WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybridization analyses demonstrated

  1. Scoping and sensitivity analyses for the Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sink, D.A.; Gibson, G.

    1979-03-01

    The results of an extensive set of parametric studies are presented which provide analytical data of the effects of various tokamak parameters on the performance and cost of the DTHR (Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor). The studies were centered on a point design which is described in detail. Variations in the device size, neutron wall loading, and plasma aspect ratio are presented, and the effects on direct hardware costs, fissile fuel production (breeding), fusion power production, electrical power consumption, and thermal power production are shown graphically. The studies considered both ignition and beam-driven operations of DTHR and yielded results based on two empirical scaling laws presently used in reactor studies. Sensitivity studies were also made for variations in the following key parameters: the plasma elongation, the minor radius, the TF coil peak field, the neutral beam injection power, and the Z/sub eff/ of the plasma

  2. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  3. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  4. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  5. Hybrid Life Support System Technology Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Wetzel, J. P.; Richter, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    Demonstration of plant-based hybrid life support technologies in deep space will validate the function of these technologies for long duration missions, such as Mars transit, while providing dietary variety to improve habitability.

  6. Motivational study for an hybrid demonstrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boidron, M.; Fiorini, G.L.; Thomas, J.B.

    2001-02-01

    This document recalls first the role of hybrid accelerator driven systems (ADS) in the domain of transmutation of long-lived fission products and minor actinides. It presents the specific contribution of these systems in the management of radioactive wastes and their technical feasibility and safety aspects. Then, follows a motivational analysis for the construction of a demonstration facility with its specifications and R and D needs: feasibility, schedule, links with other ADS-related programs, cost, international cooperation, recommendations. (J.S.)

  7. BN-600 hybrid core benchmark analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.I.; Stanculescu, A.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.N.; Grimm, K.N.

    2003-01-01

    Benchmark analyses for the hybrid BN-600 reactor that contains three uranium enrichment zones and one plutonium zone in the core, have been performed within the frame of an IAEA sponsored Coordinated Research Project. The results for several relevant reactivity parameters obtained by the participants with their own state-of-the-art basic data and codes, were compared in terms of calculational uncertainty, and their effects on the ULOF transient behavior of the hybrid BN-600 core were evaluated. The comparison of the diffusion and transport results obtained for the homogeneous representation generally shows good agreement for most parameters between the RZ and HEX-Z models. The burnup effect and the heterogeneity effect on most reactivity parameters also show good agreement for the HEX-Z diffusion and transport theory results. A large difference noticed for the sodium and steel density coefficients is mainly due to differences in the spatial coefficient predictions for non fuelled regions. The burnup reactivity loss was evaluated to be 0.025 (4.3 $) within ∼ 5.0% standard deviation. The heterogeneity effect on most reactivity coefficients was estimated to be small. The heterogeneity treatment reduced the control rod worth by 2.3%. The heterogeneity effect on the k-eff and control rod worth appeared to differ strongly depending on the heterogeneity treatment method. A substantial spread noticed for several reactivity coefficients did not give a significant impact on the transient behavior prediction. This result is attributable to compensating effects between several reactivity effects and the specific design of the partially MOX fuelled hybrid core. (author)

  8. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...... in a natural way. We show that hybrid logic is very well suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated...

  9. Representativeness elements of an hybrid reactor demonstrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerdraon, D.; Billebaud, A.; Brissot, R.; David, S.; Giorni, A.; Heuer, D.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O.

    2000-11-01

    This document deals with the quantification of the minimum thermal power level for a demonstrator and the definition of the physical criteria which define the representative character of a demonstrator towards a power reactor. Solutions allowing to keep an acceptable flow in an industrial core, have also been studied. The document is divided in three parts: the representativeness elements, the considered solutions and the characterization of the neutrons flows at the interfaces and the dose rates at the outer surface of the vessel. (A.L.B.)

  10. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...

  11. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  12. Manitoba plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoemsen, R. [Red River College, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Parsons, R. [Government of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Centre for Emerging Renewable Energy

    2010-07-01

    Manitoba has low electricity rates, the highest proportion of renewables, and a legislated commitment to reduce greenhouse gases. However, the province still relies heavily on oil as everyone else. The mix of energy opportunities in Manitoba were highlighted in this presentation, with particular reference to the commercialization of electric vehicles. Several photographs were presented of the Toyota plug-in hybrid vehicle and a plug-in hybrid electric demonstration vehicle. A demonstration project overview was offered that used technology from A123 Systems Inc. The conversion module and vehicle users were profiled. Topics that were presented related to the demonstration project included monitoring; gasoline fuel economy results; fuel economy variability; cold weather operation; cold weather issues; battery upgrade solutions; and highly qualified personnel. It was concluded that in terms of follow-up, there is a need to combine findings of current plug-in hybrid electric vehicle demonstration with those for the new Toyota production plug-in hybrid vehicles. Key next steps for the demonstration are to address cabin heating requirements; better characterizing winter performance; and implementation of IPLC units on all plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for electricity consumption. figs.

  13. Study of lower hybrid current drive for the demonstration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi-Choobini, Ali Asghar [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-kord Branch, Shahr-e-kord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghidokht, Ahmed [Dept. of Physics, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Zahra [Dept. of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Steady-state operation of a fusion power plant requires external current drive to minimize the power requirements, and a high fraction of bootstrap current is required. One of the external sources for current drive is lower hybrid current drive, which has been widely applied in many tokamaks. Here, using lower hybrid simulation code, we calculate electron distribution function, electron currents and phase velocity changes for two options of demonstration reactor at the launched lower hybrid wave frequency 5 GHz. Two plasma scenarios pertaining to two different demonstration reactor options, known as pulsed (Option 1) and steady-state (Option 2) models, have been analyzed. We perceive that electron currents have major peaks near the edge of plasma for both options but with higher efficiency for Option 1, although we have access to wider, more peripheral regions for Option 2. Regarding the electron distribution function, major perturbations are at positive velocities for both options for flux surface 16 and at negative velocities for both options for flux surface 64.

  14. Motivational study for an hybrid demonstrator; Dossier de motivation pour un demonstrateur hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boidron, M.; Fiorini, G.L.; Thomas, J.B. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Flocard, H. [Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (CNRS/IN2P3), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-02-15

    This document recalls first the role of hybrid accelerator driven systems (ADS) in the domain of transmutation of long-lived fission products and minor actinides. It presents the specific contribution of these systems in the management of radioactive wastes and their technical feasibility and safety aspects. Then, follows a motivational analysis for the construction of a demonstration facility with its specifications and R and D needs: feasibility, schedule, links with other ADS-related programs, cost, international cooperation, recommendations. (J.S.)

  15. Plug-In Hybrid Urban Delivery Truck Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Impllitti, Joseph [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Pascal, Amar [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The I-710 and CA-60 highways are key transportation corridors in the Southern California region that are heavily used on a daily basis by heavy duty drayage trucks that transport the cargo from the ports to the inland transportation terminals. These terminals, which include store/warehouses, inland-railways, are anywhere from 5 to 50 miles in distance from the ports. The concentrated operation of these drayage vehicles in these corridors has had and will continue to have a significant impact on the air quality in this region whereby significantly impacting the quality of life in the communities surrounding these corridors. To reduce these negative impacts it is critical that zero and near-zero emission technologies be developed and deployed in the region. A potential local market size of up to 46,000 trucks exists in the South Coast Air Basin, based on near- dock drayage trucks and trucks operating on the I-710 freeway. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) — the agencies responsible for preparing the State Implementation Plan required under the federal Clean Air Act — have stated that to attain federal air quality standards the region will need to transition to broad use of zero and near zero emission energy sources in cars, trucks and other equipment (Southern California Association of Governments et al, 2011). SCAQMD partnered with Volvo Trucks to develop, build and demonstrate a prototype Class 8 heavy-duty plug-in hybrid drayage truck with significantly reduced emissions and fuel use. Volvo’s approach leveraged the group’s global knowledge and experience in designing and deploying electromobility products. The proprietary hybrid driveline selected for this proof of concept was integrated with multiple enhancements to the complete vehicle in order to maximize the emission and energy impact of electrification. A detailed review of all

  16. A Storable, Hybrid Mars Ascent Vehicle Technology Demonstrator for the 2020 Launch Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, A. A.; Karabeyoglu, M. A.; Cantwell, B. J.; Reeve, R.; Goldstein, B. G.; Hubbard, G. S.

    2012-06-01

    A Phoenix sized mission including a reduced payload, two-stage, hybrid Mars Ascent Vehicle technology demonstrator is proposed for the 2020 opportunity. The hybrid MAV is storable on Mars and would retire risk for a Mars Sample Return campaign.

  17. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  18. Demonstration of Hybrid Multilayer Insulation for Fixed Thickness Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley; Fesmire, James; Heckle, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Once on orbit, high performing insulation systems for cryogenic systems need just as good radiation (optical) properties as conduction properties. This requires the use of radiation shields with low conductivity spacers in between. By varying the height and cross-sectional area of the spacers between the radiation shields, the relative radiation and conduction heat transfers can be manipulated. However, in most systems, there is a fixed thickness or volume allocated to the insulation. In order to understand how various combinations of different multilayer insulation (MLI) systems work together and further validate thermal models of such a hybrid MLI set up, test data is needed. The MLI systems include combinations of Load Bearing MLI (LB-MLI) and traditional MLI. To further simulate the space launch vehicle case wherein both ambient pressure and vacuum environments are addressed, different cold-side thermal insulation substrates were included for select tests.

  19. ANALYSING SOLAR-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ENGİN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar-wind hybrid power generating, system that will be used for security lighting was designed. Hybrid system was installed and solar cells, wind turbine, battery bank, charge regulators and inverter performance values were measured through the whole year. Using measured values of overall system efficiency, reliability, demanded energy cost per kWh were calculated, and percentage of generated energy according to resources were defined. We also include in the paper a discussion of new strategies to improve hybrid power generating system performance and demanded energy cost per kWh.

  20. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  1. Hybrid reactors: recent progress of a demonstration pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billebaud, Annick

    2006-12-01

    Accelerator driven sub-critical reactors are subject of many research programmes since more than ten years, with the aim of testing the feasibility of the concept as well as their efficiency as a transmutation tool. Several key points like the accelerator, the spallation target, or neutronics in a subcritical medium were investigated extensively these last years, allowing for technological choices and the design of a low power European demonstration ADS (a few tens of MWth). Programmes dedicated to subcritical reactor piloting proposed a monitoring procedure to be validated in forthcoming experiments. Accelerator R and D provided the design of a LINAC for an ADS and research work on accelerator reliability is going on. A spallation target was operated at PSI and the design of a windowless target is in progress. All this research work converges to the design of a European demonstration ADS, the ETD/XT-ADS, which could be the Belgian MYRRHA project. (author)

  2. In-Space Hybrid Energy Storage System Demonstration on CSUNSat1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Objective: Flight demonstrate the JPL Hybrid Energy Storage System (low temperature, high power) using the SSTP-funded CSUNSat1 CubeSat: Environmental testing...

  3. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  4. Genome reorganization in Nicotiana asymmetric somatic hybrids analysed by in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parokonny, A.S.; Kenton, A.Y.; Gleba, Y.Y.; Bennett, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    In situ hybridization was used to examine genome reorganization in asymmetric somatic hybrids between Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Nicotiana sylvestris obtained by fusion of gamma-irradiated protoplasts from one of the parents (donor) with non-irradiated protoplasts from the other (recipient). Probing with biotinylated total genomic DNA from either the donor or the recipient species unequivocally identified genetic material from both parents in 31 regenerant plants, each originating from a different nuclear hybrid colony. This method, termed genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), allowed intergenomic translocations containing chromosome segments from both species to be recognized in four regenerants. A probe homologous to the consensus sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana telomeric repeat (5'-TTTAGGG-3')n, identified telomeres on all chromosomes, including 'mini-chromosomes' originating from the irradiated donor genome. Genomic in situ hybridization to plant chromosomes provides a rapid and reliable means of screening for recombinant genotypes in asymmetric somatic hybrids. Used in combination with other DNA probes, it also contributes to a greater understanding of the events responsible for genomic recovery and restabilization following genetic manipulation in vitro

  5. Demonstration of Hybrid DSMC-CFD Capability for Nonequilibrium Reacting Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-09

    AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2018-0056 AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2018-0056 DEMONSTRATION OF HYBRID DSMC-CFD CAPABILITY FOR NONEQUILIBRIUM REACTING FLOW Thomas E...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Demonstration of Hybrid DSMC-CFD Capability for Nonequilibrium Reacting Flow 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9453-17-1...simulation codes. The models are based on new ab-intio rate data obtained using state -of-the-art potential energy surfaces for air species. A probability

  6. Reticulate evolution: frequent introgressive hybridization among chinese hares (genus lepus revealed by analyses of multiple mitochondrial and nuclear DNA loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shi-Fang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific hybridization may lead to the introgression of genes and genomes across species barriers and contribute to a reticulate evolutionary pattern and thus taxonomic uncertainties. Since several previous studies have demonstrated that introgressive hybridization has occurred among some species within Lepus, therefore it is possible that introgressive hybridization events also occur among Chinese Lepus species and contribute to the current taxonomic confusion. Results Data from four mtDNA genes, from 116 individuals, and one nuclear gene, from 119 individuals, provides the first evidence of frequent introgression events via historical and recent interspecific hybridizations among six Chinese Lepus species. Remarkably, the mtDNA of L. mandshuricus was completely replaced by mtDNA from L. timidus and L. sinensis. Analysis of the nuclear DNA sequence revealed a high proportion of heterozygous genotypes containing alleles from two divergent clades and that several haplotypes were shared among species, suggesting repeated and recent introgression. Furthermore, results from the present analyses suggest that Chinese hares belong to eight species. Conclusion This study provides a framework for understanding the patterns of speciation and the taxonomy of this clade. The existence of morphological intermediates and atypical mitochondrial gene genealogies resulting from frequent hybridization events likely contribute to the current taxonomic confusion of Chinese hares. The present study also demonstrated that nuclear gene sequence could offer a powerful complementary data set with mtDNA in tracing a complete evolutionary history of recently diverged species.

  7. Conceptual design of a Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR), September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, J.L.

    1978-12-01

    The flexibility of the fusion hybrid reactor to function as a fuel production facility, power plant, waste disposal burner or combinations of all of these, as well as the reactor's ability to use proliferation resistant fuel cycles, has provided the incentive to assess the feasibility of a near-term demonstration plant. The goals for a Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR) were established and an initial conceptual design was selected. Reactor performance and economics were evaluated and key developmental issues were assessed. The study has shown that a DTHR is feasible in the late 1980's, a significant quantity of fissile fuel could be produced from fertile thorium using present day fission reactor blanket technology, and a large number of commercially prototypical components and systems could be developed and operationally verified. The DTHR concept would not only serve as proof-of-principle for hybrid technology, but could be operated in the ignited mode and provide major advancements for pure fusion technology

  8. Electric and hybrid vehicle self-certification and verification procedures: Market Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    The process by which a manufacturer of an electric or hybrid vehicle certifies that his vehicle meets the DOE Performance Standards for Demonstration is described. Such certification is required for any vehicles to be purchased under the Market Demonstration Program. It also explains the verification testing process followed by DOE for testing to verify compliance. Finally, the document outlines manufacturer responsibilities and presents procedures for recertification of vehicles that have failed verification testing.

  9. Hybrid reactors: recent progress of a demonstration pilot; Reacteurs hybrides: avancees recentes pour un demonstrateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billebaud, Annick [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie IN2P3-CNRS/UJF/INPG, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2006-12-15

    Accelerator driven sub-critical reactors are subject of many research programmes since more than ten years, with the aim of testing the feasibility of the concept as well as their efficiency as a transmutation tool. Several key points like the accelerator, the spallation target, or neutronics in a subcritical medium were investigated extensively these last years, allowing for technological choices and the design of a low power European demonstration ADS (a few tens of MWth). Programmes dedicated to subcritical reactor piloting proposed a monitoring procedure to be validated in forthcoming experiments. Accelerator R and D provided the design of a LINAC for an ADS and research work on accelerator reliability is going on. A spallation target was operated at PSI and the design of a windowless target is in progress. All this research work converges to the design of a European demonstration ADS, the ETD/XT-ADS, which could be the Belgian MYRRHA project. (author)

  10. Experimental demonstration of optical data links using a hybrid CAP/QAM modulation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J L; Ingham, J D; Cheng, Q; Cunningham, D G; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2014-03-15

    The first known experimental demonstrations of a 10  Gb/s hybrid CAP-2/QAM-2 and a 20  Gb/s hybrid CAP-4/QAM-4 transmitter/receiver-based optical data link are performed. Successful transmission over 4.3 km of standard single-mode fiber (SMF) is achieved, with a link power penalty ∼0.4  dBo for CAP-2/QAM-2 and ∼1.5  dBo for CAP-4/QAM-4 at BER=10(-9).

  11. 76 FR 24831 - Site-Specific Analyses for Demonstrating Compliance With Subpart C Performance Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ...-level radioactive waste disposal facilities to conduct site-specific analyses to demonstrate compliance... public health and safety, these amendments would enhance the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste... would be to enhance the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The NRC is also proposing...

  12. Novel hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic technique for shutdown dose rate analyses of fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Grove, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Develop the novel Multi-Step CADIS (MS-CADIS) hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic method for multi-step shielding analyses. •Accurately calculate shutdown dose rates using full-scale Monte Carlo models of fusion energy systems. •Demonstrate the dramatic efficiency improvement of the MS-CADIS method for the rigorous two step calculations of the shutdown dose rate in fusion reactors. -- Abstract: The rigorous 2-step (R2S) computational system uses three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport simulations to calculate the shutdown dose rate (SDDR) in fusion reactors. Accurate full-scale R2S calculations are impractical in fusion reactors because they require calculating space- and energy-dependent neutron fluxes everywhere inside the reactor. The use of global Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques was suggested for accelerating the R2S neutron transport calculation. However, the prohibitive computational costs of these approaches, which increase with the problem size and amount of shielding materials, inhibit their ability to accurately predict the SDDR in fusion energy systems using full-scale modeling of an entire fusion plant. This paper describes a novel hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic methodology that uses the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method but focuses on multi-step shielding calculations. The Multi-Step CADIS (MS-CADIS) methodology speeds up the R2S neutron Monte Carlo calculation using an importance function that represents the neutron importance to the final SDDR. Using a simplified example, preliminary results showed that the use of MS-CADIS enhanced the efficiency of the neutron Monte Carlo simulation of an SDDR calculation by a factor of 550 compared to standard global variance reduction techniques, and that the efficiency enhancement compared to analog Monte Carlo is higher than a factor of 10,000

  13. Evaluation of potential blanket concepts for a Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapin, D.L.; Chi, J.W.H.; Kelly, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation has been made of several different blanket concepts for use in a near-term Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR), whose main objective would be to produce a significant amount of fissile fuel while demonstrating the feasibility of the tokamak hybrid reactor concept. The desirability of a simple design using proven technology plus a proliferation resistant fuel cycle led to the selection of a low temperature and pressure water-cooled, zircaloy clad ThO 2 blanket concept to breed 233 U. The nuclear performance and thermal-hydraulics characteristics of the blanket were evaluated to arrive at a consistent design. The blanket was found to be feasible for producing a significant amount of fissile fuel even with the limited operating conditions and blanket coverage in the DTHR

  14. Site-Specific Analyses for Demonstrating Compliance with 10 CFR 61 Performance Objectives - 12179

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, C.J.; Esh, D.W.; Yadav, P.; Carrera, A.G. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is proposing to amend its regulations at 10 CFR Part 61 to require low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities to conduct site-specific analyses to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives in Subpart C. The amendments would require licensees to conduct site-specific analyses for protection of the public and inadvertent intruders as well as analyses for long-lived waste. The amendments would ensure protection of public health and safety, while providing flexibility to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives, for current and potential future waste streams. NRC staff intends to submit proposed rule language and associated regulatory basis to the Commission for its approval in early 2012. The NRC staff also intends to develop associated guidance to accompany any proposed amendments. The guidance is intended to supplement existing low-level radioactive waste guidance on issues pertinent to conducting site-specific analyses to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives. The guidance will facilitate implementation of the proposed amendments by licensees and assist competent regulatory authorities in reviewing the site-specific analyses. Specifically, the guidance provides staff recommendations on general considerations for the site-specific analyses, modeling issues for assessments to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives including the performance assessment, intruder assessment, stability assessment, and analyses for long-lived waste. This paper describes the technical basis for changes to the rule language and the proposed guidance associated with implementation of the rule language. The NRC staff, per Commission direction, intends to propose amendments to 10 CFR Part 61 to require licensees to conduct site-specific analyses to demonstrate compliance with performance objectives for the protection of public health and the environment. The amendments would require a

  15. Analyses to demonstrate the thermal performance of the CASTOR KN12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diersch, R.; Weiss, M.; Tso, C.F.; Powell, D.; Choy, B.I.; Lee, H.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The CASTOR registered KN-12 is a new cask design of GNB for dry and wet transportation of up to 12 PWR spent nuclear fuel assemblies in Korea. It complies with the requirements of 10 CFR 71 [1] and IAEA ST-1 [2] for TYPE B(U)F packages. It received its transport license from the Korean Competent Authority KINS in July 2002 and is now in use in South Korea. Demonstration of the cask's compliance with the regulatory requirements in the area of thermal performance has been carried out by a combination of testing carried out by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and analyses carried out by Arup. This paper describes the analyses to demonstrate the thermal performance of the cask and compliance with regulatory requirements under normal and hypothetical accident conditions of transport. Other aspects of the design of the CASTOR registered KN12 are presented in other papers at this conference

  16. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae osteomyelitis in pigs demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette; Hagedorn-Olsen, T.

    1999-01-01

    Necrotizing osteomyelitis and fibrinopurulent arthritis with isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 is reported in two pigs from a herd with lameness and mild coughing problems among 8 to 12-week-old pigs. Application of fluorescent in situ hybridization targeting 16S ribosomal R......, in joints with arthritis, and in bone necroses including lysis of growth plate and suppurative inflammation in the adjacent trabecular metaphysis, thus demonstrating that well-known infections manifest new, unusual lesions....

  17. A DNA microarray-based methylation-sensitive (MS)-AFLP hybridization method for genetic and epigenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, F; Yamamoto, M

    2004-07-01

    We previously developed a PCR-based DNA fingerprinting technique named the Methylation Sensitive (MS)-AFLP method, which permits comparative genome-wide scanning of methylation status with a manageable number of fingerprinting experiments. The technique uses the methylation sensitive restriction enzyme NotI in the context of the existing Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) method. Here we report the successful conversion of this gel electrophoresis-based DNA fingerprinting technique into a DNA microarray hybridization technique (DNA Microarray MS-AFLP). By performing a total of 30 (15 x 2 reciprocal labeling) DNA Microarray MS-AFLP hybridization experiments on genomic DNA from two breast and three prostate cancer cell lines in all pairwise combinations, and Southern hybridization experiments using more than 100 different probes, we have demonstrated that the DNA Microarray MS-AFLP is a reliable method for genetic and epigenetic analyses. No statistically significant differences were observed in the number of differences between the breast-prostate hybridization experiments and the breast-breast or prostate-prostate comparisons.

  18. Safety demonstration analyses for severe accident of fresh nuclear fuel transport packages at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, K.; Watanabe, K.; Nomura, Y.; Okuno, H.; Miyoshi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    It is expected in the near future that more and more fresh nuclear fuel will be transported in a variety of transport packages to cope with increasing demand from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Accordingly, safety demonstration analyses of these methods are planned and conducted at JAERI under contract with the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan. These analyses are conducted part of a four year plan from 2001 to 2004 to verify integrity of packaging against leakage of radioactive material in the case of a severe accident envisioned to occur during transportation, for the purpose of gaining public acceptance of such nuclear fuel activities. In order to create the accident scenarios, actual transportation routes were surveyed, accident or incident records were tracked, international radioactive material transport regulations such as IAEA rules were investigated and, thus, accident conditions leading to mechanical damage and thermal failure were selected for inclusion in the scenario. As a result, the worst-case conditions of run-off-the-road accidents were incorporated, where there is impact against a concrete or asphalt surface. Fire accidents were assumed to occur after collision with a tank truck carrying lots of inflammable material or destruction by fire after collision inside a tunnel. The impact analyses were performed by using three-dimensional elements according to the general purpose impact analysis code LS-DYNA. Leak-tightness of the package was maintained even in the severe impact accident scenario. In addition, the thermal analyses were performed by using two-dimensional elements according to the general purpose finite element method computer code ABAQUS. As a result of these analyses, the integrity of the inside packaging component was found to be sufficient to maintain a leak-tight state, confirming its safety

  19. Towards sustainable urban transportation: Test, demonstration and development of fuel cell and hybrid-electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkesson, Anders

    2008-05-01

    Several aspects make today's transport system non-sustainable: - Production, transport and combustion of fossil fuels lead to global and local environmental problems. - Oil dependency in the transport sector may lead to economical and political instability. - Air pollution, noise, congestion and land-use may jeopardise public health and quality of life, especially in urban areas. In a sustainable urban transport system most trips are made with public transport because high convenience and comfort makes travelling with public transport attractive. In terms of emissions, including noise, the vehicles are environmentally sustainable, locally as well as globally. Vehicles are energy-efficient and the primary energy stems from renewable sources. Costs are reasonable for all involved, from passengers, bus operators and transport authorities to vehicle manufacturers. The system is thus commercially viable on its own merits. This thesis presents the results from three projects involving different concept buses, all with different powertrains. The first two projects included technical evaluations, including tests, of two different fuel cell buses. The third project focussed on development of a series hybrid-bus with internal combustion engine intended for production around 2010. The research on the fuel cell buses included evaluations of the energy efficiency improvement potential using energy mapping and vehicle simulations. Attitudes to hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers, bus drivers and bus operators were investigated. Safety aspects of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel were analysed and the use of hydrogen compared to electrical energy storage were also investigated. One main conclusion is that a city bus should be considered as one energy system, because auxiliaries contribute largely to the energy use. Focussing only on the powertrain is not sufficient. The importance of mitigating losses far down an energy conversion chain is emphasised. The Scania hybrid fuel cell

  20. Safety demonstration analyses at JAERI for severe accident during overland transport of fresh nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Kitao, Kohichi; Karasawa, Kiyonori; Yamada, Kenji; Takahashi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kohji; Okuno, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    It is expected in the near future that more and more fresh nuclear fuel will be transported in a variety of transport packages to cope with increasing demand from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Accordingly, safety demonstration analyses are planned and conducted at JAERI under contract with the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan. These analyses are conducted in a four year plan from 2001 to 2004 to verify integrity of packaging against leakage of radioactive material in the case of a severe accident postulated to occur during transportation, for the purpose of gaining acceptance of such nuclear fuel activities. In order to create the accident scenarios, actual transportation routes were surveyed, accident or incident records were tracked, international radioactive material transport regulations such as IAEA rules were investigated and thus, accident conditions leading to mechanical damages and thermal failure were determined to characterize the scenarios. As a result, the worst-case conditions of run-off-the-road accidents were set up to define the impact against a concrete or asphalt surface. For fire accident scenarios to be set up, collisions were assumed to occur with an oil tanker carrying lots of inflammable material in open air, or with a commonly used two-ton-truck inside a tunnel without ventilation. Then the cask models were determined for these safety demonstration analyses to represent those commonly used for fresh nuclear fuel transported throughout Japan. Following the postulated accident scenarios, the mechanical damages were analyzed by using the general-purpose finite element code LS-DYNA with three-dimensional elements. It was found that leak tightness of the package be maintained even in the severe impact scenario. Then the thermal safety was analyzed by using the general-purpose finite element code ABAOUS with three-dimensional elements to describe cask geometry. As a result of the thermal analyses, the integrity of the containment

  1. Characterisation of the NA62 GigaTracker End of Column Demonstrator Hybrid Pixel Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fiorini, M.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Martin, E.; Morel, M.; Perktold, L.; Poltorak, K.; Riedler, P.

    2011-11-01

    The architecture and characterisation of the NA62 GigaTracker End of Column Demonstrator Hybrid Pixel Detector (HPD) are presented. This detector must perform time stamping to 200 ps (RMS) or better, provide 300 μm pitch position information and operate with a dead time of 1% or less for 800 MHz-1 GHz beam rate. The demonstrator HPD Assembly comprises a readout chip with a test column of 45 pixels, alongside other test structures, bump bonded to a p-in-n detector 200 μm in thickness. Validation of the performance of the HPD and the time-over-threshold timewalk compensation mechanism with both beam particles and a high precision laser system was performed and is presented. Confirmation of better than the required time stamping precision has been demonstrated and subsequent work on the design of the full-scale ASIC, dubbed TDCPix, is underway. An overview of the TDCPix architecure is given.

  2. DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

  3. Design of an advanced bundle divertor for the Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Lee, A.Y.; Ruck, G.W.; Prevenslik, T.V.; Smeltzer, G.

    1979-01-01

    The conclusion of this work is that a bundle divertor, using an improved method of designing the magnetic field configuration, is feasible for the Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR) investigated by Westinghouse. The most significant achievement of this design is the reduction in current density (1 kA/cm 2 ) in the divertor coils in comparison to the overall averaged current densities per tesla of field to be nulled for DITE (25 kA/cm 2 ) and for ISX-B 2 (11 kA/cm 2 ). Therefore, superconducting magnets can be built into the tight space available with a sound mechanical structure

  4. Demonstration and field trial of a resilient hybrid NG-PON test-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Josep; Polo, Victor; Schrenk, Bernhard; Lazaro, Jose A.; Bonada, Francesc; Lopez, Eduardo T.; Omella, Mireia; Saliou, Fabienne; Le, Quang T.; Chanclou, Philippe; Leino, Dmitri; Soila, Risto; Spirou, Spiros; Costa, Liliana; Teixeira, Antonio; Tosi-Beleffi, Giorgio M.; Klonidis, Dimitrios; Tomkos, Ioannis

    2014-10-01

    A multi-layer next generation PON prototype has been built and tested, to show the feasibility of extended hybrid DWDM/TDM-XGPON FTTH networks with resilient optically-integrated ring-trees architecture, supporting broadband multimedia services. It constitutes a transparent common platform for the coexistence of multiple operators sharing the optical infrastructure of the central metro ring, passively combining the access and the metropolitan network sections. It features 32 wavelength connections at 10 Gbps, up to 1000 users distributed in 16 independent resilient sub-PONs over 100 km. This paper summarizes the network operation, demonstration and field trial results.

  5. Control Demonstration of Multiple Doubly-Fed Induction Motors for Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadey, David J.; Bodson, Marc; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Hunker, Keith R.; Theman, Casey J.; Taylor, Linda M.

    2017-01-01

    The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application.The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application. DFIMs are attractive for several reasons, including but not limited to the ability to self-start, ability to operate sub- and super-synchronously, and requiring only fractionally rated power converters on a per-unit basis depending on the required range of operation. The focus of this paper is based specifically on the presentation and analysis of a novel strategy which allows for independent operation of each of the aforementioned doubly-fed induction motors. This strategy includes synchronization, soft-start, and closed loop speed control of each motor as a means of controlling output thrust; be it concurrently or differentially. The demonstration of this strategy has recently been proven out on a low power test bed using fractional horsepower machines. Simulation and hardware test results are presented in the paper.

  6. Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Kosowski, Mark [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funding. The purpose of the program is to develop a path to migrate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology to medium-duty vehicles by demonstrating and evaluating vehicles in diverse applications. The program also provided three production-ready PHEV systems—Odyne Systems, Inc. (Odyne) Class 6 to 8 trucks, VIA Motors, Inc. (VIA) half-ton pickup trucks, and VIA three-quarter-ton vans. The vehicles were designed, developed, validated, produced, and deployed. Data were gathered and tests were run to understand the performance improvements, allow cost reductions, and provide future design changes. A smart charging system was developed and produced during the program. The partnerships for funding included the DOE; the California Energy Commission (CEC); the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD); the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Odyne; VIA; Southern California Edison; and utility and municipal industry participants. The reference project numbers are DOE FOA-28 award number EE0002549 and SCAQMD contract number 10659.

  7. Experimental demonstration of synergy between electron cyclotron and lower hybrid current drive on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.F.; Giruzzi, G.; Dumont, R.J.; Imbeaux, F.; Bibet, P.; Bouquey, F.; Clary, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Hoang, G.T.; Lennholm, M.; Magne, R.; Segui, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Non-inductive current drive (CD) has two main applications in tokamaks: sustainment of a substantial fraction of the toroidal plasma current necessary for the plasma confinement and control of the plasma stability and transport properties by appropriate shaping of the current density profile. For the first kind of applications, lower hybrid (LH) waves are known to provide the highest efficiency (defined as the ratio of the driven current to the injected wave power), although with limited control capability. Conversely, electron cyclotron (EC) waves drive highly localized currents, and are therefore particularly suited for control purposes, but their CD efficiency is much lower than that of LH waves (typically, an order of magnitude in present day experiments). Various calculations have demonstrated an interesting property: the current driven by the simultaneous use of the two waves, I(LH+EC), can be significantly larger than the sum I(LH)+I(EC) of the currents separately driven by the two waves in the same plasma conditions. This property, called synergy effect. The peculiar experimental conditions attainable on the Tore Supra tokamak have allowed the first experimental demonstration of the synergy between EC and LH current drive. The significant improvement of the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency in the presence of low hybrid current drive (LHCD), predicted by kinetic theory and confirmed by stationary experiments on Tore Supra, opens up the possibility of using ECCD as an efficient current profile control tool in LHCD plasmas

  8. Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andong; Zhu, Long; Liu, Jun; Du, Cheng; Mo, Qi; Wang, Jian

    2015-11-16

    Mode-division multiplexing passive optical network (MDM-PON) is a promising scheme for next-generation access networks to further increase fiber transmission capacity. In this paper, we demonstrate the proof-of-concept experiment of hybrid mode-division multiplexing (MDM) and time-division multiplexing (TDM) PON architecture by exploiting orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. Bidirectional transmissions with 2.5-Gbaud 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) downstream and 2-Gbaud on-off keying (OOK) upstream are demonstrated in the experiment. The observed optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties for downstream and upstream transmissions at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2 × 10(-3) are less than 2.0 dB and 3.0 dB, respectively.

  9. Multivariate statistical analyses demonstrate unique host immune responses to single and dual lentiviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunando Roy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are recently identified lentiviruses that cause progressive immune decline and ultimately death in infected cats and humans. It is of great interest to understand how to prevent immune system collapse caused by these lentiviruses. We recently described that disease caused by a virulent FIV strain in cats can be attenuated if animals are first infected with a feline immunodeficiency virus derived from a wild cougar. The detailed temporal tracking of cat immunological parameters in response to two viral infections resulted in high-dimensional datasets containing variables that exhibit strong co-variation. Initial analyses of these complex data using univariate statistical techniques did not account for interactions among immunological response variables and therefore potentially obscured significant effects between infection state and immunological parameters.Here, we apply a suite of multivariate statistical tools, including Principal Component Analysis, MANOVA and Linear Discriminant Analysis, to temporal immunological data resulting from FIV superinfection in domestic cats. We investigated the co-variation among immunological responses, the differences in immune parameters among four groups of five cats each (uninfected, single and dual infected animals, and the "immune profiles" that discriminate among them over the first four weeks following superinfection. Dual infected cats mount an immune response by 24 days post superinfection that is characterized by elevated levels of CD8 and CD25 cells and increased expression of IL4 and IFNgamma, and FAS. This profile discriminates dual infected cats from cats infected with FIV alone, which show high IL-10 and lower numbers of CD8 and CD25 cells.Multivariate statistical analyses demonstrate both the dynamic nature of the immune response to FIV single and dual infection and the development of a unique immunological profile in dual

  10. Genomic Analyses Reveal the Influence of Geographic Origin, Migration, and Hybridization on Modern Dog Breed Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi G. Parker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are nearly 400 modern domestic dog breeds with a unique histories and genetic profiles. To track the genetic signatures of breed development, we have assembled the most diverse dataset of dog breeds, reflecting their extensive phenotypic variation and heritage. Combining genetic distance, migration, and genome-wide haplotype sharing analyses, we uncover geographic patterns of development and independent origins of common traits. Our analyses reveal the hybrid history of breeds and elucidate the effects of immigration, revealing for the first time a suggestion of New World dog within some modern breeds. Finally, we used cladistics and haplotype sharing to show that some common traits have arisen more than once in the history of the dog. These analyses characterize the complexities of breed development, resolving longstanding questions regarding individual breed origination, the effect of migration on geographically distinct breeds, and, by inference, transfer of trait and disease alleles among dog breeds.

  11. Hybrid and Parallel Domain-Decomposition Methods Development to Enable Monte Carlo for Reactor Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, John C.; Mosher, Scott W.; Evans, Thomas M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Turner, John A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes code and methods development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory focused on enabling high-fidelity, large-scale reactor analyses with Monte Carlo (MC). Current state-of-the-art tools and methods used to perform real commercial reactor analyses have several undesirable features, the most significant of which is the non-rigorous spatial decomposition scheme. Monte Carlo methods, which allow detailed and accurate modeling of the full geometry and are considered the gold standard for radiation transport solutions, are playing an ever-increasing role in correcting and/or verifying the deterministic, multi-level spatial decomposition methodology in current practice. However, the prohibitive computational requirements associated with obtaining fully converged, system-wide solutions restrict the role of MC to benchmarking deterministic results at a limited number of state-points for a limited number of relevant quantities. The goal of this research is to change this paradigm by enabling direct use of MC for full-core reactor analyses. The most significant of the many technical challenges that must be overcome are the slow, non-uniform convergence of system-wide MC estimates and the memory requirements associated with detailed solutions throughout a reactor (problems involving hundreds of millions of different material and tally regions due to fuel irradiation, temperature distributions, and the needs associated with multi-physics code coupling). To address these challenges, our research has focused on the development and implementation of (1) a novel hybrid deterministic/MC method for determining high-precision fluxes throughout the problem space in k-eigenvalue problems and (2) an efficient MC domain-decomposition (DD) algorithm that partitions the problem phase space onto multiple processors for massively parallel systems, with statistical uncertainty estimation. The hybrid method development is based on an extension of the FW-CADIS method, which

  12. Hybrid and parallel domain-decomposition methods development to enable Monte Carlo for reactor analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.C.; Mosher, S.W.; Evans, T.M.; Peplow, D.E.; Turner, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes code and methods development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory focused on enabling high-fidelity, large-scale reactor analyses with Monte Carlo (MC). Current state-of-the-art tools and methods used to perform 'real' commercial reactor analyses have several undesirable features, the most significant of which is the non-rigorous spatial decomposition scheme. Monte Carlo methods, which allow detailed and accurate modeling of the full geometry and are considered the 'gold standard' for radiation transport solutions, are playing an ever-increasing role in correcting and/or verifying the deterministic, multi-level spatial decomposition methodology in current practice. However, the prohibitive computational requirements associated with obtaining fully converged, system-wide solutions restrict the role of MC to benchmarking deterministic results at a limited number of state-points for a limited number of relevant quantities. The goal of this research is to change this paradigm by enabling direct use of MC for full-core reactor analyses. The most significant of the many technical challenges that must be overcome are the slow, non-uniform convergence of system-wide MC estimates and the memory requirements associated with detailed solutions throughout a reactor (problems involving hundreds of millions of different material and tally regions due to fuel irradiation, temperature distributions, and the needs associated with multi-physics code coupling). To address these challenges, our research has focused on the development and implementation of (1) a novel hybrid deterministic/MC method for determining high-precision fluxes throughout the problem space in k-eigenvalue problems and (2) an efficient MC domain-decomposition (DD) algorithm that partitions the problem phase space onto multiple processors for massively parallel systems, with statistical uncertainty estimation. The hybrid method development is based on an extension of the FW-CADIS method

  13. SOCR Analyses: Implementation and Demonstration of a New Graphical Statistics Educational Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Chu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The web-based, Java-written SOCR (Statistical Online Computational Resource toolshave been utilized in many undergraduate and graduate level statistics courses for sevenyears now (Dinov 2006; Dinov et al. 2008b. It has been proven that these resourcescan successfully improve students' learning (Dinov et al. 2008b. Being rst publishedonline in 2005, SOCR Analyses is a somewhat new component and it concentrate on datamodeling for both parametric and non-parametric data analyses with graphical modeldiagnostics. One of the main purposes of SOCR Analyses is to facilitate statistical learn-ing for high school and undergraduate students. As we have already implemented SOCRDistributions and Experiments, SOCR Analyses and Charts fulll the rest of a standardstatistics curricula. Currently, there are four core components of SOCR Analyses. Linearmodels included in SOCR Analyses are simple linear regression, multiple linear regression,one-way and two-way ANOVA. Tests for sample comparisons include t-test in the para-metric category. Some examples of SOCR Analyses' in the non-parametric category areWilcoxon rank sum test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Friedman's test, Kolmogorov-Smirno testand Fligner-Killeen test. Hypothesis testing models include contingency table, Friedman'stest and Fisher's exact test. The last component of Analyses is a utility for computingsample sizes for normal distribution. In this article, we present the design framework,computational implementation and the utilization of SOCR Analyses.

  14. Integrated approach for fusion multi-physics coupled analyses based on hybrid CAD and mesh geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Yuefeng, E-mail: yuefeng.qiu@kit.edu; Lu, Lei; Fischer, Ulrich

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Integrated approach for neutronics, thermal and structural analyses was developed. • MCNP5/6, TRIPOLI-4 were coupled with CFX, Fluent and ANSYS Workbench. • A novel meshing approach has been proposed for describing MC geometry. - Abstract: Coupled multi-physics analyses on fusion reactor devices require high-fidelity neutronic models, and flexible, accurate data exchanging between various calculation codes. An integrated coupling approach has been developed to enable the conversion of CAD, mesh, or hybrid geometries for Monte Carlo (MC) codes MCNP5/6, TRIPOLI-4, and translation of nuclear heating data for CFD codes Fluent, CFX and structural mechanical software ANSYS Workbench. The coupling approach has been implemented based on SALOME platform with CAD modeling, mesh generation and data visualization capabilities. A novel meshing approach has been developed for generating suitable meshes for MC geometry descriptions. The coupling approach has been concluded to be reliable and efficient after verification calculations of several application cases.

