of micro aerosols. They are considered to be dangerous weapon of mass destruction next to nuclear weapons. The airtight protective clothing materials currently available are able to stop the diffusion of threat agents but not good enough to detoxify them, which endangers the wearers. Extensive research efforts are being made to prepare advanced protective clothing materials that not only prevent the diffusion of C-B agents, but also detoxify them into harmless products thus ensuring the safety and comfort of the wearer. Electrospun nanofiber mats are considered to have effective filtration characteristics to stop the diffusion of submicron level particulates without sacrificing air permeability characteristics and could be used in protective application as barrier material. In addition, functional nanofibers could be potentially developed to detoxify the C-B warfare threats into harmless products. In this research, electrospun nanofibers were deposited on fabric surface to improve barrier efficiency without sacrificing comfort-related properties of the fabrics. Multi-functional nanofibers were fabricated through an electrospinning-electrospraying hybrid process and their ability to detoxify simulants of C-B agents was evaluated. Nanofibers were also deposited onto plasma-pretreated woven fabric substrate through a newly developed plasma-electrospinning hybrid process, to improve the adhesive properties of nanofibers on the fabric surface. The nanofiber adhesion and durability properties were evaluated by peel test, flex and abrasion resistance tests. In this research work, following tasks have been carried out: i) Controlled deposition of nanofiber mat onto woven fabric substrate Electrospun Nylon 6 fiber mats were deposited onto woven 50/50 Nylon/Cotton fabric with the motive of making them into protective material against submicron

  5. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdulAlmohsin, Samir M.

    The enticing electro-optical properties of nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, CdS nanocrystals and ZnO nanowrie bring new vigor into the innovation of photovoltaics. The main purpose of this dissertation is to develop novel nano-structured materials for low cost solar cell applications. Fabrication, characterization, and solar cell application of organic-inorganic hybrid structures are the main focus of this research. Polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) composite films were synthesized by an electrochemical polymerization of aniline with airbrushed MWNTs on ITO substrates. It was found that the incorporation of MWNTs in PANI effectively increase the film conductivity with a percolation threshold of 5% of nanotubes in the composite. The solar cell performance strongly depends on the conductivity of the composite films, which can be tuned by adjusting nanotube concentration. A higher conductivity resulted in a better cell performance, resulting from an efficient charge collection. This study indicates that PANI/MWNT composite films with optimized conductivity are potentially useful for low-cost hybrid solar cell applications. CdS nanocrystal-sensitized solar cells (NCSSCs) were investigated by using polyaniline (PANI) as a replacement for conventional platinum counter electrode. The growth time of the nanocrystals significantly affects the solar cell performance. At an optimum growth, the NCSSCs exhibit 0.83% of the conversion efficiency in comparison to 0.13% for the identical cells without CdS nanocrystals. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the charge transfer in the solar cells with CdS nanocrystals was improved. The enhanced overall energy conversion efficiency by nanocrystals is attributed to improved light absorption and suppressed recombination rate of interfacial charges at the injection, resulting in significantly improved charge transfer and electron lifetime. In addition, the PANI electrodes

  6. Distribution characteristics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Typha latifolia constructed wetlands using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Inamori, Ryuhei; Gui, Ping; Xu, Kai-qin; Kong, Hai-nan; Matsumura, Masatoshi; Inamori, Yuhei

    2005-01-01

    A molecular biology method, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in which the pre-treatment was improved in allusion to the media of the constructed wetlands (CW), e.g. the soil and the grit, was used to investigate the vertical distribution characteristics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) quantity and the relation with oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in the Typha latifolia constructed wetlands under three different loadings in summer from May to September. Results showed that the quantity of the AOB decreased in the Typha latifolia CW with the increase of vertical depth. However, the AOB quantity was 2-4 times the quantity of the control in the root area. Additionally, ORP in the rhizosphere was found to be higher than other areas, which showed that Typha latifolia CW was in an aerobic state in summer when using simulated non-point sewage at the rural area of Taihu Lake in China and small town combined sewage.

  7. Analysis of lymphocytes from uranium mineworkers in Namibia for chromosomal damage using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaire, R; Griffin, C S; Simpson, P J; Papworth, D G; Savage, J R; Armstrong, S; Hultèn, M A

    1996-11-04

    Workers in the open pit uranium mine in Namibia appear to suffer from health problems including malignant diseases at a much higher prevalence when compared with the general population. The objective of the present study was to determine whether long-term exposure to low-dose uranium increases the risk of biological radiation damage which could lead to malignant diseases. In order to investigate this risk, we measured the relative frequency of chromosome alterations using Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A representative cohort of 11 non-smoking miners, were compared to a control group of 9 individuals with no occupational history in mining. We determined a significant increase in chromosome aberrations in the circulating lymphocytes of miners versus the non-smoking controls (p = 0.0000096). Therefore, we concluded that these uranium exposed miners are at an increased risk to acquire genetic damage, which may be associated with an increased risk for malignant transformation.

  8. Risk analysis of exotic fish species included in the Dutch Fisheries Act and their hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphouwer, M.E.; Kessel, van N.; Matthews, J.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Koppel, S.; Kranenbarg, J.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Lenders, H.J.R.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Velde, van der G.; Crombaghs, B.; Zollinger, R.

    2014-01-01

    In dit rapport worden de risico’s geanalyseerd van exotische vissoorten die zijn opgenomen in de Visserijwet en hun hybriden. De volgende soorten en één specifieke hybride zijn in de analyse meegenomen: beekridder (Salvelinus alpinus); roofblei (Leuciscus aspius); karper (Cyprinus carpio);

  9. Graphene and its Hybrid Nanostructures for Nanoelectronics and Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation focuses on investigating the synthesis of graphene and its hybrid nanostructures by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, as well as their applications in nanoelectronics and energy conversion/storage. The substantial understanding of interaction of graphene layers between the bio-molecules and gas molecules will enable the improvement in the applications of graphene in bio-sensor and chemical sensor. To achieve these objectives, graphene field effect transistors are fabricated to study the interactions of graphene between single stranded Deoxyribonucleic Acids (ssDNA) and gas molecules. ssDNA is found to act as negative potential gating agent that increases the hole density in single layer graphene (SLG). The molecular photodesorption and absorption from pristine and functionalized graphene are studied. The photodesorption induced current decrease in functionalized graphene by concentrated HNO3 becomes less significant than pristine graphene layers. We suggest this is due to the passivation of oxygen-bearing functionalities to CVD grown graphene structure defects via HNO3 functionalization, which prevents the further absorption of gas molecules. The advance of synthesis of graphene and its hybrid nanostructures by CVD promotes their applications in the industrial level. We synthesize the graphene both on nickel thin film and copper foils by CVD, and investigate the grow kinetics, such as the effect of growth pressure on the uniformity and quality of Cu-grown graphene. By controlling the growth pressure we achieve uniform single layer graphene sheets and suggest the feasible methods of synthesizing uniform few-layer graphene. To decrease the sheet resistance, we stack the single layer graphene using layer-layer transfer technique. Highly concentrated HNO3 is employed to improve the conductivity and surface wettability of graphene layers. Four-layer graphene films with optical transmittance of 90% after HNO3 treatment are applied in organic

  10. Graphene-based hybrid for enantioselective sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zor, Erhan; Morales-Narváez, Eden; Alpaydin, Sabri; Bingol, Haluk; Ersoz, Mustafa; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-01-15

    Chirality is a major field of research of chemical biology and is essential in pharmacology. Accordingly, approaches for distinguishing between different chiral forms of a compound are of great interest. We report on an efficient and generic enantioselective sensor that is achieved by coupling reduced graphene oxide with γ-cyclodextrin (rGO/γ-CD). The enantioselective sensing capability of the resulting structure was operated in both electrical and optical mode for of tryptophan enantiomers (D-/L-Trp). In this sense, voltammetric and photoluminescence measurements were conducted and the experimental results were compared to molecular docking method. We gain insight into the occurring recognition mechanism with selectivity toward D- and L-Trp as shown in voltammetric, photoluminescence and molecular docking responses. As an enantioselective solid phase on an electrochemical transducer, thanks to the different dimensional interaction of enantiomers with hybrid material, a discrepancy occurs in the Gibbs free energy leading to a difference in oxidation peak potential as observed in electrochemical measurements. The optical sensing principle is based on the energy transfer phenomenon that occurs between photoexcited D-/L-Trp enantiomers and rGO/γ-CD giving rise to an enantioselective photoluminescence quenching due to the tendency of chiral enantiomers to form complexes with γ-CD in different molecular orientations as demonstrated by molecular docking studies. The approach, which is the first demonstration of applicability of molecular docking to show both enantioselective electrochemical and photoluminescence quenching capabilities of a graphene-related hybrid material, is truly new and may have broad interest in combination of experimental and computational methods for enantiosensing of chiral molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Utility and impact of early t(15;17) identification by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) in clinical decision making for patients in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhe, R; Mangaonkar, A; Mansour, J; Clemmons, A; Shaw, J; Dupont, B; Walczak, L; Mondal, A; Rojiani, A; Jillella, A; Kota, V

    2015-08-01

    Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) is a curable malignancy with studies showing above 90% survival. However, population-based studies looking at survival suggest that approximately 30% of patients with APL die during induction. Early demonstration of t(15;17) will lead to accurate decision making regarding treatment. The aim of this project was to validate earlier time frames for the Abbott Molecular Vysis LSI promyelocytic leukemia (PML)/ retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe (ASR 6-16 h). Twenty patients (15 APL cases and five non-APL cases) were selected for validating various hybridization times for the FISH probe. Expected normal signal pattern was two red and two green signals (2R2G), and the most common expected abnormal signal pattern was two fusion (yellow) signals, one red and one green (2F1R1G) and/or one fusion, one red and one green (1F1R1G). The specificity of the probe ranged from 84% at 2 h, 86% at 4 h, 84% at 6 h, and 87% for overnight hybridization. The sensitivity increased from 79% at 2 h, 80% at 4 h, 81% at 6 h to 87% for overnight hybridization. Based on the validation studies, we recommend reading of FISH results at the 4-h incubation mark for a preliminary diagnosis and confirmation with overnight hybridization. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Validation of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH for multiple myeloma using CD138 positive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kiyomi Kishimoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm with acquired genetic abnormalities of clinical and prognostic importance. Multiple myeloma differs from other hematologic malignancies due to a high fraction of low proliferating malignant plasma cells and the paucity of plasma cells in bone marrow aspiration samples, making cytogenetic analysis a challenge. An abnormal karyotype is found in only one-third of patients with multiple myeloma and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization is the most useful test for studying the chromosomal abnormalities present in almost 90% of cases. However, it is necessary to study the genetic abnormalities in plasma cells after their identification or selection by morphology, immunophenotyping or sorting. Other challenges are the selection of the most informative FISH panel and determining cut-off levels for FISH probes. This study reports the validation of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization using CD138 positive cells, according to proposed guidelines published by the European Myeloma Network (EMN in 2012. METHOD: Bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma were used to standardize a panel of five probes [1q amplification, 13q14 deletion, 17p deletion, t(4;14, and t(14;16] in CD138+ cells purified by magnetic cell sorting. RESULTS: This test was validated with a low turnaround time and good reproducibility. Five of six samples showed genetic abnormalities. Monosomy/deletion 13 plus t(4;14 were found in two cases. CONCLUSION: This technique together with magnetic cell sorting is effective and can be used in the routine laboratory practice. In addition, magnetic cell sorting provides a pure plasma cell population that allows other molecular and genomic studies.

  13. Recent progress in stabilizing hybrid perovskites for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqing; Cai, Xin; Yang, Donghui; Song, Dan; Wang, Jiajia; Jiang, Jinghua; Ma, Aibin; Lv, Shiquan; Hu, Michael Z.; Ni, Chaoying

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites have quickly evolved as a promising group of materials for solar cells and optoelectronic applications mainly owing to the inexpensive materials, relatively simple and versatile fabrication and high power conversion efficiency (PCE). The certified energy conversion efficiency for perovskite solar cell (PSC) has reached above 20%, which is compatible to the current best for commercial applications. However, long-term stabilities of the materials and devices remain to be the biggest challenging issue for realistic implementation of the PSCs. This article discusses the key issues related to the stability of perovskite absorbing layer including crystal structural stability, chemical stability under moisture, oxygen, illumination and interface reaction, effects of electron-transporting materials (ETM), hole-transporting materials (HTM), contact electrodes, ion migration and preparation conditions. Towards the end, prospective strategies for improving the stability of PSCs are also briefly discussed and summarized. We focus on recent understanding of the stability of materials and devices and our perspectives about the strategies for the stability improvement.

  14. Applications of comparative genomic hybridization in cancer and genetic disorders: a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Noori-Daloii

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Since the recognition of true number of human chromosomes in 1956, many techniques have been developed to detect chromosomal aberrations. A number of those, such as karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, are valuable tools in both research and diagnostics. But these techniques have defects that limit their application. One of the important limitations is resolution; resolution limitations make it impossible to detect small aberrations. The other major defect is the disability to analyze whole genome. In 1997 Solinas-Toldo introduced a new technique that could cover other techniques' defects. This new technique called microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH. Array CGH, with the powerful resolution of FISH and also the ability of whole genome analysis in single experiment accelerated the genetic research. Array CGH has resulted in to a great progress in oncology and genetic disorders research. In addition, this technique has the ability to be used in diagnostics too. This review article, witch include the data of recent published papers and our experiences, gives an overview of the array CGH and compare it with the other molecular cytogenetic techniques. Its application in

  15. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  16. Feasibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect early gene changes in sputum cells from uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neft, R.E.; Rogers, J.L.; Belinsky, S.A. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that combined exposure to radon progeny and tobacco smoke produce a greater than additive or synergistic increase in lung cancer risk. Lung cancer results from multiple genetic changes over a long period of time. An early change that occurs in lung cancer is trisomy 7 which is found in 50% of non-small cell lung cancer and in the far margins of resected lung tumors. The 80% mortality associated with lung cancer is in part related to the high proportion of patients who present with an advanced, unresectable tumor. Therefore, early detection of patients at risk for tumor development is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Currently, it is difficult to detect lung cancer early while it is still amendable by surgery. Saccomanno, G. has shown that premalignant cytologic changes in sputum cells collected from uranium miners can be detected by a skilled, highly trained cytopathologist. A more objective alternative for identifying premalignant cells in sputum may be to determine whether an early genetic change such as trisomy 7 is present in these cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to identify cells with trisomy 7. The results of this investigation indicate that FISH may prove to be an accurate, efficient method to test at-risk individuals for genetic alterations in bronchial epithelial cells from sputum.

  17. Observation and Quantification of Telomere and Repetitive Sequences Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) with PNA Probes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Beomseok; Lee, Junho

    2016-08-04

    Telomere is a ribonucleoprotein structure that protects chromosomal ends from aberrant fusion and degradation. Telomere length is maintained by telomerase or an alternative pathway, known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT)(1). Recently, C. elegans has emerged as a multicellular model organism for the study of telomere and ALT(2). Visualization of repetitive sequences in the genome is critical in understanding the biology of telomeres. While telomere length can be measured by telomere restriction fragment assay or quantitative PCR, these methods only provide the averaged telomere length. On the contrary, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can provide the information of the individual telomeres in cells. Here, we provide protocols and representative results of the method to determine telomere length of C. elegans by fluorescent in situ hybridization. This method provides a simple, but powerful, in situ procedure that does not cause noticeable damage to morphology. By using fluorescently labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and digoxigenin-dUTP-labeled probe, we were able to visualize two different repetitive sequences: telomere repeats and template of ALT (TALT) in C. elegans embryos and gonads.

  18. Recent applications of fish cell culture to biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, L E; Renfro, J L

    1988-12-01

    Tissues of the fishes are as amenable to the techniques of modern cell culture as mammalian tissues and organs, and yet this vast resource, comprising thousands of vertebrate species, remains largely unexplored. The model systems that have been developed demonstrate the utility of fish cells as sources of special adaptations and exaggerated physiological systems. In this review, we briefly describe several of the successful models along with recent developments in fish cell culture with the hope of stimulating increased interest in the lower vertebrates as useful complements to mammalian cell culture in biomedical research. The topics covered include epithelial ion transport, endocrinological studies, the cellular stress (heat shock) response, thermotolerance, cancer biology, and environmental toxicology.

  19. Application of Passive Sampling to Characterise the Fish Exometabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Viant

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The endogenous metabolites excreted by organisms into their surrounding environment, termed the exometabolome, are important for many processes including chemical communication. In fish biology, such metabolites are also known to be informative markers of physiological status. While metabolomics is increasingly used to investigate the endogenous biochemistry of organisms, no non-targeted studies of the metabolic complexity of fish exometabolomes have been reported to date. In environmental chemistry, Chemcatcher® (Portsmouth, UK passive samplers have been developed to sample for micro-pollutants in water. Given the importance of the fish exometabolome, we sought to evaluate the capability of Chemcatcher® samplers to capture a broad spectrum of endogenous metabolites excreted by fish and to measure these using non-targeted direct infusion mass spectrometry metabolomics. The capabilities of C18 and styrene divinylbenzene reversed-phase sulfonated (SDB-RPS Empore™ disks for capturing non-polar and polar metabolites, respectively, were compared. Furthermore, we investigated real, complex metabolite mixtures excreted from two model fish species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. In total, 344 biological samples and 28 QC samples were analysed, revealing 646 and 215 m/z peaks from trout and stickleback, respectively. The measured exometabolomes were principally affected by the type of Empore™ (Hemel Hempstead, UK disk and also by the sampling time. Many peaks were putatively annotated, including several bile acids (e.g., chenodeoxycholate, taurocholate, glycocholate, glycolithocholate, glycochenodeoxycholate, glycodeoxycholate. Collectively these observations show the ability of Chemcatcher® passive samplers to capture endogenous metabolites excreted from fish.

  20. Application of Passive Sampling to Characterise the Fish Exometabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viant, Mark R.; Elphinstone Davis, Jessica; Duffy, Cathleen; Engel, Jasper; Stenton, Craig; Sebire, Marion; Katsiadaki, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    The endogenous metabolites excreted by organisms into their surrounding environment, termed the exometabolome, are important for many processes including chemical communication. In fish biology, such metabolites are also known to be informative markers of physiological status. While metabolomics is increasingly used to investigate the endogenous biochemistry of organisms, no non-targeted studies of the metabolic complexity of fish exometabolomes have been reported to date. In environmental chemistry, Chemcatcher® (Portsmouth, UK) passive samplers have been developed to sample for micro-pollutants in water. Given the importance of the fish exometabolome, we sought to evaluate the capability of Chemcatcher® samplers to capture a broad spectrum of endogenous metabolites excreted by fish and to measure these using non-targeted direct infusion mass spectrometry metabolomics. The capabilities of C18 and styrene divinylbenzene reversed-phase sulfonated (SDB-RPS) Empore™ disks for capturing non-polar and polar metabolites, respectively, were compared. Furthermore, we investigated real, complex metabolite mixtures excreted from two model fish species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In total, 344 biological samples and 28 QC samples were analysed, revealing 646 and 215 m/z peaks from trout and stickleback, respectively. The measured exometabolomes were principally affected by the type of Empore™ (Hemel Hempstead, UK) disk and also by the sampling time. Many peaks were putatively annotated, including several bile acids (e.g., chenodeoxycholate, taurocholate, glycocholate, glycolithocholate, glycochenodeoxycholate, glycodeoxycholate). Collectively these observations show the ability of Chemcatcher® passive samplers to capture endogenous metabolites excreted from fish. PMID:28216558

  1. Clinical implications of serial versus isolated biliary fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) polysomy in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kevin P; Tabibian, James H; Lindor, Keith D

    2017-04-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a leading cause of death in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Biliary polysomy detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) helps to identify patients with early CCA, but not all PSC patients with polysomy develop CCA. Here, we examined the features and clinical outcomes of PSC patients with serial versus isolated polysomy. All patients with PSC who underwent ≥1 endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) with FISH testing at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from 2008-2011 were identified. Patients diagnosed with CCA at the time of initial polysomy were excluded. Serial polysomy was defined as polysomy on ≥2 ERCs; isolated polysomy was defined as polysomy once followed by all nonpolysomy results. The primary outcome was the diagnosis of CCA. Twenty-seven patients with polysomy and ≥1 subsequent ERC with FISH were identified. Of these, 11 (40.7%) had serial polysomy and 16 (59.3%) had isolated polysomy. CCA was more likely to be diagnosed in patients with serial versus isolated polysomy (36.4% vs. 6.3%; p = .046). Overall, four patients (36.4%) with serial polysomy and three (18.8%) with isolated polysomy underwent liver transplantation (LT), with time to LT being significantly shorter for the former (14.0 vs. 65.4 months; p = .0003). Biliary polysomy reverted in ≥50% of patients with PSC; this group appears to be at decreased risk of CCA compared to those with serial polysomy. Nevertheless, both groups should be followed closely, and those with serial polysomy may benefit from early LT evaluation.

  2. Cold Water Fish Gelatin Methacryloyl Hydrogel for Tissue Engineering Application

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Hee Jeong; Shin, Su Ryon; Cha, Jae Min; Lee,Soo-Hong; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Do, Jeong Tae; Song, Hyuk; Bae, Hojae

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) is a versatile biomaterial that has been used in various biomedical fields. Thus far, however, GelMA is mostly obtained from mammalian sources, which are associated with a risk of transmission of diseases, such as mad cow disease, as well as certain religious restrictions. In this study, we synthesized GelMA using fish-derived gelatin by a conventional GelMA synthesis method, and evaluated its physical properties and cell responses. The lower melting point of fish...

  3. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Wen He; Rui Xiong; Yu-Hua Chang

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UD...

  4. Polymer and polymer-hybrid nanoparticles from synthesis to biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rangelov, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric and hybrid nanoparticles have received increased scientific interest in terms of basic research as well as commercial applications, promising a variety of uses for nanostructures in fields including bionanotechnology and medicine. Condensing the relevant research into a comprehensive reference, Polymer and Polymer-Hybrid Nanoparticles: From Synthesis to Biomedical Applications covers an array of topics from synthetic procedures and macromolecular design to possible biomedical applications of nanoparticles and materials based on original and unique polymers. The book presents a well-r

  5. Interface Modifications for Applications in Organic and Hybrid Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Katherine A.

    -type pendant chains. Chapter 4 examines the synthesis of poly(3-methylthiophene) via surface initiated Kumada catalyst transfer polymerization from indium tin oxide where it was found that the thickness of the polymer layers could be controlled by controlling the monomer concentration in solution. These films proved to be robust interface layers that exhibit work functions that are tunable by electrochemical doping; when in the doped state, they show fast electron dynamics, while in the neutral state, they may be applicable as electron blocking layers for organic photovoltaics. In chapter 5, a new method for the in-situ functionalization of CdSe quantum dots with pi-conjugated ligands during synthesis is presented. This technique is useful for controlling the composition of the surface of colloidal CdSe quantum dots when traditional ligand exchange processes prove difficult. This synthetic technique is then used in chapter 6 to functionalize CdSe nanocrystals with poly(3-hexylthiophene) in an attempt to promote good interfacial charge transport properties for use in hybrid photovoltaics. The photophysics of a series of these hybrid CdSe/polymer materials were investigated by steady state and time-resolved spectroscopies, and ultimately it was found that there is a strong propensity for fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the two materials owing to their intimate contact, good resonance, and large spectral overlap. Finally, a brief future work section is presented that is required to wrap up the study of the photophysical processes for these hybrid materials.

  6. Application of a fish health assessment index and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine if the fish health assessment index (HAI) developed in the USA and associated parasite index (PI), when applied to Clarias gariepinus at two localities in the upper and middle Vaal River system, could distinguish between localities on the grounds of water quality. Elevated HAI values ...

  7. Design and deployment of hybrid-telemedicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhu-Omoregbe, N. A.; Atayero, A. A.; Ayo, C. K.; Olugbara, O. O.

    2005-01-01

    With advances and availability of information and communication technology infrastructures in some nations and institutions, patients are now able to receive healthcare services from doctors and healthcare centers even when they are physically separated. The availability and transfer of patient data which often include medical images for specialist opinion is invaluable both to the patient and the medical practitioner in a telemedicine session. Two existing approaches to telemedicine are real-time and stored-and-forward. The real-time requires the availability or development of video-conferencing infrastructures which are expensive especially for most developing nations of the world while stored-and-forward could allow data transmission between any hospital with computer and telephone by landline link which is less expensive but with delays. We therefore propose a hybrid design of applications using hypermedia database capable of harnessing the features of real-time and stored-and-forward deployed over a wireless Virtual Private Network for the participating centers and healthcare providers.

  8. Synthesis, Assembly, and Applications of Hybrid Nanostructures for Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuaidi; Geryak, Ren; Geldmeier, Jeffrey; Kim, Sunghan; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2017-10-25

    The robust, sensitive, and selective detection of targeted biomolecules in their native environment by prospective nanostructures holds much promise for real-time, accurate, and high throughput biosensing. However, in order to be competitive, current biosensor nanotechnologies need significant improvements, especially in specificity, integration, throughput rate, and long-term stability in complex bioenvironments. Advancing biosensing nanotechnologies in chemically "noisy" bioenvironments require careful engineering of nanoscale components that are highly sensitive, biorecognition ligands that are capable of exquisite selective binding, and seamless integration at a level current devices have yet to achieve. This review summarizes recent advances in the synthesis, assembly, and applications of nanoengineered reporting and transducing components critical for efficient biosensing. First, major classes of nanostructured components, both inorganic reporters and organic transducers, are discussed in the context of the synthetic control of their individual compositions, shapes, and properties. Second, the design of surface functionalities and transducing path, the characterization of interfacial architectures, and the integration of multiple nanoscale components into multifunctional ordered nanostructures are extensively examined. Third, examples of current biosensing structures created from hybrid nanomaterials are reviewed, with a distinct emphasis on the need to tailor nanosensor designs to specific operating environments. Finally, we offer a perspective on the future developments of nanohybrid materials and future nanosensors, outline possible directions to be pursued that may yield breakthrough results, and envision the exciting potential of high-performance nanomaterials that will cause disruptive improvements in the field of biosensing.

  9. Application of Hybrid IC's to the Automotive Electronics Market in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    von Roda, Eckart

    1981-01-01

    In the last few years hybrids have been increasingly used in automotive electronics in Europe. With examples from the BOSCH and BLAUPUNKT production range their application in regulators, breakerless ignition modules, electronically-controlled fuel injection systems and car radios is illustrated. The elements and techniques used to assemble the hybrids, and the advantages which can be gained are discussed.

  10. A review and design of power electronics converters for fuel cell hybrid system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of most promising power electronics topologies for a fuel cell hybrid power conversion system which can be utilized in many applications such as hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV), distributed generations (DG) and uninterruptible-power-supply (UPS) systems. Then...

  11. Theory of hybrid dynamical systems and its applications to biological and medical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2010-11-13

    In this introductory article, we survey the contents of this Theme Issue. This Theme Issue deals with a fertile region of hybrid dynamical systems that are characterized by the coexistence of continuous and discrete dynamics. It is now well known that there exist many hybrid dynamical systems with discontinuities such as impact, switching, friction and sliding. The first aim of this Issue is to discuss recent developments in understanding nonlinear dynamics of hybrid dynamical systems in the two main theoretical fields of dynamical systems theory and control systems theory. A combined study of the hybrid systems dynamics in the two theoretical fields might contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of hybrid dynamical systems. In addition, mathematical modelling by hybrid dynamical systems is particularly important for understanding the nonlinear dynamics of biological and medical systems as they have many discontinuities such as threshold-triggered firing in neurons, on-off switching of gene expression by a transcription factor, division in cells and certain types of chronotherapy for prostate cancer. Hence, the second aim is to discuss recent applications of hybrid dynamical systems in biology and medicine. Thus, this Issue is not only general to serve as a survey of recent progress in hybrid systems theory but also specific to introduce interesting and stimulating applications of hybrid systems in biology and medicine. As the introduction to the topics in this Theme Issue, we provide a brief history of nonlinear dynamics and mathematical modelling, different mathematical models of hybrid dynamical systems, the relationship between dynamical systems theory and control systems theory, examples of complex behaviour in a simple neuron model and its variants, applications of hybrid dynamical systems in biology and medicine as a road map of articles in this Theme Issue and future directions of hybrid systems modelling.

  12. Research on the application of hybrid cloud desktop design method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the study of hybrid cloud desktop , proposed technical solutions based on hybrid cloud desktop, On the basis of this, a detailed research and design of the hybrid cloud desktop is carried out, including the architecture of a hybrid cloud desktop solution and the PNS Desktop Virtualization (IDV, PNS Server Virtualization (VDI and PNS QuickCloud cloud storage system integration, to achieve the centralized management and control of the client operating system, convenient and fast to meet the individual needs, centralized data management, the realization of the hybrid cloud desktop computer management, and improve the management level of the computer, improves the efficiency,it is virtual desktop changes to traditional PC desktop.

  13. Hybrid materials and polymer electrolytes for electrochromic device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar; Ding, Guoqiang; Ma, Jan; Lee, Pooi See; Lu, Xuehong

    2012-08-08

    Electrochromic (EC) materials and polymer electrolytes are the most imperative and active components in an electrochromic device (ECD). EC materials are able to reversibly change their light absorption properties in a certain wavelength range via redox reactions stimulated by low direct current (dc) potentials of the order of a fraction of volts to a few volts. The redox switching may result in a change in color of the EC materials owing to the generation of new or changes in absorption band in visible region, infrared or even microwave region. In ECDs the electrochromic layers need to be incorporated with supportive components such as electrical contacts and ion conducting electrolytes. The electrolytes play an indispensable role as the prime ionic conduction medium between the electrodes of the EC materials. The expected applications of the electrochromism in numerous fields such as reflective-type display and smart windows/mirrors make these materials of prime importance. In this article we have reviewed several examples from our research work as well as from other researchers' work, describing the recent advancements on the materials that exhibit visible electrochromism and polymer electrolytes for electrochromic devices. The first part of the review is centered on nanostructured inorganic and conjugated polymer-based organic-inorganic hybrid EC materials. The emphasis has been to correlate the structures, morphologies and interfacial interactions of the EC materials to their electronic and ionic properties that influence the EC properties with unique advantages. The second part illustrates the perspectives of polymer electrolytes in electrochromic applications with emphasis on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) based polymer electrolytes. The requirements and approaches to optimize the formulation of electrolytes for feasible electrochromic devices have been delineated. Copyright © 2012 WILEY

  14. Diagnosis of a constitutional five-chromosome rearrangement by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsien, F.; Shapira, E. [Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Carvalho, T. [Hospital Sarah Kubitschek, Brasilia (Brazil)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements are structural rearrangements involving at least three chromosomes and three or more chromosome breakpoints. Such karyotypes are often acquired during cancer multi-step development and in chromosome instability syndromes. However, extremely rare constitutional forms have been reported, most of which are incompatible with life. We present a 2-year-old female with de novo complex rearrangement consisting of five chromosomes and nine breakpoints. Clinical evaluation at two years of age revealed a weight of 5 kg, length of 66 cm, and had circumference of 38 cm, all below the 5th percentile, microcephaly, trigonocephaly, epicanthal folds, inguinal hernia, left clubfoot, hypertonicity, and developmental delay. The neurological examination revealed chorea-acanthocytosis and psychomotor delay. Cultured lymphocytes and fibroblasts revealed a karyotype consisting of five derivative chromosomes. The metaphases were further analyzed by FISH using chromosome-specific libraries and telomeric probes in order to delineate the composition of the rearranged chromosomes; FISH results demonstrated a karyotype of: 46,XX,1pter{r_arrow}1q25::1q42.1{r_arrow}1qter, 2pter{r_arrow}q32.3::1q32.3{r_arrow}2q41::2q37.3{r_arrow}2qter, 7qter{r_arrow}7q21.2::6q22.3{r_arrow}6qter::1q31{r_arrow}1q32.3::6p23{r_arrow}6q22.3, 7pter{r_arrow}7q21.1::6p23{r_arrow}6pter, 2q33{r_arrow}2q37, 1::9p21{r_arrow}9qter. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of FISH in characterizing complex chromosome rearrangements otherwise difficult to correctly interpret using classical cytogenetics alone.

  15. LNA flow-FISH: a flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization method to detect messenger RNA using locked nucleic acid probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kelly L; Thach, Dzung C

    2009-07-15

    We present a novel method using flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow-FISH) to detect specific messenger RNA (mRNA) in suspended cells using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified oligonucleotide probes. beta-Actin mRNA was targeted in whole A549 epithelial cells by hybridization with a biotinylated, LNA-modified probe. The LNA bound to beta-actin was then stained using phycoerythrin-conjugated streptavidin and detected by flow cytometry. Shifts in fluorescence signal intensity between the beta-actin LNA probe and a biotinylated, nonspecific control LNA were used to determine optimal conditions for this type of flow-FISH. Multiple conditions for permeabilization and hybridization were tested, and it was found that conditions using 3 microg/ml of proteinase K for permeabilization and 90 min hybridization at 60 degrees C with buffer containing 50% formamide allow cells containing the LNA-bound mRNA to be detected and differentiated from the control LNA with high confidence (FISH, can be used for detection and quantification of other RNA species as well as for telomerase measurement and detection.

  16. Distinguishing between incomplete lineage sorting and genomic introgressions: complete fixation of allospecific mitochondrial DNA in a sexually reproducing fish (Cobitis; Teleostei, despite clonal reproduction of hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Choleva

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between hybrid introgression and incomplete lineage sorting causing incongruence among gene trees in that they exhibit topological differences requires application of statistical approaches that are based on biologically relevant models. Such study is especially challenging in hybrid systems, where usual vectors mediating interspecific gene transfers--hybrids with Mendelian heredity--are absent or unknown. Here we study a complex of hybridizing species, which are known to produce clonal hybrids, to discover how one of the species, Cobitis tanaitica, has achieved a pattern of mito-nuclear mosaic genome over the whole geographic range. We appplied three distinct methods, including the method using solely the information on gene tree topologies, and found that the contrasting mito-nuclear signal might not have resulted from the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we found two signs of hybridization events related to C. tanaitica; one concerning nuclear gene flow and the other suggested mitochondrial capture. Interestingly, clonal inheritance (gynogenesis of contemporary hybrids prevents genomic introgressions and non-clonal hybrids are either absent or too rare to be detected among European Cobitis. Our analyses therefore suggest that introgressive hybridizations are rather old episodes, mediated by previously existing hybrids whose inheritance was not entirely clonal. Cobitis complex thus supports the view that the type of resulting hybrids depends on a level of genomic divergence between sexual species.

  17. Stochastic von Bertalanffy models, with applications to fish recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiming; Pitchford, Jonathan W

    2007-02-21

    We consider three individual-based models describing growth in stochastic environments. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) with identical von Bertalanffy deterministic parts are formulated, with a stochastic term which decreases, remains constant, or increases with organism size, respectively. Probability density functions for hitting times are evaluated in the context of fish growth and mortality. Solving the hitting time problem analytically or numerically shows that stochasticity can have a large positive impact on fish recruitment probability. It is also demonstrated that the observed mean growth rate of surviving individuals always exceeds the mean population growth rate, which itself exceeds the growth rate of the equivalent deterministic model. The consequences of these results in more general biological situations are discussed.

  18. Synthetic Dye - Inorganic Salt Hybrid Colorants for Application in Thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen Gao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Common synthetic dyes, e.g., Weak Acid Pink Red B (APRB, C.I. 18073, Mordant Blue 9 (MB, C.I.14855 and Acid Brilliant Blue 6B (ABB6B, C.I. 42660, can be removed from water by in situ hybridization with CaCO3, BaSO4 and Ca3(PO42 and the resulting hybrids thus prepared used as plastic colorants. All the hybrids can be processed into polypropylene (PP at 200 °C with good color intensity, color brightness and homogeneous dispersion. The BaSO4-MB hybrid exhibits better migration resistance to acid and alkali, and stronger covering power than the BaSO4-MB mixture. The thermal stability and UV resistance of the Ca3(PO42-ABB6B hybrid are better than those of the Ca3(PO42-ABB6B mixture. The crystallinity of PP is enhanced by incorporation of these hybrids and the use of these hybrids as colorants in PP instead of the dyes alone is determined to be feasible.

  19. Application of biotechnology in fish breeding. II: production of highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    (5.25±1.00 g and 7.12±0.50 cm, respectively) were divided randomly into five groups and tagged individually by transbody tags method (Nielsen, 1992), using Tag-gun. Each group was stocked separately at a rate of 1.0 fish/17.5L in a half of rectangle fiberglass tank (total volume, 350 L), which was divided by plastic sieved.

  20. Applications for next-generation sequencing in fish ecotoxicogenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvine C Mehinto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The new technologies for next-generation sequencing and global gene expression analyses that are widely used in molecular medicine are increasingly applied to the field of fish biology. This has facilitated new directions to address research areas that could not be previously considered due to the lack of molecular information for ecologically relevant species. Over the past decade, the cost of next-generation sequencing (NGS has decreased significantly, making it possible to use non-model fish species to investigate emerging environmental issues. NGS technologies have permitted researchers to obtain large amounts of raw data in short periods of time. There have also been significant improvements in bioinformatics to assemble the sequences and annotate the genes, thus facilitating the management of these large datasets. The combination of DNA sequencing and bioinformatics has improved our abilities to design custom microarrays and study the genome and transcriptome of a wide variety of organisms. Despite the promising results obtained using these techniques in fish studies, NGS technologies are currently underused in ecotoxicogenomics and few studies have employed these methods. These issues should be addressed in order to exploit the full potential of NGS in ecotoxicological studies and expand our understanding of the biology of non-model organisms.

  1. Hybrid High-Temperature Superconductor Current Leads for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Tai-Yang Research Company (TYRC) of Tallahassee, Florida proposes to build hybrid high-temperature superconducting current leads for space applications,...

  2. Perspective for Fibre-Hybrid Composites in Wind Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yentl Swolfs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the efficiency of wind turbines will be vital for the wind energy sector to continue growing. The drive for increased efficiency is pushing turbine manufacturers to shift from glass fibre composite blades towards carbon/glass fibre-hybrid composite blades. This shift brings significant challenges in terms of optimising the design and understanding the failure of these new blade materials. This review therefore surveys the literature on fibre-hybrid composites, with an emphasis on aspects that are relevant for turbine blade materials. The literature on tensile, flexural, compressive, and fatigue performance is critically assessed and areas for future research are identified. Numerical simulations of fibre-hybrid composites have reached a reasonable maturity for tensile failure, but significant progress is required for flexural, compressive, and fatigue failure. Fatigue failure of fibre-hybrid composites in particular, requires more careful attention from both a modelling and experimental point of view.

  3. Perspective for Fibre-Hybrid Composites in Wind Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swolfs, Yentl

    2017-11-08

    Increasing the efficiency of wind turbines will be vital for the wind energy sector to continue growing. The drive for increased efficiency is pushing turbine manufacturers to shift from glass fibre composite blades towards carbon/glass fibre-hybrid composite blades. This shift brings significant challenges in terms of optimising the design and understanding the failure of these new blade materials. This review therefore surveys the literature on fibre-hybrid composites, with an emphasis on aspects that are relevant for turbine blade materials. The literature on tensile, flexural, compressive, and fatigue performance is critically assessed and areas for future research are identified. Numerical simulations of fibre-hybrid composites have reached a reasonable maturity for tensile failure, but significant progress is required for flexural, compressive, and fatigue failure. Fatigue failure of fibre-hybrid composites in particular, requires more careful attention from both a modelling and experimental point of view.

  4. Copy number aberrations using multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for prognostication in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NIMBC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Hideyasu; Ikemoto, Kenzo; Eguchi, Satoshi; Oga, Atsunori; Kawauchi, Shigeto; Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Kawai, Yoshihisa; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Hara, Takahiko; Nagao, Kazuhiro; Sakano, Shigeru; Sasaki, Kohsuke

    2014-04-01

    To investigate if detection of copy number aberrations of chromosomes 3, 7, 9p21, and 17 using multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) predicts patient outcome in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). In all, 118 bladder wash samples were prospectively collected from patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumour (median age 50.5 years, male/female: 91/27, tumour grade 1/2/3: 18/52/42, stage pTis/Ta/T1: 8/62/42) from 2007 to 2010. The 118 samples were analysed using the UroVysion® kit to detect the copy numbers of chromosomes 3, 7, 9p21, and 17. The variant fraction (VF; the sum of the non-modal copy number fraction of each chromosome) was defined as abnormal when the percentage was ≥16%. The percentage deletion of 9p21 (fraction of null or one copy number of the 9p21 locus) was defined as abnormal when the percentage was ≥12%. Maffezzini risk criteria were also analysed in our cohorts. There was recurrence in 57 (48.3%) patients and disease progression in 12 (10.1%), with a median follow-up of 35.7 months. Multivariate analysis showed that the percentage 9p21 loss (>12%) was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence (P situ, and a mean VF of >16% were significant prognostic factors in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, a mean VF of >16% was a prognostic factor for disease progression (P = 0.048, OR 6.07, 95% CI 1.02-57.45). Multicolour-FISH analysis using a commercially available kit could be a powerful tool not only for diagnosis, but also for prognostication in patients with NMIBC. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  5. Identification of intracellular bacteria in adenoid and tonsil tissue specimens: the efficiency of culture versus fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępińska, M; Olszewska-Sosińska, O; Lau-Dworak, M; Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, B; Trafny, E A

    2014-01-01

    Monocyte/macrophage cells from human nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue can be a source of bacteria responsible for human chronic and recurrent upper respiratory tract infection. Detection and characterization of pathogens surviving intracellularly could be a key element in bacteriological diagnosis of the infections as well as in the study on interactions between bacteria and their host. The present study was undertaken to assess the possibility of isolation of viable bacteria from the cells expressing monocyte/macrophage marker CD14 in nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue. Overall, 74 adenotonsillectomy specimens (adenoids and tonsils) from 37 children with adenoid hypertrophy and recurrent infections as well as 15 specimens from nine children with adenoid hypertrophy, which do not suffer from upper respiratory tract infections (the control group), were studied. The suitability of immunomagnetic separation for extraction of CD14(+) cells from lymphoid tissue and for further isolation of the intracellular pathogens has been shown. The coexistence of living pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes with the bacteria representing normal nasopharyngeal microbiota inside CD14(+) cells was demonstrated. Twenty-four strains of these pathogens from 32.4 % of the lysates of CD14(+) cells were isolated. Concurrently, the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a universal EUB388, and the species-specific probes demonstrated twice more often the persistence of these bacterial species in the lysates of CD14(+) cells than conventional culture. Although the FISH technique appears to be more sensitive than traditional culture in the intracellular bacteria identification, the doubts on whether the bacteria are alive, and therefore, pathogenic would still exist without the strain cultivation.

