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Sample records for hybridization experiments fbh1

  1. FBH1 Catalyzes Regression of Stalled Replication Forks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, Kasper; Mistrik, Martin; Neelsen, Kai J

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication fork perturbation is a major challenge to the maintenance of genome integrity. It has been suggested that processing of stalled forks might involve fork regression, in which the fork reverses and the two nascent DNA strands anneal. Here, we show that FBH1 catalyzes regression...... a model whereby FBH1 promotes early checkpoint signaling by remodeling of stalled DNA replication forks....... of a model replication fork in vitro and promotes fork regression in vivo in response to replication perturbation. Cells respond to fork stalling by activating checkpoint responses requiring signaling through stress-activated protein kinases. Importantly, we show that FBH1, through its helicase activity...

  2. FBH1 Catalyzes Regression of Stalled Replication Forks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Fugger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA replication fork perturbation is a major challenge to the maintenance of genome integrity. It has been suggested that processing of stalled forks might involve fork regression, in which the fork reverses and the two nascent DNA strands anneal. Here, we show that FBH1 catalyzes regression of a model replication fork in vitro and promotes fork regression in vivo in response to replication perturbation. Cells respond to fork stalling by activating checkpoint responses requiring signaling through stress-activated protein kinases. Importantly, we show that FBH1, through its helicase activity, is required for early phosphorylation of ATM substrates such as CHK2 and CtIP as well as hyperphosphorylation of RPA. These phosphorylations occur prior to apparent DNA double-strand break formation. Furthermore, FBH1-dependent signaling promotes checkpoint control and preserves genome integrity. We propose a model whereby FBH1 promotes early checkpoint signaling by remodeling of stalled DNA replication forks.

  3. FBH1 helicase disrupts RAD51 filaments in vitro and modulates homologous recombination in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simandlova, Jitka; Zagelbaum, Jennifer; Payne, Miranda J;

    2013-01-01

    filaments on DNA through its ssDNA translocase function. Consistent with this, a mutant mouse embryonic stem cell line with a deletion in the FBH1 helicase domain fails to limit RAD51 chromatin association and shows hyper-recombination. Our data are consistent with FBH1 restraining RAD51 DNA binding under...

  4. Essential and distinct roles of the F-box and helicase domains of Fbh1 in DNA damage repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinagawa Hideo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are induced by exogenous insults such as ionizing radiation and chemical exposure, and they can also arise as a consequence of stalled or collapsed DNA replication forks. Failure to repair DSBs can lead to genomic instability or cell death and cancer in higher eukaryotes. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbh1 gene encodes an F-box DNA helicase previously described to play a role in the Rhp51 (an orthologue of S. cerevisiae RAD51-dependent recombinational repair of DSBs. Fbh1 fused to GFP localizes to discrete nuclear foci following DNA damage. Results To determine the functional roles of the highly conserved F-box and helicase domains, we have characterized fbh1 mutants carrying specific mutations in these domains. We show that the F-box mutation fbh1-fb disturbs the nuclear localization of Fbh1, conferring an fbh1 null-like phenotype. Moreover, nuclear foci do not form in fbh1-fb cells with DNA damage even if Fbh1-fb is targeted to the nucleus by fusion to a nuclear localization signal sequence. In contrast, the helicase mutation fbh1-hl causes the accumulation of Fbh1 foci irrespective of the presence of DNA damage and confers damage sensitivity greater than that conferred by the null allele. Additional mutation of the F-box alleviates the hypermorphic phenotype of the fbh1-hl mutant. Conclusion These results suggest that the F-box and DNA helicase domains play indispensable but distinct roles in Fbh1 function. Assembly of the SCFFbh1 complex is required for both the nuclear localization and DNA damage-induced focus formation of Fbh1 and is therefore prerequisite for the Fbh1 recombination function.

  5. FBH1 influences DNA replication fork stability and homologous recombination through ubiquitylation of RAD51

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, Wai Kit; Payne, Miranda J; Beli, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Unscheduled homologous recombination (HR) can lead to genomic instability, which greatly increases the threat of neoplastic transformation in humans. The F-box DNA helicase 1 (FBH1) is a 3'-5' DNA helicase with a putative function as a negative regulator of HR. It is the only known DNA helicase...... leads to hyperrecombination, as well as several phenotypes indicative of an altered response to DNA replication stress. These effects are likely to be mediated by the enhanced nuclear matrix association of the ubiquitylation-resistant RAD51. These data are consistent with FBH1 acting as a negative...

  6. FBH1 co-operates with MUS81 in inducing DNA double-strand breaks and cell death following replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, Kasper; Chu, Wai Kit; Haahr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The molecular events occurring following the disruption of DNA replication forks are poorly characterized, despite extensive use of replication inhibitors such as hydroxyurea in the treatment of malignancies. Here, we identify a key role for the FBH1 helicase in mediating DNA double-strand break...... formation following replication inhibition. We show that FBH1-deficient cells are resistant to killing by hydroxyurea, and exhibit impaired activation of the pro-apoptotic factor p53, consistent with decreased DNA double-strand break formation. Similar findings were obtained in murine ES cells carrying...... disrupted alleles of Fbh1. We also show that FBH1 through its helicase activity co-operates with the MUS81 nuclease in promoting the endonucleolytic DNA cleavage following prolonged replication stress. Accordingly, MUS81 and EME1-depleted cells show increased resistance to the cytotoxic effects...

  7. The City's new hybrid experience spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse; Kiib, Hans

    2007-01-01

    .  We argue that " hybrid economy" and "hybrid space" can be understood as a linkage of "a traditional economy" to a new "experience economy", as well as  a merging of  "traditional private urban spaces" with "new types of public domains". This coupling is the departure point for the mental movement...... from an industrial mindset towards a new pragmatic philosophy in the development of our cities, cities based on knowledge and culture. The term "hybrid urban spaces" breaks down the traditional division between public and private and seeks to choreograph the city as the space of experience which both...... is to understand the notion of creative alliances between cultural institutions and business life as a basis for new urban development - the city's new hybrid experience spaces....

  8. Hybrid Experience Space for Cultural Heritage Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Niels Einar; Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Mayerhofer, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    by daily use of experience products like computer-games, IMAX cinemas and theme parks featuring virtual reality installations. “It’s a question of stone-axe displays versus Disney-power installations” as one of the involved museum professionals point it, “but we don’t want any of these possibilities......”. The paper presents an actual experience design case in Zea Harbour, Greece dealing with these challenges using hybrid experience space communicating cultural heritage material. Ar-chaeological findings, physical reconstructions and digital models are mixed to effec-tively stage the interactive experience...... space. The Zea Case is a design scenario for the Museum of the Future showing how Cultural Heritage institutions can reinvent the rela-tion to the visitor and the neighbourhood. While Hybrid Experience Space can be used for Cultural Heritage Communication in traditional exhibitions we have reached...

  9. The City's new hybrid experience spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse; Kiib, Hans

    2007-01-01

    from an industrial mindset towards a new pragmatic philosophy in the development of our cities, cities based on knowledge and culture. The term "hybrid urban spaces" breaks down the traditional division between public and private and seeks to choreograph the city as the space of experience which both...

  10. Lower Hybrid antennas for nuclear fusion experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hillairet, Julien; Bae, Young-Soon; Bai, X; Balorin, C; Baranov, Y; Basiuk, V; Bécoulet, A; Belo, J; Berger-By, G; Brémond, S; Castaldo, C; Ceccuzzi, S; Cesario, R; Corbel, E; Courtois, X; Decker, J; Delmas, E; Delpech, L; Ding, X; Douai, D; Ekedahl, A; Goletto, C; Goniche, M; Guilhem, D; Hertout, P; Imbeaux, F; Litaudon, X; Magne, R; Mailloux, J; Mazon, D; Mirizzi, F; Mollard, P; Moreau, P; Oosako, T; Petrzilka, V; Peysson, Y; Poli, S; Preynas, M; Prou, M; Saint-Laurent, F; Samaille, F; Saoutic, B

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear fusion research goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power for peaceful purposes. In order to achieve the conditions similar to those expected in an electricity-generating fusion power plant, plasmas with a temperature of several hundreds of millions of degrees must be generated and sustained for long periods. For this purpose, RF antennas delivering multi-megawatts of power to magnetized confined plasma are commonly used in experimental tokamaks. In the gigahertz range of frequencies, high power phased arrays known as "Lower Hybrid" (LH) antennas are used to extend the plasma duration. This paper reviews some of the technological aspects of the LH antennas used in the Tore Supra tokamak and presents the current design of a proposed 20 MW LH system for the international experiment ITER.

  11. Forty Years' Development of Hybrid Rice:China's Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Liang-xian; CHENG Shi-hua; DONG Hai-tao; CAO Li-yong; LI De-bao; YANG Shi-hua; ZHAI Hu-qu

    2004-01-01

    China is the first country where heterosis of hybrid rice was successfully exploited commercially on a large scale in the world. Hybrid rice has been developed for 40 years since Prof. Yuan initiated it in China. It had been planted about 330 million hectares with an increase of nearly 400 million tons of rice during 1976-2002. China's experience on hybrid rice could be attributed to utilization of various cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) resources, high outcrossing rate CMS lines and stable environmentally induced genetic male sterile (EGMS) lines, improvement of diseases resistance and grain quality, and combination of ideal plant type with heterosis in hybrid rice breeding program. Innovative breeding techniques, e.g. improvement in root system, molecular marker-assisted selection and wild hybridization should be considered in further development of hybrid rice in China.

  12. Hybrid Rocket Experiment Station for Capstone Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Edgar; Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    Portable hybrid rocket motors and test stands can be seen in many papers but none have been reported on the design or instrumentation at such a small magnitude. The design of this hybrid rocket and test stand is to be small and portable (suitcase size). This basic apparatus will be used for demonstrations in rocket propulsion. The design had to include all of the needed hardware to operate the hybrid rocket unit (with the exception of the external Oxygen tank). The design of this project includes making the correlation between the rocket's thrust and its size, the appropriate transducers (physical size, resolution, range, and cost), compatability with a laptop analog card, the ease of setup, and its portability.

  13. New techniques for emulsion analysis in a hybrid experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, K. (Aichi University of Education, Kariya 448 (Japan)); Ushida, N. (Aichi University of Education, Kariya 448 (Japan)); Mokhtarani, A. (University of California (Davis), Davis, CA 95616 (United States)); Paolone, V.S. (University of California (Davis), Davis, CA 95616 (United States)); Volk, J.T. (University of California (Davis), Davis, CA 95616 (United States)); Wilcox, J.O. (University of California (Davis), Davis, CA 95616 (United States)); Yager, P.M. (University of California (Davis), Davis, CA 95616 (United States)); Edelstein, R.M. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)); Freyberger, A.P. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)); Gibaut, D.B. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)); Lipton, R.J. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)); Nichols, W.R. (Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)); Potter, D.M. (Carnegie-Mellon Univers

    1994-08-01

    A new method, called graphic scanning, was developed by the Nagoya University Group for emulsion analysis in a hybrid experiment. This method enhances both speed and reliability of emulsion analysis. Details of the application of this technique to the analysis of Fermilab experiment E653 are described. ((orig.))

  14. Hybrid Fictionality and Vicarious Narrative Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatavara, Mari Annukka; Mildorf, Jarmila

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the recent trends in Fictionality Studies and argues for a point of view focusing more on the narrative dimension of fictionality than on the fictive story content. With the analysis of two case studies, where a non-fictional third person narrator represents the experience ...

  15. Hybrid Probabilistic Logics: Theoretical Aspects, Algorithms and Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, S.

    2016-01-01

    Steffen Michels Hybrid Probabilistic Logics: Theoretical Aspects, Algorithms and Experiments Probabilistic logics aim at combining the properties of logic, that is they provide a structured way of expressing knowledge and a mechanical way of reasoning about such knowledge, with the ability of prob

  16. Experiences from the Roadrunner petascale hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbyson, Darren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pakin, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lang, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sancho Pitarch, Jose C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davis, Kei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barker, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peraza, Josh [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The combination of flexible microprocessors (AMD Opterons) with high-performing accelerators (IBM PowerXCell 8i) resulted in the extremely powerful Roadrunner system. Many challenges in both hardware and software were overcome to achieve its goals. In this talk we detail some of the experiences in achieving performance on the Roadrunner system. In particular we examine several implementations of the kernel application, Sweep3D, using a work-queue approach, a more portable Thread-building-blocks approach, and an MPI on the accelerator approach.

  17. PV-Diesel Hybrid SCADA Experiment Network Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, Alex; Durand, S.; Emrich, Carol; Ventre, G.; Wilson, W.; Acosta, R.

    1999-01-01

    The essential features of an experimental network for renewable power system satellite based supervisory, control and data acquisition (SCADA) are communication links, controllers, diagnostic equipment and a hybrid power system. Required components for implementing the network consist of two satellite ground stations, to satellite modems, two 486 PCs, two telephone receivers, two telephone modems, two analog telephone lines, one digital telephone line, a hybrid-power system equipped with controller and a satellite spacecraft. In the technology verification experiment (TVE) conducted by Savannah State University and Florida Solar Energy Center, the renewable energy hybrid system is the Apex-1000 Mini-Hybrid which is equipped with NGC3188 for user interface and remote control and the NGC2010 for monitoring and basic control tasks. This power system is connected to a satellite modem via a smart interface, RS232. Commands are sent to the power system control unit through a control PC designed as PC1. PC1 is thus connected to a satellite model through RS232. A second PC, designated PC2, the diagnostic PC is connected to both satellite modems via separate analog telephone lines for checking modems'health. PC2 is also connected to PC1 via a telephone line. Due to the unavailability of a second ground station for the ACTS, one ground station is used to serve both the sending and receiving functions in this experiment. Signal is sent from the control PC to the Hybrid system at a frequency f(sub 1), different from f(sub 2), the signal from the hybrid system to the control PC. f(sub l) and f(sub 2) are sufficiently separated to avoid interference.

  18. EARLY EXPERIENCE WITH A HYBRID PROCESSOR: K-MEANS CLUSTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. GOKHALE; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    We discuss hardware/software coprocessing on a hybrid processor for a compute- and data-intensive hyper-spectral imaging algorithm, K-Means Clustering. The experiments are performed on the Altera Excalibur board using the soft IP core 32-bit NIOS RISC processor. In our experiments, we compare performance of the sequential algorithm with two different accelerated versions. We consider granularity and synchronization issues when mapping an algorithm to a hybrid processor. Our results show that on the Excalibur NIOS, a 15% speedup can be achieved over the sequential algorithm on images with 8 spectral bands where the pixels are divided into 8 categories. Speedup is limited by the communication cost of transferring data from external memory through the NIOS processor to the customized circuits. Our results indicate that future hybrid processors must either (1) have a clock rate 10X the speed of the configurable logic circuits or (2) include dual port memories that both the processor and configurable logic can access. If either of these conditions is met, the hybrid processor will show a factor of 10 speedup over the sequential algorithm. Such systems will combine the convenience of conventional processors with the speed of configurable logic.

  19. Enhanced Lower Hybrid Current Drive Experiments on HT-7 Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Effective Lower Hybrid Current Driving (LHCD) and improved confinement exper-iments in higher plasma parameters (Ip > 200 kA, ne> 2×1013 cm-3, Te ≥ 1 keⅤ) havebeen curried out in optimized LH wave spectrum and plasma parameters in HT-7 supercon-ducting tokamak. The dependence of current driving efficiency on LH power spectrum, plasmadensity ne and toroidal magnetic field BT has been obtained under optimal conditions. A goodCD efficiency was obtained at higher plasma current and higher electron density. The improve-ment of the energy confinement time is accompanied with the increase in line averaged electrondensity, and in ion and electron temperatures. The highest current driving efficiency reachedηCD = IpneR/PRF ≈ 1.05 × 1019 Am-2/W. Wave-plasma coupling was sustained in a good stateand the reflective coefficient was less than 5%. The experiments have also demonstrated the abilityof LH wave in the start-up and ramp-up of the plasma current. The measurement of the temporaldistribution of plasma parameter shows that lower hybrid leads to a broader profile in plasmaparameter. The LH power deposition profile and the plasma current density profile were modeledwith a 2D Fokker-Planck code corresponding to the evolution process of the hard x-ray detectorarray.

  20. Hybrid pairwise likelihood analysis of animal behavior experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattelan, Manuela; Varin, Cristiano

    2013-12-01

    The study of the determinants of fights between animals is an important issue in understanding animal behavior. For this purpose, tournament experiments among a set of animals are often used by zoologists. The results of these tournament experiments are naturally analyzed by paired comparison models. Proper statistical analysis of these models is complicated by the presence of dependence between the outcomes of fights because the same animal is involved in different contests. This paper discusses two different model specifications to account for between-fights dependence. Models are fitted through the hybrid pairwise likelihood method that iterates between optimal estimating equations for the regression parameters and pairwise likelihood inference for the association parameters. This approach requires the specification of means and covariances only. For this reason, the method can be applied also when the computation of the joint distribution is difficult or inconvenient. The proposed methodology is investigated by simulation studies and applied to real data about adult male Cape Dwarf Chameleons. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  1. Fast electron dynamics in lower hybrid current drive experiment on HT-7 tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Yue-Jiang; Kuang Gang-Li; Li Jian-Gang; HT-7 Team; Wan Bao-Nian; Chen Zhong-Yong; Hu Li-Qun; Lin Shi-Yao; Ruan Huai-Lin; Qian Jin-Ping; Zhen Xiang-Jun; Ding Bo-Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of fast electron in lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments is a crucial issue in the sense of enhancing plasma performance. A new hard x-ray diagnostic system on HT-7 allows the investigation of the lower hybrid wave dynamics. The behaviour of fast electron is studied in several kinds of LHCD experiments, including long pulse discharges, high performance discharges and counter-LHCD experiments.

  2. Designing a Hybrid Laminar-Flow Control Experiment: The CFD-Experiment Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/Boeing hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) experiment, designed during 1993-1994 and conducted in the NASA LaRC 8-foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel in 1995, utilized computational fluid dynamics and numerical simulation of complex fluid mechanics to an unprecedented extent for the design of the test article and measurement equipment. CFD was used in: the design of the test wing, which was carried from definition of desired disturbance growth characteristics, through to the final airfoil shape that would produce those growth characteristics; the design of the suction-surface perforation pattern that produced enhanced crossflow-disturbance growth: and in the design of the hot-wire traverse system that produced minimal influence on measured disturbance growth. These and other aspects of the design of the test are discussed, after the historical and technical context of the experiment is described.

  3. Kinetics of hybridization on surface oligonucleotide microchips: theory, experiment, and comparison with hybridization on gel-based microchips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, N V; Chechetkin, V R; Pan'kov, S V; Somova, O G; Livshits, M A; Donnikov, M Y; Turygin, A Y; Barsky, V E; Zasedatelev, A S

    2006-08-01

    The optimal design of oligonucleotide microchips and efficient discrimination between perfect and mismatch duplexes strongly depend on the external transport of target DNA to the cells with immobilized probes as well as on respective association and dissociation rates at the duplex formation. In this paper we present the relevant theory for hybridization of DNA fragments with oligonucleotide probes immobilized in the cells on flat substrate. With minor modifications, our theory also is applicable to reaction-diffusion hybridization kinetics for the probes immobilized on the surface of microbeads immersed in hybridization solution. The main theoretical predictions are verified with control experiments. Besides that, we compared the characteristics of the surface and gel-based oligonucleotide microchips. The comparison was performed for the chips printed with the same pin robot, for the signals measured with the same devices and processed by the same technique, and for the same hybridization conditions. The sets of probe oligonucleotides and the concentrations of probes in respective solutions used for immobilization on each platform were identical as well. We found that, despite the slower hybridization kinetics, the fluorescence signals and mutation discrimination efficiency appeared to be higher for the gel-based microchips with respect to their surface counterparts even for the relatively short hybridization time about 0.5-1 hour. Both the divergence between signals for perfects and the difference in mutation discrimination efficiency for the counterpart platforms rapidly grow with incubation time. In particular, for hybridization during 3 h the signals for gel-based microchips surpassed their surface counterparts in 5-20 times, while the ratios of signals for perfect-mismatch pairs for gel microchips exceeded the corresponding ratios for surface microchips in 2-4 times. These effects may be attributed to the better immobilization efficiency and to the higher

  4. Experiments on a Hybrid Composite Beam for Bridge Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Van Nosdall, Stephen Paul

    2013-01-01

    This thesis details a study of the structural behavior of Hybrid-Composite Beams (HCB) consisting of a fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) shell with a concrete arch tied with steel prestressing strands.  The HCB offers advantages in life cycle costs through reduced transportation weight and increased corrosion resistance. By better understanding the system behavior, the proportion of load in each component can be determined, and each component can be designed for the appropriate forces. A long te...

  5. Spacecraft Hybrid (Mixed-Actuator) Attitude Control Experiences on NASA Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2014-01-01

    There is a heightened interest within NASA for the design, development, and flight implementation of mixed-actuator hybrid attitude control systems for science spacecraft that have less than three functional reaction wheel actuators. This interest is driven by a number of recent reaction wheel failures on aging, but what could be still scientifically productive, NASA spacecraft if a successful hybrid attitude control mode can be implemented. Over the years, hybrid (mixed-actuator) control has been employed for contingency attitude control purposes on several NASA science mission spacecraft. This paper provides a historical perspective of NASA's previous engineering work on spacecraft mixed-actuator hybrid control approaches. An update of the current situation will also be provided emphasizing why NASA is now so interested in hybrid control. The results of the NASA Spacecraft Hybrid Attitude Control Workshop, held in April of 2013, will be highlighted. In particular, the lessons learned captured from that workshop will be shared in this paper. An update on the most recent experiences with hybrid control on the Kepler spacecraft will also be provided. This paper will close with some future considerations for hybrid spacecraft control.

  6. A prototype hybrid pixel detector ASIC for the CLIC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Valerio, P; Arfaoui, S; Ballabriga, R; Benoit, M; Bonacini, S; Campbell, M; Dannheim, D; De Gaspari, M; Felici, D; Kulis, S; Llopart, X; Nascetti, A; Poikela, T; Wong, W S

    2014-01-01

    A prototype hybrid pixel detector ASIC specifically designed to the requirements of the vertex detector for CLIC is described and first electrical measurements are presented. The chip has been designed using a commercial 65 nm CMOS technology and comprises a matrix of 64x64 square pixels with 25 μm pitch. The main features include simultaneous 4-bit measure- ment of Time-over-Threshold (ToT) and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) with 10 ns accuracy, on-chip data compression and power pulsing capability.

  7. Lower Hybrid Current Drive Experiments in Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Wilson, S. Bernabei, P. Bonoli, A. Hubbard, R. Parker, A. Schmidt, G. Wallace, J. Wright, and the Alcator C-Mod Team

    2007-10-09

    A Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system has been installed on the Alcator C-MOD tokamak at MIT. Twelve klystrons at 4.6 GHz feed a 4x22 waveguide array. This system was designed for maximum flexibility in the launched parallel wave-number spectrum. This flexibility allows tailoring of the lower hybrid deposition under a variety of plasma conditions. Power levels up to 900 kW have been injected into the tokomak. The parallel wave number has been varied over a wide range, n|| ~ 1.6–4. Driven currents have been inferred from magnetic measurements by extrapolating to zero loop voltage and by direct comparison to Fisch-Karney theory, yielding an efficiency of n20IR/P ~ 0.3. Modeling using the CQL3D code supports these efficiencies. Sawtooth oscillations vanish, accompanied with peaking of the electron temperature (Te0 rises from 2.8 to 3.8 keV). Central q is inferred to rise above unity from the collapse of the sawtooth inversion radius, indicating off-axis cd as expected. Measurements of non-thermal x-ray and electron cyclotron emission confirm the presence of a significant fast electron population that varies with phase and plasma density. The x-ray emission is observed to be radialy broader than that predicted by simple ray tracing codes. Possible explanations for this broader emission include fast electron diffusion or broader deposition than simple ray tracing predictions (perhaps due to diffractive effects).

  8. Revisiting Milgram's Cyranoid Method: Experimenting With Hybrid Human Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In two studies based on Stanley Milgram's original pilots, we present the first systematic examination of cyranoids as social psychological research tools. A cyranoid is created by cooperatively joining in real-time the body of one person with speech generated by another via covert speech shadowing. The resulting hybrid persona can subsequently interact with third parties face-to-face. We show that naïve interlocutors perceive a cyranoid to be a unified, autonomously communicating person, evidence for a phenomenon Milgram termed the "cyranic illusion." We also show that creating cyranoids composed of contrasting identities (a child speaking adult-generated words and vice versa) can be used to study how stereotyping and person perception are mediated by inner (dispositional) vs. outer (physical) identity. Our results establish the cyranoid method as a unique means of obtaining experimental control over inner and outer identities within social interactions rich in mundane realism.

  9. Iontophoresis and Flame Photometry: A Hybrid Interdisciplinary Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Duncan; Cottam, Linzi; Bradley, Sarah; Brannigan, Jeanie; Davis, James

    2010-01-01

    The combination of reverse iontophoresis and flame photometry provides an engaging analytical experiment that gives first-year undergraduate students a flavor of modern drug delivery and analyte extraction techniques while reinforcing core analytical concepts. The experiment provides a highly visual demonstration of the iontophoresis technique and…

  10. Hybrid or open pollinated maize varieties? A socio-economic assessment of Nepalese farmers’ experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Kafle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of factors affecting adoption of hybrid and open pollinated maize varieties had not been taken yet in Nepal. Viewing this fact, this study was undertaken consisting of four purposively selected VDCs from two central Terai districts, Bara and Sarlahi, of Nepal. A total of 110 maize growers including 86 adopters and 24 non adopters of hybrid maize varieties (adopters of open pollinated maize varieties were interviewed with the help of structured questionnaire. Results of t-test showed that adopters of hybrid maize varieties had significantly larger farm size and, size of maize farm, were more experienced on maize farming, and used significantly higher amount of chemical fertilizers but lower amount of organic manures than the non-adopters. Further, more adopters used irrigation water, pesticides and hired labor than the non-adopters. The result showed that a substantial proportion of land area grown to maize was cultivated to hybrid maize varieties with an adoption rate of 81.9 % while the adoption rate for open pollinated varieties was estimated as 18.1%. The results of the binary logistic regression analysis showed that adoption of hybrid maize was positively influenced by farm size, irrigation availability, farmer’s attitude towards insect and disease tolerance characteristics of hybrid maize, male headed family and credit availability in the surveyed area. However, farming experience on maize was negatively associated with the adoption of hybrid maize varieties.

  11. TNB Experience in Developing Solar Hybrid Station at RPS Kemar, Gerik, Perak Darul Ridzuan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, K. A.; Shamsudin, K. N.

    2013-06-01

    This paper will discuss on TNB experience in developing Solar Hybrid Station at RPS Kemar, Gerik, Perak. TNB has been approached by KKLW to submit proposal to provide electricity in the rural area namely RPS Kemar. Looking at area and source available, Solar Hybrid System was the best method in order to provide electricity at this area. This area is far from national grid sources. Solar Hybrid System is the best method to produce electrical power using the renewable energy from Solar PV, Battery and Diesel Generator Set. Nowadays, price of petroleum is slightly high due to higher demand from industry. Solar energy is good alternative in this country to practice in order to reduce cost for produce of electrical energy. Generally, Solar will produce energy during daytime and when become cloudy and dark, automatically battery and diesel generator set will recover the system through the hybrid controller system.

  12. Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Peter; Maurer, D. A.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.

    2016-10-01

    A Thomson scattering system is being commissioned for the non-axisymmetric plasmas of the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH), a five-field period current-carrying torsatron. The system takes a single point measurement at the magnetic axis to both calibrate the two- color soft x-ray Te system and serve as an additional diagnostic for the V3FIT 3D equilibrium reconstruction code. A single point measurement will reduce the uncertainty in the reconstructed peak pressure by an order of magnitude for both current-carrying plasmas and future gyrotron-heated stellarator plasmas. The beam, generated by a frequency doubled Continuum 2 J, Nd:YaG laser, is passed vertically through an entrance Brewster window and a two-aperture optical baffle system to minimize stray light. The beam line propagates 8 m to the CTH device mid-plane with the beam diameter < 3 mm inside the plasma volume. Thomson scattered light is collected by two adjacent f/2 plano-convex condenser lenses and focused onto a custom fiber bundle. The fiber is then re-bundled and routed to a Holospec f/1.8 spectrograph to collect the red-shifted scattered light from 535-565 nm. The system has been designed to measure plasmas with core Te of 100 to 200 eV and densities of 5 ×1018 to 5 ×1019 m-3. Work supported by USDOE Grant DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  13. Hybridization experiments indicate incomplete reproductive isolating mechanism between Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, T; Ichinomiya, M; Fukuda, K; Fusyuku, S; Carmona, C

    2011-09-01

    Experiments on hybridization between Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were carried out to clarify whether a reproductive isolating mechanism appears between the two Fasciola species. Molecular evidence for hybridization was based on the DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region in nuclear ribosomal DNA, which differs between the species. The results suggested that there were not pre-mating but post-mating isolating mechanisms between the two species. However, viable adults of the hybrids F1 and F2 were produced from both parental F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The hybrids inherited phenotypic characteristics such as ratio of body length and width and infectivity to rats from parental Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. These findings suggest that reproductive isolation is incomplete between Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. Adults of the hybrids F1 and F2 were completely different in mode of reproduction from aspermic Fasciola forms that occur in Asia and seem to be offspring originated from hybridization between F. hepatica and F. gigantica and to reproduce parthenogenetically.

  14. A Qualitative Experiment: Research on Mediated Meaning Construction Using a Hybrid Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sue; Mendelson, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a hybrid methodological technique that fuses elements of experimental design with qualitative strategies to explore mediated communication. Called the "qualitative experiment," this strategy uses focus groups and in-depth interviews "within" randomized stimulus conditions typically associated with…

  15. Applying TSOI Hybrid Learning Model to Enhance Blended Learning Experience in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Mun Fie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Research on the nature of blended learning and its features has led to a variety of approaches to the practice of blended learning. The purpose of this paper is to provide an alternative practice model, the TSOI hybrid learning model (HLM) to enhance the blended learning experiences in science education. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  16. Cold atom-ion experiments in hybrid traps

    CERN Document Server

    Härter, Arne

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, a novel field of physics and chemistry has developed in which cold trapped ions and ultracold atomic gases are brought into contact with each other. Combining ion traps with traps for neutral atoms yields a variety of new possibilities for research and experiments. These range from studies of cold atom-ion collisions and atom-ion chemistry to applications in quantum information science and condensed matter related research. In this article we give a brief introduction into this new field and describe some of the perspectives for its future development.

  17. Inverse kinematics analysis and numerical control experiment for PRS-XY style hybrid machining tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Dongyong; ZHANG Jianmin; NIU Zhigang; SUN Hongchang

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzed the inverse kinematics for the new Parallel rotate slider-X Y axes(PRS-XY)style hybrid machining tool and educed the five axes linkage inverse kinematics transform formula on the basis of the coordinates of the X,Y,Z,A and B virtual axes.The program for the PRS-XY style hybrid machining tool in accordance with the program manner for the common numerical control(NC)machine tool was made.The results of the experiments prove that the inverse kinematics transform formula is correct.

  18. Artificial plasma cusp generated by upper hybrid instabilities in HF heating experiments at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold

    2013-05-01

    High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program digisonde was operated in a fast mode to record ionospheric modifications by the HF heating wave. With the O mode heater of 3.2 MHz turned on for 2 min, significant virtual height spread was observed in the heater off ionograms, acquired beginning the moment the heater turned off. Moreover, there is a noticeable bump in the virtual height spread of the ionogram trace that appears next to the plasma frequency (~ 2.88 MHz) of the upper hybrid resonance layer of the HF heating wave. The enhanced spread and the bump disappear in the subsequent heater off ionograms recorded 1 min later. The height distribution of the ionosphere in the spread situation indicates that both electron density and temperature increases exceed 10% over a large altitude region (> 30 km) from below to above the upper hybrid resonance layer. This "mini cusp" (bump) is similar to the cusp occurring in daytime ionograms at the F1-F2 layer transition, indicating that there is a small ledge in the density profile reminiscent of F1-F2 layer transitions. Two parametric processes exciting upper hybrid waves as the sidebands by the HF heating waves are studied. Field-aligned purely growing mode and lower hybrid wave are the respective decay modes. The excited upper hybrid and lower hybrid waves introduce the anomalous electron heating which results in the ionization enhancement and localized density ledge. The large-scale density irregularities formed in the heat flow, together with the density irregularities formed through the parametric instability, give rise to the enhanced virtual height spread. The results of upper hybrid instability analysis are also applied to explain the descending feature in the development of the artificial ionization layers observed in electron cyclotron harmonic resonance heating experiments.

  19. Hybrid Reynolds-Averaged/Large-Eddy Simulations of a Coaxial Supersonic Free-Jet Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurle, Robert A.; Edwards, Jack R.

    2010-01-01

    Reynolds-averaged and hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations have been applied to a supersonic coaxial jet flow experiment. The experiment was designed to study compressible mixing flow phenomenon under conditions that are representative of those encountered in scramjet combustors. The experiment utilized either helium or argon as the inner jet nozzle fluid, and the outer jet nozzle fluid consisted of laboratory air. The inner and outer nozzles were designed and operated to produce nearly pressure-matched Mach 1.8 flow conditions at the jet exit. The purpose of the computational effort was to assess the state-of-the-art for each modeling approach, and to use the hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations to gather insight into the deficiencies of the Reynolds-averaged closure models. The Reynolds-averaged simulations displayed a strong sensitivity to choice of turbulent Schmidt number. The initial value chosen for this parameter resulted in an over-prediction of the mixing layer spreading rate for the helium case, but the opposite trend was observed when argon was used as the injectant. A larger turbulent Schmidt number greatly improved the comparison of the results with measurements for the helium simulations, but variations in the Schmidt number did not improve the argon comparisons. The hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations also over-predicted the mixing layer spreading rate for the helium case, while under-predicting the rate of mixing when argon was used as the injectant. The primary reason conjectured for the discrepancy between the hybrid simulation results and the measurements centered around issues related to the transition from a Reynolds-averaged state to one with resolved turbulent content. Improvements to the inflow conditions were suggested as a remedy to this dilemma. Second-order turbulence statistics were also compared to their modeled Reynolds-averaged counterparts to evaluate the effectiveness of common turbulence closure

  20. Real-time biomimetic Central Pattern Generators in an FPGA for hybrid experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroise, Matthieu; Levi, Timothée; Joucla, Sébastien; Yvert, Blaise; Saïghi, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    This investigation of the leech heartbeat neural network system led to the development of a low resources, real-time, biomimetic digital hardware for use in hybrid experiments. The leech heartbeat neural network is one of the simplest central pattern generators (CPG). In biology, CPG provide the rhythmic bursts of spikes that form the basis for all muscle contraction orders (heartbeat) and locomotion (walking, running, etc.). The leech neural network system was previously investigated and this CPG formalized in the Hodgkin-Huxley neural model (HH), the most complex devised to date. However, the resources required for a neural model are proportional to its complexity. In response to this issue, this article describes a biomimetic implementation of a network of 240 CPGs in an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), using a simple model (Izhikevich) and proposes a new synapse model: activity-dependent depression synapse. The network implementation architecture operates on a single computation core. This digital system works in real-time, requires few resources, and has the same bursting activity behavior as the complex model. The implementation of this CPG was initially validated by comparing it with a simulation of the complex model. Its activity was then matched with pharmacological data from the rat spinal cord activity. This digital system opens the way for future hybrid experiments and represents an important step toward hybridization of biological tissue and artificial neural networks. This CPG network is also likely to be useful for mimicking the locomotion activity of various animals and developing hybrid experiments for neuroprosthesis development.

  1. Real-time biomimetic Central Pattern Generators into FPGA for hybrid experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu eAmbroise

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the neural network system in the leech heartbeat and develops a real-time biomimetic digital hardware using few-resource implementation for hybrid experiments. The leech heartbeat neural network is one of the most simple central pattern generators (CPG. In biology, CPG provide for rhythmic bursts of spikes and is the basis for all muscles contractions orders (heartbeat and locomotion (walking, running….. The leech neural network system was already investigated and this CPG has been already formalized with Hodgkin-Huxley neural model (HH that is the most complex neuron model. However, the resources needed for a neural model is proportional to its complexity. To answer to this issue, this article describes a biomimetic implementation into FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array of a network of 240 CPGs using a simple model (Izhikevich model and by proposing a new synapse model: activity dependent depression synapse. The architecture of the network implementation allows working on a single computation core. This digital system works in real-time, needs few resources and has the same bursting activity behavior than complex model. To validate our implementation of this CPG, we compare it firstly with a simulation of the complex model. Then we match its activity with the pharmacological data of the activity of the rat’s spinal cord. This digital system allows future hybrid experiments and will be a great step towards hybridation between biological tissue and artificial neural network. This network of CPG could be also useful for mimic the activity of a different animal locomotion or developing hybrid experiments for neuroprosthesis development.

  2. Evolution of Wave Energy Deposition Profile in HT-7 Lower Hybrid Current Drive Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方瑜德; 石跃江; 匡光力; 刘岳修; 沈慰慈; 丁伯江

    2001-01-01

    Lower hybrid waves (LHWs) with a selected n‖ spectrum have been used to control the energy deposition profiles, and then the wave driven current profiles effectively in tokamak discharges. In our lower hybrid current drive experiment in the HT-7 tokamak, it was found that the set-up of the wave energy deposition profile is a graduation process. In the beginning phase of the wave injection duration, the waves (with different n‖ spectra)deposit almost all their energy in the central region of the plasma column, even if their n‖ are very different. Up to around one hundred milliseconds, the wave energy deposition profiles can only take their corresponding shapes according to the n‖ spectra of LHWs. It also shown that this evolution process is affected obviously by the LHW driven current profile, which has been formed early.

  3. Stationary magnetic shear reversal during Lower Hybrid experiments in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litaudon, X.; Arslanbekov, R.; Hoang, G.T.; Joffrin, E.; Kazarian-Vibert, F.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y.; Bibet, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Ferron, J.; Kupfer, K. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    Stable and stationary states with hollow current density profiles have been achieved with Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) during Lower Hybrid (LH) wave accessibility experiments. By analysing the bounded propagation domain in phase space which naturally limits the central penetration and absorption of the waves, off-axis LH power deposition has been realized in a reproducible manner. The resulting current density profile modifications have led to a global confinement enhancement attributed to the formation of an internal `transport barrier` in the central reversed shear region where the electron thermal diffusivity is reduced to its neoclassical collisional level. The multiple-pass LH wave propagation in the weak Landau damping and reversed magnetic shear regime is also investigated in the framework of a statistical theory and the experimental validation of this theory is discussed. (author). 37 refs.

  4. The hybrid mesons quest: the MesonEx experiment at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Alessandro [Univ. of Rome Tor Vergata (Italy)

    2016-03-01

    The meson spectroscopy plays nowadays a central role in the investigation of hadron structure thanks to the possible existence of exotic hybrid mesons, quark-antiquark-gluon bound states. Their explicit gluonic degrees of freedom which should clearly emerge from a Partial Wave Analysis (PWA) of the corresponding Dalitz plot of the exotic particle decay, may result in final JPC configurations not allowed in the constituent quark model. Besides this clear signature, hybrid mesons are also expected to have a large particle multiplicity decays, requiring for their search an experimental apparatus with high performances in terms of rate capability, resolution and almost a full acceptance to apply PWA methods. New-generation experiments are planned at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (VA, USA) for which an unprecedented statistics of large multiplicity decay events with fully reconstructed kinematics will be available. In particular for the MesonEx (CLAS12) experiment in Hall B, a wide scientific program that will start in 2016 has been deployed to study the meson spectrum at energies up to 11 GeV. A key role in such program is played by the Forward Tagger apparatus of the experiment, which will allow to extend the study of meson electro-production to very low Q2 values, in a quasi-real photo production kinematical region, where the production of hybrid mesons is expected to be favorite. Currently a new analysis framework for the search of the hybrid mesons is being set up by the HASPECT network, an international structure which gather people involved into theoretical and experimental hadronic physics all over the world. The goals of the network is to develop new analysis models and statistical techniques to unfold the signal and background distributions in high-statistics datasets. In this work are briefly presented the first preliminary results from the application of a statistical technique, namely the sPlot, to the data already acquired by the CLAS experiment for

  5. Effort of lower hybrid current drive experiments toward to H-mode in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, B. J.; Li, M. H.; Liu, F. K.; Shan, J. F.; Li, Y. C.; Wang, M.; Liu, L.; Zhao, L. M.; Yang, Y.; Wu, Z. G.; Feng, J. Q.; Hu, H. C.; Jia, H.; Cheng, M.; Zang, Q.; Lyu, B.; Duan, Y. M.; Lin, S. Y.; Wu, J. H.; Hillairet, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Peysson, Y.; Goniche, M.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Cesario, R.; Amicucci, L.; Shen, B.; Gong, X. Z.; Xu, G. S.; Zhao, H. L.; Hu, L. Q.; Li, J. G.; Wan, B. N.; EAST Team

    2017-02-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is an effective tool to achieve high confinement (H-mode) plasma in EAST. To utilize LHCD for accessing H-mode plasma, efforts have been made to improve LHW (lower hybrid wave)-plasma coupling and current drive capability at high density. Improved LHW-plasma coupling by means of local gas puffing and gas puffing from the electron side is routinely used during EAST operation with LHCD. High density experiments suggest that low recycling and high LH frequency are preferred for LHCD experiments at high density, consistent with previous results in other machines. The effect of LHCD on the current profile in EAST demonstrates that it is possible to control the plasma profile by optimizing the LHW spectrum. Repeatable H-mode plasma was obtained by LHCD and the maximum density during H-mode with the combination of 2.45 GHz and 4.6 GHz LH waves was up to 4.5  ×  1019 m-3.