  15. Hybridization between two cryptic filamentous brown seaweeds along the shore: analysing pre- and postzygotic barriers in populations of individuals with varying ploidy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, Alejandro E; Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Couceiro, Lucia; Peters, Akira F; Stoeckel, Solenn; Valero, Myriam

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to study the importance of hybridization between two cryptic species of the genus Ectocarpus, a group of filamentous algae with haploid-diploid life cycles that include the principal genetic model organism for the brown algae. In haploid-diploid species, the genetic structure of the two phases of the life cycle can be analysed separately in natural populations. Such life cycles provide a unique opportunity to estimate the frequency of hybrid genotypes in diploid sporophytes and meiotic recombinant genotypes in haploid gametophytes allowing the effects of reproductive barriers preventing fertilization or preventing meiosis to be untangle. The level of hybridization between E. siliculosus and E. crouaniorum was quantified along the European coast. Clonal cultures (568 diploid, 336 haploid) isolated from field samples were genotyped using cytoplasmic and nuclear markers to estimate the frequency of hybrid genotypes in diploids and recombinant haploids. We identified admixed individuals using microsatellite loci, classical assignment methods and a newly developed Bayesian method (XPloidAssignment), which allows the analysis of populations that exhibit variations in ploidy level. Over all populations, the level of hybridization was estimated at 8.7%. Hybrids were exclusively observed in sympatric populations. More than 98% of hybrids were diploids (40% of which showed signs of aneuploidy) with a high frequency of rare alleles. The near absence of haploid recombinant hybrids demonstrates that the reproductive barriers are mostly postzygotic and suggests that abnormal chromosome segregation during meiosis following hybridization of species with different genome sizes could be a major cause of interspecific incompatibility in this system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Genetic basis for spontaneous hybrid genome doubling during allopolyploid speciation of common wheat shown by natural variation analyses of the paternal species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Matsuoka

    Full Text Available The complex process of allopolyploid speciation includes various mechanisms ranging from species crosses and hybrid genome doubling to genome alterations and the establishment of new allopolyploids as persisting natural entities. Currently, little is known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie hybrid genome doubling, despite the fact that natural allopolyploid formation is highly dependent on this phenomenon. We examined the genetic basis for the spontaneous genome doubling of triploid F1 hybrids between the direct ancestors of allohexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome, namely Triticumturgidum L. (AABB genome and Aegilopstauschii Coss. (DD genome. An Ae. tauschii intraspecific lineage that is closely related to the D genome of common wheat was identified by population-based analysis. Two representative accessions, one that produces a high-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid when crossed with a T. turgidum cultivar and the other that produces a low-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid with the same cultivar, were chosen from that lineage for further analyses. A series of investigations including fertility analysis, immunostaining, and quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis showed that (1 production of functional unreduced gametes through nonreductional meiosis is an early step key to successful hybrid genome doubling, (2 first division restitution is one of the cytological mechanisms that cause meiotic nonreduction during the production of functional male unreduced gametes, and (3 six QTLs in the Ae. tauschii genome, most of which likely regulate nonreductional meiosis and its subsequent gamete production processes, are involved in hybrid genome doubling. Interlineage comparisons of Ae. tauschii's ability to cause hybrid genome doubling suggested an evolutionary model for the natural variation pattern of the trait in which non-deleterious mutations in six QTLs may have important roles. The findings of this study demonstrated

  17. Demonstration of a high speed hybrid electrical and optical sensing system for next generation launcher applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; O'Dowd, John A.; Honniball, Arthur; Bessler, Vivian; Farnan, Martin; O'Connor, Peter; Melicher, Milos; Gleeson, Danny

    2017-09-01

    The Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP) supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) has a goal of developing various launch vehicle system concepts and identifying the technologies required for the design of Europe's Next-Generation Launcher (NGL) while maintaining competitiveness on the commercial market. Avionics fiber optic sensing technology was investigated as part of the FLPP programme. Here we demonstrate and evaluate a high speed hybrid electrical/optical data acquisition system based on commercial off the shelf (COTS) technology capable of acquiring data from traditional electrical sensors and optical Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. The proposed system consists of the KAM-500 data acquisition system developed by Curtis-Wright and the I4 tunable laser based fiber optic sensor interrogator developed by FAZ Technology. The key objective was to demonstrate the capability of the hybrid system to acquire data from traditional electrical sensors used in launcher applications e.g. strain, temperature and pressure in combination with optical FBG sensors, as well as data delivery to spacecraft avionics systems. The KAM-500 was configured as the main acquisition unit (MAU) and provided a 1 kHz sampling clock to the I4 interrogator that was configured as the secondary acquisition unit (SAU) to synchronize the data acquisition sample rate between both systems. The SAU acquired data from an array of optical FBG sensors, while the MAU data acquisition system acquired data from the electrical sensors. Data acquired from the optical sensors was processed by the FAZ I4 interrogation system and then encapsulated into UDP/IP packets and transferred to the KAM-500. The KAM-500 encapsulated the optical sensor data together with the data acquired from electrical sensors and transmitted the data over MIL-STD-1553 and Ethernet data interface. The temperature measurements resulted in the optical and electrical sensors performing on a par with each other, with all

  18. Hybrid model based unified scheme for endoscopic Cerenkov and radio-luminescence tomography: Simulation demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Cao, Xin; Ren, Qingyun; Chen, Xueli; He, Xiaowei

    2018-05-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is an imaging method that uses an optical imaging scheme to probe a radioactive tracer. Application of CLI with clinically approved radioactive tracers has opened an opportunity for translating optical imaging from preclinical to clinical applications. Such translation was further improved by developing an endoscopic CLI system. However, two-dimensional endoscopic imaging cannot identify accurate depth and obtain quantitative information. Here, we present an imaging scheme to retrieve the depth and quantitative information from endoscopic Cerenkov luminescence tomography, which can also be applied for endoscopic radio-luminescence tomography. In the scheme, we first constructed a physical model for image collection, and then a mathematical model for characterizing the luminescent light propagation from tracer to the endoscopic detector. The mathematical model is a hybrid light transport model combined with the 3rd order simplified spherical harmonics approximation, diffusion, and radiosity equations to warrant accuracy and speed. The mathematical model integrates finite element discretization, regularization, and primal-dual interior-point optimization to retrieve the depth and the quantitative information of the tracer. A heterogeneous-geometry-based numerical simulation was used to explore the feasibility of the unified scheme, which demonstrated that it can provide a satisfactory balance between imaging accuracy and computational burden.

  19. Development and validation of an Haemophilus influenzae supragenome hybridization (SGH array for transcriptomic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Janto

    Full Text Available We previously carried out the design and testing of a custom-built Haemophilus influenzae supragenome hybridization (SGH array that contains probe sequences to 2,890 gene clusters identified by whole genome sequencing of 24 strains of H. influenzae. The array was originally designed as a tool to interrogate the gene content of large numbers of clinical isolates without the need for sequencing, however, the data obtained is quantitative and is thus suitable for transcriptomic analyses. In the current study RNA was extracted from H. influenzae strain CZ4126/02 (which was not included in the design of the array converted to cDNA, and labelled and hybridized to the SGH arrays to assess the quality and reproducibility of data obtained from these custom-designed chips to serve as a tool for transcriptomics. Three types of experimental replicates were analyzed with all showing very high degrees of correlation, thus validating both the array and the methods used for RNA profiling. A custom filtering pipeline for two-condition unpaired data using five metrics was developed to minimize variability within replicates and to maximize the identification of the most significant true transcriptional differences between two samples. These methods can be extended to transcriptional analysis of other bacterial species utilizing supragenome-based arrays.

  20. Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin-1 Is a Reliable Taste Bud Marker for In Situ Hybridization Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Joto; Okada, Shinji; Kishi, Mikiya; Misaka, Takumi

    2016-03-01

    Taste signals are received by taste buds. To better understand the taste reception system, expression patterns of taste-related molecules are determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses at the histological level. Nevertheless, even though ISH is essential for determining mRNA expression, few taste bud markers can be applied together with ISH. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) appears to be a reliable murine taste bud marker based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses. However, there is no evidence as to whether UEA-1 can be used for ISH. Thus, the present study evaluated UEA-1 using various histochemical methods, especially ISH. When lectin staining was performed after ISH procedures, UEA-1 clearly labeled taste cellular membranes and distinctly indicated boundaries between taste buds and the surrounding epithelial cells. Additionally, UEA-1 was determined as a taste bud marker not only when used in single-colored ISH but also when employed with double-labeled ISH or during simultaneous detection using IHC and ISH methods. These results suggest that UEA-1 is a useful marker when conducting analyses based on ISH methods. To clarify UEA-1 staining details, multi-fluorescent IHC (together with UEA-1 staining) was examined, resulting in more than 99% of cells being labeled by UEA-1 and overlapping with KCNQ1-expressing cells. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  1. Demonstrative study for the wind and solar hybrid power system. 2; Furyoku taiyoko hybrid hatsuden system ni kansuru jissho kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y; Sakuma, H; Ushiyama, I [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In order to verify the complementary relationship between wind and solar energy, the long-term field test of the hybrid power system was conducted at the natural energy square of Ashikaga Institute of Technology. The solar cell blade windmill composed of a Savonius windmill and flexible solar cells applied to swept buckets was also prepared. As a result, the wind power generation was promising mainly in the winter period including the late fall and early spring, while solar one was stable all the year through although it was slightly poor in winter. Stable power generation was thus achieved by combining wind energy with solar energy. As the whole data of other wind and solar power generation systems at the square were analyzed for every month, the same conclusion as the solar cell blade windmill was obtained as follows: the wind power generation in Ashikaga area is promising in Nov.-March from the field test result for 16 months, solar power generation is stable all the year through, the hybrid power system is effective in Nov.-April, and the solar cell blade windmill is equivalent to the hybrid power system. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Hybrid concepts of the co-operation GETRAG-BOSCH and their realisation in a demonstrator car; Hybridkonzepte der Kooperation GETRAG-BOSCH am Beispiel eines Demonstratorfahrzeugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenbach, Bernd; Blessing, Uli Christian [GETRAG KG, Untergruppenbach (Germany); Imaseki, Takashi; Richter, Boyke [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    At present, the partners of hybrid co-operation Getrag KG (Untergruppenbach, Federal Republic of Germany) and Robert Bosch GmbH (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) develop a hybrid demonstrator vehicle. The BMW Mini Clubman with a hybridized double clutch transmission and an electrical rear axle is the fundament. In the case of the six-speed double clutch transmission, the E-machine alternatively can be coupled to one of the two torque split hybrid. Using the demonstrator vehicle, on the one hand the hybrid operating strategy shall be optimized. On the other hand, it is used for presentations whereby the axle-split hybrid variants are presentable. For this vehicle, numerical simulations prove consumption reductions of approximately 6 % (micro hybrid), 18 % (axle split hybrid) and 24 % (torque split hybrid). Aspects of comfort and aspects of driving dynamics already are considered.

  3. Investigating the Inverse Square Law with the Timepix Hybrid Silicon Pixel Detector: A CERN [at] School Demonstration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyntie, T.; Parker, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detector has been used to investigate the inverse square law of radiation from a point source as a demonstration of the CERN [at] school detector kit capabilities. The experiment described uses a Timepix detector to detect the gamma rays emitted by an [superscript 241]Am radioactive source at a number of different…

  4. Detailed energy saving performance analyses on thermal mass walls demonstrated in a zero energy house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, L. [School of Architecture, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Hurt, R.; Correia, D.; Boehm, R. [Center for Energy Research, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    An insulated concrete wall system{sup 1}1 was used on exterior walls of a zero energy house. Its thermal functions were investigated using actual data in comparison to a conventional wood frame system. The internal wall temperature of massive systems changes more slowly than the conventional wall constructions, leading to a more stable indoor temperature. The Energy10 simulated equivalent R-value and DBMS of the mass walls under actual climate conditions are, respectively, 6.98 (m{sup 2} C)/W and 3.39. However, the simulated heating energy use was much lower for the massive walls while the cooling load was a little higher. Further investigation on the heat flux indicates that the heat actually is transferred inside all day and night, which results in a higher cooling energy consumption. A one-dimensional model further verified these analyses, and the calculated results are in good agreement with the actual data. We conclude that the thermal mass wall does have the ability to store heat during the daytime and release it back at night, but in desert climates with high 24-h ambient temperature and intense sunlight, more heat will be stored than can be transferred back outside at night. As a result, an increased cooling energy will be required. (author)

  5. Demonstrating the efficiency of the EFPC criterion by means of Sensitivity analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, Raymond

    2007-04-01

    Within the framework of a project to characterise large fractures, a modelling effort was initiated to evaluate the use of a pair of full perimeter criteria, FPC and EFPC, for detecting fractures that could jeopardize the integrity of the canisters in the case of a large nearby earthquake. Though some sensitivity studies were performed in the method study of these mainly targeted aspects of Monte-Carlo simulations. The impact of uncertainties in the DFN model upon the efficiency of the FPI criteria was left unattended. The main purpose of this report is, therefore, to explore the impact of DFN variability upon the efficiency of the FPI criteria. The outcome of the present report may thus be regarded as complementary analyses to the ones presented in SKB-R-06-54. To appreciate the details of the present report, the reader should be acquainted with the simulation procedure described the earlier report. The most important conclusion of this study is that the efficiency of the EFPC is high for all tested model variants. That is, compared to blind deposition, the EFPC is a very powerful tool to identify unsuitable deposition holes and it is essentially insensitive to variations in the DFN Model. If information from adjacent tunnels is used in addition to EFPC, then the probability of detecting a critical deposition hole is almost 100%

  6. Comparative Genome Analyses of Streptococcus suis Isolates from Endocarditis Demonstrate Persistence of Dual Phenotypic Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohya, Mari; Watanabe, Takayasu; Maruyama, Fumito; Arai, Sakura; Ota, Atsushi; Athey, Taryn B T; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial species coexist in the same niche as heterogeneous clones with different phenotypes; however, understanding of infectious diseases by polyphenotypic bacteria is still limited. In the present study, encapsulation in isolates of the porcine pathogen Streptococcus suis from persistent endocarditis lesions was examined. Coexistence of both encapsulated and unencapsulated S. suis isolates was found in 26 out of 59 endocarditis samples. The isolates were serotype 2, and belonged to two different sequence types (STs), ST1 and ST28. The genomes of each of the 26 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the 26 samples were sequenced. The data showed that each pair of isolates had one or more unique nonsynonymous mutations in the cps gene, and the encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the same samples were closest to each other. Pairwise comparisons of the sequences of cps genes in 7 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates identified insertion/deletions (indels) ranging from one to 104 bp in different cps genes of unencapsulated isolates. Capsule expression was restored in a subset of unencapsulated isolates by complementation in trans with cps expression vectors. Examination of gene content common to isolates indicated that mutation frequency was higher in ST28 pairs than in ST1 pairs. Genes within mobile genetic elements were mutation hot spots among ST28 isolates. Taken all together, our results demonstrate the coexistence of dual phenotype (encapsulated and unencapsulated) bacterial clones and suggest that the dual phenotypes arose independently in each farm by means of spontaneous mutations in cps genes.

  7. Comparative Genome Analyses of Streptococcus suis Isolates from Endocarditis Demonstrate Persistence of Dual Phenotypic Clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Tohya

    Full Text Available Many bacterial species coexist in the same niche as heterogeneous clones with different phenotypes; however, understanding of infectious diseases by polyphenotypic bacteria is still limited. In the present study, encapsulation in isolates of the porcine pathogen Streptococcus suis from persistent endocarditis lesions was examined. Coexistence of both encapsulated and unencapsulated S. suis isolates was found in 26 out of 59 endocarditis samples. The isolates were serotype 2, and belonged to two different sequence types (STs, ST1 and ST28. The genomes of each of the 26 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the 26 samples were sequenced. The data showed that each pair of isolates had one or more unique nonsynonymous mutations in the cps gene, and the encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the same samples were closest to each other. Pairwise comparisons of the sequences of cps genes in 7 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates identified insertion/deletions (indels ranging from one to 104 bp in different cps genes of unencapsulated isolates. Capsule expression was restored in a subset of unencapsulated isolates by complementation in trans with cps expression vectors. Examination of gene content common to isolates indicated that mutation frequency was higher in ST28 pairs than in ST1 pairs. Genes within mobile genetic elements were mutation hot spots among ST28 isolates. Taken all together, our results demonstrate the coexistence of dual phenotype (encapsulated and unencapsulated bacterial clones and suggest that the dual phenotypes arose independently in each farm by means of spontaneous mutations in cps genes.

  8. Comparative Genome Analyses of Streptococcus suis Isolates from Endocarditis Demonstrate Persistence of Dual Phenotypic Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohya, Mari; Watanabe, Takayasu; Maruyama, Fumito; Arai, Sakura; Ota, Atsushi; Athey, Taryn B. T.; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial species coexist in the same niche as heterogeneous clones with different phenotypes; however, understanding of infectious diseases by polyphenotypic bacteria is still limited. In the present study, encapsulation in isolates of the porcine pathogen Streptococcus suis from persistent endocarditis lesions was examined. Coexistence of both encapsulated and unencapsulated S. suis isolates was found in 26 out of 59 endocarditis samples. The isolates were serotype 2, and belonged to two different sequence types (STs), ST1 and ST28. The genomes of each of the 26 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the 26 samples were sequenced. The data showed that each pair of isolates had one or more unique nonsynonymous mutations in the cps gene, and the encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the same samples were closest to each other. Pairwise comparisons of the sequences of cps genes in 7 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates identified insertion/deletions (indels) ranging from one to 104 bp in different cps genes of unencapsulated isolates. Capsule expression was restored in a subset of unencapsulated isolates by complementation in trans with cps expression vectors. Examination of gene content common to isolates indicated that mutation frequency was higher in ST28 pairs than in ST1 pairs. Genes within mobile genetic elements were mutation hot spots among ST28 isolates. Taken all together, our results demonstrate the coexistence of dual phenotype (encapsulated and unencapsulated) bacterial clones and suggest that the dual phenotypes arose independently in each farm by means of spontaneous mutations in cps genes. PMID:27433935

  9. Genetic and functional analyses demonstrate a role for abnormal glycinergic signaling in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilorge, M; Fassier, C; Le Corronc, H; Potey, A; Bai, J; De Gois, S; Delaby, E; Assouline, B; Guinchat, V; Devillard, F; Delorme, R; Nygren, G; Råstam, M; Meier, J C; Otani, S; Cheval, H; James, V M; Topf, M; Dear, T N; Gillberg, C; Leboyer, M; Giros, B; Gautron, S; Hazan, J; Harvey, R J; Legendre, P; Betancur, C

    2016-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity. Recent studies of rare structural and sequence variants have identified hundreds of loci involved in ASD, but our knowledge of the overall genetic architecture and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remains incomplete. Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are ligand-gated chloride channels that mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in the adult nervous system but exert an excitatory action in immature neurons. GlyRs containing the α2 subunit are highly expressed in the embryonic brain, where they promote cortical interneuron migration and the generation of excitatory projection neurons. We previously identified a rare microdeletion of the X-linked gene GLRA2, encoding the GlyR α2 subunit, in a boy with autism. The microdeletion removes the terminal exons of the gene (GLRA2(Δex8-9)). Here, we sequenced 400 males with ASD and identified one de novo missense mutation, p.R153Q, absent from controls. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that the GLRA2(Δex8)(-)(9) protein failed to localize to the cell membrane, while the R153Q mutation impaired surface expression and markedly reduced sensitivity to glycine. Very recently, an additional de novo missense mutation (p.N136S) was reported in a boy with ASD, and we show that this mutation also reduced cell-surface expression and glycine sensitivity. Targeted glra2 knockdown in zebrafish induced severe axon-branching defects, rescued by injection of wild type but not GLRA2(Δex8-9) or R153Q transcripts, providing further evidence for their loss-of-function effect. Glra2 knockout mice exhibited deficits in object recognition memory and impaired long-term potentiation in the prefrontal cortex. Taken together, these results implicate GLRA2 in non-syndromic ASD, unveil a novel role for GLRA2 in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, and link altered glycinergic signaling to social and cognitive

  10. Demonstration of a hybrid Ho:YLF Ho:LuLF slab laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available % at 2 ?m were selected as output couplers. The hybrid stable-unstable resonator configuration utilised a cylindrical mirror of curvature r = 449 mm in position M4 and a knife-edge mirror to couple out the laser beam. In both configurations the total...

  11. Public perception related to a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine transit bus demonstration and hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, Allister; Phillips, Al; Morales, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely considered as a potentially viable alternative to fossil fuels for use in transportation. In addition to price competitiveness with fossil fuels, a key to its adoption will be public perceptions of hydrogen technologies and hydrogen fuel. This paper examines public perceptions of riders of a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine bus and hydrogen as a fuel source

  12. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  13. Interspecies introgressive hybridization in spiny frogs Quasipaa (Family Dicroglossidae) revealed by analyses on multiple mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Peng; Hu, Wen-Fang; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Kong, Shen-Shen; Liu, Zhi-Fang; Zheng, Rong-Quan

    2018-01-01

    Introgression may lead to discordant patterns of variation among loci and traits. For example, previous phylogeographic studies on the genus Quasipaa detected signs of genetic introgression from genetically and morphologically divergent Quasipaa shini or Quasipaa spinosa . In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data to verify the widespread introgressive hybridization in the closely related species of the genus Quasipaa , evaluate the level of genetic diversity, and reveal the formation mechanism of introgressive hybridization. In Longsheng, Guangxi Province, signs of asymmetrical nuclear introgression were detected between Quasipaa boulengeri and Q. shini . Unidirectional mitochondrial introgression was revealed from Q. spinosa to Q. shini . By contrast, bidirectional mitochondrial gene introgression was detected between Q. spinosa and Q. shini in Lushan, Jiangxi Province. Our study also detected ancient hybridizations between a female Q. spinosa and a male Q. jiulongensis in Zhejiang Province. Analyses on mitochondrial and nuclear genes verified three candidate cryptic species in Q. spinosa , and a cryptic species may also exist in Q. boulengeri . However, no evidence of introgressive hybridization was found between Q. spinosa and Q. boulengeri . Quasipaa exilispinosa from all the sampling localities appeared to be deeply divergent from other communities. Our results suggest widespread introgressive hybridization in closely related species of Quasipaa and provide a fundamental basis for illumination of the forming mechanism of introgressive hybridization, classification of species, and biodiversity assessment in Quasipaa .

  14. ALOHA—Astronomical Light Optical Hybrid Analysis - From experimental demonstrations to a MIR instrument proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, L.; Darré, P.; Szemendera, L.; Gomes, J. T.; Baudoin, R.; Ceus, D.; Brustlein, S.; Delage, L.; Grossard, L.; Reynaud, F.

    2018-04-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Astronomical Light Optical Hybrid Analysis (ALOHA) project dedicated to investigate a new method for high resolution imaging in mid infrared astronomy. This proposal aims to use a non-linear frequency conversion process to shift the thermal infrared radiation to a shorter wavelength domain compatible with proven technology such as guided optics and detectors. After a description of the principle, we summarise the evolution of our study from the high flux seminal experiments to the latest results in the photon counting regime.

  15. Integrated laboratory scale demonstration experiment of the hybrid sulphur cycle and preliminary scale-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leybros, J.; Rivalier, P.; Saturnin, A.; Charton, S.

    2010-01-01

    The hybrid sulphur cycle is today one of the most promising processes to produce hydrogen on a massive scale within the scope of high temperature nuclear reactors development. Thus, the Fuel Cycle Technology Department at CEA Marcoule is involved in studying the hybrid sulphur process from a technical and economical performance standpoint. Based on mass and energy balance calculations, a ProsimPlus TM flow sheet and a commercial plant design were prepared. This work includes a study on sizing of the main equipment. The capital cost has been estimated using the major characteristics of main equipment based upon formulae and charts published in literature. A specific approach has been developed for electrolysers. Operational costs are also proposed for a plant producing 1000 mol/s H 2 . Bench scale and pilot experiments must focus on the electrochemical step due to limited experimental data. Thus, a pilot plant with a hydrogen capacity of 100 NL/h was built with the aim of acquiring technical and technological data for electrolysis. This pilot plant was designed to cover a wide range of operating conditions: sulphuric acid concentrations up to 60 wt.%, temperatures up to 100 deg. C and pressures up to 10 bar. New materials and structures recently developed for fuel cells, which are expected to yield significant performance improvements when applied to classical electrochemical processes, will be tested. All experiments will be coupled with phenomenological simulation tools developed jointly with the experimental programme. (authors)

  16. Demonstration of interleukin-1 beta transcripts in acute myeloblastic leukemic cells by in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M; Kanakura, Y; Furukawa, Y; Ernst, T J; Griffin, J D

    1990-07-01

    The cells from some patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia will secrete autostimulatory cytokines in tissue culture without the addition of stimulators such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), for example, has been observed in up to 50% of cases. In order to investigate the nature of the cell secreting IL-1 beta in AML, we used an antisense RNA probe to detect specific IL-1 beta transcripts in individual leukemic cells by in situ hybridization. In fresh, uncultured cells, IL-1 beta transcripts were observed in 1-40% of undifferentiated leukemic blast cells in 17 of 19 cases. In situ hybridization was at least as sensitive as Northern blot analysis in detecting IL-1 beta transcripts. No correlation of IL-1 beta transcript expression with FAB classification was observed. Normal blood and bone marrow mononuclear cells did not contain cells expressing IL-1 beta transcripts. These results support the concept that the regulation of cytokine genes in AML cells is aberrant.

  17. Feasibility study on the demonstrative test on the hybrid mini hydroelectric power generation technology. 2; Hybrid gata mini suiryoku hatsuden gijutsu ni kakawaru jissho shiken kanosei chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A study was made for the purpose of electrification of unelectrified zones of the mountainous areas in developing countries using extremely small hydroelectric power facilities. The target for this project is a development of a micro hydroelectric power system with a size of about 5kW, which is estimated regarding that 1 village has 80 houses and each house needs electricity of 60W. In the study, the low-head system using a weir of irrigation channels in Subang pref. of West Java state was selected by the evaluation of access, stability of flow rate, natural conditions, etc. The hydroelectric power plant is of a flow-in method in which water is taken from the left bank and is injected/discharged to the downstream of the left bank. As the hybrid complementary power source, hybrid battery with a two-hour charging time at peak and a capacity of 3.5kWh was considered. When estimating the construction cost of the hybrid micro hydroelectric power system and equalizing by durable years, the operational cost per kW is 15 times higher than the benefits which local people receive. It was judged to be difficult to say that the micro hydroelectric power system is economically feasible. It was predicted that the financial profit during the demonstrative test is good, according to a trial calculation of income from power rates and the operational cost. 18 refs., 90 figs., 53 tabs.

  18. Overview of ERA Integrated Technology Demonstration (ITD) 51A Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) Integration for Hybrid Wing Body (HWB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; James, Kevin D.; Bonet, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft Project (ERA) was a ve year project broken into two phases. In phase II, high N+2 Technical Readiness Level demonstrations were grouped into Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITD). This paper describes the work done on ITD-51A: the Vehicle Systems Integration, Engine Airframe Integration Demonstration. Refinement of a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft from the possible candidates developed in ERA Phase I was continued. Scaled powered, and unpowered wind- tunnel testing, with and without acoustics, in the NASA LARC 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Tunnel, the NASA ARC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, and the 40- by 80-foot test section of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) in conjunction with very closely coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics was used to demonstrate the fuel burn and acoustic milestone targets of the ERA Project.

  19. Photo-Ionization of Noble Gases: A Demonstration of Hybrid Coupled Channels Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Pramod Majety

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here an application of the recently developed hybrid coupled channels approach to study photo-ionization of noble gas atoms: Neon and Argon. We first compute multi-photon ionization rates and cross-sections for these inert gas atoms with our approach and compare them with reliable data available from R-matrix Floquet theory. The good agreement between coupled channels and R-matrix Floquet theory show that our method treats multi-electron systems on par with the well established R-matrix theory. We then apply the time dependent surface flux (tSURFF method with our approach to compute total and angle resolved photo-electron spectra from Argon with linearly and circularly polarized 12 nm wavelength laser fields, a typical wavelength available from Free Electron Lasers (FELs.

  20. Exergoeconomic and enviroeconomic analyses of hybrid double slope solar still loaded with nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahota, Lovedeep; Tiwari, G.N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two systems of double slope solar still loaded with three different water based nanofluid have been studied. • Concentration of assisting metallic nanoparticles and basin fluid has been optimized for the annual analysis. • Based on annual performance exergoeconomic and enviroeconomic analysis for both systems has been performed. - Abstract: In recent times, incorporation of nanotechnology in solar distillation systems for potable water production is a new approach harvesting solar thermal energy. In present manuscript, concentration of assisting nanoparticles and basin fluid (basefluid/nanofluid) mass have been optimized for hybrid solar still operating (a) without heat exchanger (system A), and (b) with helically coiled heat exchanger (system B). Corresponding to the optimized parameters, overall thermal energy, exergy, productivity (yield), and cost analysis of the proposed hybrid systems loaded with water based nanofluids have been carried out; and found to be significantly improved by incorporating copper oxide-water based nanofluid. Moreover, on the basis of overall thermal energy and exergy, the amount of carbon dioxide mitigated per annum is found to be 14.95 tones and 3.17 tones respectively for the hybrid system (A); whereas, it is found to be 24.61 tones and 2.36 tones respectively for the hybrid system (B) incorporating copper oxide-water based nanofluid. Annual performance of the proposed hybrid systems has been compared with the conventional solar still (system C).

  1. Demonstration of Improved Charge Transfer in Graphene/Au Nanorods Plasmonic Hybrids Stabilized by Benzyl Thiol Linkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Valerio Bianco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids based on graphene decorated with plasmonic gold (Au nanostructures are being investigated as possible materials combination to add to graphene functionalities of tunable plasmon resonance and enhanced absorption at selected wavelength in the visible-near-infrared region of the spectrum. Here, we report a solution drop-casting approach for fabricating stable hybrids based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD graphene and Au nanorods, which are able to activate effective charge transfer from graphene. We demonstrate that CVD graphene functionalization by benzyl thiol (BZT provides the linker to strong anchoring, via S-Au bonds, Au nanorods to graphene. Optical measurements by spectroscopic ellipsometry give evidence of the introduction of plasmon resonances at 1.85 and 2.25 eV in the Au nanorods/BZT/graphene hybrids, which enable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS detection. Furthermore, an effective electron transfer from graphene to Au nanorods, resulting in an enhancement of p-type doping of graphene with a consequent decrease of its sheet resistance, is probed by Raman spectroscopy and corroborated by electrical measurements.

  2. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  3. Demonstrating Hybrid Heat Transport and Energy Conversion System Performance Characterization Using Intelligent Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrum, Lee; Manic, Milos

    2017-01-01

    The debate continues on the magnitude and validity of climate change caused by human activities. However, there is no debate about the need to make buildings, modes of transportation, factories, and homes as energy efficient as possible. Given that climate change could occur with the wasteful use of fossil fuel and the fact that fossil energy costs could and will swing wildly, it is imperative that every effort be made to utilize energy sources to their fullest. Hybrid energy systems (HES) are two or more separate energy producers used together to produce energy commodities. The HES this report focuses on is the use of nuclear reactor waste heat as a source of further energy utilization. Nuclear reactors use a fluid to cool the core and produce the steam needed for the production of electricity. Traditionally this steam, or coolant, is used to convert the energy then cooled elsewhere. The heat is released into the environment without being used further. By adding technologies to nuclear reactors to use the wasted heat, a system can be developed to make more than just electricity and allow for loading following capabilities.

  4. Demonstrating Hybrid Heat Transport and Energy Conversion System Performance Characterization Using Intelligent Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrum, Lee [Univ. of Idaho and Idaho Falls Center, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Manic, Milos [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The debate continues on the magnitude and validity of climate change caused by human activities. However, there is no debate about the need to make buildings, modes of transportation, factories, and homes as energy efficient as possible. Given that climate change could occur with the wasteful use of fossil fuel and the fact that fossil energy costs could and will swing wildly, it is imperative that every effort be made to utilize energy sources to their fullest. Hybrid energy systems (HES) are two or more separate energy producers used together to produce energy commodities. The HES this report focuses on is the use of nuclear reactor waste heat as a source of further energy utilization. Nuclear reactors use a fluid to cool the core and produce the steam needed for the production of electricity. Traditionally this steam, or coolant, is used to convert the energy then cooled elsewhere. The heat is released into the environment without being used further. By adding technologies to nuclear reactors to use the wasted heat, a system can be developed to make more than just electricity and allow for loading following capabilities.

  5. Analyses to demonstrate the structural performance of the CASTOR KN12 in hypothetical accident drop accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diersch, R.; Weiss, M.; Tso, C.F.; Chung, S.H.; Lee, H.Y.

    2004-01-01

    CASTORc ircledR KN-12 is a new cask design by GNB for KHNP-NETEC for dry and wet transportation of up to twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies in Korea. It received its transport license from the Korean Competent Authority KINS in July 2002 and is now in use in South Korea. It has been designed to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the 10 CFR 71 and the IAEA ST-1 for Type B(U)F packages. Its structural performance was demonstrated against the load cases and boundary conditions as defined in 10 CFR 71 and NRC's Regulatory Guide 7.8, and further explained in NUREG 1617. This included normal conditions of transport load cases - including Hot Environment, Cold Environment, Increased External Pressure (140MPa), Minimum External Pressure (24.5kPa), Vibration and shock, and 0.3m free drop - and the hypothetical accident conditions load cases - including the 9m Free Drop, Puncture, Thermal Fire Accident, 200m Water Immersion and 1.5 x MNOP Internal Pressure. Structural performance were demonstrated by analysis, including state-of-the-art finite element (FE) simulation, and confirmed by tests using a 1/3-scale model. Test results were also used to verify the numerical tool and the methods used in the analyses. All the structural analyses including validation against drop tests were carried out by Arup, and testing were carried out by KAERI. This paper concentrates on the analysis carried out to demonstrate performance in the hypothetical accident 9m free drop scenarios, and results from a small selection of them

  6. Analyses to demonstrate the structural performance of the CASTOR KN12 in hypothetical accident drop accident scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diersch, R.; Weiss, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Behaelter mbH (Germany); Tso, C.F. [Arup (United Kingdom); Chung, S.H.; Lee, H.Y. [KHNP-NETEC (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    CASTORc{sup ircledR} KN-12 is a new cask design by GNB for KHNP-NETEC for dry and wet transportation of up to twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies in Korea. It received its transport license from the Korean Competent Authority KINS in July 2002 and is now in use in South Korea. It has been designed to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the 10 CFR 71 and the IAEA ST-1 for Type B(U)F packages. Its structural performance was demonstrated against the load cases and boundary conditions as defined in 10 CFR 71 and NRC's Regulatory Guide 7.8, and further explained in NUREG 1617. This included normal conditions of transport load cases - including Hot Environment, Cold Environment, Increased External Pressure (140MPa), Minimum External Pressure (24.5kPa), Vibration and shock, and 0.3m free drop - and the hypothetical accident conditions load cases - including the 9m Free Drop, Puncture, Thermal Fire Accident, 200m Water Immersion and 1.5 x MNOP Internal Pressure. Structural performance were demonstrated by analysis, including state-of-the-art finite element (FE) simulation, and confirmed by tests using a 1/3-scale model. Test results were also used to verify the numerical tool and the methods used in the analyses. All the structural analyses including validation against drop tests were carried out by Arup, and testing were carried out by KAERI. This paper concentrates on the analysis carried out to demonstrate performance in the hypothetical accident 9m free drop scenarios, and results from a small selection of them.

  7. Thermodynamic analyses of solar thermal gasification of coal for hybrid solar-fossil power and fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Yi Cheng; Lipiński, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic analyses are performed for solar thermal steam and dry gasification of coal. The selected types of coal are anthracite, bituminous, lignite and peat. Two model conversion paths are considered for each combination of the gasifying agent and the coal type: production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use in a combined cycle power plant to generate power, and production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use to produce gasoline via the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Replacement of a coal-fired 35% efficient Rankine cycle power plant and a combustion-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant by a solar-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 47% and 27%, respectively. Replacement of a conventional gasoline production process via coal gasification and a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis with gasoline production via solar thermal coal gasification with a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 39%. -- Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analyses for steam and dry gasification of coal are presented. ► Hybrid solar-fossil paths to power and fuels are compared to those using only combustion. ► Hybrid power production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 27%. ► Hybrid fuel production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 39%.

  8. Preliminary conceptual design of a Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR). Status report, January 1978--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.

    1978-03-01

    The DTHR preliminary conceptual design consists of a magnetically confined fusion reactor fitted with a fertile thorium blanket. The fusion driver concept is based on a beam driven plasma, but at sufficiently high plasma densities that neutrons originating from the interactions of bulk plasma ions contribute significantly to the wall loading. The tokamak has a major radius of 5.2 m, a minor radius of 1.2 m, and the elongation is 1.6. All of the magnetic coil systems are superconducting Nb 3 Sn based on the Large Coil Project (LCP) technology. The toroidal field (TF) coils employ an innovative concept, the ''compact D'' configuration. An engineered bundle divertor concept has been developed based on the bundle divertor design techniques developed for TNS and ISX-B. A thermal power of 150MW of 200 keV deuterium is injected into the plasma through six ducts of a positive ion, neutral beam injection system (NBIS). A water cooled, 316 stainless steel vacuum vessel concept was developed and initial scoping analyses look encouraging. The fusile fuel handling system was evaluated and defined. Details of the tritium injection system remain to be developed. Tritium breeding will be assessed in subsequent phases of the DTHR operation. The fusion driver provides a neutron first wall loading of 2MW/m 2 for fissile production in the blanket

  9. Preliminary conceptual design of a Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR). Status report, January 1978--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.L. (ed.)

    1978-03-01

    The DTHR preliminary conceptual design consists of a magnetically confined fusion reactor fitted with a fertile thorium blanket. The fusion driver concept is based on a beam driven plasma, but at sufficiently high plasma densities that neutrons originating from the interactions of bulk plasma ions contribute significantly to the wall loading. The tokamak has a major radius of 5.2 m, a minor radius of 1.2 m, and the elongation is 1.6. All of the magnetic coil systems are superconducting Nb/sub 3/Sn based on the Large Coil Project (LCP) technology. The toroidal field (TF) coils employ an innovative concept, the ''compact D'' configuration. An engineered bundle divertor concept has been developed based on the bundle divertor design techniques developed for TNS and ISX-B. A thermal power of 150MW of 200 keV deuterium is injected into the plasma through six ducts of a positive ion, neutral beam injection system (NBIS). A water cooled, 316 stainless steel vacuum vessel concept was developed and initial scoping analyses look encouraging. The fusile fuel handling system was evaluated and defined. Details of the tritium injection system remain to be developed. Tritium breeding will be assessed in subsequent phases of the DTHR operation. The fusion driver provides a neutron first wall loading of 2MW/m/sup 2/ for fissile production in the blanket.

  10. Quantitative characterization of colloidal assembly of graphene oxide-silver nanoparticle hybrids using aerosol differential mobility-coupled mass analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai Phuong; Chang, Wei-Chang; Lai, Yen-Chih; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Tsai, De-Hao

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we develop an aerosol-based, time-resolved ion mobility-coupled mass characterization method to investigate colloidal assembly of graphene oxide (GO)-silver nanoparticle (AgNP) hybrid nanostructure on a quantitative basis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and zeta potential (ZP) analysis were used to provide visual information and elemental-based particle size distributions, respectively. Results clearly show a successful controlled assembly of GO-AgNP by electrostatic-directed heterogeneous aggregation between GO and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-functionalized AgNP under an acidic environment. Additionally, physical size, mass, and conformation (i.e., number of AgNP per nanohybrid) of GO-AgNP were shown to be proportional to the number concentration ratio of AgNP to GO (R) and the selected electrical mobility diameter. An analysis of colloidal stability of GO-AgNP indicates that the stability increased with its absolute ZP, which was dependent on R and environmental pH. The work presented here provides a proof of concept for systematically synthesizing hybrid colloidal nanomaterials through the tuning of surface chemistry in aqueous phase with the ability in quantitative characterization. Graphical Abstract Colloidal assembly of graphene oxide-silver nanoparticle hybrids characterized by aerosol differential mobility-coupled mass analyses.

  11. Physical studies of transmutation scenarios. The Muse program with the Masurca facility: a step towards an hybrid demonstrator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.; Leconte, Ph.; Doubre, H.; Bhatnagar, V.P.; Carbonnier, J.L.; Chawla, R.; Bernard, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Muse research program, which started in 1995, is a contribution to the development of a dedicated subcritical accelerator driven system (ADS) for the transmutation of minor actinides produced by conventional nuclear power plants. The Muse experiments aim at making a parametric study of different reactor core compositions with different subcritical levels and supplied by different sources in order to demonstrate that the measurement techniques and the calculation charts established for critical FBRs remain valid with an hybrid system. The 4. phase of the Muse program concerns the design, realization and installation of the Genepi (generator of intense pulse neutrons) deutons accelerator at the Masurca facility of Cadarache (France) for the understanding of the neutronic behaviour of an ADS, the definition of a reference calculation scheme, and the development of specific experimental techniques for dynamical measurements. This document brings together the presentations (transparencies) given at the SFEN technical meeting of May 30, 2002 about the Muse program. (J.S.)

  12. Metastatic hidradenocarcinoma with demonstration of Her-2/neu gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization: potential treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Jason W; Barrett, Terry L; Kies, Merrill; Ross, Merrick I; Sneige, Nour; Diwan, A Hafeez; Lazar, Alexander J F

    2007-01-01

    A 44-year-old man was referred for a right chest nodule of 3 months duration. A 'benign' nodule had been excised from this location 8 years prior. On examination, palpable nodes were noted in the right axilla. Radiographic studies were significant only for right axillary lymphadenopathy. Histologically, a nodular dermal proliferation composed of poorly differentiated epithelioid cells in nests and focally forming ducts with pseudopapillary architecture comprised the primary tumor. Features of a clear cell hidradenoma were noted focally. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis revealed reactivity for HMW cytokeratins, CK5 and CK7, p53, p63, CEA (focal), androgen receptor, EGFR, estrogen receptor (ER), MUC5AC, and strong/diffuse membranous staining for Her-2/neu. Negative stains included villin, TTF-1, CDX2, S-100 protein, vimentin, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15), mammoglobulin, and MUC2. A wide local excision and axillary node dissection was performed. Metastatic tumor involved nine of 28 nodes. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated chromosomal amplification of the Her-2/neu locus within the tumor and a nodal metastasis. The patient has completed adjuvant and radiotherapy, including trastuzumab, and is asymptomatic. We believe this to be the first demonstration of Her-2/neu amplification in a malignant skin adnexal tumor. In analogy to breast carcinoma, these findings suggest the applicability of trastuzumab for patients with metastatic adnexal carcinomas demonstrating Her-2/neu amplification.

  13. Subtractive hybridization and random arbitrarily primed PCR analyses of a benzoate-assimilating bacterium, Desulfotignum balticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habe, Hiroshi; Kobuna, Akinori; Hosoda, Akifumi; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki; Omori, Toshio; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2008-05-01

    Subtractive hybridization (SH) and random arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR) were used to detect genes involved in anaerobic benzoate degradation by Desulfotignum balticum. Through SH, we obtained 121 DNA sequences specific for D. balticum but not for D. phosphitoxidans (a non-benzoate-assimilating species). Furthermore, RAP-PCR analysis showed that a 651-bp DNA fragment, having 55% homology with the solute-binding protein of the ABC transporter system in Methanosarcina barkeri, was expressed when D. balticum was grown on benzoate, but not on pyruvate. By shotgun sequencing of the fosmid clone (38,071 bp) containing the DNA fragment, 33 open reading frames (ORFs) and two incomplete ORFs were annotated, and several genes within this region corresponded to the DNA fragments obtained by SH. An 11.3-kb gene cluster (ORF10-17) revealed through reverse transcription-PCR showed homology with the ABC transporter system and TonB-dependent receptors, both of which are presumably involved in the uptake of siderophore/heme/vitamin B(12), and was expressed in response to growth on benzoate.