  6. Application of Hybrid Dynamical Theory to the Cardiovascular System

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2014-10-14

    In hybrid dynamical systems, the state evolves in continuous time as well as in discrete modes activated by internal conditions or by external events. In the recent years, hybrid systems modeling has been used to represent the dynamics of biological systems. In such systems, discrete behaviors might originate from unexpected changes in normal performance, e.g., a transition from a healthy to an abnormal condition. Simplifications, model assumptions, and/or modeled (and ignored) nonlinearities can be represented by sudden changes in the state. Modeling cardiovascular system (CVS), one of the most fascinating but most complex human physiological systems, with a hybrid approach, is the focus of this chapter. The hybrid property appears naturally in the CVS thanks to the presence of valves which, depending on their state (closed or open), divide the cardiac cycle into four phases. This chapter shows how hybrid models can be used for modeling the CVS. In addition, it describes a preliminary study on the detection of some cardiac anomalies based on the hybrid model and using the standard observer-based approach.

  7. Discriminating multi-species populations in biofilms with peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carina; Azevedo, Nuno F; Santos, Sílvio; Keevil, Charles W; Vieira, Maria J

    2011-03-29

    Our current understanding of biofilms indicates that these structures are typically composed of many different microbial species. However, the lack of reliable techniques for the discrimination of each population has meant that studies focusing on multi-species biofilms are scarce and typically generate qualitative rather than quantitative data. We employ peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) methods to quantify and visualize mixed biofilm populations. As a case study, we present the characterization of Salmonella enterica/Listeria monocytogenes/Escherichia coli single, dual and tri-species biofilms in seven different support materials. Ex-situ, we were able to monitor quantitatively the populations of ∼56 mixed species biofilms up to 48 h, regardless of the support material. In situ, a correct quantification remained more elusive, but a qualitative understanding of biofilm structure and composition is clearly possible by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) at least up to 192 h. Combining the data obtained from PNA FISH/CLSM with data from other established techniques and from calculated microbial parameters, we were able to develop a model for this tri-species biofilm. The higher growth rate and exopolymer production ability of E. coli probably led this microorganism to outcompete the other two [average cell numbers (cells/cm(2)) for 48 h biofilm: E. coli 2,1 × 10(8) (± 2,4 × 10(7)); L. monocytogenes 6,8 × 10(7) (± 9,4 × 10(6)); and S. enterica 1,4 × 10(6) (± 4,1 × 10(5))]. This overgrowth was confirmed by CSLM, with two well-defined layers being easily identified: the top one with E. coli, and the bottom one with mixed regions of L. monocytogenes and S. enterica. While PNA FISH has been described previously for the qualitative study of biofilm populations, the present investigation demonstrates that it can also be used for the accurate quantification and spatial distribution of species in polymicrobial communities

  8. Complex FISH probes for the subtelomeric regions of all human chromosomes: comparative hybridization of CEPH YACs to chromosomes of the Old World monkey Presbytis cristata and great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, K; Wirth, J; van der Maarel, S; Freier, S; Ropers, H H; Haaf, T

    1997-01-01

    We have generated a human subtelomere probe panel, utilizing well characterized CEPH YACs, for the investigation of human chromosome pathology and evolution through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Region-specific FISH probes will be extremely valuable for detecting cytogenetically cryptic telomere abnormalities. Here, we present the first comparative mapping study (with 29 subtelomere probes and 6 chromosome paints) to the Old World monkey Presbytis cristata, followed by hybridizations to the great apes, gorilla and orangutan, when rearrangements were detected. We observed that the position of telomere-associated genomic sequences has been only moderately conserved during primate evolution. YAC 364f9, specific for the subtelomeric long arm of human chromosome 3, contains an evolutionary inversion breakpoint that was involved in independent chromosome rearrangements in P. cristata and gorilla.

  9. Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): A Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    Friedrich, U. & Lenke, J. Improved Enumeration of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Mesophilic Dairy Starter Cultures by Using Multiplex Quantitative Real...messenger RNA using locked nucleic acid probes. Anal. Biochem. 390, 109-114 (2009). 13. Waters, L. & Storz, G. Regulatory RNAs in bacteria . Cell. 136, 615...Video Article Locked Nucleic Acid Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in situ Hybridization (LNA flow-FISH): a Method for Bacterial Small RNA Detection Kelly

  10. Comparison Study of Two Semi-Active Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications and Their Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Min

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Both the battery/supercapacitor (SC and SC/battery are two common semi-active configurations of hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs in hybrid electric vehicles, which can take advantage of the battery’s and supercapacitor’s respective characteristics, including the energy ability, power ability and the long lifetime. To explore in depth the characteristics and applicability of the two kinds of HESS, an analysis and comparison study is proposed in this paper. Based on the data collected from public transit hybrid electric bus (PTHEB with battery-only on-board energy storage, the range and distribution probability of electric power/energy demand is comprehensively statistically analyzed with the decomposing and normalizing methods. Accordingly, the performance of each topology under different parameter matching conditions but same mass, volume and cost values with battery-only energy storage, are presented and compared quantitatively. The results show that both HESS configurations can meet the electric power demand of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV through reasonable design. In particular, the SC/battery can make better use of the SC features resulting in high efficiency and long life cycles compared with the battery/SC. Equally, it proves that the SC/battery topology is a better choice for the HEV. Finally, an experimental validation of a real HEV is carried out, which indicated that a 7% fuel economy improvement can be achieved by a SC/battery system compared with battery-only topology.

  11. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maressa Ferreira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers.

  12. A Review of Artificial Lateral Line in Sensor Fabrication and Bionic Applications for Robot Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijie Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral line is a system of sense organs that can aid fishes to maneuver in a dark environment. Artificial lateral line (ALL imitates the structure of lateral line in fishes and provides invaluable means for underwater-sensing technology and robot fish control. This paper reviews ALL, including sensor fabrication and applications to robot fish. The biophysics of lateral line are first introduced to enhance the understanding of lateral line structure and function. The design and fabrication of an ALL sensor on the basis of various sensing principles are then presented. ALL systems are collections of sensors that include carrier and control circuit. Their structure and hydrodynamic detection are reviewed. Finally, further research trends and existing problems of ALL are discussed.

  13. A Review of Artificial Lateral Line in Sensor Fabrication and Bionic Applications for Robot Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guijie; Wang, Anyi; Wang, Xinbao; Liu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Lateral line is a system of sense organs that can aid fishes to maneuver in a dark environment. Artificial lateral line (ALL) imitates the structure of lateral line in fishes and provides invaluable means for underwater-sensing technology and robot fish control. This paper reviews ALL, including sensor fabrication and applications to robot fish. The biophysics of lateral line are first introduced to enhance the understanding of lateral line structure and function. The design and fabrication of an ALL sensor on the basis of various sensing principles are then presented. ALL systems are collections of sensors that include carrier and control circuit. Their structure and hydrodynamic detection are reviewed. Finally, further research trends and existing problems of ALL are discussed.

  14. DNA barcoding and microsatellites help species delimitation and hybrid identification in endangered galaxiid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Vanhaecke

    Full Text Available The conservation of data deficient species is often hampered by inaccurate species delimitation. The galaxiid fishes Aplochiton zebra and Aplochiton taeniatus are endemic to Patagonia (and for A. zebra the Falkland Islands, where they are threatened by invasive salmonids. Conservation of Aplochiton is complicated because species identification is hampered by the presence of resident as well as migratory ecotypes that may confound morphological discrimination. We used DNA barcoding (COI, cytochrome b and a new developed set of microsatellite markers to investigate the relationships between A. zebra and A. taeniatus and to assess their distributions and relative abundances in Chilean Patagonia and the Falkland Islands. Results from both DNA markers were 100% congruent and revealed that phenotypic misidentification was widespread, size-dependent, and highly asymmetric. While all the genetically classified A. zebra were correctly identified as such, 74% of A. taeniatus were incorrectly identified as A. zebra, the former species being more widespread than previously thought. Our results reveal, for the first time, the presence in sympatry of both species, not only in Chilean Patagonia, but also in the Falkland Islands, where A. taeniatus had not been previously described. We also found evidence of asymmetric hybridisation between female A. taeniatus and male A. zebra in areas where invasive salmonids have become widespread. Given the potential consequences that species misidentification and hybridisation can have for the conservation of these endangered species, we advocate the use of molecular markers in order to reduce epistemic uncertainty.

  15. DNA barcoding and microsatellites help species delimitation and hybrid identification in endangered galaxiid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaecke, Delphine; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Young, Kyle; Sanzana, Jose; Orellana, Gabriel; Fowler, Daniel; Howes, Paul; Monzon-Arguello, Catalina; Consuegra, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of data deficient species is often hampered by inaccurate species delimitation. The galaxiid fishes Aplochiton zebra and Aplochiton taeniatus are endemic to Patagonia (and for A. zebra the Falkland Islands), where they are threatened by invasive salmonids. Conservation of Aplochiton is complicated because species identification is hampered by the presence of resident as well as migratory ecotypes that may confound morphological discrimination. We used DNA barcoding (COI, cytochrome b) and a new developed set of microsatellite markers to investigate the relationships between A. zebra and A. taeniatus and to assess their distributions and relative abundances in Chilean Patagonia and the Falkland Islands. Results from both DNA markers were 100% congruent and revealed that phenotypic misidentification was widespread, size-dependent, and highly asymmetric. While all the genetically classified A. zebra were correctly identified as such, 74% of A. taeniatus were incorrectly identified as A. zebra, the former species being more widespread than previously thought. Our results reveal, for the first time, the presence in sympatry of both species, not only in Chilean Patagonia, but also in the Falkland Islands, where A. taeniatus had not been previously described. We also found evidence of asymmetric hybridisation between female A. taeniatus and male A. zebra in areas where invasive salmonids have become widespread. Given the potential consequences that species misidentification and hybridisation can have for the conservation of these endangered species, we advocate the use of molecular markers in order to reduce epistemic uncertainty.

  16. Analysis of the chromosomal aneuploidy by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix in Jammu region of J and K state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotra, Roopali; Gupta, Shashi; Koul, Sumit; Gupta, Subash

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to analyze the chromosomal changes obtained by using FISH. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful technique used in the detection of chromosomal abnormalities. During the present study, FISH technique was carried out in 26 cases of Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix using Centromere Enumeration Probes, CEP for chromosome 3 and 17. Statistical tests including ANOVA and Chi square tests were used to analyze the numerical chromosome aberration data obtained by FISH analysis. FISH technique was also carried out in 10 healthy samples (control) by using both CEP 3 and CEP 17 probe. FISH results of CEP 3 in the present study showed the frequent gains of chromosome 3 in Squamous cell carcinoma over the chromosome 17. ANOVA results were found to be significant for both CEP 3 and CEP-17 in Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Chi square test (disease v/s control) was also used to study the significant difference between the patients and the controls and it was found to be significant for both chromosomes 3 and 17.

  17. Hybrid photomultipliers – their properties and application in scintillation studies

    CERN Document Server

    Mares, J A

    2007-01-01

    A principle of a hybrid photodetection and of a hybrid photomultiplier (HPMT) will be described. HPMT consists of a photocathode and an anode which is the silicon PIN diode. About 280 electron–hole pairs per 1 kV and up to 15 kV accelerating voltage can be used. From beginning of nineties of the last century the HPMTs are used in scintillation response studies. They show high sensitivity in the measurements of Nphels photoelectron yield starting from 20 ph/MeV (at PbWO4) without an upper limit.

  18. Photonic applications based on biological/inorganic nano hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Pengfei; Yelleswarapu, Chandra

    2016-02-01

    Biological Retinal is an effective and efficient photochromic compounds and one of the best candidates for photon conversion, transmission and storage, from the view of bionics and natural selection. We observed large optical nonlinearity by using new fabricated films of photoactive Retinol hybrid materials. Based on reversible photoinduced anisotropy and transient optical characteristics, the Retinol hybrids can be used to design novel photonic devices, such as holographic elements, all-optical switch and spatial light modulator. Also, the study is important for further understanding the photochemical mechanism of vision process.

  19. Development of hybrid directionally reinforced structural parts for lightweight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Werner; Rostek, Tim; Schaper, Mirko; Grydin, Olexandr; Andreiev, Anatolii; Brosius, Alexander; Tulke, Marc

    2017-10-01

    Hybrid materials often provide significantly improved characteristics when compared with traditional materials. Common examples include demands for a light weight and for anisotropic strength. This paper covers the design and manufacture of structural parts made from titanium reinforced aluminium sheets. The first step is a metal cladding for producing hybrid sheet materials as semi-finished products for a variety of sheet metal parts. These require suitably adjusted metalworking processes to achieve the desired reshaping. Here, FEM techniques facilitate both product design and the forming operations involved.

  20. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation on a Hybrid Power System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen He

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on the dynamic models a comparative simulation between a battery only power system and the proposed hybrid power system was done under the UDDS (Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. The simulation results showed that the hybrid power system could greatly optimize and improve the efficiency of the batteries and their dynamic current was also decreased due to the participation of the ultracapacitors, which would have a good influence on batteries’ cycle life. Finally, the parameter matching for the passive hybrid power system was studied by simulation and comparisons.

  1. FISH-Flow, a protocol for the concurrent detection of mRNA and protein in single cells using fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigucci, Riccardo; Bushkin, Yuri; Radford, Felix; Lakehal, Karim; Vir, Pooja; Pine, Richard; Martin, December; Sugarman, Jeffrey; Zhao, Yanlin; Yap, George S; Lardizabal, Alfred A; Tyagi, Sanjay; Gennaro, Maria Laura

    2017-01-01

    We describe a flow-cytometry-based protocol for intracellular mRNA measurements in nonadherent mammalian cells using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes. The method, which we call FISH-Flow, allows for high-throughput multiparametric measurements of gene expression, a task that was not feasible with earlier, microscopy-based approaches. The FISH-Flow protocol involves cell fixation, permeabilization and hybridization with a set of fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes. In this protocol, surface and intracellular protein markers can also be stained with fluorescently labeled antibodies for simultaneous protein and mRNA measurement. Moreover, a semiautomated, single-tube version of the protocol can be performed with a commercially available cell-wash device that reduces cell loss, operator time and interoperator variability. It takes ~30 h to perform this protocol. An example of FISH-Flow measurements of cytokine mRNA induction by ex vivo stimulation of primed T cells with specific antigens is described. PMID:28518171

  2. Environmentally responsive optical microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Aizenberg, Michael; Kim, Philseok

    2016-01-05

    Microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies in which microactuators carrying designed surface properties to be revealed upon actuation are embedded in a layer of responsive materials. The microactuators in a microactuator array reversibly change their configuration in response to a change in the environment without requiring an external power source to switch their optical properties.

  3. An electrochemical-cantilever platform for hybrid sensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Dohn, Søren; Boisen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a fully-functional, microfabricated electrochemical-cantilever hybrid platform with flow control. A new cantilever chip format is designed, fabricated, and mounted in a custom polymer flow cell. Issues such as leakage and optical/electrical access are addressed, and combined me...

  4. Performance modeling of hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel\\'s MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ting

    2010-07-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD

  6. Carbon nanotube-bonded graphene hybrid aerogels and their application to water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeongho; Lee, Sangil; Lee, Minwoo; Jeong, Dae Hong; Baek, Youngbin; Yoon, Jeyong; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2015-04-01

    We present carbon nanotube (CNT)-bonded graphene hybrid aerogels that are prepared by growing CNTs on a graphene aerogel surface with nickel catalyst. The presence of bonded CNTs in the graphene aerogel results in vastly improved mechanical and electrical properties. A significant increase in specific surface area is also realized. The presence of the CNTs transforms the hybrid aerogels into a mesoporous material. The viscoelasticity of the hybrid aerogels is found to be invariant with respect to temperature over a range of between -150 °C and 450 °C. These characteristics along with the improved properties make the hybrid aerogels an entirely different class of material with applications in the fields of biotechnology and electrochemistry. The mesoporous nature of the material along with its high specific surface area also makes the hybrid aerogel attractive for application in water treatment. Both anionic and cationic dyes can be effectively removed from water by the hybrid aerogel. A number of organics and oils can be selectively separated from water by the hybrid aerogel. The hybrid aerogel is easy to handle and separate from water due to its magnetic nature, and can readily be recycled and reused.We present carbon nanotube (CNT)-bonded graphene hybrid aerogels that are prepared by growing CNTs on a graphene aerogel surface with nickel catalyst. The presence of bonded CNTs in the graphene aerogel results in vastly improved mechanical and electrical properties. A significant increase in specific surface area is also realized. The presence of the CNTs transforms the hybrid aerogels into a mesoporous material. The viscoelasticity of the hybrid aerogels is found to be invariant with respect to temperature over a range of between -150 °C and 450 °C. These characteristics along with the improved properties make the hybrid aerogels an entirely different class of material with applications in the fields of biotechnology and electrochemistry. The mesoporous nature

  7. On the origins and industrial applications of Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces kudriavzevii hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2017-10-12

    Companies based on alcoholic fermentation products, such as wine, beer, and biofuels, use yeasts to make their products. Each industrial process utilizes different media conditions, which differ in sugar content, the presence of inhibitors, and fermentation temperatures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has traditionally been the main yeast responsible for most fermentation processes. However, the market is changing due to the consumer demands or external factors, such as climate change. Some processes, such as biofuel production or winemaking, require new yeasts to solve specific challenges, especially those associated with sustainability, novel flavors, and altered alcohol contents. One of the proposed solutions is the application of yeast hybrids. The lager beer market has been dominated by S. cerevisiae x Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrids. However, several less thoroughly studied hybrids have been isolated from other diverse industrial processes. Here we focus on S. cerevisiae x Saccharomyces kudriavzevii hybrids, which have been isolated from diverse industrial conditions that include wine, ale beer, cider, and dietary supplements. Emerging data suggest an extended and complex story of adaptation of these hybrids to traditional industrial conditions. S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids are also being explored for new industrial applications, such as biofuels. This review describes the past, present, and future of S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Applicability of ELISA to screen for dioxin-like PCBs in retail fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, T.; Amakura, Y.; Sasaki, K.; Maitani, T. [National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Okuyama, A.; Mizukami, H. [EnBioTec Laboratories Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanioka, Y.; Ueda, K.; Sakata, K. [Daiichi Fine Chemical Co., Ltd., Toyama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The group of dioxin-like PCBs, consisting of four non-ortho PCBs and eight mono-ortho PCBs, is classified among the dioxins. Humans are considerably exposed to dioxin through consumption of fish in Japan. The TEQ contribution of dioxin-like PCBs in fish is dominant, contributing about 70% of the total TEQ. Therefore, it is important to reveal TEQ levels of dioxin-like PCBs as well as PCDD/Fs in retail fish. HRGC/HRMS is currently the most widely used method to determine levels of dioxin-like PCBs. This method is very reliable and highly sensitive, but it is also timeconsuming and requires expensive equipment and highly trained analysts. One possible alternative method for screening dioxin-like PCBs is a bioassay, such as an ELISA. We recently developed an ELISA kit using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific to 2,3{sup '},4,4{sup '},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118). PCB 118 is generally the most abundant isomer among dioxin-like PCBs in fish, although it has a relatively small contribution to the total TEQ derived from dioxin-like PCBs. Based on our HRGC/HRMS data, we found that the concentrations of PCB 118 correlated well to the TEQ levels of dioxin-like PCBs in retail fish (r>0.85, n = 181). Here, we examined the application of the ELISA kit in determining TEQ levels of dioxin-like PCBs in retail fish.

  9. Potential use of DNA barcodes in regulatory science: applications of the Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancy, Haile F; Zemlak, Tyler S; Mason, Jacquline A; Washington, Jewell D; Tenge, Bradley J; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan T; Barnett, James D; Savary, Warren E; Hill, Walter E; Moore, Michelle M; Fry, Frederick S; Randolph, Spring C; Rogers, Patricia L; Hebert, Paul D N

    2008-01-01

    The use of a DNA-based identification system (DNA barcoding) founded on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was investigated for updating the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia (RFE; http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/-frf/rfe0.html). The RFE is a compilation of data used to identify fish species. It was compiled to help regulators identify species substitution that could result in potential adverse health consequences or could be a source of economic fraud. For each of many aquatic species commonly sold in the United States, the RFE includes high-resolution photographs of whole fish and their marketed product forms and species-specific biochemical patterns for authenticated fish species. These patterns currently include data from isoelectric focusing studies. In this article, we describe the generation of DNA barcodes for 172 individual authenticated fish representing 72 species from 27 families contained in the RFE. These barcode sequences can be used as an additional identification resource. In a blind study, 60 unknown fish muscle samples were barcoded, and the results were compared with the RFE barcode reference library. All 60 samples were correctly identified to species based on the barcoding data. Our study indicates that DNA barcoding can be a powerful tool for species identification and has broad potential applications.

  10. High quality factor multi-layer symmetric hybrid plasmonic microresonator for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Wu, Genzhu

    2017-11-01

    A multi-layer symmetric hybrid plasmonic microresonator with two high-index dielectric microrings symmetrically near the metallic structure is proposed. Benefiting from introducing two dielectric rings near the metal, the multi-layer hybrid plasmonic microresonator has a high quality factor about 10,000, while still capable of retaining a small mode volume around 1 . 27 μm3. As a potential application, the symmetric hybrid microresonator with air-filled gap regions could be used for sensing with a sensitivity high of 210 nm per refraction index unit, a large figure of merit of 1319 due to the high quality factor.

  11. Influence of processing parameters on long lasting hybrid phosphor for LED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Abhilasha, E-mail: abhilasha.vnit@gmail.com; Kumar, Ashwini; Peshwe, D. R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, VNIT, Nagpur-440010 (India); Dhoble, S. J. [Department of Physics, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur-440033 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Rare earth activated hybrid phosphors have made significant progress in terms of better light output, color properties and potential for long life. All these features coupled with low cost production and reduced maintenance have offered phosphor converted LEDs for diverse optoelectronic applications including signal lighting in advanced aviation. The present paper explores the effect of various processing parameters on luminescent hybrid phosphors fabricated through combustion synthesis.

  12. New applications of the Comet assay: Comet-FISH and transcription-coupled DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Graciela; Cox, Rachel A; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2009-01-01

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is a pathway dedicated to the removal of damage from the template strands of actively transcribed genes. Although the detailed mechanism of TCR is not yet understood, it is believed to be triggered when a translocating RNA polymerase is arrested at a lesion or unusual structure in the DNA. Conventional assays for TCR require high doses of DNA damage for the statistical analysis of repair in the individual strands of DNA sequences ranging in size from a few hundred bases to 30kb. The single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay allows detection of single- or double-strand breaks at a 10-100-fold higher level of resolution. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with the Comet assay (Comet-FISH) affords a heightened level of sensitivity for the assessment of repair in defined DNA sequences of cells treated with physiologically relevant doses of genotoxins. This approach also reveals localized susceptibility to chromosomal breakage in cells from individuals with hypersensitivity to radiation or chemotherapy. Several groups have reported preferential repair in transcriptionally active genes or chromosomal domains using Comet-FISH. The prevailing interpretation of the behavior of DNA in the Comet assay assumes that the DNA is arranged in loops and matrix-attachment sites; that supercoiled, undamaged loops are contained within the nuclear matrix and appear in Comet "heads", and that Comet "tails" consist of relaxed DNA loops containing one or more breaks. According to this model, localization of FISH probes in Comet heads signifies that loops containing the targeted sequences are free of damage. This implies that preferential repair as detected by Comet-FISH might encompass large chromosomal domains containing both transcribed and non-transcribed sequences. We review the existing evidence and discuss the implications in relation to current models for the molecular mechanism of TCR.

  13. New Applications of the Comet Assay: Comet-FISH and Transcription-Coupled DNA Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Rachel A.; Hanawalt, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is a pathway dedicated to the removal of damage from the template strands of actively transcribed genes. Although the detailed mechanism of TCR is not yet understood, it is believed to be triggered when a translocating RNA polymerase is arrested at a lesion or unusual structure in the DNA. Conventional assays for TCR require high doses of DNA damage for the statistical analysis of repair in the individual strands of DNA sequences ranging in size from a few hundred bases to 30 kb. The single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay allows detection of single-or double-strand breaks at a 10 to 100-fold higher level of resolution. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with the Comet assay (Comet-FISH) affords a heightened level of sensitivity for the assessment of repair in defined DNA sequences of cells treated with physiologically relevant doses of genotoxins. This approach also reveals localized susceptibility to chromosomal breakage in cells from individuals with hypersensitivity to radiation or chemotherapy. Several groups have reported preferential repair in transcriptionally active genes or chromosomal domains using Comet-FISH. The prevailing interpretation of the behavior of DNA in the Comet assay assumes that the DNA is arranged in loops and matrix-attachment sites; that supercoiled, undamaged loops are contained within the nuclear matrix and appear in Comet “heads”, and that Comet “tails” consist of relaxed DNA loops containing one or more breaks. According to this model, localization of FISH probes in Comet heads signifies that loops containing the targeted sequences are free of damage. This implies that preferential repair as detected by Comet-FISH might encompass large chromosomal domains containing both transcribed and non-transcribed sequences. We review the existing evidence and discuss the implications in relation to current models for the molecular mechanism of TCR. PMID:18291710

  14. HER2 Gene Amplification Testing by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH): Comparison of the ASCO-College of American Pathologists Guidelines With FISH Scores Used for Enrollment in Breast Cancer International Research Group Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Guido; Buyse, Marc; Fourmanoir, Hélène; Quinaux, Emmanuel; Tsao-Wei, Denice D.; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Robert, Nicholas; Pienkowski, Tadeusz; Crown, John; Martin, Miguel; Valero, Vicente; Mackey, John R.; Bee, Valerie; Ma, Yanling; Villalobos, Ivonne; Campeau, Anaamika; Mirlacher, Martina; Lindsay, Mary-Ann; Slamon, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose ASCO and the College of American Pathologists (ASCO-CAP) recently recommended further changes to the evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2) amplification by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We retrospectively assessed the impact of these new guidelines by using annotated Breast Cancer International Research Group (BCIRG) -005, BCIRG-006, and BCIRG-007 clinical trials data for which we have detailed outcomes. Patients and Methods The HER2 FISH status of BCIRG-005/006/007 patients with breast cancers was re-evaluated according to current ASCO-CAP guidelines, which designates five different groups according to HER2 FISH ratio and average HER2 gene copy number per tumor cell: group 1 (in situ hybridization [ISH]–positive): HER2-to-chromosome 17 centromere ratio ≥ 2.0, average HER2 copies ≥ 4.0; group 2 (ISH-positive): ratio ≥ 2.0, copies HER2 protein, clinical outcomes by disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and benefit from trastuzumab therapy (hazard ratio [HR]). Results Among 10,468 patients with breast cancers who were successfully screened for trial entry, 40.8% were in ASCO-CAP ISH group 1, 0.7% in group 2; 0.5% in group 3, 4.1% in group 4, and 53.9% in group 5. Distributions were similar in screened compared with accrued subpopulations. Among accrued patients, FISH group 1 breast cancers were strongly correlated with immunohistochemistry 3+ status (P HER2 by FISH status in BCIRG/Translational Research in Oncology trials. PMID:27573653

  15. Hybrid Ant Algorithm and Applications for Vehicle Routing Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhang; Jiang-qing, Wang

    Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a metaheuristic method that inspired by the behavior of real ant colonies. ACO has been successfully applied to several combinatorial optimization problems, but it has some short-comings like its slow computing speed and local-convergence. For solving Vehicle Routing Problem, we proposed Hybrid Ant Algorithm (HAA) in order to improve both the performance of the algorithm and the quality of solutions. The proposed algorithm took the advantages of Nearest Neighbor (NN) heuristic and ACO for solving VRP, it also expanded the scope of solution space and improves the global ability of the algorithm through importing mutation operation, combining 2-opt heuristics and adjusting the configuration of parameters dynamically. Computational results indicate that the hybrid ant algorithm can get optimal resolution of VRP effectively.

  16. A Novel of Hybrid Maintenance Management Models for Industrial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Zulkifli

    2010-01-01

    It is observed through empirical studies that the effectiveness of industrial process have been increased by a well organized of machines maintenance structure. In current research, a novel of maintenance concept has been designed by hybrid several maintenance management models with Decision Making Grid (DMG), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fuzzy Logic. The concept is designed for maintenance personnel to evaluate and benchmark the maintenance operations and to reveal important maintena...

  17. Allele-specific expression at the androgen receptor alpha gene in a hybrid unisexual fish, the Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa is the result of a hybridization of the Atlantic molly (P. mexicana and the sailfin molly (P. latipinna approximately 120,000 years ago. As a gynogenetic species, P. formosa needs to copulate with heterospecific males including males from one of its bisexual ancestral species. However, the sperm only triggers embryogenesis of the diploid eggs. The genetic information of the sperm donor typically will not contribute to the next generation of P. formosa. Hence, P. formosa possesses generally one allele from each of its ancestral species at any genetic locus. This raises the question whether both ancestral alleles are equally expressed in P. formosa. Allele-specific expression (ASE has been previously assessed in various organisms, e.g., human and fish, and ASE was found to be important in the context of phenotypic variability and disease. In this study, we utilized Real-Time PCR techniques to estimate ASE of the androgen receptor alpha (arα gene in several distinct tissues of Amazon mollies. We found an allelic bias favoring the maternal ancestor (P. mexicana allele in ovarian tissue. This allelic bias was not observed in the gill or the brain tissue. Sequencing of the promoter regions of both alleles revealed an association between an Indel in a known CpG island and differential expression. Future studies may reveal whether our observed cis-regulatory divergence is caused by an ovary-specific trans-regulatory element, preferentially activating the allele of the maternal ancestor.

  18. Comparison of high resolution chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the laboratory evaluation of Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delach, J.A.; Rosengren, S.S.; Kaplan, L.; Greenstein, R.M.; Cassidy, S.B.; Benn, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    The development of probes containing segments of DNA from chromosome region 15q11-q13 provides the opportunity to confirm the diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We have evaluated FISH studies and high resolution chromosome banding studies in 14 patients referred to confirm or rule out AS. In four patients (three from the PWS category and 1 from the AS group) chromosome analysis suggested that a deletion was present but FISH failed to confirm the finding. In one AS group patient, FISH identified a deletion not detectable by high resolution banding. Review of the clinical findings in the discrepant cases suggested that FISH results were correct and high resolution findings were erroneous. Studies with a chromosome 15 alpha satellite probe (D15Z) on both normal and abnormal individuals suggested that incorrect interpretation of chromosome banding may occasionally be attributable to alpha satellite polymorphism but other variation of 15q11-q13 chromosome bands also contributes to misinterpretation. We conclude that patients who have been reported to have a cytogenetic deletion of 15q11-q13 and who have clinical findings inconsistent with PWS and AS should be re-evaluated by molecular genetic techniques. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. On the Economics of Adulteration in Food Imports: Application to US Fish and Seafood Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Pouliot, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This essay shows the role of economics in the adulteration of food imports.The mechanism of impact in the model is the choice of input quality by exporting firms. One implication of the model is that conomic variables can be used to predict adulteration in food imports. The essay offers an application to US fish and seafood imports following the closing of fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico because of the Deepwater Horizon platform oil spill. Simulations show an increase in adulteration in fish ...

  20. Optimization of peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) for the detection of bacteria: The effect of pH, dextran sulfate and probe concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rui; Santos, Rita S; Madureira, Pedro; Almeida, Carina; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2016-05-20

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular technique widely used for the detection and characterization of microbial populations. FISH is affected by a wide variety of abiotic and biotic variables and the way they interact with each other. This is translated into a wide variability of FISH procedures found in the literature. The aim of this work is to systematically study the effects of pH, dextran sulfate and probe concentration in the FISH protocol, using a general peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe for the Eubacteria domain. For this, response surface methodology was used to optimize these 3 PNA-FISH parameters for Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and Gram-positive species (Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus cereus). The obtained results show that a probe concentration higher than 300nM is favorable for both groups. Interestingly, a clear distinction between the two groups regarding the optimal pH and dextran sulfate concentration was found: a high pH (approx. 10), combined with lower dextran sulfate concentration (approx. 2% [w/v]) for Gram-negative species and near-neutral pH (approx. 8), together with higher dextran sulfate concentrations (approx. 10% [w/v]) for Gram-positive species. This behavior seems to result from an interplay between pH and dextran sulfate and their ability to influence probe concentration and diffusion towards the rRNA target. This study shows that, for an optimum hybridization protocol, dextran sulfate and pH should be adjusted according to the target bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Majtánová

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis. We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA. Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  2. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  3. Synthesis of graphene–transition metal oxide hybrid nanoparticles and their application in various fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Jana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Single layer graphite, known as graphene, is an important material because of its unique two-dimensional structure, high conductivity, excellent electron mobility and high surface area. To explore the more prospective properties of graphene, graphene hybrids have been synthesised, where graphene has been integrated with other important nanoparticles (NPs. These graphene–NP hybrid structures are particularly interesting because after hybridisation they not only display the individual properties of graphene and the NPs, but also they exhibit further synergistic properties. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO, a graphene-like material, can be easily prepared by reduction of graphene oxide (GO and therefore offers the possibility to fabricate a large variety of graphene–transition metal oxide (TMO NP hybrids. These hybrid materials are promising alternatives to reduce the drawbacks of using only TMO NPs in various applications, such as anode materials in lithium ion batteries (LIBs, sensors, photocatalysts, removal of organic pollutants, etc. Recent studies have shown that a single graphene sheet (GS has extraordinary electronic transport properties. One possible route to connecting those properties for application in electronics would be to prepare graphene-wrapped TMO NPs. In this critical review, we discuss the development of graphene–TMO hybrids with the detailed account of their synthesis. In addition, attention is given to the wide range of applications. This review covers the details of graphene–TMO hybrid materials and ends with a summary where an outlook on future perspectives to improve the properties of the hybrid materials in view of applications are outlined.

  4. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gosálvez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH. A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL, 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL, and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1.

  5. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; Ortíz-Hernández, Brenda L.; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I.; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Fernández, José Luis; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL), 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL), and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1. PMID:23429197

  6. Application of artificial photoperiod in fish: a factor that increases susceptibility to infectious diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Ariel; Campos, Victor; Yañez, Francisco; Alveal, Katherine; Gutiérrez, Pamela; Rivas, Meyling; Contreras, Nancy; Klempau, Alfredo; Fernandez, Italo; Oyarzun, Ciro

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the mortality associated with the potential stressor effect induced by application of artificial photoperiods in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). After application of artificial photoperiods, high mortalities of trout subjected to this management were recorded (36% in LD 14:10 and 25% in LD 24:0) as compared to controls (7%). The recorded signology related to diseased trout included darkening, lethargy and erratic swimming. Among the morphological changes, skin lesions and ulcerative-type necrosis could be observed. Blood tests, histopathology and isolation of pathogens identified as Flavobacterium psychrophilum, associated with Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Saprolegnia sp., were performed. The application of artificial photoperiods suggests that fish may be more susceptible to opportunistic diseases; thus, it is advisable to emphasize preventive measures in fish subjected to this management.

  7. Biomimetic growth of gallic acid-ZnO hybrid assemblies and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Nazmul H.; Barnaby, Stacey N.; Fath, Karl R.; Frayne, Stephen H.; Nakatsuka, Nako; Banerjee, Ipsita A.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we probed the biomimetic formation of gallic acid (GA)-ZnO nanoparticle hybrids. It was found that the morphologies formed were dependent upon pH values, resulting in GA-ZnO hybrids of varying shapes such as micro or nanoplates or fibers. The formed supramolecular GA-ZnO hybrids were found to be luminescent as indicated by confocal microscopy and were utilized for the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye methylene blue. We also explored the bactericidal effects of the hybrids on Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus) as well as Escherichia Coli ( E. Coli). Thus, we have developed a new class of shape-controlled nanohybrid assemblies via mild, green synthetic methods that may be utilized for photocatalytic degradation for environmental remediation as well as for antibacterial applications.

  8. Organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content: syntheses and applications of silsesquioxanes

    KAUST Repository

    Croissant, Jonas G.

    2016-11-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials garner properties from their organic and inorganic matrices as well as synergistic features, and therefore have recently attracted much attention at the nanoscale. Non-porous organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content such as silsesquioxanes (R-SiO, with R organic groups) and bridged silsesquioxanes (OSi-R-SiO) are especially attractive hybrids since they provide 20 to 80 weight percent of organic functional groups in addition to the known chemistry and stability of silica. In the organosilica family, silsesquioxanes (R-SiO) stand between silicas (SiO) and silicones (RSiO), and are variously called organosilicas, ormosil (organically-modified silica), polysilsesquioxanes and silica hybrids. Herein, we comprehensively review non-porous silsesquioxane and bridged silsesquioxane nanomaterials and their applications in nanomedicine, electro-optics, and catalysis.

  9. Fish protein hydrolysates: application in deep-fried food and food safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Franco, Christopher; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Four different processes (enzymatic, microwave-intensified enzymatic, chemical, and microwave-intensified chemical) were used to produce fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) from Yellowtail Kingfish for food applications. In this study, the production yield and oil-binding capacity of FPH produced from different processes were evaluated. Microwave intensification significantly increased the production yields of enzymatic process from 42% to 63%. It also increased the production yields of chemical process from 87% to 98%. The chemical process and microwave-intensified chemical process produced the FPH with low oil-binding capacity (8.66 g oil/g FPH and 6.25 g oil/g FPH), whereas the microwave-intensified enzymatic process produced FPH with the highest oil-binding capacity (16.4 g oil/g FPH). The FPH from the 4 processes were applied in the formulation of deep-fried battered fish and deep-fried fish cakes. The fat uptake of deep-fried battered fish can be reduced significantly from about 7% to about 4.5% by replacing 1% (w/w) batter powder with FPH, and the fat uptake of deep-fried fish cakes can be significantly reduced from about 11% to about 1% by replacing 1% (w/w) fish mince with FPH. Food safety tests of the FPH produced by these processes demonstrated that the maximum proportion of FPH that can be safely used in food formulation is 10%, due to its high content of histamine. This study demonstrates the value of FPH to the food industry and bridges the theoretical studies with the commercial applications of FPH. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Paraffin-based hybrid rocket engines applications: A review and a market perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Alessandro; Merotto, Laura; Pinarello, Giordano

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid propulsion technology for aerospace applications has received growing attention in recent years due to its important advantages over competitive solutions. Hybrid rocket engines have a great potential for several aeronautics and aerospace applications because of their safety, reliability, low cost and high performance. As a consequence, this propulsion technology is feasible for a number of innovative missions, including space tourism. On the other hand, hybrid rocket propulsion's main drawback, i.e. the difficulty in reaching high regression rate values using standard fuels, has so far limited the maturity level of this technology. The complex physico-chemical processes involved in hybrid rocket engines combustion are of major importance for engine performance prediction and control. Therefore, further investigation is ongoing in order to achieve a more complete understanding of such phenomena. It is well known that one of the most promising solutions for overcoming hybrid rocket engines performance limits is the use of liquefying fuels. Such fuels can lead to notably increased solid fuel regression rate due to the so-called "entrainment phenomenon". Among liquefying fuels, paraffin-based formulations have great potentials as solid fuels due to their low cost, availability (as they can be derived from industrial waste), low environmental impact and high performance. Despite the vast amount of literature available on this subject, a precise focus on market potential of paraffins for hybrid propulsion aerospace applications is lacking. In this work a review of hybrid rocket engines state of the art was performed, together with a detailed analysis of the possible applications of such a technology. A market study was carried out in order to define the near-future foreseeable development needs for hybrid technology application to the aforementioned missions. Paraffin-based fuels are taken into account as the most promising segment for market development

  11. Application Waste Sawdust as Mixed Polyurethane Insulation in Traditional Cold Storage of Fishing Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutopo Purwono Fitri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the process of fishing it takes some supplies such as fishing equipment, instrumentation and storage of fish. The traditional fishermen of their fishing days fishing usually only bring ice cubes. Solid plastic polyurethane foam is a mixture solution of polyols and isocyanates, commonly used as an insulating material storage. From the observation waste generated being sawmill sawdust per spindle with diameter of 30 cm and a length of 1 m with 5 times sawmill, Saws 0.8 cm thick produced 0.0088 m³ / burnable logs only discarded. Therefore takes thermal conductivity test to review mixture of sawdust and polyurethane comparison with variations different dosing. Maximum disposals sawdust can be done is 40% of the total volume of material mixture, polyurethane and sawdust because composite material (sawdust-polyurethane can not be bond with good so easy slab separately from origin form. Thermal Conductivity insulating good and economical on disposals 40% wood flour (0.05252 W / m°C and is able to maintain a 2 kg of ice crystals melt up perfect on 34 hours. Operating profits economical from 4,8 m³insulation composite application with obtained Rp 4.486.000 compared with 100% Polyurethane Insulation Manufacture.