  6. Experiment investigation for dynamic behavior of hybrid fiber effects on reactive powder concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwen; Pang, Baojun; Yang, Zhenqi; Chi, Runqiang

    2010-03-01

    The influences of different hybrid fibers (steel fibers add polyvinyl-alcohol fibers) mixture rates for reactive power concrete's (RPC) dynamic mechanical behavior after high temperature burnt was investigated by the Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) device. A plumbic pulse shaper technique was applied in the experiment, PVDF stress gauge was used to monitor the stress uniformity state within the specimen. The strain rate was between 75~85s-1, base on the stressstrain curves and dynamic modes of concrete specimen, the hybrid fiber effect on the dynamic properties was determined. The results show, dynamic compression strength of specimens which mixed with steel fibers (1.0%,1.5%,2.0% vol. rate) and 0.1% PVA fibers is higher than normal reactive powder concrete (NRPC), but the toughness improves unconspicuous; while strength of the one which has both steel fiber (1.0%,1.5%,2.0% vol. rate) and 0.2%PVA fiber declines than NRPC but the toughness improves and the plastic behaviors strengthened, stress-strain curve has evident rising and plate portions. It can be deduced that the concrete with mixed two kinds of fibers has improved dynamic mechanical properties after high temperature burnt. By compounding previous literature results, the mechanism of the experimental results can be explained.

  7. Improving Health Care Coverage, Equity, And Financial Protection Through A Hybrid System: Malaysia's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannan-Eliya, Ravindra P; Anuranga, Chamara; Manual, Adilius; Sararaks, Sondi; Jailani, Anis S; Hamid, Abdul J; Razif, Izzanie M; Tan, Ee H; Darzi, Ara

    2016-05-01

    Malaysia has made substantial progress in providing access to health care for its citizens and has been more successful than many other countries that are better known as models of universal health coverage. Malaysia's health care coverage and outcomes are now approaching levels achieved by member nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Malaysia's results are achieved through a mix of public services (funded by general revenues) and parallel private services (predominantly financed by out-of-pocket spending). We examined the distributional aspects of health financing and delivery and assessed financial protection in Malaysia's hybrid system. We found that this system has been effective for many decades in equalizing health care use and providing protection from financial risk, despite modest government spending. Our results also indicate that a high out-of-pocket share of total financing is not a consistent proxy for financial protection; greater attention is needed to the absolute level of out-of-pocket spending. Malaysia's hybrid health system presents continuing unresolved policy challenges, but the country's experience nonetheless provides lessons for other emerging economies that want to expand access to health care despite limited fiscal resources.

  8. Study of Lower Hybrid Frequency Turbulence in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, S. E.; Ji, H.; Roytershteyn, V.; Yamada, M.; Daughton, W. S.; Yoo, J.; Oz, E.; Tharp, T.; Lawrence, E. E.; Myers, C.

    2010-12-01

    One of the key open questions in magnetic reconnection is the nature of the mechanism that governs the reconnection rate in real astrophysical and laboratory systems. Comparisons between fully kinetic 2-D simulations of the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) and experimental data indicate that three-dimensional dynamics, such as current layer disruptions recently observed in MRX, may play a key role in resolving an important discrepancy in the reconnection rate and layer width [1,2,3]. These disruptions are often associated with fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range and a rapid local reconnection rate. Fluctuations are observed not only in MRX [4], but also in space [5] and 3-D kinetic simulations. Comparison of fluctuation characteristics between the three domains may shed light on the underlying physics. In both the simulation and the experiments, the fluctuations are related to density gradients across the layer. The frequency range is similarly broadband up to the lower hybrid range, and the phase velocities are comparable in appropriately normalized units. However, while the electron drift speed is comparable to the phase velocity at the layer center in the experiment (consistent with previous MRX results [4]), the drift speed in the simulations is considerably larger. Furthermore, the fluctuations observed in the experiment are fully turbulent with correlation lengths the same order as the wavelength while those observed in the simulations and in space are more coherent. Some discharges also display "O-point" signatures consistent with magnetic island like structures. The present research explores the relationship between the disruptions and fluctuations in the context of the reconnection rate problem. Experiments are ongoing to determine what physics is responsible for the broader current layers (and correspondingly smaller drift speeds) observed in the experiment. [1] Y. Ren, et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 082113 (2008). [2] S. Dorfman, et al

  9. Performance of Hybrids between Weedy Rice and Insect-resistant Transgenic Rice under Field Experiments: Implication for Environmental Biosafety Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-Jin Cao; Hui Xia; Xiao Yang; Bao-Rong Lu

    2009-01-01

    Transgene escape from genetically modified (GM) rice Into weedy rice via gene flow may cause undesired environmental consequences. Estimating the field performance of crop-weed hybrids will facilitate our understanding of potential introgression of crop genes (including transgenes) into weedy rice populations, allowing for effective biosafety assessment. Comparative studies of three weedy rice strains and their hybrids with two GM rice lines containing different insect-resistance transgenes (CpTl or BtlCpTI) indicated an enhanced relative performance of the crop-weed hybrids, with taller plants, more tillers, panicles, and spikelets per plant, as well as higher 1000-seed weight, compared with the weedy rice parents, although the hybrids produced less filled seeds per plant than their weedy parents. Seeds from the F1 hybrids had higher germination rates and produced more seedlings than the weedy parents, which correlated positively with 1000-seed weight. The crop-weed hybrids demonstrated a generally enhanced relative performance than their weedy rice parents in our field experiments. These findings indicate that transgenes from GM rice can persist to and introgress into weedy rice populations through recurrent crop-to-weed gene flow with the aid of slightly increased relative fitness in F1 hybrids.

  10. TSV last for hybrid pixel detectors: Application to particle physics and imaging experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, D; Berthelot, A; Cuchet, R; Chantre, C; Campbell, M

    Hybrid pixel detectors are now widely used in particle physics experiments and at synchrotron light sources. They have also stimulated growing interest in other fields and, in particular, in medical imaging. Through the continuous pursuit of miniaturization in CMOS it has been possible to increase the functionality per pixel while maintaining or even shrinking pixel dimensions. The main constraint on the more extensive use of the technology in all fields is the cost of module building and the difficulty of covering large areas seamlessly [1]. On another hand, in the field of electronic component integration, a new approach has been developed in the last years, called 3D Integration. This concept, based on using the vertical axis for component integration, allows improving the global performance of complex systems. Thanks to this technology, the cost and the form factor of components could be decreased and the performance of the global system could be enhanced. In the field of radiation imaging detectors the a...

  11. Problems and solutions in high-rate multichannel hybrid photodiode design The CMS experience

    CERN Document Server

    Cushman, P B

    2002-01-01

    The unique conditions of the CMS experiment (4 T magnetic field, restricted access, high neutron radiation, and 25-ns bunch-crossings) necessitated the development of a new type of high-rate multichannel hybrid photodiode for the tile/fiber hadronic calorimeter. New complexities arose in the push toward high-rate operation, necessitating design changes in the diode structure and surface treatment. The product is now capable of high-rate operation with low crosstalk and leakage current. Lifetime studies of high-voltage behavior, total charge, and irradiation have shown that the tubes will survive the ten years of CMS running with only a few percent change in gain and manageable leakage current rise. (13 refs).

  12. Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment: design studies based on superconducting and hybrid toroidal field coils. Design overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A. (ed.)

    1984-10-01

    This document is a design overview that describes the scoping studies and preconceptual design effort performed in FY 1983 on the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) class of device. These studies focussed on devices with all-superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils and on devices with superconducting TF coils supplemented with copper TF coil inserts located in the bore of the TF coils in the shield region. Each class of device is designed to satisfy the mission of ignition and long pulse equilibrium burn. Typical design parameters are: major radius = 3.75 m, minor radius = 1.0 m, field on axis = 4.5 T, plasma current = 7.0 MA. These designs relay on lower hybrid (LHRH) current rampup and heating to ignition using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF). A pumped limiter has been assumed for impurity control. The present document is a design overview; a more detailed design description is contained in a companion document.

  13. A tapered undulator experiment at the ELBE far infrared hybrid-resonator oscillator free electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgekar, V; Lehnert, U; Michel, P

    2012-01-01

    A tapered undulator experiment was carried out at the ELBE far-infrared free electron laser (FEL). The oscillator FEL makes use of a hybrid optical resonator. The main motivation was to see whether the presence of a dispersive medium in the form of a waveguide in the resonator has any effect on the outcome. The FEL saturated power and the wavelength shifts have been measured as a function of both positive as well as negative undulator field amplitude tapering. In contrast to the typical high-gain FELs where positive tapering proves beneficial for the output power we observed an improvement of performance at negative taper. During the same experiments we studied the characteristics of the detuning curves. The width of the curves indicates a maximum small signal gain for zero taper while the output peak power increases with negative taper. The saturated power output, the detuning curve characteristics, and the wavelength shifts agrees with the theoretical predictions. Details of the experiment are presented.

  14. Development of Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array for a new EAS hybrid Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jinsheng; Chen, Ding; Zhang, Ying; Zhai, Liuming; Chen, Xu; Hu, Xiaobin; Lin, Yuhui; Zhang, Xueyao; Feng, Cunfeng; Jia, Huanyu; Zhou, Xunxiu; DanZengLuoBu,; Chen, Tianlu; Li, Haijin; Liu, Maoyuan; Yuan, Aifang

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the observation of cosmic-ray chemical composition at the "knee" energy region, we have been developinga new type air-shower core detector (YAC, Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array) to be set up at Yangbajing (90.522$^\\circ$ E, 30.102$^\\circ$ N, 4300 m above sea level, atmospheric depth: 606 g/m$^2$) in Tibet, China. YAC works together with the Tibet air-shower array (Tibet-III) and an underground water cherenkov muon detector array (MD) as a hybrid experiment. Each YAC detector unit consists of lead plates of 3.5 cm thick and a scintillation counter which detects the burst size induced by high energy particles in the air-shower cores. The burst size can be measured from 1 MIP (Minimum Ionization Particle) to $10^{6}$ MIPs. The first phase of this experiment, named "YAC-I", consists of 16 YAC detectors each having the size 40 cm $\\times$ 50 cm and distributing in a grid with an effective area of 10 m$^{2}$. YAC-I is used to check hadronic interaction models. The second phase of the experiment,...

  15. Planning for hybrid-cycle OTEC experiments using the HMTSTA test facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, C.; Rabas, T.; Genens, L.

    The U.S. Department of Energy has built an experimental apparatus for studying the open-cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OC-OTEC) system. Experiments using warm and cold seawater are currently underway to validate the performance predictions for an OC-TEC flash evaporator, surface condenser, and direct-contact condenser. The hybrid cycle is another OTEC option that produces both power and desalinated water, it is comparable in capital cost to OC-OTEC, and it eliminates the problems associated with the large steam turbine. Means are presented or modifying the existing apparatus to conduct similar experiments on hybrid-cycle OTEC heat exchangers. These data are required to validate predictive methods of the components and for the system integration that were identified in an earlier study of hybrid-cycle OTEC power plants.

  16. Investigating the Inverse Square Law with the Timepix Hybrid Silicon Pixel Detector: A CERN [at] School Demonstration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyntie, T.; Parker, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detector has been used to investigate the inverse square law of radiation from a point source as a demonstration of the CERN [at] school detector kit capabilities. The experiment described uses a Timepix detector to detect the gamma rays emitted by an [superscript 241]Am radioactive source at a number of different…

  17. Coherence Imaging Measurements of Impurity Flow in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.; Johnson, C. A.; Maurer, D. A.; Allen, S. L.; Meyer, W. H.; Samuell, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of impurity ion emissivity and velocity in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment are achieved with a new optical coherence imaging diagnostic. The Coherence Imaging Spectroscopy (CIS) technique measures the spectral coherence of an emission line with an imaging interferometer of fixed delay. CIS has a number of advantages when compared to dispersive Doppler spectroscopy, including higher throughput and the capability to provide 2D spectral images, making it ideal for investigating the non-axisymmetric geometry of CTH plasmas. Furthermore, detailed measurements of the ion flow structure provided by CIS combined with predictive computational models could also provide spatially resolved images of complex flow structures, such as those associated with an island divertor. First CIS measurements of CTH plasmas reveal strong signals for C III (465 nm), He II (468 nm) and C II (513 nm) emission. Preliminary analysis of C III interferograms indicate a net toroidal flow on the order of 10 km/s during the time of peak current. Bench tests using Zn and Cd light sources reveal that the temperature of the instrument must be actively controlled to within 0.01°C to limit phase drift of the interferometer resulting in artificially measured flow. Results from this diagnostic will aid in characterizing the ion flow in planned island divertor and MHD mode-locking experiments. Work supported by USDoE Grant DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  18. Reproduction experiment on Austropotamobius pallipes complex under controlled conditions: Can hybrids be hatched?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghia D.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Austropotamobius pallipes complex is formed by the two species A. pallipes and A. italicus, recently defined only on genetic basis, without obvious morphological features for their differentiation. Dealing with this problem, we have conducted a breeding experiment between these two presumed species under controlled conditions, in order to investigate the possible existence of reproductive barriers. Using 80 breeders (56 females and 24 males collected from populations where their species identity was genetically well established, we performed four series of trials: Fita × Mpal and Fpal × Mita interspecific mating; Fita × Mita and Fpal × Mpal intraspecific mating as a control. We have monitored only the main phases of the reproduction in order to avoid excessive interference for the crayfish. In November 2009 the 91.7% of females having intraspecific mating, as well as the 100% of females having interspecific mating, produced eggs. In June 2010 the eggs from the 36.4% of females having intraspecific mating, and those from the 42.3% of females having interspecific mating did hatch. We emphasize the hatching of hybrids and their vitality.

  19. Lower hybrid current drive experiments on Alcator C-Mod: Comparison with theory and simulationa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoli, P. T.; Ko, J.; Parker, R.; Schmidt, A. E.; Wallace, G.; Wright, J. C.; Fiore, C. L.; Hubbard, A. E.; Irby, J.; Marmar, E.; Porkolab, M.; Terry, D.; Wolfe, S. M.; Wukitch, S. J.; Alcator C-Mod Team; Wilson, J. R.; Scott, S.; Valeo, E.; Phillips, C. K.; Harvey, R. W.

    2008-05-01

    Lower hybrid (LH) current drive experiments have been carried out on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [I. H. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] using a radio-frequency system at 4.6GHz. Up to 900kW of LH power has been coupled and driven LH currents have been inferred from magnetic measurements by extrapolating to zero loop voltage, yielding an efficiency of neILHR0/PLH≈2.5±0.2×1019(A/W/m2). We have simulated the LH current drive in these discharges using the combined ray tracing/three-dimensional (r,v⊥,v∥) Fokker-Planck code GENRAY-CQL3D (R. W. Harvey and M. McCoy, in Proceedings of the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Simulation and Modeling of Thermonuclear Plasmas, Montreal, Canada, 1992) and found similar current drive efficiencies. The simulated profiles of current density from CQL3D, including both ohmic plus LH drive have been found to be in good agreement with the measured current density from a motional Stark effect diagnostic. Measurements of nonthermal x-ray emission confirm the presence of a significant fast electron population and the three-dimensional (r,v⊥,v∥) electron distribution function from CQL3D has been used in a synthetic diagnostic code to simulate the measured hard x-ray data.

  20. Hadronic- and electromagnetic cores of air-showers observed by hybrid experiments at high mountains

    CERN Document Server

    Tamada, M

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of the high energy families (bundle of high energy e, gamma) and hadrons in the air-showers detected in the hybrid experiment together with emulsion chamber and AS-array at Mt.Chacaltaya are studied in detail by comparing with those of CORSIKA simulations using interaction models of QGSJET and EPOS. Because the atmospheric families and hadron component have more direct information of the nuclear interaction, correlations between atmospheric families and burst (hadron component of air-showers) accompanied to air-showers are more sensitive to the mechanism of the the cosmic-ray interactions. The burst size dependence of the family energy is compared with those of simulations. It is found that the family energy accompanied by the air-showers with the larger burst-size is systematically smaller than that expected in the simulated events. The experimental results can not be described simply by changing the chemical composition of primary cosmic-rays and this indicates that the x-distribution of sec...

  1. Design and implementation of a multichannel millimeter wave interferometer for the Compact Toroidal Hybrid experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. C.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Knowlton, S. F.; Maurer, D. A.; Stevenson, B. A. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A three-channel 1 mm wave interferometer has been designed, assembled, and installed on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid torsatron (CTH). The interferometer design makes novel use of a subharmonic mixer for detection, which simplifies alignment. It employs a single electronically tunable source that is repetitively chirped using a sawtooth waveform of frequency up to 1 MHz. The 15.25 GHz drive oscillator is multiplied in two stages to 122 GHz before a final doubler stage brings it to 244 GHz. Local oscillator (LO) power at 122 GHz is directed through waveguide to the LO input of the subharmonic mixer of each viewing chord, simplifying alignment. Phase detection is performed by directly digitizing the amplified mixer outputs at 50 MHz and processing them with a software algorithm. Initial measurements made with the central chord of the new interferometer agree with those from the existing 4 mm system at low densities. The 1 mm system performs well in current-driven discharges reaching densities over 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, whereas the lower frequency interferometer is found to be less reliable due to loss of fringes. This is a critical improvement for experiments studying the onset, avoidance, and vacuum magnetic transform dependence of disruptions in the CTH device.

  2. Data Analysis for the NASA/Boeing Hybrid Laminar Flow Control Crossflow Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppink, Jenna L.; Wlezien, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Hybrid-Laminar Flow Control (HLFC) Crossflow Experiment, completed in 1995. generated a large database of boundary layer stability and transition data that was only partially analyzed before data analysis was abruptly ended in the late 1990's. Renewed interest in laminar flow technologies prompted additional data analysis, to integrate all data, including some post-test roughness and porosity measurements. The objective is to gain new insights into the effects of suction on boundary layer stability. A number of challenges were encountered during the data analysis, and their solutions are discussed in detail. They include the effect of the probe vibration, the effect of the time-varying surface temperature on traveling crossflow instabilities, and the effect of the stationary crossflow modes on the approximation of wall location. Despite the low turbulence intensity of the wind tunnel (0.01 to 0.02%), traveling crosflow disturbances were present in the data, in some cases at amplitudes up to 1% of the freestream velocity. However, the data suggests that transition was dominated by stationary crossflow. Traveling crossflow results and stationary data in the presence of suction are compared with linear parabolized stability equations results as a way of testing the quality of the results.

  3. An investigation on hybrid interface using on-line monitoring experiment and finite element analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, H.T.X.; Martinez, M.J.; Ochoa, O.O.; Lagoudas, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the hybrid interface between metal and thermosetting polymer matrix composite was studied via experimental and numerical investigations. Hybrid laminates, whose constituents are aluminum foil, carbon fabric and epoxy matrix, were manufactured using the vacuum assisted resin transfer mo

  4. Towards a holistic assessment of the user experience with hybrid BCIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Romy; Pascual, Javier; Blankertz, Benjamin; Vidaurre, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Objective. In recent years, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have become mature enough to immensely benefit from the expertise and tools established in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). One of the core objectives in HCI research is the design of systems that provide a pleasurable user experience (UX). While the majority of BCI studies exclusively evaluate common efficiency measures such as classification accuracy and speed, single research groups have begun to look at further usability aspects such as ease of use, workload and learnability. However, these evaluation metrics only cover pragmatic aspects of UX while still not considering the hedonic quality of UX. In order to gain a holistic perspective on UX, hedonic quality aspects such as motivation and frustration were also taken into account for our evaluation of three BCI-driven interfaces, which were proposed to be used as a two-stage neuroprosthetic control within the EU project MUNDUS. Approach. At the first stage, one of six possible actions was selected and either confirmed or cancelled at the second stage. For the experiment, a solely event-related-potential-based interface (ERP-ERP) and two hybrid solutions were tested that were controlled by ERP and motor imagery (MI)—resulting in the two possible combinations: ERP selection/MI confirmation (ERP-MI) or MI selection/ERP confirmation (MI-ERP). Behavioural, subjective and encephalographic (EEG) data of 12 healthy subjects were collected during an online experiment with the three graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Main results. Results showed a significantly greater pragmatic quality (in terms of accuracy, efficiency, workload, use quality and learnability) for the ERP-ERP and ERP-MI GUIs in contrast to the MI-ERP GUI. Consequently, the MI-ERP GUI is least suited for use as a neuroprosthetic control. With respect to the comparison of the ERP-ERP and ERP-MI GUIs, no significant differences in pragmatic and hedonic quality of UX were found

  5. Towards a holistic assessment of the user experience with hybrid BCIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Romy; Pascual, Javier; Blankertz, Benjamin; Vidaurre, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have become mature enough to immensely benefit from the expertise and tools established in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). One of the core objectives in HCI research is the design of systems that provide a pleasurable user experience (UX). While the majority of BCI studies exclusively evaluate common efficiency measures such as classification accuracy and speed, single research groups have begun to look at further usability aspects such as ease of use, workload and learnability. However, these evaluation metrics only cover pragmatic aspects of UX while still not considering the hedonic quality of UX. In order to gain a holistic perspective on UX, hedonic quality aspects such as motivation and frustration were also taken into account for our evaluation of three BCI-driven interfaces, which were proposed to be used as a two-stage neuroprosthetic control within the EU project MUNDUS. At the first stage, one of six possible actions was selected and either confirmed or cancelled at the second stage. For the experiment, a solely event-related-potential-based interface (ERP-ERP) and two hybrid solutions were tested that were controlled by ERP and motor imagery (MI)--resulting in the two possible combinations: ERP selection/MI confirmation (ERP-MI) or MI selection/ERP confirmation (MI-ERP). Behavioural, subjective and encephalographic (EEG) data of 12 healthy subjects were collected during an online experiment with the three graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Results showed a significantly greater pragmatic quality (in terms of accuracy, efficiency, workload, use quality and learnability) for the ERP-ERP and ERP-MI GUIs in contrast to the MI-ERP GUI. Consequently, the MI-ERP GUI is least suited for use as a neuroprosthetic control. With respect to the comparison of the ERP-ERP and ERP-MI GUIs, no significant differences in pragmatic and hedonic quality of UX were found. Since throughout better results were

  6. Broadband sidebands generated by parametric instability in lower hybrid current drive experiments on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amicucci, L., E-mail: luca.amicucci@enea.it; Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.; Giovannozzi, E.; Tuccillo, A. A. [EUROfusion-ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Unità Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Ding, B. J.; Li, M. H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-12-10

    Modern research on nuclear fusion energy, based on the tokamak concept, has strong need of tools for actively driving non-inductive current especially at the periphery of plasma column, where tools available so far have poor efficiency. This is essential for solving one of the most critical problems for thermonuclear reactor, consisting in how to achieve the figure of fusion gain in the context of sufficient stability. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) effect has the potential capability of driving current at large radii of reactor plasma with high efficiency [1]. Experiments recently carried out on EAST showed that a strong activity of LH sideband waves (from the RF probe spectra), accompanied by weak core penetration of the coupled LH power, is present when operating at relatively high plasma densities. Previous theoretical results, confirmed by experiments on FTU, showed that the LH sideband phenomenon is produced by parametric instability (PI), which are mitigated by higher plasma edge temperatures. This condition is thus useful for enabling the LH power propagation when operating with profiles having high plasma densities even at the edge. In the present work, we show new PI modeling of EAST plasmas data, obtained in condition of higher plasma edge temperature due to chamber lithisation. The obtained trend of the PI frequencies and growth rates is consistent with data of RF probe spectra, available in different regimes of lithisated and not lithisated vessel. Moreover, these spectra are interpreted as PI effect occurring at the periphery of plasma column, however in the low field side where the LH power is coupled.

  7. Broadband sidebands generated by parametric instability in lower hybrid current drive experiments on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amicucci, L.; Ding, B. J.; Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.; Giovannozzi, E.; Li, M. H.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Modern research on nuclear fusion energy, based on the tokamak concept, has strong need of tools for actively driving non-inductive current especially at the periphery of plasma column, where tools available so far have poor efficiency. This is essential for solving one of the most critical problems for thermonuclear reactor, consisting in how to achieve the figure of fusion gain in the context of sufficient stability. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) effect has the potential capability of driving current at large radii of reactor plasma with high efficiency [1]. Experiments recently carried out on EAST showed that a strong activity of LH sideband waves (from the RF probe spectra), accompanied by weak core penetration of the coupled LH power, is present when operating at relatively high plasma densities. Previous theoretical results, confirmed by experiments on FTU, showed that the LH sideband phenomenon is produced by parametric instability (PI), which are mitigated by higher plasma edge temperatures. This condition is thus useful for enabling the LH power propagation when operating with profiles having high plasma densities even at the edge. In the present work, we show new PI modeling of EAST plasmas data, obtained in condition of higher plasma edge temperature due to chamber lithisation. The obtained trend of the PI frequencies and growth rates is consistent with data of RF probe spectra, available in different regimes of lithisated and not lithisated vessel. Moreover, these spectra are interpreted as PI effect occurring at the periphery of plasma column, however in the low field side where the LH power is coupled.

  8. Molecular marker-based prediction of hybrid performance in maize using unbalanced data from multiple experiments with factorial crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Tobias A; Möhring, Jens; Maurer, Hans Peter; Dhillon, Baldev S; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Sørensen, Anker P; Frisch, Matthias

    2009-02-01

    In hybrid breeding, the prediction of hybrid performance (HP) is extremely important as it is difficult to evaluate inbred lines in numerous cross combinations. Recent developments such as doubled haploid production and molecular marker technologies have enhanced the prospects of marker-based HP prediction to accelerate the breeding process. Our objectives were to (1) predict HP using a combined analysis of hybrids and parental lines from a breeding program, (2) evaluate the use of molecular markers in addition to phenotypic and pedigree data, (3) evaluate the combination of line per se data with marker-based estimates, (4) study the effect of the number of tested parents, and (5) assess the advantage of haplotype blocks. An unbalanced dataset of 400 hybrids from 9 factorial crosses tested in different experiments and data of 79 inbred parents were subjected to combined analyses with a mixed linear model. Marker data of the inbreds were obtained with 20 AFLP primer-enzyme combinations. Cross-validation was used to assess the performance prediction of hybrids of which no or only one parental line was testcross evaluated. For HP prediction, the highest proportion of explained variance (R (2)), 46% for grain yield (GY) and 70% for grain dry matter content (GDMC), was obtained from line per se best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) estimates plus marker effects associated with mid-parent heterosis (TEAM-LM). Our study demonstrated that HP was efficiently predicted using molecular markers even for GY when testcross data of both parents are not available. This can help in improving greatly the efficiency of commercial hybrid breeding programs.

  9. Lower Hybrid Current Drive Experiments on Alcator C-Mod: Comparison with Theory and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoli, Paul

    2007-11-01

    Recently, lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments have been carried out on Alcator C-Mod using an RF system consisting of 12 klystrons at 4.6 GHz, feeding a 4 x 22 waveguide array. Up to 900 kW of LH power has been coupled in the range1.6 PLH 0.3 [1]. We have simulated the LH current drive in these discharges using the combined ray tracing / 3D (r, v, v//) Fokker Planck code GENRAY -- CQL3D [2] and found similar current drive efficiencies. Measurements of nonthermal x-ray emission and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) confirm the presence of a significant fast electron population that varies with waveguide phasing and plasma density. Studies are currently underway to investigate the role of fast electron diffusion and full-wave effects such as diffractional broadening in determining the spatial and velocity space structure of the nonthermal electrons. The 3D (r, v, v//) electron distribution function from CQL3D has been used in synthetic diagnostic codes to simulate the measured hard x-ray and ECE emissions. Fast electron diffusion times have been inferred from x-ray data by employing a radial diffusion operator in CQL3D and determining the fast electron diffusivities that are required to reproduce the experimentally observed profiles of hard x-ray emission. Finally, we have been performing full-wave LH field simulations using the massively parallel TORIC --LH solver [3] in order to assess spatial and spectral broadening of the incident wave front that can result from diffraction and wave focusing effects. [1] R. Parker, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 51, 20 (2006). [2] R.W. Harvey and M. McCoy, ``The CQL3D Fokker Planck Code,'' Proc. IAEA Tech. Comm. Meeting on Simulation and Modeling of Thermonuclear Plasmas, Montreal, Canada, 1992. [3] J. C. Wright et al., Nucl. Fusion 45, 1411 (2005).

  10. PET/MRI: a novel hybrid imaging technique. Major clinical indications and preliminary experience in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Taise; Martins, Karine Minaif; Ionescu, Tudor Mihai; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Wagner, Jairo; Campos, Guilherme de Carvalho; Nogueira, Solange Amorim; Guerra, Elaine Gonçalves; Amaro, Edson

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, medical imaging with hybrid techniques has widely accepted and employed in clinical routine. PET/MRI offers significant advantages, including excellent contrast and resolution and reduced ionizing radiation, as compared to well-established PET/CT. Therefore, PET/MRI is a promising modality for oncologic imaging of some regions, such as brain, head and neck, liver and pelvis. This article set out to analyze clinical conditions that could benefit from PET/MRI imaging based on our caseload. The potential of PET/MRI to become the imaging modality of choice for assessment of neurologic and oncologic conditions associated with soft tissues is highlighted. Clinical aspects of PET/MRI and its application to clinical cases are illustrated with examples extracted from the authors' preliminary experience. RESUMO Nos últimos anos, imagens médicas com tecnologias híbridas tornaram-se amplamente aceitas e utilizadas na prática clínica. O PET/RM possui vantagens importantes, incluindo excelentes contrastes e resolução, e menor radiação ionizante, em comparação ao PET/TC. Por isto, é uma modalidade promissora para exames de imagem de pacientes oncológicos, para avaliar o cérebro, cabeça e pescoço, o fígado e a pelve. O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar as situações clínicas que se beneficiariam de exames de PET/RM a partir de uma casuística. Destacamos o potencial desta técnica se tornar o método de imagem de escolha para doenças neurológicas e oncológicas que envolvam partes moles. Os aspectos clínicos de PET/RM e sua aplicação aos casos clínicos são ilustrados com exemplos da experiência inicial dos autores.

  11. Growth, straightness and survival at age 32 in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population (Experiment 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An interspecific factorial hybridization was made, where seven P. strobus female parent trees were mated to four P. wallichiana male trees, in order to transfer genes for resistance to blister-rust from the blue pine to the F1 hybrids. The hybrid seedlings and the open pollinated families of the two parents were three times consecutivelyinoculated with blister-rust. The six years old seedlings were transplanted in the field in the so called Văliug Experiment 1. The experimental design consisted in 28 hybrid full-sib families and two open pollinated families of the parent species. Plantation took place in a complete randomized block design with three blocks, with 6 to 12 seedlings per linear plot and 3 x 3 m spacing. This paper is based on the measurements made at age 32, just after the first thinning. Diameter at breast height, tree height, tree volume, stem straightness and tree survival were the five measured traits. According to ANOVA, significant (p < 0.05 and highly significant (p< 0.001 differences for diameter at breast height, tree height, volume growth rate, stem straightness and tree survival were detected between hybrid families. Highly significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.001 differences were found between eastern white pine female parents for survival, stem straightness and all growth traits, suggestingthat nuclear additive genes are controlling the respective characters. Consequently, high survival or genetic resistance to blister-rust can be found within the P. strobus species even though it is highly susceptible to this pathogen. The P. wallichiana parents exhibited significant additive effects on straightness and breast height diameter, but no significance in height, volume, and tree survival. The contribution of the additive variance to the phenotypic one was 65.7% for diameter, 58.6% for height, 50.5% for volume, 70.4% for stem straightness and 73.4% for tree survival. Hence, additive variance should be employed in a breeding program

  12. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, C. M.; Klimek-McDonald, D. R.; Pineda, E. J.; King, J. A.; Reichanadter, A. M.; Miskioglu, I.; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite, while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet Carbon Fiber Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Cameron M.; Klimek-McDonald, Danielle R.; Pineda, Evan J.; King, Julie A.; Reichanadter, Alex M.; Miskioglu, Ibrahim; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite, while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  14. Modelling of hybrid scenario: from present-day experiments towards ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaudon, X.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Artaud, J. F.; Belo, P.; Bizarro, João P. S.; Casper, T.; Citrin, J.; Fable, E.; Ferreira, J.; Garcia, J.; Garzotti, L.; Giruzzi, G.; Hobirk, J.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Imbeaux, F.; Joffrin, E.; Koechl, F.; Liu, F.; Lönnroth, J.; Moreau, D.; Parail, V.; Schneider, M.; Snyder, P. B.; the ASDEX-Upgrade Team; Contributors, JET-EFDA; the EU-ITM ITER Scenario Modelling Group

    2013-07-01

    The ‘hybrid’ scenario is an attractive operating scenario for ITER since it combines long plasma duration with the reliability of the reference H-mode regime. We review the recent European modelling effort carried out within the Integrated Scenario Modelling group which aims at (i) understanding the underlying physics of the hybrid regime in ASDEX-Upgrade and JET and (ii) extrapolating them towards ITER. JET and ASDEX-Upgrade hybrid scenarios performed under different experimental conditions have been simulated in an interpretative and predictive way in order to address the current profile dynamics and its link with core confinement, the relative importance of magnetic shear, s, and E × B flow shear on the core turbulence, pedestal stability and H-L transition. The correlation of the improved confinement with an increased s/q at outer radii observed in JET and ASDEX-Upgrade discharges is consistent with the predictions based on the GLF23 model applied in the simulations of the ion and electron kinetic profiles. Projections to ITER hybrid scenarios have been carried out focusing on optimization of the heating/current drive schemes to reach and ultimately control the desired plasma equilibrium using ITER actuators. Firstly, access condition to the hybrid-like q-profiles during the current ramp-up phase has been investigated. Secondly, from the interpreted role of the s/q ratio, ITER hybrid scenario flat-top performance has been optimized through tailoring the q-profile shape and pedestal conditions. EPED predictions of pedestal pressure and width have been used as constraints in the interpretative modelling while the core heat transport is predicted by GLF23. Finally, model-based approach for real-time control of advanced tokamak scenarios has been applied to ITER hybrid regime for simultaneous magnetic and kinetic profile control.

  15. Ion tail formation by cascade trapping in lower-hybrid heating experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, Y.; Nakach, R.

    1986-03-01

    The possibility of the operation of a multistep trapping process in the interaction of the ions of a plasma with lower--hybrid waves, leading to the formation of a tail in the ion velocity distribution, is investigated. Considering waves propagating perpendicularly to a homogeneous magnetic field, it is found that the spectral nature of the lower-hybrid excitation and the dependency of the perpendicular wave vector on the radial coordinate of the torus are the characteristics of the system which enable this cascading acceleration to take place. The conditions and limitations for the operation of this mechanism are discussed.

  16. Hybrid Reynolds-Averaged/Large-Eddy Simulations of a Co-Axial Supersonic Free-Jet Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurle, R. A.; Edwards, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Reynolds-averaged and hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations have been applied to a supersonic coaxial jet flow experiment. The experiment utilized either helium or argon as the inner jet nozzle fluid, and the outer jet nozzle fluid consisted of laboratory air. The inner and outer nozzles were designed and operated to produce nearly pressure-matched Mach 1.8 flow conditions at the jet exit. The purpose of the computational effort was to assess the state-of-the-art for each modeling approach, and to use the hybrid Reynolds-averaged/large-eddy simulations to gather insight into the deficiencies of the Reynolds-averaged closure models. The Reynolds-averaged simulations displayed a strong sensitivity to choice of turbulent Schmidt number. The baseline value chosen for this parameter resulted in an over-prediction of the mixing layer spreading rate for the helium case, but the opposite trend was noted when argon was used as the injectant. A larger turbulent Schmidt number greatly improved the comparison of the results with measurements for the helium simulations, but variations in the Schmidt number did not improve the argon comparisons. The hybrid simulation results showed the same trends as the baseline Reynolds-averaged predictions. The primary reason conjectured for the discrepancy between the hybrid simulation results and the measurements centered around issues related to the transition from a Reynolds-averaged state to one with resolved turbulent content. Improvements to the inflow conditions are suggested as a remedy to this dilemma. Comparisons between resolved second-order turbulence statistics and their modeled Reynolds-averaged counterparts were also performed.

  17. Developement of Hybrid Photo-detectors for the Hyper-Kamiokande Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Seiko [Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-city, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Yasuhiro; Nakayama, Shoei; Kametani, Isao; Shiozawa, Masato; Suzuki, Yoichiro; Sekiya, Hiroyuki; Nakahata, Masayuki; Hayato, Yoshinari; Haga, Yuto; Miura, Makoto [ICRR, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-sity, Chiba (Japan); Ichikawa, Atsuko; Ikeda, Motoyasu; Nakaya, Tsuyoshi; Minamino, Akihiro; Tateishi, Keiji [Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-city, Kyoto (Japan); Aihara, Hiroaki; Suda, Yusuke; Yokoyama, Masashi [University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan); Omura, Takayuki [Hamamatsu K.K., Sunayama-cho, 325-6, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu-city, Shizuoka (Japan); and others

    2014-08-15

    We are developing a hybrid photo detector (HPD) for the Hyper-Kamiokande Project. Eight-inch HPDs were prepared to evaluate their performance. Based on the results from these measurements, HPDs achieve a better performance such as single photon separation than conventional PMTs. A verification study lasting a few years in a water tank is planned in 2013 to check their feasibility.

  18. Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump Installations: Experiences, Improvements, and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hackel; Amanda Pertzborn

    2011-06-30

    One innovation to ground-source heat pump (GSHP, or GHP) systems is the hybrid GSHP (HyGSHP) system, which can dramatically decrease the first cost of GSHP systems by using conventional technology (such as a cooling tower or a boiler) to meet a portion of the peak heating or cooling load. This work uses three case studies (two cooling-dominated, one heating-dominated) to demonstrate the performance of the hybrid approach. Three buildings were studied for a year; the measured data was used to validate models of each system. The models were used to analyze further improvements to the hybrid approach, and establish that this approach has positive impacts, both economically and environmentally. Lessons learned by those who design and operate the systems are also documented, including discussions of equipment sizing, pump operation, and cooling tower control. Finally, the measured data sets and models that were created during this work are described; these materials have been made freely available for further study of hybrid systems.

  19. Fatigue experiments on hybrid welded connections made of very high strength steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.; Kolstein, M.H.; Romeijn, A.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2009-01-01

    In a fatigue loaded structure made of Very High Strength Steels (VHSS) absolute and relative stress variations will be higher compared to those in structures made of lower grade steels. Stress concentrations in joints reduce the advantage of VHSS under cyclic loading. A hybrid connection, consisting

  20. Study of multipass regimes in lower hybrid current drive experiments on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanbekov, R.; Litaudon, X.; Peysson, Y.; Hoang, G.T.; Kazarian, F.; Moreau, D. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Shoucri, M.; Shkarofsky, I.P. [Centre Canadien de Fusion Magnetique, Varennes, PQ (Canada); Baranov, Y. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Kupfer, K. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This document presents a study of multipass regimes in Lower Hybrid Current Drive on Tore Supra. A statistical model of the plasma wave propagation based on the Fokker-Planck theory is proposed, together with experimental results performed on Tore Supra. (TEC). 9 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Hybrid Placemaking in the Library: Designing Digital Technology to Enhance Users' On-Site Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilandzic, Mark; Johnson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents research findings and design strategies that illustrate how digital technology can be applied as a tool for "hybrid" placemaking in ways that would not be possible in purely digital or physical spaces. Digital technology has revolutionised the way people learn and gather new information. This trend has challenged the…

  2. Research Experience with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.; Pesaran, A.; Kelly, K.; Thornton, M.; Nortman, P.

    2007-12-01

    This technical document reports on the exploratory research conducted by NREL on PHEV technology using a Toyota Prius that has been converted to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. The data includes both controlled dynamometer and on-road test results, particularly for hilly driving. The results highlight the petroleum savings and benefits of PHEV technology.

  3. HYBRID SNCR-SCR TECHNOLOGIES FOR NOX CONTROL: MODELING AND EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hybrid process of homogeneous gas-phase selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) followed by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) was investigated through experimentation and modeling. Measurements, using NO-doped flue gas from a gas-fired 29 kW test combu...

  4. Mobile 3D quality of experience evaluation: a hybrid data collection and analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utriainen, Timo; Häyrynen, Jyrki; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Boev, Atanas; Gotchev, Atanas; Hannuksela, Miska M.

    2011-02-01

    The paper presents a hybrid approach to study the user's experienced quality of 3D visual content on mobile autostereoscopic displays. It combines extensive subjective tests with collection and objective analysis of eye-tracked data. 3D cues which are significant for mobiles are simulated in the generated 3D test content. The methodology for conducting subjective quality evaluation includes hybrid data-collection of quantitative quality preferences, qualitative impressions, and binocular eye-tracking. We present early results of the subjective tests along with eye movement reaction times, areas of interest and heatmaps obtained from raw eye-tracked data after statistical analysis. The study contributes to the question what is important to be visualized on portable auto-stereoscopic displays and how to maintain and visually enhance the quality of 3D content for such displays.