  14. Performance and driveline analyses of engine capacity in range extender engine hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praptijanto, Achmad; Santoso, Widodo Budi; Nur, Arifin; Wahono, Bambang; Putrasari, Yanuandri

    2017-01-01

    In this study, range extender engine designed should be able to meet the power needs of a power generator of hybrid electrical vehicle that has a minimum of 18 kW. Using this baseline model, the following range extenders will be compared between conventional SI piston engine (Baseline, BsL), engine capacity 1998 cm3, and efficiency-oriented SI piston with engine capacity 999 cm3 and 499 cm3 with 86 mm bore and stroke square gasoline engine in the performance, emission prediction of range extender engine, standard of charge by using engine and vehicle simulation software tools. In AVL Boost simulation software, range extender engine simulated from 1000 to 6000 rpm engine loads. The highest peak engine power brake reached up to 38 kW at 4500 rpm. On the other hand the highest torque achieved in 100 Nm at 3500 rpm. After that using AVL cruise simulation software, the model of range extended electric vehicle in series configuration with main components such as internal combustion engine, generator, electric motor, battery and the arthemis model rural road cycle was used to simulate the vehicle model. The simulation results show that engine with engine capacity 999 cm3 reported the economical performances of the engine and the emission and the control of engine cycle parameters.

  15. Energy–exergy and economic analyses of a hybrid solar–hydrogen renewable energy system in Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, Ender; Tari, Ilker

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Uninterrupted energy in an emergency blackout situation. • System modeling of a solar–hydrogen based hybrid renewable energy system. • A comprehensive thermodynamical analysis. • Levelized cost of electricity analysis for a project lifetime of 25 years. - Abstract: A hybrid (Solar–Hydrogen) stand-alone renewable energy system that consists of photovoltaic panels (PV), Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells, PEM based electrolyzers and hydrogen storage is investigated by developing a complete model of the system using TRNSYS. The PV panels are mounted on a tiltable platform to improve the performance of the system by monthly adjustments of the tilt angle. The total area of the PV panels is 300 m 2 , the PEM fuel cell capacity is 5 kW, and the hydrogen storage is at 55 bars pressure and with 45 m 3 capacity. The main goal of this study is to verify that the system meets the electrical power demand of the emergency room without experiencing a shortage for a complete year in an emergency blackout situation. For this purpose, after modeling the system, energy and exergy analyses for the hydrogen cycle of the system for a complete year are performed, and the energy and exergy efficiencies are found as 4.06% and 4.25%, respectively. Furthermore, an economic analysis is performed for a project lifetime of 25 years based on Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCE), and the LCE is calculated as 0.626 $/kWh.

  16. Fluid-structure-interaction analyses of reactor vessel using improved hybrid Lagrangian Eulerian code ALICE-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.Y.

    1993-06-01

    This paper describes fluid-structure-interaction and structure response analyses of a reactor vessel subjected to loadings associated with postulated accidents, using the hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALICE-II. This code has been improved recently to accommodate many features associated with innovative designs of reactor vessels. Calculational capabilities have been developed to treat water in the reactor cavity outside the vessel, internal shield structures and internal thin shells. The objective of the present analyses is to study the cover response and potential for missile generation in response to a fuel-coolant interaction in the core region. Three calculations were performed using the cover weight as a parameter. To study the effect of the cavity water, vessel response calculations for both wet- and dry-cavity designs are compared. Results indicate that for all cases studied and for the design parameters assumed, the calculated cover displacements are all smaller than the bolts` ultimate displacement and no missile generation of the closure head is predicted. Also, solutions reveal that the cavity water of the wet-cavity design plays an important role of restraining the downward displacement of the bottom head. Based on these studies, the analyses predict that the structure integrity is maintained throughout the postulated accident for the wet-cavity design.

  17. Fluid-structure-interaction analyses of reactor vessel using improved hybrid Lagrangian Eulerian code ALICE-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes fluid-structure-interaction and structure response analyses of a reactor vessel subjected to loadings associated with postulated accidents, using the hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALICE-II. This code has been improved recently to accommodate many features associated with innovative designs of reactor vessels. Calculational capabilities have been developed to treat water in the reactor cavity outside the vessel, internal shield structures and internal thin shells. The objective of the present analyses is to study the cover response and potential for missile generation in response to a fuel-coolant interaction in the core region. Three calculations were performed using the cover weight as a parameter. To study the effect of the cavity water, vessel response calculations for both wet- and dry-cavity designs are compared. Results indicate that for all cases studied and for the design parameters assumed, the calculated cover displacements are all smaller than the bolts' ultimate displacement and no missile generation of the closure head is predicted. Also, solutions reveal that the cavity water of the wet-cavity design plays an important role of restraining the downward displacement of the bottom head. Based on these studies, the analyses predict that the structure integrity is maintained throughout the postulated accident for the wet-cavity design.

  18. Preliminary analyses of neutronics schemes for three kinds waste transmutation blankets of fusion-fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingchun; Feng Kaiming; Li Zaixin; Zhao Fengchao

    2012-01-01

    The neutronics schemes of the helium-cooled waste transmutation blanket, sodium-cooled waste transmutation blanket and FLiBe-cooled waste transmutation blanket were preliminarily calculated and analysed by using the spheroidal tokamak (ST) plasma configuration. The neutronics properties of these blankets' were compared and analyzed. The results show that for the transmutation of "2"3"7Np, FLiBe-cooled waste transmutation blanket has the most superior transmutation performance. The calculation results of the helium-cooled waste transmutation blanket show that this transmutation blanket can run on a steady effective multiplication factor (k_e_f_f), steady power (P), and steady tritium production rate (TBR) state for a long operating time (9.62 years) by change "2"3"7Np's initial loading rate of the minor actinides (MA). (authors)

  19. Demonstration of constant upregulation of the telomerase RNA component in human gastric carcinomas using in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, B; Hummel, M; Demel, G; Stein, H

    1998-06-01

    Upregulation of the ribonucleoprotein telomerase seems to be a prerequisite for immortality, a feature of malignant cells. Using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay, it is possible to demonstrate telomerase activity (TA) in specimens of most human malignancies, whereas it is absent from most normal tissues. It remains unclear, however, why between 5 and 50 per cent of various malignant tumour samples give negative results when TA is measured by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP). The expectation that reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for detection of the telomerase RNA component (hTR) would be able to complement or to replace the TRAP assay failed, since malignant as well as non-malignant tissue samples gave positive results in most instances. In the present study, in situ hybridization (ISH) was developed to demonstrate the RNA component of human telomerase at the single cell level. With this method, 13 specimens of fresh frozen gastric carcinoma and four of normal, dysplastic, or inflamed gastric mucosa were investigated and the results were compared with those obtained by RT-PCR and the TRAP assay. In addition, ISH was performed on formalin-fixed sections of the same cases. The TRAP assay revealed positive results in 8 out of 13 gastric carcinomas and was negative in all non-malignant tissues. RT-PCR led to amplification of the telomerase RNA component in all specimens tested, irrespective of the presence or absence of malignant cells. By ISH, all gastric carcinomas showed strong telomerase RNA component-specific signals over malignant cells, whereas only a few grains were detectable over some types of normal somatic cells, including activated lymphocytes. In conclusion, high expression of the telomerase RNA component was restricted to the malignant cells of all the gastric carcinomas investigated, as shown by ISH. This indicates that the absence of TA in a proportion of carcinomas is due to methodological problems of the TRAP assay and is

  20. Ghost-tree: creating hybrid-gene phylogenetic trees for diversity analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquier, Jennifer; Rideout, Jai Ram; Bolyen, Evan; Chase, John; Shiffer, Arron; McDonald, Daniel; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory; Kelley, Scott T

    2016-02-24

    Fungi play critical roles in many ecosystems, cause serious diseases in plants and animals, and pose significant threats to human health and structural integrity problems in built environments. While most fungal diversity remains unknown, the development of PCR primers for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) combined with next-generation sequencing has substantially improved our ability to profile fungal microbial diversity. Although the high sequence variability in the ITS region facilitates more accurate species identification, it also makes multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis unreliable across evolutionarily distant fungi because the sequences are hard to align accurately. To address this issue, we created ghost-tree, a bioinformatics tool that integrates sequence data from two genetic markers into a single phylogenetic tree that can be used for diversity analyses. Our approach starts with a "foundation" phylogeny based on one genetic marker whose sequences can be aligned across organisms spanning divergent taxonomic groups (e.g., fungal families). Then, "extension" phylogenies are built for more closely related organisms (e.g., fungal species or strains) using a second more rapidly evolving genetic marker. These smaller phylogenies are then grafted onto the foundation tree by mapping taxonomic names such that each corresponding foundation-tree tip would branch into its new "extension tree" child. We applied ghost-tree to graft fungal extension phylogenies derived from ITS sequences onto a foundation phylogeny derived from fungal 18S sequences. Our analysis of simulated and real fungal ITS data sets found that phylogenetic distances between fungal communities computed using ghost-tree phylogenies explained significantly more variance than non-phylogenetic distances. The phylogenetic metrics also improved our ability to distinguish small differences (effect sizes) between microbial communities, though results were similar to non

  1. Hybrid-Electric Rotorcraft Tool Development, Propulsion System Trade Space Exploration, and Demonstrator Conceptual Design, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid-electric propulsion is becoming widely accepted as a potential disruptive technology for aircraft that can provide significant reduction in fuel consumption...

  2. Analyses and comparison of a novel, hybrid, multifunctional orthopedic composite and implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicicco, Michael

    In the orthopedic/medical device industry, 2, 2' -bis-(4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)- and diurethanedimethacrylate (DUDMA)-based polymeric biomaterials have become well-known substitutes for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)- and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)-based biomaterials, respectively. The development of these polymeric biomaterials cannot continue without direct comparison studies against currently marketed materials. The initiative for this research stems wholly from developing analytical methodologies that assist in qualifying novel biomaterials under development, by evaluating their chemical properties, performance, and safety. The goals of this research were: (i) Characterize the assay/quality of every resin component and quantify elution of extractable monomers from novel, DUDMA-based RHAKOSS(TM) implant, (ii) Determine degree of conversion (alpha) and rate of polymerization (Rp) for novel, Bis-GMA-based CORTOSS(TM) composite, (iii) Assess risk for radical-induced post-surgical cytotoxicity for CORTOSS, (iv) Determine if surface radical chemistries occur for sterilized RHAKOSS and assess its oxidative stability, and (v) Quantify antibiotic elution from antibiotic-impregnated CORTOSS and identify factors that control elution. The phenomena studied necessitated the utilization of several analytical spectroscopic techniques; fluorometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS), attenuated total reflectance---Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A battery of lateral chemical techniques were employed as well; including molecular derivatization/tagging, phase partitioning, spin-trapping, and thermal annealing. Results demonstrated that RHAKOSS monomer percent compositions were prepared according to formulations and monomer elution was virtually undetectable, serving as an empirical gauge to

  3. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a hybrid origin of the figs (Moraceae: Ficus) that are endemic to the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, Junko; Azuma, Hiroshi; Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Chou, Lien-Siang; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Nakamura, Keiko; Su, Zhi-Hui

    2012-04-01

    The Ogasawara Islands are oceanic islands and harbor a unique endemic flora. There are three fig species (Ficus boninsimae, F. nishimurae and F. iidaiana) endemic to the Ogasawara Islands, and these species have been considered to be closely related to Ficus erecta, and to have diverged within the islands. However, this hypothesis remains uncertain. To investigate this issue, we assessed the phylogenetic relationships of the Ogasawara figs and their close relatives occurring in Japan, Taiwan and South China based on six plastid genome regions, nuclear ITS region and two nuclear genes. The plastid genome-based tree indicated a close relationship between the Ogasawara figs and F. erecta, whereas some of the nuclear gene-based trees suggested this relationship was not so close. In addition, the phylogenetic analyses of the pollinating wasps associated with these fig species based on the nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cytB genes suggested that the fig-pollinating wasps of F. erecta are not sister to those of the Ogasawara figs These results suggest the occurrence of an early hybridization event(s) in the lineage leading to the Ogasawara figs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analyses of large quasistatic deformations of inelastic bodies by a new hybrid-stress finite element algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, K. W.; Atluri, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    A new hybrid-stress finite element algorithm, suitable for analyses of large, quasistatic, inelastic deformations, is presented. The algorithm is base upon a generalization of de Veubeke's complementary energy principle. The principal variables in the formulation are the nominal stress rate and spin, and thg resulting finite element equations are discrete versions of the equations of compatibility and angular momentum balance. The algorithm produces true rates, time derivatives, as opposed to 'increments'. There results a complete separation of the boundary value problem (for stress rate and velocity) and the initial value problem (for total stress and deformation); hence, their numerical treatments are essentially independent. After a fairly comprehensive discussion of the numerical treatment of the boundary value problem, we launch into a detailed examination of the numerical treatment of the initial value problem, covering the topics of efficiency, stability and objectivity. The paper is closed with a set of examples, finite homogeneous deformation problems, which serve to bring out important aspects of the algorithm.

  5. A New Triangular Hybrid Displacement Function Element for Static and Free Vibration Analyses of Mindlin-Reissner Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Bin Huang

    Full Text Available Abstract A new 3-node triangular hybrid displacement function Mindlin-Reissner plate element is developed. Firstly, the modified variational functional of complementary energy for Mindlin-Reissner plate, which is eventually expressed by a so-called displacement function F, is proposed. Secondly, the locking-free formulae of Timoshenko’s beam theory are chosen as the deflection, rotation, and shear strain along each element boundary. Thirdly, seven fundamental analytical solutions of the displacement function F are selected as the trial functions for the assumed resultant fields, so that the assumed resultant fields satisfy all governing equations in advance. Finally, the element stiffness matrix of the new element, denoted by HDF-P3-7β, is derived from the modified principle of complementary energy. Together with the diagonal inertia matrix of the 3-node triangular isoparametric element, the proposed element is also successfully generalized to the free vibration problems. Numerical results show that the proposed element exhibits overall remarkable performance in all benchmark problems, especially in the free vibration analyses.

  6. Corrosion Characteristics of Inconel-600 at the NP(Cu)-HYBRID Decontamination Demonstration Test with HANARO FTL Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jun Young; Park, Sang Yoon; Won, Hui Jun; Kim, Seon Byeong; Choi, Wang Kyu; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    An alkaline permanganate (AP) or nitric permanganate (NP) oxidative phase has been generally used to dissolve the chromium-rich oxide. AP is advantageous for the corrosion resistance, but increases the volume of secondary waste during the decontamination procedure. On the other hand, NP has a high corrosion rate but reduces secondary waste. For the safe use of an oxidative decontamination solution with high corrosive resistance and less amount of secondary waste are required. In this study, we modified NP oxidative decontamination solution by adding Cu{sup 2+} to reduce the corrosion rate. To evaluate the general corrosion characteristics, we measured the weight losses of selected specimens in an NP(Cu) and other solutions. The localized corrosion was observed using an optical microscope (OM). To compare the decontamination performance, we measured the contact dose rate of specimens treated in NP-HYBRID and NP(Cu)-HYBRID systems. The reduced corrosion characteristics of the Inconel-600 specimen in a NP(Cu) oxidative solution was observed in terms of generalized corrosion as well as localized corrosion. Less corrosion characteristics do not affect the performance of the overall decontamination compared to the NP-HYBRID process. Therefore, our results support that the NP(Cu)-HYBRID decontamination process is appropriate for the decontamination of the primary coolant system in a nuclear reactor.

  7. A novel approach to delayed-start analyses for demonstrating disease-modifying effects in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu-Seifert

    Full Text Available One method for demonstrating disease modification is a delayed-start design, consisting of a placebo-controlled period followed by a delayed-start period wherein all patients receive active treatment. To address methodological issues in previous delayed-start approaches, we propose a new method that is robust across conditions of drug effect, discontinuation rates, and missing data mechanisms. We propose a modeling approach and test procedure to test the hypothesis of noninferiority, comparing the treatment difference at the end of the delayed-start period with that at the end of the placebo-controlled period. We conducted simulations to identify the optimal noninferiority testing procedure to ensure the method was robust across scenarios and assumptions, and to evaluate the appropriate modeling approach for analyzing the delayed-start period. We then applied this methodology to Phase 3 solanezumab clinical trial data for mild Alzheimer's disease patients. Simulation results showed a testing procedure using a proportional noninferiority margin was robust for detecting disease-modifying effects; conditions of high and moderate discontinuations; and with various missing data mechanisms. Using all data from all randomized patients in a single model over both the placebo-controlled and delayed-start study periods demonstrated good statistical performance. In analysis of solanezumab data using this methodology, the noninferiority criterion was met, indicating the treatment difference at the end of the placebo-controlled studies was preserved at the end of the delayed-start period within a pre-defined margin. The proposed noninferiority method for delayed-start analysis controls Type I error rate well and addresses many challenges posed by previous approaches. Delayed-start studies employing the proposed analysis approach could be used to provide evidence of a disease-modifying effect. This method has been communicated with FDA and has been

  8. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA ANALYSES AND THE ORIGIN AND RELATIVE AGE OF PARTHENOGENETIC CNEMIDOPHORUS: PHYLOGENETIC CONSTRAINTS ON HYBRID ORIGINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, C; Wright, J W; Brown, W M

    1992-02-01

    Within the genus Cnemidophorus, parthenogenesis has arisen by hybridization several times. This provides the opportunity to investigate general features of hybridization events that result in the formation of parthenogenetic lineages. The relationships of mtDNA from all bisexual species of Cnemidophorus known to be parents of parthenogens were investigated to evaluate phylogenetic constraints on the hybrid-origin of parthenogenesis. No phylogenetic clustering of the parental species, either maternal or paternal, was apparent. However, the combination of bisexual species that have resulted in parthenogenetic lineages are generally distantly related or genetically divergent. This contrasts with the expectation if parthenogenesis in hybrids is due to the action of a single rare allele, but is consistent with the hypothesis that some minimal level of divergence is necessary to stimulate parthenogenetic reproduction in hybrids. © 1992 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. HYBRID SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SNCR)/SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) DEMONSTRATION FOR THE REMOVAL OF NOx FROM BOILER FLUE GASES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerry B. Urbas

    1999-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Pennsylvania Electric Energy Research Council, (PEERC), New York State Electric and Gas and GPU Generation, Inc. jointly funded a demonstration to determine the capabilities for Hybrid SNCR/SCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction/Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. The demonstration site was GPU Generation's Seward Unit No.5 (147MW) located in Seward Pennsylvania. The demonstration began in October of 1997 and ended in December 1998. DOE funding was provided through Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96256 with T. J. Feeley as the Project Manager. EPRI funding was provided through agreements TC4599-001-26999 and TC4599-002-26999 with E. Hughes as the Project Manager. This project demonstrated the operation of the Hybrid SNCR/SCR NO(sub x) control process on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The hybrid technology was expected to provide a cost-effective method of reducing NO(sub x) while balancing capital and operation costs. An existing urea based SNCR system was modified with an expanded-duct catalyst to provide increased NO(sub x) reduction efficiency from the SNCR while producing increased ammonia slip levels to the catalyst. The catalyst was sized to reduce the ammonia slip to the air heaters to less than 2 ppm while providing equivalent NO(sub x) reductions. The project goals were to demonstrate hybrid technology is capable of achieving at least a 55% reduction in NO(sub x) emissions while maintaining less than 2ppm ammonia slip to the air heaters, maintain flyash marketability, verify the cost benefit and applicability of Hybrid post combustion technology, and reduce forced outages due to ammonium bisulfate (ABS) fouling of the air heaters. Early system limitations, due to gas temperature stratification, restricted the Hybrid NO(sub x) reduction capabilities to 48% with an ammonia slip of 6.1 mg/Nm(sup 3) (8 ppm) at the catalyst inlet. After resolving the stratification problem

  10. HYBRID SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SNCR)/SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) DEMONSTRATION FOR THE REMOVAL OF NOx FROM BOILER FLUE GASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry B. Urbas

    1999-05-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Pennsylvania Electric Energy Research Council, (PEERC), New York State Electric and Gas and GPU Generation, Inc. jointly funded a demonstration to determine the capabilities for Hybrid SNCR/SCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction/Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. The demonstration site was GPU Generation's Seward Unit No.5 (147MW) located in Seward Pennsylvania. The demonstration began in October of 1997 and ended in December 1998. DOE funding was provided through Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96256 with T. J. Feeley as the Project Manager. EPRI funding was provided through agreements TC4599-001-26999 and TC4599-002-26999 with E. Hughes as the Project Manager. This project demonstrated the operation of the Hybrid SNCR/SCR NO{sub x} control process on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The hybrid technology was expected to provide a cost-effective method of reducing NO{sub x} while balancing capital and operation costs. An existing urea based SNCR system was modified with an expanded-duct catalyst to provide increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency from the SNCR while producing increased ammonia slip levels to the catalyst. The catalyst was sized to reduce the ammonia slip to the air heaters to less than 2 ppm while providing equivalent NO{sub x} reductions. The project goals were to demonstrate hybrid technology is capable of achieving at least a 55% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining less than 2ppm ammonia slip to the air heaters, maintain flyash marketability, verify the cost benefit and applicability of Hybrid post combustion technology, and reduce forced outages due to ammonium bisulfate (ABS) fouling of the air heaters. Early system limitations, due to gas temperature stratification, restricted the Hybrid NO{sub x} reduction capabilities to 48% with an ammonia slip of 6.1 mg/Nm{sup 3} (8 ppm) at the catalyst inlet. After resolving the stratification

  11. Hybrid utilization of solar energy. Part 2. Performance analyses of heating system with air hybrid collector; Taiyo energy no hybrid riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Kuki shunetsu hybrid collector wo mochiita danbo system no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, M; Okumiya, M [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the effective utilization of solar energy at houses, a heating system using an air hybrid collector (capable of simultaneously performing heat collection and photovoltaic power generation). As the specimen house, a wooden house of a total floor area of 120m{sup 2} was simulated. Collected air is fanned into a crushed stone heat accumulator (capable of storing one day`s collection) or into a living room. The output of solar cell arrays is put into a heat pump (capable of handling a maximum hourly load of 36,327kJ/h) via an inverter so as to drive the fan (corresponding to average insolation on the heat collecting plate of 10.7MJ/hm{sup 2} and heat collecting efficiency of 40%), and shortage in power if any is supplied from the system interconnection. A hybrid collector, as compared with the conventional air collector, is lower in thermal efficiency but the merit that it exhibits with respect to power generation is far greater than what is needed to counterbalance the demerit. When the hybrid system is in heating operation, there is an ideal heat cycle of collection, accumulation, and radiation when the load is light, but the balance between accumulation and radiation is disturbed when the load is heavy. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Elemental analyses of goundwater: demonstrated advantage of low-flow sampling and trace-metal clean techniques over standard techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, C. L.; Flegal, A. R.

    'introduction accidentelle de contaminants au cours de l'échantillonnage, du stockage et de l'analyse. Lorsque ces techniques sont appliquées, les concentrations résultantes en éléments en traces sont nettement plus faibles que les résultats obtenus par les techniques d'échantillonnage classique. Dans une comparaison de données concernant des puits contaminés et des puits de contrôle d'un site de Californie (États-Unis), les concentrations en éléments en traces de cette étude ont été de 2 à 1000 fois plus faibles que celles déterminées par les techniques conventionnelles utilisées pour l'échantillonnage des mêmes puits cinq mois auparavant et un mois après ces prélèvements. En particulier, les concentrations en cadmium et en chrome obtenues par les techniques classiques de prélèvements dépassent les teneurs maximales admises en Californie, alors que les concentrations obtenues pour ces deux éléments dans cette étude sont nettement au-dessous de ces teneurs maximales. Par conséquent, le recours à des techniques à faible débit et sans traces de métal peut faire apparaître que la publication de contamination d'eaux souterraines par des éléments en traces était erronée. Resumen El uso combinado del purgado y muestreo a bajo caudal con las técnicas limpias de metales traza proporcionan medidas de la concentración de elementos traza en las aguas subterráneas que son más representativas que las obtenidas con técnicas tradicionales. El purgado y muestreo a bajo caudal proporciona muestras de agua prácticamente inalteradas, representativas de las condiciones en el terreno. Las técnicas limpias de metales traza limitan la no deseada introducción de contaminantes durante el muestreo, almacenamiento y análisis. Las concentraciones de elementos traza resultantes suelen ser bastante menores que las obtenidas por técnicas tradicionales. En una comparación entre los datos procedentes de pozos en California, las concentraciones obtenidas con el nuevo m

  13. Archaeometrical analyses demonstrates that humans excavated clay from mardels on the Luxembourger Gutland plateau to produce ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmourik, Jan; Braekmans, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    sediments must have been used, most probably for the production of ceramics. If we can find relicts of ceramics in the vicinity of mardels we can compare the composition of these ceramics with mardel clay. We could collect finds of Roman tile-works on the Lias marls (Kalefeld) and of Roman pottery on the Keuper marls (Biischtert) in the vicinity of mardels. Provenance analysis (XRF) demonstrated the similarity of chemical composition of mardel clay and ceramics. This indicates that the mardels on the Gutland plateau developed initially as natural depressions (sediment traps), on Strassen marls related to soil subsidence, caused by joints in the underlying Luxembourger sandstone, on Keuper marls to subsidence after soil subsurface dissolving of gypsum veins. The colluvial clay was used by the Romans for the production of ceramics. Due to the excavation reached the actual seizes. Colluvial clay accumulation restarted in the abandoned quarries. • Slotboom, R.T. (1963) Comparative geomorphological and palynological investigation of the pingos (Viviers) in the Haute Fagnes (Belgium) and the Mardellen in the Gutland (Luxembourg). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 7: 193-231. • Schmalen, C. (2002) Einige Mardellen Luxemburgs auf den Keuper-und Liasschichten des Forstamtbezirks Zentrum. Diplomarbeit in Studiengang Umweltplannung an der Fachhochschule Trier, Standort Birkenfeld, 2002. • Etienne, D., Ruffaldi, P., Goepp, S., Ritz, F., Georges-Leroy, M., Pollier, B., Dambrine, E. (2011) The origin of closed depressions in Northeastern France: A new assessment. Geomorphology 126: 121-131. • Slotboom, R.T., van Mourik, J.M. (2015) Pollen records of mardel deposits; the effects of climatic oscillations and land management on soil erosion in Gutland, Luxembourg. Catena 132 (2015) 72-88.

  14. Hybridization Capture Using RAD Probes (hyRAD, a New Tool for Performing Genomic Analyses on Collection Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Suchan

    Full Text Available In the recent years, many protocols aimed at reproducibly sequencing reduced-genome subsets in non-model organisms have been published. Among them, RAD-sequencing is one of the most widely used. It relies on digesting DNA with specific restriction enzymes and performing size selection on the resulting fragments. Despite its acknowledged utility, this method is of limited use with degraded DNA samples, such as those isolated from museum specimens, as these samples are less likely to harbor fragments long enough to comprise two restriction sites making possible ligation of the adapter sequences (in the case of double-digest RAD or performing size selection of the resulting fragments (in the case of single-digest RAD. Here, we address these limitations by presenting a novel method called hybridization RAD (hyRAD. In this approach, biotinylated RAD fragments, covering a random fraction of the genome, are used as baits for capturing homologous fragments from genomic shotgun sequencing libraries. This simple and cost-effective approach allows sequencing of orthologous loci even from highly degraded DNA samples, opening new avenues of research in the field of museum genomics. Not relying on the restriction site presence, it improves among-sample loci coverage. In a trial study, hyRAD allowed us to obtain a large set of orthologous loci from fresh and museum samples from a non-model butterfly species, with a high proportion of single nucleotide polymorphisms present in all eight analyzed specimens, including 58-year-old museum samples. The utility of the method was further validated using 49 museum and fresh samples of a Palearctic grasshopper species for which the spatial genetic structure was previously assessed using mtDNA amplicons. The application of the method is eventually discussed in a wider context. As it does not rely on the restriction site presence, it is therefore not sensitive to among-sample loci polymorphisms in the restriction sites

  15. REE and Isotopic Compositions of Lunar Basalts Demonstrate Partial Melting of Hybridized Mantle Sources after Cumulate Overturn is Required

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygert, N. J.; Liang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Lunar basalts maintain an important record of the composition of the lunar interior. Much of our understanding of the Moon's early evolution comes from studying their petrogenesis. Recent experimental work has advanced our knowledge of major and trace element fractionation during lunar magma ocean (LMO) crystallization [e.g., 1-3], which produced heterogeneous basalt sources in the Moon's mantle. With the new experimental constraints, we can evaluate isotopic and trace element signatures in lunar basalts in unprecedented detail, refining inferences about the Moon's dynamic history. Two petrogenetic models are invoked to explain the compositions of the basalts. The assimilation model argues they formed as primitive melts of early LMO cumulates that assimilated late LMO cumulates as they migrated upward. The cumulate overturn model argues that dense LMO cumulates sank into the lunar interior, producing hybridized sources that melted to form the basalts. Here we compare predicted Ce/Yb and Hf and Nd isotopes of partial melts of LMO cumulates with measured compositions of lunar basalts to evaluate whether they could have formed by end-member petrogenetic models. LMO crystallization models suggest all LMO cumulates have chondrite normalized Ce/Yb 1.5; these could not have formed by assimilation of any LMO cumulate or residual liquid (or KREEP basalt, which has isotopically negative ɛNd and ɛHf). In contrast, basalt REE patterns and isotopes can easily be modeled assuming partial melting of hybridized mantle sources, indicating overturn may be required. A chemical requirement for overturn independently confirms that late LMO cumulates are sufficiently low in viscosity to sink into the lunar interior, as suggested by recent rock deformation experiments [4]. Overturned, low viscosity late LMO cumulates would be relatively stable around the core [5]. High Ce/Yb basalts require that overturned cumulates were mixed back into the overlying mantle by convection within a few

  16. Performance analyses of a hybrid geothermal–fossil power generation system using low-enthalpy geothermal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiang; Shang, Linlin; Duan, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Geothermal energy is used to preheat the feedwater in a coal-fired power unit. • The performance of a hybrid geothermal–fossil power generation system is analyzed. • Models for both parallel and serial geothermal preheating schemes are presented. • Effects of geothermal source temperatures, distances and heat losses are analyzed. • Power increase of the hybrid system over an ORC and tipping distance are discussed. - Abstract: Low-enthalpy geothermal heat can be efficiently utilized for feedwater preheating in coal-fired power plants by replacing some of the high-grade steam that can then be used to generate more power. This study analyzes a hybrid geothermal–fossil power generation system including a supercritical 1000 MW power unit and a geothermal feedwater preheating system. This study models for parallel and serial geothermal preheating schemes and analyzes the thermodynamic performance of the hybrid geothermal–fossil power generation system for various geothermal resource temperatures. The models are used to analyze the effects of the temperature matching between the geothermal water and the feedwater, the heat losses and pumping power during the geothermal water transport and the resource distance and temperature on the power increase to improve the power generation. The serial geothermal preheating (SGP) scheme generally generates more additional power than the parallel geothermal preheating (PGP) scheme for geothermal resource temperatures of 100–130 °C, but the SGP scheme generates slightly less additional power than the PGP scheme when the feedwater is preheated to as high a temperature as possible before entering the deaerator for geothermal resource temperatures higher than 140 °C. The additional power decreases as the geothermal source distance increases since the pipeline pumping power increases and the geothermal water temperature decreases due to heat losses. More than 50% of the power decrease is due to geothermal

  17. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Conceptual design and evaluation of commercial plant. Volume III. Economic analyses (Deliverable Nos. 15 and 16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This report presents the results of Task I of Phase I in the form of a Conceptual Design and Evaluation of Commercial Plant report. The report is presented in four volumes as follows: I - Executive Summary, II - Commercial Plant Design, III - Economic Analyses, IV - Demonstration Plant Recommendations. Volume III presents the economic analyses for the commercial plant and the supporting data. General cost and financing factors used in the analyses are tabulated. Three financing modes are considered. The product gas cost calculation procedure is identified and appendices present computer inputs and sample computer outputs for the MLGW, Utility, and Industry Base Cases. The results of the base case cost analyses for plant fenceline gas costs are as follows: Municipal Utility, (e.g. MLGW), $3.76/MM Btu; Investor Owned Utility, (25% equity), $4.48/MM Btu; and Investor Case, (100% equity), $5.21/MM Btu. The results of 47 IFG product cost sensitivity cases involving a dozen sensitivity variables are presented. Plant half size, coal cost, plant investment, and return on equity (industrial) are the most important sensitivity variables. Volume III also presents a summary discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the plant and a discussion of possible commercial incentives for development of IFG plants.

  18. A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-09-01

    The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ∼0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A case of dual ectopy thyroid along the thyroglossal tract demonstrated on 99mTc-Pertechnatate hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Karunanithi, Sellam; Jain, Sachin; Tripathi, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) refers to the presence of thyroid tissue in locations other than the normal anterior neck region between the second and fourth tracheal cartilages. Multiple ectopia of the thyroid is extremely rare. Here we report a case of 10-year-old girl with anterior midline neck swelling and hypothyroidism with dual ectopia of thyroid gland without orthotopic thyroid gland. Planar 99 m-technetium pertechnatate scan identified ETT corresponding to the palpable neck swelling. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) demonstrated ETT in two locations, one corresponding to the palpable mass and another in the in the sublingual location. This case thus demonstrates the important role of hybrid SPECT/CT in the identification of dual ectopia along the thyroglossal tract

  20. High-fidelity hybrid simulation of allergic emergencies demonstrates improved preparedness for office emergencies in pediatric allergy clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Joshua L; Jones, Stacie M; Porter, Nicholas; White, Marjorie L; Gephardt, Grace; Hill, Travis; Cantrell, Mary; Nick, Todd G; Melguizo, Maria; Smith, Chris; Boateng, Beatrice A; Perry, Tamara T; Scurlock, Amy M; Thompson, Tonya M

    2013-01-01

    Simulation models that used high-fidelity mannequins have shown promise in medical education, particularly for cases in which the event is uncommon. Allergy physicians encounter emergencies in their offices, and these can be the source of much trepidation. To determine if case-based simulations with high-fidelity mannequins are effective in teaching and retention of emergency management team skills. Allergy clinics were invited to Arkansas Children's Hospital Pediatric Understanding and Learning through Simulation Education center for a 1-day workshop to evaluate skills concerning the management of allergic emergencies. A Clinical Emergency Preparedness Team Performance Evaluation was developed to evaluate the competence of teams in several areas: leadership and/or role clarity, closed-loop communication, team support, situational awareness, and scenario-specific skills. Four cases, which focus on common allergic emergencies, were simulated by using high-fidelity mannequins and standardized patients. Teams were evaluated by multiple reviewers by using video recording and standardized scoring. Ten to 12 months after initial training, an unannounced in situ case was performed to determine retention of the skills training. Clinics showed significant improvements for role clarity, teamwork, situational awareness, and scenario-specific skills during the 1-day workshop (all P clinics (all P ≤ .004). Clinical Emergency Preparedness Team Performance Evaluation scores demonstrated improved team management skills with simulation training in office emergencies. Significant recall of team emergency management skills was demonstrated months after the initial training. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. GISH and AFLP analyses of novel Brassica napus lines derived from one hybrid between B. napus and Orychophragmus violaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ni; Li, Zai-Yun; Cartagena, J A; Fukui, K

    2006-10-01

    New Brassica napus inbred lines with different petal colors and with canola quality and increased levels of oleic (approximately 70%, 10% higher than that of B. napus parent) and linoleic (28%) acids have been developed in the progenies of one B. napus cv. Oro x Orychophragmus violaceus F5 hybrid plant (2n = 31). Their genetic constituents were analyzed by using the methods of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and amplified fragments length polymorphism (AFLP). No intact chromosomes of O. violaceus origin were detected by GISH in their somatic cells of ovaries and root tips (2n = 38) and pollen mother cells (PMCs) with normal chromosome pairing (19 bivalents) and segregation (19:19), though signals of variable sizes and intensities were located mainly at terminal and centromeric parts of some mitotic chromosomes and meiotic bivalents at diakinesis or chromosomes in anaphase I groups and one large patch of chromatin was intensively labeled and separated spatially in some telophase I nuclei and metaphase II PMCs. AFLP analysis revealed that substantial genomic changes have occurred in these lines and O. violaceus-specific bands, deleted bands in 'Oro' and novel bands for two parents were detected. The possible mechanisms for these results were discussed.

  2. Feasibility Analyses of Developing Low Carbon City with Hybrid Energy Systems in China: The Case of Shenzhen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the largest carbon emission source in China, the power sector grows rapidly owing to the country’s unprecedented urbanization and industrialization processes. In order to explore a low carbon urbanization pathway by reducing carbon emissions of the power sector, the Chinese government launched an international low carbon city (ILCC project in Shenzhen. This paper presents a feasibility analysis on the potential hybrid energy system based on local renewable energy resources and electricity demand estimation over the three planning stages of the ILCC project. Wind power, solar power, natural gas and the existing power grid are components considered in the hybrid energy system. The simulation results indicate that the costs of energy in the three planning stages are 0.122, 0.105 and 0.141 $/kWh, respectively, if external wind farms and pumped storage hydro stations (PSHSs exist. The optimization results reveal that the carbon reduction rates are 46.81%, 62.99% and 75.76% compared with the Business as Usual scenarios. The widely distributed water reservoirs in Shenzhen provide ideal conditions to construct PSHS, which is crucial in enhancing renewable energy utilization.

  3. Investigation and Demonstration of High Speed Full-Optical Hybrid FSO/Fiber Communication System under Light Sand Storm Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah; Ragheb, Amr; Fathallah, Habib; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to traditional free space optical (FSO) systems, the new generation is aimed to be transparent to optical fiber where protocols, high signal bandwidths, and high data rates over fiber are all maintained. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a high speed outdoor full-optical FSO communication system over 100 m link. We first describe the design of our transmitter, which consists of a comb generator and a flexible multiformat transmitter. Our measurements are performed in arid desert area under a light dust storm. In this environment, we use a 12 subcarrier comb generator, each of which is modulated by a quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signal. We achieved a 1.08 Tbps error free data rate with 3.6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. We place long optical fiber rolls in the transmitter side and the receiver side to mimic real FSO deployments. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of receiver misalignment in outdoor conditions and the effect of background noise. We find that full-optical FSO system is sensitive to the misalignment effect. However, the background noise has negligible effect. Finally, we find that solar heating of the transceiver causes collimator deviation, which requires using a cooling unit or auto tracking system.

  4. Investigation and Demonstration of High Speed Full-Optical Hybrid FSO/Fiber Communication System under Light Sand Storm Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah

    2016-12-19

    In contrast to traditional free space optical (FSO) systems, the new generation is aimed to be transparent to optical fiber where protocols, high signal bandwidths, and high data rates over fiber are all maintained. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a high speed outdoor full-optical FSO communication system over 100 m link. We first describe the design of our transmitter, which consists of a comb generator and a flexible multiformat transmitter. Our measurements are performed in arid desert area under a light dust storm. In this environment, we use a 12 subcarrier comb generator, each of which is modulated by a quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signal. We achieved a 1.08 Tbps error free data rate with 3.6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. We place long optical fiber rolls in the transmitter side and the receiver side to mimic real FSO deployments. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of receiver misalignment in outdoor conditions and the effect of background noise. We find that full-optical FSO system is sensitive to the misalignment effect. However, the background noise has negligible effect. Finally, we find that solar heating of the transceiver causes collimator deviation, which requires using a cooling unit or auto tracking system.

  5. Energy and exergy analyses on a novel hybrid solar heating, cooling and power generation system for remote areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, H.; Dai, Y.J.; Wu, J.Y.; Wang, R.Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a small scale hybrid solar heating, chilling and power generation system, including parabolic trough solar collector with cavity receiver, a helical screw expander and silica gel-water adsorption chiller, etc., was proposed and extensively investigated. The system has the merits of effecting the power generation cycle at lower temperature level with solar energy more efficiently and can provide both thermal energy and power for remote off-grid regions. A case study was carried out to evaluate an annual energy and exergy efficiency of the system under the climate of northwestern region of China. It is found that both the main energy and exergy loss take place at the parabolic trough collector, amount to 36.2% and 70.4%, respectively. Also found is that the studied system can have a higher solar energy conversion efficiency than the conventional solar thermal power generation system alone. The energy efficiency can be increased to 58.0% from 10.2%, and the exergy efficiency can be increased to 15.2% from 12.5%. Moreover, the economical analysis in terms of cost and payback period (PP) has been carried out. The study reveals that the proposed system the PP of the proposed system is about 18 years under present energy price conditions. The sensitivity analysis shows that if the interest rate decreases to 3% or energy price increase by 50%, PP will be less than 10 years. (author)

  6. The objective of this program is to develop innovative DNA detection technologies to achieve fast microbial community assessment. The specific approaches are (1) to develop inexpensive and reliable sequence-proof hybridization DNA detection technology (2) to develop quantitative DNA hybridization technology for microbial community assessment and (3) to study the microbes which have demonstrated the potential to have nuclear waste bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chung H.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop innovative DNA detection technologies to achieve fast microbial community assessment. The specific approaches are (1) to develop inexpensive and reliable sequence-proof hybridization DNA detection technology (2) to develop quantitative DNA hybridization technology for microbial community assessment and (3) to study the microbes which have demonstrated the potential to have nuclear waste bioremediation

  7. Demonstration of variation in chondrocyte activity in different zones of articular cartilage: an assessment of the value of in-situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marles, P J; Hoyland, J A; Parkinson, R; Freemont, A J

    1991-04-01

    Several methods have been described for investigating chondrocyte metabolism in vitro. In this study, in-situ hybridization (ISH) using an oligonucleotide probe (i.e. a poly-d(T) probe) to detect total messenger RNA (mRNA) in cartilage explants has been compared with radiosulphate and radioleucine uptake studies in an attempt to assess the value of ISH in investigating chondrocyte metabolism. The relative results of the three parameters indicate qualitative similarities in cells in the intermediate, deep and calcified zones but differences in the superficial zone. The relative levels of mRNA and leucine and sulphate uptake in the midzone areas could be construed as indicating that the bulk of cellular activity was directed towards the synthesis of proteoglycans. A similar relation between the three parameters, but at a lower level, was seen in chondrocytes in the calcified zone demonstrating that these cells are viable and biosynthetic. Both quantitative and qualitative differences between the three methods were observed in the superficial chondrocytes regarding the amount of mRNA compared to sulphate and leucine uptake. The results suggest that ISH can detect differences in the amount of mRNA present in chondrocytes in differing zones of cartilage and, like the radioleucine and radiosulphate studies, particularly emphasizes their functional heterogeneity.