  12. Application of locked nucleic acid-based probes in fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Carvalho, Daniel R; Guimarães, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    of nucleic acid mimics used as mixmers in LNA-based probes strongly influence the efficiency of detection. LNA probes with 10 to 15 mers showed the highest efficiency. Additionally, the combination of 2′-OMe RNA with LNA allowed an increase on the fluorescence intensities of the probes. Overall......Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) employing nucleic acid mimics as probes is becoming an emerging molecular tool in the microbiology area for the detection and visualization of microorganisms. However, the impact that locked nucleic acid (LNA) and 2′-O-methyl (2′-OMe) RNA modifications have...

  13. Biological Applications of Hybrid Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoung Kang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since in most cases biological macromolecular systems including solvent water molecules are remarkably large, the computational costs of performing ab initio calculations for the entire structures are prohibitive. Accordingly, QM calculations that are jointed with MM calculations are crucial to evaluate the long-range electrostatic interactions, which significantly affect the electronic structures of biological macromolecules. A UNIX-shell-based interface program connecting the quantum mechanics (QMs and molecular mechanics (MMs calculation engines, GAMESS and AMBER, was developed in our lab. The system was applied to a metalloenzyme, azurin, and PU.1-DNA complex; thereby, the significance of the environmental effects on the electronic structures of the site of interest was elucidated. Subsequently, hybrid QM/MM molecular dynamics (MD simulation using the calculation system was employed for investigation of mechanisms of hydrolysis (editing reaction in leucyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with the misaminoacylated tRNALeu, and a novel mechanism of the enzymatic reaction was revealed. Thus, our interface program can play a critical role as a powerful tool for state-of-the-art sophisticated hybrid ab initio QM/MM MD simulations of large systems, such as biological macromolecules.

  14. Computational fluid dynamics challenges for hybrid air vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrin, M.; Biava, M.; Steijl, R.; Barakos, G. N.; Stewart, D.

    2017-06-01

    This paper begins by comparing turbulence models for the prediction of hybrid air vehicle (HAV) flows. A 6 : 1 prolate spheroid is employed for validation of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. An analysis of turbulent quantities is presented and the Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-ω model is compared against a k-ω Explicit Algebraic Stress model (EASM) within the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) framework. Further comparisons involve Scale Adaptative Simulation models and a local transition transport model. The results show that the flow around the vehicle at low pitch angles is sensitive to transition effects. At high pitch angles, the vortices generated on the suction side provide substantial lift augmentation and are better resolved by EASMs. The validated CFD method is employed for the flow around a shape similar to the Airlander aircraft of Hybrid Air Vehicles Ltd. The sensitivity of the transition location to the Reynolds number is demonstrated and the role of each vehicle£s component is analyzed. It was found that the ¦ns contributed the most to increase the lift and drag.

  15. Hybrid principle with applications to synthesis. [Neutron transport theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanneh, M.M. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Ackroyd, R.T. (Queen Mary Coll., London (United Kingdom))

    1991-01-01

    The theory of hybrid principles is presented together with the transformation rule for converting odd-parity approximations into even-parity approximations. This rule leads to a method which provides rigorous upper and lower bounds for the disadvantage factor for a reactor lattice cell. With these bounds very precise benchmarks have been constructed for representative lattices. It is found that a combination of even and odd-parity solutions for the neutron flux is much more efficient than solutions based on either the even-parity or odd-parity. This is the basis of one synthesis scheme. In another synthesis method, a hybrid principle with trial functions for both the even- and odd- parity angular flux is used in conjunction with a classical principle with an odd-parity trial function. The synthesis process is efficient because the largest set of equations to be solved, i.e. the frame work, involves as few as one unknown per node of the finite element mesh. The effectiveness of the synthesis method is demonstrated for a thick shield problem. (author).

  16. Chemical modification of hybrid nanostructures (POSS for application as lubricant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Luvison

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS are hybrid structures type RSiO15n, with n organic groups R. These molecules can be easily functionalized by simply changing the chemical constitution of the organic groups. In this work, chemical modification of POSS-NH2 was performed by amidation reaction with butyric acid at elevated temperature, 160°C. The formation of the amide group is evinced by the appearance of NH angular deformation band at 1540 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra. Approximately 40% of the amino groups reacted, according to titration results. The formation of the amide groups resulted in a shift of the glass transition temperature (Tg from -36.9°C to -25.6°C for the modified-POSS sample. Both POSS-NH2 and modified-POSS samples exhibited similar thermal degradation pattern. Analysis of the pairs distribution function (PDF has determined that the hybrid nanoparticles are separated by a periodic distance of approximately 1.32 nm. POSS-NH2 and modified-POSS exhibit newtonian behavior, which will range from 10-1 s-1 and 1000 s-1. The viscosity decreased with increasing temperature, a typical behavior of liquid lubricants.

  17. Multilevel organization in hybrid thin films for optoelectronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Varun; Bolognesi, Alberto; Calzaferri, Gion; Botta, Chiara

    2009-10-20

    In this work we report two simple approaches to prepare hybrid thin films displaying a high concentration of zeolite crystals that could be used as active layers in optoelectronic devices. In the first approach, in order to organize nanodimensional zeolite crystals of 40 nm diameter in an electroactive environment, we chemically modify their external surface and play on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic forces. We obtain inorganic nanocrystals that self-organize in honeycomb electroluminescent polymer structures obtained by breath figure formation. The different functionalizations of the zeolite surface result in different organizations inside the cavities of the polymeric structure. The second approach involving soft-litography techniques allows one to arrange single dye-loaded zeolite L crystals of 800 nm of length by mechanical loading into the nanocavities of a conjugated polymer. Both techniques result in the formation of thin hybrid films displaying three levels of organization: organization of the dye molecules inside the zeolite nanochannels, organization of the zeolite crystals inside the polymer cavities, and micro- or nanostructuration of the polymer.

  18. Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites for optoelectronic and electronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yixin; Zhu, Kai

    2016-02-07

    Organic and inorganic hybrid perovskites (e.g., CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3)), with advantages of facile processing, tunable bandgaps, and superior charge-transfer properties, have emerged as a new class of revolutionary optoelectronic semiconductors promising for various applications. Perovskite solar cells constructed with a variety of configurations have demonstrated unprecedented progress in efficiency, reaching about 20% from multiple groups after only several years of active research. A key to this success is the development of various solution-synthesis and film-deposition techniques for controlling the morphology and composition of hybrid perovskites. The rapid progress in material synthesis and device fabrication has also promoted the development of other optoelectronic applications including light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, and transistors. Both experimental and theoretical investigations on organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have enabled some critical fundamental understandings of this material system. Recent studies have also demonstrated progress in addressing the potential stability issue, which has been identified as a main challenge for future research on halide perovskites. Here, we review recent progress on hybrid perovskites including basic chemical and crystal structures, chemical synthesis of bulk/nanocrystals and thin films with their chemical and physical properties, device configurations, operation principles for various optoelectronic applications (with a focus on solar cells), and photophysics of charge-carrier dynamics. We also discuss the importance of further understanding of the fundamental properties of hybrid perovskites, especially those related to chemical and structural stabilities.

  19. Comparison of immunohistochemistry (IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assessment for Her-2 status in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Minfang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concordance rate between IHC and FISH according to clinical performance is still controversial. We report a prospective study to reflect the concordance between IHC and FISH in Guilin city, People's Republic of China. Methods Fifty cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of breast tested by IHC and scored as 0, 1+, 2+ and 3+ by pathologists were further analyzed by FISH using a commercially available double-color probe, and the FISH findings were compared with IHC test results. Results A total concordance of 82.0% was observed with a Kappa coefficient of 0.640 (P Conclusion The IHC can be used firstly to screen the HER-2 status, and FISH can be used as a supplementary role to IHC and 2+ and some negative cases. And only those cases with Her-2 status of IHC 3+ or FISH positive should be treated with Herceptin.

  20. Kinematics and Application of a Hybrid Industrial Robot – Delta-RST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Serial robots and parallel robots have their own pros and cons. While hybrid robots consisting of both of them are possible and expected to retain their merits and minimize the disadvantages. The Delta-RST presented here is such a hybrid robot built up by integrating a 3-DoFs traditional Delta parallel structure and a 3-DoFs RST robotic wrist. In this paper, we focus on its kinematics analysis and its applications in industry. Firstly, the robotic system of the Delta-RST will be described briefly. Then the complete and systemic kinematics of this kind of robot will be presented in detail, followed by simulations and applications to demonstrate the correctness of the analysis, as well as the effectiveness of the developed robotic system. The closed-form kinematic analysis results are universal for similar hybrid robots constructing with the Delta parallel mechanism and serial chains.

  1. Graphene hybrids: Synthesis strategies and applications in sensors and sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhulika, Sushmee; Terse-Thakoor, Trupti; Chaves Villarreal, Claudia; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Graphene exhibits unique 2-D structural, chemical and electronic properties that lead to its many potential applications. In order to expand the scope of its usage, graphene hybrids which combine the synergetic properties of graphene along with metals/ metal oxides and other nanostructured materials have been synthesized and are a widely emerging field of research. This review presents an overview of the recent progress made in the field of graphene hybrid architectures with a focus on the synthesis of graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT), graphene-semiconductor nanomaterial (G-SNM) and graphene-metal nanomaterial (G-MNM) hybrids. It attempts to identify the bottlenecks involved and outlines future directions for development and comprehensively summarizes their applications in the field of sensing and sensitized solar cells.

  2. Computational study of titania-ceria hybrid clusters for electrochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Abdul; Bibi, Maryam

    2017-07-01

    First principles calculations were carried out to investigate the electronic and optical properties with spotlight on excitation spectra and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of Ce2O4, Ti2O4 and the hybrid cluster CeTiO4. The calculated UV/Vis spectrum and CD spectrum for Ce2O4 and Ti2O4 clusters found in respective IR and UV regions is shifted to visible region in case of the hybrid cluster. The major singlet-singlet-allowed transitions for the structures are discussed in detail. The hybrid cluster is optically active in the visible region and simultaneously contains titania's appealing catalytic properties as well as ceria's attractive properties for solid state electrolytes. The results point to possibility of adjustable band edges for potential applications in water splitting, coupling semiconductors applicable in dye-sensitized solar cells and other electrochemical devices.

  3. Graphene hybrids: Synthesis strategies and applications in sensors and sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmee eBadhulika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphene exhibits unique 2-D structural, chemical and electronic properties that lead to its many potential applications. In order to expand the scope of its usage, graphene hybrids which combine the synergetic properties of graphene along with metals/ metal oxides and other nanostructured materials have been synthesized and are a widely emerging field of research. This review presents an overview of the recent progress made in the field of graphene hybrid architectures with a focus on the synthesis of graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT, graphene-semiconductor nanomaterial (G-SNM and graphene-metal nanomaterial (G-MNM hybrids. It attempts to identify the bottlenecks involved and outlines future directions for development and comprehensively summarizes their applications in the field of sensing and sensitized solar cells.

  4. Graphene hybrids: synthesis strategies and applications in sensors and sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhulika, Sushmee; Terse-Thakoor, Trupti; Villarreal, Claudia; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Graphene exhibits unique 2-D structural, chemical, and electronic properties that lead to its many potential applications. In order to expand the scope of its usage, graphene hybrids which combine the synergetic properties of graphene along with metals/metal oxides and other nanostructured materials have been synthesized and are a widely emerging field of research. This review presents an overview of the recent progress made in the field of graphene hybrid architectures with a focus on the synthesis of graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT), graphene-semiconductor nanomaterial (G-SNM), and graphene-metal nanomaterial (G-MNM) hybrids. It attempts to identify the bottlenecks involved and outlines future directions for development and comprehensively summarizes their applications in the field of sensing and sensitized solar cells. PMID:26176007

  5. Graphene hybrids: synthesis strategies and applications in sensors and sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhulika, Sushmee; Terse-Thakoor, Trupti; Villarreal, Claudia; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Graphene exhibits unique 2-D structural, chemical, and electronic properties that lead to its many potential applications. In order to expand the scope of its usage, graphene hybrids which combine the synergetic properties of graphene along with metals/metal oxides and other nanostructured materials have been synthesized and are a widely emerging field of research. This review presents an overview of the recent progress made in the field of graphene hybrid architectures with a focus on the synthesis of graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT), graphene-semiconductor nanomaterial (G-SNM), and graphene-metal nanomaterial (G-MNM) hybrids. It attempts to identify the bottlenecks involved and outlines future directions for development and comprehensively summarizes their applications in the field of sensing and sensitized solar cells.

  6. Recent Advances of Graphene-based Hybrids with Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegret, Nuria; Criado, Alejandro; Prato, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of graphene-based nanomaterials combined with magnetic nanoparticles offers key benefits in the modern biomedicine. In this minireview, we focus on the most recent advances in hybrids of magnetic graphene derivatives for biomedical applications. We initially analyze the several methodologies employed for the preparation of graphene-based composites with magnetic nanoparticles, more specifically the kind of linkage between the two components. In the last section, we focus on the biomedical applications where these magnetic-graphene hybrids are essential and pay special attention on how the addition of graphene improves the resulting devices in magnetic resonance imaging, controlled drug delivery, magnetic photothermal therapy and cellular separation and isolation. Finally, we highlight the use of these magnetic hybrids as multifunctional material that will lead to a next generation of theranostics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using non-commercial probes in the diagnosis of clinically suspected microdeletion syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Halder

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: We conclude that FISH should not be the method of choice for clinically suspected microdeletion syndromes. We propose to follow strict clinical criteria for FISH testing or preferably to follow better methods (genotype first approach. Whole genome screening may be used as first line of test and FISH may be used for confirmation of screening result, screening of family members and prenatal diagnosis.

  8. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH screening for the 22q11.2 deletion in patients with clinical features of velocardiofacial syndrome but without cardiac anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sandrin-Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, a condition associated with 22q11.2 deletions, is characterized by a typical facies, palatal anomalies, learning disabilities, behavioral disturbances and cardiac defects. We investigated the frequency of these chromosomal deletions in 16 individuals with VCFS features who presented no cardiac anomalies, one of the main characteristics of VCFS. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with the N25 (D22S75; 22q11.2 probe revealed deletions in ten individuals (62%. Therefore, even in the absence of cardiac anomalies testing for the 22q11.2 microdeletions in individuals showing other clinical features of this syndrome is recommended.

  9. Hybrid nanocellulose/nanoclay composites for food packaging applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifol Guzman, Jon

    ™ 30B) were prepared and evaluated for use in food packaging. It was determined that composites with CNF or CNC and clay led to a great reduction in the oxygen transmission rate (OTR)and the water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) (up to a 90% reduction in the OTR and 76% in theWVTR for PLA/CNF 5%/C30B 5......% decrease, albeit CNF based composites showed increased water sorption (7% for PLA/CNF 1% composite and 9% for PLA/CNF 1%/C30B 1% when compared with neat PLA).The reduced diffusivity of the hybrid nanocomposites suggested that the material was promising for active packaging, since low diffusivity leads...... which made those composites promising material for food packaging films....

  10. Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Technologies - An Analysis Regarding Potentials and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merklein, Marion; Junker, Daniel; Schaub, Adam; Neubauer, Franziska

    Imposing the trend of mass customization of lightweight construction in industry, conventional manufacturing processes like forming technology and chipping production are pushed to their limits for economical manufacturing. More flexible processes are needed which were developed by the additive manufacturing technology. This toolless production principle offers a high geometrical freedom and an optimized utilization of the used material. Thus load adjusted lightweight components can be produced in small lot sizes in an economical way. To compensate disadvantages like inadequate accuracy and surface roughness hybrid machines combining additive and subtractive manufacturing are developed. Within this paper the principles of mainly used additive manufacturing processes of metals and their possibility to be integrated into a hybrid production machine are summarized. It is pointed out that in particular the integration of deposition processes into a CNC milling center supposes high potential for manufacturing larger parts with high accuracy. Furthermore the combination of additive and subtractive manufacturing allows the production of ready to use products within one single machine. Additionally actual research for the integration of additive manufacturing processes into the production chain will be analyzed. For the long manufacturing time of additive production processes the combination with conventional manufacturing processes like sheet or bulk metal forming seems an effective solution. Especially large volumes can be produced by conventional processes. In an additional production step active elements can be applied by additive manufacturing. This principle is also investigated for tool production to reduce chipping of the high strength material used for forming tools. The aim is the addition of active elements onto a geometrical simple basis by using Laser Metal Deposition. That process allows the utilization of several powder materials during one process what

  11. A digital-analog hybrid system and its application to the automatic flight control system simulation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of a digital-analog hybrid system composed of a DJS-8 digital computer and a HMJ-200 analog computer are described as well as its applications to simulation research for an automatic flight control system. A hybrid computational example is included to illustrate the application.

  12. Green synthetic, multifunctional hybrid micelles with shell embedded magnetic nanoparticles for theranostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyong; Ma, Junping; Zhu, Haiyan; Gao, Xiaolong; Dong, Haiqing; Shi, Donglu

    2013-08-14

    The objective of this study is to design and develop a green-synthetic, multifunctional hybrid micelles with shell embedded magnetic nanoparticles for theranostic applications. The hybrid micelles were engineered based on complex micelles self-assembled from amphiphilic block copolymers Pluronic F127 and peptide-amphiphile (PA) pal-AAAAHHHD. The reason to choose PA is due to its amphiphilic character and the coordination capability for Fe(3+) and Fe(2+). The PA incorporation allows the in situ growth of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles onto the complex micelles, to yield the nanostructures with shell embedded magnetic nanoparticles at an ambient condition without any organic solvents. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) can be efficiently loaded into the hybrid micelles. Interestingly, the magnetic nanoparticles anchored on the shell were found to significantly retard the DOX release behavior of the drug loaded hybrid micelles. It was proposed that a cross-linking effect of the shell by magnetic nanoparticles is a key to underlie the above intriguing phenomenon, which could enhance the stability and control the drug diffusion of the hybrid micelles. Importantly, in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the potential of these hybrid micelles to be served as a T2-weighted MR imaging contrast enhancer for clinical diagnosis.

  13. Development of fish protein powder as an ingredient for food applications: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaviklo, Amir Reza

    2015-01-01

    ... for developing fish protein ingredient from different raw materials. Fish protein powder (FPP) is a dried and stable fish product, intended for human consumption, in which the protein is more concentrated than in the original fish flesh...

  14. Application of Printing Technologies in Hybrid Photovoltaic Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    In this work application of various printing technologies in different kinds of photovoltaic technologies are studied. Photovoltaic technologies are generally classified intro three generations. A brief literature overview of various photovoltaic technologies belonging to these generations is presented. After explaining the basics of different types of photovoltaic technologies, a list of printing technologies are first introduced and then their application in different photovoltaic technolog...

  15. Hybrid Particle-Continuum Numerical Methods for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    methodes de calcul des coulements de gaz rarefies). RTO-EN-AVT-194 14. ABSTRACT Often, rareed ows of interest in aerospace applications are embedded...Many applications of MEMS/NEMS devices, which include micro- turbines [3, 4], micro-sensors for chemical con- centrations or gas ow properties [5, 6, 7

  16. Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO hybrid pn junctions for microelectronics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsia, E.; Huby, N.; Tallarida, G.

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO devices are investigated as rectifying heterojunctions for microelectronics applications. A low-temperature atomic layer deposition of ZnO on top of poly(3-hexylthiophene) allows the fabrication of diodes featuring a rectification ratio of nearly 105 at ±4 V...

  17. Hybrid Solar – Wind – Diesel Systems for Rural Application in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Hybrid Solar – Wind – Diesel Systems for Rural Application in North Ethiopia: Case Study for Three Rural Villages using HOMER Simulation. Alfa Hailemariam Abraha. 1. , Mulu Bayray Kahsay. 2* and Cuthbert Z.M. Kimambo. 3. 1. Mechanical Engineering, Energy and Environmental Management; University of Flensburg,.

  18. Comparative efficiency evaluation of buck and hybrid buck DC-DC converters for automotive applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelan, Ovidiu; Cornea, Octavian; Muntean, Nicolae

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses design considerations and efficiency investigation of a conventional step-down and a hybrid switched-capacitor DC-DC converter. Three MOSFETs with low on-resistance have been tested for each converter in order to find the most adequate switch for this application...

  19. Application of hybrid clustering using parallel k-means algorithm and DIANA algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umam, Khoirul; Bustamam, Alhadi; Lestari, Dian

    2017-03-01

    DNA is one of the carrier of genetic information of living organisms. Encoding, sequencing, and clustering DNA sequences has become the key jobs and routine in the world of molecular biology, in particular on bioinformatics application. There are two type of clustering, hierarchical clustering and partitioning clustering. In this paper, we combined two type clustering i.e. K-Means (partitioning clustering) and DIANA (hierarchical clustering), therefore it called Hybrid clustering. Application of hybrid clustering using Parallel K-Means algorithm and DIANA algorithm used to clustering DNA sequences of Human Papillomavirus (HPV). The clustering process is started with Collecting DNA sequences of HPV are obtained from NCBI (National Centre for Biotechnology Information), then performing characteristics extraction of DNA sequences. The characteristics extraction result is store in a matrix form, then normalize this matrix using Min-Max normalization and calculate genetic distance using Euclidian Distance. Furthermore, the hybrid clustering is applied by using implementation of Parallel K-Means algorithm and DIANA algorithm. The aim of using Hybrid Clustering is to obtain better clusters result. For validating the resulted clusters, to get optimum number of clusters, we use Davies-Bouldin Index (DBI). In this study, the result of implementation of Parallel K-Means clustering is data clustered become 5 clusters with minimal IDB value is 0.8741, and Hybrid Clustering clustered data become 13 sub-clusters with minimal IDB values = 0.8216, 0.6845, 0.3331, 0.1994 and 0.3952. The IDB value of hybrid clustering less than IBD value of Parallel K-Means clustering only that perform at 1ts stage. Its means clustering using Hybrid Clustering have the better result to clustered DNA sequence of HPV than perform parallel K-Means Clustering only.

  20. Release of ceria nanoparticles grafted on hybrid organic-inorganic films for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Alessandra; Figus, Cristiana; Lasio, Barbara; Piccinini, Massimo; Malfatti, Luca; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2012-08-01

    The controlled release of nanoparticles from a hybrid organic-inorganic surface allows for developing several applications based on a slow delivery of oxygen scavengers into specific environments. We have successfully grafted ceria nanoparticles on a hybrid film surface and tested their release in a buffer solution; the tests have shown that the particles are continuously delivered within a time scale of hours. The hybrid film has been synthesized using 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane as precursor alkoxide; the synthesis has been performed in highly basic conditions to control the polycondensation reactions of both organic and inorganic networks via controlled aging of the solution. Only films prepared from aged solutions are able to graft ceria nanoparticles on their surface. The ceria nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy, the hybrid films have been analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Raman imaging has been used for the release test. The hybrid film-ceria nanoparticles system fulfils the requirements of optical transparency and stability in buffer solutions which are necessary for biomedical applications.

  1. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and "native" mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources-file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies "bridges" that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources-the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.-to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign-origin Web content

  2. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and “native” mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources—file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies “bridges” that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources—the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.—to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign

  3. Evaluating genetic traceability methods for captive-bred marine fish and their applications in fisheries management and wildlife forensics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylemans, Jonas; Maes, Gregory E.; Diopere, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    -bred and wild fish may affect the ecological and/or genetic integrity of wild fish populations. Unambiguous identification tools for captive-bred fish will be highly valuable to manage risks (fisheries management) and tracing of escapees and seafood products (wildlife forensics). Using single nucleotide...... to monitor the effects of deliberate releases of captive-bred fish on wild populations. Population assignment proved to be more efficient after several generations of captive breeding, which makes it a useful method in forensic applications for well-established aquaculture species. We suggest...

  4. Tunable elastin-mimetic multiblock hybrid copolymers for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshaber, Sarah Elizabeth

    Elastin-mimetic hybrid polymers (EMHPs) have been developed to capture the multiblock molecular architecture of tropoelastin, allowing tunability in chemical, structural, biological, and mechanical properties. Multiblock EMHPs containing flexible synthetic segments were first synthesized via step growth polymerization of diazido-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and alkyne-terminated AKA3KA (K = lysine, A = alanine) (AK2) peptide employing copper (I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC, or orthogonal click chemistry). Covalent crosslinking of the EMHPs with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) through the lysine residues in the peptide domain afforded an elastomeric hydrogel (xEMHP) with a compressive modulus of 0.12 +/- 0.018 MPa when hydrated. xEMHPs exhibited minimal cytotoxicity to primary porcine vocal fold fibroblasts. The modular nature of the synthesis allowed facile adjustment of the peptide sequence to modulate the structural and the biological properties of EMHPs. Thus, EMHPs containing integrin-binding peptides were constructed using di-azido-PEG and an alkyne-terminated AK2 peptide with a terminal, integrin-binding GRGDSP domain via the step growth click coupling reaction. Hydrogels formed by covalent crosslinking of the RGD-containing EMHPs had a compressive modulus of 1.06 +/- 0.1MPa when hydrated. Neonatal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) were able to adhere to the hydrogels within 1 h, and to spread and develop F-actin filaments 24 h post seeding. NHDF proliferation was only observed on hydrogels containing RGD domains, demonstrating the importance of integrin engagement for cell growth and the potential use of these EMHPs as tissue engineering scaffolds. The tunability of the EMHP system was further investigated by development of self-assembling, pH-responsive multiblock polymers composed of alternating domains of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and a peptide derived from the hydrophobic domains of elastin with the sequence (VPGVG)2 (VG2). The

  5. Novel near infrared sensors for hybrid BCI applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajidy, Rand K.; Le, Khang S.; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2015-07-01

    This study's goal is to develop a low cost, portable, accurate and comfortable NIRS module that can be used simultaneously with EEG in a dual modality system for brain computer interface (BCI). The sensing modules consist of electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes (at the positions Fp1, Fpz and Fp2 in the international 10-20 system) with eight custom made functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) channels, positioned on the prefrontal cortex area with two extra channels to measure and eliminate extra-cranial oxygenation. The NIRS sensors were designed to guarantee good sensor-skin contact, without causing subject discomfort, using springs to press them to the skin instead of pressing them by cap fixture. Two open source software packages were modified to carry out dual modality hybrid BCI experiments. The experimental paradigm consisted of a mental task (arithmetic task or text reading) and a resting period. Both oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes (HbO), and EEG signals showed an increase during the mental task, but the onset, period and amount of that increase depends on each modality's characteristics. The subject's degree of attention played an important role especially during online sessions. The sensors can be easily used to acquire brain signals from different cerebral cortex parts. The system serves as a simple technological test bed and will be used for stroke patient rehabilitation purposes.

  6. Reduced density matrix hybrid approach: Application to electronic energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkelbach, Timothy C.; Reichman, David R. [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, 3000 Broadway, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Markland, Thomas E. [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, 333 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2012-02-28

    Electronic energy transfer in the condensed phase, such as that occurring in photosynthetic complexes, frequently occurs in regimes where the energy scales of the system and environment are similar. This situation provides a challenge to theoretical investigation since most approaches are accurate only when a certain energetic parameter is small compared to others in the problem. Here we show that in these difficult regimes, the Ehrenfest approach provides a good starting point for a dynamical description of the energy transfer process due to its ability to accurately treat coupling to slow environmental modes. To further improve on the accuracy of the Ehrenfest approach, we use our reduced density matrix hybrid framework to treat the faster environmental modes quantum mechanically, at the level of a perturbative master equation. This combined approach is shown to provide an efficient and quantitative description of electronic energy transfer in a model dimer and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and is used to investigate the effect of environmental preparation on the resulting dynamics.

  7. RESULTS OF SUGAR BEET PRODUCTION DEPENDING ON THE HYBRIDS SELECTION AND THE NUMBER OF FUNGICIDE APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kristek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the production values of 10 sugar beet hybrids was conducted on chernozem soil type in Eastern Croatia (Tovarniklocation. The used treatments with and without fungicides application were investigated in 2013 and 2014. Sugar beet hybrids used in the study originate from three market-leading sugar beet seed companies in Croatia, whose varieties provide disease tolerance to C. beticola. The years of the study were quite warm with higher mean monthly air temperature (°C and increased amount of rainfall, as compared to the long-term mean. In the second year of the study, due to increased amount of rainfall (mm in July and August, as well as the total loss ofstrobilurin efficiency and low effectiveness ofthe cyproconazole treatment, the destruction ofthe leaves by C. beticola Sacc. was significantly higher. The results of the study showed a huge coherence of sugar beet yield and quality with leaf conservation through the vegetation (the number of treatment, and with the hybrids. Due to leaves destruction on control treatments, as compared to fungicide application three times, the sugar beet root yield was reduced on the average by 9.79 t ha'1 (10.03%, sugar content by 0.69% (rel. 4.89% and sugar yield by 2.041 ha1 (17.04%. On the other hand, three fungicide applications increased the root yield by 4.881 ha1 (5.26%, sugar content by 0.52% and sugar yield by 0.99 t ha1 (9.01% as compared to one fungicide application. All sugar beet hybrids of the study were strongly negatively affected the control treatment, indicating repeated fungicide application against C. beticola as a regular agricultural practices. On the average, for all variations of fungicides applications, the sugar beet hybrid Jadranka had significantly higher root yield in comparison with other hybrids included in the study. Moreover, the highest sugar content achieved Sandor, Marianka and Kundera. Significantly higher sugar yield had a hybrid Jadranka.

  8. A functional hybrid memristor crossbar-array/CMOS system for data storage and neuromorphic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kuk-Hwan; Gaba, Siddharth; Wheeler, Dana; Cruz-Albrecht, Jose M; Hussain, Tahir; Srinivasa, Narayan; Lu, Wei

    2012-01-11

    Crossbar arrays based on two-terminal resistive switches have been proposed as a leading candidate for future memory and logic applications. Here we demonstrate a high-density, fully operational hybrid crossbar/CMOS system composed of a transistor- and diode-less memristor crossbar array vertically integrated on top of a CMOS chip by taking advantage of the intrinsic nonlinear characteristics of the memristor element. The hybrid crossbar/CMOS system can reliably store complex binary and multilevel 1600 pixel bitmap images using a new programming scheme. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Enhancing fish Underwater Visual Census to move forward assessment of fish assemblages: An application in three Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Giulia; Thiriet, Pierre; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring fish assemblages is needed to assess whether Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are meeting their conservation and fisheries management goals, as it allows one to track the progress of recovery of exploited species and associated communities. Underwater Visual Census techniques (UVC) are used to monitor fish assemblages in MPAs. UVCs should be adapted to fish abundance, body-size and behaviour, which can strongly affect fish detectability. In Mediterranean subtidal habitats, however, UVC strip transects of one surface area (25x5 m2) are commonly used to survey the whole fish assemblage, from large shy fish to small crypto-benthic fish. Most high trophic level predators (HTLPs) are large shy fish which rarely swim close to divers and, consequently, their abundance may be under-estimated with commonly used transects. Here, we propose an improvement to traditional transect surveys to better account for differences in behaviour among and within species. First, we compared the effectiveness of combining two transect surface areas (large: 35x20 m2; medium: 25x5 m2) in quantifying large, shy fish within and outside Mediterranean MPAs. We identified species-specific body-size thresholds defining a smaller and a larger size class better sampled by medium and large transects respectively. Combining large and medium transects provided more accurate biomass and species richness estimates for large, shy species than using medium transects alone. We thus combined the new approach with two other transect surface areas commonly used to survey crypto-benthic (10x1 m2) and necto-benthic (25x5 m2) species in order to assess how effectively MPAs protection the whole fish assemblage. We verified that MPAs offer significant protection for HTLPs, their response in terms of biomass and density increase in MPAs was always higher in magnitude than other functional groups. Inside MPAs, the contribution of HTLP reached >25% of total fish biomass, against < 2% outside MPAs. Surveys with

  10. Hydrogels from Biopolymer Hybrid for Biomedical, Food, and Functional Food Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Spiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid hydrogels from biopolymers have been applied for various indications across a wide range of biomedical, pharmaceutical, and functional food industries. In particular, hybrid hydrogels synthesized from two biopolymers have attracted increasing attention. The inclusion of a second biopolymer strengthens the stability of resultant hydrogels and enriches its functionalities by bringing in new functional groups or optimizing the micro-environmental conditions for certain biological and biochemical processes. This article presents approaches that have been used by our groups to synthesize biopolymer hybrid hydrogels for effective uses for immunotherapy, tissue regeneration, food and functional food applications. The research has achieved some challenging results, such as stabilizing physical structure, increasing mucoadhesiveness, and the creation of an artificial extracellular matrix to aid in guiding tissue differentiation.

  11. Electron beam mediated synthesis of grapheme-based nano hybrids for energy storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paek, Seungmin [Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    A new synthetic strategy for preparing nanoporous materials was developed using an electron beam irradiation technique. Graphene-based nanosheets were hybridized with nickel nanoparticles to fabricate flexible delaminated structures for energy storage applications. To elucidate the influence of an electron beam irradiation, the resulting hybrids were irradiated by an electron beam with 100-250 kGy doses under atmospheric conditions. According to X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic analysis, graphene nanosheets were randomly reassembled with nickel nanoparticles without any self-restacking into the layered phase. X-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis revealed that nickel particles in the hybrid materials maintained their nanosized nature even after an electron beam irradiation. The energy storage performances of electron beam-irradiated samples were superior to those of starting materials, highlighting the effectiveness of an electron beam irradiation.

  12. Few layered vanadyl phosphate nano sheets-MWCNT hybrid as an electrode material for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Shibsankar; De, Sukanta, E-mail: sukanta.physics@presiuniv.ac.in [Department of physics, Presidency University, Kolkata-700073 (India)

    2016-05-06

    It have been already seen that 2-dimensional nano materials are the suitable choice for the supercapacitor application due to their large specific surface area, electrochemical active sites, micromechanical flexibility, expedite ion migration channel properties. Free standing hybrid films of functionalized MWCNT (– COOH group) and α-Vanadyl phosphates (VOPO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O) are prepared by vacuum filtering. The surface morphology and microstructure of the samples are studied by transmission electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, XRD, Electrochemical properties of hybrid films have been investigated systematically in 1M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. The hybrid material exhibits a high specific capacitance 236 F/g with high energy density of 65.6 Wh/Kg and a power density of 1476 W/Kg.

  13. Hybrid stator-pole switched reluctance motor to improve radial force for bearingless application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huijun, E-mail: huijun024@gmail.co [College of Instrument Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Lee, Dong-Hee; Park, Tae-Hub; Ahn, Jin-Woo [Department of Electrical and Mechatronics Enigineering, Kyungsung University, 314-79, Daeyeon-Dong, Nam-Gu, Busan 608-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    A novel hybrid stator-pole switched reluctance motor (HSPSRM) to improve radial force for bearingless application is presented in this paper. The proposed motor can generate a constant suspending force independent of rotor position only using small current excitation. And torque control can be naturally decoupled form suspending force control. Measured data and the results of numerical analysis are given to evaluate the motor structure. In the numerical analysis, the finite element method (FEM) is employed due to the highly nonlinear nature of the motor. A prototype hybrid stator-pole SRM is manufactured and tested in the experimental studies. The obtained test and simulation results show that the hybrid stator-pole SRM structure has a constant suspending force, which can be controlled independent from torque control.

  14. Hybrid magnet devices for molecule manipulation and small scale high gradient-field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, David E [El Cerrito, CA; Hong, Seok-Cheol [Seoul, KR; Cozzarelli, legal representative, Linda A.; Pollard, Martin J [El Cerrito, CA; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R [Berkeley, CA

    2009-01-06

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are hybrid magnetic tweezers able to exert approximately 1 nN of force to 4.5 .mu.m magnetic bead. The maximum force was experimentally measured to be .about.900 pN which is in good agreement with theoretical estimations and other measurements. In addition, a new analysis scheme that permits fast real-time position measurement in typical geometry of magnetic tweezers has been developed and described in detail.

  15. Applications of hybrid measurements with discrete and continuous variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine

    . This is what we do for two particular applications of quantum measurements: Bell tests and the amplication of Schrödinger cat states. This project also had an experimental component which was supposed to produce high-fidelity Schrödinger cat states. This goal turned out to be hampered by noise from the laser...

  16. The probability of a gene tree topology within a phylogenetic network with applications to hybridization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun; Degnan, James H; Nakhleh, Luay

    2012-01-01

    Gene tree topologies have proven a powerful data source for various tasks, including species tree inference and species delimitation. Consequently, methods for computing probabilities of gene trees within species trees have been developed and widely used in probabilistic inference frameworks. All these methods assume an underlying multispecies coalescent model. However, when reticulate evolutionary events such as hybridization occur, these methods are inadequate, as they do not account for such events. Methods that account for both hybridization and deep coalescence in computing the probability of a gene tree topology currently exist for very limited cases. However, no such methods exist for general cases, owing primarily to the fact that it is currently unknown how to compute the probability of a gene tree topology within the branches of a phylogenetic network. Here we present a novel method for computing the probability of gene tree topologies on phylogenetic networks and demonstrate its application to the inference of hybridization in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting. We reanalyze a Saccharomyces species data set for which multiple analyses had converged on a species tree candidate. Using our method, though, we show that an evolutionary hypothesis involving hybridization in this group has better support than one of strict divergence. A similar reanalysis on a group of three Drosophila species shows that the data is consistent with hybridization. Further, using extensive simulation studies, we demonstrate the power of gene tree topologies at obtaining accurate estimates of branch lengths and hybridization probabilities of a given phylogenetic network. Finally, we discuss identifiability issues with detecting hybridization, particularly in cases that involve extinction or incomplete sampling of taxa.

  17. Genetic architecture of sex determination in fish: Applications to sex ratio control in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino eMartínez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the sex ratio is essential in finfish farming. A balanced sex ratio is usually good for broodstock management, since it enables to develop appropriate breeding schemes. However, in some species the production of monosex populations is desirable because the existence of sexual dimorphism, primarily in growth or first time of sexual maturation, but also in color or shape, can render one sex more valuable. The knowledge of the genetic architecture of sex determination (SD is convenient for controlling sex ratio and for the implementation of breeding programs. Unlike mammals and birds, which show highly conserved master genes that control a conserved genetic network responsible for gonad differentiation (GD, a huge diversity of SD mechanisms has been reported in fish. Despite theory predictions, more than one gene is in many cases involved in fish SD and genetic differences have been observed in the GD network. Environmental factors also play a relevant role and epigenetic mechanisms are becoming increasingly recognized for the establishment and maintenance of the GD pathways. Although major genetic factors are frequently involved in fish SD, these observations strongly suggest that SD in this group resembles a complex trait. Accordingly, the application of quantitative genetics combined with genomic tools is desirable to address its study and in fact, when applied, it has frequently demonstrated a multigene trait interacting with environmental factors in model and cultured fish species. This scenario has notable implications for aquaculture and, depending upon the species, from chromosome manipulation or environmental control techniques up to classical selection or marker assisted selection programs, are being applied. In this review, we selected four relevant species or fish groups to illustrate this diversity and hence the technologies that can be used by the industry for the control of sex ratio: turbot and European sea bass, two

  18. New MPPT algorithm for PV applications based on hybrid dynamical approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2016-10-24

    This paper proposes a new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm for photovoltaic applications using the multicellular converter as a stage of power adaptation. The proposed MPPT technique has been designed using a hybrid dynamical approach to model the photovoltaic generator. The hybrid dynamical theory has been applied taking advantage of the particular topology of the multicellular converter. Then, a hybrid automata has been established to optimize the power production. The maximization of the produced solar energy is achieved by switching between the different operative modes of the hybrid automata, which is conditioned by some invariance and transition conditions. These conditions have been validated by simulation tests under different conditions of temperature and irradiance. Moreover, the performance of the proposed algorithm has been then evaluated by comparison with standard MPPT techniques numerically and by experimental tests under varying external working conditions. The results have shown the interesting features that the hybrid MPPT technique presents in terms of performance and simplicity for real time implementation.

  19. Synergistic tungsten oxide/organic framework hybrid nanofibers for electrochromic device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgerbaki, Cigdem; Komur, Ali Ihsan; Nohut Maslakci, Neslihan; Kuralay, Filiz; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2017-08-01

    We report the first successful applications of tungsten oxide/conducting polymer hybrid nanofiber assemblies in electrochromic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/tungsten oxide (PEDOT/WO3) and polypyrrole/tungsten oxide (PPy/WO3) composites were prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of monomers in different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIMBF4), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMIMTFSI) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMPTFSI). Electrospinning process was used to form hybrid nanofibers from chemically synthesized nanostructures. The electrospun hybrid samples were compared from both morphological and electrochemical perspectives. Importantly, deposition of nanofibers from chemically synthesized hybrids can be achieved homogenously, on nanoscale dimensions. The morphologies of these assemblies were evaluated by SEM, whereas their electroactivity was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. Electrochromic devices made from hybrid nanofiber electrodes exhibited highest chromatic contrast of 37.66% for PEDOT/WO3/BMIMPF6, 40.42% for PPy/WO3/BMIMBF4 and show a strong electrochromic color change from transparent to light brown. Furthermore, the nanofiber devices exhibit outstanding stability when color switching proceeds, which may ensure a versatile platform for color displays, rear-view mirrors and smart windows.