  5. Experiments, modeling and simulation of the magnetic behavior of inhomogeneously coated nickel/aluminum hybrid foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, A., E-mail: anne.jung@mx.uni-saarland.de [Universität des Saarlandes, Institute of Applied Mechanics, Campus A4 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Klis, D., E-mail: d.klis@lte.uni-saarland.de [Universität des Saarlandes, Laboratory for Electromagnetic Theory, Campus C6 3, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Goldschmidt, F., E-mail: f.goldschmidt@mx.uni-saarland.de [Universität des Saarlandes, Institute of Applied Mechanics, Campus A4 2, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Open-cell metal foams are used as lightweight construction elements, energy absorbers or as support for catalytic coatings. Coating of open-cell metal foams is not only used for catalytic applications, but it leads also to tremendous increase in stiffness and energy absorption capacity. A non-line of sight coating technique for complex 3D structures is electrodeposition. Unfortunately, due to the 3D porosity and the related problems in mass transport limitation during the deposition, it is not possible to produce homogeneously coated foams. In the present contribution, we present a semi-non-destructive technique applicable to determine the coating thickness distribution of magnetic coatings by measuring the remanent magnetic field of coated foams. In order to have a closer look at the mass transport mechanism, a numerical model was developed to predict the field scans for different coating thickness distributions in the foams. For long deposition times the deposition reaches a steady state whereas a Helmholtz equation is sufficient to predict the coating thickness distribution. The applied current density could be identified as the main influencing parameter. Based on the developed model, it is possible to improve the electrodeposition process and hence the homogeneity in the coating thickness of coated metal foams. This leads to enhanced mechanical properties of the hybrid foams and contributes to better and resource-efficient energy absorbers and lightweight materials. - Highlights: • Production of hybrid foams by electrodeposition of nickel on open-cell metal foams. • Magnetic field scans for visualization of spatial coating thickness distribution. • Modeling of magnetic fields of inhomogeneously coated hybrid foams. • Investigation of mass transport limitation during coating by a Helmholtz equation. • Increasing coating homogeneity by use of low current densities and deposition rates.

  6. Growth, straightness and survival at age 32 in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population (Experiment 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available By using an incomplete factorial mating design between twenty Pinus strobus L. female and seven P. wallichiana Jack. male trees, a number of 34 full-sib families were obtained. The objective of this experiment was to combine the fast growing of the former species with moderately to high resistance to blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fich. in Rabenh. of the latter one. The hybrid families were artificially inoculated at age two, and field planted at age four. The plantation took place within an old black current (Ribes nigrum L. heavy infected by blister rust. In order to provoke new infections, this time naturally, the pine rows were planted in between the black currant ones. Diameters at breast height, tree height, tree growth rate volume, stem straightness and tree survivals were the traits measured at age 32 from seed. The first trial thinning was simultaneously applied with the present measurements. The average tree survival was 74.8% in hybrids, 8.3% in Pinus strobus and 27.8% in P. wallichiana. Highly significant (p < 0.01 differences were found between hybrid families for all traits except stem straightness. Genetic coefficient of variation at family level was 13.7% for tree volume growth rate and 15.9% for tree survival, but only 2.1% for tree straightness. Broad-sense family heritability estimates were 0.530 for diameter at breast height, 0.596 for stem height, and 0.564 for stem volume growth rate, 0.166 for stem straightness, and 0.539 for tree survivals. Similarly, the individual tree narrow-sense heritability estimates were 0.138 for diameter at breast height, 0.209 for stem height, 0.149 for stem volume growth rate, and 0.022 for stem straightness. If the best 5, 10 and 15 of 34 families were selected, a genetic gain of 17.7%, 13.4% and 10.2%, respectively, may be achieved in tree survival or blister rust resistance. Similarly, if the best 5%, 10% and 15% individuals within the best hybrid families were selected, a genetic gain of

  7. Growth, straightness and survival at age 32 in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population (Experiment 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available By using an incomplete factorial mating design between twentyPinus strobus L. female and seven P. wallichiana Jack. male trees, a number of 34 full-sib families were obtained. The objective of this experiment was to combine the fast growing of the former species with moderately to high resistance to blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fich. in Rabenh. of the latter one. The hybrid families were artificially inoculated at age two, and field planted at age four. The plantation took place within an old black current (Ribes nigrum L. heavy infected by blister rust. In order to provoke new infections, this time naturally, the pine rows were planted in between theblack currant ones. Diameters at breast height, tree height, tree growth rate volume, stem straightness and tree survivals were the traits measured at age 32 from seed. The first trial thinning was simultaneously applied with the present measurements. The average tree survival was 74.8% in hybrids, 8.3% in Pinus strobus and 27.8% in P. wallichiana. Highly significant (p < 0.01 differences were found between hybrid families for all traits except stem straightness. Genetic coefficient of variation at family level was 13.7% fortree volume growth rate and 15.9% for tree survival, but only 2.1% for tree straightness. Broad-sense family heritability estimates were 0.530 for diameter at breast height, 0.596 for stem height, and 0.564 for stem volume growth rate, 0.166 for stem straightness, and 0.539 for tree survivals. Similarly, the individual tree narrow-sense heritability estimates were 0.138 for diameter at breast height, 0.209 for stem height, 0.149 for stem volume growth rate, and 0.022 for stem straightness. If the best 5, 10 and 15 of 34 families wereselected, a genetic gain of 17.7%, 13.4% and 10.2%, respectively, may be achieved in tree survival or blister rust resistance. Similarly, if the best 5%, 10% and 15% individuals within the best hybrid families were selected, a genetic gain of 4

  8. A Monte Carlo study to check the hadronic interaction models by a new EAS hybrid experiment in Tibet

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ying; Jiang, L; Chen, D; Ding, L K; Shibata, M; Katayose, Y; Hotta, N; Ohnishi, M; Ouchi, T; Saito, T

    2013-01-01

    A new EAS hybrid experiment has been designed by constructing a YAC (Yangbajing Air shower Core) detector array inside the existing Tibet-III air shower array. The first step of YAC, called "YAC-I", consists of 16 plastic scintillator units (4 rows times 4 columns) each with an area of 40 cm * 50 cm which is used to check hadronic interaction models used in AS simulations. A Monte Carlo study shows that YAC-I can record high energy electromagnetic component in the core region of air showers induced by primary particles of several tens TeV energies where the primary composition is directly measured by space experiments. It may provide a direct check of the hadronic interaction models currently used in the air shower simulations in the corresponding energy region. In present paper, the method of the observation and the sensitivity of the characteristics of the observed events to the different interaction models are discussed.

  9. Heating and current drive by fast wave in lower hybrid range of frequency on Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun-Ho, E-mail: shkim95@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyunwoo; Lee, Byungje [KwangWoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Jong-Gab; Lee, Hyun-Young; Hwang, Yong-Seok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    An efficient heating and current drive scheme in central or off-axis region is required to realize steady state operation of tokamak fusion reactor. And the fast wave in lower hybrid resonance range of frequency could be a candidate for such an efficient scheme in high density and high temperature plasmas. Its propagation and absorption characteristics including current drive and coupling efficiency are analyzed for Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus and it is shown that it is possible to drive current with considerable current drive efficiency in central region. The RF system for the fast wave experiment including klystron, transmission systems, inter-digital antenna, and RF diagnostics are given as well in this paper.

  10. The new hybrid thermal neutron facility at TAPIRO reactor for BNCT radiobiological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, J; Rosi, G; Agosteo, S

    2007-01-01

    A new thermal neutron irradiation facility, devoted to carry out both dosimetric and radiobiological studies on boron carriers, which are being developed in the framework of INFN BNCT project, has been installed at the ENEA Casaccia TAPIRO research fast reactor. The thermal column, based on an original, hybrid, neutron spectrum shifter configuration, has been recently become operative. In spite of its low power (5 kW), the new facility is able to provide a high thermal neutron flux level, uniformly distributed inside the irradiation cavity, with a quite low gamma background. The main features and preliminary benchmark measurements of the Beam-shaping assembly are here presented and discussed.

  11. Vacancy formation in MoO3: hybrid density functional theory and photoemission experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Salawu, Omotayo Akande

    2016-09-29

    Molybdenum oxide (MoO3) is an important material that is being considered for numerous technological applications, including catalysis and electrochromism. In the present study, we apply hybrid density functional theory to investigate O and Mo vacancies in the orthorhombic phase. We determine the vacancy formation energies of different defect sites as functions of the electron chemical potential, addressing different charge states. In addition, we investigate the consequences of defects for the material properties. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy is employed to study the valence band of stoichiometric and O defective MoO3. We show that O vacancies result in occupied in-gap states.

  12. Characterisation of the BCM1F Analog Opto Hybrids for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Srinidhi, Bheesette

    2013-01-01

    The BCM1F system in the CMS detector is used for measuring the beam-background and more importantly the real time luminosity and sits 1.8 m from the interaction point (IP5).There has been a proposal to upgrade the BCM1F when it would be installed for the LHC run in 2014. The BCM1F is fitted with Analog Opto-Hybrid(AOH) boards which consists of three Linear Laser Drivers (LLD) and three laser diodes. These AOH boards are affected by radiation and temperature in a long term and short term respectively. This paper studies the characteristics and behavior of these AOH boards.

  13. Characterisation of the BCM1F Analog Opto Hybrids for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bheesette, Srinidhi

    2013-01-01

    The BCM1F system used in the CMS is used for measuring the beam-background and more importantly the real time luminosity and sits 1.8 m from the interaction point (IP5).There has been a proposal to upgrade the BCM1F when it would be installed for the LHC run in 2014. The BCM1F is fitted with Analog Opto-Hybrid(AOH) boards which consists of three Linear Laser Drivers (LLD) and three laser diodes. These AOH boards are affected by radiation and temperature in a long term and short term respectively. This paper studies the characteristics and behavior of these AOH boards.

  14. GeoNeoLogical novel and other hybrimedia experiments: or how to use hybrid methods such as Hybrid Discourse Analysis (HDA within a knowledge base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade, Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I will present some results of the project Public Communication of Art, which developed a seminal theory and methodology intended to cope with hybridity and new media literacy in our globalized and inter/transcultural world. Some of the methods used blend vision with touch and are called ‘hybrid methods’ or ‘hybrimethods’. Examples of these are, for instance, a Multitouch Interactive Table, a Multitouch Questionnaire, Trichotomies Game and GeoNeoLogic Novel, this last one being a hybrid novel activated by fusion of vision, touch and GPS coordinates. Another hybrimethod is a sort of discursive analysis, named Hybrid Discourse Analysis (HDA, which uses ‘semantic-logical networks’ organized by concepts and ‘relation-concepts’. HDA is here articulated with Critical Sociology and applied to the analysis of a text on Magic Realism, which is also a hybrid genre within the social field of literature.

  15. Growth, straightness and survival at age 32 in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population (Experiment 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An interspecific factorial hybridization was made, where seven P. strobus female parent trees were mated to four P. wallichiana male trees, in order to transfer genes for resistance to blister-rust from the blue pine to the F1 hybrids. The hybrid seedlings and the open pollinated families of the two parents were three times consecutively inoculated with blister-rust. The six years old seedlings were transplanted in the fi eld in the so called Valiug Experiment 1. The experimental design consisted in 28 hybrid full-sib families and two open pollinated families of the parent species. Plantation took place in a complete randomized block design with three blocks, with 6 to 12 seedlings per linear plot and 3 x 3 m spacing. This paper is based on the measurements made at age 32, just after the fi rst thinning. Diameter at breast height, tree height, tree volume, stem straightness and tree survival were the fi ve measured traits. According to ANOVA, signifi cant (p < 0.05 and highly signifi cant (p < 0.001 differences for diameter at breast height, tree height, volume growth rate, stem straightness and tree survival were detected between hybrid families. Highly signifi cant (p< 0.01, p < 0.001 differences were found between eastern white pine female parents for survival, stem straightness and all growth traits, suggesting that nuclear additive genes are controlling the respective characters. Consequently, high survival or genetic resistance to blister-rust can be found within the P. strobus species even though it is highly susceptible to this pathogen. The P. wallichiana parents exhibited signifi cant additive effects on straightness and breast height diameter, but no signifi cance in height, volume, and tree survival. The contribution of the additive variance to the phenotypic one was 65.7% for diameter, 58.6% for height, 50.5% for volume, 70.4% for stem straightness and 73.4% for tree survival. Hence, additive variance should be employed

  16. Growth, straightness and survival at age 32 in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population (Experiment 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An interspecific factorial hybridization was made, where seven P. strobus female parent trees were mated to four P. wallichiana male trees, in order to transfer genes for resistance to blister-rust from the blue pine to the F1 hybrids. The hybrid seedlings and the open pollinated families of the two parents were three times consecutively inoculated with blister-rust. The six years old seedlings were transplanted in the fi eld in the so called Valiug Experiment 1. The experimental design consisted in 28 hybrid full-sib families and two open pollinated families of the parent species. Plantation took place in a complete randomized block design with three blocks, with 6 to 12 seedlings per linear plot and 3 x 3 m spacing. This paper is based on the measurements made at age 32, just after the fi rst thinning. Diameter at breast height, tree height, tree volume, stem straightness and tree survival were the fi ve measured traits. According to ANOVA, signifi cant (p < 0.05 and highly signifi cant (p < 0.001 differences for diameter at breast height, tree height, volume growth rate, stem straightness and tree survival were detected between hybrid families. Highly signifi cant (p< 0.01, p < 0.001 differences were found between eastern white pine female parents for survival, stem straightness and all growth traits, suggesting that nuclear additive genes are controlling the respective characters. Consequently, high survival or genetic resistance to blister-rust can be found within the P. strobus species even though it is highly susceptible to this pathogen. The P. wallichiana parents exhibited signifi cant additive effects on straightness and breast height diameter, but no signifi cance in height, volume, and tree survival. The contribution of the additive variance to the phenotypic one was 65.7% for diameter, 58.6% for height, 50.5% for volume, 70.4% for stem straightness and 73.4% for tree survival. Hence, additive variance should be employed

  17. Excited state and charge dynamics of hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunctions. II. Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Anurag; Renshaw, C. Kyle; Oskooi, Ardavan; Lee, Kyusang; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2014-07-01

    In our companion paper (Paper I) [C. K. Renshaw and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 90, 045302 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.045302], we developed a model for charge transport and photogeneration at hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor heterojunctions (OI-HJs). Here we apply the model to two planar bilayer hybrid photovoltaic devices: the first using the wide-band gap n-TiO2 in combination with the hole transporting tetraphenyl-dibenzoperiflanthene (DBP), and the second based on the moderate-band gap n-InP and the hole transporting pentacene (PEN). We measure the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and current density vs voltage (J-V) characteristics of both devices as functions of temperature. The EQE spectra for both TiO2/DBP and InP/PEN provide convincing evidence that Frenkel states generated in the organic form hybrid charge transfer excitons (HCTEs) at the OI-HJ that are subsequently dissociated into free charges, and then collected at the opposing electrodes. The dissociation efficiency is found to be strongly influenced by the presence of surface states, particularly in the InP/PEN device. We further develop the J-V model from Paper I to include an analytical expression for space-charge effects in the organic at high currents. Model fits to the J-V data suggest that the temperature-dependent hole mobilities in both DBP and PEN result in increasing space-charge effects at low temperatures. Furthermore, we find that the J-V characteristics of the TiO2/DBP device both in the dark and under illumination are governed by interface recombination. In contrast, the dark current in the InP/PEN device is governed by injection over the OI-HJ barrier, whereas the photocurrent is dominated by interface recombination. This work elucidates the role of the HCTE state in photogeneration, and the applicability of our model to a range of important optoelectronic devices.

  18. From Hybrid to Actively-Controlled Gas Lubricated Bearings – Theory and Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morosi, Stefano

    bearings, tilting pad and flexure pivot gas bearings. These solutions proved to be effective in improving static and dynamic properties of the bearings, however issues related to the manufacturing and accuracy of predictions has so far limited their applications. Another drawback is that passive bearings...... offer a low degree of robustness, meaning that an accurate optimization is necessary for each application. Another way of improving gas bearings operation performance is by using active control systems, transforming conventional gas bearings in an electro-mechanical machine component. In this framework......-rig are backed by a comprehensive mathematical model that couples a finite element model of a flexible rotor, a thermohydrodynamic model based on a modified form of the Reynold’s equation for hybrid aerostatic-aerodynamic lubrication of compressible fluid, a piezoelectric injection system and a proportional...

  19. Investigation of lower hybrid physics through power modulation experiments on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Bonoli, P. T.; Meneghini, O.; Parker, R. R.; Porkolab, M.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G.; Wright, J. C.; Harvey, R. W.; Wilson, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is an attractive tool for off-axis current profile control in magnetically confined tokamak plasmas and burning plasmas (ITER), because of its high current drive efficiency. The LHCD system on Alcator C-Mod operates at 4.6 GHz, with ~ 1 MW of coupled power, and can produce a wide range of launched parallel refractive index (n||) spectra. A 32 chord, perpendicularly viewing hard x-ray camera has been used to measure the spatial and energy distribution of fast electrons generated by lower hybrid (LH) waves. Square-wave modulation of LH power on a time scale much faster than the current relaxation time does not significantly alter the poloidal magnetic field inside the plasma and thus allows for realistic modeling and consistent plasma conditions for different n|| spectra. Inverted hard x-ray profiles show clear changes in LH-driven fast electron location with differing n||. Boxcar binning of hard x-rays during LH power modulation allows for ~ 1 ms time resolution which is sufficient to resolve the build-up, steady-state, and slowing-down phases of fast electrons. Ray-tracing/Fokker-Planck modeling in combination with a synthetic hard x-ray diagnostic shows quantitative agreement with the x-ray data for high n|| cases. The time histories of hollow x-ray profiles have been used to measure off-axis fast electron transport in the outer half of the plasma, which is found to be small on a slowing down time scale.

  20. Design, Fabrication, and Characteristic Experiment of a Hybrid Electromagnet for Bottom-mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hyung; Lee, Jin-Haeng; Yoo, Yeon-Sik; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Ryu, Jeong-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) is located in the reactor pool top (Top-mounted) or a reactivity control mechanism room under the reactor pool bottom (Bottom-mounted). The function of the CRDM is to insert, withdraw, or maintain neutron absorbing material at any required position in the reactor core in order to keep reactivity control of the core. There are so many kinds of CRDMs, such as magnetic-jack type, hydraulic type, rack and pinion type, chain type, and linear or rotary step motor and so on. As a part of a new project, we have completed the design, fabrication, and characteristic experiment of the prototype bottom-mounted CRDM (BMCRDM). The measured carrying capacity of proto-type hybrid electromagnet is approximately 2.8 (kgf) larger than that of 3D-FEM result. The major reasons of the disagreement between the measured and calculated results are as follows. A. B-H Curve differences of ferromagnetic materials B. Fabrication tolerance and the measured maximum temperature at the center of winding for proto-type hybrid electromagnet, 106 .deg. C, appeared to be 5 .deg. C higher than the analytical result. The major reasons of the disagreement between the measured and calculated results are as follows. A. Difficult for exact modeling of winding including impregnated epoxy, coil insulator, and isolator.

  1. Thomson scattering diagnostic system design for the Compact Toroidal Hybrid experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso, P. J., E-mail: pjt0002@auburn.edu; Maurer, D. A.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.; Goforth, M. M.; Loch, S. D.; Pearce, A. J.; Cianciosa, M. R. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A new Thomson scattering system using standard commercially available components has been designed for the non-axisymmetric plasmas of the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH). The beam, generated by a frequency doubled Continuum PL DLS 2 J Nd:YAG laser, is passed vertically through an entrance Brewster window and an aperturing baffle system to minimize the stray laser light that could enter the collection optics. The beam line has been designed with an 8 m propagation distance to the mid-plane of the CTH device with the beam diameter kept less than 3 mm inside the plasma volume. The beam exits the vacuum system through another Brewster window and enters a beam dump, again to minimize the stray light in the vacuum chamber. Light collection, spectral processing, and signal detection are accomplished with an f/#∼ 1 aspheric lens, a commercially available Holospec f/1.8 spectrometer, and an Andor iStar DH740-18U-C3 image intensified camera. Spectral rejection of stray laser light, if needed, can be performed with the use of an optional interference filter at the spectrometer input. The system has been developed for initial single point measurements of plasmas with core electron temperatures of approximately 20–300 eV and densities of 5 × 10{sup 18} to 5 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3} dependent upon operational scenario.

  2. Design and implementation of a Thomson scattering diagnostic for the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, P. J.; Maurer, D. A.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.; Goforth, M. M.; Loch, S. D.; Pearce, A. J.; Cianciosa, M. R.

    2014-10-01

    A Thomson scattering system using standard commercially available components has been designed for the non-axisymmetric plasmas of the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH). The initial system takes a single point measurement and will be used to assess options for an upgrade to a multi-point system providing electron temperature and density profiles. This single point measurement will reduce the uncertainty in the reconstructed peak pressure by an order of magnitude for both ohmically driven, current-carrying plasmas and future gyrotron-heated stellarator plasmas. A principle design goal is to minimize stray laser light, geometrically on the machine side and spectrally on the collection side, to allow measurements of both full and half Thomson scattered spectral profiles. The beam, generated by a frequency doubled Continuum 2 J Nd:YaG laser, is passed vertically through an entrance Brewster window and an aperturing baffle system to minimize stray light. Light collection, spectral processing, and signal detection are accomplished with an f / # ~ 1 aspheric lens, a Holospec f/1.8 spectrometer, and an Andor iStar DH740-18U-C3 image intensified camera. The estimated number of scattered photons per channel will be of the order of 5 ×103 with a signal to noise ratio of S / N = 19 This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  3. Installation of a Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, P. J.; Maurer, D. A.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.; Cianciosa, M. R.

    2015-11-01

    A Thomson scattering system is being commissioned for the non-axisymmetric plasmas of the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH), a five-field period current-carrying torsatron. The initial system takes a single point measurement on the magnetic axis and will be used to assess options for an expansion to a multi-point system to enable better 3D equilibrium reconstructions using the V3FIT code. A single point measurement will reduce the uncertainty in the reconstructed peak pressure by an order of magnitude for both current-carrying plasmas and future gyrotron-heated stellarator plasmas. The beam, generated by a frequency doubled Continuum 2 J, Nd:YaG laser, is passed vertically through an entrance Brewster window and a two-aperture optical baffle system to minimize stray light. The beam line is designed to propagate ~ 8 m to the mid-plane of the CTH device with the beam diameter < 3 mm inside the plasma volume. An Andor iStar DH740-18U-C3 image intensified CCD camera is used in conjunction with a Holospec f/1.8 spectrograph to collect the red-shifted scattered light from 532-580 nm. A single point system will initially measure plasmas with core electron temperatures of 100 to 200 eV and densities of 5 ×1018 to 5 ×1019 m-3. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  4. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube-Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites: An Instructional Experiment in Nanomaterials Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, Miguel; Salgueirino, Veronica; Perez-Lorenzo, Moises; Correa-Duarte, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment is described to introduce advanced undergraduate students to an exciting area of nanotechnology that incorporates nanoparticles onto carbon nanotubes to produce systems that have valuable technological applications. The synthesis of such material has been easily achieved through a simple three-step procedure. Students explore…

  5. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube-Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites: An Instructional Experiment in Nanomaterials Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, Miguel; Salgueirino, Veronica; Perez-Lorenzo, Moises; Correa-Duarte, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment is described to introduce advanced undergraduate students to an exciting area of nanotechnology that incorporates nanoparticles onto carbon nanotubes to produce systems that have valuable technological applications. The synthesis of such material has been easily achieved through a simple three-step procedure. Students explore…

  6. At the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) for the experiment NA27

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The experiment NA27 was intended to measure accurately the lifetime of Charm particles and to study their hadronic production and decay particles. The vertex detector was the hydrogen bubble chamber LEBC. The aim was to collect several hundreths of fully reconstructed D0 and D+-, and several tens of F+- and Lambda_c decays as produced by 360 GeV/c negative pions and 400 GeV/c protons. The photo gives a side view of a section of the spectrometer, with a 12 m long gas Cerenkov counter at the centre. The spectrometer axis enters the photo at bottom, left corner. See photo 8311661, 8311662X, 8311660X.

  7. Hybrid Simulations and Scaling Laws for Shock Formation in the UCLA Collisionless Shock Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David; Winske, Dan; Cowee, Misa; Clark, S. Eric; Niemann, Christoph; Brecht, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Two- and three-dimensional simulations are used to compare and contrast the plasma expansion, formation of a magnetic cavity, and generation of an outgoing shock wave for conditions relevant to the laser experiment at UCLA, as a function of the background ion mass. A model of the shock formation process is constructed that yields an expression for the speed of the shock, which we show is in good agreement with the simulations. In addition, the criteria for generating strongly-coupled shocks are derived and simulations are used to examine the velocity scaling obtained via momentum conservation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by DTRA10027-6759.

  8. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  9. Exploring learning content and knowledge transfer in baccalaureate nursing students using a hybrid mental health practice experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Richard G; Scerbo, Christina Ko; Sinclair, Barbara; Hancock, Michele; Reid, David; Denomy, Eileen

    2017-04-01

    Little research has been completed exploring knowledge development and transfer from and between simulated and clinical practice settings in nurse education. This study sought to explore the content learned, and the knowledge transferred, in a hybrid mental health clinical course consisting of simulated and clinical setting experiences. A qualitative, interpretive descriptive study design. Clinical practice consisted of six 10-hour shifts in a clinical setting combined with six two-hour simulations. 12 baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in a compressed time frame program at a large, urban, Canadian university participated. Document analysis and a focus group were used to draw thematic representations of content and knowledge transfer between clinical environments (i.e., simulated and clinical settings) using the constant comparative data analysis technique. Four major themes arose: (a) professional nursing behaviors; (b) understanding of the mental health nursing role; (c) confidence gained in interview skills; and, (d) unexpected learning. Nurse educators should further explore the intermingling of simulation and clinical practice in terms of knowledge development and transfer with the goal of preparing students to function within the mental health nursing specialty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 综合果蝇杂交实验的构建与实践%Construction and Practice of Comprehensive Hybrid Experiment of Drosophila Melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马沛勤; 苏仙绒; 陈莉

    2015-01-01

    Using drosophila melanogaster as hybrid experiment parents, the independent hybridization of drosophila melanogaster of genetic experiments were transformed into a comprehensive hybridization experiment, and combined with transgenic fly lines( eyeless-GAL4) , hybrid experiments of UAS-Ras v12 and the analysis of genetic drift conditions, the verification experiments were changed into design, verification and exploration experiments.Which can help to enhance students’analysis ability, research ability, innovation ability, independent problem solving skills and knowledge application skills.%以黑腹果蝇品系:短翅、焦刚毛、白眼、灰体果蝇和长翅、直刚毛、红眼、黑檀体果蝇为杂交实验亲本,通过实验设计,将遗传学实验中各个验证遗传规律的独立果蝇杂交实验合成一个综合果蝇杂交实验,并与转基因果蝇品系eyeless-GAL4和UAS-Ras v12的杂交实验以及分析遗传漂变条件相结合,变原验证型实验为设计型+验证型+探索型实验,有利于培养学生的分析能力、探究能力、创新能力、独立解决问题能力、应用知识能力。

  11. Characterization of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System Based on a Factorial Design of Experiments Using Hardware Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Bernardo; Banta, Larry E; Tucker, David

    2012-10-01

    A full factorial experimental design and a replicated fractional factorial design were carried out using the Hybrid Performance (HyPer) project facility installed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), U.S. Department of Energy to simulate gasifer/fuel cell/turbine hybrid power systems. The HyPer facility uses hardware in the loop (HIL) technology that couples a modified recuperated gas turbine cycle with hardware driven by a solid oxide fuel cell model. A 34 full factorial design (FFD) was selected to study the effects of four factors: cold-air, hot-air, bleed-air bypass valves, and the electric load on different parameters such as cathode and turbine inlet temperatures, pressure and mass flow. The results obtained, compared with former results where the experiments were made using one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT), show that no strong interactions between the factors are present in the different parameters of the system. This work also presents a fractional factorial design (ffd) 34-2 in order to analyze replication of the experiments. In addition, a new envelope is described based on the results of the design of experiments (DoE), compared with OFAT experiments, and analyzed in an off-design integrated fuel cell/gas turbine framework. This paper describes the methodology, strategy, and results of these experiments that bring new knowledge concerning the operating state space for this kind of power generation system.

  12. Hybrid Placemaking in the Library: Designing Digital Technology to Enhance Users' On-Site Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilandzic, Mark; Johnson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents research findings and design strategies that illustrate how digital technology can be applied as a tool for "hybrid" placemaking in ways that would not be possible in purely digital or physical spaces. Digital technology has revolutionised the way people learn and gather new information. This trend has challenged the…

  13. Plasma current start-up experiments using outboard- and top-launch lower hybrid wave on the TST-2 spherical tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinya, T.; Takase, Y.; Yajima, S.; Moeller, C.; Yamazaki, H.; Tsujii, N.; Yoshida, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Togashi, H.; Toida, K.; Furui, H.; Homma, H.; Nakamura, K.; Roidl, B.; Sonehara, M.; Takahashi, W.; Takeuchi, T.

    2017-03-01

    Non-inductive plasma current start-up experiments were performed using the lower hybrid wave (LHW) on the TST-2 spherical tokamak. The density limit, observed in previous experiments using the outboard-launch antenna, disappeared after changing the plasma condition in the scrape-off layer, and the plasma current reached about 20 kA. In order to improve the LHW power deposition in the plasma core through an up-shift of the parallel wavenumber during the first pass through the plasma, a new top-launch antenna was designed, fabricated and installed. The plasma current ramp-up to 12 kA was achieved using the top-launch antenna alone in a preliminary experiment. Ray-tracing calculations using the measured plasma parameters showed a large up-shift during the first pass, satisfying the strong electron Landau damping condition in the plasma core.

  14. Design and Implementation of a 200kW, 28GHz gyrotron system for the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, G. J.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ennis, D. A.; Maurer, D. A.; Bigelow, T.

    2016-10-01

    The Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) is an l = 2 , m = 5 torsatron/tokamak hybrid (R0 = 0.75 m, ap 0.2 m, and | B | supplement the existing 15 kW klystron system operating at the fundamental frequency; the latter will be used to initially generate the plasma. Ray-tracing calculations that guide the selection of launching position, antenna focal length, and beam-steering characteristics of the ECRH have been performed with the TRAVIS code [ 1 ] . The calculated absorption is up to 95.7% for vertically propagating rays, however, the absorption is more sensitive to magnetic field variations than for a side launch where the field gradient is tokamak-like. The design of the waveguide path and components for the top-launch scenario will be presented. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  15. The Application of Statistical Design of Experiments to Study the In-Plane Shear Behaviour of Hybrid Composite Sandwich Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrin J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a statistical aspect of experimental study on the in-plane shear behaviour of hybrid composite sandwich panel with intermediate layer. The study was aimed at providing information of how significant the contribution of intermediate layer to the in-plane shear behaviour of new developed sandwich panel. The investigation was designed as a single factor experimental design and the results were throughly analysed with statistics software; Minitab 15. The panels were tested by applying a tensile force along the diagonal of the test frame simulating pure shear using a 100 kN MTS servo-hydraulic UTM. The result shows that the incorporation of intermediate layer has sinificantly enhanced the in-plane shear behaviour of hybrid composite sandwich panel. The statistical analysis shows that the value of F0 is much higher than the value of Ftable, which has a meaning that the improvement provided by the incorporation of intermediate layer is statistically significant.

  16. A model for the operation of perovskite based hybrid solar cells: formulation, analysis, and comparison to experiment\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Jamie M.; Snaith, Henry J.; Leijtens, Tomas; Richardson, Giles

    2014-01-01

    This work is concerned with the modeling of perovskite based hybrid solar cells formed by sandwiching a slab of organic lead halide perovskite (CH$_3$NH$_3$PbI$_{3-x}$Cl$_x$) photo-absorber between (n-type) acceptor and (p-type) donor materials---typically titanium dioxide and spiro. A model for the electrical behavior of these cells is formulated based on drift-diffusion equations for the motion of the charge carriers and Poisson's equation for the electric potential. It is closed by (i) int...

  17. The many lives of experiments: Wilhelm Johannsen, selection, hybridization, and the complex relations of genes and characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In addition to his experiments on selection in pure lines, Wilhelm Johannsen (1857-1927) performed less well-known hybridisation experiments with beans. This article describes these experiments and discusses Johannsen's motivations and interpretations, in the context of developments in early genetics. I will show that Johannsen first presented the hybridisation experiments as an additional control for his selection experiments. The latter were dedicated to investigating heredity with respect to debates concerning the significance of natural selection of continuous variation for evolution. In the course of the establishment of a Mendelian research program after 1900, the study of heredity gained increasing independence from questions of evolution, and focused more on the modes and mechanisms of heredity. Further to their role as control experiments, Johannsen also saw his hybridisation experiments as contributing to the Mendelian program, by extending the scope of the principles of Mendelian inheritance to quantitative characters. Towards the end of the first decade of genetics, Johannsen revisited his experiments to illustrate the many-many relationship between genes and characters, at a time when that relationship appeared increasingly complex, and the unit-character concept, accordingly, became inadequate. For the philosophy of science, the example shows that experiments can have multiple roles in a research programme, and can be interpreted in the light of questions other than those that motivated the experiments in the first place.

  18. Prenatal detection of aneuploidies using fluorescence in situ hybridization: A preliminary experience in an Indian set up

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vaidehi Jobanputra; Kalol Kumar Roy; Kiran Kucheria

    2002-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful molecular cytogenetic technique which allows rapid detection of aneuploidies on interphase cells and metaphase spreads. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FISH as a tool in prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidies in high risk pregnancies in an Indian set up. Prenatal diagnosis was carried out in 88 high-risk pregnancies using FISH and cytogenetic analysis. Multicolour commercially available FISH probes specific for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y were used. Interphase FISH was done on uncultured cells from chorionic villus and amniotic fluid samples. FISH on metaphase spreads was done from cord blood samples. The results of FISH were in conformity with the results of cytogenetic analysis in all the normal and aneuploid cases except in one case of structural chromosomal abnormality. The hybridization efficiency of the 5 probes used for the detection of aneuploidies was 100%. Using these probes FISH assay yielded discrete differences in the signal profiles between cytogenetically normal and abnormal samples. The overall mean interphase disomic signal patterns of chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y were 94.45%; for interphase trisomic signal pattern of chromosome 21 was 97.3%. Interphase FISH is very useful in urgent high risk cases. The use of FISH overcomes the difficulties of conventional banding on metaphase spreads and reduces the time of reporting. However, with the limited number of probes used, the conventional cytogenetic analysis serves as a gold standard at present. It should be employed as an adjunctive tool to conventional cytogenetics.

  19. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  20. Lung tattooing combined with immediate video-assisted thoracoscopic resection (IVATR) as a single procedure in a hybrid room: our institutional experience in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanam, Surendra; Gerstle, Ted; Amaral, Joao; John, Philip; Parra, Dimitri; Temple, Michael; Connolly, Bairbre

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of small pulmonary nodules in children poses an important diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. To review our experience of lung tattooing with immediate video-assisted thoracoscopic resection (IVATR) performed as a single procedure in a hybrid room for technical difficulties, complications and diagnostic yield of the procedure. Retrospective analysis of 31 children (16 boys, 15 girls) who underwent lung tattooing of various lesions from January 2001 to July 2011. Data were collected from the Interventional Radiology database, Electronic Patient Chart (EPC) and PACS. A total of 34 lesions were treated in 31 children. Tattooing was performed on lung lesions with median size 3 mm and median depth 2 mm from pleura. Technical success was 91.1% and diagnostic yield was 100%. In seven children, it was combined with other interventional radiologic procedures. The median procedure time for lung tattooing and IVATR was 197 min. Lung tattooing with IVATR as a single procedure in a hybrid room is safe and effective in children with several inherent advantages, including avoiding the need to move the child from the interventional radiology suite to the operating room.

  1. Disability, family and technical aids: a study of how disabling/enabling experiences come about in hybrid family relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, van der H.M.; Hoogsteyns, M.

    2014-01-01

    Research regarding disabling situations generally focuses on disabling situations within a public society ‘out there’. In our research, however, the intimate family setting itself appears central to the emergence of dis/enabling experiences. Moreover, the relationships that shaped these experiences

  2. A Model for the Operation of Perovskite Based Hybrid Solar Cells: Formulation, Analysis, and Comparison to Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Foster, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    This work is concerned with the modeling of perovskite based hybrid solar cells formed by sandwiching a slab of organic lead halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3-xClx) photo-absorber between (n-type) acceptor and (p-type) donor materialstypically titanium dioxide and spiro. A model for the electrical behavior of these cells is formulated based on drift-diffusion equations for the motion of the charge carriers and Poisson\\'s equation for the electric potential. It is closed by (i) internal interface conditions accounting for charge recombination/generation and jumps in charge carrier densities arising from differences in the electron affinity/ionization potential between the materials and (ii) ohmic boundary conditions on the contacts. The model is analyzed by using a combination of asymptotic and numerical techniques. This leads to an approximateyet highly accurateexpression for the current-voltage relationship as a function of the solar induced photocurrent. In addition, we show that this approximate current-voltage relation can be interpreted as an equivalent circuit model consisting of three diodes, a resistor, and a current source. For sufficiently small biases the device\\'s behavior is diodic and the current is limited by the recombination at the internal interfaces, whereas for sufficiently large biases the device acts like a resistor and the current is dictated by the ohmic dissipation in the acceptor and donor. The results of the model are also compared to experimental current-voltage curves, and good agreement is shown.

  3. On a saturation mechanism of two-upper-hybrid-plasmon parametric decay instability in the second harmonic ECRH experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, E. Z.; Popov, A. Yu

    2017-02-01

    The nonlinear saturation of low-power-threshold two-upper-hybrid (UH)-plasmon parametric decay instability (PDI) of an extraordinary pump wave-excited in the presence of a nonmonotonous density profile is analyzed in detail. It is shown that the primary absolute PDI enhancing the UH wave fluctuations from the thermal noise level, which was analyzed in linear approximation in Popov and Gusakov (2015 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 57 025022), is saturated due to a secondary low-threshold decay of the daughter UH wave. The secondary decay leads to excitation of the secondary UH wave, downshifted in frequency and also trapped in the vicinity of the local maximum of the density profile, and the ion Bernstein wave. A set of equations describing the primary and secondary decays and accounting for the finite pump-beam width is derived and solved numerically. The results of numerical modeling are shown to be in agreement with an analytical estimation of the growth rates of both the primary and secondary parametric decays and of the saturation level. The anomalous absorption of the pump wave due to the two plasmon PDI is estimated at a level of 6% for the plasma density profile considered in the paper.

  4. 固液火箭发动机试验瞬时燃速分析方法%Instantaneous Fuel Regression Rate Analysis of Hybrid Rocket Motor Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新田; 曾鹏; 田耀; 蔡国飙

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一种用于固液火箭发动机试验的瞬时燃速分析方法,运用该方法对H2O2/HTPB固液火箭发动机单室双推力长时间热试车试验进行燃速分析,拟合得到该工况下的燃速公式为r=1.847×10-2G0o.7304。根据燃速公式等计算结果对一次发动机试验进行了预估,计算得到的预估内弹道性能曲线与试验结果吻合较好,验证了该瞬时燃速分析方法的可行性,为发动机工作时间较长、氧化剂流率变化较大时的燃速分析提供了一种途径。%This paper proposes an instantaneous fuel regression rate analysis method for hybrid rocket motor experiment when the oxidizer mass flux changes large during a long working time. The method is applied on a single-chamber dual-thrust hybrid rocket long-time test with the hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene(HTPB) propellant combination, and the fuel regression rate formula,r = 1. 847 × 10 2 Go ^0.7304 , is fitted based on the analysis results. According to the fitted fuel regression rate formula and calculation results, the prediction performances of a test are produced. The results show that the prediction interior ballistics performances fit well with the test curves, which validates the feasibility of the analy- sis method.

  5. Wide Variety of Experiments Using a Cryogen-Free 27.5 T Hybrid Magnet and a Cryogen-Free 18.1 T Superconducting Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K.; Awaji, S.; Oguro, H.

    2013-03-01

    A cryogen-free hybrid magnet without liquid helium for operation, generating 27.5 T in a 32 mm room temperature bore of an 8 MW water-cooled resistive insert magnet in an 8.5 T background field of a cryogen-free superconducting outsert magnet, is being operated for basic research at low temperatures down to 17 mK in combination with a dilution refrigerator. In addition, we are developing functional materials using a differential thermal analysis DTA at high temperatures up to 1473 K in high fields up to 27 T. This cryogen-free hybrid magnet will be upgraded to generate 29 T by improving the outer superconducting magnet. A cryogen-free 18.1 T superconducting magnet with a 52 mm room temperature experimental bore, consisting of a Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 (Bi2223) insert coil, has been developed using a GM-JT cryocooler. Recently, bronze-tape-laminated Bi2223 has revealed excellent irreversible stress tolerance of 250 MPa at 77 K. In addition, the critical current properties for recent Bi2223 tapes are largely improved from 200 to 400 A/cm-width at 77 K in a self-field. Therefore, the stainless steel reinforcement tape incorporated for the previous Bi2223 insert coil is no longer needed for a new Bi2223 one. A new Bi2223 insert coil with almost the same size as the existing insert coil can generate two times higher fields at the elevated operation current from 162 to 191 A. An upgraded cryogen-free superconducting magnet can offer a long-term experiment at the constant magnetic field of 20 T for an in-field heat-treatment investigation.

  6. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  7. How to distinguish Hybrids from Radial Quarkonia

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Francis Edwin; Close, Frank E; Page, Philip R.

    1997-01-01

    We present arguments that reinforce the hybrid interpretation of pi(1800) and we establish that the rho(1450) and the omega(1420) can be interpreted as radial-hybrid mixtures. Some questions for future experiments are raised.