  8. Analyses on interaction of internal and external surface cracks in a pressurized cylinder by hybrid boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Guozhong; Fang Zhimin; Jiang Xianfeng; Li Gan

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive range of analyses on the interaction of two identical semi-elliptical surface cracks at the internal and external surfaces of a pressurized cylinder. The considered ratios of the crack depth to crack length are b/a=0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0; the ratios of the crack depth to wall thickness of the cylinder are 2b/t=0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8. Forty crack configurations are analyzed and the stress intensity factors along the crack front are presented. The numerical results show that for 2b/t<0.7, the interaction leads to a decrease in the stress intensity factors for both internal and external surface cracks, compared with a single internal or external surface crack. Thus for fracture analysis of a practical pressurized cylinder with two identical semi-elliptical surface cracks at its internal and external surfaces, a conservative result is obtained by ignoring the interaction

  9. Hybrid IgG4/IgG4 Fc antibodies form upon 'Fab-arm' exchange as demonstrated by SDS-PAGE or size-exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, Theo; den Bleker, Tamara H.; Aalberse, Rob C.

    2010-01-01

    Human IgG4 antibodies are dynamic molecules that in vivo exchange half-molecules to become bispecific antibodies. Here we show that IgG4 antibodies and IgG4 Fc fragments similarly exchange resulting in hybrid antibodies (a single Fab + Fc) with a molecular weight of ca. 100 kDa. These antibodies can

  10. A three-stage hybrid model for regionalization, trends and sensitivity analyses of temperature anomalies in China from 1966 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feifei; Yang, XiaoHua; Shen, Zhenyao

    2018-06-01

    Temperature anomalies have received increasing attention due to their potentially severe impacts on ecosystems, economy and human health. To facilitate objective regionalization and examine regional temperature anomalies, a three-stage hybrid model with stages of regionalization, trends and sensitivity analyses was developed. Annual mean and extreme temperatures were analyzed using the daily data collected from 537 stations in China from 1966 to 2015, including the annual mean, minimum and maximum temperatures (Tm, TNm and TXm) as well as the extreme minimum and maximum temperatures (TNe and TXe). The results showed the following: (1) subregions with coherent temperature changes were identified using the rotated empirical orthogonal function analysis and K-means clustering algorithm. The numbers of subregions were 6, 7, 8, 9 and 8 for Tm, TNm, TXm, TNe and TXe, respectively. (2) Significant increases in temperature were observed in most regions of China from 1966 to 2015, although warming slowed down over the last decade. This warming primarily featured a remarkable increase in its minimum temperature. For Tm and TNm, 95% of the stations showed a significant upward trend at the 99% confidence level. TNe increased the fastest, at a rate of 0.56 °C/decade, whereas 21% of the stations in TXe showed a downward trend. (3) The mean temperatures (Tm, TNm and TXm) in the high-latitude regions increased more quickly than those in the low-latitude regions. The maximum temperature increased significantly at high elevations, whereas the minimum temperature increased greatly at middle-low elevations. The most pronounced warming occurred in eastern China in TNe and northwestern China in TXe, with mean elevations of 51 m and 2098 m, respectively. A cooling trend in TXe was observed at the northwestern end of China. The warming rate in TNe varied the most among the subregions (0.63 °C/decade).

  11. Giant Galápagos tortoises; molecular genetic analyses identify a trans-island hybrid in a repatriation program of an endangered taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccone Adalgisa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giant Galápagos tortoises on the island of Española have been the focus of an intensive captive breeding-repatriation programme for over 35 years that saved the taxon from extinction. However, analysis of 118 samples from released individuals indicated that the bias sex ratio and large variance in reproductive success among the 15 breeders has severely reduced the effective population size (Ne. Results We report here that an analysis of an additional 473 captive-bred tortoises released back to the island reveals an individual (E1465 that exhibits nuclear microsatellite alleles not found in any of the 15 breeders. Statistical analyses incorporating genotypes of 304 field-sampled individuals from all populations on the major islands indicate that E1465 is most probably a hybrid between an Española female tortoise and a male from the island of Pinzón, likely present on Española due to human transport. Conclusion Removal of E1465 as well as its father and possible (half-siblings is warranted to prevent further contamination within this taxon of particular conservation significance. Despite this detected single contamination, it is highly noteworthy to emphasize the success of this repatriation program conducted over nearly 40 years and involving release of over 2000 captive-bred tortoises that now reproduce in situ. The incorporation of molecular genetic analysis of the program is providing guidance that will aid in monitoring the genetic integrity of this ambitious effort to restore a unique linage of a spectacular animal.

  12. Unique honey bee (Apis mellifera hive component-based communities as detected by a hybrid of phospholipid fatty-acid and fatty-acid methyl ester analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk J Grubbs

    Full Text Available Microbial communities (microbiomes are associated with almost all metazoans, including the honey bee Apis mellifera. Honey bees are social insects, maintaining complex hive systems composed of a variety of integral components including bees, comb, propolis, honey, and stored pollen. Given that the different components within hives can be physically separated and are nutritionally variable, we hypothesize that unique microbial communities may occur within the different microenvironments of honey bee colonies. To explore this hypothesis and to provide further insights into the microbiome of honey bees, we use a hybrid of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA analysis to produce broad, lipid-based microbial community profiles of stored pollen, adults, pupae, honey, empty comb, and propolis for 11 honey bee hives. Averaging component lipid profiles by hive, we show that, in decreasing order, lipid markers representing fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria have the highest relative abundances within honey bee colonies. Our lipid profiles reveal the presence of viable microbial communities in each of the six hive components sampled, with overall microbial community richness varying from lowest to highest in honey, comb, pupae, pollen, adults and propolis, respectively. Finally, microbial community lipid profiles were more similar when compared by component than by hive, location, or sampling year. Specifically, we found that individual hive components typically exhibited several dominant lipids and that these dominant lipids differ between components. Principal component and two-way clustering analyses both support significant grouping of lipids by hive component. Our findings indicate that in addition to the microbial communities present in individual workers, honey bee hives have resident microbial communities associated with different colony components.

  13. Unique honey bee (Apis mellifera) hive component-based communities as detected by a hybrid of phospholipid fatty-acid and fatty-acid methyl ester analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Kirk J; Scott, Jarrod J; Budsberg, Kevin J; Read, Harry; Balser, Teri C; Currie, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities (microbiomes) are associated with almost all metazoans, including the honey bee Apis mellifera. Honey bees are social insects, maintaining complex hive systems composed of a variety of integral components including bees, comb, propolis, honey, and stored pollen. Given that the different components within hives can be physically separated and are nutritionally variable, we hypothesize that unique microbial communities may occur within the different microenvironments of honey bee colonies. To explore this hypothesis and to provide further insights into the microbiome of honey bees, we use a hybrid of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to produce broad, lipid-based microbial community profiles of stored pollen, adults, pupae, honey, empty comb, and propolis for 11 honey bee hives. Averaging component lipid profiles by hive, we show that, in decreasing order, lipid markers representing fungi, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria have the highest relative abundances within honey bee colonies. Our lipid profiles reveal the presence of viable microbial communities in each of the six hive components sampled, with overall microbial community richness varying from lowest to highest in honey, comb, pupae, pollen, adults and propolis, respectively. Finally, microbial community lipid profiles were more similar when compared by component than by hive, location, or sampling year. Specifically, we found that individual hive components typically exhibited several dominant lipids and that these dominant lipids differ between components. Principal component and two-way clustering analyses both support significant grouping of lipids by hive component. Our findings indicate that in addition to the microbial communities present in individual workers, honey bee hives have resident microbial communities associated with different colony components.

  14. Post-event reviews: Using a quantitative approach for analysing incident response to demonstrate the value of business continuity programmes and increase planning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Karthik

    2017-01-01

    Business continuity management is often thought of as a proactive planning process for minimising impact from large-scale incidents and disasters. While this is true, and it is critical to plan for the worst, consistently validating plan effectiveness against smaller disruptions can enable an organisation to gain key insights about its business continuity readiness, drive programme improvements, reduce costs and provide an opportunity to quantitatively demonstrate the value of the programme to management. This paper describes a post mortem framework which is used as a continuous improvement mechanism for tracking, reviewing and learning from real-world events at Microsoft Customer Service & Support. This approach was developed and adopted because conducting regular business continuity exercises proved difficult and expensive in a complex and distributed operations environment with high availability requirements. Using a quantitative approach to measure response to incidents, and categorising outcomes based on such responses, enables business continuity teams to provide data-driven insights to leadership, change perceptions of incident root cause, and instil a higher level of confidence towards disaster response readiness and incident management. The scope of the framework discussed here is specific to reviewing and driving improvements from operational incidents. However, the concept can be extended to learning and evolving readiness plans for other types of incidents.

  15. Development of a modular systems code to analyse the implications of physics assumptions on the design of a demonstration fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Tobias

    2013-07-03

    The successful development and operation of a demonstration power plant (DEMO) is the next important step on roadmaps for fusion energy after ITER that is currently constructed in France. In the first phase of the development process for such devices, the conceptual design phase, the primary aim is to identify coherent designs that are composed of self-consistent sets of values for all key parameters like machine size, plasma current or magnetic field strength. This multidimensional parameter space can be explored with systems codes in order to identify areas that seem to be suited for more detailed investigation. Systems codes are composed of simplified models for all crucial systems of fusion devices that take into account all requirements and constraints of each component. This thesis is about the development of a new systems code called TREND (Tokamak Reactor code for the Evaluation of Next-step Devices). TREND is implemented with modular code architecture and consists of modules for geometry, core plasma physics, divertor, power flow, technology and costing. The main focus has been on the core physics module, since the development of TREND was done in parallel to work on physics design guidelines for DEMO. Moreover, the validation of TREND in terms of benchmarks with other European and Japanese systems codes is discussed. For these benchmarks, specific parameter sets were selected and the observed deviations were traced back to differences concerning the individual modellings. One of these parameter sets constitutes also the basis for parameter studies that were conducted with TREND. The general idea behind these studies is the analysis of implications that arise from specific assumptions on selected key parameters. Besides constant fusion power and constant additional heating power, the plasma density is fixed with respect to the Greenwald limit. The benchmarks helped particularly to detect shortages in the modellings of all involved systems codes

  16. Development of a modular systems code to analyse the implications of physics assumptions on the design of a demonstration fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The successful development and operation of a demonstration power plant (DEMO) is the next important step on roadmaps for fusion energy after ITER that is currently constructed in France. In the first phase of the development process for such devices, the conceptual design phase, the primary aim is to identify coherent designs that are composed of self-consistent sets of values for all key parameters like machine size, plasma current or magnetic field strength. This multidimensional parameter space can be explored with systems codes in order to identify areas that seem to be suited for more detailed investigation. Systems codes are composed of simplified models for all crucial systems of fusion devices that take into account all requirements and constraints of each component. This thesis is about the development of a new systems code called TREND (Tokamak Reactor code for the Evaluation of Next-step Devices). TREND is implemented with modular code architecture and consists of modules for geometry, core plasma physics, divertor, power flow, technology and costing. The main focus has been on the core physics module, since the development of TREND was done in parallel to work on physics design guidelines for DEMO. Moreover, the validation of TREND in terms of benchmarks with other European and Japanese systems codes is discussed. For these benchmarks, specific parameter sets were selected and the observed deviations were traced back to differences concerning the individual modellings. One of these parameter sets constitutes also the basis for parameter studies that were conducted with TREND. The general idea behind these studies is the analysis of implications that arise from specific assumptions on selected key parameters. Besides constant fusion power and constant additional heating power, the plasma density is fixed with respect to the Greenwald limit. The benchmarks helped particularly to detect shortages in the modellings of all involved systems codes

  17. Demonstration of Brachyspira aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 in human colonic biopsies with intestinal spirochaetosis by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Teglbjærg, Peter S.; Lindboe, Christian F.

    2004-01-01

    of these organisms in human intestinal spirochaetosis. Seventeen human colonic biopsies from Norway and Denmark with intestinal spirochaetosis caused by Brachyspira-like organisms different from the type strain of B. aalborgi (lineage 1) were examined. Application of the probe gave a positive signal in two Norwegian...... biopsies, whereas the 15 other biopsies were hybridization-negative. The positive reaction visualized the spirochaetes as a fluorescent, 3-5 mum-high fringe on the surface epithelium, extending into the crypts. The study verified the presence of B. aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 and identified the bacteria...

  18. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  19. Energy, exergy and sustainability analyses of hybrid renewable energy based hydrogen and electricity production and storage systems: Modeling and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, Hakan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Hepbasli, Arif

    2013-01-01

    In this study, hybrid renewable energy based hydrogen and electricity production and storage systems are conceptually modeled and analyzed in detail through energy, exergy and sustainability approaches. Several subsystems, namely hybrid geothermal energy-wind turbine-solar photovoltaic (PV) panel, inverter, electrolyzer, hydrogen storage system, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), battery and loading system are considered. Also, a case study, based on hybrid wind–solar renewable energy system, is conducted and its results are presented. In addition, the dead state temperatures are considered as 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C and 30 °C, while the environment temperature is 30 °C. The maximum efficiencies of the wind turbine, solar PV panel, electrolyzer, PEMFC are calculated as 26.15%, 9.06%, 53.55%, and 33.06% through energy analysis, and 71.70%, 9.74%, 53.60%, and 33.02% through exergy analysis, respectively. Also, the overall exergy efficiency, ranging from 5.838% to 5.865%, is directly proportional to the dead state temperature and becomes higher than the corresponding energy efficiency of 3.44% for the entire system. -- Highlights: ► Developing a three-hybrid renewable energy (geothermal–wind–solar)-based system. ► Undertaking a parametric study at various dead state temperatures. ► Investigating the effect of dead state temperatures on exergy efficiency

  20. Para-allopatry in hybridizing fire-bellied toads (Bombina bombina and B. variegata): Inference from transcriptome-wide coalescence analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nürnberger, Beate; Fijarczyk, A.; Lohse, K.; Szymura, J. M.; Blaxter, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 8 (2016), s. 1803-1818 ISSN 0014-3820 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : ecological speciation * genome-wide coalescence * hybrid zone * introgression * RNA-seq. Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.201, year: 2016

  1. A Hybrid Approach to Protect Palmprint Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric template protection is indispensable to protect personal privacy in large-scale deployment of biometric systems. Accuracy, changeability, and security are three critical requirements for template protection algorithms. However, existing template protection algorithms cannot satisfy all these requirements well. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach that combines random projection and fuzzy vault to improve the performances at these three points. Heterogeneous space is designed for combining random projection and fuzzy vault properly in the hybrid scheme. New chaff point generation method is also proposed to enhance the security of the heterogeneous vault. Theoretical analyses of proposed hybrid approach in terms of accuracy, changeability, and security are given in this paper. Palmprint database based experimental results well support the theoretical analyses and demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed hybrid approach.

  2. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.; Gruebel, R.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner trademark/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist trademark/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals

  3. Analysing mass balance of viruses in a coagulation-ceramic microfiltration hybrid system by a combination of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and the plaque forming units (PFU) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Shirasaki, N

    2006-01-01

    Virus removal experiments using river water spiked with bacteriophages were conducted by an in-line coagulation-ceramic microfiltration hybrid system to investigate the effects of filtration flux (62.5 and 125 L/(m2 x h)) and type of virus (Qbeta and MS2) on virus removal. In addition, the mass balance of viruses through the hybrid system was analysed by quantifying the infectious and inactive viruses by a combination of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and the plaque forming units (PFU) method. Even when the system was operated at high filtration flux (125 L/(m2 x h)), high virus removal (> 6 log) with short coagulation time (2.4 s) was successfully achieved by dosing polyaluminium chloride (PACI) at more than 1.08 mg-Al/L. Removal performances were different between Qbeta and MS2, although their diameters are almost the same: greater virus removal was achieved for MS2 at PACI dosing of 0.54 mg-Al/L, and for Qbeta at PACI dosing of more than 1.08 mg-Al/L. The combination of the PCR and PFU methods revealed that two phenomena, adsorption to/entrapment in aluminium floc and virucidal activity of PACI, partially account for the high virus removal in the coagulation-MF hybrid system.

  4. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  5. Analyses of Genotypes and Phenotypes of Ten Chinese Patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Xu; Pan, Hong; Li, Lin; Wu, Hai-Rong; Wang, Song-Tao; Bao, Xin-Hua; Jiang, Yu-Wu; Qi, Yu

    2016-03-20

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene syndrome that is typically caused by a deletion of the distal portion of the short arm of chromosome 4. However, there are few reports about the features of Chinese WHS patients. This study aimed to characterize the clinical and molecular cytogenetic features of Chinese WHS patients using the combination of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). Clinical information was collected from ten patients with WHS. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of the patients. The deletions were analyzed by MLPA and array CGH. All patients exhibited the core clinical symptoms of WHS, including severe growth delay, a Greek warrior helmet facial appearance, differing degrees of intellectual disability, and epilepsy or electroencephalogram anomalies. The 4p deletions ranged from 2.62 Mb to 17.25 Mb in size and included LETM1, WHSC1, and FGFR3. The combined use of MLPA and array CGH is an effective and specific means to diagnose WHS and allows for the precise identification of the breakpoints and sizes of deletions. The deletion of genes in the WHS candidate region is closely correlated with the core WHS phenotype.

  6. Analyse des effets de deux modalités de constitution des groupes dans un dispositif hybride de formation à distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Depover

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude porte sur les effets de deux modalités de constitution des groupes (spontané versus contrasté dans un dispositif hybride de formation à distance destiné à des étudiants universitaires. Les scénarios d’apprentissage mis en œuvre à l’occasion de cette expérience reposent sur l’utilisation des cartes conceptuelles comme support au travail collaboratif. Les résultats observés n’ont pas permis de mettre en évidence de différence quant à la densité conceptuelle des cartes ou au nombre d’unités de sens produites. Par contre, il apparaît que les unités de sens qui concernent les activités de planification et les commentaires métacognitifs sont nettement plus nombreuses au sein des groupes constitués par pairage contrasté. Une corrélation positive entre l’intensité des interactions à l’intérieur du forum et la densité conceptuelle des cartes produites a également été mise en évidence pour les groupes constitués sur la base d’un pairage contrasté. En ce qui concerne le pairage spontané, nos résultats indiquent que les paires constituées témoignent d’un comportement plus homogène, se révèlent plus collaboratives et consacrent moins d’effort à la planification du travail de groupe.

  7. Demonstration of Heavy Diesel Hybrid Fleet Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-29

    of new discoveries of light, sweet crude oil has required that petroleum companies resort to alternative sources (i.e., tar sands , oil shale, and...from electric motor to engine - Limited acceleration - Engine may stall when driving up hill from standstill - Transmission has delayed shifting and...maintenance free for the service team. Service training requirements are minimal due the straightforward maintenance and simplicity of the system. A

  8. Demonstration of Heavy Hybrid Diesel Fleet Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    resort to alternative sources (i.e., tar sands , oil shale, and bitumen) to keep up with demand. These alternative sources are more costly to recover and...Along Event Category Comment Driveability - Abrupt transition from electric motor to engine - Limited acceleration - Engine may stall when driving up...hydraulic system is transparent to the operator, and is relatively maintenance free for the service team. Service training requirements are minimal due

  9. Demonstration of Hepatitis C Virus RNA with In Situ Hybridization Employing a Locked Nucleic Acid Probe in Humanized Liver of Infected Chimeric Mice and in Needle-Biopsied Human Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Shiogama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In situ hybridization (ISH with high sensitivity has been requested to demonstrate hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE sections of the liver. Methods. ISH employing a locked-nucleic-acid- (LNA-modified oligonucleotide probe and biotin-free catalyzed signal amplification system (CSAII was applied to HCV-RNA detection in the liver tissue. Nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was performed for HCV genotyping using total RNA extracted from FFPE sections. The target tissues included FFPE tissue sections of humanized livers in HCV-infected chimeric mice (HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, and 2a and noninfected and of needle-biopsied livers from HCV-infected patients. Results. HCV-RNA was demonstrated with the ISH technique in HCV-infected liver tissues from both chimeric mice and 9 (82% of 11 patients with HCV infection. The HCV signals were sensitive to RNase. Nested RT-PCR confirmed the genotype in 8 (73% of 11 livers (type 1b: 6 lesions and type 2a: 2 lesions. HCV-RNA was not identified in chronic hepatitis B lesions, fatty liver, autoimmune hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusion. ISH using the LNA-modified oligonucleotide probe and CSAII was applicable to detecting HCV-RNA in routinely prepared FFPE liver specimens.

  10. Analyse de l'emballement thermique d'un système chimique hybride non tempéré

    OpenAIRE

    Véchot , Luc; Bigot , Jean-Pierre; Minko , Wilfried ,; Kazmierczak , Marc; Vicot , Patricia

    2009-01-01

    National audience; Ce travail s'intéresse au “blow-down” (emballement thermique en présence d'un évent de sécurité) d'un système chimique non tempéré (30% CHP) soumis à un incendie. Il utilise une maquette à l'échelle 0,1 l. L'analyse des données post décomposition a montré que la vapeur présente est principalement un produit de la réaction. Toutes les expériences de blow-down ont présenté deux pics de pression, quel que soit le rapport A/V, ce qui est typique des systèmes non tempérés. Nous ...

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF THE GENUINE ISO-12P CHARACTER OF THE STANDARD MARKER CHROMOSOME OF TESTICULAR GERM-CELL TUMORS AND IDENTIFICATION OF FURTHER CHROMOSOME-12 ABERRATIONS BY COMPETITIVE INSITU HYBRIDIZATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SUIJKERBUIJK, RF; VANDEVEEN, AY; VANECHTEN, J; BUYS, CHCM; DEJONG, B; OOSTERHUIS, JW; WARBURTON, DA; CASSIMAN, JJ; SCHONK, D; VANKESSEL, AG

    The recently developed competitive in situ hybridization (CISH) strategy was applied to the analysis of chromosome 12 aberrations in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). DNAs from two rodent-human somatic cell hybrids, containing either a normal chromosome 12 or the p arm of chromosome 12 as their

  12. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Newly Obtained Interspecific Hybrids in the Campanula Genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Catharina Röper

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridisation creates new phenotypes within several ornamental plant species including the Campanula genus. We have employed phenotypic and genotypic methods to analyse and evaluate interspecific hybridisation among cultivars of four Campanula species, i.e. C. cochleariifolia, C. isophylla, C. medium and C. formanekiana. Hybrids were analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, flow cytometry and biometrical measurements. Results of correlation matrices demonstrated heterogeneous phenotypes for the parental species, which confirmed our basic premise for new phenotypes of interspecific hybrids. AFLP assays confirmed the hybridity and identified self-pollinated plants. Limitation of flow cytometry analysis detection was observed while detecting the hybridity status of two closely related parents, e.g. C. cochleariiafolia × C. isophylla. Phenotypic characteristics such as shoot habitus and flower colour were strongly influenced by one of the parental species in most crosses. Rooting analysis revealed that inferior rooting quality occurred more often in interspecific hybrids than in the parental species. Only interspecific hybrid lines of C. formanekiana 'White' × C. medium 'Pink' showed a high rooting level. Phenotype analyses demonstrated a separation from the interspecific hybrid lines of C. formanekiana 'White' × C. medium 'Pink' to the other clustered hybrids of C. formanekiana and C. medium. In our study we demonstrated that the use of correlation matrices is a suitable tool for identifying suitable cross material. This study presents a comprehensive overview for analysing newly obtained interspecific hybrids. The chosen methods can be used as guidance for analyses for further interspecific hybrids in Campanula, as well as in other ornamental species.

  13. Analysis and Experimental Implementation of a Heuristic Strategy for Onboard Energy Management of a Hybrid Solar Vehicle Analyse et expérimentation d’une stratégie heuristique pour la gestion d’énergie à bord d’un véhicule hybride solaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraggio G.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the simulation analysis and the experimental implementation of a Rule-Based (RB control strategy for on-board energy management of a Hybrid Solar Vehicle (HSV, consisting in a series hybrid electric vehicle assisted by photovoltaic panels. The RB strategy consists of two tasks: one external, which determines the final battery State of Charge (SOC to be reached at the end of the driving schedule to allow full exploitation of solar energy during parking phase; the other internal, whose aim is to define the optimal Electric Generator (ICE-EG power trajectory and SOC oscillation around the final value. This control strategy has been implemented in a real time NI® cRIO control unit, thus allowing to perform experimental tests for energy management validation on a real HSV prototype developed at the University of Salerno. Ce document présente l’analyse et la mise en oeuvre d’expérimentation de règles bases RB (Rule Base de stratégie de contrôle pour la gestion d’énergie à bord d’un véhicule hybride solaire HSV (Hybrid Solar Vehicle qui est constitué d’un véhicule hybride électrique fabriqué en série et alimenté par des panneaux photovoltaïques. La stratégie RB se compose de deux tâches : l’une externe, qui détermine l’état final de charge de la batterie (SOC, State of Charge qui doit être atteint à la fin du cycle de conduite pour permettre la pleine exploitation de l’énergie solaire pendant la phase de stationnement, l’autre interne, dont le but est de définir le générateur électrique optimal (ICEEG, Internal Combustion Engine – Electric Generator, la trajectoire de la puissance et l’oscillation du SOC autour de la valeur finale. Cette stratégie de contrôle a été mise en oeuvre en temps réel dans une unité de contrôle NI®cRIO (National Instruments compact RIO, permettant ainsi d’effectuer des essais expérimentaux pour la validation de la gestion d’énergie sur un

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  16. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use - international joint demonstration and development of photovoltaic power generation systems (Demonstrative research on photovoltaic power and micro hydraulic power hybrid system); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system kokusai kyodo jissho kaihatsu (taiyoko micro suiryoku hybrid system jissho kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) power plant is compounded with a micro hydroelectric (MH) power plant in Vietnam, who has a dry season and a rainy season, to structure a stabilized power supply system to compensate drawbacks of the respective systems. Full load operation is being performed to advance the development of technologies to optimize and improve the performance and reliability of the system. The works include (1) site surveys, and decision on a location to execute the demonstration research, (2) design of the system, and design and fabrication of devices, and (3) the building construction thereof. In Item (1), the location was decided at Trang Village, Vietnam from such installing conditions as annual average insolation, water channels for wheel turbines, energy complementing relations, load demand amount, and difficulty of installation. In Item (2), the system consists of PV:100 kW/MH:25 kW/control system, wherein the MH is an inductive generator. The Main devices include generators, batteries, inverters, system control panels, and a meteorological data recording device. In Item (3) land survey and development were completed. (NEDO)

  17. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use - Demonstrative research on photovoltaic power generation system (Research on multi-hybrid photovoltaic power generation system); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system no jissho kenkyu (taiyoko hatsuden multi hybrid system no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A multi-hybrid system integrating photovoltaic and wind power generation systems with the existing diesel engine power generation system was assumed for installation in power systems in islands. System analyzing simulation and economic performance analyses were performed to consider system configurations suitable for islands from the viewpoints of system stability and economic performance. The work was progressed by dividing the subject into (1) research on the system configurations, and (2) studies on the economic performance. In performing either work, the power demand was classified as large (in Miyako Island), medium (in Kume Island) and small (in Tarama Island), and the introduction years into 1997, 2000, and 2005. In Item (1), the system parameter specifications were put into order, and the system analyzing simulation was performed, wherein it was verified that the system will be stabilized by introducing a system stabilizing equipment (batteries and an inverter) and by limiting the output from the wind power generation. In Item (2), it was made clear that the power generation cost is equivalent to or lower than the present cost, making reduction in fuel consumption possible. It was also disclosed that the introduction is most effective in small islands, and drop in the power generation amount due to limiting the output from the wind power generation is small. (NEDO)

  18. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Marans, B. [Toronto Atmospheric Fund, ON (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO{sub 2} emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  19. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.; Marans, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO 2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  20. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed

  1. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  2. Design, Synthesis, and Analysis of Minor Groove Binder Pyrrolepolyamide-2′-Deoxyguanosine Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Kawashima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolepolyamide-2′-deoxyguanosine hybrids (Hybrid 2 and Hybrid 3 incorporating the 3-aminopropionyl or 3-aminopropyl linker were designed and synthesized on the basis of previously reported results of a pyrrolepolyamide-adenosine hybrid (Hybrid 1. Evaluation of the DNA binding sequence selectivity of pyrrolepolyamide-2′-deoxyguanosine hybrids was performed by CD spectral and Tm analyses. It was shown that Hybrid 3 possessed greater binding specificity than distamycin A, Hybrid 1 and Hybrid 2.

  3. Hybrid fitness, adaptation and evolutionary diversification: lessons learned from Louisiana Irises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M L; Ballerini, E S; Brothers, A N

    2012-03-01

    Estimates of hybrid fitness have been used as either a platform for testing the potential role of natural hybridization in the evolution of species and species complexes or, alternatively, as a rationale for dismissing hybridization events as being of any evolutionary significance. From the time of Darwin's publication of The Origin, through the neo-Darwinian synthesis, to the present day, the observation of variability in hybrid fitness has remained a challenge for some models of speciation. Yet, Darwin and others have reported the elevated fitness of hybrid genotypes under certain environmental conditions. In modern scientific terminology, this observation reflects the fact that hybrid genotypes can demonstrate genotype × environment interactions. In the current review, we illustrate the development of one plant species complex, namely the Louisiana Irises, into a 'model system' for investigating hybrid fitness and the role of genetic exchange in adaptive evolution and diversification. In particular, we will argue that a multitude of approaches, involving both experimental and natural environments, and incorporating both manipulative analyses and surveys of natural populations, are necessary to adequately test for the evolutionary significance of introgressive hybridization. An appreciation of the variability of hybrid fitness leads to the conclusion that certain genetic signatures reflect adaptive evolution. Furthermore, tests of the frequency of allopatric versus sympatric/parapatric divergence (that is, divergence with ongoing gene flow) support hybrid genotypes as a mechanism of evolutionary diversification in numerous species complexes.

  4. Analyses of the use of natural gas in solar power plants (CSP) hybridization in the Sao Francisco Basin (BA); Analise do uso de gas natural na hibridizacao de plantas termosolares (CSP) na Bacia do Sao Francisco (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagueta, Diego Cunha; Penafiel, Rafael Andres Soria; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Dutra, Ricardo M.; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) in Northeast, Brazil. It focused on parabolic trough solar power plants, which is the most mature CSP technology; and evaluated plants rated at 100 MWe, dry cooling systems (due to the low water availability in Northeast), and with and without hybridization based on natural gas (degree of hybridization varying from 25 to 75%). Hence, the capacity factor of the simulated plants hovered between 23 and 98%, according to the degree of hybridization and the choice of the thermodynamic cycle of the natural gas fueled thermal system: Rankine or combined cycle. The CSP plants were simulated at Bom Jesus da Lapa, in the semi-arid region of Bahia. Given the prospects for natural gas resources in the Sao Francisco Basin, different scenarios for the gas prices were tested. Moreover, two scenarios were tested for the cost of the CSP plants, one based on the current financial environment and the other based on incentive policies, such as fiscal incentives and loans. Findings show that while simple plants levelized costs (LCOE) hovered around 520 R$/MWh, for hybrid plants LCOE may reach 140 to 190 R$/MWh. Therefore, this study proposed incentive policies to promote the increasing investment in hybrid CSP plants. (author)

  5. Concept of a demonstrational hybrid reactor—a tokamak with molten-salt blanket for {sup 233}U fuel production: 1. Concept of a stationary Tokamak as a neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizov, E. A.; Gladush, G. G., E-mail: gladush@triniti.ru; Dokuka, V. N.; Khayrutdinov, R. R. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation, Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    On the basis of current understanding of physical processes in tokamaks and taking into account engineering constraints, it is shown that a low-cost facility of a moderate size can be designed within the adopted concept. This facility makes it possible to achieve the power density of neutron flux which is of interest, in particular, for solving the problem of {sup 233}U fuel production from thorium. By using a molten-salt blanket, the important task of ensuring the safe operation of such a reactor in the case of possible coolant loss is accomplished. Moreover, in a hybrid reactor with the blanket based on liquid salts, the problem of periodic refueling that is difficult to perform in solid blankets can be solved.

  6. Mechanisms Underlying Mammalian Hybrid Sterility in Two Feline Interspecies Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian W; Seabury, Christopher M; Brashear, Wesley A; Li, Gang; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Murphy, William J

    2015-10-01

    The phenomenon of male sterility in interspecies hybrids has been observed for over a century, however, few genes influencing this recurrent phenotype have been identified. Genetic investigations have been primarily limited to a small number of model organisms, thus limiting our understanding of the underlying molecular basis of this well-documented "rule of speciation." We utilized two interspecies hybrid cat breeds in a genome-wide association study employing the Illumina 63 K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Collectively, we identified eight autosomal genes/gene regions underlying associations with hybrid male sterility (HMS) involved in the function of the blood-testis barrier, gamete structural development, and transcriptional regulation. We also identified several candidate hybrid sterility regions on the X chromosome, with most residing in close proximity to complex duplicated regions. Differential gene expression analyses revealed significant chromosome-wide upregulation of X chromosome transcripts in testes of sterile hybrids, which were enriched for genes involved in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Our expression results parallel those reported in Mus hybrids, supporting the "Large X-Effect" in mammalian HMS and the potential epigenetic basis for this phenomenon. These results support the value of the interspecies feline model as a powerful tool for comparison to rodent models of HMS, demonstrating unique aspects and potential commonalities that underpin mammalian reproductive isolation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Analysis of Non-binary Hybrid LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Sassatelli, Lucile; Declercq, David

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse asymptotically a new class of LDPC codes called Non-binary Hybrid LDPC codes, which has been recently introduced. We use density evolution techniques to derive a stability condition for hybrid LDPC codes, and prove their threshold behavior. We study this stability condition to conclude on asymptotic advantages of hybrid LDPC codes compared to their non-hybrid counterparts.

  8. Progress for the Industry Application External Hazard Analyses Early Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ryan, Emerald [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Bhandari, Bishwo [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Sludern, Daniel [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Sampath, Ram [Centroid PIC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current progress and status related to the Industry Application #2 focusing on External Hazards. For this industry application within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) R&D Pathway, we will create the Risk-Informed Margin Management (RIMM) approach to represent meaningful (i.e., realistic facility representation) event scenarios and consequences by using an advanced 3D facility representation that will evaluate external hazards such as flooding and earthquakes in order to identify, model and analyze the appropriate physics that needs to be included to determine plant vulnerabilities related to external events; manage the communication and interactions between different physics modeling and analysis technologies; and develop the computational infrastructure through tools related to plant representation, scenario depiction, and physics prediction. One of the unique aspects of the RISMC approach is how it couples probabilistic approaches (the scenario) with mechanistic phenomena representation (the physics) through simulation. This simulation-based modeling allows decision makers to focus on a variety of safety, performance, or economic metrics. In this report, we describe the evaluation of various physics toolkits related to flooding representation. Ultimately, we will be coupling the flooding representation with other events such as earthquakes in order to provide coupled physics analysis for scenarios where interactions exist.

  9. Hybrid XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years significant innovations of EDXRF, e.g. total reflection XRF or polarized beam XRF, were utilized in different industrial applications. The decrease of background within the spectra was the goal of these developments. Excellent detection limits and sensitivities demonstrate the success of these new techniques. Nevertheless, further improvements are possible by using Si drift detectors. These detectors allow the processing of input count rates up to 10 6 cps in comparison to 10 5 of Si(Li) detectors. New excitation optics are necessary to produce such count rates. One possibility is the use of doubly curved crystals between tube and sample. These crystals enable the reflection of the primary beam within the given solid angle (0.4π) of an end window tube to the sample. Using such brightness optics excellent sensitivities mainly for light elements are achievable. The combination of a BRAGG crystal as a wavelength dispersive component and a solid state detector as an energy dispersive component creates a new technique: hybrid XRF. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  10. Generation of New Genotypic and Phenotypic Features in Artificial and Natural Yeast Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter P. Pfliegler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolution and genome stabilization have mostly been studied on the Saccharomyces hybrids isolated from natural and alcoholic fermentation environments. Genetic and phenotypic properties have usually been compared to the laboratory and reference strains, as the true ancestors of the natural hybrid yeasts are unknown. In this way the exact impact of different parental fractions on the genome organization or metabolic activity of the hybrid yeasts is difficult to resolve completely. In the present work the evolution of geno- and phenotypic properties is studied in the interspecies hybrids created by the cross-breeding of S. cerevisiae with S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii auxotrophic mutants. We hypothesized that the extent of genomic alterations in S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii should affect the physiology of their F1 offspring in different ways. Our results, obtained by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP genotyping and karyotyping analyses, showed that both subgenomes of the S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum and of S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids experienced various modifications. However, the S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii F1 hybrids underwent more severe genomic alterations than the S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum ones. Generation of the new genotypes also influenced the physiological performances of the hybrids and the occurrence of novel phenotypes. Significant differences in carbohydrate utilization and distinct growth dynamics at increasing concentrations of sodium chloride, urea and miconazole were observed within and between the S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids. Parental strains also demonstrated different contributions to the final metabolic outcomes of the hybrid yeasts. A comparison of the genotypic properties of the artificial hybrids with several hybrid isolates from the wine-related environments and wastewater demonstrated a greater genetic variability of

  11. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species of swordtails and platies (Pisces: Genus Xiphophorus) uncovers a hybrid origin of a swordtail fish, Xiphophorus monticolus, and demonstrates that the sexually selected sword originated in the ancestral lineage of the genus, but was lost again secondarily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Hyoun; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B; Meyer, Axel

    2013-01-29

    ancestral state for the genus Xiphophorus. Further, we provide a well supported estimation of the phylogenetic relationships between the previously unresolved northern swordtail groups. This comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the entire genus Xiphophorus provides evidence that a second swordtail species, X. monticolus, arose through hybridization. Previously, we demonstrated that X. clemenciae, another southern swordtail species, arose via hybridization. These findings highlight the potential key role of hybridization in the evolution of this genus and suggest the need for further investigations into how hybridization contributes to speciation more generally.

  12. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species of swordtails and platies (Pisces: Genus Xiphophorus uncovers a hybrid origin of a swordtail fish, Xiphophorus monticolus, and demonstrates that the sexually selected sword originated in the ancestral lineage of the genus, but was lost again secondarily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ji Hyoun

    2013-01-01

    selected sword trait is shown to be the most likely ancestral state for the genus Xiphophorus. Further, we provide a well supported estimation of the phylogenetic relationships between the previously unresolved northern swordtail groups. Conclusions This comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the entire genus Xiphophorus provides evidence that a second swordtail species, X. monticolus, arose through hybridization. Previously, we demonstrated that X. clemenciae, another southern swordtail species, arose via hybridization. These findings highlight the potential key role of hybridization in the evolution of this genus and suggest the need for further investigations into how hybridization contributes to speciation more generally.

  13. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  14. Hybrid propulsion technology program. Volume 2: Technology definition package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gordon E.; Holzman, Allen L.; Leisch, Steven O.; Keilbach, Joseph; Parsley, Randy; Humphrey, John

    1989-01-01

    A concept design study was performed to configure two sizes of hybrid boosters; one which duplicates the advanced shuttle rocket motor vacuum thrust time curve and a smaller, quarter thrust level booster. Two sizes of hybrid boosters were configured for either pump-fed or pressure-fed oxygen feed systems. Performance analyses show improved payload capability relative to a solid propellant booster. Size optimization and fuel safety considerations resulted in a 4.57 m (180 inch) diameter large booster with an inert hydrocarbon fuel. The preferred diameter for the quarter thrust level booster is 2.53 m (96 inches). The demonstration plan would culminate with test firings of a 3.05 m (120 inch) diameter hybrid booster.

  15. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  16. Hybrid Materials for Molecular Sieves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Klein, Lisa; Aparicio, Mario; Jitianu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid microporous organosilica membranes for molecular separations made by acid-catalyzed solgel synthesis from bridged silsesquioxane precursors have demonstrated good performance in terms of flux and selectivity and remarkable hydrothermal stability in various pervaporation and gas separation

  17. Genetic basis to hybrid inviability is more complex than hybrid male sterility in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundus, Joanna D; Wang, Donglin; Cutter, Asher D

    2018-04-07

    Hybrid male sterility often evolves before female sterility or inviability of hybrids, implying that the accumulation of divergence between separated lineages should lead hybrid male sterility to have a more polygenic basis. However, experimental evidence is mixed. Here, we use the nematodes Caenorhabditis remanei and C. latens to characterize the underlying genetic basis of asymmetric hybrid male sterility and hybrid inviability. We demonstrate that hybrid male sterility is consistent with a simple genetic basis, involving a single X-autosome incompatibility. We also show that hybrid inviability involves more genomic compartments, involving diverse nuclear-nuclear incompatibilities, a mito-nuclear incompatibility, and maternal effects. These findings demonstrate that male sensitivity to genetic perturbation may be genetically simple compared to hybrid inviability in Caenorhabditis and motivates tests of generality for the genetic architecture of hybrid incompatibility across the breadth of phylogeny.

  18. Assessing hybrid sterility in Oryza glaberrima x O. sativa hybrid progenies by PCR marker analysis and crossing with wide compatibility varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Sigrid; Miézan, Kouamé M

    2003-09-01

    Interspecific crossing of the African indigenous rice Oryza glaberrima with Oryza sativa cultivars is hindered by crossing barriers causing 100% spikelet sterility in F(1) hybrids. Since hybrids are partially female fertile, fertility can be restored by back crossing (BC) to a recurrent male parent. Distinct genetic models on spikelet sterility have been developed predicting, e.g., the existence of a gamete eliminator and/or a pollen killer. Linkage of sterility to the waxy starch synthase gene and the chromogen gene C, both located on chromosome 6, have been demonstrated. We selected a segregating BC(2)F(3) population of semi-sterile O. glaberrima x O. sativa indica hybrid progenies for analyses with PCR markers located at the respective chromosome-6 region. These analyses revealed that semi-sterile plants were heterozygous for a marker (OSR25) located in the waxy promoter, whereas fertile progenies were homozygous for the O. glaberrima allele. Adjacent markers showed no linkage to spikelet sterility. Semi-sterility of hybrid progenies was maintained at least until the F(4) progeny generation, suggesting the existence of a pollen killer in this plant material. Monitoring of reproductive plant development showed that spikelet sterility was at least partially due to an arrest of pollen development at the microspore stage. In order to address the question whether genes responsible for F(1) sterility in intraspecific hybrids ( O. sativa indica x japonica) also cause spikelet sterility in interspecific hybrids, crossings with wide compatibility varieties (WCV) were performed. WCV accessions possess "neutral" S-loci ( S(n)) improving fertility in intraspecific hybrids. This experiment showed that the tested S(n)-loci had no fertility restoring effect in F(1) interspecific hybrids. Pollen development was completely arrested at the microspore stage and grains were never obtained after selfing. This suggests that distinct or additional S-loci are responsible for sterility

  19. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  20. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  1. Preparation of an amide group-connected graphene-polyaniline nanofiber hybrid and its application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianhua, Liu; Junwei, An; Yecheng, Zhou; Yuxiao, Ma; Mengliu, Li; Mei, Yu; Songmei, Li

    2012-06-27

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofiber is grafted onto graphene to obtain a novel graphene-polyaniline (GP) hybrid. Graphene is activated using SOCl2 and reacts with PANI to form an amide group that intimately connects graphene and PANI. The existence of the amide group and its anchoring effect in the GP hybrid are confirmed and characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, Raman, XPS and quantum chemistry analyses. Electrochemical tests reveal that the GP hybrid has high capacitance performances of 579.8 and 361.9 F g(-1) at current densities of 0.3 and 1 A g(-1). These values indicate superiority to materials interacted by van der Waals force. Long-term charge/discharge tests at high current densities show that the GP hybrid preserves 96% of its initial capacitance, demonstrating good electrochemical stability. The improved electrochemical performance suggests promising application of the GP hybrid in high-performance supercapacitors.