  20. Application of Hybrid Optimization Algorithm in the Synthesis of Linear Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Deniz Ülker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hybrid algorithms for solving real-world optimization problems has become popular since their solution quality can be made better than the algorithms that form them by combining their desirable features. The newly proposed hybrid method which is called Hybrid Differential, Particle, and Harmony (HDPH algorithm is different from the other hybrid forms since it uses all features of merged algorithms in order to perform efficiently for a wide variety of problems. In the proposed algorithm the control parameters are randomized which makes its implementation easy and provides a fast response. This paper describes the application of HDPH algorithm to linear antenna array synthesis. The results obtained with the HDPH algorithm are compared with three merged optimization techniques that are used in HDPH. The comparison shows that the performance of the proposed algorithm is comparatively better in both solution quality and robustness. The proposed hybrid algorithm HDPH can be an efficient candidate for real-time optimization problems since it yields reliable performance at all times when it gets executed.

  1. Application of chemometrics to low-field H-1 NMR relaxation data of intact fish flesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Signe Munk; Pedersen, H.T.; Engelsen, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    squares (PLS) regression on complete relaxation curves and compared with conventional regression models on exponential fitting parameters. Predictions on an independent test set were superior for the PLS regression models, with optimal prediction errors of 12 g kg(-1), 6 g kg(-1) and 3.9% for oil......The possibilities for application of low-field H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as a rapid method for simultaneous assessment of basic quality parameters in fish were explored. In a first experiment, 200 salmon (Salmo salar) samples mapping the variation over an entire fish were measured by NMR...... and subsequently analysed for oil or water content by standard chemical methods. In a second experiment, 58 differently thawed cod (Gadus morhua) samples were measured by NMR and subsequently analysed for water-holding capacity. Correlations between chemical data and NMR data were evaluated using partial least...

  2. Selenium: Mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish in the Columbia River Basin: Potential applications for specific fish consumption advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Leanne K.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Harding, Anna K.; Kile, Molly; Stone, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Fish provide a valuable source of beneficial nutrients and are an excellent source of low fat protein. However, fish are also the primary source of methylmercury exposure in humans. Selenium often co-occurs with mercury and there is some evidence that selenium can protect against mercury toxicity yet States issue fish consumption advisories based solely on the risks that methylmercury pose to human health. Recently, it has been suggested the selenium: mercury molar ratio be considered in risk management. In order for agencies to utilize the ratio to set consumption guidelines, it is important to evaluate the variability in selenium and mercury in different fish species. We examined 10 different freshwater fish species found within the Columbia River Basin in order to determine the inter- and intra-specific variability in the selenium: mercury molar ratios and the selenium health benefit values. We found significant variation in selenium: mercury molar ratios. The mean molar ratios for each species were all above 1:1, ranging from 3.42:1 in Walleye to 27.2:1 in Chinook salmon. There was a positive correlation between both mercury and selenium with length for each fish species apart from yellow perch and rainbow trout. All species had health benefit values greater than 2. We observed considerable variability in selenium: mercury molar ratios within fish species collected in the Columbia River Basin. Although incorporating selenium: mercury molar ratios into fish consumption holds the potential for refining advisories and assessing the risk of methylmercury exposure, the current understanding of how these ratios apply is insufficient, and further understanding of drivers of variability in the ratios is needed.

  3. Biomedical Applications of Magnetically Functionalized Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Jeong Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibers are one-dimensional nanomaterial in fiber form with diameter less than 1 µm and an aspect ratio (length/diameter larger than 100:1. Among the different types of nanoparticle-loaded nanofiber systems, nanofibers loaded with magnetic nanoparticles have gained much attention from biomedical scientists due to a synergistic effect obtained from the unique properties of both the nanofibers and magnetic nanoparticles. These magnetic nanoparticle-encapsulated or -embedded nanofiber systems can be used not only for imaging purposes but also for therapy. In this review, we focused on recent advances in nanofibers loaded with magnetic nanoparticles, their biomedical applications, and future trends in the application of these nanofibers.

  4. Hybrid digital signal processing and neural networks applications in PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eryurek, E.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Kavaklioglu, K.

    1991-12-31

    Signal validation and plant subsystem tracking in power and process industries require the prediction of one or more state variables. Both heteroassociative and auotassociative neural networks were applied for characterizing relationships among sets of signals. A multi-layer neural network paradigm was applied for sensor and process monitoring in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). This nonlinear interpolation technique was found to be very effective for these applications.

  5. Dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complexes and related pathogens in cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltman, Helena; Narciso, Patricia; Murphy, Christina; Poruri, Akhila; Baliga, Shrikala; Sharon, Leesha; York, Mary; Cunningham, Gail; Miller, Steve; Caviedes, Luz; Gilman, Robert; Desmond, Edward; Ramasamy, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Two rapid dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were evaluated for detecting M. tuberculosis and related pathogens in cultures. The MN Genus-MTBC FISH assay uses an orange fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and a green fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium and Nocardia genera (MN Genus) to detect and distinguish MTBC from other Mycobacteria and Nocardia. A complementary MTBC-MAC FISH assay uses green and orange fluorescent probes specific for the MTBC and M. avium complex (MAC) respectively to identify and differentiate the two species complexes. The assays are performed on acid-fast staining bacteria from liquid or solid cultures in less than two hours. Forty-three of 44 reference mycobacterial isolates were correctly identified by the MN Genus-specific probe as Mycobacterium species, with six of these correctly identified as MTBC with the MTBC-specific probe and 14 correctly as MAC by the MAC-specific probe. Of the 25 reference isolates of clinically relevant pathogens of other genera tested, only four isolates representing two species of Corynebacterium gave a positive signal with the MN Genus probe. None of these 25 isolates were detected by the MTBC and MAC specific probes. A total of 248 cultures of clinical mycobacterial isolates originating in India, Peru and the USA were also tested by FISH assays. DNA sequence of a part of the 23S ribosomal RNA gene amplified by PCR was obtained from 243 of the 248 clinical isolates. All 243 were confirmed by DNA sequencing as Mycobacterium species, with 157 and 50 of these identified as belonging to the MTBC and the MAC, respectively. The accuracy of the MN Genus-, MTBC-and MAC -specific probes in identifying these 243 cultures in relation to their DNA sequence-based identification was 100%. All ten isolates of Nocardia, (three reference strains and seven clinical isolates) tested were detected by the MN Genus-specific probe but not the MTBC- or

  6. Dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complexes and related pathogens in cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jyotsna; Weltman, Helena; Narciso, Patricia; Murphy, Christina; Poruri, Akhila; Baliga, Shrikala; Sharon, Leesha; York, Mary; Cunningham, Gail; Miller, Steve; Caviedes, Luz; Gilman, Robert; Desmond, Edward; Ramasamy, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Two rapid dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were evaluated for detecting M. tuberculosis and related pathogens in cultures. The MN Genus-MTBC FISH assay uses an orange fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and a green fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium and Nocardia genera (MN Genus) to detect and distinguish MTBC from other Mycobacteria and Nocardia. A complementary MTBC-MAC FISH assay uses green and orange fluorescent probes specific for the MTBC and M. avium complex (MAC) respectively to identify and differentiate the two species complexes. The assays are performed on acid-fast staining bacteria from liquid or solid cultures in less than two hours. Forty-three of 44 reference mycobacterial isolates were correctly identified by the MN Genus-specific probe as Mycobacterium species, with six of these correctly identified as MTBC with the MTBC-specific probe and 14 correctly as MAC by the MAC-specific probe. Of the 25 reference isolates of clinically relevant pathogens of other genera tested, only four isolates representing two species of Corynebacterium gave a positive signal with the MN Genus probe. None of these 25 isolates were detected by the MTBC and MAC specific probes. A total of 248 cultures of clinical mycobacterial isolates originating in India, Peru and the USA were also tested by FISH assays. DNA sequence of a part of the 23S ribosomal RNA gene amplified by PCR was obtained from 243 of the 248 clinical isolates. All 243 were confirmed by DNA sequencing as Mycobacterium species, with 157 and 50 of these identified as belonging to the MTBC and the MAC, respectively. The accuracy of the MN Genus-, MTBC-and MAC -specific probes in identifying these 243 cultures in relation to their DNA sequence-based identification was 100%. All ten isolates of Nocardia, (three reference strains and seven clinical isolates) tested were detected by the MN Genus-specific probe but not the MTBC- or

  7. Dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assays for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complexes and related pathogens in cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Shah

    Full Text Available Two rapid dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH assays were evaluated for detecting M. tuberculosis and related pathogens in cultures. The MN Genus-MTBC FISH assay uses an orange fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC and a green fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium and Nocardia genera (MN Genus to detect and distinguish MTBC from other Mycobacteria and Nocardia. A complementary MTBC-MAC FISH assay uses green and orange fluorescent probes specific for the MTBC and M. avium complex (MAC respectively to identify and differentiate the two species complexes. The assays are performed on acid-fast staining bacteria from liquid or solid cultures in less than two hours. Forty-three of 44 reference mycobacterial isolates were correctly identified by the MN Genus-specific probe as Mycobacterium species, with six of these correctly identified as MTBC with the MTBC-specific probe and 14 correctly as MAC by the MAC-specific probe. Of the 25 reference isolates of clinically relevant pathogens of other genera tested, only four isolates representing two species of Corynebacterium gave a positive signal with the MN Genus probe. None of these 25 isolates were detected by the MTBC and MAC specific probes. A total of 248 cultures of clinical mycobacterial isolates originating in India, Peru and the USA were also tested by FISH assays. DNA sequence of a part of the 23S ribosomal RNA gene amplified by PCR was obtained from 243 of the 248 clinical isolates. All 243 were confirmed by DNA sequencing as Mycobacterium species, with 157 and 50 of these identified as belonging to the MTBC and the MAC, respectively. The accuracy of the MN Genus-, MTBC-and MAC -specific probes in identifying these 243 cultures in relation to their DNA sequence-based identification was 100%. All ten isolates of Nocardia, (three reference strains and seven clinical isolates tested were detected by the MN Genus-specific probe but not

  8. Assessment of HER2 Status Using Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Techniques in Mucinous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Comprehensive Comparison between ToGA Biopsy Method and ToGA Surgical Specimen Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Ru Chao; Ming-Yung Lee; Alexandra Ruan; Huang Pin Sheng; Jeng-Dong Hsu; Chih-Ping Han; Chiew-Loon Koo

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the assay performance characteristics of HER2 status in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) by ToGA (Trastuzumab for Gastric Cancer) biopsy versus ToGA surgical specimen methods. Forty-nine tissue microarray (TMA) samples of mucinous EOC from Asian women were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests using ToGA trial HER2 scoring methods. The overall concordance between IHC and FISH by the ToGA surgical specimen method ...

  9. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH)-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Radke, Brittany; Findley, Seth; Abernathy, Brian; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-04-07

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2-4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species. Copyright © 2016 Iwata-Otsubo et al.

  10. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  11. Analysis of chromosomal polymorphism in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and between H. vulgare and H. chilense using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakács, É; Kruppa, K; Molnár-Láng, M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study chromosomal polymorphism within cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The physical distribution of the most frequently used, highly repetitive DNA sequences (GAA)7 specific for pericentromeric heterochromatic regions, the ribosomal DNA clone pTa71, specific for the 45S rDNA, and the barley-specific telomere-associated sequence HvT01, was investigated to reveal genetic diversity in metaphase spreads of ten barley genotypes with diverse geographical origin, growth habit and row number. A wild relative of barley, Hordeum chilense was also studied in order to compare the polymorphism between and within Hordeum species. Significant differences in the hybridization patterns of all three DNA probes could be detected between the two related species, but only probes pTa71 and HvT01 showed variation in the intensity and/or position of hybridization sites among genotypes of H. vulgare ssp. vulgare. The extent of polymorphism was less than that earlier reported for molecular markers and was restricted to the long chromosome arms, with differences between the chromosomes. 1H and 3H proved to be the most variable chromosomes and 4H and 6H the most conserved.

  12. Characterization of hybridization within a secondary contact region of the inshore fish, Bostrychus sinensis, in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shaoxiong; Mishra, Mrinal; Wu, Haohao; Liang, Shuang; Miyamoto, Michael M

    2018-01-01

    The northwest Pacific marginal seas are a primary center of phylogeographic and evolutionary research, because of their dynamic geographic history of falling and rising sea levels during the glaciations and interglaciations of the last one million years. Here we present new molecular and morphological data for geographic samples of the four-eyed sleeper (Bostrychus sinensis), which reinforce the evidence for secondary contact and hybridization between two phylogeographic lineages in the East China Sea. Specifically, we find that the secondary contact region is characterized by a low frequency of hybridization, where mitochondrial DNA introgression is relatively common, whereas F1 hybrids are correspondingly scarce. Furthermore, the adult standard lengths of the two phylogeographic lineages vary geographically in a manner that is consistent with reproductive character displacement. Collectively, the molecular and morphological data document that sleeper hybridization conforms to the classic "tension zone" model, where alleles are lost via reduced hybrid viability and/or positive assortative mating but are then replenished by dispersal from south of the secondary contact region. They also indicate that the two phylogeographic lineages are at an incipient stage of the speciation process. These results and conclusions for the four-eyed sleeper are presented as a case study for future research on the vicariance, secondary contact, and hybridization of marine groups in the northwest Pacific marginal seas.

  13. Photo-thermal hybrid module with photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric devices for space application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Moriaki; Hayashibara, Mitsuo

    1988-11-30

    Based upon the assumption that higher efficeint thermoelectric device will come in practice, a feasibility study was carried out to investigate the performance of photo-thermal hybrid module for space application. The photo-thermal hybrid modules consist of laminate of photovoltaic cells, thermoelectric devices and radiators. Solar energies collected are converted to the power generation by the photovoltaic cells and to heat them to the moderate temperature level, and then the thermoelectric devices generate the electric power, utilizing the temperature difference of thermoelectric devices between the junction surface with the photovoltaic cells (high temperature side) and one with the radiators (low temperature side). As an experimental result on the photo-thermal hybrid module which was constituted of the combination of a GaAs photovoltaic cell and a BiTe thermoelectric device, the hybrid module was able to have higher efficiency than a concentration type GaAs system. The photo-thermal arrays for space application with higher efficiency and lower specific weight might be realized, when a high performance thermoelectric device, such as a FeSi thermoelectric device, the performance of which is able to expect to be one digit higher than a BiTe thermoelectric device, is developed. 4 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  14. AIEgens-Functionalized Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials: Fabrications and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Yu, Jihong

    2016-12-01

    Inorganic materials functionalized with organic fluorescent molecules combine advantages of them both, showing potential applications in biomedicine, chemosensors, light-emitting, and so on. However, when more traditional organic dyes are doped into the inorganic materials, the emission of resulting hybrid materials may be quenched, which is not conducive to the efficiency and sensitivity of detection. In contrast to the aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) system, the aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens) with high solid quantum efficiency, offer new potential for developing highly efficient inorganic-organic hybrid luminescent materials. So far, many AIEgens have been incorporated into inorganic materials through either physical doping caused by aggregation induced emission (AIE) or chemical bonding (e.g., covalent bonding, ionic bonding, and coordination bonding) caused by bonding induced emission (BIE) strategy. The hybrid materials exhibit excellent photoactive properties due to the intramolecular motion of AIEgens is restricted by inorganic matrix. Recent advances in the fabrication of AIEgens-functionalized inorganic-organic hybrid materials and their applications in biomedicine, chemical sensing, and solid-state light emitting are presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Super-capacitor and Thin Film Battery Hybrid Energy Storage for Energy Harvesting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wensi; Wang, Ningning; Vinco, Alessandro; Siddique, Rashid; Hayes, Mike; O'Flynn, Brendan; O'Mathuna, Cian

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the design of hybrid energy storage unit (HESU) for energy harvesting applications using super-capacitor and thin film battery (TFB). The power management circuits of this hybrid energy storage unit are proposed to perform "smart" charge/discharge control in order to optimize the HESU from the perspectives of energy loss due to leakage current and equivalent series resistance (ESR). This paper shows the characterizations of ESUs for energy harvesting powered wireless sensor networks (WSN) applications. A new design of power management circuits is proposed in order to utilize the low ESR characteristics of super-capacitor and the low leakage current characteristics of the TFB in the hybrid energy storage. The average power loss due to leakage current is measured at 38μW in the proposed system. When Compared to the super-capacitor energy storage with the similar capacity, the proposed hybrid energy storage unit reduces the leakage power by approximately 45% whilst maintains a similar (<100 mΩ) ESR.

  16. Polymer/Carbon-Based Hybrid Aerogels: Preparation, Properties and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lizeng; Zhang, Youfang; Zhang, Longsheng; Miao, Yue-E; Fan, Wei; Liu, Tianxi

    2015-10-09

    Aerogels are synthetic porous materials derived from sol-gel materials in which the liquid component has been replaced with gas to leave intact solid nanostructures without pore collapse. Recently, aerogels based on natural or synthetic polymers, called polymer or organic aerogels, have been widely explored due to their porous structures and unique properties, such as high specific surface area, low density, low thermal conductivity and dielectric constant. This paper gives a comprehensive review about the most recent progresses in preparation, structures and properties of polymer and their derived carbon-based aerogels, as well as their potential applications in various fields including energy storage, adsorption, thermal insulation and flame retardancy. To facilitate further research and development, the technical challenges are discussed, and several future research directions are also suggested in this review.

  17. Polymer/Carbon-Based Hybrid Aerogels: Preparation, Properties and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lizeng; Zhang, Youfang; Zhang, Longsheng; Miao, Yue-E; Fan, Wei; Liu, Tianxi

    2015-01-01

    Aerogels are synthetic porous materials derived from sol-gel materials in which the liquid component has been replaced with gas to leave intact solid nanostructures without pore collapse. Recently, aerogels based on natural or synthetic polymers, called polymer or organic aerogels, have been widely explored due to their porous structures and unique properties, such as high specific surface area, low density, low thermal conductivity and dielectric constant. This paper gives a comprehensive review about the most recent progresses in preparation, structures and properties of polymer and their derived carbon-based aerogels, as well as their potential applications in various fields including energy storage, adsorption, thermal insulation and flame retardancy. To facilitate further research and development, the technical challenges are discussed, and several future research directions are also suggested in this review. PMID:28793602

  18. Aerogel Hybrid Composite Materials: Designs and Testing for Multifunctional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    This webinar will introduce the broad spectrum of aerogel composites and their diverse performance properties such as reduced heat transfer to energy storage, and expands specifically on the aerogel/fiber laminate systems and testing methodologies. The multi-functional laminate composite system, AeroFiber, and its construction is designed by varying the type of fiber (e.g. polyester, carbon, Kevlar®, Spectra® or Innegral(TradeMark) and combinations thereof), the aerogel panel type and thickness, and overall layup configuration. The combination and design of materials may be customized and tailored to achieve a range of desired properties in the resulting laminate system. Multi-functional properties include structural strength, impact resistance, reduction in heat transfer, increased fire resistance, mechanical energy absorption, and acoustic energy dampening. Applications include aerospace, aircraft, automotive, boating, building and construction, lightweight portable structures, liquefied natural gas, cryogenics, transportation and energy, sporting equipment, and military protective gear industries.

  19. Detection of Escherichia coli O157 by peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) and comparison to a standard culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C; Sousa, J M; Rocha, R; Cerqueira, L; Fanning, S; Azevedo, N F; Vieira, M J

    2013-10-01

    Despite the emergence of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections, E. coli serotype O157 is still the most commonly identified STEC in the world. It causes high morbidity and mortality and has been responsible for a number of outbreaks in many parts of the world. Various methods have been developed to detect this particular serotype, but standard bacteriological methods remain the gold standard. Here, we propose a new peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) method for the rapid detection of E. coli O157. Testing on 54 representative strains showed that the PNA probe is highly sensitive and specific to E. coli O157. The method then was optimized for detection in food samples. Ground beef and unpasteurized milk samples were artificially contaminated with E. coli O157 concentrations ranging from 1 × 10(-2) to 1 × 10(2) CFU per 25 g or ml of food. Samples were then preenriched and analyzed by both the traditional bacteriological method (ISO 16654:2001) and PNA-FISH. The PNA-FISH method performed well in both types of food matrices with a detection limit of 1 CFU/25 g or ml of food samples. Tests on 60 food samples have shown a specificity value of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.83 to 100), a sensitivity of 97.22% (95% CI, 83.79 to 99.85%), and an accuracy of 98.33% (CI 95%, 83.41 to 99.91%). Results indicate that PNA-FISH performed as well as the traditional culture methods and can reduce the diagnosis time to 1 day.

  20. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  1. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications. PMID:27472335

  2. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-26

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  3. Multi-Objective Optimization in Battery Selection for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Panday

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proclaims the battery selection for hybrid electric vehicle applications using multiobjective optimization techniques. Ashby's methodology, Technique for Order Preferences by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and VIse Kriterijum-ska Optimizacija Komprominsno Resenje (VIKOR methods are employed here for the assessment. Various attributes considered for analysis are specific energy, energy density, electrical efficiency, self-discharge rate, nominal cell voltage, energy, cost and durability. The batteries considered for analysis are Liion, Ni-MH, Ni-Cd and Pb-acid. Based on the performance indices and battery attributes, selection charts and tables are presented here. It is observed that Li-ion batteries are most suitable for hybrid electric vehicle applications followed by Ni-MH batteries. The outcomes of all methods considered are uniform and promising. The results obtained are also matched up with actual practices in automotive industries. Alike results confirm the validity of this study.

  4. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Julio Ferraz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some methods for determining lime requirement of pond soils are available and commonly used, there is still no consensus on whether it is more effective to apply liming materials to the bottoms of empty ponds or to wait and apply them over the water surface after ponds are filled. There is also little information on how deep lime reacts in pond sediment over time, and whether the depth of reaction is different when liming materials are applied to the water or to the soil. Therefore, three techniques for treating fish ponds with agricultural limestone were evaluated in ponds with clayey soils at a commercial fish farm. Amounts of agricultural limestone equal to the lime requirement of bottom soils were applied to each of three ponds by: direct application over the pond water surface; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond followed by tilling of the bottom. Effectiveness of agricultural limestone applications did not differ among treatment methods. Agricultural limestone also reacted quickly to increase total alkalinity and total hardness of pond water to acceptable concentrations within 2 weeks after application. The reaction of lime to increase soil pH was essentially complete after one to two months, and lime had no effect below a soil depth of 8 cm. Tilling of pond bottoms to incorporate liming materials is unnecessary, and tilling consumes time and is an expensive practice; filled ponds can be limed effectively.

  5. Hybrid Block Copolymers Constituted by Peptides and Synthetic Polymers: An Overview of Synthetic Approaches, Supramolecular Behavior and Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Puiggalí

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid block copolymers based on peptides and synthetic polymers, displaying different types of topologies, offer new possibilities to integrate the properties and functions of biomacromolecules and synthetic polymers in a single hybrid material. This review provides a current status report of the field concerning peptide-synthetic polymer hybrids. The first section is focused on the different synthetic approaches that have been used within the last three years for the preparation of peptide-polymer hybrids having different topologies. In the last two sections, the attractive properties, displayed in solution or in the solid state, together with the potential applications of this type of macromolecules or supramolecular systems are highlighted.

  6. Recent Work in Hybrid Radiation Transport Methods with Applications to Commercial Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulesza, Joel A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-20

    This talk will begin with an overview of hybrid radiation transport methods followed by a discussion of the author’s work to advance current capabilities. The talk will then describe applications for these methods in commercial nuclear power reactor analyses and techniques for experimental validation. When discussing these analytical and experimental activities, the importance of technical standards such as those created and maintained by ASTM International will be demonstrated.

  7. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    OpenAIRE

    Gandzha S.A.; Kiessh I.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding) for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric...

  8. Substrate Integrated Waveguide hybrid coupler with integrated filter for radar applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mira, Fermín; Llamas-Garro, Ignacio; Georgiadis, Apostolos; San Blas, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) 180 degrees hybrid coupler with an integrated filter. This device operates at 24.1 GHz for radar applications and the filter removes the frequency of 22.1 GHz coming from the local oscillator. This device is the RF passive part of a single balanced diode mixer. The passive part has been designed, fabricated and measured.

  9. PNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization for identification of bacteria in clinical samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazli, Mustafa; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Høiby, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with PNA probes (PNA-FISH) that target specific bacterial ribosomal RNA sequences is a powerful and rapid tool for identification of bacteria in clinical samples. PNA can diffuse readily through the bacterial cell wall due to its uncharged backbone, and PNA-FISH...... can be performed with high specificity due to the extraordinary thermal stability of RNA-PNA hybrid complexes. We describe a PNA-FISH procedure and provide examples of the application of PNA-FISH for the identification of bacteria in chronic wounds, cystic fibrosis lungs, and soft tissue fillers...

  10. Investigation on characteristics and application of hybrid solar-wind power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin

    This thesis develops an overall methodology for investigating the characteristics and application of hybrid solar-wind power generation systems using both technical methodology and field experiment. The field experiment investigates the operating performances and characteristics of a hybrid solar-wind system and helps to validate the field application feasibility of the models developed in this thesis. By applying and integrating new technologies and new concepts, the Hybrid Solar-Wind System Optimization (HSWSO) methodology is developed according to the Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) technique and the new concept of Levelised Cost of Energy (LCE). The HSWSO model is utilized to carry out system evaluations and to achieve optimal system configurations with two case studies. By applying the HSWSO model, the hybrid system can be sized technically and economically according to the system reliability requirements. The weighting relationships among three sizing parameters (the capacity of photovoltaic (PV) system, the rated power of wind system, and the capacity of battery bank) are investigated accordingly. The orientations of PV modules (gamma, beta) and the hub heights of wind tower are also studied as two factors influencing the sizing simulation results. A Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) for renewable energy applications is proposed. By applying the new methodologies developed in this thesis, a local TMY is derived for solar-wind applications (utilized as the weather data input in the HSWSO model) by processing local long-term weather data. As one part of the integrated HSWSO model, the simulation model for hybrid solar-wind system is developed. System simulation mainly employs modeling of PV modules, modeling of wind turbine, and modeling of battery bank. Modeling PV modules includes two parts: modeling the maximum power output of PV modules, which is developed from the model describing the I--V characteristics of PV modules and validated by

  11. Data Placement for Privacy-Aware Applications over Big Data in Hybrid Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a large number of groups choose to deploy their applications to cloud platforms, especially for the big data era. Currently, the hybrid cloud is one of the most popular computing paradigms for holding the privacy-aware applications driven by the requirements of privacy protection and cost saving. However, it is still a challenge to realize data placement considering both the energy consumption in private cloud and the cost for renting the public cloud services. In view of this challenge, a cost and energy aware data placement method, named CEDP, for privacy-aware applications over big data in hybrid cloud is proposed. Technically, formalized analysis of cost, access time, and energy consumption is conducted in the hybrid cloud environment. Then a corresponding data placement method is designed to accomplish the cost saving for renting the public cloud services and energy savings for task execution within the private cloud platforms. Experimental evaluations validate the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed method.

  12. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid Overset Multi-Block Application on Multiple Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomehri, M. Jahed; Biswas, Rupak

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed performance analysis of a multi-block overset grid compu- tational fluid dynamics app!ication on multiple state-of-the-art computer architectures. The application is implemented using a hybrid MPI+OpenMP programming paradigm that exploits both coarse and fine-grain parallelism; the former via MPI message passing and the latter via OpenMP directives. The hybrid model also extends the applicability of multi-block programs to large clusters of SNIP nodes by overcoming the restriction that the number of processors be less than the number of grid blocks. A key kernel of the application, namely the LU-SGS linear solver, had to be modified to enhance the performance of the hybrid approach on the target machines. Investigations were conducted on cacheless Cray SX6 vector processors, cache-based IBM Power3 and Power4 architectures, and single system image SGI Origin3000 platforms. Overall results for complex vortex dynamics simulations demonstrate that the SX6 achieves the highest performance and outperforms the RISC-based architectures; however, the best scaling performance was achieved on the Power3.

  13. CPU-GPU hybrid accelerating the Zuker algorithm for RNA secondary structure prediction applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Guoqing; Dou, Yong; Wan, Wen; Xia, Fei; Li, Rongchun; Ma, Meng; Zou, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of ribonucleic acid (RNA) secondary structure remains one of the most important research areas in bioinformatics. The Zuker algorithm is one of the most popular methods of free energy minimization for RNA secondary structure prediction. Thus far, few studies have been reported on the acceleration of the Zuker algorithm on general-purpose processors or on extra accelerators such as Field Programmable Gate-Array (FPGA) and Graphics Processing Units (GPU). To the best of our knowledge, no implementation combines both CPU and extra accelerators, such as GPUs, to accelerate the Zuker algorithm applications. In this paper, a CPU-GPU hybrid computing system that accelerates Zuker algorithm applications for RNA secondary structure prediction is proposed. The computing tasks are allocated between CPU and GPU for parallel cooperate execution. Performance differences between the CPU and the GPU in the task-allocation scheme are considered to obtain workload balance. To improve the hybrid system performance, the Zuker algorithm is optimally implemented with special methods for CPU and GPU architecture. Speedup of 15.93× over optimized multi-core SIMD CPU implementation and performance advantage of 16% over optimized GPU implementation are shown in the experimental results. More than 14% of the sequences are executed on CPU in the hybrid system. The system combining CPU and GPU to accelerate the Zuker algorithm is proven to be promising and can be applied to other bioinformatics applications.

  14. Detection of hybrids in nature: application to oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarella, C; Lorenzo, Z; Jabbour-Zahab, R; Lumaret, R; Guichoux, E; Petit, R J; Soto, A; Gil, L

    2009-05-01

    Powerful and accurate detection of first-generation (F1) hybrids and backcrosses in nature is needed to achieve a better understanding of the function and dynamics of introgression. To document the frequency of ongoing interspecific gene exchange between two Mediterranean evergreen oaks, the cork oak (Quercus suber) and the holm oak (Q. ilex), we analyzed 1487 individuals originating from across the range of the two species using eight microsatellite loci and two Bayesian clustering approaches (implemented in the programs STRUCTURE and NEWHYBRIDS). Simulated data were used to assess the differences between the two clustering methods and to back up the choice of the threshold value for the posterior probability to discriminate admixed from pure individuals. We found that the use of STRUCTURE resulted in the highest power to detect hybrids, whereas NEWHYBRIDS provided the highest accuracy. Irrespective of the approach, the two species were clearly distinguished as independent genetic entities without any prior information. In contrast with previous reports, we found no evidence for unidirectional introgression. The overall hybridization rate was very low (<2% of introgressed individuals). Only two individuals were identified as F1 hybrids and five as early backcrosses. This work shows that the combined application of the two complementary Bayesian approaches and their systematic validation with simulations, fit for the case at hand, helps gain resolution in the identification of admixed individuals.

  15. Dynamic modeling of hybrid energy storage systems coupled to photovoltaic generation in residential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclay, James D.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    A model of a photovoltaic (PV) powered residence in stand-alone configuration was developed and evaluated. The model assesses the sizing, capital costs, control strategies, and efficiencies of reversible fuel cells (RFC), batteries, and ultra-capacitors (UC) both individually, and in combination, as hybrid energy storage devices. The choice of control strategy for a hybrid energy storage system is found to have a significant impact on system efficiency, hydrogen production and component utilization. A hybrid energy storage system comprised of batteries and RFC has the advantage of reduced cost (compared to using a RFC as the sole energy storage device), high system efficiency and hydrogen energy production capacity. A control strategy that preferentially used the RFC before the battery in meeting load demand allows both grid independent operation and better RFC utilization compared to a system that preferentially used the battery before the RFC. Ultra-capacitors coupled with a RFC in a hybrid energy storage system contain insufficient energy density to meet dynamic power demands typical of residential applications.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and bioevaluation of drug-collagen hybrid materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Georgeta; Geanaliu-Nicolae, Ruxandra-Elena; Pîrvan, Adrian-Alexandru; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Iordache, Florin

    2016-08-30

    This work presents a study based on the preparation and characterization of drug-collagen hybrid materials. Materials used for obtaining drug-collagen hybrids were collagen type I (Coll) as matrix and fludarabine (F) and epirubicin (E) as hydrophilic active substances. After incorporation of drugs into Coll in different ratios, the obtained hybrid materials (Coll/F and Coll/E) could be used according to our results as potential drug delivery systems in medicine for the topical (local) treatment of cancerous tissues (e.g. the treatment of breast, stomach, lung, colorectal or advanced ovarian cancer). The materials were characterized considering their composition (by XRD, FT-IR and DTA-TG) and their morphology (by SEM). The delivery of drug was assessed by UV-vis. The in vitro citotoxicity demonstrates an antitumoral activity of the obtained hybrid materials and their potential use for biomedical applications as drug delivery systems in tumoral treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High capacity fiber optic sensor networks using hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qizhen; Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Manliang; Liu, Qi; Liu, Hai; Liu, Deming

    2013-12-01

    Fiber optic sensor network is the development trend of fiber senor technologies and industries. In this paper, I will discuss recent research progress on high capacity fiber sensor networks with hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications in the fields of security monitoring, environment monitoring, Smart eHome, etc. Firstly, I will present the architecture of hybrid multiplexing sensor passive optical network (HSPON), and the key technologies for integrated access and intelligent management of massive fiber sensor units. Two typical hybrid WDM/TDM fiber sensor networks for perimeter intrusion monitor and cultural relics security are introduced. Secondly, we propose the concept of "Microstructure-Optical X Domin Refecltor (M-OXDR)" for fiber sensor network expansion. By fabricating smart micro-structures with the ability of multidimensional encoded and low insertion loss along the fiber, the fiber sensor network of simple structure and huge capacity more than one thousand could be achieved. Assisted by the WDM/TDM and WDM/FDM decoding methods respectively, we built the verification systems for long-haul and real-time temperature sensing. Finally, I will show the high capacity and flexible fiber sensor network with IPv6 protocol based hybrid fiber/wireless access. By developing the fiber optic sensor with embedded IPv6 protocol conversion module and IPv6 router, huge amounts of fiber optic sensor nodes can be uniquely addressed. Meanwhile, various sensing information could be integrated and accessed to the Next Generation Internet.

  18. Application of soft computing based hybrid models in hydrological variables modeling: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Farzad; Yaseen, Zaher Mundher; El-shafie, Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Since the middle of the twentieth century, artificial intelligence (AI) models have been used widely in engineering and science problems. Water resource variable modeling and prediction are the most challenging issues in water engineering. Artificial neural network (ANN) is a common approach used to tackle this problem by using viable and efficient models. Numerous ANN models have been successfully developed to achieve more accurate results. In the current review, different ANN models in water resource applications and hydrological variable predictions are reviewed and outlined. In addition, recent hybrid models and their structures, input preprocessing, and optimization techniques are discussed and the results are compared with similar previous studies. Moreover, to achieve a comprehensive view of the literature, many articles that applied ANN models together with other techniques are included. Consequently, coupling procedure, model evaluation, and performance comparison of hybrid models with conventional ANN models are assessed, as well as, taxonomy and hybrid ANN models structures. Finally, current challenges and recommendations for future researches are indicated and new hybrid approaches are proposed.

  19. Chromosomes of Iberian Leuciscinae (Cyprinidae) Revisited: Evidence of Genome Restructuring in Homoploid Hybrids Using Dual-Color FISH and CGH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pereira, C. S.; Ráb, Petr; Collares-Pereira, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 141, 2/3 (2013), s. 143-152 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37277S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : CGH/GISH * Chondrostoma s.I. * genome reshuffling hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.905, year: 2013

  20. Hybrid uncertainty-based design optimization and its application to hybrid rocket motors for manned lunar landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Design reliability and robustness are getting increasingly important for the general design of aerospace systems with many inherently uncertain design parameters. This paper presents a hybrid uncertainty-based design optimization (UDO method developed from probability theory and interval theory. Most of the uncertain design parameters which have sufficient information or experimental data are classified as random variables using probability theory, while the others are defined as interval variables with interval theory. Then a hybrid uncertainty analysis method based on Monte Carlo simulation and Taylor series interval analysis is developed to obtain the uncertainty propagation from the design parameters to system responses. Three design optimization strategies, including deterministic design optimization (DDO, probabilistic UDO and hybrid UDO, are applied to the conceptual design of a hybrid rocket motor (HRM used as the ascent propulsion system in Apollo lunar module. By comparison, the hybrid UDO is a feasible method and can be effectively applied to the general design of aerospace systems.

  1. 78 FR 36236 - Proposed Information Collection; Federal Fish and Wildlife Permit Applications and Reports-Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Endangered Species Act (ESA) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) makes it unlawful to import or export fish, wildlife... FWS Form 3-177 (Declaration for Importation or Exportation of Fish or Wildlife) for all imports or... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Federal Fish and Wildlife Permit...

  2. Applicability of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy as an alternative to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrojado, Cátia; Pereira, Carla; Tomé, João P C; Faustino, Maria A F; Neves, Maria G P M S; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Cunha, Angela; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide

    2011-10-01

    Aquaculture activities are increasing worldwide, stimulated by the progressive reduction of natural fish stocks in the oceans. However, these activities also suffer heavy production and financial losses resulting from fish infections caused by microbial pathogens, including multidrug resistant bacteria. Therefore, strategies to control fish infections are urgently needed, in order to make aquaculture industry more sustainable. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has emerged as an alternative to treat diseases and prevent the development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of aPDT to inactivate pathogenic fish bacteria. To reach this objective a cationic porphyrin Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF was tested against nine pathogenic bacteria isolated from a semi-intensive aquaculture system and against the cultivable bacteria of the aquaculture system. The ecological impact of aPDT in the aquatic environment was also tested on the natural bacterial community, using the overall bacterial community structure and the cultivable bacteria as indicators. Photodynamic inactivation of bacterial isolates and of cultivable bacteria was assessed counting the number of colonies. The impact of aPDT in the overall bacterial community structure of the aquaculture water was evaluated by denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that, in the presence of Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF, the growth of bacterial isolates was inhibited, resulting in a decrease of ≈7-8 log after 60-270 min of irradiation. Cultivable bacteria were also considerably affected, showing decreases up to the detection limit (≈2 log decrease on cell survival), but the inactivation rate varied significantly with the sampling period. The DGGE fingerprint analyses revealed changes in the bacterial community structure caused by the combination of aPDT and light. The results indicate that aPDT can be regarded as a new approach to control fish

  3. Change in Pattern of HER2 Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization (FISH) Results in Breast Cancers Submitted for FISH Testing: Experience of a Reference Laboratory Using US Food and Drug Administration Criteria and American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mithun Vinod; Wiktor, Anne E; Meyer, Reid G; Tenner, Kathleen S; Ballman, Karla V; Green, Stefan J; Sukov, William R; Ketterling, Rhett P; Perez, Edith A; Jenkins, Robert B

    2016-10-10

    Purpose In 1998, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing guidelines to determine eligibility for HER2-directed therapy (HDT) in breast cancer. ASCO and the College of American Pathologists published immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) HER2 testing guidelines in 2007 (AC2007) and updated these guidelines in 2013 (AC2013). We compared the HER2 FISH amplification frequency using these three guidelines. Methods Patient samples that were sent to the Mayo Clinic cytogenetics laboratory for FISH testing (n = 2,851; from November 2013 to October 2014) were analyzed. Frequency of HER2 FISH amplification was examined and impact of AC2013 assessed. Results IHC results were available for 1,922 patient samples (67.4%), 137 of which were from Mayo Clinic. Distribution was 2.4% IHC 0, 7.9% IHC 1+, 84.8% IHC 2+, and 2.5% IHC 3+. Among IHC 2+ patients, HER2 FISH positivity was 11.8% (FDA), 9.4% (AC2007), and 24.1% (AC2013). Overall, 11.8% (n = 339) were positive with a FISH ratio ≥ 2.0, 1.3% (n = 35) with a FISH ratio ≥ 2.0 despite a HER2 signal FISH ratio FISH-equivocal (ratio FISH-positive and 36 (1.3% overall) patients to FISH-negative, whereas 157 (5.5% overall) patients remained equivocal. Final HER2 positivity with AC2013 (23.6%) was increased (P FISH-equivocal patients. Approximately one half of these FISH-equivocal patients (7.4% overall) became HER2-positive upon alternative FISH probe testing. However, these patients would not have participated in the pivotal HDT trials. Clinical utility data on HDT benefit in these patients and other special subsets are needed.