  8. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Venugopal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nontoxic, and not hazardous to store and transport. Solid fuel grains are not highly susceptible to cracks, imperfections, and environmental temperature and are therefore safer to manufacture, store, transport, and use for launch. The status of development based on the experience of the last few decades indicating the maturity of the hybrid rocket technology is given in brief.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.193-200, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.518

  9. The learning curve in treating coronary chronic total occlusion early in the experience of an operator at a tertiary medical center: The role of the hybrid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, Nicolas W; Shammas, Gail A; Robken, Jon; Harris, Thomas; Madison, Ashley; Dinklenburg, Catherine; Shammas, Andrew N; Harb, Christine; Jerin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of chronic total occlusion (CTO) is complex and has a low adoption rate by interventional cardiologists. The introduction of the hybrid approach has provided a systematic step-by-step approach to treat complex CTO lesions with a high success rate. We describe the overall experience with the use of the hybrid approach of a non-CTO operator and analyze differences in the procedural and long term outcomes before and after the initial 30 cases performed. A total of 67 unselected, consecutive patients (68 lesions) underwent PCI of a CTO between January 2012 and June 2013 by a non-CTO operator. Patients were followed up for 1year using office and hospital medical records and death certificates. Cases were divided into the first consecutive 30 patients and compared to the subsequent 37 patients. The primary endpoint was acute procedural success defined as residual narrowing of ≤30% with no major adverse events. Secondary endpoints included the independent outcomes of death, major bleeding, perforations with cardiac tamponade, acute stent thrombosis (ST), target lesion revascularization (TLR) and target vessel revascularization (TVR). Descriptive analysis was performed on all variables. Univariate analysis was used to compare both groups. Baseline characteristics were as follows: mean age 63.9±10.6years, males 80.6%, diabetes 41.8%, de novo lesions 100%, ejection fraction 49.9±13.8%, CTO length 76.9±45.7mm, number of drug eluting stents per CTO 2.8±1.6 (median 3), contrast use 397±161.3ml, fluoroscopy time 51±32min and procedure time 134.3±74.7min. Lesions were crossed using an antegrade approach in 70.6% and a combined retrograde/antegrade approach in 29.4%. Crossing was intraluminal in 83.8% and subintimal in 16.2%. Acute procedural success was 95.5%. MAE included pericardial effusion with tamponade in 4.5%. On follow-up, TLR occurred in 6.6% of patients and TVR in 13.1%. There were no definite ST, one (1.6%) probable ST and one (1.6%) possible ST

  10. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for MDM2 Amplification as a Routine Ancillary Diagnostic Tool for Suspected Well-Differentiated and Dedifferentiated Liposarcomas: Experience at a Tertiary Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Thway

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The assessment of MDM2 gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH has become a routine ancillary tool for diagnosing atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT/well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (WDL/DDL in specialist sarcoma units. We describe our experience of its utility at our tertiary institute. Methods. All routine histology samples in which MDM2 amplification was assessed with FISH over a 2-year period were included, and FISH results were correlated with clinical and histologic findings. Results. 365 samples from 347 patients had FISH for MDM2 gene amplification. 170 were positive (i.e., showed MDM2 gene amplification, 192 were negative, and 3 were technically unsatisfactory. There were 122 histologically benign cases showing a histology:FISH concordance rate of 92.6%, 142 WDL/DDL (concordance 96.5%, and 34 cases histologically equivocal for WDL (concordance 50%. Of 64 spindle cell/pleomorphic neoplasms (in which DDL was a differential diagnosis, 21.9% showed MDM2 amplification. Of the cases with discrepant histology and FISH, all but 3 had diagnoses amended following FISH results. For discrepancies of benign histology but positive FISH, lesions were on average larger, more frequently in “classical” (intra-abdominal or inguinal sites for WDL/DDL and more frequently core biopsies. Discrepancies of malignant histology but negative FISH were smaller, less frequently in “classical” sites but again more frequently core biopsies. Conclusions. FISH has a high correlation rate with histology for cases with firm histologic diagnoses of lipoma or WDL/DDL. It is a useful ancillary diagnostic tool in histologically equivocal cases, particularly in WDL lacking significant histologic atypia or DDL without corresponding WDL component, especially in larger tumors, those from intra-abdominal or inguinal sites or core biopsies. There is a significant group of well-differentiated adipocytic neoplasms

  11. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  12. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  13. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  14. A tale of two sections: an experiment to compare the effectiveness of a hybrid versus a traditional lecture format in introductory microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alison E M; Randall, Shelby; Traustadóttir, Tinna

    2015-03-01

    Two sections of an introductory microbiology course were taught by one instructor. One was taught through a hybrid format and the other through a traditional format. Students were randomly assigned to the two sections. Both sections were provided with identical lecture materials, in-class worksheets, in-class assessments, and extra credit opportunities; the main difference was in the way the lecture material was delivered-online for the hybrid section and in person for the traditional section. Analysis of final grades revealed that students in the traditional section did significantly better than those in the hybrid section (plecture notes and/or use the audio component of the online lectures, suggesting minimal interaction with the lecture material for these students.

  15. Experiences Using Hybrid MPI/OpenMP in the Real World: Parallelization of a 3D CFD Solver for Multi-Core Node Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Jost

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today most systems in high-performance computing (HPC feature a hierarchical hardware design: shared-memory nodes with several multi-core CPUs are connected via a network infrastructure. When parallelizing an application for these architectures it seems natural to employ a hierarchical programming model such as combining MPI and OpenMP. Nevertheless, there is the general lore that pure MPI outperforms the hybrid MPI/OpenMP approach. In this paper, we describe the hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization of IR3D (Incompressible Realistic 3-D code, a full-scale real-world application, which simulates the environmental effects on the evolution of vortices trailing behind control surfaces of underwater vehicles. We discuss performance, scalability and limitations of the pure MPI version of the code on a variety of hardware platforms and show how the hybrid approach can help to overcome certain limitations.

  16. Tree-based intercropping systems increase growth and nutrient status of hybrid poplar: a case study from two Northeastern American experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivest, David; Cogliastro, Alain; Olivier, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Tree-based intercropping is considered to be a potentially useful land use system for mitigating negative environmental impacts from intensive agriculture such as nutrient leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. Rapid early growth of trees is critical for rapidly accruing environmental benefits provided by the trees. We tested the hypothesis that intercropping increases the growth and nutrient status of young hybrid poplars (Populus spp.), compared to a harrowing alley treatment (i.e., no intercrop), in two experimental sites (St-Rémi and St-Edouard) in southern Québec, Canada. Three hybrid poplar clones (TD3230, Populus trichocarpa x deltoides; DN3308, P. deltoides x nigra; and NM3729, P. nigra x maximowiczii) were planted at St-Rémi. Clones DN3333 and DN3570 were planted at St-Edouard. At St-Rémi, intercropping comprised a 4-year succession of three crops of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). At St-Edouard, intercropping comprised a 3-year succession of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), winter rye (Secale cereale L.), and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). At St-Rémi, four years after treatment began, leafless aboveground biomass of hybrid poplars in the intercropping treatment was 37% higher compared to that in the harrowing treatment. At St-Edouard, after the third growing season, leafless aboveground biomass of hybrid poplars in the intercropping treatment was significantly higher by 40%. Vector analysis of foliar nutrient concentrations and comparison with critical concentration values showed that N (both sites) and K (St-Edouard) were the most limiting nutrients. Hybrid poplar clones responded similarly to treatments, with no consistent differences in tree growth observed between clones. We conclude that tree-based intercropping systems may offer an effective means of improving the early growth of hybrid poplars planted to provide both environmental services and high-value timber.

  17. A Tale of Two Sections: An Experiment to Compare the Effectiveness of a Hybrid versus a Traditional Lecture Format in Introductory Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alison E. M.; Randall, Shelby; Traustadóttir, Tinna

    2015-01-01

    Two sections of an introductory microbiology course were taught by one instructor. One was taught through a hybrid format and the other through a traditional format. Students were randomly assigned to the two sections. Both sections were provided with identical lecture materials, in-class worksheets, in-class assessments, and extra credit…

  18. A Tale of Two Sections: An Experiment to Compare the Effectiveness of a Hybrid versus a Traditional Lecture Format in Introductory Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alison E. M.; Randall, Shelby; Traustadóttir, Tinna

    2015-01-01

    Two sections of an introductory microbiology course were taught by one instructor. One was taught through a hybrid format and the other through a traditional format. Students were randomly assigned to the two sections. Both sections were provided with identical lecture materials, in-class worksheets, in-class assessments, and extra credit…

  19. An Exploratory Study of the Drivers of Student Satisfaction and Learning Experience in Hybrid-Online and Purely Online Marketing Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelami, Hooman

    2012-01-01

    Much of the existing research in distance education has focused on contrasting the outcomes between traditional face-to-face teaching and purely online courses, in which the entire course content is delivered online. However, research has not examined the effectiveness of hybrid-online courses, in which a combination of online delivery and…

  20. Ion-atom hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Willitsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The study of interactions between simultaneously trapped cold ions and atoms has emerged as a new research direction in recent years. The development of ion-atom hybrid experiments has paved the way for investigating elastic, inelastic and reactive collisions between these species at very low temperatures, for exploring new cooling mechanisms of ions by atoms and for implementing new hybrid quantum systems. The present lecture reviews experimental methods, recent results and upcoming developments in this emerging field.

  1. Information component of hybrid war

    OpenAIRE

    Bohdanov, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid warfare in the three-dimensional coordinate system «Matter-Information-measure» is considering. In particular, the information component is highlighted and analyzed. The factors of preparation of information operations is defined, which are disclosed as an example of experience of volunteer group information warfare of Institute of special communication and information security of NTUU «KPI».Keywords: coordinate system «Matter-Information-Measure» hybrid warfare, information componen...

  2. Design Experience of Island Wind - photovoltaic Hybrid Power Supply System%海岛风光瓦补发电系统设计体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永高

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍海岛建设风光互补发电系统的环境特点.结合工程实践归纳总结海岛风光互补发电系统设计要点.并就系统建设需要注意的问题进行解析。%The environmental features for the construction of wind - photovoltaic hybrid power supply system on the island is introduced briefly; in combination with the engineering practice, the keys points of design for the island wind - photovoltaic hybrid power supply system are summarized, and the issues worthy of attention during the system construction are analyzed.

  3. Analysis of nuclear and organellar DNA in somatic hybrids between solanaceous species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, A.M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes an analysis of the possibilities and limitations of somatic hybridization of solanaceous species. Emphasis was laid on the elucidation of the interactions between nuclei, chloroplasts and mitochondria in the obtained somatic hybrids. Hybridization experiments between tomato ( L

  4. Optical properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite C H3N H3Pb I3 : Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchenko, D. O.; Izyumskaya, N.; Feneberg, M.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Goldhahn, R.; Morkoç, H.

    2016-08-01

    We perform a theoretical and experimental study of the optical properties of a C H3N H3Pb I3 perovskite prepared by a vapor-assisted solution process, motivated in part by very high photovoltaic cell efficiencies. Several widespread theoretical approaches are used in an attempt to determine the most appropriate approach which would reproduce the experimental electronic structure and optical properties of the C H3N H3Pb I3 perovskite. We compare a semilocal approximation to the density functional theory with hybrid functionals and time-dependent hybrid functional calculations, evaluating the effects of exchange tuning and spin-orbit coupling. Using these methods we calculate the electronic structure, optical absorption spectrum, and frequency-dependent dielectric function of the C H3N H3Pb I3 perovskite. The results are compared to the experimentally obtained dielectric functions acquired from ellipsometry measurements. We demonstrate that inclusion of spin-orbit coupling in theoretical calculations is critical in describing the electronic and optical properties of the C H3N H3Pb I3 perovskite. Good agreement with experimental data is achieved when the optical spectra are computed using time-dependent hybrid density functional theory with spin-orbit coupling.

  5. The hybrid BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Pfurtscheller

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has 2 engines, its main purpose being to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a typical hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI is also composed of 2 BCIs or at least one BCI and another system. Such a hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfil the following four criteria: (i the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii real time processing; and (iv the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces some hybrid BCIs which have already been published or are currently in development or validation, and some concepts for future work. The BCIs described classify 2 EEG patterns: One is the event-related (desynchronisation (ERD, ERS of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP. The hybrid BCI can either have more than one input whereby the inputs are typically processed simultaneously or operate 2 systems sequentially, whereby the first system can act as a “brain switch”. In the case of self-paced operation of a SSVEP-based hand orthosis control with an motor imagery-based switch it was possible to reduce the rate of false positives during resting periods by about 50% compared to the SSVEP BCI alone. It is shown that such a brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Another interesting approach is a hybrid BCI with simultaneous operations of ERD- and SSVEP-based BCIs. Here it is important to prove the existing promising offline simulation results with online experiments. Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and another input. Such an additional input can be a physiological signal like the heart rate but also a signal from an external device like, an eye gaze control system.

  6. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  7. Simultaneous assessment of cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid IVIM and DK MR imaging: initial experience with brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-Chau [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Yang, Shun-Chung; Chen, Ya-Fang; My, Pei-Chi [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Tseng, Han-Min [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Taipei (China)

    2017-01-15

    To investigate the feasibility of simultaneously assessing cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid diffusion-kurtosis (DK) and intravoxel-incoherent-motion (IVIM) MR imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers and 30 patients with histologically proven brain tumours (25 WHO grade II-IV gliomas and five metastases) were recruited. On a 3-T system, diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with six b-values ranging from 0 to 1,700 s/mm{sup 2}. Nonlinear least-squares fitting was employed to extract diffusion coefficient (D), diffusion kurtosis coefficient (K, a measure of the degree of non-Gaussian and heterogeneous diffusion) and intravascular volume fraction (f, a measure proportional to cerebral blood volume). Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to assess the ability of D/K/f in differentiating contrast-enhanced tumour from peritumoral oedema and normal-appearing white matter. Based on our imaging setting (baseline signal-to-noise ratio = 32-128), coefficient of variation was 14-20 % for K, ∝6 % for D and 26-44 % for f. The indexes were able to differentiate contrast-enhanced tumour (Wilks' λ = 0.026, p < 10{sup -3}), and performance was greatest with K, followed by f and D. Hybrid DK IVIM imaging is capable of simultaneously measuring cerebral perfusion and diffusion indexes that together may improve brain tumour diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. The features of neutronic calculations for fast reactors with hybrid cores on the basis of BFS-62-3A critical assembly experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitenkova, E. F.; Novikov, N. V. [Nuclear Safety Inst. of Russian Academy of Sciences, B. Tulskaya 52, Moscow, 115119 (Russian Federation); Blokhin, A. I. [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation, Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering Named after A.I. Leypunsky, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249030 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    The different (U-Pu) fuel compositions are considered for next generation of sodium fast breeder reactors. The considerable discrepancies in axial and radial neutron spectra for hybrid reactor systems compared to the cores with UO{sub 2} fuel cause increasing uncertainty of generating the group nuclear constants in those reactor systems. The calculation results of BFS-62-3A critical assembly which is considered as full-scale model of BN-600 hybrid core with steel reflector specify quite different spectra in local areas. For those systems the MCNP 5 calculations demonstrate significant sensitivity of effective multiplication factor K{sub eff} and spectral indices to nuclear data libraries. For {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu the results of calculated radial fission rate distributions against the reconstructed ones are analyzed. Comparative analysis of spectral indices, neutron spectra and radial fission rate distributions are performed using the different versions of ENDF/B, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4, JEFF-3.1.1 libraries and BROND-3 for Fe, Cr isotopes. For analyzing the fission rate sensitivity to the plutonium presence in the fuel {sup 239}Pu is substituted for {sup 235}U (enrichment 90%) in the FA areas containing the plutonium. For {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu radial fission rate distributions the explanation of pick values discrepancies is based on the group fission constants analyses and possible underestimation of some features at the experimental data recovery method (Westcott factors, temperature dependence). (authors)

  9. Hybrid Simulation of Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Jacob Herold

    Hybrid simulation is a substructural method combining a numerical simulation with a physical experiment. A structure is thereby simulated under the assumption that a substructure’s response is well known and easily modelled while a given substructure is studied more accurately in a physical...... of freedom. In this dissertation the main focus is to develop hybrid simulation for composite structures e.g. wind turbine blades where the boundary between the numerical model and the physical experiment is continues i.e. in principal infinite amount of degrees of freedom. This highly complicates...

  10. Hybrid ion, atom and light trap

    CERN Document Server

    Jyothi, S; Ram, N Bhargava; Rangwala, S A

    2013-01-01

    We present an unique experimental arrangement which permits the simultaneous trapping and cooling of ions and neutral atoms, within a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The versatility of this hybrid trap experiment enables a variety of studies with trapped mixtures. The motivations behind the production of such a hybrid trap system are explained, followed by details of how the experiment is put together. Several experiments that have been performed with this system are presented and some opportunities with this system are discussed. However the primary emphasis is focussed on the aspects that pertain to the trapped ions, in this hybrid system.

  11. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  12. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  13. Evaluating the Pedagogical Potential of Hybrid Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Tzur; Levin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines how the use of hybrid models--that consist of the interacting continuous and discrete processes--may assist in teaching system thinking. We report an experiment in which undergraduate students were asked to choose between a hybrid and a continuous solution for a number of control problems. A correlation has been found between…

  14. Training Faculty to Teach in Hybrid Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Kathryn E.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the author's experiences developing and implementing a multi-week hybrid course design institute, this chapter outlines the components of training--both andragogical and technological--most helpful for faculty who are planning to teach a hybrid course.

  15. Titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate (TiH1.65/KClO4) burn rates from hybrid closed bomb-strand burner experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Marcia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oliver, Michael S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    A hybrid closed bomb-strand burner is used to measure the burning behavior of the titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic with an equivalent hydrogen concentration of 1.65. This experimental facility allows for simultaneous measurement of the closed bomb pressure rise and pyrotechnic burn rate as detected by electrical break wires over a range of pressures. Strands were formed by pressing the pyrotechnic powders to bulk densities between 60% and 90% theoretical maximum density. The burn rate dependance on initial density and vessel pressure are measured. At all initial strand densities, the burn is observed to transition from conductive to convective burning within the strand. The measured vessel pressure history is further analyzed following the closed bomb analysis methods developed for solid propellants.

  16. Experiments on Hybrid Precast Concrete Shear Walls Emulating Monolithic Construction with Different Amounts of Posttensioned Strands and Different Debond Lengths of Grouted Reinforcements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangfeng Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a hybrid precast concrete shear wall emulating monolithic construction (HPWEM that utilized grouted vertical connecting reinforcements and unbonded posttensioned high-strength strands across the horizontal joint for the lateral resistance. The grouted reinforcements with predetermined debond length were used to provide strength by tension and energy dissipation by yielding. The posttensioned strands were mainly employed to offer the restoring force to reduce the residual displacement by elastic extension. The overlapping welded closed stirrups improved the confinement property of the restrained concrete, avoiding the brittle failure. Six HPWEM specimens, considering variables including the amounts of strands and the debond lengths of grouted reinforcements, as well as one referenced cast-in-place monolithic wall specimen, were tested under the low-cycle reversed lateral load. The HPWEM specimens were capable of providing strength, stiffness, ductility, and energy dissipation equivalent to that of the monolithic wall specimen under certain variable condition.

  17. The use of a new hybrid stentgraft for the repair of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms with the frozen elephant trunk method - first Polish experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembala, Michał; Krasoń, Marcin; Hrapkowicz, Tomasz; Przybylski, Roman; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Borowicz, Marcin; Niklewski, Tomasz; Głowacki, Jan; Wolny, Tomasz; Nadziakiewicz, Paweł; Walas, Ryszard; Zembala, Marian

    2014-09-01

    The frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique is a modification of the traditional elephant trunk method, which was introduced by Borst in 1983 in order to treat extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms. The crux of the new method is the different type of aortic prosthesis, consisting of a Dacron part (with or without branches leading to the arterial vessels which exit the aortic arch) and a port for extracorporeal circulation with a self-expanding nitinol stentgraft. This combination enables a complete one-stage treatment of the pathologies within the arch and the proximal segment of the descending aorta; moreover, it facilitates the performance of a two-stage hybrid treatment of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms involving a significant part of the descending aorta. This article presents the cases of four patients with extensive aortic disease, who were implanted with Thoraflex prostheses (Vascutek, Scotland).

  18. The use of a new hybrid stentgraft for the repair of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms with the frozen elephant trunk method – first Polish experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasoń, Marcin; Hrapkowicz, Tomasz; Przybylski, Roman; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Borowicz, Marcin; Niklewski, Tomasz; Głowacki, Jan; Wolny, Tomasz; Nadziakiewicz, Paweł; Walas, Ryszard; Zembala, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique is a modification of the traditional elephant trunk method, which was introduced by Borst in 1983 in order to treat extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms. The crux of the new method is the different type of aortic prosthesis, consisting of a Dacron part (with or without branches leading to the arterial vessels which exit the aortic arch) and a port for extracorporeal circulation with a self-expanding nitinol stentgraft. This combination enables a complete one-stage treatment of the pathologies within the arch and the proximal segment of the descending aorta; moreover, it facilitates the performance of a two-stage hybrid treatment of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms involving a significant part of the descending aorta. This article presents the cases of four patients with extensive aortic disease, who were implanted with Thoraflex prostheses (Vascutek, Scotland). PMID:26335241

  19. Clinical Experience with a Hybrid Procedure Using the Adherent Clot Catheter for Salvage of Thrombosed Hemodialysis Access: A Comparison with the Standard Fogarty Balloon Catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu Sung; Han, Kyu Dam; Choi, Eun Hye; Park, Young Sam; Seo, Yeon Ho; Kim, Cheol Seung

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of two different catheters in hybrid surgery for salvage of thrombosed hemodialysis accesses. The hybrid salvage procedure (surgical thrombectomy followed by endovascular angioplasty) of the thrombosed hemodialysis access, was performed using adherent clot (AC) catheter in 140 cases and Fogarty balloon catheter in 68 cases. Procedure-related outcomes such as the clot removal status, clinical success, complications, and primary patency rates were analyzed retrospectively. The proportion of cases with good clot removal scores in the AC catheter and Fogarty balloon catheter groups was 77.9% and 91.2%, respectively (P=0.018). Clinical success was achieved in 90.7% of the cases in the AC catheter group and in 98.5% of the cases in the balloon catheter group (P=0.035). The mean patency rates of the two groups were 50.7% and 63.2% at 3 months, 40.7% and 47.1% at 6 months, and 17.9% and 19.1% at 12 months. The complication rates (12.1% and 5.9%) and primary patency rates between the two catheters were not statistically different (P=0.328). On the analysis of the patency rate on access type of autologous (P=0.169) and prothetic graft (P=0.423), there was no significant difference between the two catheter groups. In terms of clot removal and clinical success, the AC catheter did not demonstrate better outcomes than the Fogarty balloon catheter. However, primary patency was not related to the type of catheter. Adherent clot catheter can be a useful alternative to Fogarty balloon catheter for thrombosed hemodialysis access.

  20. Development of a Hybrid Photopolymer for Stereolithography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    New liquid free radical-cationic hybrid photopolymer, consisting of acrylate-based photocurable resin and epoxy-based photosensitive resin for stereolithography by UV laser was developed.The experiment results indicated that the hybrid photopolymer exhibits advantages of both the acrylate- based photosensitive resin and the epoxy- based photosensitive polymer contained in the hybrid system with relatively high photospeed and low linear shrinkage.Stereolithography parts without obvious distortion were built on the stereolithography apparatus HRPLAI from this hybrid resin successfully and efficiently.

  1. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  2. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  3. Reflections on Intellectual Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimala Price

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the growing literature on interdisciplinarity and my own experiences as an intellectual hybrid, I discuss the personal and institutional challenges inherent in crossing disciplinary boundaries in the academy. I argue that boundary crossing is a natural occurrence and that the issue of (interdisciplinarity is a matter of degree and of determining who gets to define the boundaries. Defining boundaries is not merely an intellectual enterprise, but also a political act that delineates what is, or is not, legitimate scholarship. This issue is especially salient to women's and gender studies during times of economic distress and educational budget cuts.

  4. ``Hybrid'' multi-gap/single-gap Josephson junctions: Evidence of macroscopic quantum tunneling in superconducting-to-normal switching experiments on MgB2/I/Pb and MgB2/I/Sn junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabello, Steve; Lambert, Joseph; Dai, Wenqing; Li, Qi; Chen, Ke; Cunnane, Daniel; Xi, X. X.; Ramos, Roberto

    We report results of superconducting-to-normal switching experiments on MgB2/I/Pb and MgB2/I/Sn junctions, with and without microwaves. These results suggest that the switching behavior is dominated by quantum tunneling through the washboard potential barrier, rather than thermal excitations or electronic noise. Evidence includes a leveling in the standard deviation of the switching current distribution below a crossover temperature, a Lorentzian shape of the escape rate enhancement peak upon excitation by microwaves, and a narrowing in the histogram of escape counts in the presence of resonant microwave excitation relative to that in the absence of microwaves. These are the first such results reported in ``hybrid'' Josephson tunnel junctions, consisting of multi-gap and single-gap superconducting electrodes.

  5. PET/MRI: a novel hybrid imaging technique: major clinical indications and preliminary experience in Brazil; PET/RM: um novo metodo de imagem hibrida: principais indicacoes clinicas e experiencia preliminar no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitor, Taise; Martins, Karine Minaif; Ionescu, Tudor Mihai and others, E-mail: taisevitor@gmail.com [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, medical imaging with hybrid techniques has widely accepted and employed in clinical routine. PET/MRI offers significant advantages, including excellent contrast and resolution and reduced ionizing radiation, as compared to well-established PET/ CT. Therefore, PET/MRI is a promising modality for oncologic imaging of some regions, such as brain, head and neck, liver and pelvis. This article set out to analyze clinical conditions that could benefit from PET/MRI imaging based on our caseload. The potential of PET/MRI to become the imaging modality of choice for assessment of neurologic and oncologic conditions associated with soft tissues is highlighted. Clinical aspects of PET/MRI and its application to clinical cases are illustrated with examples extracted from the authors' preliminary experience. (author)

  6. Cultivation Technology and Extension Experiences of Hybrid Millet in Ethiopia%杂交谷子在埃塞俄比亚的栽培技术及推广经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 赵治海

    2012-01-01

    总结了杂交谷子在埃塞俄比亚的栽培技术,介绍了杂交谷子在埃塞俄比亚的推广经验,指出了推广过程中存在的问题,并提出了相应的解决方法,可为杂交谷子在埃塞俄比亚及其他非洲国家的大面积推广种植提供借鉴。%The cult introduced, the pro extension in a large ivation technology of hybrid millet in Ethiopia is summarized, blems and the solution in the extension are pointed out, which area in Ethiopia and other Africa countries. the extension experiences are could provide references for the

  7. A Prototype Experiment to Study Charmed Particle Production and Decay using a Holographic High Resolution Hydrogen Chamber (HOLEBC) and the European Hybrid Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The high resolution Hydrogen bubble chamber LEBC has already been used in experiments at the SPS to detect particles with lifetime @$>$ 5.10|-|1|3s (NA13 & NA16). For this experiment, a new version of LEBC called HOLEBC, has been constructed. This chamber and the NA26 version of the spectrometer have been used with classical optics in the NA27 experiment. A significant improvement in resolution was achieved (@= 20 microns compared with @= 40@mm in LEBC) and hence a good sensitivity all (known) charmed particle decays. The development of holographic recording techniques with HOLEBC is in progress. The prototype NA26 experiment is designed to evaluate the feasibility of the high sensitivity, high resolution holographic hydrogen bubble chamber technique and evaluate various possible charm selective triggers using the information from the spectrometer.

  8. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  9. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  10. Performance of the Tibet hybrid experiment (YAC-II + Tibet-III + MD) to measure the energy spectra of the light primary cosmic rays at energies 50-10,000 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Zhai, L. M.; Chen, D.; Shibata, M.; Katayose, Y.; Zhang, Ying; Liu, J. S.; Chen, Xu; Hu, X. B.; Zhang, X. Y.; Jia, H. Y.; Danzengluobu; Ohnishi, M.; Takita, M.

    2015-06-01

    A new hybrid detector system has been constructed by the Tibet ASγ collaboration at Tibet, China, since 2014 to measure the chemical composition of cosmic rays around the knee in the wide energy range. They consist of an air-shower-core detector-grid (YAC-II) to detect high energy electromagnetic component, the Tibet air-shower array (Tibet-III) and a large underground water-Cherenkov muon-detector array (MD). We have carried out a detailed air-shower Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to study the performance of the hybrid detectors by using CORSIKA (version 6.204), which includes QGSJET01c and SIBYLL2.1 hadronic interaction models. Assumed primary cosmic ray models are based on helium poor, helium rich and Gaisser's fit compositions around the knee. All detector responses are calculated using Geant4 (version 9.5) according to the real detector configurations and the MC events are reconstructed by the same procedure as the experimental data analysis. The energy determination is made by lateral density fitting (LDF) method using modified NKG function and the separation of the light components (proton, helium) is made by means of the artificial neural network (ANN) method and the random forest (RF) method. The systematic errors of the spectra of proton and helium caused by each steps of the analysis procedure are investigated including the dependence of the MC data on the hadronic interaction models and the primary composition models, and the algorithms for the primary mass identification. The systematic errors of the flux to be obtained by the new experiment are summarized as less than 30% in total. Our results show that the new hybrid experiment is powerful enough to study the chemical composition of the cosmic rays, in particular, to obtain the light-component spectra of the primary cosmic rays in 50-10,000 TeV energy range overlapping to the direct observation data at low energy side and ground-based indirect observations at high energy side. It is possible in this

  11. An Improved Hybrid Method for Inverse Obstacle Scattering Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU JUAN; MA FU-MING

    2011-01-01

    An improved hybrid method is introduced in this paper as a numerical method to reconstruct the scatterer by far-field pattern for just one incident direction with unknown physical properties of the scatterer.The improved hybrid method inherits the idea of the hybrid method by Kress and Serranho which is a combination of Newton and decomposition method,and it improves the hybrid method by introducing a general boundary condition.The numerical experiments show the feasibility of this method.

  12. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  13. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  14. Somatic hybridization in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabel, F

    1976-11-01

    Somatic hybridization in higher plants has come into focus since methods have been established for protoplast fusion and uptake of foreign DNA and organelles by protoplasts. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was an effective agent for inducing fusion. Treatment of protoplasts with PEG resulted in 5 to 30% heterospecific fusion products. Protoplasts of different species, genera and even families were compatible when fused. A number of protoplast combinations (soybean + corn, soybean + pea, soybean + tobacco, carrot + barley, etc.) provided fusion products which underwent cell division and callus formation. Fusion products initially were heterokaryocytes. In dividing heterokaryocytes, random distribution of mitotic nuclei was observed to be accompanied by multiple wall formation and to result in chimeral callus. Juxtaposition of mitotic nuclei suggested nuclear fusion and hybrid formation. Fusion of heterospecific interphase nuclei was demonstrated in soybean + pea and carrot + barley heterokaryons. Provided parental protoplasts carry suitable markers, the fusion products can be recognized. For the isolation and cloning of hybrid cells, fusion experiments must be supplemented with a selective system. Complementation of two non-allelic genes that prevent or inhibit growth under special culture conditions appears as the principle on which to base the selection of somatic hybrids. As protoplasts of some species have been induced to regenerate entire plants, the development of hybrid plants from protoplast fusion products is feasible and has already been demonstrated for tobacco.

  15. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  16. Overview on hybrid propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, M.

    2011-10-01

    Aside of research works, this historical survey shows propulsion units used by students for small satellites and for gas generation, or those for the Space Ship One, even if LOx/HTPB was studied and tested in large motors for its potential very low cost; however, this combination highlights a series of technical problems without any performance advantage over the existing LOx/Kerosene family and never been operational for ETO applications. The particularity of hybrid propulsion is to use the state-of-the-art of both liquids and solids; the only show stopper is the propellant itself. The past work focused on LOx/HTPB (selected for its low cost) appears to be a dead-end (combustion problems and global low performances resulting from a high level of residuals). The solution that appears through the past experience is the addition of hydrides to a binder (HTPB or other) or to a binder and a homogeneous fuel or a mixture of both, with or without others additives; within these solutions some will not present any manufacturing problem and some may have a low cost. Nevertheless, the studies of the following phases have to demonstrate the compatibility of the potential regression rate range with a high-performance global design of a hybrid Motor and the manufacturing at a reasonable cost of a hydride giving a high level of performances.

  17. 空气-水复合平板型太阳能集热器%Experiment test of hybrid air-water solar flat plate collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东亮; 代彦军; 李勇

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a new type of solar collector that has the potential for using in solar heating systems. It can use both air and water as the circulation mediums. Experiment results show that the collector efficiency is between 55%~65% when air is used as the circulation medium, while the efficiency is between 32%~34% for using water as the circulation medium, and it can meet the requirement of solar heating systems. Moreover, this collector is fairly cheap, therefore, especially suitable for the rural areas in north China.%提出了一种适用于太阳能供热采暖工程的新型太阳能空气-水复合平板集热器.该集热器可以单独使用空气、水或同时以空气和水作为集热工质.测试显示,该集热器空气循环集热效率为55%~65%,水循环集热效率为32%~34%,能够满足太阳能供热采暖工程的要求.该集热器成本不高,适用于在我国北方广大农村地区推广使用.

  18. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  19. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  20. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  1. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  2. Development and implementation of an online hybrid model for teaching evidence-based practice to health professions: processes and outcomes from an Australian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana Kumar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Saravana Kumar, Luke Perraton, Zuzana Machotka.International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia.Abstract: Evidence-based practice is now considered to be a vital element of health care service delivery. The call to use evidence to inform other areas, such as teaching and learning, is growing. This paper reports on the processes used to integrate best evidence into teaching practices within an undergraduate health science program. An existing course within this program at an Australian tertiary institution was remodeled by a newly appointed course coordinator in response to critical feedback from student cohorts. A systematic, iterative, five-step approach was used in the development of the new course. The process of development was influenced by current research evidence, an audit of the existing course, and critical feedback from ­students. The new course was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative research methods for five study periods. In 2005, prior to implementing the changes, the overall student satisfaction rating for the course was zero (representing the lowest possible score. In 2006, the overall student satisfaction rating was 62.07, in 2007 it was 65.8, and in 2008 it was 55.7. Qualitative ­findings also supported these quantitative findings, indicating improvements in the structure and process of the new course. The outcomes from the evaluation of the remodeled course provide evidence of a consistent quality learning experience for students, and support the concept of using research evidence to guide the development of teaching and learning practices in the training of health professionals.Keywords: evidence-based teaching, learning, health care, qualitative, quantitative.

  3. Demonstration experiment of nutrient formula fertilization technique on super hybrid rice%超级杂交稻营养套餐施肥技术示范试验报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈静; 张文波; 杨树祥; 余根德; 陈绍荣; 白云飞; 白周荣

    2012-01-01

    介绍超级杂交水稻应用营养套餐施肥技术和示范试验结果,667m2产量达到867.17kg,比常规施肥对照区增产34.41%。主要增产因素是施用了高效优化的高科技肥料——含硅、锌养分的腐植酸复合肥和高效叶面肥,充分满足了水稻超高产栽培的营养需求。%The application of nutrient formula fertilization technique and the results of demonstration experiment are introduced: the yield of super hybrid rice is 867.17 kg every 667 m2, with the yield increase by 34.41% compared with the conventional fertilization. The main factors of yield increase are the applications of efficient optimization high-tech fertilizer: humic acid compound fertilizer containing silicon and zinc, and high active foliar fertilizer, which can fully meet nutrient demand of the super-high-yield rice.

  4. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  5. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  6. Realizing the Hybrid Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Eaton, Jonathan; Edwards, Catherine; Russell, Rosemary; Wissenburg, Astrid; Wynne, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Outlines five projects currently funded by the United Kingdom's Electronic Libraries Program (eLib): HyLiFe (Hybrid Library of the Future), MALIBU (MAnaging the hybrid Library for the Benefit of Users), HeadLine (Hybrid Electronic Access and Delivery in the Library Networked Environment), ATHENS (authentication scheme), and BUILDER (Birmingham…

  7. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  8. Hybrid armature projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  9. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  10. The hydrogen hybrid option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  11. Media composition influences yeast one- and two-hybrid results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Kim L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although yeast two-hybrid experiments are commonly used to identify protein interactions, the frequent occurrence of false negatives and false positives hampers data interpretation. Using both yeast one-hybrid and two-hybrid experiments, we have identified potential sources of these problems: the media preparation protocol and the source of the yeast nitrogen base may not only impact signal range but also effect whether a result appears positive or negative. While altering media preparation may optimize signal differences for individual experiments, media preparation must be reported in detail to replicate studies and accurately compare results from different experiments.

  12. Hybridization and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities.

  13. Spoof Plasmon Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon hybridization between closely spaced nanoparticles yields new hybrid modes not found in individual constituents, allowing for the engineering of resonance properties and field enhancement capabilities of metallic nanostructure. Experimental verifications of plasmon hybridization have been thus far mostly limited to optical frequencies, as metals cannot support surface plasmons at longer wavelengths. Here, we introduce the concept of 'spoof plasmon hybridization' in highly conductive metal structures and investigate experimentally the interaction of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in adjacent metal disks corrugated with subwavelength spiral patterns. We show that the hybridization results in the splitting of spoof plasmon modes into bonding and antibonding resonances analogous to molecular orbital rule and plasmonic hybridization in optical spectrum. These hybrid modes can be manipulated to produce enormous field enhancements (larger than 5000) by tuning the separation between disks or alte...

  14. 基于旋量理论的混联采摘机器人正运动学分析与试验%Forward kinematics analysis and experiment of hybrid harvesting robot based on screw theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳涵疆; 李立君; 高自成

    2016-01-01

    arm part respectively. It makes the wrist part decrease by 2 degrees of freedom, lightens the burden of the arm, and also reduces the adverse effect of high-frequency vibration when the robot harvests camellia oleifera fruit. The screw theory and a kind of kinematics analysis method for hybrid robot were introduced. With the proposed method, firstly, the open chain from the waist part to the end effector of the manipulator was defined, which contained the vertical slider as major chain, and the kinematic analysis problem of hybrid robot was turned to the sub-problems of the kinematic analysis of an open major chain and a single closed chain; secondly, the kinematics equation of the closed chain and major chain was established, and then the conversion formula between the driving joint variable in closed chain and the passive joint variable in major chain was obtained by figuring out the equation of the closed chain; thirdly, the position of the end effector was got from the kinematics analysis of the closed chain by using the Lie group, Lie algebra, screw theory and product-of-exponential formula; and finally the positive kinematics equation for the position of the end effector was obtained from the synthesized results of the kinematic analysis of the major chain and closed chain. The first-order and second-order derivative of the position equation were the velocity equation and acceleration equation of the manipulator respectively. In order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method and the correctness of the kinematics equation, select a group of joint variable values, and then figure out the theoretical position coordinate of the end effector by putting the values into the kinematical equation in Matlab. A test platform for kinematics experiment was built, which consists of a three-dimensional position measuring instrument and a camellia oleifera fruit hybrid harvesting robot. The three-dimensional position measuring instrument was used to measure the actual

  15. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  16. Impact of hybrid GSI analysis using ETR ensembles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Prasad; C J Johny

    2016-04-01

    Performance of a hybrid assimilation system combining 3D Var based NGFS (NCMRWF Global ForecastSystem) with ETR (Ensemble Transform with Rescaling) based Global Ensemble Forecast (GEFS) ofresolution T-190L28 is investigated. The experiment is conducted for a period of one week in June 2013and forecast skills over different spatial domains are compared with respect to mean analysis state.Rainfall forecast is verified over Indian region against combined observations of IMD and NCMRWF.Hybrid assimilation produced marginal improvements in overall forecast skill in comparison with 3DVar. Hybrid experiment made significant improvement in wind forecasts in all the regions on verificationagainst mean analysis. The verification of forecasts with radiosonde observations also show improvementin wind forecasts with the hybrid assimilation. On verification against observations, hybrid experimentshows more improvement in temperature and wind forecasts at upper levels. Both hybrid and operational3D Var failed in prediction of extreme rainfall event over Uttarakhand on 17 June, 2013.

  17. Hybrid Fictionality and Vicarious Narrative Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatavara, Mari Annukka; Mildorf, Jarmila

    2016-01-01

    – an interview and an online museum exhibition – show that the employment of fictional modes of mind representation and cognitive attribution occur in conversational and documentary storytelling even if the reference is to the actual world. The results indicate that the procedures used to present and engage...

  18. Integrated approach for hybrid rocket technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, Francesco; Bellomo, Nicolas; Pavarin, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Hybrid rocket motors tend generally to be simple from a mechanical point of view but difficult to optimize because of their complex and still not well understood cross-coupled physics. This paper addresses the previous issue presenting the integrated approach established at University of Padua to develop hybrid rocket based systems. The methodology tightly combines together system analysis and design, numerical modeling from elementary to sophisticated CFD, and experimental testing done with incremental philosophy. As an example of the approach, the paper presents the experience done in the successful development of a hybrid rocket booster designed for rocket assisted take off operations. It is thought that following the proposed approach and selecting carefully the most promising applications it is possible to finally exploit the major advantages of hybrid rocket motors as safety, simplicity, low cost and reliability.

  19. Two Photon Couplings of Hybrid Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1996-01-01

    A new formalism is developed for the two photon production of hybrid mesons via intermediate hadronic decays. In an adiabatic and non--relativistic context with spin 1 pair creation we obtain the first absolute estimates of unmixed hybrid production strengths to be small (0.03 - 3 eV) in relation to experimental meson widths (0.1 - 5 keV). Within this context, two photon collisions therefore strongly discriminate between hybrid and conventional meson wave function components at BaBar, Cleo II, LEP2 and LHC, filtering out non--gluonic components. Decay widths of unmixed hybrids are tiny. The formalism also induces conventional meson two photon widths roughly in agreement with experiment.