  2. Energy consumption and cost analysis of hybrid electric powertrain configurations for two wheelers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Paul D.; Roser, Holger M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyse several driving cycles to for the preliminary design of hybrid two wheelers. • Simulation of alternate configurations to compare achievable driving range and economy. • Demonstrate that pure electric vehicles provide cost benefits over the vehicle life. • Hybrid and plug-in hybrid two wheelers have comparable costs to conventional vehicles. - Abstract: The development of hybrid electric two wheelers in recent years has targeted the reduction of on road emissions produced by these vehicles. However, added cost and complexity have resulted in the failure of these systems to meet consumer expectations. This paper presents a comparative study of the energy economy and essential costs of alternative forms of small two wheelers such as scooters or low capacity motorcycles. This includes conventional, hybrid, plug-in hybrid and electric variants. Through simulations of vehicle driving range using two popular driving cycles it is demonstrated that there is considerable benefit in fuel economy realised by hybridising such vehicles. However, the added costs associated with electrification, i.e. motor/generator, power electronics, and energy storage provide a significant cost obstacle to the purchase of such vehicles. Only the pure electric configuration is demonstrated to be cost effective over its life in comparison to conventional two wheelers. Both the hybrid electric and plug-in equivalents must overcome significant upfront costs to be cost competitive with conventional vehicles. This is demonstrated to be achieved if the annual driving range of the vehicle is increased substantially from the assumed mean. Given the shorter distances travelled by most two wheeler drivers it can therefore be concluded that the development of similar hybrid electric vehicles are unlikely to achieve the desired acceptance that pure electric or conventional equivalents currently achieve

  3. The Federal electric and hybrid vehicle program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The commercial development and use of electric and hybrid vehicles is discussed with respect to its application as a possible alternative transportation system. A market demonstration is described that seeks to place 10,000 electric hybrid vehicles into public and private sector demonstrations.

  4. Gamma-ray astronomy from the ground and the space: first analyses of the HESS-II hybrid array and search for blazar candidates among the unidentified Fermi-LAT sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaucheur, Julien

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript is about high energy gamma-ray astronomy (between 30 GeV and 300 GeV) with the Fermi-LAT satellite and very high energy gamma-ray astronomy (above ∼100 GeV) via the H.E.S.S. experiment. The second phase of the H.E.S.S. experiment began in July 2012 with the inauguration of a fifth 28 m-diameter telescope added to the initial array composed of four 12 m-diameter imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. In the first part of this thesis, we present the development of an analysis in hybrid mode based on a multivariate method dedicated to detect and study sources with different spectral shapes and the first analysis results on real data. The second part is dedicated to the research of blazar candidates among the Fermi-LAT unidentified sources of the 2FGL catalog. A first development is based on a multivariate approach using discriminant parameters built with the 2FGL catalog parameters. A second development is done with the use of the WISE satellite catalog and a non-parametric technic in order to find the blazar-like infrared counterparts of the unidentified sources of the 2FGL catalog. (author)

  5. The ascomycete Verticillium longisporum is a hybrid and a plant pathogen with an expanded host range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Inderbitzin

    Full Text Available Hybridization plays a central role in plant evolution, but its overall importance in fungi is unknown. New plant pathogens are thought to arise by hybridization between formerly separated fungal species. Evolution of hybrid plant pathogens from non-pathogenic ancestors in the fungal-like protist Phytophthora has been demonstrated, but in fungi, the most important group of plant pathogens, there are few well-characterized examples of hybrids. We focused our attention on the hybrid and plant pathogen Verticillium longisporum, the causal agent of the Verticillium wilt disease in crucifer crops. In order to address questions related to the evolutionary origin of V. longisporum, we used phylogenetic analyses of seven nuclear loci and a dataset of 203 isolates of V. longisporum, V. dahliae and related species. We confirmed that V. longisporum was diploid, and originated three different times, involving four different lineages and three different parental species. All hybrids shared a common parent, species A1, that hybridized respectively with species D1, V. dahliae lineage D2 and V. dahliae lineage D3, to give rise to three different lineages of V. longisporum. Species A1 and species D1 constituted as yet unknown taxa. Verticillium longisporum likely originated recently, as each V. longisporum lineage was genetically homogenous, and comprised species A1 alleles that were identical across lineages.

  6. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  7. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  8. Vapor Compressor Driven Hybrid Two-Phase Loop, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will demonstrate a vapor compressor driven hybrid two-phase loop technology. The hybrid two-phase loop...

  9. Hybridization analysis of P2 phage and of a defective prophage of Escherichia Coli B by the density gradient centrifugation method; Analyse de l'hybridation du phage P2 et d'un prophage defectifs d'Escherichia Coli B, par la methode de centrifugation en gradient de densite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Denise [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, C. E. N. de Saclay, Service de Biologie (France)

    1960-07-01

    The P2 Hydis phage produced by P2 phage multiplication in E. coli B shows a higher density than its P2 parent. This density increase is the same for all P2 Hydis coming from a huge number of distinct hybridizations. It is closed to 0.002 g.cm{sup -3}. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 946-948, sitting of 1 February 1960 [French] Le phage P2 Hydis, produit lors de la multiplication du phage P2 dans E. Coli B, presente une densite superieure a celle de son parent P2. Cette augmentation de densite est la meme pour tous les P2 Hydis issus d'un grand nombre d'hybridations distinctes. Elle est voisine de 0,002 g.cm{sup -3}. Reproduction d'un article publie dans les Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 946-948, seance du 1er fevrier 1960.

  10. Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR) blanket design study, December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This work represents only the second iteration of the conceptual design of a DTHR blanket; consequently, a number of issues important to a detailed blanket design have not yet been evaluated. The most critical issues identified are those of two-phase flow maldistribution, flow instabilities, flow stratification for horizontal radial inflow of boiling water, fuel rod vibrations, corrosion of clad and structural materials by high quality steam, fretting and cyclic loads. Approaches to minimizing these problems are discussed and experimental testing with flow mock-ups is recommended. These implications on a commercial blanket design are discussed and critical data needs are identified

  11. Experimental Crossing of Two Distinct Species of Leopard Geckos, Eublepharis angramainyu and E. macularius: Viability, Fertility and Phenotypic Variation of the Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančúchová-Lásková, Jitka; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between distinct species of animals and subsequent genetic introgression plays a considerable role in the speciation process and the emergence of adaptive characters. Fitness of between-species hybrids usually sharply decreases with the divergence time of the concerned species and the divergence depth, which still allows for a successful crossing differs among principal clades of vertebrates. Recently, a review of hybridization events among distinct lizard species revealed that lizards belong to vertebrates with a highly developed ability to hybridize. In spite of this, reliable reports of experimental hybridizations between genetically fairly divergent species are only exceptional. Here, we show the results of the crossing of two distinct allopatric species of eyelid geckos possessing temperature sex determination and lacking sex chromosomes: Eublepharis macularius distributed in Pakistan/Afghanistan area and E. angramainyu, which inhabits Mesopotamia and adjacent areas. We demonstrated that F1 hybrids were viable and fertile, and the introgression of E. angramainyu genes into the E. macularius genome can be enabled via a backcrossing. The examined hybrids (except those of the F2 generation) displayed neither malformations nor a reduced survival. Analyses of morphometric and coloration traits confirmed phenotypic distinctness of both parental species and their F1 hybrids. These findings contrast with long-term geographic and an evolutionary separation of the studied species. Thus, the occurrence of fertile hybrids of comparably divergent species, such as E. angramainyu and E. macularius, may also be expected in other taxa of squamates. This would violate the current estimates of species diversity in lizards.

  12. Functional divergence caused by ancient positive selection of a Drosophila hybrid incompatibility locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Barbash

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrid lethality and sterility are a consequence of divergent evolution between species and serve to maintain the discrete identities of species. The evolution of hybrid incompatibilities has been described in widely accepted models by Dobzhansky and Muller where lineage-specific functional divergence is the essential characteristic of hybrid incompatibility genes. Experimentally tractable models are required to identify and test candidate hybrid incompatibility genes. Several Drosophila melanogaster genes involved in hybrid incompatibility have been identified but none has yet been shown to have functionally diverged in accordance with the Dobzhansky-Muller model. By introducing transgenic copies of the X-linked Hybrid male rescue (Hmr gene into D. melanogaster from its sibling species D. simulans and D. mauritiana, we demonstrate that Hmr has functionally diverged to cause F1 hybrid incompatibility between these species. Consistent with the Dobzhansky-Muller model, we find that Hmr has diverged extensively in the D. melanogaster lineage, but we also find extensive divergence in the sibling-species lineage. Together, these findings implicate over 13% of the amino acids encoded by Hmr as candidates for causing hybrid incompatibility. The exceptional level of divergence at Hmr cannot be explained by neutral processes because we use phylogenetic methods and population genetic analyses to show that the elevated amino-acid divergence in both lineages is due to positive selection in the distant past-at least one million generations ago. Our findings suggest that multiple substitutions driven by natural selection may be a general phenomenon required to generate hybrid incompatibility alleles.

  13. Prdm9 incompatibility controls oligospermia and delayed fertility but no selfish transmission in mouse intersubspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachs, Petr; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondřej; Piálek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiří; Trachtulec, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    PR-domain 9 (Prdm9) is the first hybrid sterility gene identified in mammals. The incompatibility between Prdm9 from Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd; the B6 strain) and the Hstx2 region of chromosome (Chr) X from M. m. musculus (Mmm; the PWD strain) participates in the complete meiotic arrest of mouse intersubspecific (PWD×B6)F1 hybrid males. Other studies suggest that also semisterile intersubspecific hybrids are relevant for mouse speciation, but the genes responsible remain unknown. To investigate the causes of this semisterility, we analyzed the role of Prdm9 and Chr X in hybrids resulting from the crosses of PWK, another Mmm-derived inbred strain. We demonstrate that Prdm9 and Chr X control the partial meiotic arrest and reduced sperm count in (PWK×B6)F1 males. Asynapsis of heterosubspecific chromosomes and semisterility were partially suppressed by removal of the B6 allele of Prdm9. Polymorphisms between PWK and PWD on Chr X but not in the Prdm9 region were responsible for the modification of the outcome of Prdm9-Chr X F1 hybrid incompatibility. Furthermore, (PWK×B6)F1 hybrid males displayed delayed fertility dependent on the Prdm9 incompatibility. While the Drosophila hybrid sterility gene Overdrive causes both delayed fertility and increased transmission of its own chromosome to the offspring, the segregation of Chr X and the Prdm9 region from the mouse (PWK×B6)F1 males was normal. Our results indicate extended functional consequences of Prdm9-Chr X intersubspecific incompatibility on the fertility of hybrids and should influence the design of fertility analyses in hybrid zones and of laboratory crosses between Mmm and Mmd strains.

  14. Prdm9 incompatibility controls oligospermia and delayed fertility but no selfish transmission in mouse intersubspecific hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Flachs

    Full Text Available PR-domain 9 (Prdm9 is the first hybrid sterility gene identified in mammals. The incompatibility between Prdm9 from Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd; the B6 strain and the Hstx2 region of chromosome (Chr X from M. m. musculus (Mmm; the PWD strain participates in the complete meiotic arrest of mouse intersubspecific (PWD×B6F1 hybrid males. Other studies suggest that also semisterile intersubspecific hybrids are relevant for mouse speciation, but the genes responsible remain unknown. To investigate the causes of this semisterility, we analyzed the role of Prdm9 and Chr X in hybrids resulting from the crosses of PWK, another Mmm-derived inbred strain. We demonstrate that Prdm9 and Chr X control the partial meiotic arrest and reduced sperm count in (PWK×B6F1 males. Asynapsis of heterosubspecific chromosomes and semisterility were partially suppressed by removal of the B6 allele of Prdm9. Polymorphisms between PWK and PWD on Chr X but not in the Prdm9 region were responsible for the modification of the outcome of Prdm9-Chr X F1 hybrid incompatibility. Furthermore, (PWK×B6F1 hybrid males displayed delayed fertility dependent on the Prdm9 incompatibility. While the Drosophila hybrid sterility gene Overdrive causes both delayed fertility and increased transmission of its own chromosome to the offspring, the segregation of Chr X and the Prdm9 region from the mouse (PWK×B6F1 males was normal. Our results indicate extended functional consequences of Prdm9-Chr X intersubspecific incompatibility on the fertility of hybrids and should influence the design of fertility analyses in hybrid zones and of laboratory crosses between Mmm and Mmd strains.

  15. Modelling the solar wind interaction with Mercury by a quasi-neutral hybrid model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kallio

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-neutral hybrid model is a self-consistent modelling approach that includes positively charged particles and an electron fluid. The approach has received an increasing interest in space plasma physics research because it makes it possible to study several plasma physical processes that are difficult or impossible to model by self-consistent fluid models, such as the effects associated with the ions’ finite gyroradius, the velocity difference between different ion species, or the non-Maxwellian velocity distribution function. By now quasi-neutral hybrid models have been used to study the solar wind interaction with the non-magnetised Solar System bodies of Mars, Venus, Titan and comets. Localized, two-dimensional hybrid model runs have also been made to study terrestrial dayside magnetosheath. However, the Hermean plasma environment has not yet been analysed by a global quasi-neutral hybrid model. In this paper we present a new quasi-neutral hybrid model developed to study various processes associated with the Mercury-solar wind interaction. Emphasis is placed on addressing advantages and disadvantages of the approach to study different plasma physical processes near the planet. The basic assumptions of the approach and the algorithms used in the new model are thoroughly presented. Finally, some of the first three-dimensional hybrid model runs made for Mercury are presented. The resulting macroscopic plasma parameters and the morphology of the magnetic field demonstrate the applicability of the new approach to study the Mercury-solar wind interaction globally. In addition, the real advantage of the kinetic hybrid model approach is to study the property of individual ions, and the study clearly demonstrates the large potential of the approach to address these more detailed issues by a quasi-neutral hybrid model in the future.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (planetary magnetospheres; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions – Space plasma

  16. Hybridization among three native North American Canis species in a region of natural sympatry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hailer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans, Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi and red wolf (C. rufus, were historically sympatric in Texas, United States. Human impacts caused the latter two to go extinct in the wild, although they survived in captive breeding programs. Morphological data demonstrate historic reproductive isolation between all three taxa. While the red wolf population was impacted by introgressive hybridization with coyotes as it went extinct in the wild, the impact of hybridization on the Texas populations of the other species is not clear.We surveyed variation at maternally and paternally inherited genetic markers (mitochondrial control region sequence and Y chromosome microsatellites in coyotes from Texas, Mexican wolves and red wolves from the captive breeding programs, and a reference population of coyotes from outside the historic red wolf range. Levels of variation and phylogenetic analyses suggest that hybridization has occasionally taken place between all three species, but that the impact on the coyote population is very small.Our results demonstrate that the factors driving introgressive hybridization in sympatric Texan Canis are multiple and complex. Hybridization is not solely determined by body size or sex, and density-dependent effects do not fully explain the observed pattern either. No evidence of hybridization was identified in the Mexican wolf captive breeding program, but introgression appears to have had a greater impact on the captive red wolves.

  17. Fabrication of nanostructured graphene/polyaniline hybrid material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.L.; Hao, Q.L.; Wang, X.; Lu, L.D.; Yang, X.J. [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China). Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Ministry of Education

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a flexible graphene/polyaniline hybrid material was prepared using an in situ polymerization-reduction/dedoping-redoping process for use as a supercapacitor electrode. Graphene oxide and a single layer of graphite oxide were used as a substrate material for the graphene oxide-polyaniline composite using an in situ polymerization method. The composite was then treated with a hot sodium hydroxide solution in order to produce a reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline hybrid material. The sodium hydroxide was also used as a dedoping reagent for the polyaniline in the composite. A thin, uniform and flexible conducting graphene/polyaniline product with an unchanged morphology was obtained using the process. Analyses of the material demonstrated that the composite showed an improved electrochemical performance than the pure individual components, with a specific capacitance of 1126 F per g and a retention life of 84 per cent after 1000 cycles. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...... has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  19. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  20. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I.; Fenstad, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA, have been sparsely described. The Nordic Arthroplasty....... Patients and methods - From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk...

  1. Human management and hybridization shape treegourd fruits in the Brazilian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrósio Moreira, Priscila; Mariac, Cédric; Zekraoui, Leila; Couderc, Marie; Rodrigues, Doriane Picanço; Clement, Charles R; Vigouroux, Yves

    2017-07-01

    Local people's perceptions of cultivated and wild agrobiodiversity, as well as their management of hybridization are still understudied in Amazonia. Here we analyze domesticated treegourd ( Crescentia cujete ), whose versatile fruits have technological, symbolic, and medicinal uses. A wild relative ( C. amazonica ) of the cultivated species grows spontaneously in Amazonian flooded forests. We demonstrated, using whole chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites, that the two species are strongly differentiated. Nonetheless, they hybridize readily throughout Amazonia and the proportions of admixture correlate with fruit size variation of cultivated trees. New morphotypes arise from hybridization, which are recognized by people and named as local varieties. Small hybrid fruits are used to make the important symbolic rattle ( maracá ), suggesting that management of hybrid trees is an ancient human practice in Amazonia. Effective conservation of Amazonian agrobiodiversity needs to incorporate this interaction between wild and cultivated populations that is managed by smallholder families. Beyond treegourd, our study clearly shows that hybridization plays an important role in tree crop phenotypic diversification and that the integration of molecular analyses and farmers' perceptions of diversity help disentangle crop domestication history.

  2. Current status of hybrid coronary revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaik, Nikhil P; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Leacche, Marzia; Solenkova, Natalia; Balaguer, Jorge M; Hoff, Steven J; Ball, Stephen K; Zhao, David X; Byrne, John G

    2011-10-01

    Hybrid coronary revascularization combines coronary artery bypass surgery with percutaneous coronary intervention techniques to treat coronary artery disease. The potential benefits of such a technique are to offer the patients the best available treatments for coronary artery disease while minimizing the risks of the surgery. Hybrid coronary revascularization has resulted in the establishment of new 'hybrid operating suites', which incorporate and integrate the capabilities of a cardiac surgery operating room with that of an interventional cardiology laboratory. Hybrid coronary revascularization has greatly augmented teamwork and cooperation between both fields and has demonstrated encouraging as well as good initial outcomes.

  3. Craniomandibular form and body size variation of first generation mouse hybrids: A model for hominin hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kerryn A; Ritzman, Terrence B; Humphreys, Robyn A; Percival, Christopher J; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers

    2018-03-01

    Hybridization occurs in a number of mammalian lineages, including among primate taxa. Analyses of ancient genomes have shown that hybridization between our lineage and other archaic hominins in Eurasia occurred numerous times in the past. However, we still have limited empirical data on what a hybrid skeleton looks like, or how to spot patterns of hybridization among fossils for which there are no genetic data. Here we use experimental mouse models to supplement previous studies of primates. We characterize size and shape variation in the cranium and mandible of three wild-derived inbred mouse strains and their first generation (F 1 ) hybrids. The three parent taxa in our analysis represent lineages that diverged over approximately the same period as the human/Neanderthal/Denisovan lineages and their hybrids are variably successful in the wild. Comparisons of body size, as quantified by long bone measurements, are also presented to determine whether the identified phenotypic effects of hybridization are localized to the cranium or represent overall body size changes. The results indicate that hybrid cranial and mandibular sizes, as well as limb length, exceed that of the parent taxa in all cases. All three F 1 hybrid crosses display similar patterns of size and form variation. These results are generally consistent with earlier studies on primates and other mammals, suggesting that the effects of hybridization may be similar across very different scenarios of hybridization, including different levels of hybrid fitness. This paper serves to supplement previous studies aimed at identifying F 1 hybrids in the fossil record and to introduce further research that will explore hybrid morphologies using mice as a proxy for better understanding hybridization in the hominin fossil record. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  5. Isoenzymatic variability in progeny of Pinus mugo Turra x Pinus sylvestris L. hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem, in experimental culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the genetic structure of 12-year old seedlings. They were grown in an experimental culture representing the progeny of natural hybrids of Pinus mugo Turra and Pinus sylvestris L. from the peatbog Bór na Czerwonem. The studies were carried out on seedlings, employing electrophoresis of enzymatic proteins from winter buds. Parallel isoenzymatic analyses were also conducted for trees of P. mugo Turra from Tatra Mountains and for P. sylvestris L. trees from Białowieża in order to determine similarities of the hybrids to the 'pure' species, thought to represent parental forms, and for natural hybrids from Bór na Czerwonem. The obtained electrophoretic patterns made the determination of genetic structure of the population possible, namely of the observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, Wright's fixation index and coefficients of similarity according to Nei and Hedrick. Genetic distances between the populations were also estimated. The variability of 11 enzymatic loci demonstrated the highest level of variability in the population of hybrids. Coefficients of genetic differentiation (GST and of gene flow, (Nm suggested a close relationship of the hybrids to P. mugo which may indicate an introgressive type of the hybrid swarm, from which the studied trees originated. The analysis of genetic similarity coefficients, according to Nei and Hedrick, demonstrated also an extensive similarity of the two hybrid groups to P. mugo. However, upon analysis of individual enzymatic loci, some of them highly resembled P. mugo while others were similar to P. sylvestris. The closest genetic similarity was demonstrated for the group of hybrids from the peatbog and the respective of hybrides group from culture. The variable gene expression as well as asymmetric inheritance of isoenzymes provided additional evidence of the introgressive character of the studied trees from the hybrid population.

  6. Analysis of toroidal vacuum vessels for use in demonstration sized tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbert, M.E.

    1978-07-01

    The vacuum vessel component of the tokamak fusion reactor is the subject of this study. The main objective of this paper was to provide guidance for the structural design of a thin wall externally pressurized toroidal vacuum vessel. The analyses are based on the available state-of-the-art analytical methods. The shortcomings of these analytical methods necessitated approximations and assumptions to be made throughout the study. A principal result of the study has been the identification of a viable vacuum vessel design for the Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR) and The Next Step (TNS) Reactor

  7. Molecular Evidence for Natural Hybridization between Cotoneaster dielsianus and C. glaucophyllus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwan Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization accompanied by polyploidization and apomixis has been demonstrated as a driving force in the evolution and speciation of many plants. A good example to study the evolutionary process of hybridization associated with polyploidy and apomixis is the genus Cotoneaster (Rosaceae, which includes approximately 150 species, most of which are polyploid apomicts. In this study, we investigated all Cotoneaster taxa distributed in a small region of Malipo, Yunnan, China. Based on the morphological characteristics, four Cotoneaster taxa were identified and sampled: C. dielsianus, C. glaucophyllus, C. franchetii, and a putative hybrid. Flow cytometry analyses showed that C. glaucophyllus was diploid, while the other three taxa were tetraploid. A total of five low-copy nuclear genes and six chloroplast regions were sequenced to validate the status of the putative hybrid. Sequence analyses showed that C. dielsianus and C. glaucophyllus are distantly related and they could be well separated using totally 50 fixed nucleotide substitutions and four fixed indels at the 11 investigated genes. All individuals of the putative hybrid harbored identical sequences: they showed chromatogram additivity for all fixed differences between C. dielsianus and C. glaucophyllus at the five nuclear genes, and were identical with C. glaucophyllus at the six chloroplast regions. Haplotype analysis revealed that C. dielsianus possessed nine haplotypes for the 11 genes, while C. glaucophyllus had ten, and there were no shared haplotypes between the two species. The putative hybrid harbored two haplotypes for each nuclear gene: one shared with C. dielsianus and the other with C. glaucophyllus. They possessed the same chloroplast haplotype with C. glaucophyllus. Our study provided convincing evidence for natural hybridization between C. dielsianus and C. glaucophyllus, and revealed that all hybrid individuals were derivatives of one initial F1 via apomixes. C. glaucophyllus

  8. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  9. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Dan; Jensen, Randy; Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Upshaw, Christin L; Hinkelman, Elizabeth; Lampton, Don

    2007-01-01

    ... or human role-players for each training event. We report our ongoing efforts to (1) research the nature and purpose of demonstration, articulating guidelines for effective demonstration within a training context, and (2...

  10. Comparing Demonstratives in Kwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a comparative study of demonstrative forms in three K wa languages, ... relative distance from the deictic centre, such as English this and that, here and there. ... Mostly, the referents of demonstratives are 'activated' or at least.

  11. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  12. Hybrid nanomaterial and its applications: IR sensing and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsuan

    In this dissertation, a hybrid nanomaterial, single-wall carbon nanotubes-copper sulfide nanoparticles (SWNTs-CuS NPs), was synthesized and its properties were analyzed. Due to its unique optical and thermal properties, the hybrid nanomaterial exhibited great potential for infrared (IR) sensing and energy harvesting. The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized with the non-covalent bond technique to functionalize the surface of the SWNTs and bind the CuS nanoparticles on the surface of the SWNTs. For testing and analyzing the hybrid nanomaterial, SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles were formed as a thin film structure using the vacuum filtration method. Two conductive wires were bound on the ends of the thin film to build a thin film device for measurements and analyses. Measurements found that the hybrid nanomaterial had a significantly increased light absorption (up to 80%) compared to the pure SWNTs. Moreover, the hybrid nanomaterial thin film devices exhibited a clear optical and thermal switching effect, which could be further enhanced up to ten times with asymmetric illumination of light and thermal radiation on the thin film devices instead of symmetric illumination. A simple prototype thermoelectric generator enabled by the hybrid nanomaterials was demonstrated, indicating a new route for achieving thermoelectricity. In addition, CuS nanoparticles have great optical absorption especially in the near-infrared region. Therefore, the hybrid nanomaterial thin films also have the potential for IR sensing applications. The first application to be covered in this dissertation is the IR sensing application. IR thin film sensors based on the SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles hybrid nanomaterials were fabricated. The IR response in the photocurrent of the hybrid thin film sensor was significantly enhanced, increasing the photocurrent by 300% when the IR light illuminates the thin film device asymmetrically. The detection limit could be as low as 48mW mm-2. The dramatically enhanced

  13. Molecular evidence for natural hybridization in the mangrove genus avicennia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, L.; Huang Y; Shi, S.; Zhou, R

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization has been observed in several multi-species genera of mangroves; however, there has been no report on hybridization in Avicennia in the Indo-West Pacific region. In this study, we sequenced 5 low-copy nuclear genes of Avicennia marina, A. rumphiana and 2 individuals of their putative hybrid in the Southeast Asia region to test the hypothesis of natural hybridization between these 2 species. We demonstrated that both putative hybrid individuals possessed two types of sequences at each of the 5 genes, perfectly corresponding to those of A. marina and A. rumphiana, confirming the hybridization between these 2 Avicennia species, and the 2 hybrid individuals are most likely F1 hybrids. Sequencing of the chloroplast trnH-psbA regions indicated that A. marina was the maternal parent of the two hybrid individuals. (author)

  14. Hybrid Energy System Design of Micro Hydro-PV-biogas Based Micro-grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishrina; Abdullah, A. G.; Risdiyanto, A.; Nandiyanto, ABD

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid renewable energy system is an arrangement of one or more sources of renewable energy and also conventional energy. This paper describes a simulation results of hybrid renewable power system based on the available potential in an educational institution in Indonesia. HOMER software was used to simulate and analyse both in terms of optimization and economic terms. This software was developed through 3 main principles; simulation, optimization, and sensitivity analysis. Generally, the presented results show that the software can demonstrate a feasible hybrid power system as well to be realized. The entire demand in case study area can be supplied by the system configuration and can be met by ¾ of electricity production. So, there are ¼ of generated energy became an excess electricity.

  15. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  16. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  17. Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-08-01

    This factsheet describes a project that developed and demonstrated a new hybrid system for industrial wastewater treatment that synergistically combines a forward osmosis system with a membrane distillation technology and is powered by waste heat.

  18. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  19. Evidence of Natural Hybridization and Introgression between Vasconcellea Species (Caricaceae) from Southern Ecuador Revealed by Chloroplast, Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN DROOGENBROECK, B.; KYNDT, T.; ROMEIJN-PEETERS, E.; VAN THUYNE, W.; GOETGHEBEUR, P.; ROMERO-MOTOCHI, J. P.; GHEYSEN, G.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Vasconcellea × heilbornii is believed to be of natural hybrid origin between V. cundinamarcensis and V. stipulata, and is often difficult to discriminate from V. stipulata on morphological grounds. The aim of this paper is to examine individuals of these three taxa and of individuals from the closely related species V. parviflora and V. weberbaueri, which all inhabit a hybrid zone in southern Ecuador. • Methods Molecular data from mitochondrial, chloroplast and nuclear DNA from 61 individuals were analysed. • Key Results Molecular analysis confirmed occasional contemporary hybridization between V. stipulata, V. cundinamarcensis and V. × heilbornii and suggested the possible involvement of V. weberbaueri in the origin of V. × heilbornii. In addition, the molecular data indicated unidirectional introgression of the V. cundinamarcensis nuclear genome into that of V. stipulata. Several of the individuals examined with morphology similar to that of V. stipulata had genetic traces of hybridization with V. cundinamarcensis, which only seems to act as pollen donor in interspecific hybridization events. Molecular analyses also strongly suggested that most of the V. × heilbornii individuals are not F1 hybrids but instead are progeny of repeated backcrosses with V. stipulata. • Conclusions The results of the present study point to the need for re-evaluation of natural populations of V. stipulata and V. × heilbornii. In general, this analysis demonstrates the complex patterns of genetic and morphological diversity found in natural plant hybrid zones. PMID:16500954

  20. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  1. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  2. Chemical sensors are hybrid-input memristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoev, V. I.; Arkhipov, V. E.; Okotrub, A. V.; Pershin, Y. V.

    2018-04-01

    Memristors are two-terminal electronic devices whose resistance depends on the history of input signal (voltage or current). Here we demonstrate that the chemical gas sensors can be considered as memristors with a generalized (hybrid) input, namely, with the input consisting of the voltage, analyte concentrations and applied temperature. The concept of hybrid-input memristors is demonstrated experimentally using a single-walled carbon nanotubes chemical sensor. It is shown that with respect to the hybrid input, the sensor exhibits some features common with memristors such as the hysteretic input-output characteristics. This different perspective on chemical gas sensors may open new possibilities for smart sensor applications.

  3. Uncertainty Analyses and Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin Coppersmith

    2001-01-01

    The DOE identified a variety of uncertainties, arising from different sources, during its assessment of the performance of a potential geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site. In general, the number and detail of process models developed for the Yucca Mountain site, and the complex coupling among those models, make the direct incorporation of all uncertainties difficult. The DOE has addressed these issues in a number of ways using an approach to uncertainties that is focused on producing a defensible evaluation of the performance of a potential repository. The treatment of uncertainties oriented toward defensible assessments has led to analyses and models with so-called ''conservative'' assumptions and parameter bounds, where conservative implies lower performance than might be demonstrated with a more realistic representation. The varying maturity of the analyses and models, and uneven level of data availability, result in total system level analyses with a mix of realistic and conservative estimates (for both probabilistic representations and single values). That is, some inputs have realistically represented uncertainties, and others are conservatively estimated or bounded. However, this approach is consistent with the ''reasonable assurance'' approach to compliance demonstration, which was called for in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) proposed 10 CFR Part 63 regulation (64 FR 8640 [DIRS 101680]). A risk analysis that includes conservatism in the inputs will result in conservative risk estimates. Therefore, the approach taken for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) provides a reasonable representation of processes and conservatism for purposes of site recommendation. However, mixing unknown degrees of conservatism in models and parameter representations reduces the transparency of the analysis and makes the development of coherent and consistent probability statements about projected repository

  4. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  5. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  6. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  7. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  8. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  9. Event tree analysis for the system of hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongwei; Qiu Lijian

    1993-01-01

    The application of probabilistic risk assessment for fusion-fission hybrid reactor is introduced. A hybrid reactor system has been analysed using event trees. According to the character of the conceptual design of Hefei Fusion-fission Experimental Hybrid Breeding Reactor, the probabilities of the event tree series induced by 4 typical initiating events were calculated. The results showed that the conceptual design is safe and reasonable. through this paper, the safety character of hybrid reactor system has been understood more deeply. Some suggestions valuable to safety design for hybrid reactor have been proposed

  10. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  11. Hydrothermal stability of silica, hybrid silica and Zr-doped hybrid silica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hove, Marcel; Luiten-Olieman, Mieke W.J.; Huiskes, Cindy; Nijmeijer, Arian; Winnubst, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid silica membranes have demonstrated to possess a remarkable hydrothermal stability in pervaporation and gas separation processes allowing them to be used in industrial applications. In several publications the hydrothermal stability of pure silica or that of hybrid silica membranes are

  12. Assessment on Hybrid E-Learning Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Intan Farahana Kamsin; Rosseni Din

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to improve Hybrid e-Learning 9.3. A total of 233 students of International Islamic University Malaysia, Gombak who have the experience in hybrid teaching and learning were involved as respondents. Rasch Measurement Model was used for this study. Validity analyses conducted were on (i) the compatibility of the items, (ii) mapping of items and respondents, (iii) scaling of instruments, and (iv) unidimentional items. The findings of the study show that (i) the items developed cor...

  13. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  14. Fusion-fission hybrids: environmental aspects and their role in hybrid rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The rationale for developing hybrids depends on real or perceived liabilities of relying on pure fission to do the same job. Quite possibly the main constraint on expanded use of fission will be neither lack of fuel nor high costs, but perceived environmental liabilities - radioactive wastes, reactor safety, and links to nuclear weaponry. The environmental characteristics of hybrid systems and pure-fisson systems are compared here in detail. The findings are that significant environmental advantages for hybrids cannot now be demonstrated and may not exist. Therefore, if environmental drawbacks constrain the application of pure fission, hybrids probably also will be thus constrained

  15. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented

  16. Innovative technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.; Hinchee, R.

    1992-04-01

    The Innovative Technology Demonstration (ITD) program at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, will demonstrate the overall utility and effectiveness of innovative technologies for site characterization, monitoring, and remediation of selected contaminated test sites. The current demonstration test sites include a CERCLA site on the NPL list, located under a building (Building 3001) that houses a large active industrial complex used for rebuilding military aircraft, and a site beneath and surrounding an abandoned underground tank vault used for storage of jet fuels and solvents. The site under Building 3001 (the NW Test Site) is contaminated with TCE and Cr +6 ; the site with the fuel storage vault (the SW Tanks Site) is contaminated with fuels, BTEX and TCE. These sites and others have been identified for cleanup under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This document describes the demonstrations that have been conducted or are planned for the TAFB

  17. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LCRD is a minimum two year flight demonstration in geosynchronous Earth orbit to advance optical communications technology toward infusion into Deep Space and Near...

  18. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  19. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  20. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities

  1. Hybrid nanostructures: synthesis, morphology and functional properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povolotskaya, A V; Povolotskiy, A V; Manshina, A A

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanostructures representing combinations of different materials and possessing properties that are absent in separate components forming the hybrid are discussed. Particular attention is given to hybrid structures containing plasmonic and magnetic nanoparticles, methods of their synthesis and the relationship between the composition, structure and properties. The functional features of the hybrid nanomaterials of various morphology (with core–shell structures, with encapsulated metal nanoparticles and with metal nanoparticles on the surface) are considered. The unique properties of these hybrid materials are demonstrated, which are of interest for solving problems of catalysis and photocatalysis, detecting impurities in various media, in vivo visualization, bioanalysis, as well as for the design of optical labels and multifunctional diagnostic nanoplatforms. The bibliography includes 182 references

  2. Development of hybrid scaffolds using ceramic and hydrogel for articular cartilage tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Young-Joon; Park, Ju Young; Jeong, Wonju; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-04-01

    The regeneration of articular cartilage consisting of hyaline cartilage and hydrogel scaffolds has been generally used in tissue engineering. However, success in in vivo studies has been rarely reported. The hydrogel scaffolds implanted into articular cartilage defects are mechanically unstable and it is difficult for them to integrate with the surrounding native cartilage tissue. Therefore, it is needed to regenerate cartilage and bone tissue simultaneously. We developed hybrid scaffolds with hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage tissue and with ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue. For in vivo study, hybrid scaffolds were press-fitted into osteochondral tissue defects in a rabbit knee joints and the cartilage tissue regeneration in blank, hydrogel scaffolds, and hybrid scaffolds was compared. In 12th week after implantation, the histological and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate the cartilage tissue regeneration. In the blank and hydrogel scaffold groups, the defects were filled with fibrous tissues and the implanted hydrogel scaffolds could not maintain their initial position; in the hybrid scaffold group, newly generated cartilage tissues were morphologically similar to native cartilage tissues and were smoothly connected to the surrounding native tissues. This study demonstrates hybrid scaffolds containing hydrogel and ceramic scaffolds can provide mechanical stability to hydrogel scaffolds and enhance cartilage tissue regeneration at the defect site. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    Demonstration projects are often used in the building sector to provide a basis for using new processes and/or products. The climate change agenda implies that construction is not only required to deliver value for the customer, cost reductions and efficiency but also sustainable buildings....... This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses......, and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...

  4. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  5. Biodenitrification demonstration test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benear, A.K.; Murray, S.J.; Lahoda, E.J.; Leslie, J.W.; Patton, J.B.; Menako, C.R.

    1987-08-01

    A two-column biodenitrification (BDN) facility was constructed at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in 1985 and 1986 to test the feasibility of biological treatment for industrial nitrate-bearing waste water generated at FMPC. This demonstration facility comprises one-half of the proposed four-column production facility. A demonstration test was conducted over a four month period in 1987. The results indicate the proposed BDN production facility can process FMPC industrial wastewater in a continuous manner while maintaining an effluent that will consistently meet the proposed NPDES limits for combined nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO 2 -N). The proposed NPDES limits are 62 kg/day average and 124 kg/day maximum. These limits were proportioned to determine that the two-column demonstration facility should meet the limits of 31 kg/day average and 62 kg/day maximum

  6. Distributed picture compilation demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Richard; Anderson, John; Leal, Jeff; Mullin, David; Nicholson, David; Watson, Graham

    2004-08-01

    A physical demonstration of distributed surveillance and tracking is described. The demonstration environment is an outdoor car park overlooked by a system of four rooftop cameras. The cameras extract moving objects from the scene, and these objects are tracked in a decentralized way, over a real communication network, using the information form of the standard Kalman filter. Each node therefore has timely access to the complete global picture and because there is no single point of failure in the system, it is robust. The demonstration system and its main components are described here, with an emphasis on some of the lessons we have learned as a result of applying a corpus of distributed data fusion theory and algorithms in practice. Initial results are presented and future plans to scale up the network are also outlined.

  7. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J; Kaut, W [eds.

    1991-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the fourth PV-Contractors' Meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, held at Brussels on 21 and 22 November 1989, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the Energy Demonstration Program since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984, 1985 and 1986, describing progress with their projects. Summaries of the discussions held at the meeting, which included contractors whose projects were submitted in 1987, are also presented. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping, and warning systems. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Electric vehicle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellet, M. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The desirable characteristics of Canadian projects that demonstrate vehicle use in real-world operation and the appropriate mechanism to collect and disseminate the monitoring data were discussed in this presentation. The scope of the project was on passenger cars and light duty trucks operating in plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle modes. The presentation also discussed the funding, stakeholders involved, Canadian travel pattern analysis, regulatory framework, current and recent electric vehicle demonstration projects, and project guidelines. It was concluded that some demonstration project activities may have been duplicated as communication between the proponents was insufficient. It was recommended that data monitoring using automatic data logging with minimum reliance on logbooks and other user entry should be emphasized. figs.

  9. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ

  10. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Hartley, J.N.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1992-04-01

    Currently, several innovative technologies are being demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells have been successfully installed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site to test new methods of in situ remediation of soils and ground water. This emerging technology was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. A demonstration of two in situ sensor systems capable of providing real-time data on contamination levels will be conducted and evaluated concurrently with the SGE demonstration activities. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ

  11. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  12. Photovoltaic demonstration projects 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow (William) and Partners, Swindon (UK); Kaut, W [eds.

    1989-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the third Photovoltaic Contractors' Meeting organised by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported by the Energy Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984 and 1985, describing progress with their projects. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include powering of houses, villages, recreation centres, water desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping and warning systems. (author).

  13. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  14. Inseparable Phone Books Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation…

  15. PHARUS ASAR demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Calkoen, C.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    PHARUS is a polarimetric phased array C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), designed and built for airborne use. Advanced SAR (ASAR) data in image and alternating polarization mode have been simulated with PHARUS to demonstrate the use of Envisat for a number of typical SAR applications that are

  16. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  17. Astronomy LITE Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2006-12-01

    Project LITE (Light Inquiry Through Experiments) is a materials, software, and curriculum development project. It focuses on light, optics, color and visual perception. According to two recent surveys of college astronomy faculty members, these are among the topics most often included in the large introductory astronomy courses. The project has aimed largely at the design and implementation of hands-on experiences for students. However, it has also included the development of lecture demonstrations that employ novel light sources and materials. In this presentation, we will show some of our new lecture demonstrations concerning geometrical and physical optics, fluorescence, phosphorescence and polarization. We have developed over 200 Flash and Java applets that can be used either by teachers in lecture settings or by students at home. They are all posted on the web at http://lite.bu.edu. For either purpose they can be downloaded directly to the user's computer or run off line. In lecture demonstrations, some of these applets can be used to control the light emitted by video projectors to produce physical effects in materials (e.g. fluorescence). Other applets can be used, for example, to demonstrate that the human percept of color does not have a simple relationship with the physical frequency of the stimulating source of light. Project LITE is supported by Grant #DUE-0125992 from the NSF Division of Undergraduate Education.

  18. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  19. Hybrid mesons with auxiliary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisseret, F.; Mathieu, V.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid mesons are exotic mesons in which the color field is not in the ground state. Their understanding deserves interest from a theoretical point of view, because it is intimately related to nonperturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, it seems that some recently detected particles, such as the π 1 (1600) and the Y(4260), are serious hybrid candidates. In this work, we investigate the description of such exotic hadrons by applying the auxiliary fields technique (also known as the einbein field method) to the widely used spinless Salpeter Hamiltonian with appropriate linear confinement. Instead of the usual numerical resolution, this technique allows to find simplified analytical mass spectra and wave functions of the Hamiltonian, which still lead to reliable qualitative predictions. We analyse and compare two different descriptions of hybrid mesons, namely a two-body q system with an excited flux tube, or a three-body qg system. We also compute the masses of the 1 -+ hybrids. Our results are shown to be in satisfactory agreement with lattice QCD and other effective models. (orig.)