  4. Transcription Activator-Like Effectors (TALEs) Hybrid Nucleases for Genome Engineering Application

    KAUST Repository

    Wibowo, Anjar

    2011-06-06

    Gene targeting is a powerful genome engineering tool that can be used for a variety of biotechnological applications. Genomic double-strand DNA breaks generated by engineered site-specific nucleases can stimulate gene targeting. Hybrid nucleases are composed of DNA binding module and DNA cleavage module. Zinc Finger Nucleases were used to generate double-strand DNA breaks but it suffers from failures and lack of reproducibility. The transcription activator–like effectors (TALEs) from plant pathogenic Xanthomonas contain a unique type of DNA-binding domain that bind specific DNA targets. The purpose of this study is to generate novel sequence specific nucleases by fusing a de novo engineered Hax3 TALE-based DNA binding domain to a FokI cleavage domain. Our data show that the de novo engineered TALE nuclease can bind to its target sequence and create double-strand DNA breaks in vitro. We also show that the de novo engineered TALE nuclease is capable of generating double-strand DNA breaks in its target sequence in vivo, when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that TALE-based hybrid nucleases can be tailored to bind a user-selected DNA sequence and generate site-specific genomic double-strand DNA breaks. TALE-based hybrid nucleases hold much promise as powerful molecular tools for gene targeting applications.

  5. Integrated ion sensor device applications based on printed hybrid material systems (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2016-09-01

    Comfortable, wearable sensors and computers will enhance every person's awareness of his or her health condition, environment, chemical pollutants, potential hazards, and information of interest. In agriculture and in the food industry there is a need for a constant control of the condition and needs of plants, animals, and farm products. Yet many of these applications depend upon the development of novel, cheap devices and sensors that are easy to implement and to integrate. Organic semiconductors as well as several inorganic materials and hybrid material systems have proven to combine a number of intriguing optical and electronic properties with simple processing methods. As it will be reviewed in this contribution, these materials are believed to find their application in printed electronic devices allowing for the development of smart disposable devices in food-, health-, and environmental monitoring, diagnostics and control, possibly integrated into arrays of sensor elements for multi-parameter detection. In this contribution we review past and recent achievements in the field. Followed by a brief introduction, we will focus on two topics being on the agenda recently: a) the use of electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor (EGOFET) and ion-selective membrane based sensors for in-situ sensing of ions and biological substances and b) the development of hybrid material based resistive switches and their integration into fully functional, printed hybrid crossbar sensor array structures.

  6. Structural and biological properties of thermosensitive chitosan-graphene hybrid hydrogels for sustained drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeednia, Leyla; Yao, Li; Berndt, Marcus; Cluff, Kim; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2017-09-01

    Chitosan has the ability to make injectable thermosensitive hydrogels which has been highly investigated for drug delivery applications. The addition of nanoparticles is one way to increase the mechanical strength of thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel and subsequently and control the burst release of drug. Graphene nanoparticles have shown unique mechanical, optical and electrical properties which can be exploited for biomedical applications, especially in drug delivery. This study, have focused on the mechanical properties of a thermosensitive and injectable hybrid chitosan hydrogel incorporated with graphene nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used for morphological and chemical characterization of graphene infused chitosan hydrogels. The cell viability and cytotoxicity of graphene-contained hydrogels were analyzed using the alamarBlue® technique. In-vitro methotrexate (MTX) release was investigated from MTX-loaded hybrid hydrogels as well. As a last step, to evaluate their efficiency as a cancer treatment delivery system, an in vitro anti-tumor test was also carried out using MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Results confirmed that a thermosensitive chitosan-graphene hybrid hydrogel can be used as a potential breast cancer therapy system for controlled delivery of methotrexate. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2381-2390, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Characterization of hybrid aluminum matrix composites for advanced applications – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaswinder Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid aluminum matrix composites (HAMCs are the second generation of composites that have potential to substitute single reinforced composites due to improved properties. This paper investigates the feasibility and viability of developing low cost-high performance hybrid composites for automotive and aerospace applications. Further, the fabrication characteristics and mechanical behavior of HAMCs fabricated by stir casting route have also been reviewed. The optical micrographs of the HAMCs indicate that the reinforcing particles are fairly distributed in the matrix alloy and the porosity levels have been found to be acceptable for the casted composites. The density, hardness, tensile behavior and fracture toughness of these composites have been found to be either comparable or superior to the ceramic reinforced composites. It has been observed from the literature that the direct strengthening of composites occurs due to the presence of hard ceramic phase, while the indirect strengthening arises from the thermal mismatch between the matrix alloy and reinforcing phase during solidification. Based on the database for material properties, the application area of HAMCs has been proposed in the present review. It has been concluded that the hybrid composites offer more flexibility and reliability in the design of possible components depending upon the reinforcement's combination and composition.

  8. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Kádár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate (EBA nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP and carbon black (CB. The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests.

  9. A Novel Hybrid Mental Spelling Application Based on Eye Tracking and SSVEP-Based BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Stawicki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs-based Brain-Computer interfaces (BCIs, as well as eyetracking devices, provide a pathway for re-establishing communication for people with severe disabilities. We fused these control techniques into a novel eyetracking/SSVEP hybrid system, which utilizes eye tracking for initial rough selection and the SSVEP technology for fine target activation. Based on our previous studies, only four stimuli were used for the SSVEP aspect, granting sufficient control for most BCI users. As Eye tracking data is not used for activation of letters, false positives due to inappropriate dwell times are avoided. This novel approach combines the high speed of eye tracking systems and the high classification accuracies of low target SSVEP-based BCIs, leading to an optimal combination of both methods. We evaluated accuracy and speed of the proposed hybrid system with a 30-target spelling application implementing all three control approaches (pure eye tracking, SSVEP and the hybrid system with 32 participants. Although the highest information transfer rates (ITRs were achieved with pure eye tracking, a considerable amount of subjects was not able to gain sufficient control over the stand-alone eye-tracking device or the pure SSVEP system (78.13% and 75% of the participants reached reliable control, respectively. In this respect, the proposed hybrid was most universal (over 90% of users achieved reliable control, and outperformed the pure SSVEP system in terms of speed and user friendliness. The presented hybrid system might offer communication to a wider range of users in comparison to the standard techniques.

  10. A Novel Hybrid Mental Spelling Application Based on Eye Tracking and SSVEP-Based BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawicki, Piotr; Gembler, Felix; Rezeika, Aya; Volosyak, Ivan

    2017-04-05

    Steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs)-based Brain-Computer interfaces (BCIs), as well as eyetracking devices, provide a pathway for re-establishing communication for people with severe disabilities. We fused these control techniques into a novel eyetracking/SSVEP hybrid system, which utilizes eye tracking for initial rough selection and the SSVEP technology for fine target activation. Based on our previous studies, only four stimuli were used for the SSVEP aspect, granting sufficient control for most BCI users. As Eye tracking data is not used for activation of letters, false positives due to inappropriate dwell times are avoided. This novel approach combines the high speed of eye tracking systems and the high classification accuracies of low target SSVEP-based BCIs, leading to an optimal combination of both methods. We evaluated accuracy and speed of the proposed hybrid system with a 30-target spelling application implementing all three control approaches (pure eye tracking, SSVEP and the hybrid system) with 32 participants. Although the highest information transfer rates (ITRs) were achieved with pure eye tracking, a considerable amount of subjects was not able to gain sufficient control over the stand-alone eye-tracking device or the pure SSVEP system (78.13% and 75% of the participants reached reliable control, respectively). In this respect, the proposed hybrid was most universal (over 90% of users achieved reliable control), and outperformed the pure SSVEP system in terms of speed and user friendliness. The presented hybrid system might offer communication to a wider range of users in comparison to the standard techniques.

  11. Evaluation of gene amplification and protein expression of HER-2/neu in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH and immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallum Rubens A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is the sixth most frequent neoplasia in Brazil. It is usually associated with a poor prognosis because it is often at an advanced stage when diagnosed and there is a high frequency of lymph node metastases. It is important to know what prognostic factors can facilitate diagnosis, optimize therapeutic decisions, and improve the survival of these patients. A member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR family, c-erbB-2, has received much attention because of its therapeutic implications; however, few studies involving fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis of HER-2/neu gene amplification and protein expression in ESCC have been conducted. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of HER-2/neu gene amplification using FISH, and to correlate the results with immunohistochemical expression and clinical-pathological findings. Methods One hundred and ninety-nine ESCC cases were evaluated using the Tissue Microarray (TMA technique. A polyclonal antibody against c-erbB-2 was used for immunohistochemistry. Analyses were based on the membrane staining pattern. The results were classified according to the Herceptest criteria (DAKO: negative (0/1+, potential positive (2+ and positive (3+. The FISH reactions were performed according to the FISH HER2 PharmDx (DAKO protocol. In each case, 100 tumor nuclei were evaluated. Cases showing a gene/CEN17 fluorescence ratio ≥ 2 were considered positive for gene amplification. Results The c-erbB-2 expression was negative in 117/185 cases (63.2% and positive in 68 (36.8%, of which 56 (30.3% were 2+ and 12 (6.5% were 3+. No significant associations were found among protein expression, clinicopathological data and overall survival. Among the 47 cases analyzed, 38 (80.9% showed no gene amplification while 9 (19.1% showed amplification, as demonstrated by FISH. Cases that were negative (0/1+ and potential positive (2+ for c-erbB-2

  12. Chromosomal studies in four species of genus Chaunus (Bufonidae, Anura): localization of telomeric and ribosomal sequences after fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Ghilardi, Renata Cecília; Silva, Maria José de Jesus; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo

    2008-10-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using telomeric and ribosomal sequences was performed in four species of toad genus Chaunus: C. ictericus, C. jimi, C. rubescens and C. schneideri. Analyses based on conventional, C-banding and Ag-NOR staining were also carried out. The four species present a 2n = 22 karyotype, composed by metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, which were indistinguishable either after conventional staining or banding techniques. Constitutive heterochromatin was predominantly located at pericentromeric regions, and telomeric sequences (TTAGGG)(n) were restricted to the end of all chromosomes. Silver staining revealed Ag-NORs located at the short arm of pair 7, and heteromorphism in size of NOR signals was also observed. By contrast, FISH with ribosomal probes clearly demonstrated absence of any heteromorphism in size of rDNA sequences, suggesting that the difference observed after Ag-staining should be attributed to differences in chromosomal condensation and/or gene activity rather than to the number of ribosomal cistrons.

  13. A hybrid algorithm and its applications to fuzzy logic modeling of nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongjun

    model structures much quicker than the forward search. In addition, the results also show that this hybrid algorithm can identify model parameters much quicker than the one with fixed and arbitrary convergence factors. Finally, an application of the fuzzy logic modeling technique to Kansas Arbuckle oil well performance analysis is performed. It gives oil operators a powerful decision-making tool for candidate-well selection and treatment to optimize performance.

  14. Application of a High-Power Reversible Converter in a Hybrid Traction Power Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A high-power reversible converter can achieve a variety of functions, such as recovering regenerative braking energy, expanding traction power capacity, and improving an alternating current (AC grid power factor. A new hybrid traction power supply scheme, which consists of a high-power reversible converter and two 12-pulse diode rectifiers, is proposed. A droop control method based on load current feed-forward is adopted to realize the load distribution between the reversible converter and the existing 12-pulse diode rectifiers. The direct current (DC short-circuit characteristics of the reversible converter is studied, then the relationship between the peak fault current and the circuit parameters is obtained from theoretical calculations and validated by computer simulation. The first two sets of 2 MW reversible converters have been successfully applied in Beijing Metro Line 10, the proposed hybrid application scheme and coordinated control strategy are verified, and 11.15% of average energy-savings is reached.

  15. Assessment of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Antimony Sulfides for Earth-Abundant Photovoltaic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruo Xi; Butler, Keith T; Walsh, Aron

    2015-12-17

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar absorbers are currently the subject of intense interest; however, the highest-performing materials contain Pb. Here we assess the potential of three Sb-based semiconductors: (i) Sb2S3, (ii) Cs2Sb8S13, and (iii) (CH3NH3)2Sb8S13. While the crystal structure of Sb2S3 is composed of 1D chains, 2D layers are formed in the ternary cesium and hybrid methylammonium antimony sulfide compounds. In each case, a stereochemically active Sb 5s(2) lone pair is found, resulting in a distorted coordination environment for the Sb cations. The bandgap of the binary sulfide is found to increase, while the ionization potential also changes, upon transition to the more complex compounds. Based on the predicted electronic structure, device configurations are suggested to be suitable for photovoltaic applications.

  16. Rapid Characterization of Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Lakes by TSA-FISH (Tyramid Signal Amplification-Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Brient

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Microcystin (MC is a common and widespread toxin which represents a health hazard to humans and animals. MC toxin concentrations are monitored by various direct or proxy techniques (HPLC, LC-MS/MS, ELISA, PPIA, however, these techniques do not discriminate producing species from non-producing ones. In order to simultaneously provide the identity and activity of cyanotoxin producing species in freshwater lakes, we applied simple, and fully detailed, whole cell fluorescent in situ hybridization enhanced by tyramid signal amplification (TSA-FISH. DNA oligonucleotide probes MICR3 and MCYA were targeting 16S rRNA and mcyA-mRNA, respectively. The mcyA gene is coding for the MC synthetase enzyme involved in MC synthesis. Controls were acquired with the general eubacterial 16S rRNA probe EUB338, for TSA-FISH assay, and standard HPLC and LC-MS/MS as standard methods for the measurements of MC concentration. Results obtained from monoclonal strains and natural samples demonstrated a specific identification of Microcystis species and were able to discriminate MC producing from non-producing ones. In addition, the MCYA probe allowed the specific detection of MC-synthetase mRNA within Planktothrix isothrix (Oscillatoriale filaments. Two kinds of mcyA-mRNA labeling were observed in these cells, spots like and plasmid like, which illustrates the well-known plasticity of microbial genome to adapt to environmental stresses. We demonstrated that a simple TSA-FISH assay allows acquiring rapidly dual information of the presence and abundance of potentially toxic species, while identifying species actively producing MC-synthetase mRNA, a proxy of MC toxin. This technique has the potential to be developed into an effective environmental monitoring tool. In addition, detail visualization of cellular mRNAs is powerful for the acquisition of ecological and biomolecular studies of toxic cyanobacteria.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Utility of Carbon Nanotube Based Hybrid Sensors in Bioanalytical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhulika, Sushmee

    The detection of gaseous analytes and biological molecules is of prime importance in the fields of environmental pollution control, food and water - safety and analysis; and medical diagnostics. This necessitates the development of advanced and improved technology that is reliable, inexpensive and suitable for high volume production. The conventional sensors are often thin film based which lack sensitivity due to the phenomena of current shunting across the charge depleted region when an analyte binds with them. One dimensional (1-D) nanostructures provide a better alternative for sensing applications by eliminating the issue of current shunting due to their 1-D geometries and facilitating device miniaturization and low power operations. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are 1-D nanostructures that possess small size, high mechanical strength, high electrical and thermal conductivity and high specific area that have resulted in their wide spread applications in sensor technology. To overcome the issue of low sensitivity of pristine CNTs and to widen their scope, hybrid devices have been fabricated that combine the synergistic properties of CNTs along with materials like metals and conducting polymers (CPs). CPs exhibit electronic, magnetic and optical properties of metals and semiconductors while retaining the processing advantages of polymers. Their high chemical sensitivity, room temperature operation and tunable charge transport properties has made them ideal for use as transducing elements in chemical sensors. In this dissertation, various CNT based hybrid devices such as CNT-conducting polymer and graphene-CNT-metal nanoparticles based sensors have been developed and demonstrated towards bioanalytical applications such as detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and saccharides. Electrochemical polymerization enabled the synthesis of CPs and metal nanoparticles in a simple, cost effective and controlled way on the surface of CNT based platforms thus resulting in

  18. Nano-encapsulation of fish oil in nano-liposomes and its application in fortification of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzade, Tahere; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Akhavan, Sahar; Hadavi, Roxana

    2017-02-01

    Fish oils have many dietary benefits, but due to their strong odors and rapid deterioration, their application in food formulations is limited. For these reasons, nano-liposome was used to nano-encapsulate fish oil in this study and encapsulated fish oil was utilized in fortifying yogurt. Physicochemical properties of produced yogurt including pH, acidity, syneresis, fatty acid composition, peroxide value as well as sensory tests were investigated during three weeks storage at 4°C. Nano-liposome encapsulation resulted in a significant reduction in acidity, syneresis and peroxide value. The results of gas chromatography analyses revealed that after 21days storage, yogurt fortified with nano-encapsulated fish oil had a higher DHA and EPA contents than yogurt containing free fish oil. Overall, the results of this study indicates that adding nano-encapsulated fish oil into yogurt gave closer characteristics to control sample in terms of sensory characteristics than yogurt fortified with free fish oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic and genomic analyses for economically important traits and their applications in molecular breeding of cultured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, JinGou; Sun, XiaoWen

    2015-02-01

    The traits of cultured fish must continually be genetically improved to supply high-quality animal protein for human consumption. Economically important fish traits are controlled by multiple gene quantitative trait loci (QTL), most of which have minor effects, but a few genes may have major effects useful for molecular breeding. In this review, we chose relevant studies on some of the most intensively cultured fish and concisely summarize progress on identifying and verifying QTLs for such traits as growth, disease and stress resistance and sex in recent decades. The potential applications of these major-effect genes and their associated markers in marker-assisted selection and molecular breeding, as well as future research directions are also discussed. These genetic and genomic analyses will be valuable for elucidating the mechanisms modulating economically important traits and to establish more effective molecular breeding techniques in fish.

  20. Multifaceted Biomedical Applications of Functional Graphene Nanomaterials to Coated Substrates, Patterned Arrays and Hybrid Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cheol Shin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of recent research advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there has been a growing interest in functional nanomaterials for biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering scaffolds, biosensors, bioimaging agents and drug delivery carriers. Among a great number of promising candidates, graphene and its derivatives—including graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide—have particularly attracted plenty of attention from researchers as novel nanobiomaterials. Graphene and its derivatives, two-dimensional nanomaterials, have been found to have outstanding biocompatibility and biofunctionality as well as exceptional mechanical strength, electrical conductivity and thermal stability. Therefore, tremendous studies have been devoted to employ functional graphene nanomaterials in biomedical applications. Herein, we focus on the biological potentials of functional graphene nanomaterials and summarize some of major literature concerning the multifaceted biomedical applications of functional graphene nanomaterials to coated substrates, patterned arrays and hybrid scaffolds that have been reported in recent years.

  1. Applications integration in a hybrid cloud computing environment: modelling and platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Wang, Ze-yuan; Li, Wei-hua; Li, Jun; Wang, Cheng; Du, Rui-yang

    2013-08-01

    With the development of application services providers and cloud computing, more and more small- and medium-sized business enterprises use software services and even infrastructure services provided by professional information service companies to replace all or part of their information systems (ISs). These information service companies provide applications, such as data storage, computing processes, document sharing and even management information system services as public resources to support the business process management of their customers. However, no cloud computing service vendor can satisfy the full functional IS requirements of an enterprise. As a result, enterprises often have to simultaneously use systems distributed in different clouds and their intra enterprise ISs. Thus, this article presents a framework to integrate applications deployed in public clouds and intra ISs. A run-time platform is developed and a cross-computing environment process modelling technique is also developed to improve the feasibility of ISs under hybrid cloud computing environments.

  2. Optimal design of a hybrid MR brake for haptic wrist application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Nguyen, Phuong Bac; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2011-03-01

    In this work, a new configuration of a magnetorheological (MR) brake is proposed and an optimal design of the proposed MR brake for haptic wrist application is performed considering the required braking torque, the zero-field friction torque, the size and mass of the brake. The proposed MR brake configuration is a combination of disc-type and drum-type which is referred as a hybrid configuration in this study. After the MR brake with the hybrid configuration is proposed, braking torque of the brake is analyzed based on Bingham rheological model of the MR fluid. The zero-field friction torque of the MR brake is also obtained. An optimization procedure based on finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is developed for the MR brake. The purpose of the optimal design is to find the optimal geometric dimensions of the MR brake structure that can produce the required braking torque and minimize the uncontrollable torque (passive torque) of the haptic wrist. Based on developed optimization procedure, optimal solution of the proposed MR brake is achieved. The proposed optimized hybrid brake is then compared with conventional types of MR brake and discussions on working performance of the proposed MR brake are described.

  3. A Study of Hybrid Composite Hydroxyapatite (HA-Geopolymers as a Material for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to study the physical properties and microstructure characters of hybrid composites HA-geopolymers as a material for biomedical application. Hybrid composite HA–geopolymers were produced through alkaline activation method of metakaolin as a matrix and HA as the filler. HA was synthesized from eggshell particles by using a precipitation method. The addition of HA in metakaolin paste was varied from 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% relative the weight of metakaolin. FTIR was used to examine the absorption bands the composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to study the crystal structure of the starting and the resulting materials. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS was used to investigate the surface morphology of the composites. The thermal properties of the samples was examined by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Capacitance measurement was conducted to investigate the bioactive properties of HA. The study results suggest that hybrid composite HA-geopolymers has a potential to be applied as a biomedical such as biosensor material.

  4. Thoughts and Practice on Some Problems about Research and Application of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yun CHEN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main problems about research and application of two-line hybrid rice were reviewed, including the confusing nomenclature and male sterile lines classification, the unclear characteristics of photoperiod and temperature responses and the unsuitable site selection for male sterile line and hybrid rice seed production. In order to efficiently and accurately use dual-purpose genic male sterile lines, four types, including PTGMS (photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice, TGMS (thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice, reverse PTGMS and reverse TGMS, were proposed. A new idea for explaining the mechanism of sterility in dual-purpose hybrid rice was proposed. The transition from sterile to fertile was involved in the cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes and photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive ones. The minor-effect genes with accumulative effect on sterility were important factors that affected the critical temperature of sterility transfer. In order to make better use of dual-purpose lines, the characterization of responses to photoperiod and temperature of PTGMS should be made and the identification method for the characterization of photoperiod and temperature responses of PTGMS should also be put forward. The optimal ecological site for seed production could be determined according to the historical climate data and the requirements for the meteorological conditions during the different periods of seed production.

  5. A hybrid vehicle evaluation code and its application to vehicle design. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1994-09-15

    This paper describes a hybrid vehicle simulation model which can be applied to many of the vehicles currently being considered for low pollution and high fuel economy. The code operates in batch mode with all the vehicle information stored in data files. The code calculates fuel economy for three driving schedules, time for 0--96 km/h at maximum acceleration, hill climbing performance, power train dimensions, and pollution generation rates. This paper also documents the application of the code to a hybrid vehicle that utilizes a hydrogen internal combustion engine. The simulation model is used for parametric studies of the vehicle. The results show the fuel economy of the vehicle as a function of vehicle mass, aerodynamic drag, engine efficiency, accessory load, and flywheel efficiency. The code also calculates the minimum flywheel energy and power to obtain a desired performance. The hydrogen hybrid vehicle analyzed in the paper has a predicted range of 480 km (300 miles), with a gasoline equivalent fuel efficiency of 34.2 km/liter (80.9 mpg).

  6. Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Microwave Heating for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Martínez-Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS-n are excellent electron acceptor for hybrid solar cell applications. However, the particle size and properties of the CdS-n products depend largely on the synthesis methodologies. In this work, CdS-n were synthetized by microwave heating using thioacetamide (TA or thiourea (TU as sulfur sources. The obtained CdS-n(TA showed a random distribution of hexagonal particles and contained TA residues. The latter could originate the charge carrier recombination process and cause a low photovoltage (Voc, 0.3 V in the hybrid solar cells formed by the inorganic particles and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. Under similar synthesis conditions, in contrast, CdS-n synthesized with TU consisted of spherical particles with similar size and contained carbonyl groups at their surface. CdS-n(TU could be well dispersed in the nonpolar P3HT solution, leading to a Voc of about 0.6–0.8 V in the resulting CdS-n(TU : P3HT solar cells. The results of this work suggest that the reactant sources in microwave methods can affect the physicochemical properties of the obtained inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles, which finally influenced the photovoltaic performance of related hybrid solar cells.

  7. Piezoresistive Carbon-based Hybrid Sensor for Body-Mounted Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnykowycz, M.; Tschudin, M.; Clemens, F.

    2017-02-01

    For body-mounted sensor applications, the evolution of soft condensed matter sensor (SCMS) materials offer conformability andit enables mechanical compliance between the body surface and the sensing mechanism. A piezoresistive hybrid sensor and compliant meta-material sub-structure provided a way to engineer sensor physical designs through modification of the mechanical properties of the compliant design. A piezoresistive fiber sensor was produced by combining a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) matrix with Carbon Black (CB) particles in 1:1 mass ratio. Feedstock was extruded in monofilament fiber form (diameter of 300 microns), resulting in a highly stretchable sensor (strain sensor range up to 100%) with linear resistance signal response. The soft condensed matter sensor was integrated into a hybrid design including a 3D printed metamaterial structure combined with a soft silicone. An auxetic unit cell was chosen (with negative Poisson’s Ratio) in the design in order to combine with the soft silicon, which exhibits a high Poisson’s Ratio. The hybrid sensor design was subjected to mechanical tensile testing up to 50% strain (with gauge factor calculation for sensor performance), and then utilized for strain-based sensing applications on the body including gesture recognition and vital function monitoring including blood pulse-wave and breath monitoring. A 10 gesture Natural User Interface (NUI) test protocol was utilized to show the effectiveness of a single wrist-mounted sensor to identify discrete gestures including finger and hand motions. These hand motions were chosen specifically for Human Computer Interaction (HCI) applications. The blood pulse-wave signal was monitored with the hand at rest, in a wrist-mounted. In addition different breathing patterns were investigated, including normal breathing and coughing, using a belt and chest-mounted configuration.

  8. Organic/hybrid nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes: preparation methods and chiral applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassen, Haysem; Antony, Vijy; Ghanem, Ashraf; Yajadda, Mir Massoud Aghili; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles are molecular-sized solids with at least one dimension measuring between 1-100 nm or 10-1000 nm depending on the individual discipline's perspective. They are aggregates of anywhere from a few hundreds to tens of thousands of atoms which render them larger than molecules but smaller than bulk solids. Consequently, they frequently exhibit physical and chemical properties somewhere between. On the other hand, nanocrystals are a special class of nanoparticles which have started gaining attention recently owing to their unique crystalline structures which provide a larger surface area and promising applications including chiral separations. Hybrid nanoparticles are supported by the growing interest of chemists, physicists, and biologists, who are researching to fully exploit them. These materials can be defined as molecular or nano-composites with mixed (organic or bio) and inorganic components, where at least one of the component domain has a dimension ranging from a few Å to several nanometers. Similarly, and due to their extraordinary physical, chemical, and electrical properties, single-walled carbon nanotubes have been the subject of intense research. In this short review, the focus is mainly on the current well-established simple preparation techniques of chiral organic and hybrid nanoparticles as well as single-walled carbon nanotubes and their applications in separation science. Of particular interest, cinchonidine, chitosan, and β-CD-modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are discussed as model examples for organic and hybrid nanoparticles. Likewise, the chemical vapor deposition method, used in the preparation of single-walled carbon nanotubes, is discussed. The enantioseparation applications of these model nanomaterials is also presented. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Late nitrogen application enhances spikelet number in indica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To increase rice yield potential, field experiments were conducted in farmers’ paddies in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen applications on the yield and panicle components of three typical indica hybrid rice varieties in Sichuan Province. The number of grains per panicle resulting from late nitrogen application (LA was 12 % greater than that obtained from traditional nitrogen application (TA; this increase was the main source of improvements in yield. The number of surviving and differentiated spikelets (NSS and NDiS resulting from LA was significantly higher than that measured under TA, especially for the Fyou498 cultivar, where the NSS and NDiS increased by 15 % and 14 %, respectively. Compared with TA, the number of degenerated secondary branches and the percentage of degenerated secondary branches (NDeSB and PDeSB were significantly reduced by 9 % and 11 %, respectively, by LA. This is the first study to demonstrate that an increase in NSS and a decrease in NDeSB lead to yield-improving effects attributable to LA. The grain yields of different varieties ranged from 9225.6 to 9408.7 kg ha−1, the PDeSB was as high as 31 %, and the number of surviving secondary branches (NSSB was significantly and positively correlated with NSS. These data indicate that the yield of indica hybrid rice has considerable potential for being improved, and increasing NSSB is key to increasing NSS and improving the grain yield. These improvements should be pursued so as to increase the yield of hybrid rice to ensure both food security and sustainable agricultural development.

  10. Phenotypic consequences of a mosaic marker chromosome identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as being derived from chromosome 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, J.H.; Zhou, X.; Pletcher, B.A. [Cornell Univ. Medical College, Manhasset, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    De novo marker chromosomes are detected in 1 in 2500 amniotic fluid samples and are associated with a 10-15% risk for phenotypic abnormality. FISH can be utilized as a research tool to identify the origins of marker chromosomes. The phenotypic consequences of a marker chromosome derived from the short arm of chromosome 16 are described. A 26-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 28 weeks gestation because of a prenatally diagnosed tetralogy of Fallot. Follow-up ultrasounds also showed ventriculomegaly and cleft lip and palate. 32 of 45 cells had the karyotype 47,XY,+mar; the remaining cells were 46,XY. The de novo marker chromosome was C-band positive and non-satellited and failed to stain with distamycin A/DAPI. At birth the ultrasound findings were confirmed and dysmorphic features and cryptorchidism were noted. Although a newborn blood sample contained only normal cells, mosaicism was confirmed in 2 skin biopsies. FISH using whole-chromosome painting and alpha-satellite DNA probes showed that the marker chromosome had originated from chromosome 16. As proximal 16q is distamycin A/DAPI positive, the marker is apparently derived from proximal 16p. At 15 months of age, this child is hypotonic, globally delayed and is gavage-fed. His physical examination is significant for microbrachycephaly, a round face, sparse scalp hair, ocular hypertelorism, exotropia, a flat, wide nasal bridge and tip, mild micrognathia, and tapered fingers with lymphedema of hands and feet. Inguinal hernias have been repaired. His features are consistent with those described for patients trisomic for most or all of the short arm of chromosome 16. Marker chromosomes derived from the short arm of chromosome 16 appear to have phenotypic consequences. As the origin of more marker chromosomes are identified using FISH, their karyotype/phenotype correlations will become more apparent, which will permit more accurate genetic counseling.

  11. A Hybrid Scheme Based on Pipelining and Multitasking in Mobile Application Processors for Advanced Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key requirements for mobile devices is to provide high-performance computing at lower power consumption. The processors used in these devices provide specific hardware resources to handle computationally intensive video processing and interactive graphical applications. Moreover, processors designed for low-power applications may introduce limitations on the availability and usage of resources, which present additional challenges to the system designers. Owing to the specific design of the JZ47x series of mobile application processors, a hybrid software-hardware implementation scheme for H.264/AVC encoder is proposed in this work. The proposed scheme distributes the encoding tasks among hardware and software modules. A series of optimization techniques are developed to speed up the memory access and data transferring among memories. Moreover, an efficient data reusage design is proposed for the deblock filter video processing unit to reduce the memory accesses. Furthermore, fine grained macroblock (MB level parallelism is effectively exploited and a pipelined approach is proposed for efficient utilization of hardware processing cores. Finally, based on parallelism in the proposed design, encoding tasks are distributed between two processing cores. Experiments show that the hybrid encoder is 12 times faster than a highly optimized sequential encoder due to proposed techniques.

  12. [A Case of Xp.11.2 Traslocational Renal Cell Carcinoma Diagnosed by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, Koji; Kojima, Keitaro; Okamoto, Kiyohisa; Yuhara, Kazuya

    2016-08-01

    A 72-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with complaints of macro-hematuria. The radiographic evaluation including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested it to be renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in her right kidney. She underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy. We diagnosed her with renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion, based on pathological findings and break apart of transcription factor E3 (TFE3)by fluorescence in situ hybridization. She was free of recurrence at 8 months postoperatively.

  13. Modelling predation as a capped rate stochastic process, with applications to fish recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alex; Baxter, Paul D; Pitchford, Jonathan W

    2005-12-22

    Many mathematical models use functions the value of which cannot exceed some physically or biologically imposed maximum value. A model can be described as 'capped-rate' when the rate of change of a variable cannot exceed a maximum value. This presents no problem when the models are deterministic but, in many applications, results from deterministic models are at best misleading. The need to account for stochasticity, both demographic and environmental, in models is therefore important but, as this paper shows, incorporating stochasticity into capped-rate models is not trivial. A method using queueing theory is presented, which allows randomness and spatial heterogeneity to be incorporated rigorously into capped rate models. The method is applied to the feeding and growth of fish larvae.

  14. Smartphones reveal angler behavior: A case study of a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfuss, Jason T.; Phelps, Nicholas; Fulton, David C.; Venturelli, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Successfully managing fisheries and controlling the spread of invasive species depends on the ability to describe and predict angler behavior. However, finite resources restrict conventional survey approaches and tend to produce retrospective data that are limited in time or space and rely on intentions or attitudes rather than actual behavior. In this study, we used three years of angler data from a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada, to determine province-wide, seasonal patterns of (1) lake popularity that were consistent with conventional data and (2) anthropogenic lake connectivity that has not been widely described in North America. Our proof-of-concept analyses showed that mobile apps can be an inexpensive source of high-resolution, real-time data for managing fisheries and invasive species. We also identified key challenges that underscore the need for further research and development in this new frontier that combines big data with increased stakeholder interaction and cooperation.

  15. Performance Modeling of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Scientific Applications on Large-scale Multicore Cluster Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore clusters: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and Blue Gene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore clusters because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyro kinetic Toroidal Code in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore clusters. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore clusters. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Application of hybrid boundary element method: Example of semishperical ground inhomogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Nenad N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One new, so-called hybrid boundary element method (HBEM is presented in this paper. It is a recently proposed numerical method for stationary and quasi-stationary EM field analysis. The method application is illustrated on the example of solving the problem of modelling hemispherical ground inhomogeneity influence on grounding system. The applied procedure also includes using of quasi-stationary image-theory. The obtained results are compared with those ones based on using the Green’s function for the point source inside semi-spherical inhomogeneities as well as with the results obtained by applying COMSOL program package. [TR 33008

  17. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandzha S.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric machine. The machine was modeled using Solidworks program for creating design and Maxwell program for the magnetic field analysis. The result of tests is shown as well.

  18. Simulation and Optimization of Air-Cooled PEMFC Stack for Lightweight Hybrid Vehicle Application

    OpenAIRE

    Jingming Liang; Zefeng Wu

    2015-01-01

    A model of 2 kW air-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack has been built based upon the application of lightweight hybrid vehicle after analyzing the characteristics of heat transfer of the air-cooled stack. Different dissipating models of the air-cooled stack have been simulated and an optimal simulation model for air-cooled stack called convection heat transfer (CHT) model has been figured out by applying the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, based on which, th...

  19. Bio-nano hybrid materials based on bacteriorhodopsin: Potential applications and future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyad, Baharak; Janfaza, Sajjad; Hosseini, Elaheh Sadat

    2015-11-01

    This review presents an overview of recent progress in the development of bio-nano hybrid materials based on the photoactive protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR). The interfacing of bR with various nanostructures including colloidal nanoparticles (such as quantum dots and Ag NPs) and nanoparticulate thin films (such as TiO2 NPs and ZnO NPs,) has developed novel functional materials. Applications of these materials are comprehensively reviewed in two parts: bioelectronics and solar energy conversion. Finally, some perspectives on possible future strategies in bR-based nanostructured devices are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MICROENCAPSULATION OF PORA-PORA FISH OIL (Mystacoleucus padangensis) BY SPRAY DRYING FOR FOOD NUTRITION APPLICATIONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nirmala Efri Hasibuan; Thamrin Thamrin; Yugia Muis

    2017-01-01

    .... Production of fish oil using soxhletation extraction method with n-hexane for 6 hours. Manufactured of fish oil powder made by spray drying method using a coating material maltodextrin and gum arabic with a few variations...

  1. B-Transform and Its Application to a Fish-Hyacinth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyelami, B. O.; Ale, S. O.

    2002-01-01

    A new transform proposed by Oyelami and Ale for impulsive systems is applied to an impulsive fish-hyacinth model. A biological policy regarding the growth of the fish and the hyacinth populations is formulated.

  2. Control of fluorescence in quantum emitter and metallic nanoshell hybrids for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahi R.; Guo, Jiaohan; J. Cid, José M.; De Hoyos Martinez, Jesús E.

    2017-03-01

    We study the light emission from a quantum emitter and double metallic nanoshell hybrid systems. Quantum emitters act as local sources which transmit their light efficiently due to a double nanoshell near field. The double nanoshell consists of a dielectric core and two outer nanoshells. The first nanoshell is made of a metal, and the second spacer nanoshell is made of a dielectric material or human serum albumin. We have calculated the fluorescence emission for a quantum emitter-double nanoshell hybrid when it is injected in an animal or a human body. Surface plasmon polariton resonances in the double nanoshell are calculated using Maxwell's equations in the quasi-static approximation, and the fluorescence emission is evaluated using the density matrix method in the presence of dipole-dipole interactions. We have compared our theory with two fluorescence experiments in hybrid systems in which the quantum emitter is Indocyanine Green or infrared fluorescent molecules. The outer spacer nanoshell of double metallic nanoshells consists of silica and human serum albumin with variable thicknesses. Our theory explains the enhancement of fluorescence spectra in both experiments. We find that the thickness of the spacer nanoshell layer increases the enhancement when the fluorescence decreases. The enhancement of the fluorescence depends on the type of quantum emitter, spacer layer, and double nanoshell. We also found that the peak of the fluorescence spectrum can be shifted by changing the shape and the size of the nanoshell. The fluorescence spectra can be switched from one peak to two peaks by removing the degeneracy of excitonic states in the quantum emitter. Hence, using these properties, one can use these hybrids as sensing and switching devices for applications in medicine.

  3. Graphene/CuS/ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for high performance photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varghese, Jini, E-mail: jini.nano@gmail.com; Varghese, K.T., E-mail: ktvscs@gmail.com

    2015-11-01

    We herein report a novel, high performance ternary nanocomposite composed of Graphene doped with nano Copper Sulphide and Zinc Oxide nanotubes (GCZ) for photodegradation of organic pollutants. Investigations were made to estimate and compare the Methyl Orange dye (MO) degradation using GCZ, synthesized pristine Graphene (Gr) and Graphene–ZnO hybrid nanocomposite (GZ) under UV light irradiations. The synthesis of nanocomposites involves the simple ultra-sonication and mixing methods. The nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area method. The as synthesized GCZ shows better surface area, porosity and band gap energy than as synthesized Gr and GZ. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye follows as Gr <<< GCZ >> GZ due to the stronger adsorbability, large number of photo induced electrons and highest inhibition of charge carrier's recombination of GCZ. The kinetic investigation demonstrates that dye degradation exhibit the pseudo first order kinetic model with rate constant 0.1322, 0.049 and0.0109 min{sup −1} corresponding to GCZ, GZ and Gr. The mechanism of dye degradation in presence of photocatalyst is also discussed. This study confirms that GCZ is a more promising material for high performance catalytic applications especially in the dye waste water purification. - Highlights: • Graphene–CuS–ZnO hybrid composites show better surface area, porosity and adsorbability. • CuS–ZnO hybrid nanostructure highly enhanced the photocatalytic activity of Graphene. • Graphene–CuS–ZnO hybrid composites show superior photocatalytic efficiency, rate constant and quantum yield.

  4. Hybrid coating on a magnesium alloy for minimizing the localized degradation for load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au; Liyanaarachchi, S.

    2013-10-01

    The effect of a hybrid coating, calcium phosphate (CaP) + polylactic acid (PLA), on a magnesium alloy on its in vitro degradation (general and localized) behaviour was studied for potential load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications. CaP was coated on a magnesium alloy, AZ91, using an electrochemical deposition method. A spin coating method was used to coat PLA on the CaP coated alloy. In vitro degradation performance of the alloy with hybrid coating was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The EIS results showed that the hybrid coating enhanced the degradation resistance of the alloy by more than two-order of magnitude as compared to the bare alloy and one-order of magnitude higher than that of the CaP coated alloy, after 1 h exposure in simulated body fluid (SBF). Long-term (48 h) EIS results also confirmed that the hybrid coating performed better than the bare alloy and the CaP coated alloy. Importantly, the hybrid coating improved the localized degradation resistance of the alloy significantly, which is critical for better in service mechanical integrity. - Highlights: • A hybrid coating (CaP + PLA) was applied on a magnesium-based alloy. • The hybrid coating enhanced the in vitro degradation resistance of the alloy. • Localized degradation resistance was also improved by the hybrid coating.

  5. Correlation between fish distribution and water qualities in the Kaname river, Japan: application of multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsumi, M.; terada, K.; Tajima, F.; Kitano, T.

    2012-12-01

    In order to find physical and chemical environment factors which relate to the fish fauna distribution, we investigated the temporal and spatial change of water qualities and fish distributions in Kaname river, Japan. We investigated the fish distribution, physical water parameters (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Chl-a and turbidity) and chemical water parameters (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphoric and suspended solids). We conducted the multivariate analyses using these observational data and discussed the relationship between water environment parameters and fish habitat distribution.

  6. Non-symmetric hybrids of noble metal-semiconductor: Interplay of nanoparticles and nanostructures in formation dynamics and plasmonic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Noble metal-semiconductor hybrids have been employed as fundamental structures in modern technologies. In these hybrids, their cooperative multiple functions attract much attention in recent years because of the interplay of nanoparticles and nanostructures. In this review, we summarize the interplay of nanoparticles and nanostructures in specific kinds of noble metal-semiconductor hybrids, termed as non-symmetric hybrids of noble metal-semiconductor. It particularly refers to metal nanoparticles (or semiconducting quantum dots at 1-dimensinal (1D and 2-dimensional (2D semiconductor (or metal nanostructures, in contrast to the core/shell and heterodimer nanostructures. First, we discuss the formation dynamics, especially in chemical growth and assembly as well as physical coating and deposition, of non-symmetric noble metal-semiconductor hybrids with nanoparticles on nanostructures. Second, we introduce the plasmon-related applications of these hybrids in heterogeneous catalysis, optoelectronic or photovoltaic devices, all-optical devices, and surface detection or modulation. This review not only provides a comprehensive understanding of the formation mechanisms of the non-symmetric metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructures, but also may inspire new ideas of novel functional devices and applications based on these systems.