  20. Experimental evidence for ovarian hypofunction in sparrow hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabrice Eroukhmanoff; Melissah Rowe; Emily R A Cramer; Fredrik Haas; Jo S Hermansen; Anna Runemark; Arild Johnsen; GlennPeter Stre

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postzygotic isolation in the form of reduced viability and/or fertility of hybrids may help maintain species boundaries in the face of interspeciifc gene lfow. Past hybridization events between house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Spanish sparrows (P. hispaniolensis) have given rise to a homoploid hybrid species, the Italian sparrow (P. italiae). Although genetic incompatibilities are known to isolate these three species, the biological consequences of these incompatibilities are still unknown in early generation hybrids. Methods: We investigated whether F1 hybrids between house and Spanish sparrows experience reduced viability or fertility. More speciifcally, we generated hybrids through controlled crosses in aviaries, and compared ovaries of female hybrids with female of pure‑species sparrows. Results: We found that overall, hybrid ovaries were underdeveloped and that half of all female hybrids exhibited symptoms of ovarian hypofunction (ovarian atrophy and complete absence of developed follicles). Conclusions: Fertility in hybrids is a common consequence or post‑zygotic barriers between species. We discuss these results in light of previous ifndings on genetic incompatibilities between the parent species and the potential role of incompatibilities in hybrid speciation, a rare evolutionary process in birds.

  1. Experimental evidence for ovarian hypofunction in sparrow hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabrice Eroukhmanoff; Melissah Rowe; Emily R.A.Cramer; Fredrik Haas; Jo S.Hermansen; Anna Runemark; Arild Johnsen; Glenn?Peter S?tre

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postzygotic isolation in the form of reduced viability and/or fertility of hybrids may help maintain species boundaries in the face of interspecific gene flow. Past hybridization events between house sparrows(Passer domesticus) and Spanish sparrows(P. hispaniolensis) have given rise to a homoploid hybrid species, the Italian sparrow(P. italiae). Although genetic incompatibilities are known to isolate these three species, the biological consequences of these incompatibilities are still unknown in early generation hybrids.Methods: We investigated whether F1 hybrids between house and Spanish sparrows experience reduced viability or fertility. More specifically, we generated hybrids through controlled crosses in aviaries, and compared ovaries of female hybrids with female of pure?species sparrows.Results: We found that overall, hybrid ovaries were underdeveloped and that half of all female hybrids exhibited symptoms of ovarian hypofunction(ovarian atrophy and complete absence of developed follicles).Conclusions: Fertility in hybrids is a common consequence or post?zygotic barriers between species. We discuss these results in light of previous findings on genetic incompatibilities between the parent species and the potential role of incompatibilities in hybrid speciation, a rare evolutionary process in birds.

  2. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  3. BSA Hybrid Synthesized Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Bin LIU; Xiao Pei DENG; Chang Sheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a naturally occurring biopolymer, was regarded as a polymeric material to graft to an acrylic acid (AA)-N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) copolymer to form a biomacromolecular hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer can be blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to increase the hydrophilicity of the PES membrane, which suggested that the hybrid polymer might have a wide application in the modification of biomaterials.

  4. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  5. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  6. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  8. Shape Memory Composite Hybrid Hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Scarborough, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are two conventional types of hinges for in-space deployment applications. The first type is mechanically deploying hinges. A typical mechanically deploying hinge is usually composed of several tens of components. It is complicated, heavy, and bulky. More components imply higher deployment failure probability. Due to the existence of relatively moving components among a mechanically deploying hinge, it unavoidably has microdynamic problems. The second type of conventional hinge relies on strain energy for deployment. A tape-spring hinge is a typical strain energy hinge. A fundamental problem of a strain energy hinge is that its deployment dynamic is uncontrollable. Usually, its deployment is associated with a large impact, which is unacceptable for many space applications. Some damping technologies have been experimented with to reduce the impact, but they increased the risks of an unsuccessful deployment. Coalescing strain energy components with shape memory composite (SMC) components to form a hybrid hinge is the solution. SMCs are well suited for deployable structures. A SMC is created from a high-performance fiber and a shape memory polymer resin. When the resin is heated to above its glass transition temperature, the composite becomes flexible and can be folded or packed. Once cooled to below the glass transition temperature, the composite remains in the packed state. When the structure is ready to be deployed, the SMC component is reheated to above the glass transition temperature, and it returns to its as-fabricated shape. A hybrid hinge is composed of two strain energy flanges (also called tape-springs) and one SMC tube. Two folding lines are placed on the SMC tube to avoid excessive strain on the SMC during folding. Two adapters are used to connect the hybrid hinge to its adjacent structural components. While the SMC tube is heated to above its glass transition temperature, a hybrid hinge can be folded and stays at folded status after the temperature

  9. Hybrid Unifying Variable Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare new phenomenon of topology change,evolution,hybrid ratio and network characteristics of unified hybrid network theoretical model with unified hybrid supernetwork model,this paper constructed unified hybrid variable supernetwork model(HUVSM).The first layer introduces a hybrid ratio dr,the

  10. Large Unifying Hybrid Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    For depicting multi-hybrid process,large unifying hybrid network model(so called LUHNM)has two sub-hybrid ratios except dr.They are deterministic hybrid ratio(so called fd)and random hybrid ratio(so called gr),respectively.

  11. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankaran Venugopal; K K Rajesh; V Ramanujachari

    2011-01-01

    With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems...

  12. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  13. Hybridized Teacher Education Programs in NYC: A Missed Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungal, Angus Shiva

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the development of hybrid teacher preparation programs that emerged as a result of a "forced" partnership between university-based and alternative teacher preparation programs in New York City. This hybrid experiment was a short-lived, yet innovative by-product of a somewhat pragmatic arrangement between…

  14. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  15. Hybrid manifold embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Yan; Chan, Keith C C; Hua, Kien A

    2014-12-01

    In this brief, we present a novel supervised manifold learning framework dubbed hybrid manifold embedding (HyME). Unlike most of the existing supervised manifold learning algorithms that give linear explicit mapping functions, the HyME aims to provide a more general nonlinear explicit mapping function by performing a two-layer learning procedure. In the first layer, a new clustering strategy called geodesic clustering is proposed to divide the original data set into several subsets with minimum nonlinearity. In the second layer, a supervised dimensionality reduction scheme called locally conjugate discriminant projection is performed on each subset for maximizing the discriminant information and minimizing the dimension redundancy simultaneously in the reduced low-dimensional space. By integrating these two layers in a unified mapping function, a supervised manifold embedding framework is established to describe both global and local manifold structure as well as to preserve the discriminative ability in the learned subspace. Experiments on various data sets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  17. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  18. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    contexts, or sites, for mixing scientific knowledge and technical skills from different fields and social domains into new combinations, thus fostering what the authors term a “hybrid imagination”. Such a hybrid imagination is especially important today, as a way to counter the competitive and commercial...

  19. Hybrid trajectory spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general framework for describing and studying hybrid systems. We represent the trajectories of the system as functions on a hybrid time domain, and the system itself by its trajectory space, which is the set of all possible trajectories. The trajectory space is given a na

  20. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  1. 压电气体混合驱动式喷射点胶阀的设计与实验%Design and experiment for the piezoelectric-gas hybrid driven jet dispensing valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦晓阳; 刘建芳; 丁宁宁; 路崧

    2013-01-01

    Considering that the piezoelectric materials can be used for jet dispensing and can be widely applied in microelectronics packaging, a new type of piezoelectric/gas hybrid driven non-contact jet dispensing valve has been developed. This paper expounds upon the working principles of the valve, and uses FLUENT dynamic grid technol-ogy to analyze the relationship between the valve rod stroke and the glue solution to realize dispensing. Through the experiment, the factors which affect the dispensing quality of this valve were obtained. The 5 000 mPa·s high vis-cosity epoxy resin glue dispensing was realized with tungsten steel which has a nozzle diameter of 0.3 mm which was selected. The results show that the minimum diameter of the glue dot is 0.5 mm, dispensing frequency reaches 120 Hz, and the consistent error rate of the glue dot is under 5%.%为了实现压电喷射点胶,使压电喷射技术能广泛地应用到电子封装产业中,设计了一种压电/气体混合驱动式非接触喷射点胶阀.介绍了该点胶阀的工作原理,利用FLUENT动网格技术分析了阀杆行程与胶液实现喷射的关系,通过实验得到了影响点胶阀点胶质量的因素.实验选用直径为0.3 mm的钨钢喷嘴,实现了5000 mPa·s中高粘度环氧树脂胶结剂的喷射点胶,获得胶点最小直径为0.5 mm,点胶频率可达120 Hz,胶点一致性误差在5%以内.

  2. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  3. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  4. Resistance of sunflower hybrids to imazamox and tribenuron-methyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozic, D; Saric, M; Malidza, G;

    2012-01-01

    The response of the imazamox resistant and susceptible sunflower hybrids Rimi and S to imazamox and of tribenuron-methyl resistant and susceptible hybrids Rsu and S to tribenuron-methyl was investigated both in a whole-plant bioassay and in field experiments. Plants were treated post...... concentrations was determined in vitro. Pronounced differences were noted between Rimi and S hybrids and between Rsu and S hybrids in the vegetative parameters and ALS activity. Namely, Rimi hybrid was 9e64-fold more resistant than S for vegetative parameters and about 3000-fold for ALS activity, while Rsu...... hybrid was 14e56-fold more resistant than S for vegetative parameters, and about 2600-fold for ALS activity....

  5. Intelligent Control Scheme of Engineering Machinery of Cluster Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qiang; WANG Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In a hybrid system, the subsystems with discrete dynamics play a central role in a hybrid system. In the course of engineering machinery of cluster construction, the discrete control law is hard to obtain because the construction environment is complex and there exist many affecting factors. In this paper, hierarchically intelligent control, expert control and fuzzy control are introduced into the discrete subsystems of engineering machinery of cluster hybrid system, so as to rebuild the hybrid system and make the discrete control law easily and effectively obtained. The structures, reasoning mechanism and arithmetic of intelligent control are replanted to discrete dynamic, conti-nuous process and the interface of the hybrid system. The structures of three types of intelligent hybrid system are presented and the human experiences summarized from engineering machinery of cluster are taken into account.

  6. Hybrid recreation by reverse breeding in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnker, Erik; Deurhof, Laurens; van de Belt, Jose; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; Blankestijn, Hetty; Becker, Frank; Ravi, Maruthachalam; Chan, Simon W L; van Dun, Kees; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; de Jong, Hans; Dirks, Rob; Keurentjes, Joost J B

    2014-04-01

    Hybrid crop varieties are traditionally produced by selecting and crossing parental lines to evaluate hybrid performance. Reverse breeding allows doing the opposite: selecting uncharacterized heterozygotes and generating parental lines from them. With these, the selected heterozygotes can be recreated as F1 hybrids, greatly increasing the number of hybrids that can be screened in breeding programs. Key to reverse breeding is the suppression of meiotic crossovers in a hybrid plant to ensure the transmission of nonrecombinant chromosomes to haploid gametes. These gametes are subsequently regenerated as doubled-haploid (DH) offspring. Each DH carries combinations of its parental chromosomes, and complementing pairs can be crossed to reconstitute the initial hybrid. Achiasmatic meiosis and haploid generation result in uncommon phenotypes among offspring owing to chromosome number variation. We describe how these features can be dealt with during a reverse-breeding experiment, which can be completed in six generations (∼1 year).

  7. Research on Modulation Strategies Based on Multilevel Inverter Universal Hybrid Topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jinghua; Su Yanmin; Shen Chuanwen; Zhang Lin

    2005-01-01

    Based on multi-module-cascaded inverter topology, this study presented a universal multilevel inverter hybrid topology and unified the researches on multilevel inverter topology. According to the freedom of this universal topology, several new hybrid topologies were constructed. Also, based on conventional modulation strategies- multi-carrier SPWM (Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation), hybrid modulation strategies were introduced corresponding to hybrid topologies, and a multilevel SVPWM (Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation) technique based on phase-shifted theory was naturally produced. Simulation and experiment results prove that hybrid topologies and corresponding modulation strategies are valid, which lay a foundation for practical application of hybrid multilevel inverter topologies.

  8. Cultivating Curiosity: Integrating Hybrid Teaching in Courses in Human Behavior in the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Keyes, Elizabeth; Schneider, Dana A.

    2013-01-01

    This study illustrates an experience of implementing a hybrid model for teaching human behavior in the social environment in an urban university setting. Developing a hybrid model in a BSW program arose out of a desire to reach students in a different way. Designed to promote curiosity and active learning, this particular hybrid model has students…

  9. Vegetative propagation of Alstroemeria hybrids in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.L.M.; Voorst, van A.; Booy, G.; Acker, van C.A.M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Wit, de J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Terminal and lateral tips from fleshy rhizomes of Alstroemeria hybrids were isolated in vitro and induced to form a new rhizome. The cultivar Toledo was used in most experiments, but later other cultivars were also tested. The basic culture medium for rhizome isolation and for rhizome multiplication

  10. Vegetative propagation of Alstroemeria hybrids in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.L.M.; Voorst, van A.; Booy, G.; Acker, van C.A.M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Wit, de J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Terminal and lateral tips from fleshy rhizomes of Alstroemeria hybrids were isolated in vitro and induced to form a new rhizome. The cultivar Toledo was used in most experiments, but later other cultivars were also tested. The basic culture medium for rhizome isolation and for rhizome multiplication

  11. NextFlex Flexible Hybrid Electronics Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    and innovators, along with a robust U.S. network of manufacturing nodes, to advance a national flexible hybrid electronics (FHE) manufacturing...methods to scale up today’s FHE laboratory experiments into smart , affordable products. FHE manufacturing en- compasses innovative electronic...The software design tools will encompass multiphysics simulation (e.g., electrical , thermal, mechanical, etc., interactions based on first principles

  12. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Hybrid male sterility and genome-wide misexpression of male reproductive proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2015-07-06

    Hybrid male sterility is a common barrier to gene flow between species. Previous studies have posited a link between misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in interspecies hybrids and sterility. However, in the absence of fully fertile control hybrids, it is impossible to differentiate between misregulation associated with sterility vs. fast male gene regulatory evolution. Here, we differentiate between these two possibilities using a D. pseudoobscura species pair that experiences unidirectional hybrid sterility. We identify genes uniquely misexpressed in sterile hybrid male reproductive tracts via RNA-seq. The sterile male hybrids had more misregulated and more over or under expressed genes relative to parental species than the fertile male hybrids. Proteases were the only gene ontology class overrepresented among uniquely misexpressed genes, with four located within a previously identified hybrid male sterility locus. This result highlights the potential role of a previously unexplored class of genes in interspecific hybrid male sterility and speciation.

  14. 磁力调频压电电磁复合发电设计与实验%Design and experiment of piezoelectric electromagnetic hybrid broadband generator with magnetic force tuning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜小振; 张龙波; 于红

    2016-01-01

    开展了基于环境振动发电作为微电源弥补传统化学电池供能缺陷的研究。基于非线性磁力调频开发了低宽频振动能采集压电电磁复合发电系统。介绍了发电装置工作原理;利用 ANSYS 和 Ansoft Maxwell 有限元分析软件仿真分析了压电和电磁发电的输出特性;最后,搭建了压电电磁复合宽频发电装置实验测试系统,测试了发电系统在磁力自调过程中的输出特性。实验结果显示:复合发电系统在谐振频率60 Hz 时输出开路电压峰值为5.8 V ,高于压电系统(5.5 V)和电磁系统(410 mV)独立发电的开路电压峰值。施加磁力拓宽装置后,当压电悬臂梁沿竖直方向上下移动0~15 mm 时,系统适应谐振频带拓宽为45~76 Hz ;悬臂梁沿水平方向平移0~30 mm 时,谐振频带拓宽为51~70 Hz 。结果表明仿真分析与实验测试结果吻合很好。该宽频带能量采集技术可用于低频振动环境的能量采集,可在频变环境中为微型低功耗系统提供低电能。%This paper focuses on environmental vibration energy harvesting generator to provide low energy for a micro low-power system . A piezoelectric electromagnetic hybrid broadband power generator was developed based on nonlinear magnetic force tuning . The working principle of the power generator was introduced ,and its output power characteristics by the piezoelectric system and electromagnetic system were respectively simulated with the software of ANSYS and Ansoft Maxwell . Then ,an experiment system was set up to test the output power characteristics of the power generator with the magnetic force tuning .Experimental results indicate that the peak output open voltage from the power generator is 5 .8 V at the resonance frequency of 60 Hz ,which is higher than that of the piezoelectric system (5 .5 V)and the electromagnetic system (410 mV)independently .When the natural frequency is adjusted with the

  15. 桑枝叶混合青贮饲料饲喂杂交肉羊育肥效果试验%Experiment on the Fattening Effects of Hybrid Mutton Sheep with Feeding Mulberry Leaves and Silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘自新; 梅宁安; 赵晖; 潘文权; 包玉珍

    2014-01-01

    The effects of mixed feed of mulberry leaves and silage on the production performance of hybrid mutton sheep of Tan Sheep and Small-tailed Han Sheep were studied. And its feasibility in the production was explored. 26 hybrid mutton sheep of Tan Sheep and Small-tailed Han Sheep were divided into two groups (with 13 hybrid mutton sheep in each group) . The hybrid mutton sheep in test group was fed with mixed silage. And the hybrid mutton sheep in control group was fed with whole plant corn silage. The results showed that the average daily gain of hybrid mutton sheep in test group was increased by 9.2%than that in control group (P<0.05). And the feed-meat ratio in test group was decreased by 6.98%(P<0.05). The average weight gain during 30 days increased 7.75 yuan gross profit, and the amplitude was 16.32%. The research indicated that it was feasible to mix mulberry leaves with silage in the production and it could significantly enhance the production performance of hybrid fattening mutton sheep.%试验研究了桑枝叶混合青贮饲料对滩寒杂交肉羊生产性能的影响,并探索了其在生产中的可行性。选择滩寒杂交育肥肉羊26只,分为2个组,每组13只,试验组饲喂混合青贮,对照组饲喂全株玉米青贮。试验结果表明,试验组比对照组只均日增重提高9.2%(P<0.05),料肉比降低6.98%(P<0.05),30 d只均日增重可提高毛利7.75元,增幅为16.32%。研究表明,桑枝叶混合青贮饲料在生产中是可行的,并且能显著提高肉用杂交育肥羊生产性能。

  16. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  17. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  18. Hybrid Bloch Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Losano, L

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios.

  19. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  20. Hybrid silicon evanescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Fang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si photonics as an integration platform has recently been a focus of optoelectronics research because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing based on the ubiquitous electronics fabrication infrastructure. The key challenge for Si photonic systems is the realization of compact, electrically driven optical gain elements. We review our recent developments in hybrid Si evanescent devices. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers, amplifiers, and photodetectors that can provide a low-cost, scalable solution for hybrid integration on a Si platform by using a novel hybrid waveguide architecture, consisting of III-V quantum wells bonded to Si waveguides.

  1. Proton Radioactivity Within a Hybrid Metho d

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿飞

    2016-01-01

    The proton radioactivity half-lives are investigated theoretically within a hybrid method. The potential barriers preventing the emission of protons are determined in the quasimolecular shape path within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM). The penetrability is calculated with the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. The spectroscopic factor has been taken into account in half-life calculation, which is obtained by employing the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory combined with the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) method. The half-lives within the present hybrid method repro-duced the experimental data very well. Some predictions for proton radioactivity are made for future experiments.

  2. Combined photovoltaic and thermal hybrid collector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, E.C. Jr.; Russell, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Solar energy collectors that produce both electric and thermal energy are an attractive alternative to individual thermal and photovoltaic collectors for certain applications and climates. Economic results from a system analysis indicate that hybrid collector systems are attractive in small buildings that have substantial heating loads. Passively cooled photovoltaic panels are best suited for structures located in regions where year-round air conditioning and small, low-grade, thermal energy demands predominate. Hybrid collectors are to be tested according to ASHRAE standards and a full-system experiment incorporating a photovoltaic array installed at the Solar Energy Research Facility of the University of Texas will be conducted by Lincoln Laboratory.

  3. Hybrid scheme for Brownian semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Lunde, Asger; Pakkanen, Mikko S.

    the asymptotics of the mean square error of the hybrid scheme and we observe that the scheme leads to a substantial improvement of accuracy compared to the ordinary forward Riemann-sum scheme, while having the same computational complexity. We exemplify the use of the hybrid scheme by two numerical experiments......, where we examine the finite-sample properties of an estimator of the roughness parameter of a Brownian semistationary process and study Monte Carlo option pricing in the rough Bergomi model of Bayer et al. (2015), respectively....

  4. Chaotic mixer improves microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuain, Mark K; Seale, Kevin; Peek, Joel; Fisher, Timothy S; Levy, Shawn; Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, Frederick R

    2004-02-15

    Hybridization is an important aspect of microarray experimental design which influences array signal levels and the repeatability of data within an array and across different arrays. Current methods typically require 24h and use target inefficiently. In these studies, we compare hybridization signals obtained in conventional static hybridization, which depends on diffusional target delivery, with signals obtained in a dynamic hybridization chamber, which employs a fluid mixer based on chaotic advection theory to deliver targets across a conventional glass slide array. Microarrays were printed with a pattern of 102 identical probe spots containing a 65-mer oligonucleotide capture probe. Hybridization of a 725-bp fluorescently labeled target was used to measure average target hybridization levels, local signal-to-noise ratios, and array hybridization uniformity. Dynamic hybridization for 1h with 1 or 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities approximately threefold over a 24-h static hybridization. Similarly, a 10- or 60-min dynamic hybridization of 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities fourfold over a 24h static hybridization. In time course studies, static hybridization reached a maximum within 8 to 12h using either 1 or 10ng of target. In time course studies using the dynamic hybridization chamber, hybridization using 1ng of target increased to a maximum at 4h and that using 10ng of target did not vary over the time points tested. In comparison to static hybridization, dynamic hybridization reduced the signal-to-noise ratios threefold and reduced spot-to-spot variation twofold. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic hybridization based on a chaotic mixer design improves both the speed of hybridization and the maximum level of hybridization while increasing signal-to-noise ratios and reducing spot-to-spot variation.

  5. Hybrid polymer microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have been successfully tested for bonding polymeric spheres, typically 0.1 micron in diameter, to spheres with diameter up to 100 microns. Hybrids are being developed as improved packing material for ion-exchange columns, filters, and separators.

  6. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  7. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  8. Functional hybrid materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fahmi, Amir; Pietsch, Torsten; Mendoza, Cesar; Cheval, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    .... This paper describes our group's achievements towards the development of multifunctional nanostructures via self-assembly of hybrid systems based on the block copolymer PS-b-P4VP and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs...

  9. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  10. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  11. Hybridity in Disgrace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平

    2015-01-01

    John Maxwell Coetzee's masterpiece-Disgrace is the representative work about post colonialism.The novel describes a series of disgraceful events happened between the white and the black in the post apartheid South Africa.The famous literature theory-hybridity of Homi K.Bhabha is the very key theory to analyze the work.In post apartheid South Africa,hybridity is the only way for the white and the black to coexist.

  12. Hybrid Baryon Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2000-01-01

    We discuss whether a low-lying hybrid baryon should be defined as a three quark - gluon bound state or as three quarks moving on an excited adiabatic potential. We show that the latter definition becomes exact, not only for very heavy quarks, but also for specific dynamics. We review the literature on the signatures of hybrid baryons, with specific reference to strong hadronic decays, electromagnetic couplings, diffractive production and production in psi decay.

  13. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  14. Requirements for Hybrid Cosimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-16

    hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) standard. A cosimulation standard de nes interfaces that enable diverse simulation...cosimulation standards, and specifically provides guidance for development of a hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) standard...V. Peetz, and S. Wolf. The functional mockup interface for tool independent exchange of simulation models. In Proc. of the 8-th International

  15. ROOT YIELD AND QUALITY OF SUGAR BEET INVESTIGATED HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kristek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of the production values of 10 sugar beet hybrids was conducted at the location Dalj from 2009-2012. Hybrids included in the experiment are owned by four selection houses and represented in wide production. Weather conditions in the years of investigation differed greatly. One was an average, one with increased, and two with small amounts of rainfall in relation to long-term average. Monthly air temperatures during the vegetation were increased in all four years. Root yield and quality of sugar beet varied considerably depending on the year and the hybrid. The best hybrid on the average of the investigation, by the highest root, was Severina (86.66 t ha-1. Three more hybrids: Coyote, Boomerang and Predator are in the same range. There are no significant differences in this indicator. Hybrid Colonia KWS (15.40% had the highest content of sugar in the root and Asketa, Gazeta, Severina and Protecta with no significant differences. Hybrid Colonia KWS was known for the low content of AmN and Na. Sugar yield, significantly higher than other hybrids in the study, has been realized with hybrids Severina (11.05 t ha-1 and Colonia KWS (10.78 t ha-1.

  16. Welding characteristics in different laser-TIG hybrid manners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦宾; 雷正龙; 李俐群; 吴林

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determining the laser-TIG hybrid welding characteristics was carried out in three kinds of hybrid methods: CO2 laser-TIG coaxial hybrid, CO2 laser-TIG paraxial hybrid and Nd: YAG laser-TIG paraxial hybrid. The experimental results indicate that hybrid welding has two welding mechanisms in CO2 laser-TIG hybrid welding: deep penetration welding and heat conduction welding. As the effect of the laser-induced keyhole, the arc root is condensed, the current density and penetration depth increase significantly, the welding characteristic is apt to deep penetration welding. When current increases to some degree, the keyhole induced by laser disappears, which produces a shallow penetration and wide bead. The weld exhibits heat conduction welding characteristics. Furthermore, the arc images and weld bead cross-sections of three kinds of hybrid manners were also compared and analyzed at different welding currents, which established the foundation for understanding the welding characteristics of laser-TIG hybrid welding comprehensively.

  17. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    This article take its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. The physical, cultural and democratic consequences of this development are discussed in the article, as well as the problems and the new opportunities in the ‘Experience city’. It focuses on the design of the ‘Danish Experience City’ with a special emphasis on hybrid...... cultural projects and on performative urban spaces. ‘Hybrid cultural projects’ are characterised by a conscious fusion between urban transformation and new knowledge centres, cultural institutions and experience environments. ‘Performative urban spaces” are characterised by stages for performance...

  18. A Theoretical Analysis of Why Hybrid Ensembles Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Wei Hsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the group decision making process, ensembles or combinations of classifiers have been found favorable in a wide variety of application domains. Some researchers propose to use the mixture of two different types of classification algorithms to create a hybrid ensemble. Why does such an ensemble work? The question remains. Following the concept of diversity, which is one of the fundamental elements of the success of ensembles, we conduct a theoretical analysis of why hybrid ensembles work, connecting using different algorithms to accuracy gain. We also conduct experiments on classification performance of hybrid ensembles of classifiers created by decision tree and naïve Bayes classification algorithms, each of which is a top data mining algorithm and often used to create non-hybrid ensembles. Therefore, through this paper, we provide a complement to the theoretical foundation of creating and using hybrid ensembles.

  19. Time Series Prediction based on Hybrid Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Yarushev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest to use hybrid approach to time series forecasting problem. In first part of paper, we create a literature review of time series forecasting methods based on hybrid neural networks and neuro-fuzzy approaches. Hybrid neural networks especially effective for specific types of applications such as forecasting or classification problem, in contrast to traditional monolithic neural networks. These classes of problems include problems with different characteristics in different modules. The main part of paper create a detailed overview of hybrid networks benefits, its architectures and performance under traditional neural networks. Hybrid neural networks models for time series forecasting are discussed in the paper. Experiments with modular neural networks are given.

  20. The Hybrids of Postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BĂDULESCU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization is a fundamental characteristic of postmodernism, included by Ihab Hassan in his “catena” of features. This paper looks into the hybrids of postmodernism, which are the result of migration, displacement and uprooting, the re-visitation of myths, folklore and legends, or projections of their author’s imagination. The hybrids used as examples here are drawn from several novels written by Salman Rushdie, especially The Satanic Verses, two short stories, one by Márquez and the other by Donald Barthelme, Borges’s Book of Imaginary Beings, Cărtărescu’s Encyclopaedia of Dragons and Michelle Cliff’s No Telephone to Heaven. Diverse as they may be, these hybrids emphasize a defining characteristic of postmodernism, which is its pluralism. I conclude that the hybrids of postmodernism are aesthetically or politically subversive. Besides, what makes them difficult to grasp is their unfixed and protean nature. They ask for high leaps of the imagination, a total suspension of disbelief and a complete surrender to the powerful seduction of imagination on the reader’s part.

  1. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  2. for hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.

  3. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  4. Conditional Hybrid Nonclassicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, E.; Sperling, J.; Costanzo, L. S.; Bellini, M.; Zavatta, A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-09-01

    We derive and implement a general method to characterize the nonclassicality in compound discrete- and continuous-variable systems. For this purpose, we introduce the operational notion of conditional hybrid nonclassicality which relates to the ability to produce a nonclassical continuous-variable state by projecting onto a general superposition of discrete-variable subsystem. We discuss the importance of this form of quantumness in connection with interfaces for quantum communication. To verify the conditional hybrid nonclassicality, a matrix version of a nonclassicality quasiprobability is derived and its sampling approach is formulated. We experimentally generate an entangled, hybrid Schrödinger cat state, using a coherent photon-addition process acting on two temporal modes, and we directly sample its nonclassicality quasiprobability matrix. The introduced conditional quantum effects are certified with high statistical significance.

  5. Porosity in hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, D.W.; Beaucage, G.; Loy, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Multicomponent, or hybrid composites are emerging as precursors to porous materials. Sacrifice of an ephemeral phase can be used to generate porosity, the nature of which depends on precursor structure. Retention of an organic constituent, on the other hand, can add desirable toughness to an otherwise brittle ceramic. We use small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering to examine porosity in both simple and hybrid materials. We find that microphase separation controls porosity in almost all systems studied. Pore distributions are controlled by the detailed bonding within and between phases as well as the flexibility of polymeric constituents. Thus hybridization opens new regions of pore distributions not available in simple systems. We look at several sacrificial concepts and show that it is possible to generate multimodal pore size distributions due to the complicated phase structure in the precursor.

  6. Photoproduction of Hybrid Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, T

    1998-01-01

    In this contribution I discuss prospects for photoproducing hybrid mesons at CEBAF, based on recent model results and experimental indications of possible hybrids. One excellent opportunity appears to be a search for the I=1, JPC=2+-, neutral "(b2)o" hybrid in (a2 pi)o through diffractive photoproduction. Other notable possibilities accessible through pi+ or pio exchange photoproduction are I=1, JPC=1-+, charged "pi1+" in f1 pi+, (b1 pi)+ and (rho pi)+; piJ(1770)+ in f2 pi+ and (b1 pi)+; pi(1800)+ in f0 pi+, f2 pi+, omega rho+ and (rho pi)+; a1 in f1 pi+ and f2 pi+; and omega in (rho pi)o, omega eta and (K1 K)o.

  7. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita and M. graminis on Several Grain Sorghum Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Katherine; Faske, Travis R

    2017-06-01

    A total of 27 grain sorghum hybrids were evaluated in a series of greenhouse experiments to determine their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. graminis. Each hybrid was inoculated with 2,000 nematode eggs/pot. Reproduction by M. incognita was numerically greater than M. graminis on 93% of the hybrids tested, indicating that grain sorghum is a better host for M. incognita than M. graminis. A wide variation in host suitability was observed on these hybrids in a second experiment as reproduction by M. incognita ranged from 395 to 3,818 eggs/g of root. Only two hybrids, Terral RV9782 and RV9823, consistently supported <20% reproduction by M. incognita compared to the most susceptible hybrid, Golden Acres 5556. Reproduction of four isolates of M. incognita was evaluated on six selected hybrids in a third greenhouse experiment. Hybrid susceptibility was similar to that observed in the previous experiment for all isolates. A difference in isolate aggressiveness was observed between two of the four isolates across all hybrids. In fields where damaging populations of M. incognita are present, most grain sorghum hybrids will likely maintain or increase the nematode population for the subsequent crop.

  8. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  9. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  10. Hybrid Weyl semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Ye; Luo, Xi; Dai, Xi; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2016-09-01

    We construct a tight-binding model realizing one pair of Weyl nodes and three distinct Weyl semimetals. In the type-I (type-II) Weyl semimetal, both nodes belong to type-I (type-II) Weyl nodes. In addition, there exists a third type, previously undiscovered and dubbed "hybrid Weyl semimetal", in which one Weyl node is of type I while the other is of type II. For the hybrid Weyl semimetal, we further demonstrate the bulk Fermi surfaces and the topologically protected surface states, analyze the unique Landau-level structure and quantum oscillation, and discuss the conditions for possible material realization.

  11. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  12. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  13. THERMALLY CLEAVABLE HYBRID MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gaina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermally cleavable hybrid materials were prepared by the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction of poly(vinyl furfural to N phenylmaleimido-N’-(triethoxysilylpropylurea followed by the sol-gel condensation reaction of trietoxysilyl groups with water and acetic acid. Thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis, dielectric and FTIR spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and properties of the composites. The size of the inorganic silica particles in the hybrid material varied dependent on the silica content. The DSC study of the prepared materials revealed that the cleavage process of the formed cycloadducts takes place at temperatures varying between 143-165°C and is an endothermic process.

  14. 石蜡切片人乳头瘤病毒6/11原位杂交的体会%Experience of HPV6/11 In-situ Hybridization in Paraffin-embedded Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 张健; 刘涛

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨原位杂交技术在检测组织标本中人乳头瘤样病毒的应用.方法 组织标本固定、制片后,应用标记探针与组织细胞中的核酸序列特异性杂交,信号放大后用DAB进行显色,从而检测人乳头瘤样病毒的表达.结果 40例标本,阳性38例,阳性率为95%.结论 此方法定位准确,特异性强,敏感度高.%Objective To investigate the application of in-situ hybridization technique in the detection of human papilloma virus (HPV) in tissue samples. Methods After fixed in formalin and manufactured in tissue sections, the nucleotide sequence of the tissue samples were hybridized with the labeled probe. Furthermore, in order to detect the expression of HPV, the signal of expression was amplified with DAB. Results 38 specimens showed positive expression in 40 cases, in which the positive rate was 95%. Conclusion The method is accurate in position with high specificity and sensitivity.

  15. Upper Hybrid Effects in Artificial Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Eliasson, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    A most fascinating result of recent ionospheric experiments has been the discovery of artificial ionization by Pedersen et al. (GRL, 37, L02106, 2010). The Artificial Ionospheric Layers (AIL) were the result of F-region O-mode HF irradiation using the HAARP ionospheric heater operating at 3.6 MW power. As demonstrated by Eliasson et al. (JGR, 117, A10321, 2012) the physics controlling the observed phenomenon and its threshold can be summarized as: " Collisional ionization due to high energy (~ 20 eV) electron tails generated by the interaction of strong Langmuir turbulence with plasma heated at the upper hybrid resonance and transported at the reflection height". The objective of the current presentation is to explore the role of the upper hybrid heating in the formation of AIL and its implications to future experiments involving HF heaters operating in middle and equatorial latitudes.

  16. Testing the 'hybrid susceptibility' and 'phenological sink' hypotheses using the P. balsamifera - P. deltoides hybrid zone and septoria leaf spot [Septoria musiva].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M LeBoldus

    Full Text Available Hybrid genotypes that arise between plant species frequently have increased susceptibility to arthropod pests and fungal pathogens. This pattern has been attributed to the breakdown of plant defenses ('Hybrid susceptibility' hypothesis and (or to extended periods of susceptibility attributed to plant phenologies in zones of species overlap and (or hybridization ('phenological sink' hypothesis. We examined these hypotheses by assessing the susceptibility of parental and hybrid Populus host genotypes to a leaf spot disease caused by the fungal pathogen Septoria musiva. For this purpose, 214 genotypes were obtained from morphologically pure zones of P. balsamifera and P. deltoides, and from an intervening zone of overlap and hybridization on the drainage of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada. Genotypes were identified as P. balsamifera, P. deltoides, or hybrid using a suite of 27 species-specific SNP markers. Initially the genetic structure of the hybrid zone was characterized with 27.7% of trees classified as admixed individuals. To test the hybrid susceptibility hypothesis, a subset of 52 genotypes was inoculated with four isolates of S. musiva. Levels of susceptibility were P. balsamifera > F1 hybrid > P. deltoides. A further 53 genotypes were grown in a common garden to assess the effect of genotype on variation in leaf phenology. Leaf phenology was more variable within the category of hybrid genotypes than within categories of either parental species. Leaf phenology was also more variable for the category of trees originating in the hybrid (P. balsamifera - P. deltoides [hybrid and parental genotypes combined] zone than in adjacent pure zones of the parental species. The results from the inoculation experiment support the hybrid intermediacy hypothesis. The results from the common garden experiment support the 'phenological sink' hypothesis. These findings have greatly increased our understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of fungal

  17. Testing the 'hybrid susceptibility' and 'phenological sink' hypotheses using the P. balsamifera - P. deltoides hybrid zone and septoria leaf spot [Septoria musiva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoldus, Jared M; Isabel, Nathalie; Floate, Kevin D; Blenis, Peter; Thomas, Barb R

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid genotypes that arise between plant species frequently have increased susceptibility to arthropod pests and fungal pathogens. This pattern has been attributed to the breakdown of plant defenses ('Hybrid susceptibility' hypothesis) and (or) to extended periods of susceptibility attributed to plant phenologies in zones of species overlap and (or) hybridization ('phenological sink' hypothesis). We examined these hypotheses by assessing the susceptibility of parental and hybrid Populus host genotypes to a leaf spot disease caused by the fungal pathogen Septoria musiva. For this purpose, 214 genotypes were obtained from morphologically pure zones of P. balsamifera and P. deltoides, and from an intervening zone of overlap and hybridization on the drainage of the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada. Genotypes were identified as P. balsamifera, P. deltoides, or hybrid using a suite of 27 species-specific SNP markers. Initially the genetic structure of the hybrid zone was characterized with 27.7% of trees classified as admixed individuals. To test the hybrid susceptibility hypothesis, a subset of 52 genotypes was inoculated with four isolates of S. musiva. Levels of susceptibility were P. balsamifera > F1 hybrid > P. deltoides. A further 53 genotypes were grown in a common garden to assess the effect of genotype on variation in leaf phenology. Leaf phenology was more variable within the category of hybrid genotypes than within categories of either parental species. Leaf phenology was also more variable for the category of trees originating in the hybrid (P. balsamifera - P. deltoides [hybrid and parental genotypes combined]) zone than in adjacent pure zones of the parental species. The results from the inoculation experiment support the hybrid intermediacy hypothesis. The results from the common garden experiment support the 'phenological sink' hypothesis. These findings have greatly increased our understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of fungal pathogens in plant

  18. Design of Magnetic Flux Feedback Controller in Hybrid Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid suspension system with permanent magnet and electromagnet consumes little power consumption and can realize larger suspension gap. But realizing stable suspension of hybrid magnet is a tricky problem in the suspension control sphere. Considering from this point, we take magnetic flux signal as a state variable and put this signal back to suspension control system. So we can get the hybrid suspension mathematical model based on magnetic flux signal feedback. By application of MIMO feedback linearization theory, we can further realize linearization of the hybrid suspension system. And then proportion, integral, differentiation, magnetic flux density B (PIDB controller is designed. Some hybrid suspension experiments have been done on CMS04 magnetic suspension bogie of National University of Defense Technology (NUDT in China. The experiments denote that the new hybrid suspension control algorithm based on magnetic flux signal feedback designed in this paper has more advantages than traditional position-current double cascade control algorithm. Obviously, the robustness and stability of hybrid suspension system have been enhanced.

  19. Interaction hybrid × planting date for oil yield in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balalić Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effects of hybrids and planting dates as well as their interaction on oil yield in sunflower for three-year experiment (2005, 2006, 2007. Three sunflower hybrids (Miro, Rimi and Pobednik and eight planting dates were included in the experiment. AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction analysis is one of the mainly used multiplicative models, which evaluates main effects and also interaction. The interaction was detected by using AMMI1 biplot. Oil yield was predominantly influenced by the year of growing (58.9%, then by planting date (12.9% and by hybrid (10.7%. All interactions were significant as well. AMMI ANOVA showed high significance of both IPC1 and IPC2. The contribution of IPC1 was 77.5%. Hybrids Miro and Pobednik showed no significant differences in the mean values, which were higher than average. However, the hybrid Miro showed the highest stability for oil yield. Hybrid Rimi, with the lowest mean value, was the most unstable for the examined character. Oil yield was higher in earlier than in later planting dates. Graphical presentation of AMMI1 in the form of biplot could facilitate the choice of stable hybrids and planting dates for desired characters in sunflower.

  20. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    . This paper addresses the question of whether the sensation of landscape can be condensed in function or to the size of an urban building. It also discusses the benefits and potentials of the amalgamate, by underlining the unique qualities of such a hybrid. In an attempt to define the experience of landscape...

  1. A Mathematical Approach to Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, P. S. C.; Thompson, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an approach to hybridization which exploits the similarities between the algebra of wave functions and vectors. This method will account satisfactorily for the number of orbitals formed when applied to hybrids involving the s and p orbitals. (GS)

  2. A Hybrid Intelligent Algorithm for Optimal Birandom Portfolio Selection Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Birandom portfolio selection problems have been well developed and widely applied in recent years. To solve these problems better, this paper designs a new hybrid intelligent algorithm which combines the improved LGMS-FOA algorithm with birandom simulation. Since all the existing algorithms solving these problems are based on genetic algorithm and birandom simulation, some comparisons between the new hybrid intelligent algorithm and the existing algorithms are given in terms of numerical experiments, which demonstrate that the new hybrid intelligent algorithm is more effective and precise when the numbers of the objective function computations are the same.