  20. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  1. Remote monitoring demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan; Olsen, John

    2006-01-01

    The recently upgraded remote monitoring system at the Joyo Experimental Reactor uses a DCM-14 camera module and GEMINI software. The final data is compatible both with the IAEA-approved GARS review software and the ALIS software that was used for this demonstration. Features of the remote monitoring upgrade emphasized compatibility with IAEA practice. This presentation gives particular attention to the selection process for meeting network security considerations at the O'arai site. The Joyo system is different from the NNCA's ACPF system, in that it emphasizes use of IAEA standard camera technology and data acquisition and transmission software. In the demonstration itself, a temporary virtual private network (VPN) between the meeting room and the server at Sandia in Albuquerque allowed attendees to observe data stored from routine transmissions from the Joyo Fresh Fuel Storage to Sandia. Image files from a fuel movement earlier in the month showed Joyo workers and IAEA inspectors carrying out a transfer. (author)

  2. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  3. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaut, W [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium); Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow Gilbert Associates Ltd., Swindon (GB)

    1992-12-31

    This publication, comprising the proceedings of the fifth contractor`s meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the energy demonstration programme since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1987 and 1988, describing progress within their projects. Projects accepted from earlier calls for proposals and not yet completed were reviewed by a rapporteur and are discussed in the summary section. The results of the performance monitoring of all projects and the lessons drawn from the practical experience of the projects are also presented in the summaries and conclusions. Contractors whose projects were submitted in 1989 were also present at the meeting and contributed to the reported discussions. This proceeding is divided into four sessions (General, Housing, technical presentations, other applications) and 24 papers are offered.

  4. AVNG system demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, Jonathan Louis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kondratov, Sergey [VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [VNIIEF; Razinkov, Sergey [VNIIEF

    2010-01-01

    An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By only displaying these unclassified results as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. To provide additional confidence, the AVNG was designed with two modes of operation. In the secure mode, potentially classified measurements can be made with only the simple red light/green light display. In the open mode, known unclassified material can be measured with complete display of the information collected from the radiation detectors. The AVNG demonstration, which occurred in Sarov, Russia in June 2009 for a joint US/Russian audience, included exercising both modes of AVNG operation using a number of multi-kg plutonium sources. In addition to describing the demonstration, we will show photographs and/or video taken of AVNG operation.

  5. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  6. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  7. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  8. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R G [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  9. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  10. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  11. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  12. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus.......The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...

  13. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  14. The effect of additional equilibrium stress functions on the three-node hybrid-mixed curved beam element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Gon; Park, Yong Kuk

    2008-01-01

    To develop an effective hybrid-mixed element, it is extremely critical as to how to assume the stress field. This research article demonstrates the effect of additional equilibrium stress functions to enhance the numerical performance of the locking-free three-node hybrid-mixed curved beam element, proposed in Saleeb and Chang's previous work. It is exceedingly complicated or even infeasible to determine the stress functions to satisfy fully both the equilibrium conditions and suppression of kinematic deformation modes in the three-node hybrid-mixed formulation. Accordingly, the additional stress functions to satisfy partially or fully equilibrium conditions are incorporated in this study. Several numerical examples for static and dynamic problems confirm that the newly proposed element with these additional stress functions is highly effective regardless of the slenderness ratio and curvature of arches in static and dynamic analyses

  15. Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP) in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.; Misra, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In order to gainfully employ the years of experience and expertise in various aspects of desalination activity, BARC (India) has undertaken installation of a hybrid nuclear desalination plant coupled to 170 MW(e) PHWR station at Kalpakkam, Chennai in the Southeast coast of India. The integrated system, called the Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP), will thus meet the dual needs of process water for nuclear power plant and drinking water for the neighbouring people. NDDP aims for demonstrating the safe and economic production of good quality water by nuclear desalination of seawater. It comprises a 4500 m 3 /d Multistage Flash (MSF) and a 1800 m 3 /d Reverse Osmosis (RO) plant. MSF section uses low pressure steam from Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam. The objectives of the NDDP (Kalpakkam) are as follows: to establish the indigenous capability for the design, manufacture, installation and operation of nuclear desalination plants; to generate necessary design inputs and optimum process parameters for large scale nuclear desalination plant; to serve as a demonstration project to IAEA welcoming participation from interested member states. The hybrid plant is envisaged to have a number of advantages: a part of high purity desalted water produced from MSF plant will be used for the makeup demineralised water requirement (after necessary polishing) for the power station; blending of the product water from RO and MSF plants would provide requisite quality drinking water; the RO plant will continue to be operated to provide the water for drinking purposes during the shutdown of the power station

  16. A hybrid algorithm for instant optimization of beam weights in anatomy-based intensity modulated radiotherapy: a performance evaluation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaitheeswaran, Ranganathan; Sathiya Narayanan, V.K.; Bhangle, Janhavi R.; Nirhali, Amit; Kumar, Namita; Basu, Sumit; Maiya, Vikram

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to introduce a hybrid optimization algorithm for anatomy-based intensity modulated radiotherapy (AB-IMRT). Our proposal is that by integrating an exact optimization algorithm with a heuristic optimization algorithm, the advantages of both the algorithms can be combined, which will lead to an efficient global optimizer solving the problem at a very fast rate. Our hybrid approach combines Gaussian elimination algorithm (exact optimizer) with fast simulated annealing algorithm (a heuristic global optimizer) for the optimization of beam weights in AB-IMRT. The algorithm has been implemented using MATLAB software. The optimization efficiency of the hybrid algorithm is clarified by (i) analysis of the numerical characteristics of the algorithm and (ii) analysis of the clinical capabilities of the algorithm. The numerical and clinical characteristics of the hybrid algorithm are compared with Gaussian elimination method (GEM) and fast simulated annealing (FSA). The numerical characteristics include convergence, consistency, number of iterations and overall optimization speed, which were analyzed for the respective cases of 8 patients. The clinical capabilities of the hybrid algorithm are demonstrated in cases of (a) prostate and (b) brain. The analyses reveal that (i) the convergence speed of the hybrid algorithm is approximately three times higher than that of FSA algorithm (ii) the convergence (percentage reduction in the cost function) in hybrid algorithm is about 20% improved as compared to that in GEM algorithm (iii) the hybrid algorithm is capable of producing relatively better treatment plans in terms of Conformity Index (CI) (∼ 2% - 5% improvement) and Homogeneity Index (HI) (∼ 4% - 10% improvement) as compared to GEM and FSA algorithms (iv) the sparing of organs at risk in hybrid algorithm-based plans is better than that in GEM-based plans and comparable to that in FSA-based plans; and (v) the beam weights resulting from the hybrid algorithm are

  17. Production of intertribal somatic hybrids between Brassica napus L. and Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarzhinskaya, M.; Landgren, M.; Glimelius, K.

    1996-01-01

    Intertribal Brassica napus (+) Lesquerella fendleri hybrids have been produced by polyethylene glycol-induced fusions of B. napus hypocotyl and L. fendleri mesophyll protoplasts. Two series of experiments were performed. In the first, symmetric fusion experiments, protoplasts from the two materials were fused without any pretreatments. In the second, asymmetric fusion experiments, X-ray irradiation at doses of 180 and 200 Gy were used to limit the transfer of the L. fendleri genome to the hybrids. X-ray irradiation of L. fendleri mesophyll protoplasts did not suppress the proliferation rate and callus formation of the fusion products but did significantly decrease growth and differentiation of non-fused L. fendleri protoplasts. In total, 128 regenerated plants were identified as intertribal somatic hybrids on the basis of morphological criteria. Nuclear DNA analysis performed on 80 plants, using species specific sequences, demonstrated that 33 plants from the symmetric fusions and 43 plants from the asymmetric fusions were hybrids. Chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed a biased segregation that favoured B. napus organelles in the hybrids from the symmetric fusion experiments. The bias was even stronger in the hybrids from the asymmetric fusion experiments where no hybrids with L. fendleri organelles were found. X-ray irradiation of L. fendleri protoplasts increased the possibility of obtaining mature somatic hybrid plants with improved fertility. Five plants from the symmetric and 24 plants from the asymmetric fusion experiments were established in the greenhouse. From the symmetric fusions 2 plants could be fertilised and set seeds after cross-pollination with B. napus. From the asymmetric fusions 9 plants could be selfed as well as fertilised when backcrossed with B. napus. Chromosome analysis was performed on all of the plants but 1 that were transferred to the greenhouse. Three plants from the symmetric fusions contained 50 chromosomes, which

  18. Hybrid fuel cells technologies for electrical microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Inmaculada; San Martin, Jose Javier; Aperribay, Victor; Eguia, Pablo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alda. de Urquijo, s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Hybrid systems are characterized by containing two or more electrical generation technologies, in order to optimize the global efficiency of the processes involved. These systems can present different operating modes. Besides, they take into account aspects that not only concern the electrical and thermal efficiencies, but also the reduction of pollutant emissions. There is a wide range of possible configurations to form hybrid systems, including hydrogen, renewable energies, gas cycles, vapour cycles or both. Nowadays, these technologies are mainly used for energy production in electrical microgrids. Some examples of these technologies are: hybridization processes of fuel cells with wind turbines and photovoltaic plants, cogeneration and trigeneration processes that can be configured with fuel cell technologies, etc. This paper reviews and analyses the main characteristics of electrical microgrids and the systems based on fuel cells for polygeneration and hybridization processes. (author)

  19. Demonstration of HITEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, H.D.; Woodall, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    A model reactor for HITEX successfully demonstrated the concept of high-temperature isotopic exchange in a closed loop simulating the conditions for fusion fuel cleanup. The catalyst of platinum on alumina pellets provided a surface area large enough to operate the reactor at 400 degrees celsius with flow rates up to 2 L/min. A 15-L tank containing a mixture of 4% CD 4 in H 2 was depleted in deuterium within 75 minutes down to 100 ppm HD above the natural concentration of HD in the make-up hydrogen stream. The application to tritium removal from tritiated impurities in a hydrogen stream will work as well or better

  20. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  1. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  2. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  3. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System

  4. variability of in vitro and phenological behaviours of cocoa hybrids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    analyse the variability of the in vitro and phenological behaviours of 6 cocoa ... The 4 aforementioned hybrids could be used to produce cocoa aroma, ... hybrids using a multivariate approach. .... 3 clusters and variables was assessed through ... function, and (iv) analysis of the representation quality. Thus, the number of ...

  5. Narrow hybrid zone between two subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata: Asteraceae): XI. Plant-insect interactions in reciprocal transplant gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Graham; E. Durant McArthur; D. Carl Freeman

    2001-01-01

    Basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana) hybridize in a narrow zone near Salt Creek, Utah. Reciprocal transplant experiments in this hybrid zone demonstrate that hybrids are more fit than either parental subspecies, but only in the hybrid zone. Do hybrids experience greater, or lesser, use by...

  6. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  7. Novel hard mask fabrication method for hybrid plasmonic waveguide and metasurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, Sajid; Zenin, Vladimir A.; Saha, Soham

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid plasmonic waveguide fabrication technique has been developed and waveguides fabricated using this technique have been demonstrated experimentally. The developed technique can be utilized for creating similar hybrid waveguide structures and metasurfaces with an array of material platforms...

  8. Comparison of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Low and High Throughput HER2 Genetic Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tim S; Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Kofoed, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    cancer patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results scored as 0/1+, 2+, and 3+. HER2 genetic status was analysed using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Scoring results were documented through digital image analysis. The cancer region...

  9. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  10. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  11. Fusion-power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  12. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  13. Industrial demonstration trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelee, M.; Fabre, C.; Villepoix, R. de; Fra, J.; Le Foulgoc, L.; Morel, Y.; Querite, P.; Roques, R.

    1975-01-01

    Prototypes of the plant components, meeting the specifications set by the process and built by industrial firms in collaboration with the supervisor and the C.E.A., are subjected to trial runs on the UF 6 test bench of the Pierrelatte testing zone. These items of equipment (diffuser, compressor, exchanger) are placed in an industrial operation context very similar to that of an enrichment plant. Their performance is measured within a broad region around the working point and their reliability observed over periods up to several tens of thousands of hours. Between 1969 and 1973 six industrial demonstration test benches have been built, marking the stages in the technical preparation of the 1973 file on the basis of which the decision of building was taken by Eurodif [fr

  14. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  15. TPA device for demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The TPA (torus plasma for amature) is a small race-trac type device made by the technical service division to demonstrate basic properties of plasma such as electron temperature, conductivity, effect of helical field for toroidal drift, and shape of plasma in mirror and cusp magnetic field in linear section. The plasmas are produced by RF discharge (-500W) and/or DC discharge (-30 mA) within glass discharge tube. Where major radius is 50 cm, length of linear section is 50 cm, toroidal magnetic field is 200 gauss. The device has been designed to be compact with only 100 V power source (-3.2 KW for the case without helical field) and to be full automatic sequence of operation. (author)

  16. Fusion power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  17. Dynamic wall demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsui, L.; Mayhew, W.

    1990-12-01

    The dynamic wall concept is a ventilation strategy that can be applied to a single family dwelling. With suitable construction, outside air can be admitted through the exterior walls of the house to the interior space to function as ventilation air. The construction and performance monitoring of a demonstration house built to test the dynamic wall concept in Sherwood Park, Alberta, is described. The project had the objectives of demonstrating and assessing the construction methods; determining the cost-effectiveness of the concept in Alberta; analyzing the operation of the dynamic wall system; and determining how other components and systems in the house interact with the dynamic wall. The exterior wall construction consisted of vinyl siding, spun-bonded polyolefin-backed (SBPO) rigid fiberglass sheathing, 38 mm by 89 mm framing, fiberglass batt insulation and 12.7 mm drywall. The mechanical system was designed to operate in the dynamic (negative pressure) mode, however flexibility was provided to allow operation in the static (balanced pressure) mode to permit monitoring of the walls as if they were in a conventional house. The house was monitored by an extensive computerized monitoring system. Dynamic wall operation was dependent on pressure and temperature differentials between indoor and outdoor as well as wind speed and direction. The degree of heat gain was found to be ca 74% of the indoor-outdoor temperature differential. Temperature of incoming dynamic air was significantly affected by solar radiation and measurement of indoor air pollutants found no significant levels. 4 refs., 34 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  19. Economic investigations of short rotation intensively cultured hybrid poplars

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Lothner

    1983-01-01

    The history of the economic analyses is summarized for short rotation intensively cultured hybrid poplar at the North Central Forest Experiment Station. Early break-even analyses with limited data indicated that at a price of $25-30 per dry ton for fiber and low to medium production costs, several systems looked profitable. Later cash flow analyses indicated that two...

  20. Sustainability assessment of a hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Nain H.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid energy system in the form of the Object structure is the pattern for the structure of options in the evaluation of a hybrid system. The Object structure is defined as: Hybrid Energy System {[production (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas)] [utilization(electricity, heat, hydrogen)]}. In the evaluation of hybrid energy systems only several options are selected to demonstrate the sustainability assessment method application in the promotion of the specific quality of the hybrid energy system. In this analysis the following options are taken into a consideration: 1.Solar photo-voltaic power plant (PV PP), wind turbine power plant (WTPP) biomass thermal power plant (ThSTPP) for electricity, heat and hydrogen production. 2.Solar PV PP and wind power plant (WPP) for electricity and hydrogen production. 3.Biomass thermal steam turbine power plant (BThSTPP) and WPP for heat and hydrogen production. 4.Combined cycle gas turbine power plant for electricity and hydrogen production. 5.Cogeneration of electricity and water by the hybrid system. The sustainability assessment method is used for the evaluation of quality of the selected hybrid systems. In this evaluation the following indicators are used: economic indicator, environment indicator and social indicator

  1. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam; Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Ouzzani, Mourad; Aboulnaga, Ashraf; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  2. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  3. Demonstration exercise 'Cavtat 09'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trut, D.

    2009-01-01

    The demonstration exercise is to show a terrorist attack in urban area resulting in a certain number of injured people. On 7th April 2009 a terrorist group HAL 9000 is in Cavtat and set up an explosive devices with chemical reagents in several spots with intention to activate them and cause great number of victims. On the same day, in area of the Cavtat Croatia Hotel, which is hosting the world CBMTS Congress, Cavtat Police Station notice several masked persons, in escapement. Hotel personnel alerted the County 112 Center about noticed devices placed by chlorine dioxide tanks, for water conditioning. Intervention police came to block entrance to this area and evacuate hotel's guests and congress members. An explosion and fire occurs from where the position of water-conditioning plant and chlorine dioxide tank. The 112 Center alarms fire-fighters for fight fire and decontamination action and HAZMAT Civil Support Team from Georgia (participated the congress). In the meantime, guests have been instructed not to leave their rooms and to hermetically close doors and windows with available material to keep away potential toxic fume. Decision makers form the County Protection and Rescue Headquarters monitors the situation till the end of alert for the population in the area of Cavtat.(author)

  4. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  5. Propagation of singularities for linearised hybrid data impedance tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bal, Guillaume; Hoffmann, Kristoffer; Knudsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    For a general formulation of linearised hybrid inverse problems in impedance tomography, the qualitative properties of the solutions are analysed. Using an appropriate scalar pseudo-differential formulation, the problems are shown to permit propagating singularities under certain non-elliptic con......For a general formulation of linearised hybrid inverse problems in impedance tomography, the qualitative properties of the solutions are analysed. Using an appropriate scalar pseudo-differential formulation, the problems are shown to permit propagating singularities under certain non...

  6. The hybrid electric vehicle revolution, off road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, B.E. [ePower Technologies (United States)

    2004-07-01

    In this presentation the author presents concepts and details of hybrid vehicles in general, including their benefits, then describes off-road hybrid vehicles. Hybrid vehicles have been experimented with for over a century. Demonstrator vehicles include a diesel-electric tractor, an electric lawn tractor, a hybrid snow thrower, and a hybrid wheel loader. A duty cycle for the loader is shown with battery-assisted acceleration, and regenerative braking. Both of these keep the size of the engine small, the loads on it less variable, thus improving fuel economy. A hybrid excavator and its duty cycle is shown. A fuel cell lift truck that is currently in design is illustrated. The author then describes the possibilities of the hydrogen economy where sourcing and infrastructure are yet to be demonstrated on a commercial scale. The author predicts that off-road hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will be commercially viable five years before on-road applications. The author predicts hydrogen sourced from biogas, photovoltaics, and wind power. tabs, figs.

  7. Simple Y-Autosomal Incompatibilities Cause Hybrid Male Sterility in Reciprocal Crosses Between Drosophila virilis and D. americana

    OpenAIRE

    Sweigart, Andrea L.

    2010-01-01

    Postzygotic reproductive isolation evolves when hybrid incompatibilities accumulate between diverging populations. Here, I examine the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility between two species of Drosophila, Drosophila virilis and D. americana. From these analyses, I reach several conclusions. First, neither species carries any autosomal dominant hybrid male sterility alleles: reciprocal F1 hybrid males are perfectly fertile. Second, later generation (backcross and F2) hybrid male sterility ...

  8. Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantidos, Panagiotis; Patapis, Stamatis

    2005-09-01

    This is a variation on the String and Sticky Tape demonstration "The Wave Game," suggested by Ron Edge. A group of students stand side by side, each one holding a card chest high with both hands. The teacher cues the first student to begin raising and lowering his card. When he starts lowering his card, the next student begins to raise his. As succeeding students move their cards up and down, a wave such as that shown in the figure is produced. To facilitate the process, students' motions were synchronized with the ticks of a metronome (without such synchronization it was nearly impossible to generate a satisfactory wave). Our waves typically had a frequency of about 1 Hz and a wavelength of around 3 m. We videotaped the activity so that the students could analyze the motions. The (17-year-old) students had not received any prior instruction regarding wave motion and did not know beforehand the nature of the exercise they were about to carry out. During the activity they were asked what a transverse wave is. Most of them quickly realized, without teacher input, that while the wave propagated horizontally, the only motion of the transmitting medium (them) was vertical. They located the equilibrium points of the oscillations, the crests and troughs of the waves, and identified the wavelength. The teacher defined for them the period of the oscillations of the motion of a card to be the total time for one cycle. The students measured this time and then several asserted that it was the same as the wave period. Knowing the length of the waves and the number of waves per second, the next step can easily be to find the wave speed.

  9. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systems – systems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  10. New lager yeast strains generated by interspecific hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Gibson, Brian

    2015-05-01

    The interspecific hybrid Saccharomyces pastorianus is the most commonly used yeast in brewery fermentations worldwide. Here, we generated de novo lager yeast hybrids by mating a domesticated and strongly flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale strain with the Saccharomyces eubayanus type strain. The hybrids were characterized with respect to the parent strains in a wort fermentation performed at temperatures typical for lager brewing (12 °C). The resulting beers were analysed for sugar and aroma compounds, while the yeasts were tested for their flocculation ability and α-glucoside transport capability. These hybrids inherited beneficial properties from both parent strains (cryotolerance, maltotriose utilization and strong flocculation) and showed apparent hybrid vigour, fermenting faster and producing beer with higher alcohol content (5.6 vs 4.5 % ABV) than the parents. Results suggest that interspecific hybridization is suitable for production of novel non-GM lager yeast strains with unique properties and will help in elucidating the evolutionary history of industrial lager yeast.

  11. Experimental Crossing of Two Distinct Species of Leopard Geckos, Eublepharis angramainyu and E. macularius: Viability, Fertility and Phenotypic Variation of the Hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Jančúchová-Lásková

    Full Text Available Hybridization between distinct species of animals and subsequent genetic introgression plays a considerable role in the speciation process and the emergence of adaptive characters. Fitness of between-species hybrids usually sharply decreases with the divergence time of the concerned species and the divergence depth, which still allows for a successful crossing differs among principal clades of vertebrates. Recently, a review of hybridization events among distinct lizard species revealed that lizards belong to vertebrates with a highly developed ability to hybridize. In spite of this, reliable reports of experimental hybridizations between genetically fairly divergent species are only exceptional. Here, we show the results of the crossing of two distinct allopatric species of eyelid geckos possessing temperature sex determination and lacking sex chromosomes: Eublepharis macularius distributed in Pakistan/Afghanistan area and E. angramainyu, which inhabits Mesopotamia and adjacent areas. We demonstrated that F1 hybrids were viable and fertile, and the introgression of E. angramainyu genes into the E. macularius genome can be enabled via a backcrossing. The examined hybrids (except those of the F2 generation displayed neither malformations nor a reduced survival. Analyses of morphometric and coloration traits confirmed phenotypic distinctness of both parental species and their F1 hybrids. These findings contrast with long-term geographic and an evolutionary separation of the studied species. Thus, the occurrence of fertile hybrids of comparably divergent species, such as E. angramainyu and E. macularius, may also be expected in other taxa of squamates. This would violate the current estimates of species diversity in lizards.

  12. Graphene hybridization for energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglong; Zhi, Linjie

    2018-05-08

    Graphene has attracted considerable attention due to its unique two-dimensional structure, high electronic mobility, exceptional thermal conductivity, excellent optical transmittance, good mechanical strength, and ultrahigh surface area. To meet the ever increasing demand for portable electronic products, electric vehicles, smart grids, and renewable energy integrations, hybridizing graphene with various functions and components has been demonstrated to be a versatile and powerful strategy to significantly enhance the performance of various energy storage systems such as lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors and beyond, because such hybridization can result in synergistic effects that combine the best merits of involved components and confer new functions and properties, thereby improving the charge/discharge efficiencies and capabilities, energy/power densities, and cycle life of these energy storage systems. This review will focus on diverse graphene hybridization principles and strategies for energy storage applications, and the proposed outline is as follows. First, graphene and its fundamental properties, followed by graphene hybrids and related hybridization motivation, are introduced. Second, the developed hybridization formulas of using graphene for lithium-ion batteries are systematically categorized from the viewpoint of material structure design, bulk electrode construction, and material/electrode collaborative engineering; the latest representative progress on anodes and cathodes of lithium-ion batteries will be reviewed following such classifications. Third, similar hybridization formulas for graphene-based supercapacitor electrodes will be summarized and discussed as well. Fourth, the recently emerging hybridization formulas for other graphene-based energy storage devices will be briefed in combination with typical examples. Finally, future prospects and directions on the exploration of graphene hybridization toward the design and construction of

  13. A hybrid clustering approach to recognition of protein families in 114 microbial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogarten J Peter

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grouping proteins into sequence-based clusters is a fundamental step in many bioinformatic analyses (e.g., homology-based prediction of structure or function. Standard clustering methods such as single-linkage clustering capture a history of cluster topologies as a function of threshold, but in practice their usefulness is limited because unrelated sequences join clusters before biologically meaningful families are fully constituted, e.g. as the result of matches to so-called promiscuous domains. Use of the Markov Cluster algorithm avoids this non-specificity, but does not preserve topological or threshold information about protein families. Results We describe a hybrid approach to sequence-based clustering of proteins that combines the advantages of standard and Markov clustering. We have implemented this hybrid approach over a relational database environment, and describe its application to clustering a large subset of PDB, and to 328577 proteins from 114 fully sequenced microbial genomes. To demonstrate utility with difficult problems, we show that hybrid clustering allows us to constitute the paralogous family of ATP synthase F1 rotary motor subunits into a single, biologically interpretable hierarchical grouping that was not accessible using either single-linkage or Markov clustering alone. We describe validation of this method by hybrid clustering of PDB and mapping SCOP families and domains onto the resulting clusters. Conclusion Hybrid (Markov followed by single-linkage clustering combines the advantages of the Markov Cluster algorithm (avoidance of non-specific clusters resulting from matches to promiscuous domains and single-linkage clustering (preservation of topological information as a function of threshold. Within the individual Markov clusters, single-linkage clustering is a more-precise instrument, discerning sub-clusters of biological relevance. Our hybrid approach thus provides a computationally efficient

  14. Estimation of polyclonal IgG4 hybrids in normal human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Elizabeth; Lock, Emma; Ward, Douglas G; Cook, Alexander; Harding, Stephen; Wallis, Gregg L F

    2014-07-01

    The in vivo or in vitro formation of IgG4 hybrid molecules, wherein the immunoglobulins have exchanged half molecules, has previously been reported under experimental conditions. Here we estimate the incidence of polyclonal IgG4 hybrids in normal human serum and comment on the existence of IgG4 molecules with different immunoglobulin light chains. Polyclonal IgG4 was purified from pooled or individual donor human sera and sequentially fractionated using light-chain affinity and size exclusion chromatography. Fractions were analysed by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, ELISA, immunodiffusion and matrix-assisted laser-desorption mass spectrometry. Polyclonal IgG4 purified from normal serum contained IgG4κ, IgG4λ and IgG4κ/λ molecules. Size exclusion chromatography showed that IgG4 was principally present in monomeric form (150 000 MW). SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and ELISA showed the purity of the three IgG4 samples. Immunodiffusion, light-chain sandwich ELISA and mass spectrometry demonstrated that both κ and λ light chains were present on only the IgG4κ/λ molecules. The amounts of IgG4κ/λ hybrid molecules ranged from 21 to 33% from the five sera analysed. Based on the molecular weight these molecules were formed of two IgG4 heavy chains plus one κ and one λ light chain. Polyclonal IgG (IgG4-depleted) was similarly fractionated according to light-chain specificity. No evidence of hybrid IgG κ/λ antibodies was observed. These results indicate that hybrid IgG4κ/λ antibodies compose a substantial portion of IgG4 from normal human serum. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  16. Hybrid rail gun electromagnetic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.W.; Hachen, H.; Lee, A.; Legh, G.; Lin, T.; Mattay, S.; Wipf, S.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on hybrid rail accelerators are presented. It is shown that the side surface areas and in some cases sabots of the projectile can be used to provide substantial amount of additional thrust. Moreover, it is shown that in most cases examined, external magnetic fields can be conveniently incorporated in the accelerator designs to supplement the rail-induced fields. Total thrusts in excess of 10 MN for kilogram-sized projectiles can in principle be established with driving currents of the order of 1 MA. No obvious stress limitations are foreseen. The percentages of thrust from external magnetic fields are sufficiently high that the use of which should be encouraged. The increased flexibility in the projectile shapes available permits the use of the proposed hybrid electromagnetic launcher technology in a variety of new areas, such as thrust boosts in conventional chemical rockets and other similar applications. Furthermore, the additional thrust obtained from the use of side surface areas greatly increases the maximum permissable thrust otherwise limited by material strength considerations. Thrust analyses for projectiles in several hybrid rail accelerator designs are discussed. Some laboratory experimental observations are presented

  17. Modelling the solar wind interaction with Mercury by a quasi-neutral hybrid model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kallio

    Full Text Available Quasi-neutral hybrid model is a self-consistent modelling approach that includes positively charged particles and an electron fluid. The approach has received an increasing interest in space plasma physics research because it makes it possible to study several plasma physical processes that are difficult or impossible to model by self-consistent fluid models, such as the effects associated with the ions’ finite gyroradius, the velocity difference between different ion species, or the non-Maxwellian velocity distribution function. By now quasi-neutral hybrid models have been used to study the solar wind interaction with the non-magnetised Solar System bodies of Mars, Venus, Titan and comets. Localized, two-dimensional hybrid model runs have also been made to study terrestrial dayside magnetosheath. However, the Hermean plasma environment has not yet been analysed by a global quasi-neutral hybrid model.

    In this paper we present a new quasi-neutral hybrid model developed to study various processes associated with the Mercury-solar wind interaction. Emphasis is placed on addressing advantages and disadvantages of the approach to study different plasma physical processes near the planet. The basic assumptions of the approach and the algorithms used in the new model are thoroughly presented. Finally, some of the first three-dimensional hybrid model runs made for Mercury are presented.

    The resulting macroscopic plasma parameters and the morphology of the magnetic field demonstrate the applicability of the new approach to study the Mercury-solar wind interaction globally. In addition, the real advantage of the kinetic hybrid model approach is to study the property of individual ions, and the study clearly demonstrates the large potential of the approach to address these more detailed issues by a quasi-neutral hybrid model in the future.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics

  18. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of human blastocysts andcytotrophoblasts by multi-color FISH and Spectra Imaging analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Jingly F.; Ferlatte, Christy; Baumgartner, Adolf; Jung,Christine J.; Nguyen, Ha-Nam; Chu, Lisa W.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Fisher,Susan J.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-02-08

    Numerical chromosome aberrations in gametes typically lead to failed fertilization, spontaneous abortion or a chromosomally abnormal fetus. By means of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), we now can screen human embryos in vitro for aneuploidy before transferring the embryos to the uterus. PGD allows us to select unaffected embryos for transfer and increases the implantation rate in in vitro fertilization programs. Molecular cytogenetic analyses using multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of blastomeres have become the major tool for preimplantation genetic screening of aneuploidy. However, current FISH technology can test for only a small number of chromosome abnormalities and hitherto failed to increase the pregnancy rates as expected. We are in the process of developing technologies to score all 24 chromosomes in single cells within a 3 day time limit, which we believe is vital to the clinical setting. Also, human placental cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) at the fetal-maternal interface acquire aneuploidies as they differentiate to an invasive phenotype. About 20-50% of invasive CTB cells from uncomplicated pregnancies were found aneuploidy, suggesting that the acquisition of aneuploidy is an important component of normal placentation, perhaps limiting the proliferative and invasive potential of CTBs. Since most invasive CTBs are interphase cells and possess extreme heterogeneity, we applied multi-color FISH and repeated hybridizations to investigate individual CTBs. In summary, this study demonstrates the strength of Spectral Imaging analysis and repeated hybridizations, which provides a basis for full karyotype analysis of single interphase cells.

  19. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  20. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  3. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  4. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  5. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  6. Multiple Origins and Nested Cycles of Hybridization Result in High Tetraploid Diversity in the Monocot Prospero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae-Soo; Parker, John S; Emadzade, Khatere; Temsch, Eva M; Leitch, Andrew R; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Polyploidy is a major driving force in angiosperm evolution, but our understanding of establishment and early diversification processes following allo- vs. auto-polyploidy is limited. An excellent system to address such questions is the monocot plant Prospero autumnale , as it comprises several genomically and chromosomally distinct diploid cytotypes and their auto- and allotetraploid derivatives. To infer origins and evolutionary trajectories of the tetraploids, we use genome size data, in situ hybridization with parental genomic DNAs and specific probes (satDNA, rDNAs), as well as molecular-phylogenetic analyses. Thus, we demonstrate that an astounding range of allotetraploid lineages has been formed recurrently by chromosomal re-patterning, interactions of chromosomally variable parental genomes and nested cycles of extensive hybridization, whereas autotetraploids have originated at least twice and are cytologically stable. During the recurrent formation and establishment across wide geographic areas hybridization in some populations could have inhibited lineage diversification and nascent speciation of such a hybrid swarm. However, cytotypes that became fixed in populations enhanced the potential for species diversification, possibly exploiting the extended allelic base, and fixed heterozygosity that polyploidy confers. The time required for polyploid cytotype fixation may in part reflect the lag phase reported for polyploids between their formation and species diversification.

  7. Multiple Origins and Nested Cycles of Hybridization Result in High Tetraploid Diversity in the Monocot Prospero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Soo Jang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy is a major driving force in angiosperm evolution, but our understanding of establishment and early diversification processes following allo- vs. auto-polyploidy is limited. An excellent system to address such questions is the monocot plant Prospero autumnale, as it comprises several genomically and chromosomally distinct diploid cytotypes and their auto- and allotetraploid derivatives. To infer origins and evolutionary trajectories of the tetraploids, we use genome size data, in situ hybridization with parental genomic DNAs and specific probes (satDNA, rDNAs, as well as molecular-phylogenetic analyses. Thus, we demonstrate that an astounding range of allotetraploid lineages has been formed recurrently by chromosomal re-patterning, interactions of chromosomally variable parental genomes and nested cycles of extensive hybridization, whereas autotetraploids have originated at least twice and are cytologically stable. During the recurrent formation and establishment across wide geographic areas hybridization in some populations could have inhibited lineage diversification and nascent speciation of such a hybrid swarm. However, cytotypes that became fixed in populations enhanced the potential for species diversification, possibly exploiting the extended allelic base, and fixed heterozygosity that polyploidy confers. The time required for polyploid cytotype fixation may in part reflect the lag phase reported for polyploids between their formation and species diversification.

  8. Hybrid male sterility in rice is due to epistatic interactions with a pollen killer locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiko; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Kurata, Nori

    2011-11-01

    In intraspecific crosses between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) subspecies indica and japonica, the hybrid male sterility gene S24 causes the selective abortion of male gametes carrying the japonica allele (S24-j) via an allelic interaction in the heterozygous hybrids. In this study, we first examined whether male sterility is due solely to the single locus S24. An analysis of near-isogenic lines (NIL-F(1)) showed different phenotypes for S24 in different genetic backgrounds. The S24 heterozygote with the japonica genetic background showed male semisterility, but no sterility was found in heterozygotes with the indica background. This result indicates that S24 is regulated epistatically. A QTL analysis of a BC(2)F(1) population revealed a novel sterility locus that interacts with S24 and is found on rice chromosome 2. The locus was named Epistatic Factor for S24 (EFS). Further genetic analyses revealed that S24 causes male sterility when in combination with the homozygous japonica EFS allele (efs-j). The results suggest that efs-j is a recessive sporophytic allele, while the indica allele (EFS-i) can dominantly counteract the pollen sterility caused by S24 heterozygosity. In summary, our results demonstrate that an additional epistatic locus is an essential element in the hybrid sterility caused by allelic interaction at a single locus in rice. This finding provides a significant contribution to our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid sterility and microsporogenesis.

  9. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  10. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  11. The use of fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid hybrid scaffold for articular cartilage tissue engineering: an in vivo analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Munirah

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Our preliminary results indicated that fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA hybrid scaffold promoted early chondrogenesis of articular cartilage constructs in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo cartilaginous tissue formation by chondrocyte-seeded fibrin/PLGA hybrid scaffolds. PLGA scaffolds were soaked carefully, in chondrocyte-fibrin suspension, and polymerized by dropping thrombin-calcium chloride (CaCl2 solution. PLGA-seeded chondrocytes were used as a control. Resulting constructs were implanted subcutaneously, at the dorsum of nude mice, for 4 weeks. Macroscopic observation, histological evaluation, gene expression and sulphated-glycosaminoglycan (sGAG analyses were performed at each time point of 1, 2 and 4 weeks post-implantation. Cartilaginous tissue formation in fibrin/PLGA hybrid construct was confirmed by the presence of lacunae and cartilage-isolated cells embedded within basophilic ground substance. Presence of proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG in fibrin/PLGA hybrid constructs was confirmed by positive Safranin O and Alcian Blue staining. Collagen type II exhibited intense immunopositivity at the pericellular matrices. Chondrogenic properties were further demonstrated by the expression of gene encoded cartilage-specific markers, collagen type II and aggrecan core protein. The sGAG production in fibrin/PLGA hybrid constructs was higher than in the PLGA group. In conclusion, fibrin/PLGA hybrid scaffold promotes cartilaginous tissue formation in vivo and may serve as a potential cell delivery vehicle and a structural basis for articular cartilage tissue-engineering.

  12. Structure and properties of hybrid coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebnjak, A.D.; Vasilyuk, V.V.; Kravchenko, Yu.A.; Tyurin, Yu.N.; Alontseva, D.L.; Ponaryadov, V.V.; Ruzimov, Sh.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This review report presents both the results obtained by the authors and those of other authors concerning investigations of structure and properties of hybrid coatings. Examples of such coatings as Al 2 O 3 /Cr/TiN/steel, TiC; TiN/Ti-V-Al; NiCr/steel; CrNiBSi/steel and others before and after electron beam irradiation had been considered. In these coatings the thickest layer was deposited using the high-velocity pulsed plasma jet, all others being deposited in vacuum by the vacuum-arc source or implanter. Advantages of the high-velocity pulsed plasma jet in comparison with other technologies had been demonstrated. A wide spectrum of analyzing methods had been applied for analyses: TEM, SEM with EDS, RBS, NRA, SIMS, XRD, tests for corrosion, wear, adhesion and hardness. The works had been funded by the Project 2M/03 54-2003 of the Ministry of Science and Education of Ukraine and STCU Project N3078

  13. Chilaiditi's syndrome demonstrated by SPECT/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini S Perumal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chilaiditi’s syndrome is a rare condition commonly diagnosed as an incidental radiological finding. The aim of this report is to show the role of SPECT-CT in this syndrome and state the functional and anatomical role of this hybrid imaging modality. Materials and Methods: A case report. Results: A 49-year-old female patient was referred for gallium-67 citrate for a possible granulomatous myositis and underwent SPECT-CT of the abdomen to assess the area of decreased gallium uptake on planar images of the liver. The combined SPECT and CT modality demonstrated findings consistent with the clinical evidence of Chilaiditi’s syndrome. The anatomical part of this hybrid modality made it easier to evaluate the area of gallium lack of uptake which was due to air in the colon. Conclusion: This case does not only show the role of SPECT-CT in this syndrome but also suggest that the use of such modality should be considered whenever available in the evaluation of patients in whom the localization of active disease becomes imperative.

  14. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large

  15. Mirror hybrid reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The hybrid reactor studies are reviewed. The optimization of the point design and work on a reference design are described. The status of the nuclear analysis of fast spectrum blankets, systems studies for fissile fuel producing hybrid reactor, and the mechanical design of the machine are reviewed

  16. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  17. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  18. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  19. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation...

  20. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  1. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  2. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating......The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  3. A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1-hms2 incompatibility.

  4. Comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G

    2005-01-01

    Altering DNA copy number is one of the many ways that gene expression and function may be modified. Some variations are found among normal individuals ( 14, 35, 103 ), others occur in the course of normal processes in some species ( 33 ), and still others participate in causing various disease states. For example, many defects in human development are due to gains and losses of chromosomes and chromosomal segments that occur prior to or shortly after fertilization, whereas DNA dosage alterations that occur in somatic cells are frequent contributors to cancer. Detecting these aberrations, and interpreting them within the context of broader knowledge, facilitates identification of critical genes and pathways involved in biological processes and diseases, and provides clinically relevant information. Over the past several years array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) has demonstrated its value for analyzing DNA copy number variations. In this review we discuss the state of the art of array CGH and its applications in medical genetics and cancer, emphasizing general concepts rather than specific results.

  5. Course on hybrid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Tellier; Bonnemay; Craigne; Chareton; Di Falco

    1969-02-01

    After a definition of hybrid calculation (combination of analogue and digital calculation) with a distinction between series and parallel hybrid computing, and a description of a hybrid computer structure and of task sharing between computers, this course proposes a description of hybrid hardware used in Saclay and Cadarache computing centres, and of operations performed by these systems. The next part addresses issues related to programming languages and software. The fourth part describes how a problem is organised for its processing on these computers. Methods of hybrid analysis are then addressed: resolution of optimisation problems, of partial differential equations, and of integral equations by means of different methods (gradient, maximum principle, characteristics, functional approximation, time slicing, Monte Carlo, Neumann iteration, Fischer iteration)

  6. Hybrid functional pseudopotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2018-02-01

    The consistency between the exchange-correlation functional used in pseudopotential construction and in the actual density functional theory calculation is essential for the accurate prediction of fundamental properties of materials. However, routine hybrid density functional calculations at present still rely on generalized gradient approximation pseudopotentials due to the lack of hybrid functional pseudopotentials. Here, we present a scheme for generating hybrid functional pseudopotentials, and we analyze the importance of pseudopotential density functional consistency for hybrid functionals. For the PBE0 hybrid functional, we benchmark our pseudopotentials for structural parameters and fundamental electronic gaps of the Gaussian-2 (G2) molecular dataset and some simple solids. Our results show that using our PBE0 pseudopotentials in PBE0 calculations improves agreement with respect to all-electron calculations.

  7. Contesting Citizenship: Comparative Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Squires, Judith

    2007-01-01

    importance of particularized experiences and multiple ineequality agendas). These developments shape the way citizenship is both practiced and analysed. Mapping neat citizenship modles onto distinct nation-states and evaluating these in relation to formal equality is no longer an adequate approach....... Comparative citizenship analyses need to be considered in relation to multipleinequalities and their intersections and to multiple governance and trans-national organisinf. This, in turn, suggests that comparative citizenship analysis needs to consider new spaces in which struggles for equal citizenship occur...

  8. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  9. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project

  10. Bucking the trend in wolf-dog hybridization: first evidence from europe of hybridization between female dogs and male wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindrikson, Maris; Männil, Peep; Ozolins, Janis; Krzywinski, Andrzej; Saarma, Urmas

    2012-01-01

    Studies on hybridization have proved critical for understanding key evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation. However, from the perspective of conservation, hybridization poses a concern, as it can threaten the integrity and fitness of many wild species, including canids. As a result of habitat fragmentation and extensive hunting pressure, gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations have declined dramatically in Europe and elsewhere during recent centuries. Small and fragmented populations have persisted, but often only in the presence of large numbers of dogs, which increase the potential for hybridization and introgression to deleteriously affect wolf populations. Here, we demonstrate hybridization between wolf and dog populations in Estonia and Latvia, and the role of both genders in the hybridization process, using combined analysis of maternal, paternal and biparental genetic markers. Eight animals exhibiting unusual external characteristics for wolves - six from Estonia and two from Latvia - proved to be wolf-dog hybrids. However, one of the hybridization events was extraordinary. Previous field observations and genetic studies have indicated that mating between wolves and dogs is sexually asymmetrical, occurring predominantly between female wolves and male dogs. While this was also the case among the Estonian hybrids, our data revealed the existence of dog mitochondrial genomes in the Latvian hybrids and, together with Y chromosome and autosomal microsatellite data, thus provided the first evidence from Europe of mating between male wolves and female dogs. We discuss patterns of sexual asymmetry in wolf-dog hybridization.