  7. Mapping pachytene chromosomes of coffee using a modified protocol for fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacia, Ana Amélia Sanchez; Pinto-Maglio, Cecília A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the most direct method for physically mapping DNA sequences on chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of meiotic chromosomes during the pachytene stage is an important tool in plant cytogenetics, because it provides high-resolution measurements of physical distances. Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of coffee pachytene chromosomes offers significant advantages compared with FISH mapping of somatic chromosomes, because pachytene chromosomes are 30 times longer and provide additional cytological markers. However, the application of this technique to pachytene chromosomes has been complicated by problems in making preparations of meiotic chromosomes and by difficulties in the application of standard FISH protocols. We have been able to overcome most of these obstacles in applying the FISH technique to the pachytene chromosomes of coffee plants. Digesting the external callose layer surrounding the pollen mother cells (PMCs) in conjunction with other procedures permitted suitable pachytene chromosomes to be obtained by increasing cell permeability, which allowed the probe sequences to enter the cells. For the first time, hybridization signals were registered on coffee pachytene chromosomes using the FISH technique with a repetitive sequence as a probe. We obtained slides on which 80 % of the PMCs had hybridization signals, resulting in FISH labelling with high efficiency. The procedure does not seem to be dependent on the genotype, because hybridization signals were detected in genetically different coffee plants. These findings enhance the possibilities for high-resolution physical mapping of coffee chromosomes. PMID:24244840

  8. Application of cross-species color banding (RxFISH) in the study of T-prolymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinet, B; Solé, F; Salido, M; Lloveras, E; Abella, E; Besses, C; Serrano, S; Woessner, S; Florensa, L

    2000-06-01

    Cross-species color banding (RxFISH) is a new FISH technology based on the use of differentially labeled gibbon chromosome probes to obtain a specific color banding pattern for each human chromosome. The aim of the study was to test the RxFISH technique for better characterization of complex karyotypes in patients with T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL). The study evaluated the cross-species color banding technique in four patients affected with T-PLL previously studied by conventional cytogenetics. All patients showed an abnormal karyotype and three of them had a complex karyotype. The involvement of 14q11 in all four cases, the gain of 8q in three cases and a loss of chromosome 10, 15 and 17 and a gain of chromosome 21 in two cases were noted. The RxFISH technique identified from 2 to 7 not previously recognized aberrations per case and confirmed the inv(14)(q11q32). To our knowledge, this is the first application of RxFISH to characterize chromosomal rearrangements in T-cell neoplasms. RxFISH gave rapid and easy identification of chromosome rearrangements that were difficult to recognize by conventional cytogenetics. Using this new technology we identified 15 rearrangements not detected by conventional cytogenetics.

  9. [Evaluation of peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) method in the identifi cation of Candida species isolated from blood cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Gonca; Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Atalay, Mustafa Altay

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, increased number of patients who are hospitalized in intensive care units, received immunosuppressive therapy and treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics that can lead an increase in the incidence of systemic candidiasis. In these patients, the most common clinical manifestation is candidemia. Since the identification of Candida species isolated from blood cultures is time consuming by conventional (morphological and biochemical) methods, rapid, reliable and accurate methods are needed. For this purpose novel systems have been developed to identify the agent directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) method for the identification of Candida species by comparing with the conventional methods. A total of 50 patients who were admitted to Erciyes University Medical Faculty Hospital clinics and followed with prediagnosis of systemic fungal infections whose blood cultures were positive for the yeasts between July 2011 and July 2012 were included in the study. The conventional identification of Candida isolates was performed by considering macroscopic and microscopic morphology, germ tube test, cycloheximide sensitivity, urease activity and carbohydrate assimilation patterns with API 20C AUX (bioMerieux, France) test. PNA FISH method was conducted by the use of a commercial kit namely Yeast Traffic Light(®) PNA FISH (AdvanDx, USA). According to morphological and biochemical characteristics (conventional methods), 19 (38%) out of 50 Candida isolates were identified as C.albicans, 12 (24%) as C.glabrata, five (10%) as C.parapsilosis, five (10%) as C.kefyr, four (8%) as C.krusei, two (4%) as C.guilliermondii, two (4%) as C.tropicalis and one (2%) as C.lusitaniae. On the other hand, 24 (48%) of the isolates were identified as C.albicans/C.parapsilosis (with green fluorescence), 16 (32%) as C.glabrata/C.krusei (with red fluorescence) and one (%2) as C.tropicalis (with yellow

  10. A novel hybrid linear/nonlinear classifier for two-class classification: theory, algorithm, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Metz, Charles E; Giger, Maryellen L; Drukker, Karen

    2010-02-01

    Classifier design for a given classification task needs to take into consideration both the complexity of the classifier and the size of the dataset that is available for training the classifier. With limited training data, as often is the situation in computer-aided diagnosis of medical images, a classifier with simple structure (e.g., a linear classifier) is more robust and therefore preferred. We propose a novel two-class classifier, which we call a hybrid linear/nonlinear classifier (HLNLC), that involves two stages: the input features are linearly combined to form a scalar variable in the first stage and then the likelihood ratio of the scalar variable is used as the decision variable for classification. We first develop the theory of HLNLC by assuming that the feature data follow normal distributions. We show that the commonly used Fisher's linear discriminant function is generally not the optimal linear function in the first stage of the HLNLC. We formulate an optimization problem to solve for the optimal linear function in the first stage of the HLNLC, i.e., the linear function that maximizes the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the HLNLC. For practical applications, we propose a robust implementation of the HLNLC by making a loose assumption that the two-class feature data arise from a pair of latent (rather than explicit) multivariate normal distributions. The novel hybrid classifier fills a gap between linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) in the sense that both its theoretical performance and its complexity lie between those of the LDA and those of the QDA. Simulation studies show that the hybrid linear/nonlinear classifier performs better than LDA without increasing the classifier complexity accordingly. With a finite number of training samples, the HLNLC can perform better than that of the ideal observer due to its simplicity. Finally, we demonstrate the application of the HLNLC in

  11. Functionalized hybrid nanofibers to mimic native ECM for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karuppuswamy, Priyadharsini [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Department Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai (India); Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy, E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.sg [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Navaneethan, Balchandar [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Department Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai (India); Laiva, Ashang Luwang; Sridhar, Sreepathy; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Functionalized hybrid polymer mats fabricated for tissue engineering. • Hybrid polymer mats showed high surface area, high porosity and good wettability. • Incorporation of natural polymers modified the properties of nanofiber mats more biologically favorable for biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanotechnology being one of the most promising technologies today shows an extremely huge potential in the field of tissue engineering to mimic the porous topography of natural extracellular matrix (ECM). Natural polymers are incorporated into the synthetic polymers to fabricate functionalized hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds, which improve cell and tissue compatibility. The present study identified the biopolymers – aloe vera, silk fibroin and curcumin incorporated into polycaprolactone (PCL) as suitable substrates for tissue engineering. Different combinations of PCL with natural polymers – PCL/aloe vera, PCL/silk fibroin, PCL/aloe vera/silk fibroin, PCL/aloe vera/silk fibroin/curcumin were electrospun into nanofibrous scaffolds. The fabricated two dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds showed high surface area, appropriate mechanical properties, hydrophilicity and porosity, required for the regeneration of diseased tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by Scanning electron microscope (SEM), porometry, Instron tensile tester, VCA optima contact angle measurement and FTIR to analyze the fiber diameter and morphology, porosity and pore size distribution, mechanical strength, wettability, chemical bonds and functional groups, respectively. The average fiber diameter of obtained fibers ranged from 250 nm to 350 nm and the tensile strength of PCL scaffolds at 4.49 MPa increased upto 8.3 MPa for PCL/silk fibroin scaffolds. Hydrophobicity of PCL decreased with the incorporation of natural polymers, especially for PCL/aloe vera scaffolds. The properties of as-spun nanofiber scaffolds showed their potential as promising scaffold materials in

  12. Hybrid ANN optimized artificial fish swarm algorithm based classifier for classification of suspicious lesions in breast DCE-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki Sathya, D.; Geetha, K.

    2017-12-01

    Automatic mass or lesion classification systems are developed to aid in distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions present in the breast DCE-MR images, the systems need to improve both the sensitivity and specificity of DCE-MR image interpretation in order to be successful for clinical use. A new classifier (a set of features together with a classification method) based on artificial neural networks trained using artificial fish swarm optimization (AFSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper. The basic idea behind the proposed classifier is to use AFSO algorithm for searching the best combination of synaptic weights for the neural network. An optimal set of features based on the statistical textural features is presented. The investigational outcomes of the proposed suspicious lesion classifier algorithm therefore confirm that the resulting classifier performs better than other such classifiers reported in the literature. Therefore this classifier demonstrates that the improvement in both the sensitivity and specificity are possible through automated image analysis.

  13. Lactobacillus genus identification isolated from gastrointestinal tract of chickens after bee products application using FISH and RTQ PCR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to examine the effect of bee products on the lactobacilli colonization of chickens. Bee products were administered to both feed mixtures in various amounts in addition to the control group. First experimental group was with propolis in feed mixture with the addition of 400 mg propolis per 1 kg of compound and second group was with pollen in feed mixture with the addition of 450 mg pollen per 1 kg of compound. In this experiment, quantitative counts of lactobacilli in ceca of 49-day-old chicken (Ross 308 using classical and FISH method were investigated. Counts of lactobacilli on MRS agar were monitored. To check the reliability of traditional methods of cultivation samples were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Lactobacillus cells, isolated from gastrointestinal tract, were detected after hybridization of fluorescently labeled probe with bacterial cells. Counts of CFU of lactobacilli were compared in experimental and control treatments, respectively. The lowest count was detected in the control experimental group. The highest count was detected in the third experimental group where was 450 mg of pollen added to 1 kg of feed mixture. Using Real-time PCR method, we identified the species range of the genera Lactobacillus in the intestinal tract of broiler. Detected species from the genus Lactobacillus were L. crispatus, L. salivarius and L. acidophilus.

  14. Superhalogens as building blocks of two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites for optoelectronics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiushi; Fang, Hong; Deng, Kaiming; Kan, Erjun; Jena, Puru

    2016-10-20

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, well known for their potential as the next generation solar cells, have found another niche application in optoelectronics. This was demonstrated in a recent experiment (L. Dou, et al., Science, 2015, 349, 1518) on atomically thin (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 PbBr 4 , where, due to quantum confinement, the bandgap and the exciton binding energy are enhanced over their corresponding values in the three-dimensional bulk phase. Using density functional theory we show that when halogen atoms (e.g. I) are sequentially replaced with superhalogen molecules (e.g. BH 4 ) the bandgap and exciton binding energy increase monotonically with the superhalogen content with the exciton binding energy of (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 Pb(BH 4 ) 4 approaching the value in monolayer black phosphorus. Lead-free admixtures (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 MI 4-x (BH 4 ) x (M = Sn and Ge; x = 0-4) also show a similar trend. Thus, a combination of quantum confinement and compositional change can be used as an effective strategy to tailor the bandgap and the exciton binding energy of two-dimensional hybrid perovskites, making them promising candidates for optoelectronic applications.

  15. On the application of hybrid meshes in hydraulic machinery CFD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlipf, M.; Tismer, A.; Riedelbauch, S.

    2016-11-01

    The application of two different hybrid mesh types for the simulation of a Francis runner for automated optimization processes without user input is investigated. Those mesh types are applied to simplified test cases such as flow around NACA airfoils to identify the special mesh resolution effects with reduced complexity, like rotating cascade flows, as they occur in a turbomachine runner channel. The analysis includes the application of those different meshes on the geometries by keeping defined quality criteria and exploring the influences on the simulation results. All results are compared with reference values gained by simulations with blockstructured hexahedron meshes and the same numerical scheme. This avoids additional inaccuracies caused by further numerical and experimental measurement methods. The results show that a simulation with hybrid meshes built up by a blockstructured domain with hexahedrons around the blade in combination with a tetrahedral far field in the channel is sufficient to get results which are almost as accurate as the results gained by the reference simulation. Furthermore this method is robust enough for automated processes without user input and enables comparable meshes in size, distribution and quality for different similar geometries as occurring in optimization processes.

  16. Response of a hybrid pixel detector (MEDIPIX3) to different radiation sources for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumacero, E. Miguel; De Celis Alonso, B.; Martínez Hernández, M. I.; Vargas, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E., E-mail: emoreno.emb@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Av. San Claudio y Rio Verde, Puebla (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, F. [Hospital General del Sur Hospital de la Mujer, Puebla (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The development in semiconductor CMOS technology has enabled the creation of sensitive detectors for a wide range of ionizing radiation. These devices are suitable for photon counting and can be used in imaging and tomography X-ray diagnostics. The Medipix[1] radiation detection system is a hybrid silicon pixel chip developed for particle tracking applications in High Energy Physics. Its exceptional features (high spatial and energy resolution, embedded ultra fast readout, different operation modes, etc.) make the Medipix an attractive device for applications in medical imaging. In this work the energy characterization of a third-generation Medipix chip (Medipix3) coupled to a silicon sensor is presented. We used different radiation sources (strontium 90, iron 55 and americium 241) to obtain the response curve of the hybrid detector as a function of energy. We also studied the contrast of the Medipix as a measure of pixel noise. Finally we studied the response to fluorescence X rays from different target materials (In, Pd and Cd) for the two data acquisition modes of the chip; single pixel mode and charge summing mode.

  17. Detection of {open_quotes}cryptic{close_quotes}karyotypic rearrangements in closely related primate species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using human subtelomeric DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblom, J.J. [California State University-Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Trask, B.J.; Friedman, C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Specific human subtelomeric DNA probes were used to reveal cryptic chromosomal rearrangements that cannot be detected by conventional high resolution cytogenetic techniques, or by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization using whole chromosome paint analysis. Two cosmids containing different subtelomeric DNA sequences were derived from human chromosome 19 and designated as 7501 and 16432. Cosmid 7501 was hybridized to chromosomes from humans, chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan. In humans, 7501 consistently labeled chromosomes 3q, 15q, and 19p. Additional chromosomes were labeled in different individuals, indicating a polymorphic distribution of this sequence in the human genome. In contrast, 7501 consistently and strongly labeled only the q arm terminus of chromosome 3 in both chimp and gorilla. The identification of the chromosome was made by two-color FISH analysis using human chromosome 4-specific paint and homologous to human chromosome 4. None of the human subjects showed labeling of chromosome 4 with 7501. This finding suggests that in the course of human evolution, subsequent to the divergence of humans and African apes, a cryptic translocation occurred between the ancestral human chromosome 4 and one or more of the other human chromosomes that now contain this DNA segment. In orangutan, 7501 labeled a single acrocentric chromosome pair, a distinctly different chromosome than that labeled in chimp and gorilla. Comparison of chromosome sites labeled with cosmid 16432 showed the distribution of signals on chromosome 1q arm is the same for humans and chimp, but different in the gorilla. Humans and chimps show distinct labeling on sites 1q terminus and 1q41-42. In gorilla, there is instead a large cluster of intense signal near the terminus of 1q that clearly does not extend all the way to the terminus. A paracentric inversion or an unequal cross-over event may account for the observed difference between these species.

  18. Data Provenance Hybridization Supporting Extreme-Scale Scientific WorkflowApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsethagen, Todd O.; Stephan, Eric G.; Raju, Bibi; Schram, Malachi; Macduff, Matt C.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Kleese-Van Dam, Kerstin; Singh, Alok; Altintas, Ilkay

    2016-11-21

    As high performance computing (HPC) infrastructures continue to grow in capability and complexity, so do the applications that they serve. HPC and distributed-area computing (DAC) (e.g. grid and cloud) users are looking increasingly toward workflow solutions to orchestrate their complex application coupling, pre- and post-processing needs To gain insight and a more quantitative understanding of a workflow’s performance our method includes not only the capture of traditional provenance information, but also the capture and integration of system environment metrics helping to give context and explanation for a workflow’s execution. In this paper, we describe IPPD’s provenance management solution (ProvEn) and its hybrid data store combining both of these data provenance perspectives.

  19. A Novel Hybrid Semi-Active Mass Damper Configuration for Structural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetris Demetriou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel energy- and cost-efficient hybrid semi-active mass damper configuration for use in structural applications has been developed. For this task, an arrangement of both active and semi-active control components coupled with appropriate control algorithms are constructed and their performance is evaluated on both single and multi-degree of freedom structures for which practical constraints such as stroke and force saturation limits are taken into account. It is shown that under both free and forced vibrations, the novel device configuration outperforms its more conventional passive and semi-active counterparts, while at the same time achieving performance gains similar to the active configuration at considerably less energy and actuation demands, satisfying both strict serviceability and sustainability requirements often found to govern most modern structural applications.

  20. Miniaturized soft bio-hybrid robotics: a step forward into healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, T; Mestre, R; Sánchez, S

    2016-10-07

    Soft robotics is an emerging discipline that employs soft flexible materials such as fluids, gels and elastomers in order to enhance the use of robotics in healthcare applications. Compared to their rigid counterparts, soft robotic systems have flexible and rheological properties that are closely related to biological systems, thus allowing the development of adaptive and flexible interactions with complex dynamic environments. With new technologies arising in bioengineering, the integration of living cells into soft robotic systems offers the possibility of accomplishing multiple complex functions such as sensing and actuating upon external stimuli. These emerging bio-hybrid systems are showing promising outcomes and opening up new avenues in the field of soft robotics for applications in healthcare and other fields.

  1. Etude de l'isolation hybride en vue de son application dans les transformateurs de puissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassi, Koutoua Simon

    For nearly a century the conventional insulation (oil / cellulose complex) was the type of insulation used in the power transformers and most electrical power equipments. But the cellulose paper, the solid part of this insulation has many weaknesses. Indeed, the aging of cellulose paper in power transformers is accelerated by moisture, oxygen, metal catalysts, temperature, etc.). The risk of failures is thereby increased. Another major weakness of cellulose paper is its inability to protect the electrical transformer windings against the harmful effects of corrosive sulfur. Given all the weaknesses of cellulose paper, several studies have been conducted to evaluate the performance of aramid paper, which has better thermal properties. The aramid paper is currently used as high temperature insulation, combined with high fire point oils (synthetic and vegetable oils), mainly in electric traction transformers. The hybrid solid insulation is associated with mineral oil or with high fire point oils; it finds application in transformers of fixed and mobile substations. Manufacturing technology is controlled by manufacturers but operators of electrical networks do not have baseline data (standards) as diagnostic tools, allowing them to monitor the health/condition of the isolation in this new type of transformer. The overall objective of this research was to study the hybrid insulation and to demonstrate its potential use in power transformers. This overall objective has been subdivided into three specific objectives, namely: (i) improving the diagnostic of the condition of solid hybrid insulation and conventional solid insulation; (ii) diagnosing the condition of oils sampled from hybrid, high temperature and conventional insulation and finally (iii) investigating the ability of aramid paper and cellulose paper to protect the copper (electrical windings) against harmful effects of corrosive sulfur. In order to achieve these objectives, thermal accelerated aging were

  2. Hybrid modeling for quality by design and PAT-benefits and challenges of applications in biopharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stosch, Moritz; Davy, Steven; Francois, Kjell; Galvanauskas, Vytautas; Hamelink, Jan-Martijn; Luebbert, Andreas; Mayer, Martin; Oliveira, Rui; O'Kennedy, Ronan; Rice, Paul; Glassey, Jarka

    2014-06-01

    This report highlights the drivers, challenges, and enablers of the hybrid modeling applications in biopharmaceutical industry. It is a summary of an expert panel discussion of European academics and industrialists with relevant scientific and engineering backgrounds. Hybrid modeling is viewed in its broader sense, namely as the integration of different knowledge sources in form of parametric and nonparametric models into a hybrid semi-parametric model, for instance the integration of fundamental and data-driven models. A brief description of the current state-of-the-art and industrial uptake of the methodology is provided. The report concludes with a number of recommendations to facilitate further developments and a wider industrial application of this modeling approach. These recommendations are limited to further exploiting the benefits of this methodology within process analytical technology (PAT) applications in biopharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Facile method to synthesize magnetic iron oxides/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles and their photodegradation application of methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many methods have been reported to improving the photocatalytic efficiency of organic pollutant and their reliable applications. In this work, we propose a facile pathway to prepare three different types of magnetic iron oxides/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles (NPs by seed-mediated method. The hybrid NPs are composed of spindle, hollow, and ultrafine iron oxide NPs as seeds and 3-aminopropyltriethyloxysilane as linker between the magnetic cores and TiO2 layers, respectively. The composite structure and the presence of the iron oxide and titania phase have been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectra. The hybrid NPs show good magnetic response, which can get together under an external applied magnetic field and hence they should become promising magnetic recovery catalysts (MRCs. Photocatalytic ability examination of the magnetic hybrid NPs was carried out in methylene blue (MB solutions illuminated under Hg light in a photochemical reactor. About 50% to 60% of MB was decomposed in 90 min in the presence of magnetic hybrid NPs. The synthesized magnetic hybrid NPs display high photocatalytic efficiency and will find recoverable potential applications in cleaning polluted water with the help of magnetic separation.

  4. Flexible, thorn-like ZnO-multiwalled carbon nanotube hybrid paper for efficient ultraviolet sensing and photocatalyst applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dali; Sun, Hongtao; Gao, Jian; Xin, Guoqing; Anthony Aguilar, Mark; Yao, Tiankai; Koratkar, Nikhil; Lian, Jie; Sawyer, Shayla

    2014-10-01

    We report fabrication of a flexible, thorn-like ZnO-multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid paper with high aspect ratio for efficient ultraviolet (UV) sensing and photocatalyst applications. The thorn-like ZnO-MWCNT hybrid paper was synthesized via atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a uniform ZnO thin film on the outside surface of the MWCNT followed by hydrothermal growth of ZnO branches. The hybrid paper achieved very high surface to volume ratio, which is favorable for photodetector and photocatalyst applications. A photodetector fabricated from the hybrid paper demonstrates a high sensitivity to UV light with a maximum photoresponsivity of 45.1 A W-1 at 375 nm, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency as high as 14927%. The rise time and fall time of the UV photodetector are 29 ms and 33 ms, respectively, indicating fast transient response characteristics for the device. The high photoresponsivity and fast transient response are attributed to efficient carrier transport and collection efficiency of the hybrid paper. Besides, the thorn-like ZnO-MWCNT hybrid paper demonstrates excellent photocatalytic performance under UV irradiation, enabling photo-degradation of organic dyes such as Rhodamine B (RhB) within 90 minutes, with good recyclability.

  5. The Application of Traits-Based Assessment Approaches to Estimate the Effects of Hydroelectric Turbine Passage on Fish Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    ) found useful turbine passage survival data for only 30 species. Tests of advanced hydropower turbines have been limited to seven species - Chinook and coho salmon, rainbow trout, alewife, eel, smallmouth bass, and white sturgeon. We are investigating possible approaches for extending experimental results from the few tested fish species to predict turbine passage survival of other, untested species (Cada and Richmond 2011). In this report, we define the causes of injury and mortality to fish tested in laboratory and field studies, based on fish body shape and size, internal and external morphology, and physiology. We have begun to group the large numbers of unstudied species into a small number of categories, e.g., based on phylogenetic relationships or ecological similarities (guilds), so that subsequent studies of a few representative species (potentially including species-specific Biological Index Testing) would yield useful information about the overall fish community. This initial effort focused on modifying approaches that are used in the environmental toxicology field to estimate the toxicity of substances to untested species. Such techniques as the development of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) and Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) models rely on a considerable amount of data to establish the species-toxicity relationships that can be extended to other organisms. There are far fewer studies of turbine passage stresses from which to derive the turbine passage equivalent of LC{sub 50} values. Whereas the SSD and ICE approaches are useful analogues to predicting turbine passage injury and mortality, too few data are available to support their application without some form of modification or simplification. In this report we explore the potential application of a newer, related technique, the Traits-Based Assessment (TBA), to the prediction of downstream passage mortality at hydropower projects.

  6. Single-Step Multicolor Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Using Semiconductor Quantum Dot–DNA Conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentolila, Laurent A.; Weiss, Shimon

    2011-01-01

    We report a rapid method for the direct multicolor imaging of multiple subnuclear genetic sequences using novel quantum dot-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes (QD–FISH). Short DNA oligonucleotides were attached on QDs and used in a single hybridization/detection step of target sites in situ. QD–FISH probes penetrate both intact interphase nuclei and metaphase chromosomes and showed good targeting of dense chromatin domains with minimal steric hindrances. We further demonstrated that QD’s broad absorption spectra allowed different colored probes specific for distinct subnuclear genetic sequences to be simultaneously excited with a single excitation wavelength and imaged free of chromatic aberrations in a single exposure. Thus, these results demonstrate that QD–FISH probes are very effective in multicolor FISH applications. This work also documents new possibilities of using QD–FISH probes detection down to the single molecule level. PMID:16679564

  7. Recent trends in preparation and application of carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Dang, Van; Dung Nguyen, Duc; Thanh Cao, Thi; Le, Phuoc Huu; Tran, Dai Lam; Phan, Ngoc Minh; Chuc Nguyen, Van

    2016-09-01

    The combination of one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and two-dimensional (2D) graphene materials to generate three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid thin films (CNGHTFs) has attracted great attention owing to their intriguing properties via the synergistic effects of these two materials on their electrical, optical, and electrochemical properties in comparison with their individual components. This review aims to provide a brief introduction of recent trends in preparation methodologies and some outstanding applications of CNGHTFs. It contains two main scientific subjects. The first of these is the research on preparation techniques of CNGHTFs, including reduction agent-assisted mechanical blending of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and CNTs, hybridization methods for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of CNTs and rGO sheets, multi-step methods using combinations of a solution and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processing, one-step growth of CNGHTFs by the CVD method, and modified CVD methods via thermal deposition of carbon source on catalyst surfaces. The advantages and disadvantages of the preparation methods of CNGHTFs are presented and discussed in detail. The second scientific subject of the review is the research on some outstanding applications of CNGHTFs in various research fields, including transparent conductors, electron field emitters, field-effect transistors, biosensors and supercapacitors. In most cases, the CNGHTFs showed superior performances than those of the pristine GO/graphene or CNT materials. Therefore, the CNGHTFs exhibit as high-potential materials for various practical applications. Opportunites and challenges in the fields are also presented.

  8. Visualization of the spatial arrangement of nuclear organization using three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization in early mouse embryos: A new "EASI-FISH chamber glass" for mammalian embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Masataka; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Takamatsu, Shingo; Hosokawa, Misaki; Mitani, Tasuku

    2017-04-21

    The fertilized oocyte begins cleavage, leading to zygotic gene activation (ZGA), which re-activates the resting genome to acquire totipotency. In this process, genomic function is regulated by the dynamic structural conversion in the nucleus. Indeed, a considerable number of genes that are essential for embryonic development are located near the pericentromeric regions, wherein the heterochromatin is formed. These genes are repressed transcriptionally in somatic cells. Three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) enables the visualization of the intranuclear spatial arrangement, such as gene loci, chromosomal domains, and chromosome territories (CTs). However, the 3D-FISH approach in mammalian embryos has been limited to certain repeated sequences because of its unfavorable properties. In this study, we developed an easy-to-use chamber device (EASI-FISH chamber) for 3D-FISH in early embryos, and visualized, for the first time, the spatial arrangements of pericentromeric regions, the ZGA-activated gene (Zscan4) loci, and CTs (chromosome 7), simultaneously during the early cleavage stage of mouse embryos by 3D-FISH. As a result, it was revealed that morphological changes of the pericentromeric regions and CTs, and relocation of the Zscan4 loci in CTs, occurred in the 1- to 4-cell stage embryos, which was different from those in somatic cells. This convenient and reproducible 3D-FISH technique for mammalian embryos represents a valuable tool that will provide insights into the nuclear dynamics of development.

  9. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun

    Renewable energy in different forms has been used in various applications for survival since the beginning of human existence. However, there is a new dire need to reevaluate and recalibrate the overall energy issue both nationally and globally. This includes, but is not limited to, the finite availability of fossil fuel, energy sustainability with an increasing demand, escalating energy costs, environmental impact such as global warming and green-house gases, to name a few. This dissertation is primarily focused and related to the production and usage of electricity from non-hydro renewable sources. Among non-hydro renewable energy sources, electricity generation from wind and solar energy are the fastest-growing technologies in the United States and in the world. However, due to the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage devices are required to maintain proper operation of the grid system and in order to increase reliability. A hybrid system, as the name suggests, is a combination of different forms of non-renewable and renewable energy generation, with or without storage devices. Hybrid systems, when applied properly, are able to improve reliability and enhance stability, reduce emissions and noise pollution, provide continuous power, increase operation life, reduce cost, and efficiently use all available energy. In the United States (U.S.), buildings consume approximately 40% of the total primary energy and 74% of the total electricity. Therefore, reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency in U.S. buildings will play a vital role in the overall energy picture. Electrical energy usage for any such building varies widely depending on age (construction technique), electricity and natural gas usage, appearance, location and climate. In this research, a hybrid system including non-renewable and renewable energy generation with storage devices specifically for building applications, is studied in detail. This research deals

  10. Enhancing Application Performance Using Mini-Apps: Comparison of Hybrid Parallel Programming Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Gary; Sosonkina, Masha; Baurle, Robert; Hammond, Dana

    2017-01-01

    In many fields, real-world applications for High Performance Computing have already been developed. For these applications to stay up-to-date, new parallel strategies must be explored to yield the best performance; however, restructuring or modifying a real-world application may be daunting depending on the size of the code. In this case, a mini-app may be employed to quickly explore such options without modifying the entire code. In this work, several mini-apps have been created to enhance a real-world application performance, namely the VULCAN code for complex flow analysis developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. These mini-apps explore hybrid parallel programming paradigms with Message Passing Interface (MPI) for distributed memory access and either Shared MPI (SMPI) or OpenMP for shared memory accesses. Performance testing shows that MPI+SMPI yields the best execution performance, while requiring the largest number of code changes. A maximum speedup of 23 was measured for MPI+SMPI, but only 11 was measured for MPI+OpenMP.

  11. LDRD final report : managing shared memory data distribution in hybrid HPC applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, Alexander M. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke

    2010-09-01

    MPI is the dominant programming model for distributed memory parallel computers, and is often used as the intra-node programming model on multi-core compute nodes. However, application developers are increasingly turning to hybrid models that use threading within a node and MPI between nodes. In contrast to MPI, most current threaded models do not require application developers to deal explicitly with data locality. With increasing core counts and deeper NUMA hierarchies seen in the upcoming LANL/SNL 'Cielo' capability supercomputer, data distribution poses an upper boundary on intra-node scalability within threaded applications. Data locality therefore has to be identified at runtime using static memory allocation policies such as first-touch or next-touch, or specified by the application user at launch time. We evaluate several existing techniques for managing data distribution using micro-benchmarks on an AMD 'Magny-Cours' system with 24 cores among 4 NUMA domains and argue for the adoption of a dynamic runtime system implemented at the kernel level, employing a novel page table replication scheme to gather per-NUMA domain memory access traces.

  12. Novel Alginate-Gelatin Hybrid Nanoparticle for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Mi Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel alginate-gelatin hybrid nanoparticles were fabricated using single oil in water (O/W emulsification techniques. Physicochemical property of the particle was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier’s transmission infrared spectroscopy. Particle size was determined using zeta potential metastasize analyzer and was found to be in range of 400–600 nm. AGNPs were used for culturing human keratinocytes for two weeks to check biocompatibility of synthesized AGNPs. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay showed increased metabolic activity of cells cultured on AGNPs in comparison to two-dimensional (2D system (control. Cellular attachment on nanoparticle was further confirmed using SEM and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. The drug release profile shows possible electrostatic bond between alginate and gelatin resulting in controlled release of drug from AGNPs. For the first time alginate-gelatin hybrid nanosystem has been fabricated and all results showed it can be used as potential system for delivery of drug and therapeutical agents to cells and can also be used for regenerative medicine applications.

  13. Waterborne polyurethane-acrylic hybrid nanoparticles by miniemulsion polymerization: applications in pressure-sensitive adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Aitziber; Degrandi-Contraires, Elise; Canetta, Elisabetta; Creton, Costantino; Keddie, Joseph L; Asua, José M

    2011-04-05

    Waterborne polyurethane-acrylic hybrid nanoparticles for application as pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) were prepared by one-step miniemulsion polymerization. The addition of polyurethane to a standard waterborne acrylic formulation results in a large increase in the cohesive strength and hence a much higher shear holding time (greater than seven weeks at room temperature), which is a very desirable characteristic for PSAs. However, with the increase in cohesion, there is a decrease in the relative viscous component, and hence there is a decrease in the tack energy. The presence of a small concentration of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the acrylic copolymer led to phase separation within the particles and created a hemispherical morphology. The tack energy was particularly low in the hybrid containing MMA because of the effects of lower energy dissipation and greater cross-linking. These results highlight the great sensitivity of the viscoelastic and adhesive properties to the details of the polymer network architecture and hence to the precise composition and synthesis conditions.

  14. Aligned carbon nanotube/zinc oxide nanowire hybrids as high performance electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asadi, Ahmed S.; Henley, Luke Alexander; Wasala, Milinda; Muchharla, Baleeswaraiah; Perea-Lopez, Nestor; Carozo, Victor; Lin, Zhong; Terrones, Mauricio; Mondal, Kanchan; Kordas, Krisztian; Talapatra, Saikat

    2017-03-01

    Carbon nanotube/metal oxide based hybrids are envisioned as high performance electrochemical energy storage electrodes since these systems can provide improved performances utilizing an electric double layer coupled with fast faradaic pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanisms. In this work, we show that high performance supercapacitor electrodes with a specific capacitance of ˜192 F/g along with a maximum energy density of ˜3.8 W h/kg and a power density of ˜ 28 kW/kg can be achieved by synthesizing zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) directly on top of aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In comparison to pristine MWCNTs, these constitute a 12-fold of increase in specific capacitance as well as corresponding power and energy density values. These electrodes also possess high cycling stability and were able to retain ˜99% of their specific capacitance value over 2000 charging discharging cycles. These findings indicate potential use of a MWCNT/ZnO NW hybrid material for future electrochemical energy storage applications.

  15. Nano Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Inorganic Hybrid Nanomaterials: Synthetic Strategies and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Hien Duy; Rafiq, Khezina; Yoo, Hyojong

    2017-04-27

    Nano- (or micro-scale) metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs), also known as coordination polymer particles (CPPs), have received much attention because of their structural diversities and tunable properties. Besides the direct use, NMOFs can be alternatively used as sacrificial templates/precursors for the preparation of a wide range of hybrid inorganic nanomaterials in straightforward and controllable manners. Distinct advantages of using NMOF templates are correlated to their structural and functional tailorability at molecular levels that is rarely acquired in any other conventional template/precursor. In addition, NMOF-derived inorganic nanomaterials with distinct chemical and physical properties are inferred to dramatically expand the scope of their utilization in many fields. In this review, we aim to provide readers with a comprehensive summary of recent progress in terms of synthetic approaches for the production of diverse inorganic hybrid nanostructures from as-synthesized NMOFs and their promising applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Hybrid fully nonlinear BEM-LBM numerical wave tank with applications in naval hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivehchi, Amin; Grilli, Stephan T.; Dahl, Jason M.; O'Reilly, Chris M.; Harris, Jeffrey C.; Kuznetsov, Konstantin; Janssen, Christian F.

    2017-11-01

    simulation of the complex dynamics response of ships in waves is typically modeled by nonlinear potential flow theory, usually solved with a higher order BEM. In some cases, the viscous/turbulent effects around a structure and in its wake need to be accurately modeled to capture the salient physics of the problem. Here, we present a fully 3D model based on a hybrid perturbation method. In this method, the velocity and pressure are decomposed as the sum of an inviscid flow and viscous perturbation. The inviscid part is solved over the whole domain using a BEM based on cubic spline element. These inviscid results are then used to force a near-field perturbation solution on a smaller domain size, which is solved with a NS model based on LBM-LES, and implemented on GPUs. The BEM solution for large grids is greatly accelerated by using a parallelized FMM, which is efficiently implemented on large and small clusters, yielding an almost linear scaling with the number of unknowns. A new representation of corners and edges is implemented, which improves the global accuracy of the BEM solver, particularly for moving boundaries. We present model results and the recent improvements of the BEM, alongside results of the hybrid model, for applications to problems. Office of Naval Research Grants N000141310687 and N000141612970.

  17. Adaptive Second Order Sliding Mode Control of a Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an adaptive-gain second order sliding mode (SOSM control applied to a hybrid power system for electric vehicle applications. The main advantage of the adaptive SOSM is that it does not require the upper bound of the uncertainty. The proposed hybrid system consists of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC with a unidirectional DC/DC converter and a Li-ion battery stack with a bidirectional DC/DC converter, where the PEMFC is employed as the primary energy source and the battery is employed as the second energy source. One of the main limitations of the FC is its slow dynamics mainly due to the air-feed system and fuel-delivery system. Fuel starvation phenomenon will occur during fast load demand. Therefore, the second energy source is required to assist the main source to improve system perofrmance. The proposed energy management system contains two cascade control structures, which are used to regulate the fuel cell and battery currents to track the given reference currents and stabilize the DC bus voltage while satisfying the physical limitations. The proposed control strategy is evaluated for two real driving cycles, that is, Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS and Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (HWFET.

  18. In Situ Synthesis of Bimetallic Hybrid Nanocatalysts on a Paper-Structured Matrix for Catalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Koga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic nanoparticles have attracted significant attention as their electrochemical and catalytic properties being superior to those of the individual component nanoparticles. In this study, gold-silver hybrid nanoparticles (AuAgNPs with an Aucore-Agshell nanostructure were successfully synthesized on zinc oxide (ZnO whiskers. The as-prepared nanocatalyst, denoted AuAgNPs@ZnO whisker, exhibits an excellent catalytic efficiency in the aqueous reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol; the turnover frequency was up to 40 times higher than that of each component nanoparticle. Their unique features were attributed to the electronic ligand effect at the bimetallic interface. In addition, the AuAgNPs were synthesized on a ZnO whisker-containing paper with a fiber-network microstructure, which was prepared via a papermaking technique. The paper-structured AuAgNPs composite possessed both a paper-like practical utility and a good catalytic performance. Furthermore, the on-paper synthesis process for these bimetallic nanocatalysts is facile. These easy-to-handle nanocatalyst hybrid composites are expected to find a wide range of applications in various chemical and catalytic processes.

  19. Application of a hybrid association rules/decision tree model for drought monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourani, Vahid; Molajou, Amir

    2017-12-01

    The previous researches have shown that the incorporation of the oceanic-atmospheric climate phenomena such as Sea Surface Temperature (SST) into hydro-climatic models could provide important predictive information about hydro-climatic variability. In this paper, the hybrid application of two data mining techniques (decision tree and association rules) was offered to discover affiliation between drought of Tabriz and Kermanshah synoptic stations (located in Iran) and de-trend SSTs of the Black, Mediterranean and Red Seas. Two major steps of the proposed model were the classification of de-trend SST data and selecting the most effective groups and extracting hidden information involved in the data. The techniques of decision tree which can identify the good traits from a data set for the classification purpose were used for classification and selecting the most effective groups and association rules were employed to extract the hidden predictive information from the large observed data. To examine the accuracy of the rules, confidence and Heidke Skill Score (HSS) measures were calculated and compared for different considering lag times. The computed measures confirm reliable performance of the proposed hybrid data mining method to forecast drought and the results show a relative correlation between the Mediterranean, Black and Red Sea de-trend SSTs and drought of Tabriz and Kermanshah synoptic stations so that the confidence between the monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values and the de-trend SST of seas is higher than 70 and 80% respectively for Tabriz and Kermanshah synoptic stations.

  20. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable and distributed energy systems could provide a solution to the burning issue of reliable and clean supply of energy, having in mind current state and future predictions for population growth and fossil fuel scarcity. Hybrid renewable energy systems are novelty in Serbia and warrant further detailed research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES for electricity and heat supply of a typical household in Serbia, as well as the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system. The influence of feed-in tariff change on the value of the investment is analyzed. Small, grid-connected hybrid system (for energy supply of a standard household, consisting of geothermal heat pump for heating/cooling, solar photovoltaic panels and small wind turbine for power supply is analyzed as a case study. System analysis was conducted with the help of RETScreen software. Results of techno-economics analysis have shown that investing in geothermal heat pump and photovoltaic panels is cost-effective, while that is not the case with small wind turbine.

  1. ELV Recycling Service Provider Selection Using the Hybrid MCDM Method: A Case Application in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuli Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid depletion of natural resources and undesired environmental changes globally, more interest has been shown in the research of green supply chain practices, including end-of-life vehicle (ELV recycling. The ELV recycling is mandatory for auto-manufacturers by legislation for the purpose of minimizing potential environmental damages. The purpose of the present research is to determine the best choice of ELV recycling service provider by employing an integrating hybrid multi-criteria decision making (MCDM method. In this research, economic, environmental and social factors are taken into consideration. The linguistic variables and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers (TFNs are applied into this evaluation to deal with the vague and qualitative information. With the combined weight calculation of criteria based on fuzzy aggregation and Shannon Entropy techniques, the normative multi-criteria optimization technique (FVIKOR method is applied to explore the best solution. An application was performed based on the proposed hybrid MCDM method, and sensitivity analysis was conducted on different decision making scenarios. The present study provides a decision-making approach on ELV recycling business selection under sustainability and green philosophy with high robustness and easy implementation.