  3. Hybridization Induced Transparency in composites of metamaterials and atomic media

    CERN Document Server

    Weis, Peter; Beigang, René; Rahm, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We report hybridization induced transparency (HIT) in a composite medium consisting of a metamaterial and a dielectric. We develop an analytic model that explains HIT by coherent coupling between the hybridized local fields of the metamaterial and the dielectric or an atomic system in general. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we evidence HIT in a split ring resonator metamaterial that is coupled to \\alpha-lactose monohydrate. Both, the analytic model and numerical calculations confirm and explain the experimental observations. HIT can be considered as a hybrid analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and plasmon-induced transparency (PIT).

  4. Production of Fine Metallic Powders by Hybrid Atomization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Kazumi; Liu, Yunzhong; Kakisawa, Hideki; Halada, Kohmei

    Hybrid Atomization is a recently developed powder-making process that combines effectively free-fall gas atomization and centrifugal atomization. This technique can produce very fine spherical powders with mean diameters of around 10 micrometers, and in high yields. The present report discusses the concept and basic principles of hybrid atomization. Process experiments were carried out and the optimal processing conditions were obtained. The results show that the influences of processing parameters and optimum conditions differ greatly between the proposed and the conventional atomization processes. A new correlation of atomization equation applicable to hybrid atomization is proposed and discussed.

  5. Effects of nitrogen and plant density on dwarf sunflower hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Süzer S.

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the seed yield and some yield components of two dwarf hybrids as compared to one standard-height sunflower hybrid (Helianthus annuus L.) at different nitrogen rates and planting densities. The study was carried out under natural rainfed conditions at the Thrace Agricultural Research Institute in Edirne-Turkey between 1999 and 2001. The experiments were set up in split-split plots in a randomized complete block desi...

  6. Combining ability of tomato lines in saladette-type hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing importance of the saladette fresh tomato market in Brazil, the objective of this paper was to assess the combining abilities of lines potentially useful as parents of hybridsin this class. The experiment consisted of28 genotypes, 18 hybrids from a partial diallel crossobtained from crossing two groups of tomato lines (Group I, with 9 parents, and Group II, with 2 parents), 8 F1 experimental hybrids, and 2 commercial checks. Traits evaluated were total yield, mean fruit mass,...

  7. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  8. (Hybrid) Baryons Symmetries and Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1999-01-01

    We construct (hybrid) baryons in the flux-tube model of Isgur and Paton. In the limit of adiabatic quark motion, we build proper eigenstates of orbital angular momentum and construct the flavour, spin and J^P of hybrid baryons from the symmetries of the system. The lowest mass hybrid baryon is estimated at approximately 2 GeV.

  9. Improved hybrid rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David L.

    1995-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, as part of its Independent R&D, has initiated development of a clean burning, high performance hybrid fuel for consideration as an alternative to the solid rocket thrust augmentation currently utilized by American space launch systems including Atlas, Delta, Pegasus, Space Shuttle, and Titan. It could also be used in single stage to orbit or as the only propulsion system in a new launch vehicle. Compared to solid propellants based on aluminum and ammonium perchlorate, this fuel is more environmentally benign in that it totally eliminates hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide by products, producing only water, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and trace amounts of nitrogen oxides. Compared to other hybrid fuel formulations under development, this fuel is cheaper, denser, and faster burning. The specific impulse of this fuel is comparable to other hybrid fuels and is between that of solids and liquids. The fuel also requires less oxygen than similar hybrid fuels to produce maximum specific impulse, thus reducing oxygen delivery system requirements.

  10. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  11. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een s

  12. Organics go hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzani, Guglielmo; Petrozza, Annamaria; Caironi, Mario

    2017-01-01

    From displays to solar cells, the field of organic optoelectronics has come a long way over the past 50 years, but the realization of an electrically pumped organic laser remains elusive. The answer may lie with hybrid organic-inorganic materials called perovskites.

  13. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    Most protocols for distributed, fault-tolerant computation, or multi-party computation (MPC), provide security guarantees in an all-or-nothing fashion. In contrast, a hybrid-secure protocol provides different security guarantees depending on the set of corrupted parties and the computational powe...

  14. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...

  15. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  16. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  17. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  18. Effects of Hybrid and Non-hybrid Epichloë Endophytes and Their Associated Host Genotypes on the Response of a Native Grass to Varying Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tong; Oberhofer, Martina; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Faeth, Stanley H

    2016-07-01

    Asexual Epichloë endophytes are prevalent in cool season grasses, and many are of hybrid origin. Hybridization of asexual endophytes is thought to provide a rapid influx of genetic variation that may be adaptive to endophyte-host grass symbiota in stressful environments. For Arizona fescue (Festuca arizonica), hybrid symbiota are commonly found in resource-poor environments, whereas non-hybrid symbiota are more common in resource-rich environments. There have been very few experimental tests where infection, hybrid and non-hybrid status, and plant genotype have been controlled to tease apart their effects on host phenotype and fitness in different environments. We conducted a greenhouse experiment where hybrid (H) and non-hybrid (NH) endophytes were inoculated into plant genotypes that were originally uninfected (E-) or once infected with either the H or NH endophytes. Nine endophyte and plant genotypic group combinations were grown under low and high water and nutrient treatments. Inoculation with the resident H endophyte enhanced growth and altered allocation to roots and shoots, but these effects were greatest in resource-rich environments, contrary to expectations. We found no evidence of co-adaptation between endophyte species and their associated host genotypes. However, naturally E- plants performed better when inoculated with the hybrid endophyte, suggesting these plants were derived from H infected lineages. Our results show complex interactions between endophyte species of hybrid and non-hybrid origin with their host plant genotypes and environmental factors.

  19. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects.

  20. Exotic Hybrid Meson Spectroscopy with the GlueX detector at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, David W. [JLAB

    2014-03-01

    The GlueX experiment is scheduled to begin taking data in 2015. The goal is to discover evidence for the existence of exotic hybrid mesons and to map out their spectrum in the light quark sector. Recent theoretical developments using Lattice QCD predict exotic hybrid states in a mass range accessible using the newly upgraded 12GeV electron accelerator at Jefferson Lab. Hybrid mesons, and in particular exotic hybrid mesons, provide the ideal laboratory for testing QCD in the confinement regime since these mesons explicitly manifest the gluonic degrees of freedom. The experiment will use 9 GeV linearly polarized photons produced via coherent bremsstrahlung to produce the exotic hybrids. The decay products will be detected in the solenoid-based GlueX detector currently under construction at Jefferson Lab. The status of the GlueX experiment including detector parameters will be presented along with theoretical motivation for the experiment.

  1. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  2. Phoxonic Hybrid Superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Redondo, Elena; Huesmann, Hannah; El Boudouti, El-Houssaine; Tremel, Wolfgang; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Fytas, George

    2015-06-17

    We studied experimentally and theoretically the direction-dependent elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation in a supported film of hybrid PMMA (poly[methyl-methacrylate])-TiO2 superlattice (SL). In the direction normal to the layers, this one-dimensional periodic structure opens propagation band gaps for both hypersonic (GHz) phonons and near-UV photons. The high mismatch of elastic and optical impedance results in a large dual phoxonic band gap. The presence of defects inherent to the spin-coating fabrication technique is sensitively manifested in the band gap region. Utilizing Brillouin light scattering, phonon propagation along the layers was observed to be distinctly different from propagation normal to them and can, under certain conditions (SL thickness and substrate elasticity), reveal the nanomechanical properties of the constituent layers. Besides the first realization of unidirectional phoxonic behavior, hybrid (soft-hard) periodic materials are a promising simple platform for opto-acoustic interactions and applications such as filters and Bragg mirrors.

  3. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  4. A Pseudoscalar Hybrid Meson?

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1996-01-01

    New experimental information on the non--exotic J^{PC} = 0^{-+} isovector seen at 1.8 GeV by VES yields convincing evidence of its excited gluonic (hybrid) nature when a critical study of alternative quarkonium assignments is made in the context of ^3 P_0 decay by flux--tube breaking. Production of this gluonic excitation via meson exchange is promising, although its two photon production vanishes.

  5. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    Furthermore, a standard duty cycle that is accepted for measuring fuel economy does not exist nor does a focus towards a particular technology. This...expanded into mild hybrid with the addition of a clutch connecting the generator to the transmission and additional energy storage [16-17...speed control and one for engine/generator torque [35]. Urban, Highway, Composite 33%, 27.9%, 49% General vehicle simulation [30]. Urban 19.0

  6. Fibonacci-Pell Hybridities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    We develop a recurrence satisfied by the Fibonacci and Pell families. We then use it to find explicit formulae and generating functions for the hybrids "F[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "F[subscript n]Q[subscript n]" and "L[subscript n]Q[subscript n]", where "F[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]", "P[subscript n]" and…

  7. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  8. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  9. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  10. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) experiment design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, D. L.; Bowden, M. L.

    1982-03-01

    The Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment concept is to erect a hybrid deployed/assembled structure as an early space experiment in large space structures technology. The basic objectives can be broken down into three generic areas: (1) by performing assembly tasks both in space and in neutral buoyancy simulation, a mathematical basis will be found for the validity conditions of neutral buoyancy, thus enhancing the utility of water as a medium for simulation of weightlessness; (2) a data base will be established describing the capabilities and limitations of EVA crewmembers, including effects of such things as hardware size and crew restraints; and (3) experience of the M.I.T. Space Systems Lab in neutral buoyancy simulation of large space structures assembly indicates that the assembly procedure may create the largest loads that a structure will experience during its lifetime. Data obtained from the experiment will help establish an accurate loading model to aid designers of future space structures.

  11. Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Reyneri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

  12. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  13. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Ashish

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1) It takes into account the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2) For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, the hybrid auction can result in significantly higher revenue. 3) An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's es...

  14. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  15. Postcolonial Hybrids in The Lowland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Ghoreishi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper delves into Jhumpa Lahiri’s 2013 novel, The Lowland, to analyze the diasporic experience of the Indian-born characters. Homi Bhabha’s postcolonial approach is utilized to demonstrate the ways in which the characters perceive the immigration experience, and to unravel the causes of their despair, the disintegration of their family, and the underlying reasons behind the decisions that they make to compensate for their marginal status in the adopted land. It is attempted to shed light on the characters’ insecurities and mental challenges brought forth by their ‘liminal’ condition, in which they find themselves caught in a dilemma between the Indian lifestyle on the one hand, and the American dominant culture, on the other. Furthermore, ‘hybridity’ is discussed, which entails the characters’ partial adoption of the foreign culture that gives birth to mixed identities in the ‘third space.’ This research concludes that in spite of the disturbing aspects of diasporic life including uncertainty, marginality, and unbelonging over which the characters possess no control, they are capable of surviving and even flourishing in the foreign social milieu. Keywords: Adopted Land; Diaspora; Liminality; Hybridity; Third Space

  16. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Hybrid ODE/SSA methods and the cell cycle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Chen, M.; Cao, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Stochastic effect in cellular systems has been an important topic in systems biology. Stochastic modeling and simulation methods are important tools to study stochastic effect. Given the low efficiency of stochastic simulation algorithms, the hybrid method, which combines an ordinary differential equation (ODE) system with a stochastic chemically reacting system, shows its unique advantages in the modeling and simulation of biochemical systems. The efficiency of hybrid method is usually limited by reactions in the stochastic subsystem, which are modeled and simulated using Gillespie's framework and frequently interrupt the integration of the ODE subsystem. In this paper we develop an efficient implementation approach for the hybrid method coupled with traditional ODE solvers. We also compare the efficiency of hybrid methods with three widely used ODE solvers RADAU5, DASSL, and DLSODAR. Numerical experiments with three biochemical models are presented. A detailed discussion is presented for the performances of three ODE solvers.

  18. Spoken Language Identification Using Hybrid Feature Extraction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pawan; Mishra, A N; Chandra, Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces and motivates the use of hybrid robust feature extraction technique for spoken language identification (LID) system. The speech recognizers use a parametric form of a signal to get the most important distinguishable features of speech signal for recognition task. In this paper Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), Perceptual linear prediction coefficients (PLP) along with two hybrid features are used for language Identification. Two hybrid features, Bark Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (BFCC) and Revised Perceptual Linear Prediction Coefficients (RPLP) were obtained from combination of MFCC and PLP. Two different classifiers, Vector Quantization (VQ) with Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) were used for classification. The experiment shows better identification rate using hybrid feature extraction techniques compared to conventional feature extraction methods.BFCC has shown better performance than MFCC with both classifiers. RPLP along with GMM has shown be...

  19. Crowding-induced Cooperativity in DNA Surface Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qun-li; Ren, Chun-lai; Su, Xiao-hang; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    High density DNA brush is not only used to model cellular crowding, but also has a wide application in DNA-functionalized materials. Experiments have shown complicated cooperative hybridization/melting phenomena in these systems, raising the question that how molecular crowding influences DNA hybridization. In this work, a theoretical modeling including all possible inter and intramolecular interactions, as well as molecular details for different species, is proposed. We find that molecular crowding can lead to two distinct cooperative behaviours: negatively cooperative hybridization marked by a broader transition width, and positively cooperative hybridization with a sharper transition, well reconciling the experimental findings. Moreover, a phase transition as a result of positive cooperativity is also found. Our study provides new insights in crowding and compartmentation in cell, and has the potential value in controlling surface morphologies of DNA functionalized nano-particles. PMID:25875056

  20. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities by comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Jean-Michel; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2005-04-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a modified in-situ hybridization technique. In this type of analysis, two differentially labeled genomic DNAs (study and reference) are cohybridized to normal metaphase spreads or to microarray. Chromosomal locations of copy number changes in the DNA segments of the study genome are revealed by a variable fluorescence intensity ratio along each target chromosome. Thus, CGH allows detection and mapping of DNA sequence copy differences between two genomes in a single experiment. Since its development, comparative genomic hybridization has been applied mostly as a research tool in the field of cancer cytogenetics to identify genetic changes in many previously unknown regions. It is also a powerful tool for detection and identification of unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities in prenatal, postnatal and preimplantation diagnostics. The development of comparative genomic hybridization and increase in resolution analysis by using the microarray-based technique offer new information on chromosomal pathologies and thus better management of patients.

  1. Exact Verification of Hybrid Systems Based on Bilinear SOS Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Wang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of safety verification of nonlinear hybrid systems and stability analysis of nonlinear autonomous systems. A hybrid symbolic-numeric method is presented to compute exact inequality invariants of hybrid systems and exact estimates of regions of attraction of autonomous systems efficiently. Some numerical invariants of a hybrid system or an estimate of region of attraction can be obtained by solving a bilinear SOS program via PENBMI solver or iterative method, then the modified Newton refinement and rational vector recovery techniques are applied to obtain exact polynomial invariants and estimates of regions of attraction with rational coefficients. Experiments on some benchmarks are given to illustrate the efficiency of our algorithm.

  2. Ouroboros: A Tool for Building Generic, Hybrid, Divide& Conquer Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J R; Foster, I

    2003-05-01

    A hybrid divide and conquer algorithm is one that switches from a divide and conquer to an iterative strategy at a specified problem size. Such algorithms can provide significant performance improvements relative to alternatives that use a single strategy. However, the identification of the optimal problem size at which to switch for a particular algorithm and platform can be challenging. We describe an automated approach to this problem that first conducts experiments to explore the performance space on a particular platform and then uses the resulting performance data to construct an optimal hybrid algorithm on that platform. We implement this technique in a tool, ''Ouroboros'', that automatically constructs a high-performance hybrid algorithm from a set of registered algorithms. We present results obtained with this tool for several classical divide and conquer algorithms, including matrix multiply and sorting, and report speedups of up to six times achieved over non-hybrid algorithms.

  3. A HYBRID HEURISTIC ALGORITHM FOR THE CLUSTERED TRAVELING SALESMAN PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Mestria

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper proposes a hybrid heuristic algorithm, based on the metaheuristics Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure, Iterated Local Search and Variable Neighborhood Descent, to solve the Clustered Traveling Salesman Problem (CTSP. Hybrid Heuristic algorithm uses several variable neighborhood structures combining the intensification (using local search operators and diversification (constructive heuristic and perturbation routine. In the CTSP, the vertices are partitioned into clusters and all vertices of each cluster have to be visited contiguously. The CTSP is -hard since it includes the well-known Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP as a special case. Our hybrid heuristic is compared with three heuristics from the literature and an exact method. Computational experiments are reported for different classes of instances. Experimental results show that the proposed hybrid heuristic obtains competitive results within reasonable computational time.

  4. Hybrid Genetic Algorithms with Fuzzy Logic Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new implementation of genetic algorithms (GAs) is developed for the machine scheduling problem, which is abundant among the modern manufacturing systems. The performance measure of early and tardy completion of jobs is very natural as one's aim, which is usually to minimize simultaneously both earliness and tardiness of all jobs. As the problem is NP-hard and no effective algorithms exist, we propose a hybrid genetic algorithms approach to deal with it. We adjust the crossover and mutation probabilities by fuzzy logic controller whereas the hybrid genetic algorithm does not require preliminary experiments to determine probabilities for genetic operators. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the GAs method proposed in the paper.``

  5. Rapid hybridization of nucleic acids using isotachophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Moran; Han, Crystal M.; Liao, Joseph C.; Santiago, Juan G.

    2012-01-01

    We use isotachophoresis (ITP) to control and increase the rate of nucleic acid hybridization reactions in free solution. We present a new physical model, validation experiments, and demonstrations of this assay. We studied the coupled physicochemical processes of preconcentration, mixing, and chemical reaction kinetics under ITP. Our experimentally validated model enables a closed form solution for ITP-aided reaction kinetics, and reveals a new characteristic time scale which correctly predicts order 10,000-fold speed-up of chemical reaction rate for order 100 pM reactants, and greater enhancement at lower concentrations. At 500 pM concentration, we measured a reaction time which is 14,000-fold lower than that predicted for standard second-order hybridization. The model and method are generally applicable to acceleration of reactions involving nucleic acids, and may be applicable to a wide range of reactions involving ionic reactants. PMID:22733732

  6. Nonlinear lower hybrid modeling in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoli, F.; Schettini, G. [Università Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Roma (Italy); Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    We present here new results concerning the nonlinear mechanism underlying the observed spectral broadening produced by parametric instabilities occurring at the edge of tokamak plasmas in present day LHCD (lower hybrid current drive) experiments. Low frequency (LF) ion-sound evanescent modes (quasi-modes) are the main parametric decay channel which drives a nonlinear mode coupling of lower hybrid (LH) waves. The spectrum of the LF fluctuations is calculated here considering the beating of the launched LH wave at the radiofrequency (RF) operating line frequency (pump wave) with the noisy background of the RF power generator. This spectrum is calculated in the frame of the kinetic theory, following a perturbative approach. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear LH wave equation show the evolution of the nonlinear mode coupling in condition of a finite depletion of the pump power. The role of the presence of heavy ions in a Deuterium plasma in mitigating the nonlinear effects is analyzed.

  7. Universal blind quantum computation for hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Liang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Tan; Li, Feng-Guang; Fu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    As progress on the development of building quantum computer continues to advance, first-generation practical quantum computers will be available for ordinary users in the cloud style similar to IBM's Quantum Experience nowadays. Clients can remotely access the quantum servers using some simple devices. In such a situation, it is of prime importance to keep the security of the client's information. Blind quantum computation protocols enable a client with limited quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to a quantum server without leaking any privacy. To date, blind quantum computation has been considered only for an individual quantum system. However, practical universal quantum computer is likely to be a hybrid system. Here, we take the first step to construct a framework of blind quantum computation for the hybrid system, which provides a more feasible way for scalable blind quantum computation.

  8. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  9. Improved performance of students instructed in a hybrid PBL format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiqin; He, Fengtian

    2013-01-01

    As a result of enrollment expansion, increasing numbers of students are entering into medical school in China. This combined with a shortage of teachers, means that the learning environment typically consists of a large classroom setting with traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) as the major mode to teaching and learning. In this article, we investigate the preferences for hybrid problem-based learning (hybrid-PBL) or LBL in a large classroom setting. Two hundred five second-year undergraduate students in Third Military Medical University were randomly divided to two groups. The hybrid-PBL group contained 101 students and was taught by hybrid LBL (60%) and tutor-less PBL(40%) in a large classroom. The LBL group consisted of 104 students and was taught by LBL in a large classroom too. Post-teaching performance was assessed by multiple choice questions, short-essay questions, and case-analysis questions, while the students' teaching preferences and satisfaction were assessed by questionnaires. Analysis of the results of both groups in the examination of biochemistry revealed significantly higher scores on short-essay questions and case-analysis questions in the hybrid-PBL group. Students considered hybrid-PBL to be an effective learning method and favored it over the lecture format. Furthermore, students reported positive effects of hybrid-PBL in terms of additional learning resources, critical thinking, and fun learning experiences. These results suggest that hybrid-PBL is better than the traditional LBL method at improving students' basic knowledge and problem-solving skills. Students preferred hybrid-PBL and were satisfied with it. The tutor-less PBL pattern in a large classroom setting may be feasible in Chinese medical schools. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Hybridization in geese: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Van Hooft, Pim; van Wieren, Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Herbert H. T. Prins

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large knowledge gap in geese. In this review, we assemble the available information on hybrid geese by focusing on three main themes: (1) incidence and frequency, (2) behavioural mechanisms leading to hybridizatio...

  11. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  12. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  13. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?......The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  14. Exploration of Advanced Bistatic SAR Experiments (in English)

    OpenAIRE

    Deng Yun-kai; Robert Wang

    2014-01-01

    This study concentrates on the results of several advanced hybrid bistatic SAR experiments. The hybrid bistatic configuration applies to the case in which the transmitter and receiver are mounted on different types of platforms, e.g., spaceborne/airborne, airborne/stationary, spaceborne/stationary, and so on. Several hybrid bistatic SAR experiments have been performed successfully, i.e., TerraSAR-X/PAMIR, PAMIR/stationary, and TerraSAR-X/stationary. Furthermore, Multiple Baseline Interferomet...

  15. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  16. Hybrid power semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. Y.

    1985-10-01

    The voltage rating of a bipolar transistor may be greatly extended while at the same time reducing its switching time by operating it in conjunction with FETs in a hybrid circuit. One FET is used to drive the bipolar transistor while the other FET is connected in series with the transistor and an inductive load. Both FETs are turned on or off by a single drive signal of load power, the second FET upon ceasing conductions, rendering one power electrode of the bipolar transistor open. Means are provided to dissipate currents which flow after the bipolar transistor is rendered nonconducting.

  17. Hybrid Random Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Freno, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an exciting new synthesis of directed and undirected, discrete and continuous graphical models. Combining elements of Bayesian networks and Markov random fields, the newly introduced hybrid random fields are an interesting approach to get the best of both these worlds, with an added promise of modularity and scalability. The authors have written an enjoyable book---rigorous in the treatment of the mathematical background, but also enlivened by interesting and original historical and philosophical perspectives. -- Manfred Jaeger, Aalborg Universitet The book not only marks an

  18. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the ...

  19. Hybrid optofluidic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Joshua W.

    Optofluidics, born of the desire to create a system containing microfluidic environments with integrated optical elements, has seen dramatic increases in popularity over the last 10 years. In particular, the application of this technology towards chip based molecular sensors has undergone significant development. The most sensitive of these biosensors interface liquid- and solid-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs). These sensor chips are created using conventional silicon microfabrication. As such, ARROW technology has previously been unable to utilize state-of-the-art microfluidic developments because the technology used--soft polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) micromolded chips--is unamenable to the silicon microfabrication workflows implemented in the creation of ARROW detection chips. The original goal of this thesis was to employ hybrid integration, or the connection of independently designed and fabricated optofluidic and microfluidic chips, to create enhanced biosensors with the capability of processing and detecting biological samples on a single hybrid system. After successful demonstration of this paradigm, this work expanded into a new direction--direct integration of sensing and detection technologies on a new platform with dynamic, multi-dimensional photonic re-configurability. This thesis reports a number of firsts, including: • 1,000 fold optical transmission enhancement of ARROW optofluidic detection chips through thermal annealing, • Detection of single nucleic acids on a silicon-based ARROW chip, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and passive PDMS microfluidic chips, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and actively controllable PDMS microfluidic chips with integrated microvalves, • On-chip concentration and detection of clinical Ebola nucleic acids, • Multimode interference (MMI) waveguide based wavelength division multiplexing for detection of single influenza virions,

  20. Blind Evaluation of Hybrid Protein Structure Analysis Methods based on Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsom, Adam; Schneider, Michael; Brock, Oliver; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid methods combine experimental data and computational modeling to analyze protein structures that are elusive to structure determination. To spur the development of hybrid methods, we propose to test them in the context of the CASP experiment and would like to invite experimental groups to participate in this initiative.

  1. The Use of Whole-Mount "in Situ" Hybridization to Illustrate Gene Expression Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamusí, Beatriz; Muñoz-Soriano, Verónica; Paricio, Nuria; Artero, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    "In situ" hybridization is a widely used technique for studying gene expression. Here, we describe two experiments addressed to postgraduate genetics students in which the effect of transcription factors on gene expression is analyzed in "Drosophila embryos of different genotypes by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In one of the…

  2. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7. Hybrid vehicle review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschly, K.O.

    1979-09-30

    Review of hybrid vehicles (HVs) built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes on-road hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  3. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  4. The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah; Villareal, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-toface classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of…

  5. Analysis of hybrid viscous damper by real time hybrid simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Ou, Ge; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2016-01-01

    Results from real time hybrid simulations are compared to full numerical simulations for a hybrid viscous damper, composed of a viscous dashpot in series with an active actuator and a load cell. By controlling the actuator displacement via filtered integral force feedback the damping performance...... of the hybrid viscous damper is improved, while for pure integral force feedback the damper stroke is instead increased. In the real time hybrid simulations viscous damping is emulated by a bang-bang controlled Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper. The controller activates high-frequency modes and generates drift...... in the actuator displacement, and only a fraction of the measured damper force can therefore be used as input to the investigated integral force feedback in the real time hybrid simulations....

  6. 双定子混合励磁同步发电机电磁设计分析及实验研究%Electromagnetic design analysis and experiment of a dual-stator hybrid excitation synchronous generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘细平; 郑爱华; 王晨

    2012-01-01

    The speed of permanent synchronous machine applied for wind power changes randomly, which results in unstable output voltage. To overcome this problem, a dual-stator hybrid excitation synchronous generator (DSHESG) was presented, of which the electromagnetic design method was given. Based on 3-D finite element method, the no-load magnetic distribution was analyzed under different field currents, and some characteristics including flux-linkage and inductance of windings were calculated. Some tests including phase EMF and no-load properties were carried out on an 8 poles prototype generator. The test results verify the validation of theoretical analysis. The novel electrical machine structure is reasonable, and the generating capacity of DSHESG is effectively increased. In addition, the output voltage is maintained stable by regulating field current. It is suitable to the variable speed wind power system.%针对风力发电用永磁同步电机具有转速随机性较强导致端电压不稳定的特点,设计了一种双定子混合励磁同步发电机,并给出其电磁设计方法.利用三维有限元方法分析励磁电流变化时的电机空载磁场分布,并计算绕组磁链、感应电动势及电感等参数.研制了一台8极27槽样机,测试了发电机内外定子相电动势波形及空载特性.实验结果验证了理论分析的正确性,此电机结构合理,可有效提高电机功率密度,通过调节励磁电流,可稳定电机端电压,适用于风力发电等变速发电场合.

  7. A In Situ Hybridization Experiment System for the Floral Buds of Lilium longiflorum%麝香百合花蕾组织原位杂交体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席梦利; 潘梅; 施季森

    2011-01-01

    Using the floral buds of Lilium longijlorum as materials and the special sequence of LLGLO1 gene as probe, we studied the effect of sampling time on the RNA structure of the floral buds. We observed the influence of proteinase K concentration and time on protein and structural integrity of tissue structure. The results indicated that RNA of 1.5 h sample remained intact, but RNA of 2 h sample began to degrade. Therefore, samples should be fixed the within 1.5 h. Proteinase K of 10μg/mL can be used to incubate for 30 min at 37℃ to digest most of the protein of the floral buds. The in situ hybridization result indicated that LLGLO1 gene was expressed in four whorls of floral-organ in Lilium longijlorum.%本研究以麝香百合未开放的花蕾为实验材料,以百合花发育相关的B功能基因LLGLO1的特异片段为探针,研究了花蕾切离时间对RNA结构完整性的影响,探讨了蛋白酶K消化浓度及时间对材料内蛋白质消化及材料结构完整性的影响.研究结果表明:花蕾离体1.5 h内RNA仍然保存完整,花蕾离体2hRNA开始降解,因此,花蕾取材后应在1.5 h之内完成固定.10μg/mL的蛋白酶K在37℃孵育30 min可消化百合花蕾切片中的大部分蛋白质且材料结构完整.原位杂交结果显示LLGLO1基因在四轮花器官中均有表达.

  8. Buckling analysis of a ring stiffened hybrid composite cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potluri, Rakesh; Eswara Kumar, A.; Navuri, Karteek; Nagaraju, M.; Mojeswara Rao, Duduku

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to understand the response of the ring stiffened cylinders made up of hybrid composites subjected to buckling loads by using the concepts of Design of Experiments (DOE) and optimization by using Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation software Ansys workbench V15. Carbon epoxy and E-glass epoxy composites were used in the hybrid composite. This hybrid composite was analyzed by using different layup angles. Central composite design (CCD) was used to perform design of experiments (D.O.E) and kriging method was used to generate a response surface. The response surface optimization (RSO) was performed by using the method of the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). After optimization, the best candidate was chosen and applied to the ring stiffened cylinder and eigenvalue buckling analysis was performed to understand the buckling behavior. Best laminate candidates with high buckling strength have been identified. A generalized procedure of the laminate optimization and analysis have been shown.

  9. Arabidopsis hybrid speciation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmickl, Roswitha; Koch, Marcus A

    2011-08-23

    The genus Arabidopsis provides a unique opportunity to study fundamental biological questions in plant sciences using the diploid model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata. However, only a few studies have focused on introgression and hybrid speciation in Arabidopsis, although polyploidy is a common phenomenon within this genus. More recently, there is growing evidence of significant gene flow between the various Arabidopsis species. So far, we know Arabidopsis suecica and Arabidopsis kamchatica as fully stabilized allopolyploid species. Both species evolved during Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles in Fennoscandinavia and the amphi-Beringian region, respectively. These hybrid studies were conducted either on a phylogeographic scale or reconstructed experimentally in the laboratory. In our study we focus at a regional and population level. Our research area is located in the foothills of the eastern Austrian Alps, where two Arabidopsis species, Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, are sympatrically distributed. Our hypothesis of genetic introgression, migration, and adaptation to the changing environment during the Pleistocene has been confirmed: We observed significant, mainly unidirectional gene flow between the two species, which has given rise to the tetraploid A. lyrata. This cytotype was able to escape from the narrow ecological niche occupied by diploid A. lyrata ssp. petraea on limestone outcrops by migrating northward into siliceous areas, leaving behind a trail of genetic differentiation.

  10. Suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    Comparing two RNA populations that differ from the effects of a single independent variable, such as a drug treatment or a specific genetic defect, can establish differences in the abundance of specific transcripts that vary in a population dependent manner. There are different methods for identifying differentially expressed genes. These methods include microarray, Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), and quantitative Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Herein, the protocol describes an easy and cost-effective alternative that does not require prior knowledge of the transcriptomes under examination. It is specifically relevant when low levels of RNA starting material are available. This protocol describes the use of Switching Mechanism At RNA Termini Polymerase Chain Reaction (SMART-PCR) to amplify cDNA from small amounts of RNA. The amplified cDNA populations under comparison are then subjected to Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-PCR). SSH-PCR is a technique that couples subtractive hybridization with suppression PCR to selectively amplify fragments of differentially expressed genes. The resulting products are cDNA populations enriched for significantly overrepresented transcripts in either of the two input RNAs. These cDNA populations can then be cloned to generate subtracted cDNA library. Microarrays made with clones from the subtracted forward and reverse cDNA libraries are then screened for differentially expressed genes using targets generated from tester and driver total RNAs.

  11. Landmarks in Hybrid Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elkawkagy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although planning techniques achieved a significant progress during recent years, solving many planning problem still difficult even for modern planners. In this paper, we will adopt landmark concept to hybrid planning setting - a method that combines reasoning about procedural knowledge and causalities. Land-marks are a well-known concept in the realm of classical planning. Recently, they have been adapted to hierarchical approaches. Such landmarks can be extracted in a pre-processing step from a declarative hierarchical planning domain and problem description. It was shown how this technique allows for a considerable reduction of the search space by eliminating futile plan development options before the actual planning. Therefore, we will present a new approach to in¬tegrate landmark pre-processing technique in the context of hierarchical planning with landmark technique in the classical planning. This integration allows to incorporate the ability of using extracted landmark tasks from hierarchical domain knowledge in the form of HTN and using landmark literals from classical planning. To this end, we will construct a transformation technique to transform the hybrid planning domain into a classical domain model. The method¬ologies in this paper have been implemented successfully, and we will present some experimental results that give evidence for the consid-erable performance increase gained through planning system.

  12. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  13. Hybrid internet access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vivek; Baras, John S.; Dillon, Douglas; Falk, Aaron; Suphasindhu, Narin

    1995-01-01

    Access to the Internet is either too slow (dial-up SLIP) or too expensive (switched 56 kbps, frame relay) for the home user or small enterprise. The Center for Satellite and Hybrid Communication Networks and Hughes Network Systems have collaborated using systems integration principles to develop a prototype of a low-cost hybrid (dial-up and satellite) newtork terminal which can deliver data from the Internet to the user at rates up to 160 kbps. An asymmetric TCP/IP connection is used breaking the network link into two physical channels: a terrestrial dial-up for carrying data from the terminal into the Internet and a receive-only satellite link carrying IP packets from the Internet to the user. With a goal of supporting bandwidth hungry Internet applications such as Mosaic, Gopher, and FTP, this system has been designed to support any Intel 80386/486 PC, any commercial TCP/IP package, any unmodified host on the Internet, and any of the routers, etc., within the Internet. The design exploits the following three observations: 1) satellites are able to offer high bandwidth connections to a large geographical area, 2) a receive-only VSAT is cheap to manufacture and easier to install than one which can also transmit, and 3) most computer users, especially those in a home environment, will want to consume much more information than they generate. IP encapsulation, or tunneling, issued to manipulate the TCP/IP protocols to route packets asymmetrically.

  14. Rin4 causes hybrid necrosis and race-specific resistance in an interspecific lettuce hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Marieke J W; Zhang, Ningwen W; McHale, Leah K; Pelgrom, Koen; den Boer, Erik; Lindhout, Pim; Michelmore, Richard W; Visser, Richard G F; Niks, Rients E

    2009-10-01

    Some inter- and intraspecific crosses may result in reduced viability or sterility in the offspring, often due to genetic incompatibilities resulting from interactions between two or more loci. Hybrid necrosis is a postzygotic genetic incompatibility that is phenotypically manifested as necrotic lesions on the plant. We observed hybrid necrosis in interspecific lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Lactuca saligna) hybrids that correlated with resistance to downy mildew. Segregation analysis revealed a specific allelic combination at two interacting loci to be responsible. The allelic interaction had two consequences: (1) a quantitative temperature-dependent autoimmunity reaction leading to necrotic lesions, lethality, and quantitative resistance to an otherwise virulent race of Bremia lactucae; and (2) a qualitative temperature-independent race-specific resistance to an avirulent race of B. lactucae. We demonstrated by transient expression and silencing experiments that one of the two interacting genes was Rin4. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RIN4 is known to interact with multiple R gene products, and their interactions result in hypersensitive resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Site-directed mutation studies on the necrosis-eliciting allele of Rin4 in lettuce showed that three residues were critical for hybrid necrosis.

  15. Unified Hybrid Network Theoretical Model Trilogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The first of the unified hybrid network theoretical model trilogy (UHNTF) is the harmonious unification hybrid preferential model (HUHPM), seen in the inner loop of Fig. 1, the unified hybrid ratio is defined.

  16. Hybrid Reality Lab Capabilities - Video 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Francisco J.; Noyes, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    objects that have the same shape, size, location to their physical object counterpart in virtual reality environment can be a game changer when it comes to training, planning, engineering analysis, science, entertainment, etc. Our Project is developing such capabilities for various types of environments. The video outlined with this abstract is a representation of an ISS Hybrid Reality experience. In the video you can see various Hybrid Reality elements that provide immersion beyond just standard Virtual Reality or Augmented Reality.

  17. Optimizing the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Yu; Chen, Sherry Xi; Yin, Peng

    2012-01-22

    The specific hybridization of complementary sequences is an essential property of nucleic acids, enabling diverse biological and biotechnological reactions and functions. However, the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization is compromised for long strands, except near the melting temperature. Here, we analytically derived the thermodynamic properties of a hybridization probe that would enable near-optimal single-base discrimination and perform robustly across diverse temperature, salt and concentration conditions. We rationally designed 'toehold exchange' probes that approximate these properties, and comprehensively tested them against five different DNA targets and 55 spurious analogues with energetically representative single-base changes (replacements, deletions and insertions). These probes produced discrimination factors between 3 and 100+ (median, 26). Without retuning, our probes function robustly from 10 °C to 37 °C, from 1 mM Mg(2+) to 47 mM Mg(2+), and with nucleic acid concentrations from 1 nM to 5 µM. Experiments with RNA also showed effective single-base change discrimination.

  18. Hybrid ion chains inside an optical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zichao; Siverns, James; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2016-05-01

    Trapped ions remain a leading candidate for the implementation of large-scale quantum networks. These networks require nodes that can store and process quantum information as well as communicate with each other though photonic flying qubits. We propose to use hybrid ion chains of barium, for communication, and ytterbium, for quantum information processing. We report on progress in setting up a hybrid ion chain in a versatile four-blade trap using high numerical aperture collection optics. Although the visible photons produced from barium ions are more favorable as they are not suitable for long distance fiber communication. With this in mind, we intend to implement frequency conversion to overcome this issue. Also, with the view toward increasing the flying-qubit production rate, we propose a cavity-based system to enhance interactions between the ions and photons. The cavity axis is to be placed along the axial direction of the trap allowing a chain of multiple ions to interact with the cavity at the same time. With this configuration the atom-photon coupling strength can be improved by sqrt(N), where N is the number of ions. Experiments will focus on exploring the dynamics of hybrid ion chain, dual species quantum information processing, two-colour entanglement and phase gates assisted by the ion-cavity coupling are to be explored.

  19. Hybrid k -Nearest Neighbor Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, Hantao; Liuxs, Jiming; You, Jane; Leung, Hareton; Han, Guoqiang

    2016-06-01

    Conventional k -nearest neighbor (KNN) classification approaches have several limitations when dealing with some problems caused by the special datasets, such as the sparse problem, the imbalance problem, and the noise problem. In this paper, we first perform a brief survey on the recent progress of the KNN classification approaches. Then, the hybrid KNN (HBKNN) classification approach, which takes into account the local and global information of the query sample, is designed to address the problems raised from the special datasets. In the following, the random subspace ensemble framework based on HBKNN (RS-HBKNN) classifier is proposed to perform classification on the datasets with noisy attributes in the high-dimensional space. Finally, the nonparametric tests are proposed to be adopted to compare the proposed method with other classification approaches over multiple datasets. The experiments on the real-world datasets from the Knowledge Extraction based on Evolutionary Learning dataset repository demonstrate that RS-HBKNN works well on real datasets, and outperforms most of the state-of-the-art classification approaches.

  20. Chaotic Dynamics in Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological

  1. Chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we give an overview of some aspects of chaotic dynamics in hybrid systems, which comprise different types of behaviour. Hybrid systems may exhibit discontinuous dependence on initial conditions leading to new dynamical phenomena. We indicate how methods from topological

  2. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  3. Expanding Discourse Repertoires with Hybridity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally…

  4. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  5. Hybridity in Embedded Computing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞慧群; 孙永强

    1996-01-01

    An embedded system is a system that computer is used as a component in a larger device.In this paper,we study hybridity in embedded systems and present an interval based temporal logic to express and reason about hybrid properties of such kind of systems.

  6. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  7. Hybrid Charmonium from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, X Q

    2006-01-01

    We review our recent results on the JPC = 0¡¡ exotic hybrid charmonium mass and JPC = 0¡+, 1¡¡ and 1++ nonexotic hybrid charmonium spectrum from anisotropic improved lattice QCD and discuss the relevance to the recent discovery of the Y(4260) state and future experimental search for other states.

  8. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  9. Filtering in Hybrid Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Morten Nonboe; Andersen, Rasmus Orum; Wheeler, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    We implement a 2-time slice dynamic Bayesian network (2T-DBN) framework and make a 1-D state estimation simulation, an extension of the experiment in (v.d. Merwe et al., 2000) and compare different filtering techniques. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimentally that inference in a complex hybrid DBN is possible by simulating fault detection in a watertank system, an extension of the experiment in (Koller & Lerner, 2000) using a hybrid 2T-DBN. In both experiments, we perform approximate inference using standard filtering techniques, Monte Carlo methods and combinations of these. In the watertank simulation, we also demonstrate the use of 'non-strict' Rao-Blackwellisation. We show that the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and UKF in a particle filtering framework outperform the generic particle filter, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and EKF in a particle filtering framework with respect to accuracy in terms of estimation RMSE and sensitivity with respect to choice of network structure. Especially we demonstrate the superiority of UKF in a PF framework when our beliefs of how data was generated are wrong. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of data noise in the watertank simulation using UKF and PFUKD and show that the algorithms are more sensitive to changes in the measurement noise level that the process noise level. Theory and implementation is based on (v.d. Merwe et al., 2000).