  11. Performances Study of a Hybrid Rocket Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Nicolae BUTURACHE

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study which analyses the functioning and performances optimization of a hybrid rocket engine based on gaseous oxygen and polybutadiene polymer (HTPB. Calculations were performed with NASA CEA software in order to obtain the parameters resulted following the combustion process. Using these parameters, the main parameters of the hybrid rocket engine were optimized. Using the calculus previously stated, an experimental rocket engine producing 100 N of thrust was pre-dimensioned, followed by an optimization of the rocket engine as a function of several parameters. Having the geometry and the main parameters of the hybrid rocket engine combustion process, numerical simulations were performed in the CFX – ANSYS commercial software, which allowed visualizing the flow field and the jet expansion. Finally, the analytical calculus was validated through numerical simulations.

  12. Risico-analyse brandstofpontons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijt de Haag P; Post J; LSO

    2001-01-01

    Voor het bepalen van de risico's van brandstofpontons in een jachthaven is een generieke risico-analyse uitgevoerd. Er is een referentiesysteem gedefinieerd, bestaande uit een betonnen brandstofponton met een relatief grote inhoud en doorzet. Aangenomen is dat de ponton gelegen is in een

  13. Fast multichannel analyser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, A; Przybylski, M M; Sumner, I [Science Research Council, Daresbury (UK). Daresbury Lab.

    1982-10-01

    A fast multichannel analyser (MCA) capable of sampling at a rate of 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/ has been developed. The instrument is based on an 8 bit parallel encoding analogue to digital converter (ADC) reading into a fast histogramming random access memory (RAM) system, giving 256 channels of 64 k count capacity. The prototype unit is in CAMAC format.

  14. A fast multichannel analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, A.; Przybylski, M.M.; Sumner, I.

    1982-01-01

    A fast multichannel analyser (MCA) capable of sampling at a rate of 10 7 s -1 has been developed. The instrument is based on an 8 bit parallel encoding analogue to digital converter (ADC) reading into a fast histogramming random access memory (RAM) system, giving 256 channels of 64 k count capacity. The prototype unit is in CAMAC format. (orig.)

  15. Interploidal hybridization and mating patterns in the Sphagnum subsecundum complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, M; Szövényi, P; Temsch, E M; Johnson, M G; Shaw, A J

    2011-08-01

    Polyploidization is thought to result in instant sympatric speciation, but several cases of hybrid zones between one of the parental species and its polyploid derivative have been documented. Previous work showed that diploid Sphagnum lescurii is an allopolyploid derived from the haploids S. lescurii (maternal progenitor) and S. subsecundum (paternal progenitor). Here, we report the results from analyses of a population where allodiploid and haploid S. lescurii co-occur and produce sporophytes. We tested (i) whether haploids and diploids form hybrid triploid sporophytes; (ii) how hybrid and nonhybrid sporophytes compare in fitness; (iii) whether hybrid sporophytes form viable spores; (iv) the ploidy of any viable gametophyte offspring from hybrid sporophytes; (v) the relative viability of sporelings derived from hybrid and nonhybrid sporophytes; and (vi) if interploidal hybridization results in introgression between the allopolyploid and its haploid progenitor. We found that triploid hybrid sporophytes do occur and are larger than nonhybrid sporophytes, but exhibit very low germination percentages and produce sporelings that develop more slowly than those from nonhybrid sporophytes. All sporophytes attached to haploid gametophytes were triploid and were sired by diploid males, but all sporophytes attached to diploid gametophytes were tetraploid. This asymmetric pattern of interploidal hybridization is related to an absence of haploid male gametophytes in the population. Surprisingly, all sporelings from triploid sporophytes were triploid, yet were genetically variable, suggesting some form of aberrant meiosis that warrants further study. There was limited (but some) evidence of introgression between allodiploid and haploid S. lescurii. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loe, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD) were to investigate, design a software architecture and demonstrate a capability to display intelligence data from multiple disciplines...

  17. Nanotetrapods: quantum dot hybrid for bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid thin film solar cell based on all-inorganic nanoparticles is a new member in the family of photovoltaic devices. In this work, a novel and performance-efficient inorganic hybrid nanostructure with continuous charge transportation and collection channels is demonstrated by introducing CdTe nanotetropods (NTs) and CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Hybrid morphology is characterized, demonstrating an interpenetration and compacted contact of NTs and QDs. Electrical measurements show enhanced charge transfer at the hybrid bulk heterojunction interface of NTs and QDs after ligand exchange which accordingly improves the performance of solar cells. Photovoltaic and light response tests exhibit a combined optic-electric contribution from both CdTe NTs and CdSe QDs through a formation of interpercolation in morphology as well as a type II energy level distribution. The NT and QD hybrid bulk heterojunction is applicable and promising in other highly efficient photovoltaic materials such as PbS QDs. PMID:24139059

  18. Fathead minnow whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This study demonstrates the potential of whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), in conjunction with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)...

  19. Hybrid Propulsion Technology for Robotic Science Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — C3 Propulsion's Hybrid Propulsion Technology will be applied to a NASA selected Sample Return Mission. Phase I will demonstrate Proof-of-Principle and Phase II will...

  20. Nanocellulose composites with enhanced interfacial compatibility and mechanical properties using a hybrid-toughened epoxy matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Pei-Yu; Barros, Luizmar de Assis; Yan, Ning; Sain, Mohini; Qing, Yan; Wu, Yiqiang

    2017-12-01

    Although there is a growing interest in utilizing nanocellulose fibres (NCFs) based composites for achieving a higher sustainability, mechanical performance of these composites is limited due to the poor compatibility between fibre reinforcement and polymer matrices. Here we developed a bio-nanocomposite with an enhanced fibre/resin interface using a hybrid-toughened epoxy. A strong reinforcing effect of NCFs was achieved, demonstrating an increase up to 88% in tensile strength and 298% in tensile modulus as compared to neat petro-based P-epoxy. The toughness of neat P-epoxy was improved by 84% with the addition of 10wt% bio-based E-epoxy monomers, which also mitigated the amount of usage of bisphenol A (BPA). The morphological analyses showed that the hybrid epoxy improved the resin penetration and fibre distribution significantly in the resulting composites. Thus, our findings demonstrated the promise of developing sustainable and high performance epoxy composites combing NCFs with a hybrid petro-based and bio-based epoxy resin system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Control and design of volumetric composition in pultruded hybrid fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Hashemi, Fariborz; Tahir, Paridah

    2016-01-01

    composition (i.e. volume fractions of fibres, matrix and porosity) in hybrid fibre composites. The model is based on a constant local fibre volume fraction criterion. Good agreement is found between model predictions and experimental data of pultruded hybrid kenaf/glass fibre composites with variable hybrid...... fibre weight mixing ratios. To demonstrate the suitability of the model, simulations are performed for four different cases of volumetric composition in hybrid kenaf/glass composites....

  2. Computational hybrid anthropometric paediatric phantom library for internal radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid computational phantoms combine voxel-based and simplified equation-based modelling approaches to provide unique advantages and more realism for the construction of anthropomorphic models. In this work, a methodology and C++ code are developed to generate hybrid computational phantoms covering statistical distributions of body morphometry in the paediatric population. The paediatric phantoms of the Virtual Population Series (IT’IS Foundation, Switzerland) were modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body mass, body length, standing height and sitting height/stature ratio, determined from reference databases of the National Centre for Health Statistics and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The phantoms were selected as representative anchor phantoms for the newborn, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 years-old children, and were subsequently remodelled to create 1100 female and male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th body morphometries. Evaluation was performed qualitatively using 3D visualization and quantitatively by analysing internal organ masses. Overall, the newly generated phantoms appear very reasonable and representative of the main characteristics of the paediatric population at various ages and for different genders, body sizes and sitting stature ratios. The mass of internal organs increases with height and body mass. The comparison of organ masses of the heart, kidney, liver, lung and spleen with published autopsy and ICRP reference data for children demonstrated that they follow the same trend when correlated with age. The constructed hybrid computational phantom library opens up the prospect of comprehensive radiation dosimetry calculations and risk assessment for the paediatric population of different age groups and diverse anthropometric parameters.

  3. Hybrid III-V/SOI Resonant Cavity Photodetector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Learkthanakhachon, Supannee; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Park, Gyeong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid III-V/SOI resonant cavity photo detector has been demonstrated, which comprises an InP grating reflectorand a Si grating reflector. It can selectively detects an incident light with 1.54-µm wavelength and TM polarization.......A hybrid III-V/SOI resonant cavity photo detector has been demonstrated, which comprises an InP grating reflectorand a Si grating reflector. It can selectively detects an incident light with 1.54-µm wavelength and TM polarization....

  4. Coal ash artificial reef demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Brendel, G.F.; Bruzek, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This experimental project evaluated the use of coal ash to construct artificial reefs. An artificial reef consisting of approximately 33 tons of cement-stabilized coal ash blocks was constructed in approximately 20 feet of water in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 9.3 miles west of Cedar Key, Florida. The project objectives were: (1) demonstrate that a durable coal ash/cement block can be manufactured by commercial block-making machines for use in artificial reefs, and (2) evaluate the possibility that a physically stable and environmentally acceptable coal ash/cement block reef can be constructed as a means of expanding recreational and commercial fisheries. The reef was constructed in February 1988 and biological surveys were made at monthly intervals from May 1988 to April 1989. The project provided information regarding: Development of an optimum design mix, block production and reef construction, chemical composition of block leachate, biological colonization of the reef, potential concentration of metals in the food web associated with the reef, acute bioassays (96-hour LC 50 ). The Cedar Key reef was found to be a habitat that was associated with a relatively rich assemblage of plants and animals. The reef did not appear to be a major source of heavy metals to species at various levels of biological organization. GAI Consultants, Inc (GAI) of Monroeville, Pennsylvania was the prime consultant for the project. The biological monitoring surveys and evaluations were performed by Environmental Planning and Analysis, Inc. of Tallahassee, Florida. The chemical analyses of biological organisms and bioassay elutriates were performed by Savannah Laboratories of Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Power Corporation of St. Petersburg, Florida sponsored the project and supplied ash from their Crystal River Energy Complex

  5. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  6. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  7. Towers of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid meson is a quark-antiquark pair in which, contrary to ordinary mesons, the gluon field is in an excited state. In the framework of constituent models, the interaction potential is assumed to be the energy of an excited string. An approximate, but accurate, analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation with such a potential is presented. When applied to hybrid charmonia and bottomonia, towers of states are predicted in which the masses are a linear function of a harmonic oscillator band number for the quark-antiquark pair. Such a formula could be a reliable guide for the experimental detection of heavy hybrid mesons.

  8. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  9. Possible future HERA analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiser, Achim

    2015-12-01

    A variety of possible future analyses of HERA data in the context of the HERA data preservation programme is collected, motivated, and commented. The focus is placed on possible future analyses of the existing ep collider data and their physics scope. Comparisons to the original scope of the HERA pro- gramme are made, and cross references to topics also covered by other participants of the workshop are given. This includes topics on QCD, proton structure, diffraction, jets, hadronic final states, heavy flavours, electroweak physics, and the application of related theory and phenomenology topics like NNLO QCD calculations, low-x related models, nonperturbative QCD aspects, and electroweak radiative corrections. Synergies with other collider programmes are also addressed. In summary, the range of physics topics which can still be uniquely covered using the existing data is very broad and of considerable physics interest, often matching the interest of results from colliders currently in operation. Due to well-established data and MC sets, calibrations, and analysis procedures the manpower and expertise needed for a particular analysis is often very much smaller than that needed for an ongoing experiment. Since centrally funded manpower to carry out such analyses is not available any longer, this contribution not only targets experienced self-funded experimentalists, but also theorists and master-level students who might wish to carry out such an analysis.

  10. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  11. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  12. Two-dimensional Semiconductor-Superconductor Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suominen, Henri Juhani

    This thesis investigates hybrid two-dimensional semiconductor-superconductor (Sm-S) devices and presents a new material platform exhibiting intimate Sm-S coupling straight out of the box. Starting with the conventional approach, we investigate coupling superconductors to buried quantum well....... To overcome these issues we integrate the superconductor directly into the semiconducting material growth stack, depositing it in-situ in a molecular beam epitaxy system under high vacuum. We present a number of experiments on these hybrid heterostructures, demonstrating near unity interface transparency...

  13. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations

  14. In situ green synthesis of antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan-nanosilver hybrids with controlled silver release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siqi; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng

    2017-01-01

    In order to fabricate antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan-nanosilver (CMC-Ag) hybrids with controlled silver release, this study demonstrated comparable formation via three synthetic protocols: 1) carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and glucose (adding glucose after AgNO 3 ), 2) CMC and glucose (adding glucose before AgNO 3 ), and 3) CMC only. Under principles of green chemistry, the synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 10 minutes with nontoxic chemicals. The structure and formation mechanisms of the three CMC-Ag hybrids were explored using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. Additionally, antimicrobial activity and in vitro silver release of the three synthesized hybrids were investigated in detail. The results revealed that a large number of stable, uniform, and small silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on CMC chains via protocol 1. AgNPs were well dispersed with narrow size distribution in the range of 6-20 nm, with mean diameter only 12.22±2.57 nm. The addition of glucose resulted in greater AgNP synthesis. The order of addition of glucose and AgNO 3 significantly affected particle size and size distribution of AgNPs. Compared to CMC alone and commercially available AgNPs, the antimicrobial activities of three hybrids were significantly improved. Of the three hybrids, CMC-Ag1 synthesized via protocol 1 exhibited better antimicrobial activity than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3, and showed more effective inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli . Due to strong coordination and electrostatic interactions between CMC and silver and good steric protection provided by CMC, CMC-Ag1 displayed stable and continuous silver release and better performance in retaining silver for prolonged periods than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3.

  15. In situ green synthesis of antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan–nanosilver hybrids with controlled silver release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siqi; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng

    2017-01-01

    In order to fabricate antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan–nanosilver (CMC-Ag) hybrids with controlled silver release, this study demonstrated comparable formation via three synthetic protocols: 1) carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and glucose (adding glucose after AgNO3), 2) CMC and glucose (adding glucose before AgNO3), and 3) CMC only. Under principles of green chemistry, the synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 10 minutes with nontoxic chemicals. The structure and formation mechanisms of the three CMC-Ag hybrids were explored using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. Additionally, antimicrobial activity and in vitro silver release of the three synthesized hybrids were investigated in detail. The results revealed that a large number of stable, uniform, and small silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on CMC chains via protocol 1. AgNPs were well dispersed with narrow size distribution in the range of 6–20 nm, with mean diameter only 12.22±2.57 nm. The addition of glucose resulted in greater AgNP synthesis. The order of addition of glucose and AgNO3 significantly affected particle size and size distribution of AgNPs. Compared to CMC alone and commercially available AgNPs, the antimicrobial activities of three hybrids were significantly improved. Of the three hybrids, CMC-Ag1 synthesized via protocol 1 exhibited better antimicrobial activity than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3, and showed more effective inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli. Due to strong coordination and electrostatic interactions between CMC and silver and good steric protection provided by CMC, CMC-Ag1 displayed stable and continuous silver release and better performance in retaining silver for prolonged periods than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3. PMID:28458539

  16. Formula hybrid SAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    User-friendly tools are needed for undergraduates to learn about component sizing, powertrain integration, and control : strategies for student competitions involving hybrid vehicles. A TK Solver tool was developed at the University of Idaho for : th...

  17. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  18. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  19. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-01-01

    for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations

  20. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  1. AMS analyses at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, E.M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Physics Division

    1998-03-01

    The major use of ANTARES is Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) with {sup 14}C being the most commonly analysed radioisotope - presently about 35 % of the available beam time on ANTARES is used for {sup 14}C measurements. The accelerator measurements are supported by, and dependent on, a strong sample preparation section. The ANTARES AMS facility supports a wide range of investigations into fields such as global climate change, ice cores, oceanography, dendrochronology, anthropology, and classical and Australian archaeology. Described here are some examples of the ways in which AMS has been applied to support research into the archaeology, prehistory and culture of this continent`s indigenous Aboriginal peoples. (author)

  2. AMS analyses at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    The major use of ANTARES is Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) with 14 C being the most commonly analysed radioisotope - presently about 35 % of the available beam time on ANTARES is used for 14 C measurements. The accelerator measurements are supported by, and dependent on, a strong sample preparation section. The ANTARES AMS facility supports a wide range of investigations into fields such as global climate change, ice cores, oceanography, dendrochronology, anthropology, and classical and Australian archaeology. Described here are some examples of the ways in which AMS has been applied to support research into the archaeology, prehistory and culture of this continent's indigenous Aboriginal peoples. (author)

  3. Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Using Hybridized Differential Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madavan, Nateri K.

    2003-01-01

    An aerodynamic shape optimization method that uses an evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution (DE) in conjunction with various hybridization strategies is described. DE is a simple and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems. Various hybridization strategies for DE are explored, including the use of neural networks as well as traditional local search methods. A Navier-Stokes solver is used to evaluate the various intermediate designs and provide inputs to the hybrid DE optimizer. The method is implemented on distributed parallel computers so that new designs can be obtained within reasonable turnaround times. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine. (The final paper will include at least one other aerodynamic design application). The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated.

  4. ISIL's Hybrid Warfare in Syria & Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heine

    2016-01-01

    of and ability to synchronize various instruments of power with a view to achieving their end-state. With regards to the second part of the problem statement, the analysis demonstrates how ISIL employed horizontal escalation and ambiguity initially, but later on turned to vertical escalation, within the military......The case study specifically seeks to answer the following problem statement: Does ISIL qualify as an actor using hybrid warfare and if so what characterizes their particular use of this type of warfare? Based on an analysis of ISIL’s warfare from August 2012 to August 2016 the chapter argues......, that it is possible to answer the first part of the problem statement in an affirmative way. Hence, ISIL is not only theoretically prone to hybridity by organizational setup, and by the people comprising the organization, but has in fact continuously acted according to a hybrid logic in its prioritization...

  5. Human hybrid hybridoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  6. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  7. Analyses of MHD instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1985-01-01

    In this article analyses of the MHD stabilities which govern the global behavior of a fusion plasma are described from the viewpoint of the numerical computation. First, we describe the high accuracy calculation of the MHD equilibrium and then the analysis of the linear MHD instability. The former is the basis of the stability analysis and the latter is closely related to the limiting beta value which is a very important theoretical issue of the tokamak research. To attain a stable tokamak plasma with good confinement property it is necessary to control or suppress disruptive instabilities. We, next, describe the nonlinear MHD instabilities which relate with the disruption phenomena. Lastly, we describe vectorization of the MHD codes. The above MHD codes for fusion plasma analyses are relatively simple though very time-consuming and parts of the codes which need a lot of CPU time concentrate on a small portion of the codes, moreover, the codes are usually used by the developers of the codes themselves, which make it comparatively easy to attain a high performance ratio on the vector processor. (author)

  8. Microwaves integrated circuits: hybrids and monolithics - fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Pinto, J.K. da

    1983-01-01

    Several types of microwave integrated circuits are presented together with comments about technologies and fabrication processes; advantages and disadvantages in their utilization are analysed. Basic structures, propagation modes, materials used and major steps in the construction of hybrid thin film and monolithic microwave integrated circuits are described. Important technological applications are revised and main activities of the microelectronics lab. of the University of Sao Paulo (Brazil) in the field of hybrid and monolithic microwave integrated circuits are summarized. (C.L.B.) [pt

  9. Genetic complexity underlying hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Sawamura, Kyoichi; Roote, John; Wu, Chung-I; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2004-01-01

    Recent genetic analyses of closely related species of Drosophila have indicated that hybrid male sterility is the consequence of highly complex synergistic effects among multiple genes, both conspecific and heterospecific. On the contrary, much evidence suggests the presence of major genes causing hybrid female sterility and inviability in the less-related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Does this contrast reflect the genetic distance between species? Or, generally, is the genetic b...

  10. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the AES Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant...

  11. Cargo Data Management Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    Delays in receipt and creation of cargo documents are a problem in international trade. The work described demonstrates some of the advantages and capabilities of a computer-based cargo data management system. A demonstration system for data manageme...

  12. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  13. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  14. Helicopter detection and classification demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koersel, A.C. van

    2000-01-01

    A technology demonstrator that detects and classifies different helicopter types automatically, was developed at TNO-FEL. The demonstrator is based on a PC, which receives its acoustic input from an all-weather microphone. The demonstrator uses commercial off-the-shelf hardware to digitize the

  15. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and coal fired power

  16. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  17. A simple beam analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarchand, G.

    1977-01-01

    (ee'p) experiments allow to measure the missing energy distribution as well as the momentum distribution of the extracted proton in the nucleus versus the missing energy. Such experiments are presently conducted on SACLAY's A.L.S. 300 Linac. Electrons and protons are respectively analysed by two spectrometers and detected in their focal planes. Counting rates are usually low and include time coincidences and accidentals. Signal-to-noise ratio is dependent on the physics of the experiment and the resolution of the coincidence, therefore it is mandatory to get a beam current distribution as flat as possible. Using new technologies has allowed to monitor in real time the behavior of the beam pulse and determine when the duty cycle can be considered as being good with respect to a numerical basis

  18. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  19. Pathway-based analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Jack W

    2016-02-03

    New technologies for acquisition of genomic data, while offering unprecedented opportunities for genetic discovery, also impose severe burdens of interpretation and penalties for multiple testing. The Pathway-based Analyses Group of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19) sought reduction of multiple-testing burden through various approaches to aggregation of highdimensional data in pathways informed by prior biological knowledge. Experimental methods testedincluded the use of "synthetic pathways" (random sets of genes) to estimate power and false-positive error rate of methods applied to simulated data; data reduction via independent components analysis, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-SNP interaction, and use of gene sets to estimate genetic similarity; and general assessment of the efficacy of prior biological knowledge to reduce the dimensionality of complex genomic data. The work of this group explored several promising approaches to managing high-dimensional data, with the caveat that these methods are necessarily constrained by the quality of external bioinformatic annotation.

  20. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most...... common tool to answer this question, analysis of log files, faces the problem that the amount of logged data may be overwhelming. This problems gets even worse in the case of insider attacks, where the attacker’s actions usually will be logged as permissible, standard actions—if they are logged at all....... Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set...

  1. Network class superposition analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A B Pearson

    Full Text Available Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30 for the yeast cell cycle process, considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.

  2. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  3. Fusion-fission hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the range of characteristics attainable from hybrid reactor blankets; blanket design considerations; hybrid reactor designs; alternative fuel hybrid reactors; multi-purpose hybrid reactors; and hybrid reactors and the energy economy. Hybrid reactors are driven by a fusion neutron source and include fertile and/or fissile material. The fusion component provides a copious source of fusion neutrons which interact with a subcritical fission component located adjacent to the plasma or pellet chamber. Fissile fuel and/or energy are the main products of hybrid reactors. Topics include high F/M blankets, the fissile (and tritium) breeding ratio, effects of composition on blanket properties, geometrical considerations, power density and first wall loading, variations of blanket properties with irradiation, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design considerations, safety considerations, tokamak hybrid reactors, tandem-mirror hybrid reactors, inertial confinement hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources, fissile-fuel and energy production ability, simultaneous production of combustible and fissile fuels, fusion reactors for waste transmutation and fissile breeding, nuclear pumped laser hybrid reactors, Hybrid Fuel Factories (HFFs), and scenarios for hybrid contribution. The appendix offers hybrid reactor fundamentals. Numerous references are provided

  4. Radiation sterilization of enzyme hybrids with biodegradable polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Oka, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    Ionizing radiations, which have already been utilized for the sterilization of medical supplies as well as gas fumigation, should be the final candidate to decontaminate 'hybrid' biomaterials containing bio-active materials including enzymes because irradiation induces neither heat nor substances affecting the quality of the materials and our health. In order to check the feasibility of 60 Co-gamma rays on these materials, we selected commercial proteases including papain and bromelain hybridized with commercial activated chitosan beads and demonstrated that these enzyme-hybrids suspended in water showed the significant radiation durability of more than twice as much as free enzyme solution at 25-kGy irradiation. Enhanced thermal and storage stability of the enzyme hybrids were not affected by the same dose level of irradiation, either, indicating that commercial irradiation sterilization method is applicable to enzyme hybrids without modification

  5. An adaptive hybrid EnKF-OI scheme for efficient state-parameter estimation of reactive contaminant transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad; Valstar, Johan R.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Reactive contaminant transport models are used by hydrologists to simulate and study the migration and fate of industrial waste in subsurface aquifers. Accurate transport modeling of such waste requires clear understanding of the system's parameters, such as sorption and biodegradation. In this study, we present an efficient sequential data assimilation scheme that computes accurate estimates of aquifer contamination and spatially variable sorption coefficients. This assimilation scheme is based on a hybrid formulation of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and optimal interpolation (OI) in which solute concentration measurements are assimilated via a recursive dual estimation of sorption coefficients and contaminant state variables. This hybrid EnKF-OI scheme is used to mitigate background covariance limitations due to ensemble under-sampling and neglected model errors. Numerical experiments are conducted with a two-dimensional synthetic aquifer in which cobalt-60, a radioactive contaminant, is leached in a saturated heterogeneous clayey sandstone zone. Assimilation experiments are investigated under different settings and sources of model and observational errors. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid EnKF-OI scheme successfully recovers both the contaminant and the sorption rate and reduces their uncertainties. Sensitivity analyses also suggest that the adaptive hybrid scheme remains effective with small ensembles, allowing to reduce the ensemble size by up to 80% with respect to the standard EnKF scheme. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The role of hybridization during ecological divergence of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) and limber pine (P. flexilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Mitra; Bagley, Justin C; Friedline, Christopher J; Whipple, Amy V; Schoettle, Anna W; Leal-Sàenz, Alejandro; Wehenkel, Christian; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Gonzalez-Elizondo, M Socorro; Sniezko, Richard A; Cushman, Samuel A; Waring, Kristen M; Eckert, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    Interactions between extrinsic factors, such as disruptive selection and intrinsic factors, such as genetic incompatibilities among loci, often contribute to the maintenance of species boundaries. The relative roles of these factors in the establishment of reproductive isolation can be examined using species pairs characterized by gene flow throughout their divergence history. We investigated the process of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries between Pinus strobiformis and Pinus flexilis. Utilizing ecological niche modelling, demographic modelling and genomic cline analyses, we illustrated a divergence history with continuous gene flow. Our results supported an abundance of advanced generation hybrids and a lack of loci exhibiting steep transition in allele frequency across the hybrid zone. Additionally, we found evidence for climate-associated variation in the hybrid index and niche divergence between parental species and the hybrid zone. These results are consistent with extrinsic factors, such as climate, being an important isolating mechanism. A build-up of intrinsic incompatibilities and of coadapted gene complexes is also apparent, although these appear to be in the earliest stages of development. This supports previous work in coniferous species demonstrating the importance of extrinsic factors in facilitating speciation. Overall, our findings lend support to the hypothesis that varying strength and direction of selection pressures across the long lifespans of conifers, in combination with their other life history traits, delays the evolution of strong intrinsic incompatibilities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. An adaptive hybrid EnKF-OI scheme for efficient state-parameter estimation of reactive contaminant transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Reactive contaminant transport models are used by hydrologists to simulate and study the migration and fate of industrial waste in subsurface aquifers. Accurate transport modeling of such waste requires clear understanding of the system\\'s parameters, such as sorption and biodegradation. In this study, we present an efficient sequential data assimilation scheme that computes accurate estimates of aquifer contamination and spatially variable sorption coefficients. This assimilation scheme is based on a hybrid formulation of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and optimal interpolation (OI) in which solute concentration measurements are assimilated via a recursive dual estimation of sorption coefficients and contaminant state variables. This hybrid EnKF-OI scheme is used to mitigate background covariance limitations due to ensemble under-sampling and neglected model errors. Numerical experiments are conducted with a two-dimensional synthetic aquifer in which cobalt-60, a radioactive contaminant, is leached in a saturated heterogeneous clayey sandstone zone. Assimilation experiments are investigated under different settings and sources of model and observational errors. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid EnKF-OI scheme successfully recovers both the contaminant and the sorption rate and reduces their uncertainties. Sensitivity analyses also suggest that the adaptive hybrid scheme remains effective with small ensembles, allowing to reduce the ensemble size by up to 80% with respect to the standard EnKF scheme. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Gene expression analysis of the ovary of hybrid females of Xenopus laevis and X. muelleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone John H

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific hybrids of frogs of the genus Xenopus result in sterile hybrid males and fertile hybrid females. Previous work has demonstrated a dramatic asymmetrical pattern of misexpression in hybrid males compared to the two parental species with relatively few genes misexpressed in comparisons of hybrids and the maternal species (X. laevis and dramatically more genes misexpressed in hybrids compared to the paternal species (X. muelleri. In this work, we examine the gene expression pattern in hybrid females of X. laevis × X. muelleri to determine if this asymmetrical pattern of expression also occurs in hybrid females. Results We find a similar pattern of asymmetry in expression compared to males in that there were more genes differentially expressed between hybrids and X. muelleri compared to hybrids and X. laevis. We also found a dramatic increase in the number of misexpressed genes with hybrid females having about 20 times more genes misexpressed in ovaries compared to testes of hybrid males and therefore the match between phenotype and expression pattern is not supported. Conclusion We discuss these intriguing findings in the context of reproductive isolation and suggest that divergence in female expression may be involved in sterility of hybrid males due to the inherent sensitivity of spermatogenesis as defined by the faster male evolution hypothesis for Haldane's rule.

  9. Pneumatic hybridization of a diesel engine using compressed air storage for wind-diesel energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are studying an innovative solution to reduce fuel consumption and production cost for electricity production by Diesel generators. The solution is particularly suitable for remote areas where the cost of energy is very high not only because of inherent cost of technology but also due to transportation costs. It has significant environmental benefits as the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a significant source of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. The use of hybrid systems that combine renewable sources, especially wind, and Diesel generators, reduces fuel consumption and operation cost and has environmental benefits. Adding a storage element to the hybrid system increases the penetration level of the renewable sources, that is the percentage of renewable energy in the overall production, and further improves fuel savings. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) has numerous advantages for hybrid wind-diesel systems due to its low cost, high power density and reliability. The pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine consists to introduce the CAES through the admission valve. We have proven that we can improve the combustion efficiency and therefore the fuel consumption by optimizing Air/Fuel ratio thanks to the CAES assistance. As a continuation of these previous analyses, we studied the effect of the intake pressure and temperature and the exhaust pressure on the thermodynamic cycle of the diesel engine and determined the values of these parameters that will optimize fuel consumption. -- Highlights: ► Fuel economy analysis of a simple pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine using stored compressed air. ► Thermodynamic analysis of the pneumatic hybridization of diesel engines for hybrid wind-diesel energy systems. ► Analysis of intake pressure and temperature of compressed air and exhaust pressure on pressure/temperature during Diesel thermodynamic cycle. ► Direct admission of

  10. Safety demonstration analyses on criticality for severe accident during overland transport of fresh nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Okuno, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kenji; Watanabe, Kouji; Nomura, Yasushi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    Criticality safety analysis was performed for transport packages of uranium dioxide powder or of fresh PWR fuel involved in a severe accident during overland transportation, and as a result, sub-criticality was confirmed against impact accident conditions such as loaded by a drop from high position to a concrete or asphalt surface, and fire accident conditions such as caused by collisions with an oil tank trailer carrying lots of inflammable material in open air, or with a commonly used two-ton-truck inside an unventilated tunnel. (author)

  11. Seismic fragility analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Marin

    2000-01-01

    In the last two decades there is increasing number of probabilistic seismic risk assessments performed. The basic ideas of the procedure for performing a Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of critical structures (NUREG/CR-2300, 1983) could be used also for normal industrial and residential buildings, dams or other structures. The general formulation of the risk assessment procedure applied in this investigation is presented in Franzini, et al., 1984. The probability of failure of a structure for an expected lifetime (for example 50 years) can be obtained from the annual frequency of failure, β E determined by the relation: β E ∫[d[β(x)]/dx]P(flx)dx. β(x) is the annual frequency of exceedance of load level x (for example, the variable x may be peak ground acceleration), P(fI x) is the conditional probability of structure failure at a given seismic load level x. The problem leads to the assessment of the seismic hazard β(x) and the fragility P(fl x). The seismic hazard curves are obtained by the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. The fragility curves are obtained after the response of the structure is defined as probabilistic and its capacity and the associated uncertainties are assessed. Finally the fragility curves are combined with the seismic loading to estimate the frequency of failure for each critical scenario. The frequency of failure due to seismic event is presented by the scenario with the highest frequency. The tools usually applied for probabilistic safety analyses of critical structures could relatively easily be adopted to ordinary structures. The key problems are the seismic hazard definitions and the fragility analyses. The fragility could be derived either based on scaling procedures or on the base of generation. Both approaches have been presented in the paper. After the seismic risk (in terms of failure probability) is assessed there are several approaches for risk reduction. Generally the methods could be classified in two groups. The

  12. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  13. New hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.

    2001-01-01

    New hybrid systems are made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and a proton accelerator. The neutrons that are produced in the target by the flux of protons are necessary to maintain the chain reaction of fission. Some parameters that are important for a classical nuclear reactor like doppler coefficient or delayed neutron fraction do not matter in a hybrid system. In a PWR-type reactor or in a fast reactor the concentration of actinides has a bad impact on these 2 parameters, so it is justified to study hybrid systems as actinide transmuters. The hybrid system, because of its external source of neutrons can put aside an important reactivity margin. This reactivity margin can be used to design safer nuclear reactors (particularly in some situations of reactivity accidents) or to irradiate fuel elements containing high concentrations of minor actinides that could not be allowed in a classical reactor. This article reviews various ways of integrating hybrid systems in a population of already existing nuclear reactors in order to manage quantities of plutonium, of minor actinides or of long-life fission products. (A.C.)

  14. Website-analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    eller blindgyder, når han/hun besøger sitet. Studier i design og analyse af de visuelle og æstetiske aspekter i planlægning og brug af websites har imidlertid kun i et begrænset omfang været under reflektorisk behandling. Det er baggrunden for dette kapitel, som indleder med en gennemgang af æstetikkens......Websitet er i stigende grad det foretrukne medie inden for informationssøgning,virksomhedspræsentation, e-handel, underholdning, undervisning og social kontakt. I takt med denne voksende mangfoldighed af kommunikationsaktiviteter på nettet, er der kommet mere fokus på at optimere design og...... planlægning af de funktionelle og indholdsmæssige aspekter ved websites. Der findes en stor mængde teori- og metodebøger, som har specialiseret sig i de tekniske problemstillinger i forbindelse med interaktion og navigation, samt det sproglige indhold på websites. Den danske HCI (Human Computer Interaction...

  15. A channel profile analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbur, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    It is well understood that due to the wide band noise present in a nuclear analog-to-digital converter, events at the boundaries of adjacent channels are shared. It is a difficult and laborious process to exactly find out the shape of the channels at the boundaries. A simple scheme has been developed for the direct display of channel shape of any type of ADC on a cathode ray oscilliscope display. This has been accomplished by sequentially incrementing the reference voltage of a precision pulse generator by a fraction of a channel and storing ADC data in alternative memory locations of a multichannel pulse height analyser. Alternative channels are needed due to the sharing at the boundaries of channels. In the flat region of the profile alternate memory locations are channels with zero counts and channels with the full scale counts. At the boundaries all memory locations will have counts. The shape of this is a direct display of the channel boundaries. (orig.)

  16. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    Social media has created new ways of communicating and has brought about a new distinctive ethos. New literacies are not simply about new technology but also about this new ethos. Many museums are embracing this ethos by what is often called participatory practices. From a sociocultural perspective...... this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both...

  17. Taxonomic Identification of Mediterranean Pines and Their Hybrids Based on the High Resolution Melting (HRM) and trnL Approaches: From Cytoplasmic Inheritance to Timber Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Aravanopoulos, Filippos; Madesis, Panagiotis; Pasentsis, Konstantinos; Bosmali, Irene; Ouzounis, Christos; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    Fast and accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate the assessment and monitoring of local biodiversity in an era of climate and environmental change. Herein, we evaluate the utility of the plastid trnL marker for species identification applied to Mediterranean pines (Pinus spp.). Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species biodiversity. Furthermore, High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis was exploited as a molecular fingerprint for fast and accurate discrimination of Pinus spp. DNA sequence variants. The trnL approach and the HRM analyses were extended to wood samples of two species (Pinus nigra and Pinus sylvestris) with excellent results, congruent to those obtained using leaf tissue. Both analyses demonstrate that hybrids from the P. brutia (maternal parent) × P. halepensis (paternal parent) cross, exhibit the P. halepensis profile, confirming paternal plastid inheritance in Group Halepensis pines. Our study indicates that a single one-step reaction method and DNA marker are sufficient for the identification of Mediterranean pines, their hybrids and the origin of pine wood. Furthermore, our results underline the potential for certain DNA regions to be used as novel biological information markers combined with existing morphological characters and suggest a relatively reliable and open taxonomic system that can link DNA variation to phenotype-based species or hybrid assignment status and direct taxa identification from recalcitrant tissues such as wood samples. PMID:23577179

  18. The plant design analyser and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmarsh-Everiss, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to the history of computational methods for the non-linear dynamic analysis of plant behaviour. This is traced from analogue to hybrid computers. When these were phased out simulation languages were used in the batch mode and the interactive computational capabilities were lost. These have subsequently been recovered using mainframe computing architecture in the context of small models using the Prototype Plant Design Analyser. Given the development of parallel processing architectures, the restriction on model size can be lifted. This capability and the use of advanced Work Stations and graphics software has enabled an advanced interactive design environment to be developed. This system is generic and can be used, with suitable graphics development, to study the dynamics and control behaviour of any plant or system for minimum cost. Examples of past and possible future uses are identified. (author)

  19. Synaptonemal complex analysis of interracial hybrids between the Moscow and Neroosa chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus showing regular formation of a complex meiotic configuration (ring-of-four).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveevsky, Sergey N; Pavlova, Svetlana V; Maret M Acaeva; Oxana L Kolomiets

    2012-01-01

    Immunocytochemical and electron microscopic analysis of synaptonemal complexes (SCs) was carried out for the first time in homozygotes and complex Robertsonian heterozygotes (hybrids) of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from a newly discovered hybrid zone between the Moscow and the Neroosa chromosomal races. These races differ in four monobrachial homologous metacentrics, and closed SC tetravalent is expected to be formed in meiosis of a hybrid. Indeed, such a multivalent was found at meiotic prophase I in hybrids. Interactions between multivalent and both autosomes and/or the sex chromosomes were observed. For the first time we have used immunocytochemical techniques to analyse asynapsis in Sorex araneus and show that the multivalent pairs in an orderly fashion with complete synapsis. Despite some signs of spermatocytes arrested in the meiotic prophase I, hybrids had large number of active sperm. Thus, Moscow - Neroosa hybrid males that form a ring-of-four meiotic configuration are most likely not sterile. Our results support previous demonstrations that monobrachial homology of metacentrics of the common shrew does not lead to complete reproductive isolation between parapatric chromosomal races of the species.

  20. Synaptonemal complex analysis of interracial hybrids between the Moscow and Neroosa chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus showing regular formation of a complex meiotic configuration (ring-of-four

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Matveevsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunocytochemical and electron microscopic analysis of synaptonemal complexes (SCs was carried out for the first time in homozygotes and complex Robertsonian heterozygotes (hybrids of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from a newly discovered hybrid zone between the Moscow and the Neroosa chromosomal races. These races differ in four monobrachial homologous metacentrics, and closed SC tetravalent is expected to be formed in meiosis of a hybrid. Indeed, such a multivalent was found at meiotic prophase I in hybrids. Interactions between multivalent and both autosomes and/or the sex chromosomes were observed. For the first time we have used immunocytochemical techniques to analyse asynapsis in S. araneus and show that the multivalent pairs in an orderly fashion with complete synapsis. Despite some signs of spermatocytes arrested in the meiotic prophase I, hybrids had large number of active sperm. Thus, Moscow – Neroosa hybrid males that form a ring-of-four meiotic configuration are most likely not sterile. Our results support previous demonstrations that monobrachial homology of metacentrics of the common shrew does not lead to complete reproductive isolation between parapatric chromosomal races of the species.

  1. Hybrid system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid systems studied for fissile material production, were reconsidered for minor actinide and long-lived fission product destruction as alternative to the traditional final disposal of nuclear waste. Now there are attempts to extend the use of the concepts developed for minor actinide incineration to plutonium burning. The most promising hybrid system concept considers fuel and target both as liquids. From the results obtained, the possibility to adopt composite targets seems the most promising solution, but still there remains the problem of Pu production, not acceptable in a burning system. This kind of targets can be mainly used for fissile material production, while for accelerator driven burners it is most convenient to use a liquid lead target. The most suitable solvent is heavy water for minor actinide annihilation in the blanket of a hybrid system. Due to the criticality conditions and the necessity of electric energy production, the blanket using plutonium dissolved in molten salts is the most convenient one. (author)

  2. Hybrid strategies in nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Hector M; Mullen, Thomas J; Zhang Pengpeng; Dewey, Daniel C; Claridge, Shelley A; Weiss, Paul S [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: psw@cnsi.ucla.edu

    2010-03-15

    Hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies combine the registration and addressability of conventional lithographic techniques with the chemical and physical functionality enabled by intermolecular, electrostatic and/or biological interactions. This review aims to highlight and to provide a comprehensive description of recent developments in hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies that enhance existing lithographic techniques or can be used to fabricate functional chemical patterns that interact with their environment. These functional structures create new capabilities, such as the fabrication of physicochemical surfaces that can recognize and capture analytes from complex liquid or gaseous mixtures. The nanolithographic techniques we describe can be classified into three general areas: traditional lithography, soft lithography and scanning-probe lithography. The strengths and limitations of each hybrid patterning technique will be discussed, along with the current and potential applications of the resulting patterned, functional surfaces.

  3. The tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.; Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    At a time when the potential benefits of various energy options are being seriously evaluated in many countries through-out the world, it is both timely and important to evaluate the practical application of fusion reactors for their economical production of nuclear fissile fuels from fertile fuels. The fusion hybrid reactor represents a concept that could assure the availability of adequate fuel supplies for a proven nuclear technology and have the potential of being an electrical energy source as opposed to an energy consumer as are the present fuel enrichment processes. Westinghouse Fusion Power Systems Department, under Contract No. EG-77-C-02-4544 with the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, has developed a preliminary conceptual design for an early twenty-first century fusion hybrid reactor called the commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). This design was developed as a first generation commercial plant producing fissile fuel to support a significant number of client Light Water Reactor (LWR) Plants. To the depth this study has been performed, no insurmountable technical problems have been identified. The study has provided a basis for reasonable cost estimates of the hybrid plants as well as the hybrid/LWR system busbar electricity costs. This energy system can be optimized to have a net cost of busbar electricity that is equivalent to the conventional LWR plant, yet is not dependent on uranium ore prices or standard enrichment costs, since the fusion hybrid can be fueled by numerous fertile fuel resources. A nearer-term concept is also defined using a beam driven fusion driver in lieu of the longer term ignited operating mode. (orig.)