  2. Development of hybrid cotton/hydrogel yarns with improved absorption properties for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollini, Mauro; Paladini, Federica, E-mail: federica.paladini@unisalento.it; Sannino, Alessandro; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2016-06-01

    Hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, is an overlooked and potentially disabling symptom, which is often seen in social anxiety disorder. In this work an innovative advanced textile material was developed for application in the management of excessive sweating, preparing a drying yarn providing improved comfort. Hybrid cotton/hydrogel yarns were obtained by combining cotton with superabsorbent hydrogels through an optimization study focused on the achievement of the most promising product in terms of absorption properties and resistance to washings. Swelling and washing tests were performed using different hydrogels, and the effect of an additional crosslinking on the materials was also evaluated by testing different solutions containing Al{sup 3+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. Scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy analyses were adopted to characterize morphology and chemical structure of the hydrogels undergoing different production processes. The biocompatibility of the hybrid fabrics was demonstrated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay (MTT) through the extract method. - Highlights: • Novel textile based on natural fibres and superabsorbent hydrogels was developed. • The swelling ratio and the durability to washings were evaluated. • The effect of the choice of the hydrogel was studied. • The effects of additional crosslinking on hydrogel and fabrics were evaluated. • The optimized parameters determined durable and improved absorption properties.

  3. Medical applications of hybrids made from quantum emitter and metallic nanoshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahi R.; Chandra Sekhar, M.; Balakrishnan, Shankar; Masood, Shahbaz

    2017-07-01

    We have studied the photoluminescence emission in a quantum emitter and metallic nanoshell hybrid system. The metallic nanoshell is made of a dielectric core coated with a thin layer of metal and is surrounded by biological cells such as cancer cells. Surface plasmon polariton resonances in the metallic nanoshell are calculated using Maxwell's equations in the quasi-static approximation. It is found that the metallic nanoshell has two surface plasmon polariton resonances. Locations of surface plasmon polariton resonances can be manipulated by changing the size of the core and the metallic shell. We have compared our theory with the extinction coefficient of metallic nanoshells. A good agreement between theory and experiment is found. A probe laser field is applied to study the photoluminescence spectrum in the hybrid system. Dipoles are induced in the metallic nanoshell and quantum emitter due to the probe laser. Hence the quantum emitter and metallic nanoshell interact via the dipole-dipole interaction. The photoluminescence spectrum of the quantum emitter is calculated using the density matrix method in the presence of the dipole-dipole interaction. It is found that the photoluminescence spectrum of the quantum emitter with degenerate excitons splits from one peak to two or three peaks depending on the locations of two surface plasmon polariton resonances. Similarly, for the nondegenerate quantum emitter we found that the photoluminescence spectrum splits from two peaks to four peaks. These interesting findings may be useful in the fabrication of nanosensors, nanoswitches, and for other applications in medicine.

  4. Synthesis of hybrid chitosan/calcium aluminosilicate using a sol-gel method for optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnahrawy, Amany Mohamed [Department of Solid State, Physics Division, National Research Center (NRC), Giza 12622, Cairo (Egypt); Kim, Yong Soo, E-mail: yskim2@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center (EHSRC), University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Ali, Ahmed I., E-mail: Ahmed_ali_2010@helwan.edu.eg [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center (EHSRC), University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Basic Science Department, Faculty of Industrial Education & Technology, Helwan University, Cairo 11281 (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Hybrid chitosan (CS)/calcium aluminosilicate nanocomposites thin films and membranes were prepared using a sol–gel method with three different concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5, 7 and 10 mol. %). The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The optical properties of the prepared samples were analyzed by UV/Vis spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The optical parameters revealed an increase in both the refractive index and band gap of the nanocomposites with increasing Al concentration. In addition, the PL spectra revealed a blue shift that was consistent with an increase in the optical band gap. These results suggest that CS/calcium aluminosilicate in two different forms can be a good candidate for optical sensors applications. - Highlights: • We show a large specific surface area of hybrid CS/calcium aluminosilicate thin films and membranes using sol-gel method. • Inorganic SiO{sub 2}-based phase are perfectly embedded onto chitosan matrix has a reliable stability. • CS/calcium aluminosilicate could be usable for optical sensors, planar waveguide, and bio-sensing.

  5. Novel non-cytotoxic, bioactive and biodegradable hybrid materials based on polyurethanes/TiO2 for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Dulce M; Téllez Jurado, L; Jiménez-Gallegos, R; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, Luis M

    2017-06-01

    Titanium compounds have demonstrated great interfacial properties with biological tissues whereas a wide variety of polyurethanes have also been successfully probed in medical applications. However, studies about hybrids based on polyurethanes/TiO2 for medical applications are scarce. The aim of this work is to design novel biodegradable hybrid materials based on polyurethanes/TiO2 (80% organic-20% inorganic) and to perform a preliminary study of the potential applications in bone regeneration. The hybrids have been prepared by a sol-gel reaction using titanium isopropoxide as precursor of the inorganic component and polyurethane as the organic one. A series of polyurethanes has been prepared using different polyesters glycol succinate as soft segment, and 1,6-diisocyanatohexane (HDI) and butanediol (BD) as linear hard segment. The spectroscopy techniques used allow to confirm the formation of the required polyurethanes by the identification of bands related to carboxylic groups (COOH), and the amine groups (NH), and also the TiOH bonds and the bonds related to the interconnected network between the inorganic and the organic components from hybrids. The results from SEM/EDS show a homogeneous distribution of the inorganic component into the organic matrix. The nontoxic character of the hybrid (H400) was probed using MG-63 cell line with over 90% of cell viability. Finally, the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer in the material surface after 21days of soaking in SBF shows the bioactive character. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. FISH in polycythemia vera (PCV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiel, A.; Gaber, E.; Manor, Y. [Meir General Hospital, Kfar-Saba (Israel)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Trisomies 8 and 9 are the most common numerical abnormalities in polycythemia vera (PCV). However, their role in the pathogenesis of the disease is unclear as is their diagnostic or prognostic value. We evaluated the role of fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) as compared to chromosome analysis in the detection of trisomies 8 or 9 in peripheral blood cells of 14 PCV and 5 secondary PCV patients. Using FISH, we found trisomies 8 and 9 in 10 PCV patients above the cutoff levels of 5%. However, no patient with the secondary PCV reached the cutoff level. Out of 10 PCV patients in whom the trisomy was detected by FISH, only in 3 was this trisomy also detected by routine cytogenetics. The incidence of the finding of trisomy 9 correlates with the duration of the disease, suggesting that this is not the primary event in PCV. FISH is a sensitive, convenient and rapid method for diagnosis and follow-up of chromosome aberrations in PCV patients. Application of FISH to larger cohort of patients may provide valuable information regarding their role in initiation and progession of the disease.

  7. Validation of biological dosimetry versus physical dosimetry in conditioned patients using total body irradiation: cytogenetic and FISH study; Validation de la dosimetrie biologique chez des patients conditionnes par irradiation corporelle totale: etude cytogenetique conventionnelle et hybridation in situ (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossou, J.; M' kacher, R.; Violot, D.; Legal, J.D.; Lartigau, E.; Eschwege, F.; Parmentier, C. [Institut Gustave Roussy, UPRES EA27-10 Radiosensibilite et Radiocarcinogenese Humaine, 94 - Villejuif (France); Girinsky, T.; Eschwege, F. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 94 - Villejuif (France); Bridier, A. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Service de Physique, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2000-12-01

    Purpose. - Validation of biological dosimetry versus physical dosimetry in malignant hemopathy patients conditioned by total body irradiation (TBI) before bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Patients and methods. -The scoring of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes irradiated in vivo was used to perform the biological dosimetry. The data were compared to those obtained with healthy volunteers' total blood exposed to in vitro irradiation with linear accelerator doses (0.2, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Gy) for dose-response curves. In experimental animal models, can in vivo and in vitro responses be considered as being the same? All the published human data are based on retrospective dose evaluation with very large uncertainties on the dose precisely delivered to the subject. TBI before BMT was taken as a model where the dose calculation results from the physical method, with homogeneous beam and dose delivered precisely along the entire organism. In vivo response allows us to validate biological dosimetry in 15 adult patients (female + male), before (D = 0 Gy) and after the first fraction of 1.8 Gy, delivered by a linear accelerator (18 MV, dose-rate of 15.8 cGy/min{sup -1}). Two methods, conventional cyto-genetics (CCG) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH painting) of chromosome 4 were respectively used to analyze the unstable chromosome aberrations and stable chromosome aberrations. Results. -Healthy volunteer lymphocytes, before irradiation, yielded 0.1 % dicentrics and 0.3% translocations of chromosome 4, with 2.5% for the whole genome. Patients before irradiation had 2% dicentrics and 11.48% chromosome 4 translocations for the whole genome. In the 15 patients, for a physical dose of 1.8 Gy, the evaluated biological dose was 1.93 Gy (95% CI: 1.85-2.05 Gy) with conventional cyto-genetics and 2.06 Gy (95% CI: 1.75-2.15 Gy) with FISH. Conclusion. - These results, in which the biologically estimated dose is in complete agreement with the dose

  8. Temporal Code-Driven Stimulation: Definition and Application to Electric Fish Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareo, Angel; Forlim, Caroline G.; Pinto, Reynaldo D.; Varona, Pablo; Rodriguez, Francisco de Borja

    2016-01-01

    Closed-loop activity-dependent stimulation is a powerful methodology to assess information processing in biological systems. In this context, the development of novel protocols, their implementation in bioinformatics toolboxes and their application to different description levels open up a wide range of possibilities in the study of biological systems. We developed a methodology for studying biological signals representing them as temporal sequences of binary events. A specific sequence of these events (code) is chosen to deliver a predefined stimulation in a closed-loop manner. The response to this code-driven stimulation can be used to characterize the system. This methodology was implemented in a real time toolbox and tested in the context of electric fish signaling. We show that while there are codes that evoke a response that cannot be distinguished from a control recording without stimulation, other codes evoke a characteristic distinct response. We also compare the code-driven response to open-loop stimulation. The discussed experiments validate the proposed methodology and the software toolbox. PMID:27766078

  9. Hybrid optical materials of plasmon-coupled CdSe/ZnS coreshells for photonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaetae; Fudala, Rafal; Kim, Wan-Joong; Rich, Ryan; Tabibi, Bagher; Cho, Hyoyeong; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Yu, William

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid optical nanostructure of plasmon-coupled SQDs was developed for photonic applications. The coupling distances between the mono-layers of Au nanoparticles with a surface concentration of ~9.18 × 10−4 nm−2 and CdSe/ZnS SQDs with that of ~3.7 × 10−3 nm−2 were controlled by PMMA plasma etching. Time-resolved spectroscopy of plasmon-coupled SQDs revealed a strong shortening of the longest lifetime and ~9-fold PL enhancement. Polarization-resolved PL spectroscopy displayed linear polarization and depolarization at near- and far-field plasmon-coupling, respectively. The physical origin of PL enhancement could be attributable to both the large local field enhancement and the fast resonant energy transfer. PMID:23457661

  10. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Albers, J.; Weirather-Koestner, D.; Kabza, H.

    In the first part of this work [1] selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. [1,6]. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already.

  11. Ultrafast laser based hybrid methodology of silicon microstructure fabrication for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaujia, Pawan K.; Bulbul, Angika; Parmar, Vinod; Prakash, G. Vijaya

    2017-10-01

    As an alternative approach to conventional lithography based fabrication, simple methodology of ultrafast laser writing followed by chemical processing for fabrication of silicon microstructures is studied and presented. Laser fluence and number of pulses dependent laser-matter interaction study reveals several concurrent extreme nonlinearities that influence the structural morphology in both longitudinal and transverse directions. High intensity femtosecond pulse propagation produces inevitable structural features, such as quasi aperiodic surface textures, V-shaped craters, re-casted melt and debris. To minimize such undesired effects, isotropic and anisotropic chemical etching processes have been systematically optimized. Such hybrid protocols resulted into definite microstructures, with surface quality comparable to those obtained from other lithographic fabrication methods. The proposed methodology is expected to provide control over desired feature sizes, for large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of microstructures for many optoelectronics applications.

  12. Medical imaging education in biomedical engineering curriculum: courseware development and application through a hybrid teaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weizhao; Li, Xiping; Chen, Hairong; Manns, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Medical Imaging is a key training component in Biomedical Engineering programs. Medical imaging education is interdisciplinary training, involving physics, mathematics, chemistry, electrical engineering, computer engineering, and applications in biology and medicine. Seeking an efficient teaching method for instructors and an effective learning environment for students has long been a goal for medical imaging education. By the support of NSF grants, we developed the medical imaging teaching software (MITS) and associated dynamic assessment tracking system (DATS). The MITS/DATS system has been applied to junior and senior medical imaging classes through a hybrid teaching model. The results show that student's learning gain improved, particularly in concept understanding and simulation project completion. The results also indicate disparities in subjective perception between junior and senior classes. Three institutions are collaborating to expand the courseware system and plan to apply it to different class settings.

  13. A New Low-Cost Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor for Adjustable-Speed Pump Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Watkins, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new low-cost hybrid switched reluctance (HSR) motor intended for use in adjustable-speed pump drive systems. The motor is a single-phase motor, driven by a unipolar converter, which uses both the reluctance torque and the permanent magnet interaction torque. Compared...... with conventional single-phase switched reluctance motors, it has an increased torque density. The cogging torque is beneficially used in this motor for reducing the torque ripple. It is demonstrated that such a motor drive system can be a suitable candidate to advantageously compete with the existing motor drive...... systems for low-cost applications. Finite-element models are used to analyze and predict the motor's performance. The proposed motor drive system has been fabricated, and its performance has been tested in the laboratory. These experimental results are also presented....

  14. Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Dinesh Kumar, B; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T

    2012-12-15

    The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogels from biopolymer hybrid for biomedical, food, and functional food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid hydrogels from biopolymers have been applied for various indications across a wide range of biomedical, pharmaceutical, and functional food industries. In particular, hybrid hydrogels synthesized from two biopolymers have attracted increasing attention. The inclusion of a second biopolymer st...

  16. Application of Hybrid Optimization Algorithm in the Synthesis of Linear Antenna Array

    OpenAIRE

    Ezgi Deniz Ülker; Ali Haydar; Kamil Dimililer

    2014-01-01

    The use of hybrid algorithms for solving real-world optimization problems has become popular since their solution quality can be made better than the algorithms that form them by combining their desirable features. The newly proposed hybrid method which is called Hybrid Differential, Particle, and Harmony (HDPH) algorithm is different from the other hybrid forms since it uses all features of merged algorithms in order to perform efficiently for a wide variety of problems. In the proposed algo...

  17. Advanced valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for hybrid vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M. L.; Trinidad, F.; Lacadena, J. M.; Sánchez, A.; Valenciano, J.

    Future vehicle applications require the development of reliable and long life batteries operating under high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) working conditions. Work presented in this paper deals with the study of different design parameters, manufacturing process and charging conditions of spiral wound valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, in order to improve their reliability and cycle life for hybrid vehicle applications. Test results show that both electrolyte saturation and charge conditions have a strong effect on cycle life at HRPSoC performance, presumably because water loss finally accelerates battery failure, which is linked to irreversible sulphation in the upper part of the negative electrodes. By adding expanded graphite to the negative active mass formulation, increasing the electrolyte saturation degree (>95%) and controlling overcharge during regenerative braking periods (voltage limitation and occasional boosting) it is possible to achieve up to 220,000 cycles at 2.5% DOD, equivalent to 5500 capacity throughput. These results could make lead acid batteries a strong competitor for HEV applications versus other advanced systems such as Ni-MH or Li-ion batteries.

  18. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  19. TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, F.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Marciano, S.; Pacifico, S. [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present work has been the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on titanium dioxide and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to be used in the biomedical field. Several materials have been synthesized using sol–gel methods by adding different amounts of polymer to the inorganic sol. The obtained gels have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR data allowed us to hypothesize that the structure formed was that of an interpenetrating network, realized by hydrogen bonds between Ti-OH groups in the sol–gel intermediate species and carbonyl groups in the polymer repeating units. SEM and AFM analyses highlighted that the obtained materials were nanostructurated hybrids. To evaluate the biological properties of the hybrids, their bioactivity and cytotoxicity were investigated as a function of the PCL amount. The bioactivity of the synthesized systems was proven by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating human blood plasma (SBF). MTT cytotoxicity tests and Trypan Blue dye exclusion tests were carried out exposing NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts for 24 and 48 h to extracts from the investigated hybrid materials. The results showed that all the hybrids had a non-cytotoxic effect on target cells. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrids were obtained by the sol–gel process for biomedical applications. • Synthesized materials were found to be first-class hybrid nanocomposites. • Hybrids appear to be bioactive, a fundamental characteristic for osseointegration. • MTT and Trypan Blue viability test show that the materials are biocompatible. • The organic phase is able to modulate the biocompatibility of the materials.

  20. A thin-film silicon/silicon hetero-junction hybrid solar cell for photoelectrochemical water-reduction applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasudevan, R.A.; Thanawala, Z; Han, L.; Buijs, Thom; Tan, H.; Deligiannis, D.; Perez Rodriguez, P.; Digdaya, I.A.; Smith, W.A.; Zeman, M.; Smets, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid tandem solar cell consisting of a thin-film, nanocrystalline silicon top junction and a siliconheterojunction bottom junction is proposed as a supporting solar cell for photoelectrochemical applications.Tunneling recombination junction engineering is shown to be an important consideration

  1. Application of food waste based diets in polyculture of low trophic level fish: effects on fish growth, water quality and plankton density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Wing Yin; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai Ming; Man, Yu Bon; Liu, Yihui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-08-30

    Food waste was collected from local hotels and fish feed pellets were produced for a 6 months long field feeding trial. Three types of fish feed pellets (control diet: Jinfeng® 613 formulated feed, contains mainly fish meal, plant product and fish oil; Diet A: food waste based diet without meat and 53% cereal; Diet B: food waste based diet with 25% meat and 28% cereal) were used in polyculture fish ponds to investigate the growth of fish (grass carp, bighead and mud carp), changes in water quality and plankton density. No significant differences in the levels of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds of water body were observed between 3 fish ponds after the half-year feeding trial, while pond receiving Diet A had the highest density of plankton. The food waste combination of Diet B seems to be a better formulation in terms of the overall performance on fish growth. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Anisakid nematodes as possible markers to trace fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ferrantelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a total of 949 fish samples were analysed for the identification of nematode larvae belonging to the Anisakidae family. Biomolecular application for the identification of Anisakidae larvae can be an optimal instrument for the traceability of fish products, described on the Reg. EC 178/2002. Results confirm a correlation between geographical distribution of fishes and presence of specific Anisakid larvae. FAO 37 zone (Mediterranean sea showed a prevailing distribution of Anisakis pegreffii and a minimal presence of A. simplex s.s. in hybrid form with Anisakis pegreffii. FAO 27 zone showed a prevailing distribution of A. simplex s.s. in fish like Brosme (Brosme brosme and infestation prevalence of Pseudoterranova krabbei and P. decipiens s.s. in Gadus morhua. Obtained results validate the hypothesis that molecular biology methods for identifying Anisakidae larvae are effective traceability markers of fish products.

  3. Virus-templated iridium oxide-gold hybrid nanowires for electrochromic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoon Sung; Park, Heechul; Magyar, Andrew P.; Yun, Dong Soo; Pollom, Thomas S.; Belcher, Angela M.

    2012-05-01

    A highly porous electrode comprised of biologically templated iridium oxide-gold (IrO2-Au) hybrid nanowires is introduced for electrochromic applications. A filamentous M13 virus is genetically engineered to display IrO2-binding peptides on the viral surface and used as a template for the self-assembly of IrO2 nanoclusters into a nanowire. The open porous morphology of the prepared nanowire film facilitates ion transport. Subsequently, the redox kinetics of the IrO2 nanowires seems to be limited by the electric resistance of the nanowire film. To increase the electron mobility in the nanowires, gold nanoparticles are chemically linked to the virus prior to the IrO2 mineralization, forming a gold nanostring structure along the long axis of the virus. The resulting IrO2-Au hybrid nanowires exhibit a switching time of 35 ms for coloration and 25 ms for bleaching with a transmission change of about 30.5% at 425 nm. These values represent almost an order of magnitude faster switching responses than those of an IrO2 nanowire film having the similar optical contrast. This work shows that genetically engineered viruses can serve as versatile templates to co-assemble multiple functional molecules, enabling control of the electrochemical properties of nanomaterials.A highly porous electrode comprised of biologically templated iridium oxide-gold (IrO2-Au) hybrid nanowires is introduced for electrochromic applications. A filamentous M13 virus is genetically engineered to display IrO2-binding peptides on the viral surface and used as a template for the self-assembly of IrO2 nanoclusters into a nanowire. The open porous morphology of the prepared nanowire film facilitates ion transport. Subsequently, the redox kinetics of the IrO2 nanowires seems to be limited by the electric resistance of the nanowire film. To increase the electron mobility in the nanowires, gold nanoparticles are chemically linked to the virus prior to the IrO2 mineralization, forming a gold nanostring

  4. Hybrid Non-Isolated and Non Inverting Nx Interleaved DC-DC Multilevel Boost Converter for Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Kulkarni, Rishi M.; Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper hybrid non isolated/ non inverting Nx interleaved DC-DC multilevel Boost Converter for renewable energy applications is presented. The presented hybrid topology is derived from the conventional interleaved converter and the Nx Multilevel boost converter. In renewable energy....... The advantages of presenting topology of DC-DC converter are high voltage conversion, reduce ripple, low voltage stress, non inverting without utilizing the high duty and transformer. The main advantage of presented topology is more number of levels can be increased by adding capacitor and diode circuitry...

  5. Electrospun non-woven nanofibrous hybrid mats based on chitosan and PLA for wound-dressing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Milena; Manolova, Nevena; Markova, Nadya; Rashkov, Iliya

    2009-01-09

    Continuous defect-free nanofibers containing chitosan (Ch) or quaternized chitosan (QCh) were successfully prepared by one-step electrospinning of Ch or QCh solutions mixed with poly[(L-lactide)-co-(D,L-lactide)] in common solvent. XPS revealed the surface chemical composition of the bicomponent electrospun mats. Crosslinked Ch- and QCh-containing nanofibers exhibited higher kill rates against bacteria S. aureus and E. coli than the corresponding solvent-cast films. SEM observations showed that hybrid mats were very effective in suppressing the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria S. aureus. The hybrid nanofibers are promising for wound-healing applications.

  6. Recent advances in knowledge-based paradigms and applications enhanced applications using hybrid artificial intelligence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2014-01-01

    This book presents carefully selected contributions devoted to the modern perspective of AI research and innovation. This collection covers several areas of applications and motivates new research directions. The theme across all chapters combines several domains of AI research , Computational Intelligence and Machine Intelligence including an introduction to  the recent research and models. Each of the subsequent chapters reveals leading edge research and innovative solution that employ AI techniques with an applied perspective. The problems include classification of spatial images, early smoke detection in outdoor space from video images, emergent segmentation from image analysis, intensity modification in images, multi-agent modeling and analysis of stress. They all are novel pieces of work and demonstrate how AI research contributes to solutions for difficult real world problems that benefit the research community, industry and society.

  7. Chromosome painting by GISH and multi-color FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful cytogenetic technique for identifying chromosomes and mapping specific genes and DNA sequences on individual chromosomes. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and multi-color FISH (mc-FISH) represent two special types of FISH techniques. Both ...

  8. Applications of hybrid diffuse optics for clinical management of adults after brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Meeri Nam

    Information about cerebral blood flow (CBF) is valuable for clinical management of patients after severe brain injury. Unfortunately, current modalities for monitoring brain are often limited by hurdles that include high cost, low throughput, exposure to ionizing radiation, probe invasiveness, and increased risk to critically ill patients when transportation out of their room or unit is required. A further limitation of current technologies is an inability to provide continuous bedside measurements that are often desirable for unstable patients. Here we explore the clinical utility of diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) as an alternative approach for bedside CBF monitoring. DCS uses the rapid intensity fluctuations of near-infrared light to derive a continuous measure of changes in blood flow without ionizing radiation or invasive probing. Concurrently, we employ another optical technique, called diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS), to derive changes in cerebral oxyhemoglobin ( HbO2) and deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. Our clinical studies integrate DCS with DOS into a single hybrid instrument that simultaneously monitors CBF and HbO2/Hb in the injured adult brain. The first parts of this dissertation present the motivations for monitoring blood flow in injured brain, as well as the theory underlying diffuse optics technology. The next section elaborates on details of the hybrid instrumentation. The final chapters describe four human subject studies carried out with these methods. Each of these studies investigates an aspect of the potential of the hybrid monitor in clinical applications involving adult brain. The studies include: (1) validation of DCS-measured CBF against xenon-enhanced computed tomography in brain-injured adults; (2) a study of the effects of age and gender on posture-change-induced CBF variation in healthy subjects; (3) a study of the efficacy of DCS/DOS for monitoring neurocritical care patients during various medical interventions such

  9. Power Management for Fuel Cell and Battery Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jared Robert

    As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are developed and integrated into a UAV power system model. Flight simulations demonstrate the operation of the transistor-based power management scheme and quantify the amount of hydrogen consumed by a 5.5 kg fixed wing UAV during a six hour flight. Battery power assists the fuel cell during high throttle periods but may also augment fuel cell power during cruise flight. Simulations demonstrate a 60 liter reduction in hydrogen consumption when battery power assists the fuel cell during cruise flight. Over the full duration of the flight, averaged efficiency of the power system exceeds 98%. For scenarios where inflight battery recharge is desirable, a constant current battery charger is integrated into the UAV power system. Simulation of inflight battery recharge is performed. Design of UAV hybrid power systems must consider power system weight against potential flight time. Data from the flight simulations are used to identify a simple formula that predicts flight time as a function of energy stored onboard the modeled UAV. A small selection of commercially available batteries, fuel cells, and compressed air storage tanks are listed to characterize the weight of possible systems. The formula is then used in conjunction with the weight data to generate a graph of power system weight

  10. Applications of Self-Organizing Maps for Ecomorphological Investigations through Early Ontogeny of Fish: e86646

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tommaso Russo; Michele Scardi; Stefano Cataudella

    2014-01-01

      We propose a new graphical approach to the analysis of multi-temporal morphological and ecological data concerning the life history of fish, which can typically serves models in ecomorphological...

  11. Engineering applications: 1: installation and maintenance of engines in small fishing vessels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutton, B

    1979-01-01

    This handbook on the installation and maintenance of small marine diesel engines is intended for those working in developing countries who are employed either in boat building, or in the mechanized fishing industry...

  12. COMPARATIVE APPLICATION OF PERIPHYTON, MACROINVERTEBRATE AND FISH INDICES OF BIOTIC INTEGRITY TO SOUTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAIN STREAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared three assessments using macroinvertebrate, periphyton, and fish assemblages in streams sampled by the Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (REMAP) in Colorado's Southern Rockies Ecoregion. We contrasted analyses using metrics for each group selecte...

  13. Neutron transport-burnup code MCORGS and its application in fusion fission hybrid blanket conceptual research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xue-Ming; Peng, Xian-Jue

    2016-09-01

    Fusion science and technology has made progress in the last decades. However, commercialization of fusion reactors still faces challenges relating to higher fusion energy gain, irradiation-resistant material, and tritium self-sufficiency. Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors (FFHR) can be introduced to accelerate the early application of fusion energy. Traditionally, FFHRs have been classified as either breeders or transmuters. Both need partition of plutonium from spent fuel, which will pose nuclear proliferation risks. A conceptual design of a Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactor for Energy (FFHR-E), which can make full use of natural uranium with lower nuclear proliferation risk, is presented. The fusion core parameters are similar to those of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. An alloy of natural uranium and zirconium is adopted in the fission blanket, which is cooled by light water. In order to model blanket burnup problems, a linkage code MCORGS, which couples MCNP4B and ORIGEN-S, is developed and validated through several typical benchmarks. The average blanket energy Multiplication and Tritium Breeding Ratio can be maintained at 10 and 1.15 respectively over tens of years of continuous irradiation. If simple reprocessing without separation of plutonium from uranium is adopted every few years, FFHR-E can achieve better neutronic performance. MCORGS has also been used to analyze the ultra-deep burnup model of Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) from LLNL, and a new blanket design that uses Pb instead of Be as the neutron multiplier is proposed. In addition, MCORGS has been used to simulate the fluid transmuter model of the In-Zinerater from Sandia. A brief comparison of LIFE, In-Zinerater, and FFHR-E will be given.

  14. Hybrid institutions”: Applications of common property theory beyond discrete tenure regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura German

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Property rights theory has contributed a great deal to global understanding of the factors shaping the management, governance and sustainability of discrete property regimes (individual, State, commons. Yet as the commons become increasingly altered and enclosed and management challenges extend beyond the boundaries of any given unit of property, institutional theory must extend beyond discrete property regimes. This paper argues that as natural resource management challenges grow more complex and interconnected, common property theory in the Ostrom tradition remains an essential component of successful management solutions – for common pool resources, public and private goods alike. Building on the commons and externality literature in general, and the Ostrom and Coasean traditions in particular, we propose the use of the term “hybrid institution” to explore the governance of common or connected interests within and between diverse property regimes. Following a general introduction to a set of propositions for encompassing this expanded realm of application of commons theory, we use the literature on integrated natural resource management to frame the scope of “commons” issues facing rural communities today. Empirical and action research from eastern Africa and logical arguments are each used to illustrate and sharpen the focus of our propositions so that they can be tested and refined in future research. This analysis demonstrates the instrumental potential of the concept of hybrid institutions as a framework for shaping more productive engagements with seemingly intractable natural resource management challenges at farm and landscape scale. Our analysis suggests that central elements of the Ostrom and Coasean traditions can be complementary explanatory lenses for contemporary resource conflict and management.

  15. Application of IBA in the comparative analyses of fish scales used as biomonitors in the Matola River, Mozambique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guambe, J.F. [Freshwater Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701 (South Africa); Physics Department, Eduardo Mondlane Universily, PO Box 257, Maputo (Mozambique); Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West, 7129 (South Africa); Mars, J.A. [Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa); Day, J. [Freshwater Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701 (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Many natural resources are invariably contaminated by industries located on the periphery of the resources. More so, fish found in the resources are used as dietary supplements, especially by individual that reside near the natural resources. The scale offish have been proven to be applicable in monitoring contamination of the natural resources. However, the morphology and chemical composition of the scale of various species differ to a significant degree. Consequently, the incorporation of contaminants into the scale structure will be different. There is a need of pilot for contaminants which can harm the biota. The composition of the fish scales is different. To quantify the degree of incorporation onto the scale matrix we have analysed, using PIXE, RBS and SEM, the scale of four types of fish scales, that is, Pomadasys kaakan the javelin grunter; Luljanus gibbus the humpback red snapper; Pinjalo pinjalo the pinjalo and Uthognathus mormyrus the sand streenbras. In this work we report on the viability of using various fish scales as monitors of natural resource contamination. (author)

  16. Novel application of nitrifying bacterial consortia to ease ammonia toxicity in ornamental fish transport units: trials with zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasiri, A K S; Kiron, V; Fernandes, J M O; Bergh, O; Powell, M D

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate whether two commercial nitrifying bacterial consortia can function as biocontrol agents in ornamental fish transporting systems. The consortia were applied in a simulated set-up using zebrafish as the model organism in three trials. The efficacy of the bacterial consortia in controlling the ammonia level was validated by measuring water quality parameters such as total ammonia, nitrate and pH of the transport water. The bacterial community structure in the transport unit was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The consortia tested improved the nitrifying activity that in turn facilitated the reduction of ammonia that had accumulated during the transport. Bacterial profiles revealed the presence of both ammonia-oxidizing and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the transport bags. The application of the consortia during the transportation of zebrafish could profoundly improve the water quality by curbing ammonia accumulation. The potential of applying nitrifying bacteria as a bioremediation practice during the transport of ornamental fish has been demonstrated and this innovative approach contributes to the amelioration of current fish welfare in ornamental fish trade. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, Chris C.

    2006-08-01

    This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The manual incorporates improvements and refinements to test descriptions presented in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J2464 ''Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing'' including adaptations to abuse tests to address hybrid electric vehicle applications and other energy storage technologies (i.e., capacitors). These (possibly destructive) tests may be used as needed to determine the response of a given electrical energy storage system design under specifically defined abuse conditions. This manual does not provide acceptance criteria as a result of the testing, but rather provides results that are accurate and fair and, consequently, comparable to results from abuse tests on other similar systems. The tests described are intended for abuse testing any electrical energy storage system designed for use in electric or hybrid electric vehicle applications whether it is composed of batteries, capacitors, or a combination of the two.

  18. WE-EF-BRD-00: New Developments in Hybrid MR-Treatment: Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    MRI-guided treatment is a growing area of medicine, particularly in radiotherapy and surgery. The exquisite soft tissue anatomic contrast offered by MRI, along with functional imaging, makes the use of MRI during therapeutic procedures very attractive. Challenging the utility of MRI in the therapy room are many issues including the physics of MRI and the impact on the environment and therapeutic instruments, the impact of the room and instruments on the MRI; safety, space, design and cost. In this session, the applications and challenges of MRI-guided treatment will be described. The session format is: Past, present and future: MRI-guided radiotherapy from 2005 to 2025: Jan Lagendijk Battling Maxwell’s equations: Physics challenges and solutions for hybrid MRI systems: Paul Keall I want it now!: Advances in MRI acquisition, reconstruction and the use of priors to enable fast anatomic and physiologic imaging to inform guidance and adaptation decisions: Yanle Hu MR in the OR: The growth and applications of MRI for interventional radiology and surgery: Rebecca Fahrig Learning Objectives: To understand the history and trajectory of MRI-guided radiotherapy To understand the challenges of integrating MR imaging systems with linear accelerators To understand the latest in fast MRI methods to enable the visualisation of anatomy and physiology on radiotherapy treatment timescales To understand the growing role and challenges of MRI for image-guided surgical procedures My disclosures are publicly available and updated at: http://sydney.edu.au/medicine/radiation-physics/about-us/disclosures.php.

  19. Applications of three-dimensional (3D) printing for microswimmers and bio-hybrid robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, M M; Trichet-Paredes, C; Sánchez, S

    2015-04-07

    This article will focus on recent reports that have applied three-dimensional (3D) printing for designing millimeter to micrometer architecture for robotic motility. The utilization of 3D printing has rapidly grown in applications for medical prosthetics and scaffolds for organs and tissue, but more recently has been implemented for designing mobile robotics. With an increase in the demand for devices to perform in fragile and confined biological environments, it is crucial to develop new miniaturized, biocompatible 3D systems. Fabrication of materials at different scales with different properties makes 3D printing an ideal system for creating frameworks for small-scale robotics. 3D printing has been applied for the design of externally powered, artificial microswimmers and studying their locomotive capabilities in different fluids. Printed materials have also been incorporated with motile cells for bio-hybrid robots capable of functioning by cell contraction and swimming. These 3D devices offer new methods of robotic motility for biomedical applications requiring miniature structures. Traditional 3D printing methods, where a structure is fabricated in an additive process from a digital design, and non-traditional 3D printing methods, such as lithography and molding, will be discussed.

  20. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Eltamaly, Ali M; Alolah, Abdulrahman I

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers.

  1. A Hybrid Network Model to Extract Key Criteria and Its Application for Brand Equity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Making a decision implies that there are alternative choices to be considered, and a major challenge of decision-making is to identify the adequate criteria for program planning or problem evaluation. The decision-makers’ criteria consists of the characteristics or requirements each alternative must possess and the alternatives are rated on how well they possess each criterion. We often use criteria developed and used by different researchers and institutions, and these criteria have similar means and can be substituted for one another. Choosing from existing criteria offers a practical method to engineers hoping to derive a set of criteria for evaluating objects or programs. We have developed a hybrid model for extracting evaluation criteria which considers substitutions between the criteria. The model is developed based on Social Network Analysis and Maximum Mean De-Entropy algorithms. In this paper, the introduced methodology will also be applied to analyze the criteria for assessing brand equity as an application example. The proposed model demonstrates that it is useful in planning feasibility criteria and has applications in other evaluation-planning purposes.

  2. Lanthanide doped ultrafine hybrid nanostructures: multicolour luminescence, upconversion based energy transfer and luminescent solar collector applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyam; Shahi, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv; Rai, Shyam Bahadur

    2017-01-05

    We herein demonstrate novel inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs) composed of inorganic NPs, NaY0.78Er0.02Yb0.2F4, and an organic β-diketonate complex, Eu(TTA)3Phen, for energy harvesting applications. Both the systems maintain their core integrity and remain entangled through weak interacting forces. HNPs incorporate the characteristic optical behaviour of both the systems i.e. they give an intense red emission under UV excitation, due to Eu3+ in organic complexes, and efficient green upconversion emission of Er3+ in inorganic NPs for NIR (980 nm) excitation. However, (i) an energy transfer from Er3+ (inorganic NPs) to Eu3+ (organic complex) under NIR excitation, and (ii) an increase in the decay time of 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ for HNPs as compared to the Eu(TTA)3Phen complex, under different excitation wavelengths, are added optical characteristics which point to an important role of the interface between both the systems. Herein, the ultra-small size (6-9 nm) and spherical shape of the inorganic NPs offer a large surface area, which improves the weak interaction force between both the systems. Furthermore, the HNPs dispersed in the PMMA polymer have been successfully utilized for luminescent solar collector (LSC) applications.

  3. A hybrid neural network structure for application to nondestructive TRU waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The determination of transuranic (TRU) and associated radioactive material quantities entrained in waste forms is a necessary component. of waste characterization. Measurement performance requirements are specified in the National TRU Waste Characterization Program quality assurance plan for which compliance must be demonstrated prior to the transportation and disposition of wastes. With respect to this criterion, the existing TRU nondestructive waste assay (NDA) capability is inadequate for a significant fraction of the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex waste inventory. This is a result of the general application of safeguard-type measurement and calibration schemes to waste form configurations. Incompatibilities between such measurement methods and actual waste form configurations complicate regulation compliance demonstration processes and illustrate the need for an alternate measurement interpretation paradigm. Hence, it appears necessary to supplement or perhaps restructure the perceived solution and approach to the waste NDA problem. The first step is to understand the magnitude of the waste matrix/source attribute space associated with those waste form configurations in inventory and how this creates complexities and unknowns with respect to existing NDA methods. Once defined and/or bounded, a conceptual method must be developed that specifies the necessary tools and the framework in which the tools are used. A promising framework is a hybridized neural network structure. Discussed are some typical complications associated with conventional waste NDA techniques and how improvements can be obtained through the application of neural networks.

  4. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A Mohamed

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers.

  5. Application of Cu-polyimide flex circuit and Al-on-glass pitch adapter for the ATLAS SCT barrel hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Unno, Y; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Nakano, I; Ohsugi, T; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Terada, S; Ujiie, N

    2005-01-01

    We applied the surface build-up Cu-polyimide flex-circuit technology with laser vias to the ATLAS SCT barrel hybrid to be made in one piece from the connector to the electronics sections including cables. The hybrids, reinforced with carbon-carbon substrates, provide mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, low-radiation length, and stability in application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) operation. By following the design rules, we experienced little trouble in breaking the traces. The pitch adapter between the sensor and the ASICs was made of aluminum traces on glass substrate. We identified that the generation of whiskers around the wire-bonding feet was correlated with the hardness of metallized aluminum. The appropriate hardness has been achieved by keeping the temperature of the glasses as low as room temperature during the metallization. The argon plasma cleaning procedure cleaned the contamination on the gold pads of the hybrids for successful wire bonding, although it was unsuccessful in the alu...

  6. Load estimator-based hybrid controller design for two-interleaved boost converter dedicated to renewable energy and automotive applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougrine, Mohamed; Benmiloud, Mohammed; Benalia, Atallah; Delaleau, Emmanuel; Benbouzid, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the development of a hybrid controller for a two-interleaved boost converter dedicated to renewable energy and automotive applications. The control requirements, resumed in fast transient and low input current ripple, are formulated as a problem of fast stabilization of a predefined optimal limit cycle, and solved using hybrid automaton formalism. In addition, a real time estimation of the load is developed using an algebraic approach for online adjustment of the hybrid controller. Mathematical proofs are provided with simulations to illustrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed controller despite different disturbances. Furthermore, a fuel cell system supplying a resistive load through a two-interleaved boost converter is also highlighted. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Non Isolated and Non-Inverting Cockcroft Walton Multiplier Based Hybrid 2Nx Interleaved Boost Converter For Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padamanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    In this paper hybrid non isolated and non-invertingCockcroft-Walton multiplier based 2Nx InterleavedBoost converter (2Nx IBC) for renewable energy applications is presented. The presented hybrid boost converter topology is derived from non-inverting Nx Multilevel Boost Converter (Nx MBC......) and inverting Nx Multilevel Boost Converter (Nx MBC). In renewable energy applications, generated voltage needs to be stepped up with high conversion ratio using a DC-DC converter at voltage levels as per the application requirement. The advantages of the presentedtopology of interleaved converter are high...... voltage conversion ratio, reduce ripple, low voltage stress, non-inverting output voltage without utilizing the high duty cycle, coupled inductors and transformer. The main advantage of presented topology consists in increasing voltage gain by adding capacitor and diode into circuitry without disturbing...