  10. PV-HYBRID and MINI-GRID. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    design and validation of PV-hybrid sysem technology for rural electrification programmes in remote areas of Europe (Xavier Valive); (17) Analysis of inverter-controlled Island grids - transient simulations with ATP-EMTP and PowerFactory (Martin Braun); (18) Design of a PV-diesel hybrid energy system (William Lawrance); (19) Hybrid storage systems in PV stand alone applications impact on sizing and performance (Julien Labbe); (20) Sizing and analysis of a small hydro PV hybrid system for the rural electrification in developing countries (Joseph Kenfack); (21) Identification of dynamic equivalents for microgrids with high penetration of solar energy using ANNs (F.O. Resende); (22) Constructing village PV hybrid power systems on a wide-scale in Western China: Experience gained (Henrik Bindner); (23) Experiences with large-scale construction of PH hybrid village power systems in Western China (Winfried Klinghammer); (24) A detailed data based analysis of the behaviour of a 10+5+20 KW wind-PV-diesel hybrid sysem (Luis M. Arribas); (25) PV hybrid village electrification in French Guyana (Christian Dumbs); (26) Energy consumption patterns in village PV-diesel-hybrid systems (Javier Munoz); (27) From Subag to Ponelo hybrid photovoltaic-diesel system in Indonesia, lessons learned (Adjat Sudradjat); (28) PV diesel hybrid system in rural Africa - an inter-disciplinary approach (Markus Landau); (29) Making PV-diesel hybrids and PV or wind mini-grids sustainable in remote developing country sites: the Nabouwalu case (Philippe Veyan); (30) Mini-grid for an isolated island sandwip in Bangladesh (B.K. Bala).

  11. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  12. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  13. Hydrostatic, aerostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W Brian

    2012-01-01

    Solve your bearing design problems with step-by-step procedures and hard-won performance data from a leading expert and consultant Compiled for ease of use in practical design scenarios, Hydrostatic, Aerostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design provides the basic principles, design procedures and data you need to create the right bearing solution for your requirements. In this valuable reference and design companion, author and expert W. Brian Rowe shares the hard-won lessons and figures from a lifetime's research and consultancy experience. Coverage includes: Clear e

  14. Hybrid functional study of α-uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Chinnappan, Ravi; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2016-05-01

    We have used the hybrid density functionals to study the structural and electronic properties of alpha-U. The fraction of exact Hartree Folk exchange used is varied from 0.0 to 0.6. The equilibrium volume is found to be underestimated and bulk modulus overestimated with HSE as compared to both calculated by PBE and the experimental values. Electronic bands below the Fermi level are found to shift to lower energy with respect to PBE electronic bands which itself gives the bands shifted to lower energies as compared to UPS experiments.

  15. Development history of the Hybrid Test Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummel, M. C.; Burke, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Phase I of a joint Department of Energy/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Program undertook the development of the Hybrid Test Vehicle (HTV), which has subsequently progressed through design, fabrication, and testing and evaluation phases. Attention is presently given to the design and test experience gained during the HTV development program, and a discussion is presented of the design features and performance capabilities of the various 'mule' vehicles, devoted to the separate development of engine microprocessor control, vehicle structure, and mechanical components, whose elements were incorporated into the final HTV design. Computer projections of the HTV's performance are given.

  16. A novel hybrid meta-heuristic technique applied to the well-known benchmark optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Amir-Reza; Bijari, Afsane

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm, based on imperialistic competition algorithm (ICA), harmony search (HS), and simulated annealing (SA) is presented. The body of the proposed hybrid algorithm is based on ICA. The proposed hybrid algorithm inherits the advantages of the process of harmony creation in HS algorithm to improve the exploitation phase of the ICA algorithm. In addition, the proposed hybrid algorithm uses SA to make a balance between exploration and exploitation phases. The proposed hybrid algorithm is compared with several meta-heuristic methods, including genetic algorithm (GA), HS, and ICA on several well-known benchmark instances. The comprehensive experiments and statistical analysis on standard benchmark functions certify the superiority of the proposed method over the other algorithms. The efficacy of the proposed hybrid algorithm is promising and can be used in several real-life engineering and management problems.

  17. A novel hybrid meta-heuristic technique applied to the well-known benchmark optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Amir-Reza; Bijari, Afsane

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm, based on imperialistic competition algorithm (ICA), harmony search (HS), and simulated annealing (SA) is presented. The body of the proposed hybrid algorithm is based on ICA. The proposed hybrid algorithm inherits the advantages of the process of harmony creation in HS algorithm to improve the exploitation phase of the ICA algorithm. In addition, the proposed hybrid algorithm uses SA to make a balance between exploration and exploitation phases. The proposed hybrid algorithm is compared with several meta-heuristic methods, including genetic algorithm (GA), HS, and ICA on several well-known benchmark instances. The comprehensive experiments and statistical analysis on standard benchmark functions certify the superiority of the proposed method over the other algorithms. The efficacy of the proposed hybrid algorithm is promising and can be used in several real-life engineering and management problems.

  18. A Hybrid Flight Control for a Simulated Raptor-30 V2 Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab Nighat Khizer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid flight control system for a single rotor simulated Raptor-30 V2 helicopter. Hybrid intelligent control system, combination of the conventional and intelligent control methodologies, is applied to small model helicopter. The proposed hybrid control used PID as a traditional control and fuzzy as an intelligent control so as to take the maximum advantage of advanced control theory. The helicopter?s model used; comes from X-Plane flight simulator and their hybrid flight control system was simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK in a simulation platform. X-Plane is also used to visualize the performance of this proposed autopilot design. Through a series of numerous experiments, the operation of hybrid control system was investigated. Results verified that the proposed hybrid control has an excellent performance at hovering flight mode.

  19. 亚洲百合与东方百合远缘杂交亲和性%Compatibility for Lily Distant Hybridization between Asiatic Hybrids and Oriental Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雪; 曹钦政; 黄凤杰; 贾桂霞

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to take hybridization to get advantaged AO or OA hybrids ( A:Asiatic hybrids;O:Ori-ental hybrids ) by normal pollination technique and cut-style pollination technique .In the experiment , with Asiatic hybrids as female parent , only one combination ‘Pollyanna ’ בSambuca ’ among 22 combinations obtained fruits and embryos . While the number of swelling capsule and the rate of embryos reached 4 and 0.27%, respectively.With LA(LA:Longiflo-rum hybrids×Asiatic hybrids) hybrids as female parent , there was no fruit.However, with Oriental hybrids as female par-ent, 7 combinations obtained fruits and embryos .The method of cut-style pollination technique could not improve the seed rate, and failed to effectively overcome obstacles distant hybridization .The pollen germination and pollen tube growth were observed after pollination by fluorescence .The pollens of both Asiatic hybrids and Oriental hybrids could germinate on the stigma, and finally get into the ovule .Therefore, there was the hybridization barriers mainly after fertilization .%为得到花色丰富、带有芳香气味、抗性强的OA或AO( O为东方百合杂种系,A为亚洲百合杂种系)型优势杂种,采用常规杂交和切割柱头的方法进行杂交,结果AO型的22个组合,仅有亚洲百合‘Pollyanna ’×东方百合‘Sambuca’这一组合得到了4个膨大的蒴果和40粒有胚种子,结实率为0.27%;85个LA( LA为Longiflorum hybrids ×Asiatic hybrids的杂交后代)×O型组合均未得到完全膨大的果实和有胚种子;而21个OA型组合,有7个组合得到了膨大的蒴果及有胚种子。采用切割柱头的方法也未提高结实率,说明其没能有效克服其远缘杂交的障碍。通过花粉管荧光显微观察发现,亚洲百合和东方百合花粉几乎均能在母本的柱头上萌发,并沿着花柱道伸长生长,最终达到子房进入胚珠,说明AO型或OA型远缘杂

  20. Performance of Hybrid Corn in Different Environmental Conditions in the Region Of Sinop-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. T. Souza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of corn hybrids in environmental conditions favorable and unfavorable. For this, two experiments were conducted at Sinop / MT, being considered as favorable environmental conditions the use of fertilizer recommended for the crop at planting and coverage, and unfavorable conditions only recommended fertilization at planting. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replicates, with plots of 2 rows of 3 meters. The treatments were: double hybrid (Balu 761, single hybrids (AG 7088 and 30F90Y and triple hybrid (2B688. The characteristics evaluated were number of spikes, husked spikes weight, plant height and height of first spike. Regarding the number of ears, under favorable conditions, the hybrid double (Balu 761 and the triple hybrid (2B688 stood out against the simple hybrid. For the character number of spikes per plant, the husked spike weight in kg the triple hybrid 2B688 stood in relation to other unfavorable conditions. Considering the character plant height and first spike insertion, single hibrid 30F90Y, showed higher estimate in unfavorable conditions. In conclusion, the agronomic performance of types of hybrids varies in relation to environmental conditions and genotypes composition, and in this study the triple hybrid stood out in relation to others. Keywords: Zea mays, fertilization and breeding.

  1. A Hybrid Method for Nonlinear Least Squares Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyi Liu; Linping Sun

    2007-01-01

    A negative curvature method is applied to nonlinear least squares problems with indefinite Hessian approximation matrices. With the special structure of the method,a new switch is proposed to form a hybrid method. Numerical experiments show that this method is feasible and effective for zero-residual,small-residual and large-residual problems.

  2. HYBRID POSITION/FORCE MANIPULATION OF MULTIFINGERED HAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Manipulation of an object interacting with the environment is investigated.Two concepts, position manipulation and force manipulation, and their corresponding schemes are presented, respectively.Then they are combined to develop the hybrid position/force manipulation of a multifingered hand to manipulate an object constrained in the environment.Experiments are performed to demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  3. Economic investigations of short rotation intensively cultured hybrid poplars

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Lothner

    1983-01-01

    The history of the economic analyses is summarized for short rotation intensively cultured hybrid poplar at the North Central Forest Experiment Station. Early break-even analyses with limited data indicated that at a price of $25-30 per dry ton for fiber and low to medium production costs, several systems looked profitable. Later cash flow analyses indicated that two...

  4. First observation of Cherenkov ring images using hybrid photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, E.; Wilkinson, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Barber, G.; Duane, A.; John, M.; Miller, D.G.; Websdale, D. [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bibby, J.H.; Giles, R.; Harnew, N.; Smale, N. [University of Oxford, Department of Nuclear Physics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Brook, N.H.; Halley, A.W.; O`Shea, V. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); French, M. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gibson, V.; Wotton, S.A. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Schomaker, R. [Delft Electronic Products BV, 9300 AB Roden (Netherlands)

    1998-07-11

    A ring-imaging Cherenkov detector, equipped with hybrid photon detectors, has been operated in a charged-particle beam. Focussed ring images from various particle types were detected using silica aerogel, air and C{sub 4}F{sub 10} gas radiators. The detector, a prototype for the CERN LHC-B experiment, is described and first observations are reported. (orig.)

  5. Molecular evidence for hybridization in Colias (Lepidoptera: Pieridae): are Colias hybrids really hybrids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Heather E; Jasieniuk, Marie; Okada, Miki; Shapiro, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow and hybridization among species dramatically affect our understanding of the species as a biological unit, species relationships, and species adaptations. In North American Colias eurytheme and Colias eriphyle, there has been historical debate over the extent of hybridization occurring and the identity of phenotypically intermediate individuals as genetic hybrids. This study assesses the population structure of these two species to measure the extent of hybridization and the genetic identity of phenotypic intermediates as hybrids. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker analysis was performed on 378 specimens collected from northern California and Nevada. Population structure was inferred using a Bayesian/Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which probabilistically assigns individuals to genetic clusters. Three genetic clusters provided the best fit for the data. C. eurytheme individuals were primarily assigned to two closely related clusters, and C. eriphyle individuals were mostly assigned to a third, more distantly related cluster. There appeared to be significant hybridization between the two species. Individuals of intermediate phenotype (putative hybrids) were found to be genetically indistinguishable from C. eriphyle, indicating that previous work based on the assumption that these intermediate forms are hybrids may warrant reconsideration. PMID:26306172

  6. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

      The article take its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. In the discussion of the transformation into the ‘experience economy' relevant to cities and urban areas we rarely find an analysis of the physical and spatial implications of this transformation. However, the physical, cultural and democratic consequences...... of this development are discussed in the paper, as well as the problems and the new opportunities with which the ‘Experience city' is faced. The article focus on the design of the Danish Experience City with special emphasis on hybrid cultural projects and on performative urban spaces. It present the first findings...

  7. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  8. Auditing Hybrid IT Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Mateescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a personal approach of auditing the hybrid IT environments consisting in both on premise and on demand services and systems. The analysis is performed from both safety and profitability perspectives and it aims to offer to strategy, technical and business teams a representation of the value added by the cloud programme within the company’s portfolio. Starting from the importance of the IT Governance in the actual business environments, we presented in the first section the main principles that drive the technology strategy in order to maximize the value added by IT assets in the business products. Section two summarizes the frameworks leveraged by our approach in order to implement the safety and profitability computation algorithms described in the third section. The paper concludes with benefits of our personal frameworks and presents the future developments.

  9. Hybrid Noncoherent Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Skachek, Vitaly; Nedic, Angelia

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel extension of subspace codes for noncoherent networks, suitable for use when the network is viewed as a communication system that introduces both dimension and symbol errors. We show that when symbol erasures occur in a significantly large number of different basis vectors transmitted through the network and when the min-cut of the networks is much smaller then the length of the transmitted codewords, the new family of codes outperforms their subspace code counterparts. For the proposed coding scheme, termed hybrid network coding, we derive two upper bounds on the size of the codes. These bounds represent a variation of the Singleton and of the sphere-packing bound. We show that a simple concatenated scheme that represents a combination of subspace codes and Reed-Solomon codes is asymptotically optimal with respect to the Singleton bound. Finally, we describe two efficient decoding algorithms for concatenated subspace codes that in certain cases have smaller complexity than subspace decoder...

  10. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Hybrid vehicle control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  12. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  13. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Optimization aims at optimizing an unknown non-convex/concave function that is costly to evaluate. We are interested in application scenarios where concurrent function evaluations are possible. Under such a setting, BO could choose to either sequentially evaluate the function, one input at a time and wait for the output of the function before making the next selection, or evaluate the function at a batch of multiple inputs at once. These two different settings are commonly referred to as the sequential and batch settings of Bayesian Optimization. In general, the sequential setting leads to better optimization performance as each function evaluation is selected with more information, whereas the batch setting has an advantage in terms of the total experimental time (the number of iterations). In this work, our goal is to combine the strength of both settings. Specifically, we systematically analyze Bayesian optimization using Gaussian process as the posterior estimator and provide a hybrid algorithm t...

  14. Photochromic mesoporous hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboin, L.; Matheron, M.; Gacoin, T.; Boilot, J.-P.

    2008-09-01

    Spirooxazine (SO) photochromic molecules were trapped in sol-gel matrices. In order to increase the colourability and improve mechanical properties of sol-gel photochromic films, we present an original strategy in which SO photochromic molecules were dispersed in mesoporous organized films using the impregnation technique. Well-ordered organosilicate mesoporous coatings with the 3D-hexagonal symmetry were prepared by the sol-gel technique. These robust mesoporous films, which contain high amounts of hydrophobic methyl groups at the pore surface, offer optimized environments for photochromic dyes dispersed by impregnation technique. After impregnation by a spirooxazine solution, the photochromic response is only slightly slower when compared with mesostructured or soft sol-gel matrices, showing that mesoporous organized hybrid matrix are good host for photochromic dyes. Moreover, the molecular loading in films is easily adjustable in a large range using multi-impregnation procedure and increasing the film thickness leading to coatings for optical switching devices.

  15. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  16. From hybrid-media system to hybrid-media politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Ørsten, Mark; Burkal, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    An increasingly complex hybrid system of social- and traditional-news media surrounds Nordic election campaigns as politically experienced incumbents favour traditional news media, and younger, lesser-known candidates’ social media. Despite little evidence for hybrid-media politicians, politicians......’ media use is changing rapidly; 15%–16% of Danish candidates used Twitter in 2011 but 68% in 2015. In this large-sample content analysis, party leaders have high traditional-news-media and low Twitter presence, and younger candidates visa-versa, but some politicians have high presence in both. Hybrid...

  17. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  18. The OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pessard, H

    2001-01-01

    Following the Super-Kamiokande findings on atmospheric neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos have started to be exploited to confirm the indication for neutrino oscillations and perform more complete measurements of the mass differences and mixing parameters. In Europe, the long baseline beam CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso CNGS is aimed at direct appearance searches of nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau /. The OPERA experiment in Gran sasso will use photographic emulsions in a large hybrid detector to point at nu , interactions coming from the CNGS beam in a "zero background" approach. The principles of the experiment and its projected performances are described. (12 refs).

  19. Wankel engine for hybrid powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butti, A. [Univ. of Florence (Italy); Site, V.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Wankel engine is suited to be used to drive hybrid propulsion systems. The main disadvantage of hybrid propulsion systems is the complexity that causes a high weight and large dimensions. For these reason hybrid systems are more suitable for large size vehicle (buses, vans) rather than for small passenger cars. A considerable reduction of hybrid systems weight and dimensions can be obtained using a Wankel rotary engine instead of a conventional engine. The Wankel engine is light, compact, simple, and produces low noise and low vibrations. Therefore a Wankel engine powered hybrid system is suited to be used on small cars. In this paper a 1,000 kg parallel hybrid car with continuously variable transmission and a 6,000 kg series hybrid minibus both equipped with Wankel engines are considered. The Wankel engine works at steady state to minimize fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The simulation of the behavior of these two vehicles during a ECE + EUDC test cycle is presented in order to evaluate the performances of the systems.

  20. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  1. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  2. Pseudovector mesons, hybrids and glueballs

    CERN Document Server

    Burakovsky, L; Burakovsky, Leonid; Page, Philip R.

    2000-01-01

    We consider glueball- (hybrid) meson mixing for the low-lying four pseudovector states. The h_1'(1380) decays dominantly to K*K with some presence in rho pi and omega eta. The newly observed h_1(1600) has a D- to S-wave width ratio to omega eta which does not enable differentiation between a conventional and hybrid meson interpretation. We predict the decay pattern of the isopartner conventional or hybrid meson b_1(1650). A notably narrow s sbar partner h_1'(1810) is predicted.

  3. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia;

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types...... the way we interpret @i in propositional and first-order hybrid logic. This means: interpret @iαa , where αa is an expression of any type a , as an expression of type a that rigidly returns the value that αa receives at the i-world. The axiomatization and completeness proofs are generalizations of those...

  4. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Omidi, N. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  5. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  6. Experimental validation of GPS-INS-STAR hybrid navigation system for space autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Toru; Harigae, Masatoshi

    The experimental validation of the GPS-INS-STAR hybrid navigation system concept is performed. The hybrid navigation system combines the best features of employed sensors to improve total navigation performances. The GPS-INS-STAR hybrid navigation system consists of the three different sensors, a GPS receiver, an inertial navigation system and a STAR image sensor. In this concept, the system integrates a high positioning performance of the GPS system, an accurate attitude determination capability of the STAR image sensor and the INS signal with a wide bandwidth. It results in a complete 6-DOF (degrees of freedom) autonomous navigation system. The present paper shows the validation of the concept by the experiments using GPS, INS and STAR hardware systems. The experiments are divided into three steps. Firstly, the INS-STAR hybrid navigation system is constructed on the 3-axis motion table to verify the performances of its attitude loop. Secondly, the GPS-INS hybrid navigation system installed on the car shows the performance improvement in its translational loop. Finally, the full configuration of the GPS-INS-STAR hybrid navigation system is evaluated at night. Each experiment result is checked by the theoretical analysis. In the theoretical analysis, the concept of observability well explains the performances of the system. Its feasibility for space application is also evaluated in the point of existing hardware technology. It is concluded that the experiments vaidate the concept of the hybrid navigation system and confirm its capability to realize space autonomy.

  7. Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.

    1979-01-01

    The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

  8. Generalization of Dielectric-Dependent Hybrid Functionals to Finite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawand, Nicholas P.; Vörös, Márton; Govoni, Marco; Galli, Giulia

    2016-10-01

    The accurate prediction of electronic and optical properties of molecules and solids is a persistent challenge for methods based on density functional theory. We propose a generalization of dielectric-dependent hybrid functionals to finite systems where the definition of the mixing fraction of exact and semilocal exchange is physically motivated, nonempirical, and system dependent. The proposed functional yields ionization potentials, and fundamental and optical gaps of many, diverse molecular systems in excellent agreement with experiments, including organic and inorganic molecules and semiconducting nanocrystals. We further demonstrate that this hybrid functional gives the correct alignment between energy levels of the exemplary TTF-TCNQ donor-acceptor system.

  9. Hybrid SVM/HMM Method for Face Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江华; 陈佳品; 程君实

    2004-01-01

    A face recognition system based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM) has been proposed. The powerful discriminative ability of SVM is combined with the temporal modeling ability of HMM. The output of SVM is moderated to be probability output, which replaces the Mixture of Gauss (MOG) in HMM. Wavelet transformation is used to extract observation vector, which reduces the data dimension and improves the robustness.The hybrid system is compared with pure HMM face recognition method based on ORL face database and Yale face database. Experiments results show that the hybrid method has better performance.

  10. HYBRIDIZATION AND CHAMELEONIC JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Schryver Kurtz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto aborda a crescente hibridização entre o Jornalismo e demais formatos midiáticos como resultado natural de um processo que já está na própria raiz da comunicação enquanto atividade histórica. A lógica interna e as potencialidades estéticas e discursivas do fenômeno são analisadas a partir das convergências entre jornalismo e cinema. Para tanto, utiliza o falso documentário Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido por natureza, postulado como um microcosmo rico em pistas e sugestões para refletir sobre a fusão entre conteúdos informativos e não informativos.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hibridização; Jornalismo; Cinema; Zelig.       ABSTRACT The text discusses the growing hybridization between journalism and other media formats as a natural result of a process that is already in the very root of communication while historical activity. The internal logic and the aesthetic and discursive potential of the phenomenon are analyzed through the convergences between journalism and cinema. Therefore, uses the mockumentary Zelig (1983, filmic text of Woody Allen, hybrid by nature, postulated as a microcosm rich in clues and suggestions to reflect about the merger between informative and uninformative content.      KEYWORDS: Hybridization; Journalism; Cinema; Zelig.     RESUMEN El texto aborda la creciente hibridación entre el periodismo y otros formatos de medios como um resultado natural de un proceso que ya está en la raíz misma de la comunicación mientras actividad histórica. Se analizan la lógica interna y el potencial estético y discursivo del fenómeno a través de las convergencias entre el periodismo y el cine. Para ello, utiliza el falso documental Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido en su naturaleza, postulado como un microcosmos rico en pistas y sugerencias para reflexionar sobre la fusión entre contenidos informativos y no informativos.      PALABRAS CLAVE: Hibridaci

  11. Advanced Hybrid Computer Systems. Software Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This software technology final report evaluates advances made in Advanced Hybrid Computer System software technology . The report describes what...automatic patching software is available as well as which analog/hybrid programming languages would be most feasible for the Advanced Hybrid Computer...compiler software . The problem of how software would interface with the hybrid system is also presented.

  12. Optimization and experiment on pollination tube of collision and air-blowing hybrid rice pollination machine%“击穗气吹式”杂交水稻制种授粉机授粉管优化与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永维; 唐晨; 王俊; 胡金冰; 任奇锋

    2015-01-01

    为克服人工授粉效率低、花粉分布均匀性差等缺点,实现杂交水稻制种机械化授粉,该文设计并试制了击穗-气吹式杂交水稻授粉机,利用CFD数值仿真技术对该机气吹嘴式和气吹孔式2种授粉管的气流场分布进行数值模拟,测试了不同流量下授粉管各吹气孔流速;然后进行田间授粉试验,采用重力玻片法检测了授粉机授粉与人工授粉时花粉分布。结果表明,在相同进气口速度条件下,吹孔式授粉管外部分气吹孔气流倾斜,授粉管外侧存在气流未达到的死区;气嘴式授粉管外侧各气吹嘴气流方向基本一致,可为气流授粉提供均匀稳定的气流场,吹嘴式授粉管是较理想的授粉管型式;在进气口风速为5.4、10.0和13.5 m/s时,吹嘴式授粉管各气吹嘴出口气流速度的模拟与实测值沿授粉管的变化趋势一致,气吹嘴出口气流速度模拟值与实测值的平均误差分别为2.14%、2.40%和3.43%,气流沿授粉管分布的均匀性变异系数分别为14.76%、15.93%和16.31%。田间授粉试验表明,在气吹嘴出口平均流速为7.3 m/s时,该机的每行花粉量及各母本行花粉量分布的均匀性上均优于人工授粉,授粉效率高于人工授粉法,为杂交水稻制种机械化授粉提供了实用机型。%Pollination is the key process in the hybrid rice seed production. To realizing mechanical pollination of hybrid rice, this paper designed and trial-manufactured a hybrid rice pollination machine combined collision and air-blowing method. Flow field distribution of two types of the pollination tube on the machine, including air-blow nozzle type and air-blow hole type were simulated using CFD technology. And the flow velocity out of each nozzle or hole on pollination tube was measured, and the pollination experiments in the paddy field using pollination machine prototype were carried out. In the experiment, the pollen

  13. How common is homoploid hybrid speciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Molly; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization has long been considered a process that prevents divergence between species. In contrast to this historical view, an increasing number of empirical studies claim to show evidence for hybrid speciation without a ploidy change. However, the importance of hybridization as a route to speciation is poorly understood, and many claims have been made with insufficient evidence that hybridization played a role in the speciation process. We propose criteria to determine the strength of evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation. Based on an evaluation of the literature using this framework, we conclude that although hybridization appears to be common, evidence for an important role of hybridization in homoploid speciation is more circumscribed.

  14. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  15. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  16. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  17. Hybrid models for complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    This paper formulates a new approach to complex fluid dynamics, which accounts for microscopic statistical effects in the micromotion. While the ordinary fluid variables (mass density and momentum) undergo usual dynamics, the order parameter field is replaced by a statistical distribution on the order parameter space. This distribution depends also on the point in physical space and its dynamics retains the usual fluid transport features while containing the statistical information on the order parameter space. This approach is based on a hybrid moment closure for Yang-Mills Vlasov plasmas, which replaces the usual cold-plasma assumption. After presenting the basic properties of the hybrid closure, such as momentum map features, singular solutions and Casimir invariants, the effect of Yang-Mills fields is considered and a direct application to ferromagnetic fluids is presented. Hybrid models are also formulated for complex fluids with symmetry breaking. For the special case of liquid crystals, a hybrid formul...

  18. Annular Hybrid Rocket Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Engineers at SpaceDev have conducted a preliminary design and analysis of a proprietary annular design concept for a hybrid motor. A U.S. Patent application has been...

  19. Design Procedure for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Tjelflaat, Per Olaf

    Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation....... Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC....... The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed....

  20. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  1. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  2. Hybrid Platforms, Tools, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Kathryn E.; Bruenjes, Linda S.; Smith, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses common tools and resources for building a hybrid course in a higher education setting and provides recommendations for best practices in Learning Management Systems and Open Educational Resources.

  3. A hybrid base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M. [Hart Consultant Group, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Asher, J.W. [kpff Engineers, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  4. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous ...... processes to be embedded into the logic. The semantics thus provides a secure link to hybrid system models based on a general theory of dynamical systems....

  5. Hybrid particles and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V; Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua J; Sun, Chivin

    2015-02-10

    Hybrid particles that comprise a coating surrounding a chalcopyrite material, the coating comprising a metal, a semiconductive material, or a polymer; a core comprising a chalcopyrite material and a shell comprising a functionalized chalcopyrite material, the shell enveloping the core; or a reaction product of a chalcopyrite material and at least one of a reagent, heat, and radiation. Methods of forming the hybrid particles are also disclosed.

  6. Hybrid cluster identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Herrero, J.

    2004-10-01

    I present a hybrid method for the labelling of clusters in two-dimensional lattices, which combines the recursive approach with iterative scanning to reduce the stack size required by the pure recursive technique, while keeping its benefits: single pass and straightforward cluster characterization and percolation detection parallel to the labelling. While the capacity to hold the entire lattice in memory is usually regarded as the major constraint for the applicability of the recursive technique, the required stack size is the real limiting factor. Resorting to recursion only for the transverse direction greatly reduces the recursion depth and therefore the required stack. It also enhances the overall performance of the recursive technique, as is shown by results on a set of uniform random binary lattices and on a set of samples of the Ising model. I also show how this technique may replace the recursive technique in Wolff's cluster algorithm, decreasing the risk of stack overflow and increasing its speed, and the Hoshen-Kopelman algorithm in the Swendsen-Wang cluster algorithm, allowing effortless characterization during generation of the samples and increasing its speed.

  7. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  8. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  9. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  10. Hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  11. Start-up Experiment of Hybrid A2/O under a Low Temperature and Low C/N Ratio%低温低C/N比复合A2/O启动实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭硕佳; 邹洪; 张永祥; 赵志刚; 赵鹏芳

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm forming experiment of AquaMats which is added in the aerobic section of A2/O process under a low temperature and low C/N ratio was studied.Results showed that at an ambient temperature of 10~12℃, C/N ratio about 3.5, under the conditions of the system HRT 10 h, SRT 15 d, sludge reflux ratio 100%, nitrification liquid reflux ratio 200%, aerobic section DO 2~3 mg/L, initial MLSS 4 000 mg/L, the biofilm on AquaMats was formed successfully by about 30 d.Removal rate of the system COD, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen reached 90%,97% and 60% respectively.Removal rate of phosphorus was low and unstable.Variation of COD, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ORP, MLSS and microbial phase was investigated and the causes of variation were analyzed.%研究了低温低碳氮比条件下好氧段添加AquaMats(阿科蔓)的A2/O工艺的挂膜启动实验.结果表明:在环境温度为10~12℃,C/N为3.5左右的条件下,当系统HRT为10 h,SRT为15d,污泥回流比为100%,硝化液回流比为200%,好氧段DO在2~3mg/L,初始MLSS为4 000 mg/L时,好氧段阿科蔓经30d左右挂膜成功.系统对COD,氨氮,总氮的去除率分别达到90%、97%、60%.对总磷的去除率低且不稳定.实验研究了挂膜过程中COD、氨氮、硝酸盐氮、总氮、总磷、ORP、MLSS及微生物相的变化规律并分析了变化原因.

  12. Improving an Hybrid Literary Book Recommendation System through Author Ranking

    CERN Document Server

    Vaz, Paula Cristina; Martins, Bruno; Calado, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Literary reading is an important activity for individuals and choosing to read a book can be a long time commitment, making book choice an important task for book lovers and public library users. In this paper we present an hybrid recommendation system to help readers decide which book to read next. We study book and author recommendation in an hybrid recommendation setting and test our approach in the LitRec data set. Our hybrid book recommendation approach purposed combines two item-based collaborative filtering algorithms to predict books and authors that the user will like. Author predictions are expanded in to a book list that is subsequently aggregated with the former list generated through the initial collaborative recommender. Finally, the resulting book list is used to yield the top-n book recommendations. By means of various experiments, we demonstrate that author recommendation can improve overall book recommendation.

  13. HYBRID FUZZY CONTROL FOR ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC ACTIVE DAMPING SUSPENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new control scheme, the hybrid fuzzy control method, for active damping suspension system is presented. The scheme is the result of effective combination of the statistical optimal control method based on the statistical property of suspension system, with the bang-bang control method based on the real-time characteristics of suspension system. Computer simulations are performed to compare the effectiveness of hybrid fuzzy control scheme with that of optimal damping control, bang-bang control, and passive suspension. It takes the effects of time-variant factors into full account. The superiority of the proposed hybrid fuzzy control scheme for active damping suspension to the passive suspension is verified in the experiment study.

  14. Cytogenetic analysis from DNA by comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, G; Aboura, A; Lapierre, J M; Viguié, F

    2000-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a modified in situ hybridization technique which allows detection and mapping of DNA sequence copy differences between two genomes in a single experiment. In CGH analysis, two differentially labelled genomic DNA (study and reference) are co-hybridized to normal metaphase spreads. Chromosomal locations of copy number changes in the DNA segments of the study genome are revealed by a variable fluorescence intensity ratio along each target chromosome. Since its development, CGH has been applied mostly as a research tool in the field of cancer cytogenetics to identify genetic changes in many previously unknown regions. CGH may also have a role in clinical cytogenetics for detection and identification of unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities.

  15. Data assimilation using a hybrid ice flow model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Goldberg

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid models, or depth-integrated flow models that include the effect of both longitudinal stresses and vertical shearing, are becoming more prevalent in dynamical ice modeling. Under a wide range of conditions they closely approximate the well-known First Order stress balance, yet are of computationally lower dimension, and thus require less intensive resources. Concomitant with the development and use of these models is the need to perform inversions of observed data. Here, an inverse control method is extended to use a hybrid flow model as a forward model. We derive an adjoint of a hybrid model and use it for inversion of ice-stream basal traction from observed surface velocities. A novel aspect of the adjoint derivation is a retention of non-linearities in Glen's flow law. Experiments show that including those nonlinearities is advantageous in minimization of the cost function, yielding a more efficient inversion procedure.

  16. Co-pyrolysis of different type coals with hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzade Haykiri-Acma; Serdar Yaman [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the co-pyrolysis characteristics of different rank coals such as peat, lignite, and anthracite in the presence of hybrid poplar. For this purpose, non-isothermal thermogravimetry technique was applied up to 900{sup o}C with a heating rate of 40{sup o}C/min under dynamic nitrogen flow of 40 mL/min. Hybrid poplar was added into each coal as much as 10 wt % of the coal sample and the experiments were repeated. Pyrolytic properties such as the char yields, gasification rates, and reactivity of the original samples and the blends were compared from the thermal analysis data, and interpreted. Addition of hybrid poplar to coal had some influences on the pyrolytic properties of coals that might be explained by the synergistic interaction approach. 15 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. [A hybrid volume rendering method using general hardware].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Mao, Zongyuan

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve the effect and efficiency of the reconstructed image after hybrid volume rendering of different kinds of volume data from medical sequential slices or polygonal models, we propose a hybrid volume rendering method based on Shear-Warp with economical hardware. First, the hybrid volume data are pre-processed by Z-Buffer method and RLE (Run-Length Encoded) data structure. Then, during the process of compositing intermediate image, a resampling method based on the dual-interpolation and the intermediate slice interpolation methods is used to improve the efficiency and the effect. Finally, the reconstructed image is rendered by the texture-mapping technology of OpenGL. Experiments demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method.

  18. Coordination of Advertising Free Riding in Hybrid Channel Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a crucial tool for demand creation and market expansion; enterprises in supply chain use it widely to increase sales and improve profits. But the homogeneity of products sold in hybrid channel supply chain magnifies the positive externalities of advertising and leads to serious free-riding problem. To coordinate the supply chain effectively, firstly, this paper classifies hybrid channel supply chain based on the relationship between members and selects horizontally integrated, vertically integrated, and decentralized hybrid channel supply chains as research objects. Then, a demand function considering the common effect of price and advertising is proposed and coordination schemes for different types of supply chains are designed. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the impact of parameters on coordination using orthogonal experiment.

  19. Hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction in batch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabot, Giovani L; Mecca, Jaqueline; Mesomo, Michele; Silva, Marceli F; Prá, Valéria Dal; de Oliveira, Débora; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Castilhos, Fernanda; Treichel, Helen; Mazutti, Marcio A

    2011-10-01

    This work is focused on hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction process by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of stirred speed and superficial gas velocity on the kinetics of cell growth, lactose consumption and xanthan gum production in a batch bioreactor using cheese whey as substrate. A hybrid model was employed to simulate the bio-process making use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as a kinetic parameter estimator for the phenomenological model. The hybrid modeling of the process provided a satisfactory fitting quality of the experimental data, since this approach makes possible the incorporation of the effects of operational variables on model parameters. The applicability of the validated model was investigated, using the model as a process simulator to evaluate the effects of initial cell and lactose concentration in the xanthan gum production.

  20. Energy-Efficient Building HVAC Control Using Hybrid System LBMPC

    CERN Document Server

    Aswani, Anil; Taneja, Jay; Krioukov, Andrew; Culler, David; Tomlin, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Improving the energy-efficiency of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems has the potential to realize large economic and societal benefits. This paper concerns the system identification of a hybrid system model of a building-wide HVAC system and its subsequent control using a hybrid system formulation of learning-based model predictive control (LBMPC). Here, the learning refers to model updates to the hybrid system model that incorporate the heating effects due to occupancy, solar effects, outside air temperature (OAT), and equipment, in addition to integrator dynamics inherently present in low-level control. Though we make significant modeling simplifications, our corresponding controller that uses this model is able to experimentally achieve a large reduction in energy usage without any degradations in occupant comfort. It is in this way that we justify the modeling simplifications that we have made. We conclude by presenting results from experiments on our building HVAC testbed, which s...

  1. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-01

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  2. Genetic architecture of male sterility and segregation distortion in Drosophila pseudoobscura Bogota-USA hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Nitin

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation between recently diverged species is a central problem in evolutionary genetics. Here, I present analyses of the genetic architecture underlying hybrid male sterility and segregation distortion between the Bogota and USA subspecies of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Previously, a single gene, Overdrive (Ovd), was shown to be necessary but not sufficient for both male sterility and segregation distortion in F(1) hybrids between these subspecies, requiring several interacting partner loci for full manifestation of hybrid phenomena. I map these partner loci separately on the Bogota X chromosome and USA autosomes using a combination of different mapping strategies. I find that hybrid sterility involves a single hybrid incompatibility of at least seven interacting partner genes that includes three large-effect loci. Segregation distortion involves three loci on the Bogota X chromosome and one locus on the autosomes. The genetic bases of hybrid sterility and segregation distortion are at least partially--but not completely--overlapping. My results lay the foundation for fine-mapping experiments to identify the complete set of genes that interact with Overdrive. While individual genes that cause hybrid sterility or inviability have been identified in a few cases, my analysis provides a comprehensive look at the genetic architecture of all components of a hybrid incompatibility underlying F(1) hybrid sterility. Such an analysis would likely be unfeasible for most species pairs due to their divergence time and emphasizes the importance of young species pairs such as the D. pseudoobscura subspecies studied here.

  3. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  4. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  5. FERMENTATION PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT MAIZE SILAGE HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bíro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the fermentation process differences in different hybrid maize silage. We conserved in laboratory conditions hybrids of whole maize plants with different length of the vegetative period (FAO number. Maize hybrids for silage were harvested in the vegetation stage of the milk-wax maturity of corn and the content of dry matter was from 377.7 to 422.8 g.kg-1. The highest content of dry matter was typical for silages made from the hybrids with FAO number 310 (400.0 g.kg-1 and FAO 300a (400.4 g.kg-1. The content of desirable lactic acid ranged from 23.7 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 350 to 58.9 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 420. We detected the occurrence of undesirable butyric acid in silages from hybrids FAO 250, 300b, 310 and 380. The highest content of total alcohols we found in silages made from hybrid with FAO number 240 (25.2 g.kg-1 of dry matter. Ammonia contents were in tested silages from 0.153 (FAO 270 to 0.223 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 240. The lowest value of silage titration acidity we analyzed in silage made from hybrid FAO 420 (3.66. We observed in maize silages with different length of plant maturity tested in the experiment differences in content of lactic acid, total alcohols, titration acidity, pH and content of fermentation products.

  6. A hybrid algorithm for speckle noise reduction of ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karamjeet; Ranade, Sukhjeet Kaur; Singh, Chandan

    2017-09-01

    Medical images are contaminated by multiplicative speckle noise which significantly reduce the contrast of ultrasound images and creates a negative effect on various image interpretation tasks. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid denoising approach which collaborate the both local and nonlocal information in an efficient manner. The proposed hybrid algorithm consist of three stages in which at first stage the use of local statistics in the form of guided filter is used to reduce the effect of speckle noise initially. Then, an improved speckle reducing bilateral filter (SRBF) is developed to further reduce the speckle noise from the medical images. Finally, to reconstruct the diffused edges we have used the efficient post-processing technique which jointly considered the advantages of both bilateral and nonlocal mean (NLM) filter for the attenuation of speckle noise efficiently. The performance of proposed hybrid algorithm is evaluated on synthetic, simulated and real ultrasound images. The experiments conducted on various test images demonstrate that our proposed hybrid approach outperforms the various traditional speckle reduction approaches included recently proposed NLM and optimized Bayesian-based NLM. The results of various quantitative, qualitative measures and by visual inspection of denoise synthetic and real ultrasound images demonstrate that the proposed hybrid algorithm have strong denoising capability and able to preserve the fine image details such as edge of a lesion better than previously developed methods for speckle noise reduction. The denoising and edge preserving capability of hybrid algorithm is far better than existing traditional and recently proposed speckle reduction (SR) filters. The success of proposed algorithm would help in building the lay foundation for inventing the hybrid algorithms for denoising of ultrasound images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Deconvoluting contributions of photoexcited species in polymer-quantum dot hybrid photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couderc, Elsa; Greaney, Matthew J.; Thornbury, William; Brutchey, Richard L.; Bradforth, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is used in conjunction with spectroelectrochemistry and chemical doping experiments to study the photogeneration of charges in hybrid bulk heterojunction (BHJ) thin films composed of poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b‧]-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) and CdSe nanocrystals. Chemical doping experiments on hybrid and neat PCPDTBT:CdSe thin films are used to deconvolute the spectral signatures of the transient states in the near infrared. We confirm the formation and assignment of oxidized species in chemical doping experiments by comparing the spectral data to that from spectroelectrochemical measurements on hybrid and neat PCPDTBT:CdSe BHJ thin films. The deconvolution procedure allows extraction of the polaron populations in the neat polymer and hybrid thin films.