  4. The effect of lower-hybrid waves on the propagation of hydromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamabata, Hiromitsu; Namikawa, Tomikazu; Mori, Kazuhiro

    1988-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of hydromagnetic waves in a magnetic plasma are investigated using the two-plasma fluid equations including the effect of lower-hybrid waves propagating perpendicularly to the magnetic field. The effect of lower-hybrid waves on the propagation of hydromagnetic waves is analysed in terms of phase speed, growth rate, refractive index, polarization and the amplitude relation between the density perturbation and the magnetic-field perturbation for the cases when hydromagnetic waves propagate in the plane whose normal is perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves and in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves. It is shown that hydromagnetic waves propagating at small angles to the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves can be excited by the effect of lower-hybrid waves and the energy of excited waves propagates nearly parallel to the propagation direction of lower-hybrid waves. (author)

  5. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  6. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  7. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tongzhai

    Organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was developed for anticorrosion applications using polyurea, polyurethane or epoxide as the organic phase and polysiloxane, formed by sol-gel process, as the inorganic phase. Polyurea/polysiloxane hybrid coatings were formulated and moisture cured using HDI isocyanurate, alkoxysilane-functionalized HDI isocyanurate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Two urethanes were prepared using the same components as abovementioned in addition to the oligoesters derived from either cyclohexane diacids (CHDA) and 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) or adipic acid (AA), isophthalic acid (IPA), 1,6-hexanediol (HD), and trimethylol propane (TMP). Accelerated weathering and outdoor exposure were performed to study the weatherability of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coating system. FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the degradation of the hybrid coatings occurred at the urethane and ester functionalities of the organic phase. DMA and DSC analyses showed the glass transition temperature increased and broadened after weathering. SEM was employed to observe the change of morphology of the hybrid coatings and correlated with the gloss variation after weathering. Rutile TiO2 was formulated into polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings in order to investigate the effect of pigmentation on the coating properties and the sol-gel precursor. Chemical interaction between the TiO2 and the sol-gel precursor was investigated using solid-state 29Si NMR and XPS. The morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal properties of the pigmented coatings were evaluated as a function of pigmentation volume concentration (PVC). Using AFM and SEM, the pigment were observed to be well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The thermal stability, the tensile modulus and strength of the coatings were enhanced with increasing PVC, whereas the pull-off adhesion and flexibility were reduced with increasing PVC. Finally, the pigmented coatings were

  8. Insight and Evidence Motivating the Simplification of Dual-Analysis Hybrid Systems into Single-Analysis Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todling, Ricardo; Diniz, F. L. R.; Takacs, L. L.; Suarez, M. J.

    2018-01-01

    Many hybrid data assimilation systems currently used for NWP employ some form of dual-analysis system approach. Typically a hybrid variational analysis is responsible for creating initial conditions for high-resolution forecasts, and an ensemble analysis system is responsible for creating sample perturbations used to form the flow-dependent part of the background error covariance required in the hybrid analysis component. In many of these, the two analysis components employ different methodologies, e.g., variational and ensemble Kalman filter. In such cases, it is not uncommon to have observations treated rather differently between the two analyses components; recentering of the ensemble analysis around the hybrid analysis is used to compensated for such differences. Furthermore, in many cases, the hybrid variational high-resolution system implements some type of four-dimensional approach, whereas the underlying ensemble system relies on a three-dimensional approach, which again introduces discrepancies in the overall system. Connected to these is the expectation that one can reliably estimate observation impact on forecasts issued from hybrid analyses by using an ensemble approach based on the underlying ensemble strategy of dual-analysis systems. Just the realization that the ensemble analysis makes substantially different use of observations as compared to their hybrid counterpart should serve as enough evidence of the implausibility of such expectation. This presentation assembles numerous anecdotal evidence to illustrate the fact that hybrid dual-analysis systems must, at the very minimum, strive for consistent use of the observations in both analysis sub-components. Simpler than that, this work suggests that hybrid systems can reliably be constructed without the need to employ a dual-analysis approach. In practice, the idea of relying on a single analysis system is appealing from a cost-maintenance perspective. More generally, single-analysis systems avoid

  9. Hybride textuelle Strukturen und hybride textuelle Einheiten. Ein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carrying set of all hybrid hierarchical structures are element-heterogeneous whilst the structure- carrying set of all ... grams of hierarchical hybrid article structures, the nodes for those text segments that establish the hybrid status of .... der; d ∈ ArtA ⊣ G|WAr (= Artikelangabe, anhand derer das Genus (= G) und zugleich die ...

  10. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  11. Doubts about hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The natural draught wet cooling tower with a height of 160 m is considerably taller than the 80 m high hybrid cooling tower, but the latter has a considerably larger diameter. Spray losses for both types are about 4.5 kg/sec for a thermal output of 2500 MW. Apart from the pump load, the natural cooling tower requires no power. Apart from higher pump loads, the hybrid cooling tower requires power for the fans. The energy demand for this purpose is 1.5 to 3% of the nett powerstation output. For the Isar 2 nuclear powerstation this would mean a reduction in puput of about 35 MW. (orig.) [de

  12. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  13. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  14. How Hybrid Organizations Turn Antagonistic Assets into Complementarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on people excluded from traditional markets as employees, producers, or consumers on the grounds that they lack the appropriate skills. It describes the processes through which these perceived liabilities can be overcome by so-called hybrid organizations. Hybrids pursue...... explicit social missions through business-inspired earned-income strategies, with the express goal of creating market disequilibria. This article demonstrates the challenges hybrids face and outlines how to overcome them by identifying hidden complementarities and creating new ones, by eliminating the need...

  15. A Highly Responsive Silicon Nanowire/Amplifier MOSFET Hybrid Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-21

    Hybrid Biosensor Jieun Lee1,2, Jaeman Jang1, Bongsik Choi1, Jinsu Yoon1, Jee-Yeon Kim3, Yang-Kyu Choi3, Dong Myong Kim1, Dae Hwan Kim1 & Sung-Jin Choi1...This study demonstrates a hybrid biosensor comprised of a silicon nanowire (SiNW) integrated with an amplifier MOSFET to improve the current response...of field-effect-transistor (FET)-based biosensors . The hybrid biosensor is fabricated using conventional CMOS technology, which has the potential

  16. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina

    2012-09-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.

  17. Hybrid Method Simulation of Slender Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels Hørbye

    This present thesis consists of an extended summary and five appended papers concerning various aspects of the implementation of a hybrid method which combines classical simulation methods and artificial neural networks. The thesis covers three main topics. Common for all these topics...... only recognize patterns similar to those comprised in the data used to train the network. Fatigue life evaluation of marine structures often considers simulations of more than a hundred different sea states. Hence, in order for this method to be useful, the training data must be arranged so...... that a single neural network can cover all relevant sea states. The applicability and performance of the present hybrid method is demonstrated on a numerical model of a mooring line attached to a floating offshore platform. The second part of the thesis demonstrates how sequential neural networks can be used...

  18. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, E.; Floether, F. F. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellis, D. J. P.; Meany, T.; Bennett, A. J., E-mail: anthony.bennet@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Shields, A. J. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Lee, J. P. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-26

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO{sub 2} cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified using the on-chip MZI as a beamsplitter in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.

  19. Security in hybrid cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the area of hybrid cloud computing, specifically with its security. The major aim of the thesis is to analyze and compare the chosen hybrid cloud providers. For the minor aim this thesis compares the security challenges of hybrid cloud as opponent to other deployment models. In order to accomplish said aims, this thesis defines the terms cloud computing and hybrid cloud computing in its theoretical part. Furthermore the security challenges for cloud computing a...

  20. One-pot in situ redox synthesis of hexacyanoferrate/conductive polymer hybrids as lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Hao; Zhang, Zixuan; Yang, Xianfeng; Chen, Xiaojun; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-09-14

    An efficient and adaptable method is demonstrated for the synthesis of lithium hexacyanoferrate/conductive polymer hybrids for Li-ion battery cathodes. The hybrids were synthesized via a one-pot method, involving a redox-coupled reaction between pyrrole monomers and the Li3Fe(CN)6 precursor. The hybrids showed much better cyclability relative to reported Prussian Blue (PB) analogs.

  1. Notional Airspace Operations Demonstration Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    The airspace operations demonstration (AOD) is intended to show that the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be met. The demonstration will occur in two phases. The initial on-range phase will be carried out in restricted airspace to demonstrate the cooperative collision avoidance (CCA) functional requirements and to provide risk-reduction for the AOD by allowing the test team to rehearse some elements of the demonstration mission. The CCA system to be used in these flights is based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) which is a commercially-available system by which airplanes constantly broadcast their current position and altitude to other aircraft and ground resources over a dedicated radio datalink. The final phase will occur in the national airspace (NAS) and will be the formal demonstration of the remainder of the proposed functional requirements. The general objectives of the AOD are as follows: (1) Demonstrate that the UAS can aviate in the NAS (2) Demonstrate that the UAS can navigate in the NAS (3) Demonstrate that the UAS can communicate with the NAS (4) Demonstrate that the UAS can perform selected collision avoidance functions in the NAS (5) Demonstrate that the UAS can evaluate and avoid weather conflicts in the NAS (6) Demonstrate that the UAS can provide adequate command and control in the NAS In addition to the stated objectives, there are a number of goals for the flight demonstration. The demo can be accomplished successfully without achieving these goals, but these goals are to be used as a guideline for preparing for the mission. The goals are: (1) Mission duration of at least 24 hours (2) Loiter over heavy traffic to evaluate the data block issue identified during the Access 5 Airspace Operations Simulations (3) Document the contingency management process and lessons learned (4) Document the coordination process for Ground Control Stations (GCS) handoff (5) Document lessons learned regarding the process of flying in

  2. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  3. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  4. Demonstration of Cauchy: Understanding Algebraic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study we present some considerations about the End of Course Work undergraduate Full Degree in Mathematics / UFMT, drafted in 2011, and by taking title "A story about Cauchy and Euler's theorem on polyhedra" that gave birth to our research project Master of Education, begun in 2012, on the approaches of Euler's theorem on polyhedra in mathematics textbooks. At work in 2011 presented some considerations about the history of Euler's theorem for polyhedra which focus the demonstration presented by Cauchy (1789-1857, who tries to generalize it, relying on assumptions not observable in Euclidean geometry. Therefore, we seek the accessible literature on the history of mathematics; relate some aspects of the demonstration Cauchy with historical events on the development of mathematics in the nineteenth century, which allowed the acceptance of such a demonstration by mathematicians of his time.Keywords: History of Mathematics. Euler's Theorem on Polyhedra. Demonstration of Cauchy.

  5. CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  7. Local hybrid functionals: An assessment for thermochemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaupp, Martin; Bahmann, Hilke; Arbuznikov, Alexei V.

    2007-01-01

    Local hybrid functionals with position-dependent exact-exchange admixture are a new class of exchange-correlation functionals in density functional theory that promise to advance the available accuracy in many areas of application. Local hybrids with different local mixing functions (LMFs) governing the position dependence are validated for the heats of formation of the extended G3/99 set, and for two sets of barriers of hydrogen-transfer and heavy-atom transfer reactions (HTBH38 and NHTBH38 databases). A simple local hybrid Lh-SVWN with only Slater and exact exchange plus local correlation and a one-parameter LMF, g(r)=b(τ W (r)/τ(r)), performs best and provides overall mean absolute errors for thermochemistry and kinetics that are a significant improvement over standard state-of-the-art global hybrid functionals. In particular, this local hybrid functional does not suffer from the systematic deterioration that standard functionals exhibit for larger molecules. In contrast, local hybrids based on generalized gradient approximation exchange tend to give rise to nonintuitive LMFs, and no improved functionals have been obtained along this route. The LMF is a real-space function and thus can be analyzed in detail. We use, in particular, graphical analyses to rationalize the performance of different local hybrids for thermochemistry and reaction barriers

  8. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een

  9. Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytic...

  10. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  11. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  12. Hybridization of biomedical circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinard, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The design and fabrication of low power hybrid circuits to perform vital signs monitoring are reported. The circuits consist of: (1) clock; (2) ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner; (3) impedance pneumobraph and respiration rate processor; (4) hear/breath rate processor; (5) temperature monitor; and (6) LCD display.

  13. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-09-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates.

  14. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  15. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-01-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates

  16. Hybrid quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehrawat, Arun; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Zemann, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present a hybrid model of the unitary-evolution-based quantum computation model and the measurement-based quantum computation model. In the hybrid model, part of a quantum circuit is simulated by unitary evolution and the rest by measurements on star graph states, thereby combining the advantages of the two standard quantum computation models. In the hybrid model, a complicated unitary gate under simulation is decomposed in terms of a sequence of single-qubit operations, the controlled-z gates, and multiqubit rotations around the z axis. Every single-qubit and the controlled-z gate are realized by a respective unitary evolution, and every multiqubit rotation is executed by a single measurement on a required star graph state. The classical information processing in our model requires only an information flow vector and propagation matrices. We provide the implementation of multicontrol gates in the hybrid model. They are very useful for implementing Grover's search algorithm, which is studied as an illustrative example.

  17. Engine Downsizing and Electric Hybridization Under Consideration of Cost and Drivability Réduction de taille moteur et hybridation électrique avec considérations de coût et de performance de conduite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebbesen S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Automotive manufacturers of hybrid electric vehicles are confronted with the multi-objective non-trivial optimization problem of engine downsizing and electric hybridization under consideration of cost and drivability. Solutions to this sizing problem are typically reached by heuristic design methodologies. However, a design approach formalized in an optimization theoretical setting is necessary in order to obtain globally optimal solutions. In this paper, we present a framework for optimal sizing of hybrid electric drivetrain components. This framework is cast within standard optimization theory. Moreover, it is flexible in order to easily include any number of objectives, such as minimization of fuel consumption, cost of hybridization, emission levels and (or maximization of acceleration performance. Based on this framework, we demonstrate a number of techniques and tools to analyze, accept, improve, or reject the proposed solutions to the optimal sizing problem. Les constructeurs de véhicules automobiles électriques hybrides sont confrontés au problème délicat de l’optimisation multiobjectifs de la réduction de taille moteur et de l’hybridation électrique, tout en considérant le coût et la performance de conduite. Les solutions à ce problème de dimensionnement moteur sont généralement obtenues par des méthodes de conception de type heuristique. Cependant, afin d’obtenir des solutions optimales globales, il est nécessaire de recourir aux formalismes théoriques d’optimisation. Dans cet article, nous présentons une méthodologie de travail, qui s’appuie sur les théories classiques d’optimisation, pour le dimensionnement optimal des composants d’une chaîne de traction électrique hybride. En outre, cette approche est flexible afin de permettre l’ajout d’un nombre quelconque d’objectifs, comme la minimisation de la consommation d’essence, le coût de l’hybridation, les niveaux d’émission et (ou la

  18. Data Analysis for ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.

    2010-05-01

    Presentation about ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations, including an overview of the ARRE Fuel Cell Project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's data analysis objectives, deployment composite data products, and planned analyses.

  19. Support structures for optical components in the Laser Demonstration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finucane, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The laser system in the Laser Demonstration Facility is mounted on an array of 108 support columns. This milestone report describes the design, analyses, testing, fabrication, installation, and performance characteristics of these supports

  20. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer's prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The hybrid

  1. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  2. Multifaceted, cross-generational costs of hybridization in sibling Drosophila species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Myers

    Full Text Available Maladaptive hybridization, as determined by the pattern and intensity of selection against hybrid individuals, is an important factor contributing to the evolution of prezygotic reproductive isolation. To identify the consequences of hybridization between Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis, we estimated multiple fitness components for F1 hybrids and backcross progeny and used these to compare the relative fitness of parental species and their hybrids across two generations. We document many sources of intrinsic (developmental and extrinsic (ecological selection that dramatically increase the fitness costs of hybridization beyond the well-documented F1 male sterility in this model system. Our results indicate that the cost of hybridization accrues over multiple generations and reinforcement in this system is driven by selection against hybridization above and beyond the cost of hybrid male sterility; we estimate a fitness loss of >95% relative to the parental species across two generations of hybridization. Our findings demonstrate the importance of estimating hybridization costs using multiple fitness measures from multiple generations in an ecologically relevant context; so doing can reveal intense postzygotic selection against hybridization and thus, an enhanced role for reinforcement in the evolution of populations and diversification of species.

  3. Multifaceted, cross-generational costs of hybridization in sibling Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Erin M; Harwell, Tiffany I; Yale, Elizabeth L; Lamb, Abigail M; Frankino, W Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Maladaptive hybridization, as determined by the pattern and intensity of selection against hybrid individuals, is an important factor contributing to the evolution of prezygotic reproductive isolation. To identify the consequences of hybridization between Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis, we estimated multiple fitness components for F1 hybrids and backcross progeny and used these to compare the relative fitness of parental species and their hybrids across two generations. We document many sources of intrinsic (developmental) and extrinsic (ecological) selection that dramatically increase the fitness costs of hybridization beyond the well-documented F1 male sterility in this model system. Our results indicate that the cost of hybridization accrues over multiple generations and reinforcement in this system is driven by selection against hybridization above and beyond the cost of hybrid male sterility; we estimate a fitness loss of >95% relative to the parental species across two generations of hybridization. Our findings demonstrate the importance of estimating hybridization costs using multiple fitness measures from multiple generations in an ecologically relevant context; so doing can reveal intense postzygotic selection against hybridization and thus, an enhanced role for reinforcement in the evolution of populations and diversification of species.

  4. Hybridization of mouse lemurs: different patterns under different ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenkranz David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mechanistic models aim to explain the diversification of the multitude of endemic species on Madagascar. The island's biogeographic history probably offered numerous opportunities for secondary contact and subsequent hybridization. Existing diversification models do not consider a possible role of these processes. One key question for a better understanding of their potential importance is how they are influenced by different environmental settings. Here, we characterized a contact zone between two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus, in dry spiny bush and mesic gallery forest that border each other sharply without intermediate habitats between them. We performed population genetic analyses based on mtDNA sequences and nine nuclear microsatellites and compared the results to a known hybrid zone of the same species in a nearby wide gradient from dry spiny bush over transitional forest to humid littoral forest. Results In the spiny-gallery system, Microcebus griseorufus is restricted to the spiny bush; Microcebus murinus occurs in gallery forest and locally invades the dryer habitat of its congener. We found evidence for bidirectional introgressive hybridization, which is closely linked to increased spatial overlap within the spiny bush. Within 159 individuals, we observed 18 hybrids with mitochondrial haplotypes of both species. Analyses of simulated microsatellite data indicate that we identified hybrids with great accuracy and that we probably underestimated their true number. We discuss short-term climatic fluctuations as potential trigger for the dynamic of invasion and subsequent hybridization. In the gradient hybrid zone in turn, long-term aridification could have favored unidirectional nuclear introgression from Microcebus griseorufus into M. murinus in transitional forest. Conclusions Madagascar's southeastern transitional zone harbors two very different hybrid zones of mouse lemurs

  5. Optimizing the current ramp-up phase for the hybrid ITER scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweij, G.M.D.; Artaud, J.F.; Casper, T.A.; Citrin, J.; Imbeaux, F.; Köchl, F.; Litaudon, X.; Voitsekhovitch, I.

    2013-01-01

    The current ramp-up phase for the ITER hybrid scenario is analysed with the CRONOS integrated modelling suite. The simulations presented in this paper show that the heating systems available at ITER allow, within the operational limits, the attainment of a hybrid q profile at the end of the current

  6. Hybridization between invasive populations of Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica) and yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. Ward; Caren E. Fleischmann; Marie F. Turner; Sharlene E. Sing

    2009-01-01

    Although there is evidence that interspecific hybridization can initiate invasion by nonnative plants, there are few documented examples of novel hybridization events between introduced plant species already exhibiting invasive behavior. We conducted morphometric and molecular analyses of toadflax plants with intermediate morphology found at two sites in Montana, which...

  7. Safety analysis on tokamak helium cooling slab fuel fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Renjie; Jian Hongbing

    1992-01-01

    The thermal analyses for steady state, depressurization and total loss of flow in the tokamak helium cooling slab fuel element fusion-fission hybrid reactor are presented. The design parameters, computed results of HYBRID program and safety evaluation for conception design are given. After all, it gives some recommendations for developing the design

  8. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  9. Hybrid antibiotics - clinical progress and novel designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alastair L; Yule, Ian A

    2016-07-01

    There is a growing need for new antibacterial agents, but success in development of antibiotics in recent years has been limited. This has led researchers to investigate novel approaches to finding compounds that are effective against multi-drug resistant bacteria, and that delay onset of resistance. One such strategy has been to link antibiotics to produce hybrids designed to overcome resistance mechanisms. The concept of dual-acting hybrid antibiotics was introduced and reviewed in this journal in 2010. In the present review the authors sought to discover how clinical candidates described had progressed, and to examine how the field has developed. In three sections the authors cover the clinical progress of hybrid antibiotics, novel agents produced from hybridisation of two or more small-molecule antibiotics, and novel agents produced from hybridisation of antibiotics with small-molecules that have complementary activity. Many key questions regarding dual-acting hybrid antibiotics remain to be answered, and the proposed benefits of this approach are yet to be demonstrated. While Cadazolid in particular continues to progress in the clinic, suggesting that there is promise in hybridisation through covalent linkage, it may be that properties other than antibacterial activity are key when choosing a partner molecule.

  10. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  11. Auditory demonstrations simulating Mayan architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, David

    2005-09-01

    Fascination with the ancient temples and ball court at Chichen Itza provide rich opportunities for science education. Children of all ages are delighted to learn that the sound of handclaps scattered from long temple staircases are transformed into bird chirps. Their engagement in such seemingly magical phenomena provides magic moments for teaching acoustical principals, including the picket-fence effect (PFE). PFE transforms impulsive sounds scattered from spatially periodic structures into tonal sounds. PFE is demonstrated with a computer possessing a sound card and a simple sound editing program. The inverse relationship between tonal frequency and the time interval between periodic impulses is easily demonstrated. The number of impulses needed to produce an audible tone is easily demonstrated and compared with the number of steps on the staircase. Transformation of audible tones into downward-gliding chirps is simulated by monotonically increasing the time between impulses. The Great Ball Court also provides opportunities for acoustical demonstration. Observers clapping their hands while standing between the long, tall, and parallel walls of the playing field marvel at the profound flutter echo heard for about 1.5 s. The flutter echo sonogram demonstrates the speed of sound and frequency-selective atmospheric attenuation.

  12. Demonstration of reliability centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwan, C.A.; Morgan, T.A.

    1991-04-01

    Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) is an approach to preventive maintenance planning and evaluation that has been used successfully by other industries, most notably the airlines and military. Now EPRI is demonstrating RCM in the commercial nuclear power industry. Just completed are large-scale, two-year demonstrations at Rochester Gas ampersand Electric (Ginna Nuclear Power Station) and Southern California Edison (San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station). Both demonstrations were begun in the spring of 1988. At each plant, RCM was performed on 12 to 21 major systems. Both demonstrations determined that RCM is an appropriate means to optimize a PM program and improve nuclear plant preventive maintenance on a large scale. Such favorable results had been suggested by three earlier EPRI pilot studies at Florida Power ampersand Light, Duke Power, and Southern California Edison. EPRI selected the Ginna and San Onofre sites because, together, they represent a broad range of utility and plant size, plant organization, plant age, and histories of availability and reliability. Significant steps in each demonstration included: selecting and prioritizing plant systems for RCM evaluation; performing the RCM evaluation steps on selected systems; evaluating the RCM recommendations by a multi-disciplinary task force; implementing the RCM recommendations; establishing a system to track and verify the RCM benefits; and establishing procedures to update the RCM bases and recommendations with time (a living program). 7 refs., 1 tab

  13. Modeling and control of a hybrid wind-tidal turbine with hydraulic accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, YaJun; Mu, AnLe; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and control of a hybrid wind-tidal turbine with hydraulic accumulator. The hybrid turbine captures the offshore wind energy and tidal current energy simultaneously and stores the excess energy in hydraulic accumulator prior to electricity generation. Two hydraulic pumps installed respectively in wind and tidal turbine nacelles are used to transform the captured mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. To extract the maximal power from wind and tidal current, standard torque controls are achieved by regulating the displacements of the hydraulic pumps. To meet the output power demand, a Proportion Integration Differentiation (PID) controller is designed to distribute the hydraulic energy between the accumulator and the Pelton turbine. A simulation case study based on combining a 5 MW offshore wind turbine and a 1 MW tidal current turbine is undertaken. Case study demonstrates that the hybrid generation system not only captures all the available wind and tidal energy and also delivers the desired generator power precisely through the accumulator damping out all the power fluctuations from the wind and tidal speed disturbances. Energy and exergy analyses show that the energy efficiency can exceed 100% as the small input speeds are considered, and the exergy efficiency has the consistent change trends with demand power. Further more parametric sensitivity study on hydraulic accumulator shows that there is an inversely proportional relationship between accumulator and hydraulic equipments including the pump and nozzle in terms of dimensions. - Highlights: • A hybrid wind-tidal turbine is presented. • Hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Standard torque controls extract the maximal power from wind and tidal. • Generator outputs meet the electricity demand precisely. • Parametric sensitivity study on accumulator is implemented.

  14. EVALUATION OF HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN PANGASIUS DJAMBAL BLEEKER 1846 AND PANGASIANODON HYPOPHTHALMUS (SAUVAGE 1878: BIOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND GROWTH ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudhy Gustiano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Possible use of pangasiid hybrids in aquaculture might generate potential impacts on wild populations. Therefore, rapid identification tools in the field such as growth rate are urgently needed. This study examines morphological characters and growth performance of P. djambal and P. hypophthalmus and their reciprocal hybrids. A detailed morphological study analysed 32 morphometric measurements and 5 meristic counts on hybrids of Pangasius djambal and P. hypophthalmus. Morphometric analysis and meristic counts showed that the reciprocal hybrids have intermediate characters except for gill rakers number which were lower than that of parental species. In general, the hybrids have tendency to be like P. hypophthalmus rather than P. djambal. The only typical character P. djambal appearing in hybrids is teeth shape, both vomerine and palatine. It was shown that the true hybrids have seven pelvic fin rays. Eight months of growth comparison in earthen ponds showed that the hybrids have a better performance for specific growth rate than the parental stock.

  15. A combined RT-PCR and dot-blot hybridization method reveals the coexistence of SJNNV and RGNNV betanodavirus genotypes in wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jimena, B; Cherif, N; Garcia-Rosado, E; Infante, C; Cano, I; Castro, D; Hammami, S; Borrego, J J; Alonso, M C

    2010-10-01

    To detect the possible coexistence of striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV) and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotypes in a single fish, a methodology based on the combination of PCR amplification and blot hybridization has been developed and applied in this study. The degenerate primers designed for the PCR procedure target the T4 region within the capsid gene, resulting in the amplification of both genotypes. The subsequent hybridization of these amplification products with two different specific digoxigenin-labelled probes resulted in the identification of both genotypes separately. The application of the RT-PCR protocol to analyse blood samples from asymptomatic wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius) specimens has shown a 46.87% of viral nervous necrosis virus carriers. The combination of RT-PCR and blot hybridization increases the detection rate up to 90.62%, and, in addition, it has shown the coexistence of both genotypes in 18 out of the 32 specimens analysed (56.25%). This study reports the coexistence of betanodaviruses belonging to two different genotypes (SJNNV and RGNNV) in wild fish specimens. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of SJNNV and RGNNV genotypes in the same specimen. This study also demonstrates a carrier state in this fish species for the first time. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  17. Savannah River Plant incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    A full-scale incineration process was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive waste. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. The process has been relocated and upgraded by the Savannah River Plant to accept low-level beta-gamma combustibles. During a two-year demonstration, the facility will incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (< 1 mR/h at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes. This demonstration will begin in early 1984

  18. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  19. Mirror hybrid reactor optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A system model of the mirror hybrid reactor has been developed. The major components of the model include (1) the reactor description, (2) a capital cost analysis, (3) various fuel management schemes, and (4) an economic analysis that includes the hybrid plus its associated fission burner reactors. The results presented describe the optimization of the mirror hybrid reactor, the objective being to minimize the cost of electricity from the hybrid fission-burner reactor complex. We have examined hybrid reactors with two types of blankets, one containing natural uranium, the other thorium. The major difference between the two optimized reactors is that the uranium hybrid is a significant net electrical power producer, whereas the thorium hybrid just about breaks even on electrical power. Our projected costs for fissile fuel production are approximately 50 $/g for 239 Pu and approximately 125 $/g for 233 U

  20. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  1. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  2. Some Field Demonstrations in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Some Field Demonstrations in India. 2x150kVAR STATCOM at M/s Hindusthan Latex, Trivandrum. 250kVAR, 800V dc, 2-level STATCOM (Installed at Peekey Steels, Calicut). 250kVAR,800V dc, UPQC at CDAC, Trivandrum. REFERENCE: Website www. cdac.gov.in.

  3. Flexible-Rotor Balancing Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes method for balancing high-speed rotors at relatively low speeds and discusses demonstration of method on laboratory test rig. Method ensures rotor brought up to speeds well over 20,000 r/min smoothly, without excessive vibration amplitude at critical speeds or at operating speed.

  4. A Demonstration and a Souvenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Randy

    1978-01-01

    Describes an activity using interchangeable, preset tool holders to provide a demonstration for parents or students attending a school's open house session that produces a small souvenir (an aluminum mini-chalice) for them. A procedure sheet for the school's individual lathe and specification diagrams for making the cup are provided. (TA)

  5. NDT performance demonstration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The experience obtained from the in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) of Spanish nuclear power plants and the participation in several international programs, such as PISC, has shown the need for a performance demonstration, not only for the ultrasonic inspection techniques of RPV, but also for other ISI non-destructive techniques as in the case of eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing. Section XI of the ASME Code, which is applied in Spain for ISI, has incorporated recently the Appendix VIII for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques. As a direct consequence of this, a Spanish project for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques has been launched recently, which includes the manufacturing of full-scale mock-ups of nozzle to vessel welds, reactor vessel welds, wrought austenitic piping welds and ferritic piping welds of PWR and BWR nuclear power plants from different suppliers. This considerable technical effort will let the different Spanish organizations which are part of the project to participate and colaborate with similar international projects and in particular with a European initiative for performance demonstration. (Author)

  6. SunJammer Technology Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sunjammer Project is a NASA funded contract to L?Garde Inc. to fly a solar sail demonstration for a period of approximately one year. L?Garde is also partnered...

  7. The buried waste integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    There are numerous locations throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex where wastes have been buried in the ground or stored for future disposal. Much of this buried waste is contaminated with hazardous and radioactive materials. An extensive research program has been initiated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop and demonstrate advanced remediation techniques for DOE Complex buried waste. The purpose of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), is to develop a scientifically sound and deployable remediation system consisting of advanced technologies which address the buried waste characteristics of the DOE Complex. This comprehensive remediation system win include technologies for the entire remediation cycle (cradle-to-grave). Technologies developed and demonstrated within the BWID will be transferred to the DOE Complex sites with buried waste, to private industry, and to universities. Multidirectional technology transfer is encouraged by the BWID. Identification and evaluation of plausible technological solutions are an ongoing activity of the BWID. A number of technologies are currently under development throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, and universities. Technology integration mechanisms have been established by BWID to facilitate collaborative research and demonstration of applicable remedial technologies for buried waste. Successful completion of the BWID will result in the development of a proven and deployable system at the INEL and other DOE Complex buried waste sites, thereby supporting the DOE Complex's environmental restoration objectives

  8. E/Z MAS demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boor, M.G.; Hurford, J.M.; Landry, R.P.; Martinez, B.J.; Solem, A.M.; Whiteson, R.; Zardecki, A.

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed E/Z MAS, a new generation nuclear material accountability application based on the latest technology and designed for facilities required to track nuclear materials with a simple-to-use interface. E/Z MAS is based on years of experience spent developing nuclear material accounting systems. E/Z MAS uses a modern relational database with a web server and enables users on a classified local area network to interact with the database with web browsers. The E/Z MAS Demonstration poster session demonstrates the E/Z MAS functions required by an operational nuclear facility to track material as it enters and leaves a facility and to account for the material as it moves through a process. The generation of internal facility reports and external reports for the Russian Federal system will be demonstrated. Bar-code readers will be used to demonstrate the ability of EZ MAS to automate certain functions, such as physical inventories at facilities

  9. US GCFR demonstration plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, P.S.; Snyder, H.J.

    1980-05-01

    A general description of the US GCFR demonstration plant conceptual design is given to provide a context for more detailed papers to follow. The parameters selected for use in the design are presented and the basis for parameter selection is discussed. Nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) and balance of plant (BOP) component arrangements and systems are briefly discussed

  10. Satellite Demonstration: The Videodisc Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propp, George; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper describes a satellite demonstration of video disc materials. It is explained that a panel of deaf individuals in Washington, D.C. and another in Nebraska came into direct two-way communication for the first time, and video disc materials were broadcast via the satellite.…

  11. Improving the energy density of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVS) and evaluating plug-in HHVS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report describes analyses performed by researchers at The University of Toledo (UT) in : collaboration with researchers at the University of Detroit Mercy (UDM) on the project : Improving the Energy Density of Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles (HHVs)...

  12. QUANTITATIVE IMAGING AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION (FISH) OF AUREOBASIDIUM PULLULANS. (R823845)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractImage and multifactorial statistical analyses were used to evaluate the intensity of fluorescence signal from cells of three strains of A. pullulans and one strain of Rhodosporidium toruloides, as an outgroup, hybridized with either a universal o...

  13. evaluation of striga-resistant early maize hybrids and test locations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    to evaluate selected Striga-resistant maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids for grain yield and stability of .... Analysis of variance procedure is useful for ... however, variance components alone do not ... for analysing multi-environment trial MET data.

  14. Transposable Element Misregulation Is Linked to the Divergence between Parental piRNA Pathways in Drosophila Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Soriano, Valèria; Modolo, Laurent; Lopez-Maestre, Hélène; Mugat, Bruno; Pessia, Eugénie; Chambeyron, Séverine; Vieira, Cristina; Garcia Guerreiro, Maria Pilar

    2017-06-01

    Interspecific hybridization is a genomic stress condition that leads to the activation of transposable elements (TEs) in both animals and plants. In hybrids between Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae, mobilization of at least 28 TEs has been described. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this TE release remain poorly understood. To give insight on the causes of this TE activation, we performed a TE transcriptomic analysis in ovaries (notorious for playing a major role in TE silencing) of parental species and their F1 and backcrossed (BC) hybrids. We find that 15.2% and 10.6% of the expressed TEs are deregulated in F1 and BC1 ovaries, respectively, with a bias toward overexpression in both cases. Although differences between parental piRNA (Piwi-interacting RNA) populations explain only partially these results, we demonstrate that piRNA pathway proteins have divergent sequences and are differentially expressed between parental species. Thus, a functional divergence of the piRNA pathway between parental species, together with some differences between their piRNA pools, might be at the origin of hybrid instabilities and ultimately cause TE misregulation in ovaries. These analyses were complemented with the study of F1 testes, where TEs tend to be less expressed than in D. buzzatii. This can be explained by an increase in piRNA production, which probably acts as a defence mechanism against TE instability in the male germline. Hence, we describe a differential impact of interspecific hybridization in testes and ovaries, which reveals that TE expression and regulation are sex-biased. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Simulation of the fuel consumption benefits of various transmission arrangements and control strategies within a flywheel based mechanical hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Body, William; Brockbank, Chris [Torotrak (Development) Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Flywheel based mechanical hybrid technology is being developed for both motorsport and mainstream automotive applications. One particular road car application project, part funded by the UK Government Technology Strategy Board, is being led by Jaguar Land Rover, managed by Prodrive and using advanced technology from Flybrid Systems, Ford, Ricardo. Torotrak and Xtrac. During the two year programme, the group will develop the new technology and build a demonstrator vehicle equipped with the system. The mechanical system recovers kinetic energy from the vehicle during braking to a high speed rotating flywheel via a variable drive system. When compared to an electric motor / battery arrangement, the mechanical hybrid system offers benefits in cost, weight, package, efficiency and ultimately vehicle fuel consumption. As part of the development and optimisation process in order to specify the road car system, all aspects of the mechanical hybrid system are under investigation by the group. Alongside the required quantity of energy storage and the rates of energy recovery and reapplication, a number of different physical architectures for the system are being analysed. The Torotrak full-toroidal traction drive has been assigned as the variable drive element of the mechanical hybrid system. Multiple configuration options are available including direct drive, epicyclic shunted, range extended CVT and epicyclic shunted IVT arrangements. In addition, the flywheel and variable drive system can be connected to the powertrain in a variety of different locations, from the engine through the powertrain to the wheels. This paper describes the simulation of the mechanical hybrid system with particular focus on the impact on the fuel consumption benefit, over multiple drive cycles, of the variable drive configuration, the location of the variable drive and flywheel system and the control strategy options. (orig.)

  16. Understanding interpenetrating-polymer-network-like porous nitrile butadiene rubber hybrids by their long-period miscibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jihua; Wang, Lifeng; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen bonds are introduced into NBR to develop its IPN-like porous hybrids. • NBR is partly miscible with AO-60. • AO-60 possesses the viscoelastic behavior resembling that of polymers. • Phase separation aggravates and AO-60 crystallizes in the durations. • The porous hybrids may have potential damping applications. - Abstract: In this article, tetrakis [methylene-3-(3, 5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy phenyl) propionyloxy] methane (AO-60) with hydrogen bonds was designed to interpenetrate into the chemical crosslinking bonds of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and then porous materials were prepared. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) images and dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) demonstrate that NBR is partly miscible with AO-60 which induces the micro-pores and interpenetrating-polymer-network (IPN)-like phase morphology in the hybrids. The wide double tan δ peak in DMA curve displays that AO-60 possesses similar viscoelastic behaviors to polymers which come from supramolecular interactions between polar groups of NBR chains and hydroxyl (OH) groups of AO-60. To further understand the supramolecular abilities of AO-60 in the rubber, the long-period observations for their miscibility are conducted. With the increase of durations, the hydrogen bond network from AO-60 is weakened. The phase separation between AO-60 and NBR is aggravated and even extremely few AO-60 crystallizes which develops multi-scale porous morphology in the hybrids. It is believed that these findings can serve as a guide for the designs of the IPN-like hybrids with small molecule substances and their applications of damping materials

  17. DOE's annealing prototype demonstration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.; Nakos, J.; Rochau, G.

    1997-01-01

    One of the challenges U.S. utilities face in addressing technical issues associated with the aging of nuclear power plants is the long-term effect of plant operation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). As a nuclear plant operates, its RPV is exposed to neutrons. For certain plants, this neutron exposure can cause embrittlement of some of the RPV welds which can shorten the useful life of the RPV. This RPV embrittlement issue has the potential to affect the continued operation of a number of operating U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. However, RPV material properties affected by long-term irradiation are recoverable through a thermal annealing treatment of the RPV. Although a dozen Russian-designed RPVs and several U.S. military vessels have been successfully annealed, U.S. utilities have stated that a successful annealing demonstration of a U.S. RPV is a prerequisite for annealing a licensed U.S. nuclear power plant. In May 1995, the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories awarded two cost-shared contracts to evaluate the feasibility of annealing U.S. licensed plants by conducting an anneal of an installed RPV using two different heating technologies. The contracts were awarded to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD) and MPR Associates (MPR). The ASME team completed its annealing prototype demonstration in July 1996, using an indirect gas furnace at the uncompleted Public Service of Indiana's Marble Hill nuclear power plant. The MPR team's annealing prototype demonstration was scheduled to be completed in early 1997, using a direct heat electrical furnace at the uncompleted Consumers Power Company's nuclear power plant at Midland, Michigan. This paper describes the Department's annealing prototype demonstration goals and objectives; the tasks, deliverables, and results to date for each annealing prototype demonstration; and the remaining annealing technology challenges

  18. Computing all hybridization networks for multiple binary phylogenetic input trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Benjamin

    2015-07-30

    The computation of phylogenetic trees on the same set of species that are based on different orthologous genes can lead to incongruent trees. One possible explanation for this behavior are interspecific hybridization events recombining genes of different species. An important approach to analyze such events is the computation of hybridization networks. This work presents the first algorithm computing the hybridization number as well as a set of representative hybridization networks for multiple binary phylogenetic input trees on the same set of taxa. To improve its practical runtime, we show how this algorithm can be parallelized. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficiency of the software Hybroscale, containing an implementation of our algorithm, by comparing it to PIRNv2.0, which is so far the best available software computing the exact hybridization number for multiple binary phylogenetic trees on the same set of taxa. The algorithm is part of the software Hybroscale, which was developed specifically for the investigation of hybridization networks including their computation and visualization. Hybroscale is freely available(1) and runs on all three major operating systems. Our simulation study indicates that our approach is on average 100 times faster than PIRNv2.0. Moreover, we show how Hybroscale improves the interpretation of the reported hybridization networks by adding certain features to its graphical representation.

  19. Application of four dyes in gene expression analyses by microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Schooten Frederik J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays are widely used in gene expression analyses. To increase throughput and minimize costs without reducing gene expression data obtained, we investigated whether four mRNA samples can be analyzed simultaneously by applying four different fluorescent dyes. Results Following tests for cross-talk of fluorescence signals, Alexa 488, Alexa 594, Cyanine 3 and Cyanine 5 were selected for hybridizations. For self-hybridizations, a single RNA sample was labelled with all dyes and hybridized on commercial cDNA arrays or on in-house spotted oligonucleotide arrays. Correlation coefficients for all combinations of dyes were above 0.9 on the cDNA array. On the oligonucleotide array they were above 0.8, except combinations with Alexa 488, which were approximately 0.5. Standard deviation of expression differences for replicate spots were similar on the cDNA array for all dye combinations, but on the oligonucleotide array combinations with Alexa 488 showed a higher variation. Conclusion In conclusion, the four dyes can be used simultaneously for gene expression experiments on the tested cDNA array, but only three dyes can be used on the tested oligonucleotide array. This was confirmed by hybridizations of control with test samples, as all combinations returned similar numbers of differentially expressed genes with comparable effects on gene expression.

  20. Usage statistics and demonstrator services

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    An understanding of the use of repositories and their contents is clearly desirable for authors and repository managers alike, as well as those who are analysing the state of scholarly communications. A number of individual initiatives have produced statistics of variious kinds for individual repositories, but the real challenge is to produce statistics that can be collected and compared transparently on a global scale. This presentation details the steps to be taken to address the issues to attain this capability View Les Carr's biography