  8. Analysis, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell/battery series-hybrid bus for urban transit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubna, Piyush; Brunner, Doug; Gangloff, John J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    The fuel cell hybrid bus (FCHB) program was initiated at the University of Delaware in 2005 to demonstrate the viability of fuel cell vehicles for transit applications and to conduct research and development to facilitate the path towards their eventual commercialization. Unlike other fuel cell bus programs, the University of Delaware's FCHB design features a battery-heavy hybrid which offers multiple advantages in terms of cost, performance and durability. The current fuel cell hybrid bus is driven on a regular transit route at the University of Delaware. The paper describes the baseline specifications of the bus with a focus on the fuel cell and the balance of plant. The fuel cell/battery series-hybrid design is well suited for urban transit routes and provides key operational advantages such as hydrogen fuel economy, efficient use of the fuel cell for battery recharging, and regenerative braking. The bus is equipped with a variety of sensors including a custom-designed cell voltage monitoring system which provide a good understanding of bus performance under normal operation. Real-time data collection and analysis have yielded key insights for fuel cell bus design optimization. Results presented here illustrate the complex flow of energy within the various subsystems of the fuel cell hybrid bus. A description of maintenance events has been included to highlight the issues that arise during general operation. The paper also describes several modifications that will facilitate design improvements in future versions of the bus. Overall, the fuel cell hybrid bus demonstrates the viability of fuel cells for urban transit applications in real world conditions.

  9. Latex imaging by environmental STEM: application to the study of the surfactant outcome in hybrid alkyd/acrylate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheu, Jenny; Chazeau, Laurent; Gauthier, Catherine; Cavaillé, Jean-Yves; Goikoetxea, Monika; Minari, Roque; Asua, José M

    2009-09-01

    Among other uses, latexes are a successful alternative to solvent-borne binders for coatings. Efforts are made to produce hybrid nanostructured latexes containing an acrylic phase and an alkyd phase. However, after the film-forming process, the surfactant used to stabilize these latexes remains in the film, and its location can have a drastic effect on the application properties. Among the processing parameters, the alkyd hydrophobicity can strongly influence this location. This article aims at the imaging of these surfactant molecules in two hybrid latexes with different hydrophobicity level of the alkyd resin. A first part of this paper is dedicated to the understanding of the contrast provided by the surfactant in environmental STEM imaging of latexes. Then, the influence of surfactant-polymer affinity on the surfactant location after film-forming of those hybrid alkyd/acrylate latexes is studied by this technique. It is shown that in the hybrid latex with an alkyd shell (obtained with the most hydrophilic resin), the surfactant molecules tend to remain buried in the alkyd phase. Conversely, in the hybrid latex with an acrylate shell (in the case of the most hydrophobic resin), the surfactant molecules tend to gather into islands like in pure acrylate latex films.

  10. Defining fish nursery habitats: an application of otolith elemental fingerprinting in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Janet A.; McIvor, Carole C.; Peebles, Ernst B; Rolls, Holly; Cooper, Suzanne T.

    2009-01-01

    Fishing in Tampa Bay enhances the quality of life of the area's residents and visitors. However, people's desire to settle along the Bay's shorelines and tributaries has been detrimental to the very habitat believed to be crucial to prime target fishery species. Common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) are part of the suite of estuarine fishes that 1) are economically or ecologically prominent, and 2) have complex life cycles involving movement between open coastal waters and estuarine nursery habitats, including nursery habitats that are located within upstream, low-salinity portions of the Bay?s tidal tributaries. We are using an emerging microchemical technique -- elemental fingerprinting of fish otoliths -- to determine the degree to which specific estuarine locations contribute to adult fished populations in Tampa Bay. In ongoing monitoring surveys, over 1,000 young-of-the-year common snook and red drum have already been collected from selected Tampa Bay tributaries. Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), we are currently processing a subsample of these archived otoliths to identify location-specific fingerprints based on elemental microchemistry. We will then analyze older fish from the local fishery in order to match them to their probable nursery areas, as defined by young-of-the-year otoliths. We expect to find that some particularly favorable nursery locations contribute disproportionately to the fished population. In contrast, other nursery areas may be degraded, or act as 'sinks', thereby decreasing their contribution to the fish population. Habitat managers can direct strategic efforts to protect any nursery locations that are found to be of prime importance in contributing to adult stocks.

  11. Application of a multistate model to estimate culvert effects on movement of small fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, J.R.; Hagler, M.M.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    While it is widely acknowledged that culverted road-stream crossings may impede fish passage, effects of culverts on movement of nongame and small-bodied fishes have not been extensively studied and studies generally have not accounted for spatial variation in capture probabilities. We estimated probabilities for upstream and downstream movement of small (30-120 mm standard length) benthic and water column fishes across stream reaches with and without culverts at four road-stream crossings over a 4-6-week period. Movement and reach-specific capture probabilities were estimated using multistate capture-recapture models. Although none of the culverts were complete barriers to passage, only a bottomless-box culvert appeared to permit unrestricted upstream and downstream movements by benthic fishes based on model estimates of movement probabilities. At two box culverts that were perched above the water surface at base flow, observed movements were limited to water column fishes and to intervals when runoff from storm events raised water levels above the perched level. Only a single fish was observed to move through a partially embedded pipe culvert. Estimates for probabilities of movement over distances equal to at least the length of one culvert were low (e.g., generally ???0.03, estimated for 1-2-week intervals) and had wide 95% confidence intervals as a consequence of few observed movements to nonadjacent reaches. Estimates of capture probabilities varied among reaches by a factor of 2 to over 10, illustrating the importance of accounting for spatially variable capture rates when estimating movement probabilities with capture-recapture data. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate temporal variability in stream fish passage at culverts (e.g., in relation to streamflow variability) and to thereby better quantify the degree of population fragmentation caused by road-stream crossings with culverts. ?? American Fisheries Society 2009.

  12. Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency for decorative PV applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Jay

    2015-10-01

    adopted by other material systems as well. Based on these understandings, we have also developed colored perovskite PV by integrating an optical cavity with the perovskite semiconductors [4]. The principle and experimental results will be presented. 1. J. Y. Lee, K. T. Lee, S.Y. Seo, L. J. Guo, "Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors," Sci. Rep. 4, 4192, 2014. 2. K. T. Lee, J.Y. Lee, S.-Y. Seo, and L. J. Guo, "Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency," Light: Science and Applications, 3, e215, 2014. 3. K. T. Lee, S.-Y. Seo, J.Y. Lee, and L. J. Guo, "Ultrathin metal-semiconductor-metal resonator for angle invariant visible band transmission filters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 231112, (2014); and "Strong resonance effect in a lossy medium-based optical cavity for angle robust spectrum filters," Adv. Mater, 26, 6324-6328, 2014. 4. K. T. Lee, M. Fukuda, L. J. Guo, "Colored, see-through perovskite solar cells employing an optical cavity," Submitted, 2015

  13. Development of a Hybrid Uav Sensor Platform Suitable for Farm-Scale Applications in Precision Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pircher, M.; Geipel, J.; Kusnierek, K.; Korsaeth, A.

    2017-08-01

    Today's modern precision agriculture applications have a huge demand for data with high spatial and temporal resolution. This leads to the need of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) as sensor platforms providing both, easy use and a high area coverage. This study shows the successful development of a prototype hybrid UAV for practical applications in precision agriculture. The UAV consists of an off-the-shelf fixed-wing fuselage, which has been enhanced with multi-rotor functionality. It was programmed to perform pre-defined waypoint missions completely autonomously, including vertical take-off, horizontal flight, and vertical landing. The UAV was tested for its return-to-home (RTH) accuracy, power consumption and general flight performance at different wind speeds. The RTH accuracy was 43.7 cm in average, with a root-mean-square error of 39.9 cm. The power consumption raised with an increase in wind speed. An extrapolation of the analysed power consumption to conditions without wind resulted in an estimated 40 km travel range, when we assumed a 25 % safety margin of remaining battery capacity. This translates to a maximal area coverage of 300 ha for a scenario with 18 m/s airspeed, 50 minutes flight time, 120 m AGL altitude, and a desired 70 % of image side-lap and 85 % forward-lap. The ground sample distance with an in-built RGB camera was 3.5 cm, which we consider sufficient for farm-scale mapping missions for most precision agriculture applications.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYBRID UAV SENSOR PLATFORM SUITABLE FOR FARM-SCALE APPLICATIONS IN PRECISION AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pircher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s modern precision agriculture applications have a huge demand for data with high spatial and temporal resolution. This leads to the need of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV as sensor platforms providing both, easy use and a high area coverage. This study shows the successful development of a prototype hybrid UAV for practical applications in precision agriculture. The UAV consists of an off-the-shelf fixed-wing fuselage, which has been enhanced with multi-rotor functionality. It was programmed to perform pre-defined waypoint missions completely autonomously, including vertical take-off, horizontal flight, and vertical landing. The UAV was tested for its return-to-home (RTH accuracy, power consumption and general flight performance at different wind speeds. The RTH accuracy was 43.7 cm in average, with a root-mean-square error of 39.9 cm. The power consumption raised with an increase in wind speed. An extrapolation of the analysed power consumption to conditions without wind resulted in an estimated 40 km travel range, when we assumed a 25 % safety margin of remaining battery capacity. This translates to a maximal area coverage of 300 ha for a scenario with 18 m/s airspeed, 50 minutes flight time, 120 m AGL altitude, and a desired 70 % of image side-lap and 85 % forward-lap. The ground sample distance with an in-built RGB camera was 3.5 cm, which we consider sufficient for farm-scale mapping missions for most precision agriculture applications.

  15. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) induces chilling tolerance in short-duration hybrid maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad Ahmed; Khan, Imran; Akhter, Muhammad Javaid; Noor, Mehmood Ali; Ashraf, Umair

    2017-04-01

    Chilling stress hampers the optimal performance of maize under field conditions precipitously by inducing oxidative stress. To confer the damaging effects of chilling stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of some natural and synthetic plant growth regulators, i.e., salicylic acid (SA), thiourea (TU), sorghum water extract (SWE), and moringa leaf extract (MLE) on chilling stress tolerance in autumn maize hybrid. Foliar application of growth regulators at low concentrations was carried out at six leaf (V6) and tasseling stages. An increase in crop growth rate (CGR), leaf area index (LAI), leaf area duration (LAD), plant height (PH), grain yield (GY), and total dry matter accumulation (TDM) was observed in exogenously applied plants as compared to control. In addition, improved physio-biochemical, phenological, and grain nutritional quality attributes were noticed in foliar-treated maize plots as compared to non-treated ones. SA-treated plants reduced 20% electrolyte leakage in cell membrane against control. MLE and SA were proved best in improving total phenolic, relative water (19-23%), and chlorophyll contents among other applications. A similar trend was found for photosynthetic and transpiration rates, whereas MLE and SWE were found better in improving CGR, LAI, LAD, TDM, PH, GY, grains per cob, 1000 grain weight, and biological yield among all treatments including control. TU and MLE have significantly reduced the duration in phenological events of crop at the reproductive stage. MLE, TU, and SA also improved the grain protein, oil, and starch contents as compared to control. Enhanced crop water productivity was also observed in MLE-treated plants. Economic analysis suggested that MLE and SA applications were more economical in inducing chilling stress tolerance under field conditions. Although eliciting behavior of all growth regulators improved morpho-physiological attributes against suboptimal temperature stress conditions, MLE and SA

  16. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.R.; Johnson, B.L. III (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries'' (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study. 86 refs.

  17. Status and modeling improvements of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Taylor, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper present a summary of the ongoing work on the modeling and system design of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for two different sites in the Amazonia region of Brazil. The work incorporates the latest resource data and is based on the use of the Hybrid2 simulation code developed by the University of Massachusetts and NREL. Details of the baseline operating hybrid systems are reviewed, and the results of the latest detailed hybrid system evaluation for each site are summarized. Based on the system modeling results, separate recommendations for system modification and improvements are made.

  18. Plastic polymers for efficient DNA microarray hybridization: application to microbiological diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengshan; Peytavi, Régis; Diaz-Quijada, Gerardo A; Picard, Francois J; Huletsky, Ann; Leblanc, Eric; Frenette, Johanne; Boivin, Guy; Veres, Teodor; Dumoulin, Michel M; Bergeron, Michel G

    2008-11-01

    Fabrication of microarray devices using traditional glass slides is not easily adaptable to integration into microfluidic systems. There is thus a need for the development of polymeric materials showing a high hybridization signal-to-background ratio, enabling sensitive detection of microbial pathogens. We have developed such plastic supports suitable for highly sensitive DNA microarray hybridizations. The proof of concept of this microarray technology was done through the detection of four human respiratory viruses that were amplified and labeled with a fluorescent dye via a sensitive reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay. The performance of the microarray hybridization with plastic supports made of PMMA [poly(methylmethacrylate)]-VSUVT or Zeonor 1060R was compared to that with high-quality glass slide microarrays by using both passive and microfluidic hybridization systems. Specific hybridization signal-to-background ratios comparable to that obtained with high-quality commercial glass slides were achieved with both polymeric substrates. Microarray hybridizations demonstrated an analytical sensitivity equivalent to approximately 100 viral genome copies per RT-PCR, which is at least 100-fold higher than the sensitivities of previously reported DNA hybridizations on plastic supports. Testing of these plastic polymers using a microfluidic microarray hybridization platform also showed results that were comparable to those with glass supports. In conclusion, PMMA-VSUVT and Zeonor 1060R are both suitable for highly sensitive microarray hybridizations.

  19. Conjugated polymers/semiconductor nanocrystals hybrid materials--preparation, electrical transport properties and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Peter; Couderc, Elsa; De Girolamo, Julia; Pron, Adam

    2011-02-01

    This critical review discusses specific preparation and characterization methods applied to hybrid materials consisting of π-conjugated polymers (or oligomers) and semiconductor nanocrystals. These materials are of great importance in the quickly growing field of hybrid organic/inorganic electronics since they can serve as active components of photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors and other devices. The electronic energy levels of the organic and inorganic components of the hybrid can be tuned individually and thin hybrid films can be processed using low cost solution based techniques. However, the interface between the hybrid components and the morphology of the hybrid directly influences the generation, separation and transport of charge carriers and those parameters are not easy to control. Therefore a large variety of different approaches for assembling the building blocks--conjugated polymers and semiconductor nanocrystals--has been developed. They range from their simple blending through various grafting procedures to methods exploiting specific non-covalent interactions between both components, induced by their tailor-made functionalization. In the first part of this review, we discuss the preparation of the building blocks (nanocrystals and polymers) and the strategies for their assembly into hybrid materials' thin films. In the second part, we focus on the charge carriers' generation and their transport within the hybrids. Finally, we summarize the performances of solar cells using conjugated polymer/semiconductor nanocrystals hybrids and give perspectives for future developments.

  20. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-01-01

    .... The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers...

  1. Application of Hybrid Along-Track Interferometry/Displaced Phase Center Antenna Method for Moving Human Target Detection in Forest Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Research Laboratory Application of Hybrid Along-Track Interferometry/Displaced Phase Center Antenna Method for Moving Human Target Detection...2 Fig. 2 GMTI-SAR images (hh-polarized) from hybrid ATI/DPCA method for scene in Fig. 1: a) with trees, moving human with variable...imaging and GMTI simultaneously, a hybrid ATI/DPCA method is exploited for moving human target detection in this work. The technique assumes the

  2. [DNA barcoding application of mitochondrial COI gene sequence in medicinal fish of Culter (Pisces: Cyprinidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jia-Yan; Li, Jun-De; Huang, Yu-Song

    2013-04-01

    The sequence variation of medicinal fish of Culter (Pisces: Cyprinidae) was analyzed by using cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequencing collected from different regions of the Yangtze River basin, and we examine whether barcoding of COI can be used to discriminate medicinal fish of Culter. The AT content in the COI region of medicinal fish of Culter was higher than that of GC, which was similar with other species of Cypriniformes. Ninty-six percent of nucleotide changes were observed at the 3rd codon position of COI sequence, but the amino acid compositions translated by COI sequences of all Culter fish stayed the same. It is suggested that most synonymous mutations might occur at the 3rd position. The average Kimura-2-parameter (K2P) distance within-species was lower than 1%, and the K2P distance of pairwise-species was 10 times as much as that of within-species. The phylogenetic tree estimated by Neighbour-joining method indicated that species within genera invariably clustered, and generally so did individuals within species. Individuals from operational taxonomic units designated as different Culter species, supporting morphological evidence for each of these being separate species. It is suggested that the COI barcoding can be used to identify medicinal fish species of Culter.

  3. DNA genetic artificial fish swarm constant modulus blind equalization algorithm and its application in medical image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y C; Wang, H; Zhang, B L

    2015-10-02

    This study proposes use of the DNA genetic artificial fish swarm constant modulus blind equalization algorithm (DNA-G-AFS-CMBEA) to overcome the local convergence of the CMBEA. In this proposed algorithm, after the fusion of the fast convergence of the AFS algorithm and the global search capability of the DNA-G algorithm to drastically optimize the position vector of the artificial fish, the global optimal position vector is obtained and used as the initial optimal weight vector of the CMBEA. The result of application of this improved method in medical image processing demonstrates that the proposed algorithm outperforms the CMBEA and the AFS-CMBEA in removing the noise in a medical image and improving the peak signal to noise ratio.

  4. Application of an immune-magnetic cell sorting method for CD138-positive plasma cells in FISH analysis of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S Y; Jang, S; Park, C-J; Chi, H-S; Lee, J-H; Lee, J H; Lee, K H; Suh, C; Lim, S E; Seo, E-J

    2012-10-01

    Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of multiple myeloma (MM) may indiscriminately count signals of nonplasma cells, thus decreasing specificity and sensitivity. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of an immune-magnetic sorting method for plasma cells in FISH analysis of MM and define optimal sample preparation conditions. Plasma cells were purified using EasySep(®) CD138 Positive Selection Cocktail and Magnetic Nanoparticles (Invitrogen). We compared FISH results with and without plasma cell purification for three sample preparation methods: direct harvest, 24-h culture, and 96-h culture with interleukin-4 in five newly diagnosed MM patients. Archived fixed bone marrow cells of 17 MM patients were also studied. The percentage of abnormal cells identified was significantly higher with plasma cell purification than without purification (median, 88.0%; range, 84.0-100.0%vs. 15.0%, 12.5-29.5%, respectively). The three sample preparation methods showed comparable results. Immune-magnetic sorting also significantly increased the percentage of abnormal cells identified in FISH analysis of archived fixed bone marrow cells (P cell sorting significantly increased the percentage of abnormal cells identified in FISH analysis of MM samples for all sample preparation methods. This method could also be applied for retrospective FISH analysis of archived fixed bone marrow cells. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. A hybrid BCI system combining P300 and SSVEP and its application to wheelchair control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Pan, Jiahui; Wang, Fei; Yu, Zhuliang

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) system combining P300 and steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) is proposed to improve the performance of asynchronous control. The four groups of flickering buttons were set in the graphical user interface. Each group contained one large button in the center and eight small buttons around it, all of which flashed at a fixed frequency (e.g., 7.5 Hz) to evoke SSVEP. At the same time, the four large buttons of the four groups were intensified through shape and color changes in a random order to produce P300 potential. During the control state, the user focused on a desired group of buttons (target buttons) to evoke P300 potential and SSVEP, simultaneously. Discrimination between the control and idle states was based on the detection of both P300 and SSVEP on the same group of buttons. As an application, this method was used to produce a "go/stop" command in real-time wheelchair control. Several experiments were conducted, and data analysis results showed that combining P300 potential and SSVEP significantly improved the performance of the BCI system in terms of detection accuracy and response time.

  6. Energy-aware hybrid fruitfly optimization for load balancing in cloud environments for EHR applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lawanyashri

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has gained precise attention from the research community and management of IT, due to its scalable and dynamic capabilities. It is evolving as a vibrant technology to modernize and restructure healthcare organization to provide best services to the consumers. The rising demand for healthcare services and applications in cloud computing leads to the imbalance in resource usage and drastically increases the power consumption resulting in high operating cost. To achieve fast execution time and optimum utilization of the virtual machines, we propose a multi-objective hybrid fruitfly optimization technique based on simulated annealing to improve the convergence rate and optimization accuracy. The proposed approach is used to achieve the optimal resource utilization and reduces the energy consumption and cost in cloud computing environment. The result attained in our proposed technique provides an improved solution. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm efficiently outperforms compared to the existing load balancing algorithms. Keywords: Cloud computing, Electronic Health Records (EHR, Load balancing, Fruitfly Optimization Algorithm (FOA, Simulated Annealing (SA, Energy consumption

  7. A primal–dual hybrid gradient method for nonlinear operators with applications to MRI

    KAUST Repository

    Valkonen, Tuomo

    2014-05-01

    We study the solution of minimax problems min xmax yG(x) + K(x), y - F*(y) in finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. The functionals G and F* we assume to be convex, but the operator K we allow to be nonlinear. We formulate a natural extension of the modified primal-dual hybrid gradient method, originally for linear K, due to Chambolle and Pock. We prove the local convergence of the method, provided various technical conditions are satisfied. These include in particular the Aubin property of the inverse of a monotone operator at the solution. Of particular interest to us is the case arising from Tikhonov type regularization of inverse problems with nonlinear forward operators. Mainly we are interested in total variation and second-order total generalized variation priors. For such problems, we show that our general local convergence result holds when the noise level of the data f is low, and the regularization parameter α is correspondingly small. We verify the numerical performance of the method by applying it to problems from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chemical engineering and medicine. The specific applications are in diffusion tensor imaging and MR velocity imaging. These numerical studies show very promising performance. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Evacuation simulation using Hybrid Space Discretisation and Application to Large Underground Rail Tunnel Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooramun, N.; Lawrence, P. J.; Galea, E. R.

    2017-08-01

    In all evacuation simulation tools, the space through which agents navigate and interact is represented by one the following methods, namely Coarse regions, Fine nodes and Continuous regions. Each of the spatial representation methods has its benefits and limitations. For instance, the Coarse approach allows simulations to be processed very rapidly, but is unable to represent the interactions of the agents from an individual perspective; the Continuous approach provides a detailed representation of agent movement and interaction but suffers from relatively poor computational performance. The Fine nodal approach presents a compromise between the Continuous and Coarse approaches such that it allows agent interaction to be modelled while providing good computational performance. Our approach for representing space in an evacuation simulation tool differs such that it allows evacuation simulations to be run using a combination of Coarse regions, Fine nodes and Continuous regions. This approach, which we call Hybrid Spatial Discretisation (HSD), is implemented within the buildingEXODUS evacuation simulation software. The HSD incorporates the benefits of each of the spatial representation methods whilst providing an optimal environment for representing agent movement and interaction. In this work, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the HSD through its application to a moderately large case comprising of an underground rail tunnel station with a population of 2,000 agents.

  9. Hybrid emergency radiation detection: a wireless sensor network application for consequence management of a radiological release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyker, Ronald D.; Berry, Nina; Stark, Doug; Nachtigal, Noel; Kershaw, Chris

    2004-08-01

    The Hybrid Emergency Radiation Detection (HERD) system is a rapidly deployable ad-hoc wireless sensor network for monitoring the radiation hazard associated with a radiation release. The system is designed for low power, small size, low cost, and rapid deployment in order to provide early notification and minimize exposure. The many design tradeoffs, decisions, and challenges in the implementation of this wireless sensor network design will be presented and compared to the commercial systems available. Our research in a scaleable modular architectural highlights the need and implementation of a system level approach that provides flexibility and adaptability for a variety of applications. This approach seeks to minimize power, provide mission specific specialization, and provide the capability to upgrade the system with the most recent technology advancements by encapsulation and modularity. The implementation of a low power, widely available Real Time Operating System (RTOS) for multitasking with an improvement in code maintenance, portability, and reuse will be presented. Finally future design enhancements technology trends affecting wireless sensor networks will be presented.

  10. Simulation and Optimization of Air-Cooled PEMFC Stack for Lightweight Hybrid Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingming Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of 2 kW air-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack has been built based upon the application of lightweight hybrid vehicle after analyzing the characteristics of heat transfer of the air-cooled stack. Different dissipating models of the air-cooled stack have been simulated and an optimal simulation model for air-cooled stack called convection heat transfer (CHT model has been figured out by applying the computational fluid dynamics (CFD software, based on which, the structure of the air-cooled stack has been optimized by adding irregular cooling fins at the end of the stack. According to the simulation result, the temperature of the stack has been equally distributed, reducing the cooling density and saving energy. Finally, the 2 kW hydrogen-air air-cooled PEMFC stack is manufactured and tested by comparing the simulation data which is to find out its operating regulations in order to further optimize its structure.

  11. Application of MCDM based hybrid optimization tool during turning of ASTM A588

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri Majumder

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-criteria decision making approach is one of the most troublesome tools for solving the tangled optimization problems in the machining area due to its capability of solving the complex optimization problems in the production process. Turning is widely used in the manufacturing processes as it offers enormous advantages like good quality product, customer satisfaction, economical and relatively easy to apply. A contemporary approach, MOORA coupled with PCA, was used to ascertain an optimal combination of input parameters (spindle speed, depth of cut and feed rate for the given output parameters (power consumption, average surface roughness and frequency of tool vibration using L27 orthogonal array for turning on ASTM A588 mild steel. Comparison between MOORA-PCA and TOPSIS-PCA shows the effectiveness of MOORA over TOPSIS method. The optimum parameter combination for multi-performance characteristics has been established for ASTM A588 mild steel are spindle speed 160 rpm, depth of cut 0.1 mm and feed rate 0.08 mm/rev. Therefore, this study focuses on the application of the hybrid MCDM approach as a vital selection making tool to deal with multi objective optimization problems.

  12. Cellular Decomposition Based Hybrid-Hierarchical Control Systems with Applications to Flight Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caines, P. E.

    1999-01-01

    The work in this research project has been focused on the construction of a hierarchical hybrid control theory which is applicable to flight management systems. The motivation and underlying philosophical position for this work has been that the scale, inherent complexity and the large number of agents (aircraft) involved in an air traffic system imply that a hierarchical modelling and control methodology is required for its management and real time control. In the current work the complex discrete or continuous state space of a system with a small number of agents is aggregated in such a way that discrete (finite state machine or supervisory automaton) controlled dynamics are abstracted from the system's behaviour. High level control may then be either directly applied at this abstracted level, or, if this is in itself of significant complexity, further layers of abstractions may be created to produce a system with an acceptable degree of complexity at each level. By the nature of this construction, high level commands are necessarily realizable at lower levels in the system.

  13. Fast Hybrid MPPT Technique for Photovoltaic Applications: Numerical and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Aurilio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In PV applications, under mismatching conditions, it is necessary to adopt a maximum power point tracking (MPPT technique which is able to regulate not only the voltages of the PV modules of the array but also the DC input voltage of the inverter. Such a technique can be considered a hybrid MPPT (HMPPT technique since it is neither only distributed on the PV modules of the PV array or only centralized at the input of the inverter. In this paper a new HMPPT technique is presented and discussed. Its main advantages are the high MPPT efficiency and the high speed of tracking which are obtained by means of a fast estimate of the optimal values of PV modules voltages and of the input inverter voltage. The new HMPPT technique is compared with simple HMPPT techniques based on the scan of the power versus voltage inverter input characteristic. The theoretical analysis and the results of numerical simulations are widely discussed. Moreover, a laboratory test system, equipped with PV emulators, has been realized and used in order to experimentally validate the proposed technique.

  14. Hybrid graphene/geopolymeric cement as a superionic conductor for structural health monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saafi, M.; Piukovics, G.; Ye, J.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a novel hybrid superionic long gauge sensor for structural health monitoring applications. The sensor consists of two graphene electrodes and a superionic conductor film made entirely of fly ash geopolymeric material. The sensor employs ion hopping as a conduction mechanism for high precision temperature and tensile strain sensing in structures. The design, fabrication and characterization of the sensor are presented. The temperature and strain sensing mechanisms of the sensor are also discussed. The experimental results revealed that the crystal structure of the superionic film is a 3D sodium-poly(sialate-siloxo) framework, with a room temperature ionic conductivity between 1.54 × 10-2 and 1.72 × 10-2 S m-1 and, activation energy of 0.156 eV, which supports the notion that ion hopping is the main conduction mechanism for the sensor. The sensor showed high sensitivity to both temperature and tensile strain. The sensor exhibited temperature sensitivity as high as 21.5 kΩ °C-1 and tensile strain sensitivity (i.e., gauge factor) as high as 358. The proposed sensor is relatively inexpensive and can easily be manufactured with long gauges to measure temperature and bulk strains in structures. With further development and characterization, the sensor can be retrofitted onto existing structures such as bridges, buildings, pipelines and wind turbines to monitor their structural integrity.

  15. Hybrid gold-iron oxide nanoparticles as a multifunctional platform for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Clare; Min, Yue; Gueorguieva, Mariana; McDougall, Craig; Volovick, Alexander; Prentice, Paul; Wang, Zhigang; Melzer, Andreas; Cuschieri, Alfred; Wang, Lijun

    2012-06-25

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have increasing applications in biomedicine, however fears over long term stability of polymer coated particles have arisen. Gold coating IONPs results in particles of increased stability and robustness. The unique properties of both the iron oxide (magnetic) and gold (surface plasmon resonance) result in a multimodal platform for use as MRI contrast agents and as a nano-heater. Here we synthesize IONPs of core diameter 30 nm and gold coat using the seeding method with a poly(ethylenimine) intermediate layer. The final particles were coated in poly(ethylene glycol) to ensure biocompatibility and increase retention times in vivo. The particle coating was monitored using FTIR, PCS, UV-vis absorption, TEM, and EDX. The particles appeared to have little cytotoxic effect when incubated with A375M cells. The resultant hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs) possessed a maximal absorbance at 600 nm. After laser irradiation in agar phantom a ΔT of 32°C was achieved after only 90 s exposure (50 μg mL-1). The HNPs appeared to decrease T2 values in line with previously clinically used MRI contrast agent Feridex(®). The data highlights the potential of these HNPs as dual function MRI contrast agents and nano-heaters for therapies such as cellular hyperthermia or thermo-responsive drug delivery.

  16. PFE: ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for OLED applications: Fabrication and photophysical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, M. [Université de Monastir, Faculté des sciences de Monastir, Département de physique, Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Dridi, C., E-mail: cherif.Dridi@issatso.rnu.tn [Université de Monastir, Faculté des sciences de Monastir, Département de physique, Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Université de Sousse, Institut Supérieur des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie de Sousse, Cité Ettafala, 4003 Ibn Khaldoun Sousse (Tunisia); Elhouichet, H. [Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, Laboratoire de physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéreaux et leurs applications, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2015-01-15

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles (n-ZnO) and poly (9, 9-dioctyl-fluorenyl-2, 7-yleneethynylene) (PFE): n-ZnO based thin films were spin-coated onto glass substrates. Structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO, PFE and the PFE: n-ZnO hybrid films with different n-ZnO mass ratios were investigated. n-ZnO films obtained by sol–gel technique are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure. They are also homogenous with an average grain size of about 35 nm. For polymer nanocomposite, the optical properties are closely related to the ZnO content in the mixture. Among the tested active layers, the best performance is observed for that containing 2 wt% of ZnO nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We have analyzed the optical properties of PFE: ZnO nanocomposites . • We have optimized the best PFE: ZnO nanocomposite for the OLED application. • We have demonstrated the feasibility of white OLED devices.

  17. Development of lithium-ion battery for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T.; Ishizu, T.; Horiba, T.; Yoshikawa, M.

    We participated in a national project, to develop lithium batteries for use in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs), etc., in Japan as a battery developer. The lithium battery in an FCHEV system has to supply the system with not only power but also energy. We have developed an elliptic single cell, a 4-cell module, and an application-specific integrated circuit to monitor and control the cells. Our developed single cell has achieved a specific energy of 83 Wh kg -1, a specific power output of 3380 W kg -1 at 50% state of charge (SOC) for 10 s. The performance of the 3 kWh pack was evaluated using the 4-cell module data: the specific energy was 75 Wh kg -1 and specific power output was 2250 W kg -1. Introduction of a lithium-ion battery into the FCHEV definitely suggested a reduced fuel consumption to 2/3 of that without the lithium-ion battery based on our measurements and calculations for the 10-15 driving mode.

  18. Latest results and developments from the Hybrid Illinois Device for Research and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkallah, Rabel; Andruczyk, Daniel; Jeckell, Zachary Jon; Shone, Andrew John; Johnson, Daniel Scott; Allain, Jean Paul; Curreli, Davide; Ruzic, David N.; The Hidra Team

    2017-10-01

    The Hybrid Illinois Device for Research and Applications (HIDRA) is a five-period, l = 2, m = 5, toroidal fusion device operated at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). It has a major radius R0 = 0.72 m and minor radius a = 0.19 m. Initial heating is achieved with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) at an on-axis magnetic field of B0 = 0.087 T which can go as high as B0 = 0.5 T. HIDRA will mainly be used as a classical stellarator, but can also run as a tokamak. This allows for both steady-state and transient regime operations. Experiments on HIDRA will primarily tackle the issue of plasma-material interactions (PMI) in fusion, and focus on developing innovative plasma facing component (PFC) technologies. Currently, research on flowing liquid lithium PFCs meant to be tested inside the machine in real-time operation, is being carried on. The first experiments run on HIDRA started in early 2016 in the low field region. Now, HIDRA is also capable of running in the high field zone, allowing for more interesting experiments and meaningful outcomes. Here, we present some of the initial results coming from the machine.

  19. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  20. Fish eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  1. Hybrid intraoperative imaging techniques in radioguided surgery: present clinical applications and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugby, S L; Lees, J E; Perkins, A C

    2017-01-01

    This review aims to summarise the hybrid modality radioguidance techniques currently in clinical use and development, and to discuss possible future avenues of research. Due to the novelty of these approaches, evidence of their clinical relevance does not yet exist. The purpose of this review is to inform nuclear medicine practitioners of current cutting edge research in radioguided surgery which may enter standard clinical practice within the next 5-10 years. Hybrid imaging is of growing importance to nuclear medicine diagnostics, but it is only with recent advances in technology that hybrid modalities are being investigated for use during radioguided surgery. These modalities aim to overcome some of the difficulties of surgical imaging while maintaining many benefits, or providing entirely new information unavailable to surgeons with traditional radioguidance. A literature review was carried out using online reference databases (Scopus, PubMed). Review articles obtained using this technique were citation mined to obtain further references. In total, 2367 papers were returned, with 425 suitable for further assessment. 60 papers directly related to hybrid intraoperative imaging in radioguided surgery are reported on. Of these papers, 25 described the clinical use of hybrid imaging, 22 described the development of new hybrid probes and tracers, and 13 described the development of hybrid technologies for future clinical use. Hybrid gamma-NIR fluorescence was found to be the most common clinical technique, with 35 papers associated with these modalities. Other hybrid combinations include gamma-bright field imaging, gamma-ultrasound imaging, gamma-β imaging and β-OCT imaging. The combination of preoperative and intraoperative images is also discussed. Hybrid imaging offers new possibilities for assisting clinicians and surgeons in localising the site of uptake in procedures such as in sentinel node detection.

  2. STAR- A SIMPLE TOOL FOR AUTOMATED REASONING SUPPORTING HYBRID APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, G. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Simple Tool for Automated Reasoning program (STAR) is an interactive, interpreted programming language for the development and operation of artificial intelligence (AI) application systems. STAR provides an environment for integrating traditional AI symbolic processing with functions and data structures defined in compiled languages such as C, FORTRAN and PASCAL. This type of integration occurs in a number of AI applications including interpretation of numerical sensor data, construction of intelligent user interfaces to existing compiled software packages, and coupling AI techniques with numerical simulation techniques and control systems software. The STAR language was created as part of an AI project for the evaluation of imaging spectrometer data at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Programming in STAR is similar to other symbolic processing languages such as LISP and CLIP. STAR includes seven primitive data types and associated operations for the manipulation of these structures. A semantic network is used to organize data in STAR, with capabilities for inheritance of values and generation of side effects. The AI knowledge base of STAR can be a simple repository of records or it can be a highly interdependent association of implicit and explicit components. The symbolic processing environment of STAR may be extended by linking the interpreter with functions defined in conventional compiled languages. These external routines interact with STAR through function calls in either direction, and through the exchange of references to data structures. The hybrid knowledge base may thus be accessed and processed in general by either side of the application. STAR is initially used to link externally compiled routines and data structures. It is then invoked to interpret the STAR rules and symbolic structures. In a typical interactive session, the user enters an expression to be evaluated, STAR parses the input, evaluates the expression, performs any file input

  3. Enhanced mechanical properties and biocompatibility of novel hydroxyapatite/TOPAS hybrid composite for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ain, Qurat Ul; Khan, Ahmad Nawaz; Nabavinia, Mahboubeh; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    The bioactivity and mechanical properties of hybrid composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) in cyclic olefinic copolymer (COC) also known commercially as TOPAS are investigated, first time, for regeneration and repair of the bone tissues. HA is synthesized to obtain the spherically shaped nanoparticles in the size range of 60±20nm. Various concentrations of HA ranging from 1 to 30wt% are dispersed in TOPAS using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coupling agent for better dispersion and interaction of hydrophilic HA with hydrophobic TOPAS. Scanning electron microscope shows the uniform dispersion of HA≤10wt% in TOPAS and at higher concentrations >10wt%, agglomeration occurs in the hybrid composites. Tunable mechanical properties are achieved as the compressive modulus and strength are increased around 140% from 6.4 to 15.3MPa and 185% from 0.26 to 0.74MPa, respectively. Such increase in the mechanical properties of TOPAS is attributed to the anchoring of the polymer chains in the vicinity of HA nanoparticles owing to better dispersion and interfacial interactions. In comparison to neat TOPAS, hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA promoted the cell adhesion and proliferation significantly. The cell density and proliferation of TOPAS/HA hybrid composites is enhanced 9 and 3 folds, respectively, after 1day culturing in preosteoblasts cells. Moreover, the morphology of cells changed from spherical to flattened spread morphology demonstrating clearly the migration of the cells for the formation of interconnected cellular network. Additionally, very few dead cells are found in hybrid composites showing their cytocompatibility. Overall, the hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA exhibited superior strength and stiffness along with enhanced cytocompatibility for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fe2O3-Au hybrid nanoparticles for sensing applications via sers analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, Simona Hunyadi [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Searles, Emily [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-25

    Nanoparticles with large amounts of surface area and unique characteristics that are distinct from their bulk material provide an interesting application in the enhancement of inelastic scattering signal. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) strives to increase the Raman scattering effect when chemical species of interest are in the close proximity of metallic nnaostructures. Gold nanoparticles of various shapes have been used for sensing applications via SERS as they demonstrate the greatest effect of plasmonic behavior in the visible-near IR region of the spectrum. When coupled with other nanoparticles, namely iron oxide nanoparticles, hybrid structures with increased functionality were produced. Multifunctional iron oxide-gold hybrid nanostructures have been created via solution chemistries and investigated for analyte detection of a model analyte. By exploiting their magnetic properties, nanogaps or “hot spots” were rationally created and evaluated for SERS enhancement studies.

  5. Electrostatic fields in hybrid heterojunctions: Field-effect transistor, topological insulator, & thermoelectronic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Robert Matthew

    Organic semiconductors (OSC) are still surging in popularity for sustainable electronic devices, especially since they can perform as well as amorphous and polycrystalline silicon materials. Although OSCs have processing advantages that give rise to novel opportunities compared to inorganic semiconductors (ISCs), devices usually require inorganic materials for highly conductive connections or other functionality. Significantly, OSCs can be used to tune or modify the behavior of inorganic semiconductors (ISCs) by exploiting the junction between two semiconductors (a heterojunction). The possible creation of stable interfaces between ISCs and OSCs provides a practically limitless range of functionalities. Broadly, my goal is to study interfaces between OSCs and ISCs (hybrid heterojunctions) by testing devices of different configurations and altering the internal fields systematically, as well as with the aid of electron- and force-microscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. This thesis contains three major sections based around nascent, relevant applications: field-effect transistors, topological insulators, and thermoelectrics. First I study the effects of combining tellurium thin-films with OSC layers in field-effect transistors, where the organic acts both as a substrate modification layer and electrostatic gate. Secondly, I use electron withdrawing OSCs as gating materials for modifying Bi2Se3 in order to realize fundamental topological insulator behavior. Thirdly, I develop polymer-particle composites, including doping of the polymers and stabilization of inorganic particles with an electronic density of states that supports good thermoelectric behavior. We show that OSCs can undeniably be used to significantly modify properties of ISCs, namely tellurium, bismuth selenide, and organometallic compounds. I will first discuss the interfacial fields intrinsic to each heterojunction or device structure. Then I implement an additional electrostatic gate as part of the

  6. Analysis of a hybrid PV/thermal solar-assisted heat pump system for sports center water heating application

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Y.; Chow, T. T.; Ménézo, C.; Dupeyrat, P.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The application of solar energy provides an alternative way to replace the primary source of energy, especially for large-scale installations. Heat pump technology is also an effective means to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. This paper presents a practical case study of combined hybrid PV/T solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) system for sports center hot water produ