  8. Reference mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, D.J.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.S.

    1977-06-08

    The status of the reference mirror hybrid reactor design being performed by LLL and General Atomic is summarized. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing fissile fuel for consumption in fission power reactors. The design draws on the experience developed at LLL in previous hybrid reactor conceptual designs and on GA expertise in gas-cooling technology and fission reactor mechanical design. As in the past, we have emphasized the use of existing technology where possible and a minimum extrapolation of technology otherwise. We consider our projections for the plasma physics parameters to be conservative, in that they are well-founded on the experiments in 2XIIB and the interpretation of these experiments.

  9. Highly luminescent hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe quantum dots: synthesis and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Novel hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were created using CdTe QDs coated with a hybrid SiO2 shell containing Cd(2+) ions and a sulfur source via a sol-gel process in aqueous solution. Aqueous CdTe QDs with tunable emitting color created through a reaction between cadmium chloride and sodium hydrogen telluride was used as cores for the preparation of hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs. In our experiments we found that the surface state of the cores and preparation conditions that affect the formation of the hybrid SiO2 shell also greatly affect photoluminescence of the hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs. The generation of CdS-like clusters in the vicinity of the CdTe QDs, caused the quantum size effect of the QDs to be greatly reduced, which changes photoluminescence properties of the hybrid QDs fundamentally. Namely, the novel hybrid SiO2 shell played an important role in generating a series of specific optical properties. In addition, the novel hybrid SiO2 shell can be created if no CdTe QD is added. In order to gain an insight into the inter structure of the hybrid shell, we characterized the hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs using X-ray diffraction analysis and discuss the formation mechanism of such a hybrid structure. This work is significant because the novel hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe QDs with its excellent properties can be used in many applications, such as biolabeling and optoelectronic devices.

  10. Teacher education physical education: In search of a hybrid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Lynch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that a learning environment underpinned by a strengths-based collaborative approach between universities and schools offers extended pre-service teacher learning opportunities and subsequently enhanced preparation. The term “hybrid space” describes the ideal environment of shared partnership where knowledge is jointly created, and consequently, as too is collaborative egalitarianism between stakeholders. This study investigates a possible “hybrid space” course within Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE in the UK. While much literature discusses the advantages of the “hybrid space” ideal across education disciplines, high-quality research into PETE hybrid spaces is limited, if not non-existent. Hence, the particular course was chosen for data collection as it advocates intricate connections with schools in the local community. Furthermore, the course was awarded “Outstanding” by the national regulatory authority, England and Wales Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted, one of the major reasons explicitly stated was for its community connections. A qualitative, interpretive study using a case study methodology was adopted to examine the successful primary PETE course. The findings offer insights into the ideal of hybrid spaces in PETE, which appear to benefit various stakeholders within communities. The study is significant as it assists teacher educators from around the world, challenged to rethink their connections between university courses and school field experiences through illustrating a highly successful example.

  11. Block copolymer-nanoparticle hybrid self-assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Hoheisel, Tobias N.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Polymer-inorganic hybrid materials provide exciting opportunities as they may display favorable properties from both constituents that are desired in applications including catalysis and energy conversion and storage. For the preparation of hybrid materials with well-defined morphologies, block copolymer-directed nanoparticle hybrids present a particularly promising approach. As will be described in this review, once the fundamental characteristics for successful nanostructure formation at or close to the thermodynamic equilibrium of these nanocomposites are identified, the approach can be generalized to various materials classes. In addition to the discussion of recent materials developments based on the use of AB diblock copolymers as well as ABC triblock terpolymers, this review will therefore emphasize progress in the fundamental understanding of the underlying formation mechanisms of such hybrid materials. To this end, critical experiments for, as well as theoretical progress in the description of these nanostructured block copolymer-based hybrid materials will be discussed. Rather than providing a comprehensive overview, the review will emphasize work by the Wiesner group at Cornell University, US, on block copolymer-directed nanoparticle assemblies as well as their use in first potential application areas. The results provide powerful design criteria for wet-chemical synthesis methodologies for the generation of functional nanomaterials for applications ranging from microelectronics to catalysis to energy conversion and storage.

  12. Hybridization and the Origin of Contagious Asexuality in Daphnia pulex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sen; Spitze, Ken; Ackerman, Matthew S.; Ye, Zhiqiang; Bright, Lydia; Keith, Nathan; Jackson, Craig E.; Shaw, Joseph R.; Lynch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization plays a potentially important role in the origin of obligate parthenogenesis (OP) in many organisms. However, it remains controversial whether hybridization directly triggers the transition from sexual reproduction to obligate asexuality or a hybrid genetic background enables asexual species to persist. Furthermore, we know little about the specific genetic elements from the divergent, yet still hybridizing lineages responsible for this transition and how these elements are further spread to create other OP lineages. In this study, we address these questions in Daphnia pulex, where cyclically parthenogenetic (CP) and OP lineages coexist. Ancestry estimates and whole-genome association mapping using 32 OP isolates suggest that a complex hybridization history between the parental species D. pulex and D. pulicaria is responsible for the introgression of a set of 647 D. pulicaria single nucleotide polymorphism alleles that show perfect association with OP. Crossing experiments using males of OP lineages and females of CP lineages strongly support a polygenic basis for OP. Single-sperm analyses show that although normal meiotic recombination occurs in the production of haploid sperm by males of OP lineages, a significant proportion of such sperm are polyploid, suggesting that the spread of asexual elements through these males (i.e., contagious asexuality) is much less efficient than previously envisioned. Although the current Daphnia genome annotation does not provide mechanistic insight into the nature of the asexuality-associated alleles, these alleles should be considered as candidates for future investigations on the genetic underpinnings of OP. PMID:26351296

  13. Rapid Global Calibration Technology for Hybrid Visual Inspection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based methods for product quality inspection are playing an increasingly important role in modern industries for their good performance and high efficiency. A hybrid visual inspection system, which consists of an industrial robot with a flexible sensor and several stationary sensors, has been widely applied in mass production, especially in automobile manufacturing. In this paper, a rapid global calibration method for the hybrid visual inspection system is proposed. Global calibration of a flexible sensor is performed first based on the robot kinematic. Then, with the aid of the calibrated flexible sensor, stationary sensors are calibrated globally one by one based on homography. Only a standard sphere and an auxiliary target with a 2D planar pattern are applied during the system global calibration, and the calibration process can be easily re-performed during the system’s periodical maintenance. An error compensation method is proposed for the hybrid inspection system, and the final accuracy of the hybrid system is evaluated with the deviation and correlation coefficient between the measured results of the hybrid system and Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM. An accuracy verification experiment shows that deviation of over 95% of featured points are less than ±0.3 mm, and the correlation coefficients of over 85% of points are larger than 0.7.

  14. Rapid Global Calibration Technology for Hybrid Visual Inspection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Yin, Shibin; Guo, Yin; Zhu, Jigui

    2017-06-19

    Vision-based methods for product quality inspection are playing an increasingly important role in modern industries for their good performance and high efficiency. A hybrid visual inspection system, which consists of an industrial robot with a flexible sensor and several stationary sensors, has been widely applied in mass production, especially in automobile manufacturing. In this paper, a rapid global calibration method for the hybrid visual inspection system is proposed. Global calibration of a flexible sensor is performed first based on the robot kinematic. Then, with the aid of the calibrated flexible sensor, stationary sensors are calibrated globally one by one based on homography. Only a standard sphere and an auxiliary target with a 2D planar pattern are applied during the system global calibration, and the calibration process can be easily re-performed during the system's periodical maintenance. An error compensation method is proposed for the hybrid inspection system, and the final accuracy of the hybrid system is evaluated with the deviation and correlation coefficient between the measured results of the hybrid system and Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). An accuracy verification experiment shows that deviation of over 95% of featured points are less than ±0.3 mm, and the correlation coefficients of over 85% of points are larger than 0.7.

  15. The under-critical reactors physics for the hybrid systems; La physique des reacteurs sous-critiques des systemes hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapira, J.P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS 91 - Orsay (France); Vergnes, J. [Electricite de France, EDF, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A. [CEA/Saclay, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [and others

    1998-03-12

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 12 march 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the hybrid systems and more specifically the under-critical reactors. One of the major current preoccupation of nuclear industry is the problems of the increase of radioactive wastes produced in the plants and the destruction of the present stocks. To solve these problems a solution is the utilisation of hybrid systems: the coupling of a particle acceleration to an under-critical reactor. Historical aspects, advantages and performances of such hybrid reactors are presented in general papers. More technical papers are devoted to the spallation, the MUSE and the TARC experiments. (A.L.B.)

  16. Having One's Cake and Eating It, Too: Combining True Experiments with Regression Discontinuity Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Marvin B.

    2008-01-01

    Both true experiments and regression discontinuity (RD) designs produce unbiased estimates of effects. However, true experiments are, of course, often criticized on equity grounds, whereas RD designs entail sacrifices in terms of statistical precision. In this article, a hybrid of true experiments and RD designs is considered. This hybrid entails…

  17. Cell Assignment in Hybrid CMOS/Nanodevices Architecture Using a PSO/SA Hybrid Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq M. Sait

    2013-10-01

    anowire\\MOLecular Hybrid, higher circuit densities are possible. In CMOL there is an additional layer of nanofabric on top of CMOS stack. Nanodevices that lie between overlapping nanowires are programmable and can implement any combinational logic using a netlist of NOR gates. The limitation on the length of nanowires put a constraint on the connectivity domain of a circuit. The gates connected to each other must be within a connectivity radius; otherwise an extra buffer is inserted to connect them. Particle swarm optimization (PSO has been used in a variety of problems that are NP- hard. PSO compared to the other iterative heuristic techniques is simpler to implement. Besides, it delivers comparable results. In this paper, a hybrid of PSO and simulated annealing (SA for solving the cell assignment in CMOL, an NP-hard problem, is proposed. The proposed method takes advantage of the exploration and exploitation factors of PSO and the intrinsic hill climbing feature of SA to reduce the number of buffers to be inserted. Experiments conducted on ISCAS'89 benchmark circuits and a comparison with other heuristic techniques, are presented. Results showed that the proposed hybrid algorithm achieved better solution in terms of buffer count in reasonable time.

  18. Hybridization in a warmer world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunco, Amanda J

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is profoundly affecting the evolutionary trajectory of individual species and ecological communities, in part through the creation of novel species assemblages. How climate change will influence competitive interactions has been an active area of research. Far less attention, however, has been given to altered reproductive interactions. Yet, reproductive interactions between formerly isolated species are inevitable as populations shift geographically and temporally as a result of climate change, potentially resulting in introgression, speciation, or even extinction. The susceptibility of hybridization rates to anthropogenic disturbance was first recognized in the 1930s. To date, work on anthropogenically mediated hybridization has focused primarily on either physical habitat disturbance or species invasion. Here, I review recent literature on hybridization to identify how ecological responses to climate change will increase the likelihood of hybridization via the dissolution of species barriers maintained by habitat, time, or behavior. Using this literature, I identify several cases where novel hybrid zones have recently formed, likely as a result of changing climate. Future research should focus on identifying areas and taxonomic groups where reproductive species interactions are most likely to be influenced by climate change. Furthermore, a better understanding of the evolutionary consequences of climate-mediated secondary contact is urgently needed. Paradoxically, hybridization is both a major conservation concern and an important source of novel genetic and phenotypic variation. Hybridization may therefore both contribute to increasing rates of extinction and stimulate the creation of novel phenotypes that will speed adaptation to novel climates. Predicting which result will occur following secondary contact will be an important contribution to conservation for many species.

  19. Hybrid Cemetery Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Rodil, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the urban cemetery as a site of intangible cultural practices and ubiquitous computing as an approach to enhance heritage sites. The paper introduces an experience assessment tool as a mobile phone application that audio-visually augments a heritage interpretation programme...

  20. Thermodynamically unfavorable DNA hybridizations can be made to occur by a water to ice phase change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Guajardo, Cristian; Somasundrum, Mithran; Surareungchai, Werasak

    2013-02-01

    In an apparent contradiction to Debye-Hückel theory, it was possible to hybridize DNA in solutions of Milli-Q water (resistivity>18MΩcm(-1)) containing no added ions. This was demonstrated by hybridizing four bi-complementary DNA sequences to form an 'X' shape, as indicated by acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The requirement for hybridization was that a water-to-ice phase change should occur. Comparative experiments, using freezing by liquid nitrogen and thawing at different temperatures, showed that hybridization could take place during either the freezing or thawing process provided either was slow enough. We speculate that the low solubility of DNA in ice creates liquid inclusions of extremely high DNA and counter-ion concentration prior to complete freezing, and that hence in these inclusions hybridization was actually in accordance with Debye-Hückel theory.

  1. Carbon nanotubes/carbon fiber hybrid material: a super support material for sludge biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qijie; Dai, Guangze; Bao, Yanling

    2017-07-16

    Carbon fiber (CF) is widely used as a sludge biofilm support material for wastewater treatment. Carbon nanotubes/carbon fiber (CNTs/CF) hybrid material was prepared by ultrasonically assisted electrophoretic deposition (EPD). CF supports (CF without handling, CF oxidized by nitric acid, CNTs/CF hybrid material) were evaluated by sludge immobilization tests, bacterial cell adsorption tests and Derjaguin -Landau -Verwey -Overbeek (DLVO) theory. We found that the CNTs/CF hybrid material has a high capacity for adsorbing activated sludge, nitrifying bacterial sludge and pure strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). CNTs deposited on CF surface easily wound around the curved surface of bacterial cell which resulted in capturing more bacterial cells. DLVO theory indicated the lowest total interaction energy of CNTs/CF hybrid material, which resulted in the highest bacteria cell adsorption velocity. Experiments and DLVO theory results proved that CNTs/CF hybrid material is a super support material for sludge biofilms.

  2. BROWN, BLACK, YELLOW, WHITE: FILIPINO MUSICIANSHIP IN HONG KONG AND THEIR HYBRIDIZED SOCIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee William Watkins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of hybridity as one manifested in the everyday experiences of migrant Filipino musicians in Hong Kong, with a particular emphasis on their differences in a dialectic of the self and other as mobilised in performance, and, as a continuum woven into their racial colour and various social statuses. Where hybridity in music is the concern, most studies focus on hybridity as a matter of aesthetics, while in nonmusical areas, hybridity is addressed in the context of the relationship between colonized and colonizer during western imperialism, and between migrant and host in the contemporary age. This article combines these two areas: it will briefly include, but also move beyond the concern with aesthetics and propose hybridity through the cultural analysis of musical performance more as a form of social action resulting from colonialism, neocolonialism and transnationalism.

  3. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Flor; Ghislain, Marc; Clausen, Andrea M; Jansky, Shelley H; Spooner, David M

    2010-10-01

    Solanum section Petota is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. Using DNA sequence data of the waxy gene, we here infer relationships among the four species of cultivated potatoes accepted in the latest taxonomic treatment (S. ajanhuiri, S. curtilobum, S. juzepczukii and S. tuberosum, the latter divided into the Andigenum and Chilotanum Cultivar Groups). The data support prior ideas of hybrid origins of S. ajanhuiri from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. megistacrolobum; S. juzepczukii from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (2x = S. stenotomum) × S. acaule; and S. curtilobum from the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group (4x = S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum) × S. juzepczukii. For the tetraploid cultivar-groups of S. tuberosum, hybrid origins are suggested entirely within much more closely related species, except for two of three examined accessions of the S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group that appear to have hybridized with the wild species S. maglia. Hybrid origins of the crop/weed species S. sucrense are more difficult to support and S. vernei is not supported as a wild species progenitor of the S. tuberosum Andigenum Group.

  4. Predicting Grade Point Average from the Hybrid Model of Learning in Personality: Consistent Findings from Ugandan and Australian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Chris; Baguma, Peter; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Jackson developed a hybrid model of learning in personality, known as the Learning Styles Profiler (LSP), which seeks to explain personality in terms of biological, socio-cognitive and experiential processes. The hybrid model argues that functional learning outcomes can be understood in terms of how cognitions and experiences re-express sensation…

  5. A study of hybrid prediction method for ship parametric rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周耀华; 马宁; 鲁江; 顾民

    2016-01-01

    The parametric rolling (PR) in the head or following waves has been considered as one of the main stability failure modes in the development of the 2nd generation Intact Stability criterion by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). According to previous studies, the estimation methods of the roll damping affect the prediction of the PR significantly, and most of them are based on experiment data or Ikeda’s empirical formula. The accuracy of the estimation method for the roll damping could be a key aspect for the validity of its prediction for the full scale ship. In this research, a hybrid prediction method is developed for the numerical prediction of the parametric rolling when experiment data are not available for the roll damping. Comparison study is also carried out between the hybrid method and a nonlinear dynamics method, where the roll damping is estimated by the simplified Ikeda’s method and the direct CFD prediction method in a direct non-linear simulation based on the 3-D CFD approach in the model scale. It is shown that the results of the hybrid method are in satisfactory agreements with the model experiment results, and the method can be used for analysis especially at the early design stage where experiment data are often not available.

  6. Symbolic Algorithmic Analysis of Rectangular Hybrid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bin Zhang; Zhen-Hua Duan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems. To deal with the symbolic reachability problem, a restricted constraint system called hybrid zone is formalized for the representation and manipulation of rectangular automata state-spaces. Hybrid zones are proved to be closed over symbolic reachability operations of rectangular hybrid systems. They are also applied to model-checking procedures for verifying some important classes of timed computation tree logic formulas. To represent hybrid zones, a data structure called difference constraint matrix is defined.These enable us to deal with the symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems in an efficient way.

  7. Practices and Prospects of Super Hybrid Rice Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The great progress in super rice breeding both in China and other countries has been made in recent years.However, there were three main problems in super rice breeding: 1) the super rice varieties were still rare; 2) most super rice varieties exhibited narrow adaptability; and 3) current breeding theories emphasized too much on the rice growth model, but they were unpractical in guidance for rice breeding. According to the authors' experience on the rice breeding, the breeding strategies including three steps (super parent breeding, super hybrid rice breeding and super hybrid rice seed production)were proposed, and the objectives of each step and the key technologies to achieve the goals were elucidated in detail. The super parent of hybrid rice should exhibit excellent performance in all agronomic traits, with the yield or sink capacity reached the level of the hybrid rice control in regional trials. The super hybrid rice combination should meet the following criteria: good rice quality, wide adaptation, lodging resistance, resistance to main insects and diseases, and the yield exceeded above 8%over the control varieties in the national and provincial regional trials. To achieve the goal, the technical strategies, such as selecting optimal combination of the parents, increasing selection pressure, paying more attention to harmony of ideal plant type, excellent physiological traits and all the agronomic traits, should be emphasized. The yield of seed production should reach 3.75 t/ha and 5.25 t/ha for the super hybrid rice combinations derived from early-season and middle-season types of male sterile lines, respectively. The main technologies for raising seed production yield included selecting optimum seed production site, using the male sterile line with large sink capacity and good outcrossing characteristics, and improving the amount of the pollen by intensive cultivation of the male parent. According to the technologies of the three-step breeding on super

  8. Microscopic Evolution of Laboratory Volcanic Hybrid Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, H. O.; Griffith, W. A.; Benson, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the interaction between fluids and microscopic defects is one of the long-standing challenges in understanding a broad range of cracking processes, in part because they are so difficult to study experimentally. We address this issue by reexamining records of emitted acoustic phonon events during rock mechanics experiments under wet and dry conditions. The frequency spectrum of these events provides direct information regarding the state of the system. Such events are typically subdivided into high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) events, whereas intermediate “Hybrid” events, have HF onsets followed by LF ringing. At a larger scale in volcanic terranes, hybrid events are used empirically to predict eruptions, but their ambiguous physical origin limits their diagnostic use. By studying acoustic phonon emissions from individual microcracking events we show that the onset of a secondary instability-related to the transition from HF to LF-occurs during the fast equilibration phase of the system, leading to sudden increase of fluid pressure in the process zone. As a result of this squeezing process, a secondary instability akin to the LF event occurs. This mechanism is consistent with observations of hybrid earthquakes.

  9. Microscopic Evolution of Laboratory Volcanic Hybrid Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, H. O.; Griffith, W. A.; Benson, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the interaction between fluids and microscopic defects is one of the long-standing challenges in understanding a broad range of cracking processes, in part because they are so difficult to study experimentally. We address this issue by reexamining records of emitted acoustic phonon events during rock mechanics experiments under wet and dry conditions. The frequency spectrum of these events provides direct information regarding the state of the system. Such events are typically subdivided into high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) events, whereas intermediate “Hybrid” events, have HF onsets followed by LF ringing. At a larger scale in volcanic terranes, hybrid events are used empirically to predict eruptions, but their ambiguous physical origin limits their diagnostic use. By studying acoustic phonon emissions from individual microcracking events we show that the onset of a secondary instability–related to the transition from HF to LF–occurs during the fast equilibration phase of the system, leading to sudden increase of fluid pressure in the process zone. As a result of this squeezing process, a secondary instability akin to the LF event occurs. This mechanism is consistent with observations of hybrid earthquakes. PMID:28074878

  10. Sawtooth Instability in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfindal, J. L.; Maurer, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.; Ennis, D. A.; Knowlton, S. F.

    2015-11-01

    Sawtooth instabilities have been observed in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH), a current-carrying stellarator/tokamak hybrid device. The sawtooth instability is driven by ohmic heating of the core plasma until the safety factor drops below unity resulting in the growth of an m = 1 kink-tearing mode. Experiments varying the vacuum rotational transform from 0.02 to 0.13 are being conducted to study sawtooth property dependance on vacuum flux surface structure. The frequency of the sawtooth oscillations increase from 2 kHz to 2.8 kHz solely due the decrease in rise time of the oscillation, the crash time is unchanged. CTH has three two-color SXR cameras, a three-channel 1mm interferometer, and a new bolometer system capable of detecting the signatures of sawtooth instabilities. The new bolometer system consists of two cameras, each containing a pair of diode arrays viewing the plasma directly or through a beryllium filter. Electron temperature measurements are found with the two-color SXR cameras through a ratio of the SXR intensities. Impurity radiation can drastically affect the electron temperature measurement, therefore new filters consisting of aluminum and carbon were selected to avoid problematic line radiation while maximizing the signal for a 100 eV plasma. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  11. Hybrid plasmonic-photonic resonators (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenderink, A. Femius; Doeleman, Hugo M.; Ruesink, Freek; Verhagen, Ewold; Osorio, Clara I.

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid nanophotonic structures are structures that integrate different nanoscale platforms to harness light-matter interaction. We propose that combinations of plasmonic antennas inside modest-Q dielectric cavities can lead to very high Purcell factors, yielding plasmonic mode volumes at essentially cavity quality factors. The underlying physics is subtle: for instance, how plasmon antennas with large cross sections spoil or improve cavities and vice versa, contains physics beyond perturbation theory, depending on interplays of back-action, and interferences. This is evident from the fact that the local density of states of hybrid systems shows the rich physics of Fano interferences. I will discuss recent scattering experiments performed on toroidal microcavities coupled to plasmon particle arrays that probe both cavity resonance shifts and particle polarizability changes illustrating these insights. Furthermore I will present our efforts to probe single plasmon antennas coupled to emitters and complex environments using scatterometry. An integral part of this approach is the recently developed measurement method of `k-space polarimetry', a microscopy technique to completely classify the intensity and polarization state of light radiated by a single nano-object into any emission direction that is based on back focal plane imaging and Stokes polarimetry. I show benchmarks of this technique for the cases of scattering, fluorescence, and cathodoluminescence applied to directional surface plasmon polariton antennas.

  12. Hybrid Cemetery Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Rodil, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the urban cemetery as a site of intangible cultural practices and ubiquitous computing as an approach to enhance heritage sites. The paper introduces an experience assessment tool as a mobile phone application that audio-visually augments a heritage interpretation programme...... mediations of historic heritage information and cultural practices of remembrance. The paper concludes, that an augmentation of the urban cemetery culture points to a high significance amongst citizens, and that experience design through mobile technologies promises an enhanced meaning in an often overlooked...... urban site. Due to the sensitive subject matter of death and mourning, the participation of the public in general faces challenges that need attention when planning a cultural heritage programme....

  13. Histone-poly(A) hybrid molecules as tools to block nuclear pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, G; Wojtech, E; Kalbas, M; Agutter, P S; Prochnow, D

    1995-04-01

    Histone-poly(A) hybrid molecules were used for transport experiments with resealed nuclear envelopes and after attachment of a cleavable cross-linker (SASD) to identify nuclear proteins. In contrast to histones, the hybrid molecules cannot be accumulated in resealed nuclear envelopes, and in contrast to poly(A), the export of hybrids from preloaded nuclear envelopes is completely impaired. The experiments strongly confirm the existence of poly(A) as an export signal in mRNA which counteracts the nuclear location signals (NLS) in histones. The contradicting transport signals in the hybrid molecules impair translocation through the nuclear pore complex. The failure to accumulate hybrid molecules into resealed nuclear envelopes results from the covalent attachment of polyadenylic acid to histones in a strict 1:1 molar ratio. This was demonstrated in control transport experiments where radiolabeled histones were simply mixed with nonlabeled poly(A) or radiolabeled poly(A) mixed with nonlabeled histones. In comparison, control uptake experiments with histones covalently linked to a single UMP-mononucleotide are strongly enhanced. Such controls exclude the conceivable possibility of a simple masking of the nuclear location signal in the histones by the covalent attached poly(A) moiety. Photoreactive histone-poly(A) hybrid analogs serve to identify nuclear envelope proteins--presumably in the nuclear pore--with molecular weights of 110, 80, and 71.4 kDa.

  14. The hybrid theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Ron

    2008-02-01

    Ever since the first movie picture house was opened, experiencing the unique cinematic experience has constantly evolved. Technological advances continually guarantee that more changes will happen to create the ultimate cinematic experience. Cinema has been reincarnated time after time, from the first hand cranked silent movie to the modern day Digital Cinema. The technology used to depict the story changes; along with that change is the human thirst for a better transformation, for a more enjoyable, more encompassing, more believable, more immersive, yet simultaneously a more bewitching, entertainment experience. "In this volatile business of ours, we can ill afford to rest on our laurels, even to pause in retrospect. Times and conditions change so rapidly that we must keep our aim constantly focused on the future." --Walt Disney. 1 It has been said that "content is king". By itself, that implies a disservice to the technology that supports it. Without the technology, the content could not exist. In today's digital society; a movie can be downloaded to a handheld playback device the moment it is released. Offering these services at a cheap rate would enable studios to stay ahead of the curve, virtually eliminate video piracy and create the ability to deliver first class uncompromised content. It's only a matter of time when new released movies would be distributed this way too and people are given the choice to view in the comfort of their own homes, hand held device or view at a local theatre.

  15. Experimenting with practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    these experiments the learning material and stepping stone for formulating problems in new ways. We argue that it is fruitful to make a distinction between practical problems and knowledge problems, and that playful shifts back and forth between the two forms of problems can provide learning. We also argue...... that it is important to observe the distinction between the role of the manager and the role of the student in order to meet ethical challenges, inevitably raised by experimenting with practice. Finally we argue that the experimental teaching practice can be conceptualised as a monstrous pedagogy, as the pedagogy...... creates a liminal zone with hybrid characteristics. Research limitations/implications The chapter provides new conceptualizations of the tensions between theory and practice based on our experiences from one degree programme. It would have been interesting to study other executive programmes and which...

  16. DNA-based hybrid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination sphere interactions provided by the DNA are key to achieve high enantioselectivities and, often, additional rate accelerations in catalysis. Nowadays, current efforts are focused on improved designs, understanding the origin of the enantioselectivity and DNA-induced rate accelerations, expanding the catalytic scope of the concept and further increasing the practicality of the method for applications in synthesis. Herein, the recent developments will be reviewed and the perspectives for the emerging field of DNA-based hybrid catalysis will be discussed.

  17. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    systems are derived in this thesis. The results are used for output feedback control of switched nonlinear systems. Model reduction of piecewise affine systems is also studied in this thesis. The proposed method is based on the reduction of linear subsystems inside the polytopes. The methods which......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...... of hybrid systems, designing controllers and implementations is very high so that the use of these models is limited in applications where the size of the state space is large. To cope with complexity, model reduction is a powerful technique. This thesis presents methods for model reduction and stability...

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  19. Intercalated hybrid graphite fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is directed to a highly conductive lightweight hybrid material and methods of producing the same. The hybrid composite is obtained by weaving strands of a high strength carbon or graphite fiber into a fabric-like structure, depositing a layer of carbon onto the structure, heat treating the structure to graphitize the carbon layer, and intercalating the graphitic carbon layer structure. A laminate composite material useful for protection against lightning strikes comprises at least one layer of the hybrid material over at least one layer of high strength carbon or graphite fibers. The composite material of the present invention is compatible with matrix compounds, has a coefficient of thermal expansion which is the same as underlying fiber layers, and is resistant to galvanic corrosion in addition to being highly conductive. These materials are useful in the aerospace industry, in particular as lightning strike protection for airplanes.

  20. Optimizing Hybrid Spreading in Metapopulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Changwang; Cox, Ingemar J; Chain, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by \\textit{local spreading}, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and \\textit{global spreading}, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemics, and examine the optimum balance between spreading mechanisms in terms of achieving the maximum outbreak size. In a metapopulation, made up of many weakly connected subpopulations, we show that one can calculate an optimal tradeoff between local and global spreading which will maximise the extent of the epidemic. As an example we analyse the 2008 outbreak of the Internet worm Conficker, which uses hybrid spreading to propagate through the internet. Our results suggests that the worm would have been eve...

  1. New Supercapacitors of Hybrid Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wako Naoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the improvement of the energydensity of nano-composite battery materials hasbeen object of great study. Hybridizing battery andcapacitor materials overcome the energy densitylimitation of existing generation-I capacitors withoutmuch sacrificing the cycling performances. Normalbattery-capacitor hybrids employ high-energy &sluggish redox electrode and low-energy & fastdouble-layer electrodes, possibly producing a largerworking voltage and higher over-all capacitance. Inorder to smoothly operate such asymmetric systems,however, the rates of the two different electrodes mustbe highly balanced. Especially, the redox rates of thebattery electrodes must be substantially increasedto the levels of double-layer process. In this report,we attempt to identify the essential issues for therealizable hybrids and suggest ways to overcomethe rate enhancement by exemplifying ultrafastperformance of the Li4Ti5O12 nanocrystal preparedvia a unique in-situ material processing technologyunder ultra-centrifuging.

  2. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  3. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  4. Formation of porous SnS nanoplate networks from solution and their application in hybrid solar cells† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details to performed experiments and characterisation methods, additional XRD data, absorption spectra, TAS data and SEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc03125g Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gury, L.; Sánchez-Molina, I.; Martínez, L.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we present a facile solution-based route towards nanostructured, hybrid absorber layers based on tin mono-sulfide (SnS), an emerging, non-toxic absorber material for low-cost and large-scale PV applications. Charge photogeneration properties in the hybrid system are studied using transient absorption spectroscopy and fabricated solar cells show efficient photocurrent generation over a broad spectral range. PMID:26016404

  5. Immersive second-screen experiences using hybrid media synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, R. van; Veenhuizen, A.T.

    2013-01-01

    Most second-screen services have so far been relying on watermarking and fingerprinting for providing synchronisation with the main TV screen. In the EU FP7 HBB-Next project, a new timestamp-based inter-device synchronization system has been developed, allowing for frame-accurate synchronisation bet

  6. Experience City.DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    I de seneste 20 år er der foretaget meget store investeringer i kulturhuse, museer og koncertsale. Mange nye spillesteder og "performancehuse" er dukket op, og som noget nyt sker der en samlokalisering af forskellige kunstarter med cafemiljøer, uddannelsesmiljøer, bibliotekter og virksomheder med...... bydele omtales som "oplevelsesbyen". Den kulturelle podning stiller krav til de fysiske omgivelser, til arkitekturen og til design af byrum. Experience City.DK undersøger betingelser for og konsekvenser af nye hybride kulturprojekter og performative byrum i danske byer....

  7. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    The economic importance of the ornamental plant industry requires constant development of novel and high quality varieties. Traits attractive for production of new ornamental plants may not be available within the commercial cultivars, but broad genetic variation is present within the plant genera...... commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...

  8. Essentialism, hybridism and cultural critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    to social and cultural critique. Through a critical discussion of the concept of hybridity, I argue that rather than expecting to find definite emancipating or suppressing capacities connected to constructions of the ‘hybrid' and the ‘pure', we should focus on how these two poles are invested with meaning...... assuming that certain social forms carry a critical, emancipating or suppressing potential per se....... and related to power. Hence, while insisting on Cultural Studies' commitment to social and cultural critique, I argue that this critique would benefit from an analytical sensitivity towards the uses and abuses of the discursive power to designate meaningful and legitimate subject positions, rather than...

  9. Towards an expansive hybrid psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions, depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré’s hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded significantly by including the four...... sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological artefacts. It is argued that the mind is normative in the sense that mental processes do not simply happen, but can be done more or less well, and thus are subject to normative appraisal. The expanded hybrid psychology...

  10. Charge Qubit-Atom Hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Deshui; Hufnagel, C; Kwek, L C; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a novel hybrid system of a superconducting charge qubit interacting directly with a single neutral atom via electric dipole coupling. Interfacing of the macroscopic superconducting circuit with the microscopic atomic system is accomplished by varying the gate capacitance of the charge qubit. To achieve strong interaction, we employ two Rydberg states with an electric-dipole-allowed transition, which alters the polarizability of the dielectric medium of the gate capacitor. Sweeping the gate voltage with different rates leads to a precise control of hybrid quantum states. Furthermore, we show a possible implementation of a universal two-qubit gate.

  11. Position list word aligned hybrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    Compressed bitmap indexes are increasingly used for efficiently querying very large and complex databases. The Word Aligned Hybrid (WAH) bitmap compression scheme is commonly recognized as the most efficient compression scheme in terms of CPU efficiency. However, WAH compressed bitmaps use a lot...... of storage space. This paper presents the Position List Word Aligned Hybrid (PLWAH) compression scheme that improves significantly over WAH compression by better utilizing the available bits and new CPU instructions. For typical bit distributions, PLWAH compressed bitmaps are often half the size of WAH...

  12. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    The economic importance of the ornamental plant industry requires constant development of novel and high quality varieties. Traits attractive for production of new ornamental plants may not be available within the commercial cultivars, but broad genetic variation is present within the plant genera...... commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...

  13. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold;

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid winding concept for toroids using the traces in a printed circuit board to make connection to bended copper foil cutouts. In a final product a number of strips with a certain thickness would be held by a former and the whole assembly could be placed by pick...... and placement machinery. This opens up the possibility for both an automated manufacturing process and an automated production process of toroidal magnetics such as power inductors, filtering inductors, air core inductors, transformers etc. Both the proposed hybrid and the common wire wound winding...

  14. Development of high performance hybrid rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaseck, Christopher R.

    In this document I discuss paraffin fuel combustion and investigate the effects of additives on paraffin entrainment and regression. In general, hybrid rockets offer an economical and safe alternative to standard liquid and solid rockets. However, slow polymeric fuel regression and low combustion efficiency have limited the commercial use of hybrid rockets. Paraffin is a fast burning fuel that has received significant attention in the 2000's and 2010's as a replacement for standard fuels. Paraffin regresses three to four times faster than polymeric fuels due to the entrainment of a surface melt layer. However, further regression rate enhancement over the base paraffin fuel is necessary for widespread hybrid rocket adoption. I use a small scale opposed flow burner to investigate the effect of additives on the combustion of paraffin. Standard additives such as aluminum combust above the flame zone where sufficient oxidizer levels are present. As a result no heat is generated below the flame itself. In small scale opposed burner experiments the effect of limited heat feedback is apparent. Aluminum in particular does not improve the regression of paraffin in the opposed burner. The lack of heat feedback from additive combustion limits the applicability of the opposed burner. In turn, the results obtained in the opposed burner with metal additive loaded hybrid fuels do not match results from hybrid rocket experiments. In addition, nano-scale aluminum increases melt layer viscosity and greatly slows the regression of paraffin in the opposed flow burner. However, the reactive additives improve the regression rate of paraffin in the opposed burner where standard metals do not. At 5 wt.% mechanically activated titanium and carbon (Ti-C) improves the regression rate of paraffin by 47% in the opposed burner. The mechanically activated Ti C likely reacts in or near the melt layer and provides heat feedback below the flame region that results in faster opposed burner regression

  15. Rotational characteristics in the resonance state of the HTSC-permanent magnet hybrid magnetic bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morii, Y.; Sukedai, M. [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Ohashi, S., E-mail: ohashi@kansai-u.ac.jp [Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    The hybrid magnetic bearing has been developed. In the hybrid system, effect of the pinning force becomes smaller. Influence of the vibration and the gradient angle in the resonance state is large. The resonance frequency becomes small in the hybrid bearing system. The hybrid magnetic bearing using permanent magnets and the high-Tc bulk superconductor (HTSC) has been developed. Repulsive force of the permanent magnet is introduced to increase the load weight of the magnetic bearing. Effect of the hybrid system has been shown. In this paper, influence of the hybrid system on the dynamic characteristics of the rotor is studied. The rotational characteristics in the mechanical resonance state are studied, and the equivalent magnetic spring coefficient is estimated from the experimental results of the load weight. The resonance frequency is measured by the rotation experiments. The rotor achieves stable levitation even in the resonance state. In the hybrid system, effect of the pinning force becomes smaller than that of the lateral force generated by the repulsive force between the two permanent magnets at the smaller air gap. Thus influence of the lateral vibration and the gradient angle in the resonance state becomes larger at a smaller air gap. The equivalent magnetic spring coefficient becomes also small, and the resonance frequency becomes small in the hybrid bearing system.

  16. Differential predation on tadpoles influences the potential effects of hybridization between Hyla cinerea and Hyla gratiosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburger, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term effects of hybridization and introgression are influenced by performance of hybrids in habitats of parental species. The treefrogs Hyla cinerea and Hyla gratiosa, which typically breed in permanent and temporary habitats, respectively, have occasionally hybridized throughout the Southeastern United States. To predict in which of the parental habitats effects of hybridization might be strongest, I performed experiments to evaluate predation on tadpoles of H. cinerea, H. gratiosa, and F1 hybrids with predators typical of the breeding habitats of the parental species. Hybrid tadpoles had lower survival with sunfish than odonate naiad (dragonfly) predators and tended to increase hiding behavior in response to sunfish predation. Tadpoles of H. gratiosa also had higher survival with odonates than sunfish, but H. cinerea had similar survival with both predator types. These results suggest that hybrids are most likely to survive and return to breed in temporary habitats used by H. gratiosa. Thus, hybridization and introgression might be more likely to have adverse effects on populations of H. gratiosa than H. cinerea. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  17. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) ar...

  18. Masses of Open-Flavour Heavy-Light Hybrids from QCD Sum Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jason; Harnett, Derek; Steele, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Our current understanding of the strong interaction (QCD) permits the construction of colour singlet states with novel structures that do not fit within the traditional quark model, including hybrid mesons. To date, though other exotic structures such as pentaquark and tetraquark states have been confirmed, no unambiguous hybrid meson signals have been observed. However, with data collection at the GlueX experiment ongoing and with the construction of the PANDA experiment at FAIR, the opportunity to observe hybrid states has never been better. As theoretical calculations are a necessary piece for the identification of any observed experimental resonance, we present our mass predictions of heavy-light open-flavour hybrid mesons using QCD Laplace sum-rules for all scalar and vector JP channels, and including non-perturbative condensate contributions up to six-dimensions.

  19. Influence of collisions on parametric instabilities induced by lower hybrid waves in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, C.; Di Siena, A.; Fedele, R.; Napoli, F.; Amicucci, L.; Cesario, R.; Schettini, G.

    2016-01-01

    Parametric instabilities induced at the plasma edge by lower hybrid wave power externally coupled to tokamak plasmas have, via broadening of the antenna spectrum, strong influence on the power deposition and current drive in the core. For modeling the parametric instabilities at the tokamak plasma edge in lower hybrid current drive experiments, the effect of the collisions has been neglected so far. In the present work, a specific collisional parametric dispersion relation, useful to analyze these nonlinear phenomena near the lower hybrid antenna mouth, is derived for the first time, based on a kinetic model. Numerical solutions show that in such cold plasma regions the collisions prevent the onset of the parametric instabilities. This result is important for present lower hybrid current drive experiments, as well as in fusion reactor scenarios.

  20. Synthesis and anticancer activity of novel curcumin-quinolone hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Saiharish; Manogaran, Prasath; Gadepalli Narasimha, Krishna Kumari; Kalpattu Kuppusami, Balasubramanian; Mariyappan, Palanivelu; Gopalakrishnan, Anjana; Venkatraman, Ganesh

    2015-09-01

    A number of new curcumin-quinolone hybrids were synthesised from differently substituted 3-formyl-2-quinolones and vanillin and their in vitro cytotoxicity was determined on a panel of representative cell lines (A549, MCF7, SKOV3 and H460) using MTT assay. The most potent compound 14, was analysed for its mode of action using various cell biology experiments. SKOV3 cells treated with compound 14 showed distorted cell morphology under phase contrast imaging and induction of apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin V/PE assay. Further experiments on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle analysis revealed that these hybrids induce apoptosis by ROS generation and arrest cell cycle progression in S and G2/M phase.