WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybridisation fish assay

  1. [Clinical use of the ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) tests for urothelial carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodde, Michele; Mian, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades years, we have witnessed the propagation and marketing of numerous diagnostic tests capable of detecting, in the urine of patients, the presence of urothelial tumor markers. Among None of the different markers studied to date , no one has been able to meet all the requirements of the ideal marker. We present and discuss below we discuss the results reported in the literature of about two tests approved by the Food and Drug Administration [ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation (FISH)], which have been and commercially available for about 10 years., ImmunoCyt/uCyt + and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation (FISH).

  2. Sensitive non-isotopic DNA hybridisation assay or immediate-early antigen detection for rapid identification of human cytomegalovirus in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpton, C P; Morris, D J; Corbitt, G

    1991-04-01

    A sensitive non-radioactive DNA hybridisation assay employing digoxigenin-labelled probes was compared with immediate-early antigen detection and conventional virus isolation for the identification of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in 249 urine samples. Of 44 specimens yielding HCMV by virus isolation, more were positive by DNA hybridisation (32; 73%) than by immediate-early antigen detection (25; 52%) (P = 0.05). The specificity of the hybridisation assay in 45 apparently falsely positive specimens was supported by detection of HCMV DNA in 40 of these specimens using the polymerase chain reaction. Many urine specimens may thus contain large amounts of non-viable virus or free viral DNA. Evaluation of various protocols for the extraction and denaturation of virus DNA prior to hybridisation showed that proteinase K digestion with phenol/chloroform extraction was the most sensitive and reliable procedure. We conclude that the non-radioactive DNA hybridisation assay described is a potentially valuable routine diagnostic test.

  3. Hybridisation between two cyprinid fishes in a novel habitat: genetics, morphology and life-history traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffrey Joe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential role hybridisation in adaptive radiation and the evolution of new lineages has received much recent attention. Hybridisation between roach (Rutilus rutilus L. and bream (Abramis brama L. is well documented throughout Europe, however hybrids in Ireland occur at an unprecedented frequency, often exceeding that of both parental species. Utilising an integrated approach, which incorporates geometric morphometrics, life history and molecular genetic analyses we identify the levels and processes of hybridisation present, while also determining the direction of hybridisation, through the analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Results The presence of F2 hybrids was found to be unlikely from the studied populations, although significant levels of backcrossing, involving both parental taxa was observed in some lakes. Hybridisation represents a viable conduit for introgression of genes between roach and bream. The vast majority of hybrids in all populations studied exhibited bream mitochondrial DNA, indicating that bream are maternal in the majority of crosses. Conclusions The success of roach × bream hybrids in Ireland is not due to a successful self reproducing lineage. The potential causes of widespread hybridisation between both species, along with the considerations regarding the role of hybridisation in evolution and conservation, are also discussed.

  4. Detection of beer spoilage bacteria Pectinatus and Megasphaera with acridinium ester labelled DNA probes using a hybridisation protection assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradh, A D; Hill, A E; Mitchell, W J

    2014-01-01

    DNA probes specific for rRNA of selected target species were utilised for the detection of beer spoilage bacteria of the genera Pectinatus and Megasphaera using a hybridisation protection assay (HPA). All the probes were modified during synthesis by addition of an amino linker arm at the 5' end or were internally modified by inserting an amine modified thymidine base. Synthesised probes then were labelled with acridinium ester (AE) and purified using reverse phase HPLC. The internally AE labelled probes were able to detect target RNA within the range of 0.016-0.0032pmol. All the designed probes showed high specificity towards target RNA and could detect bacterial contamination within the range of ca. 5×10(2)1×10(3) CFU using the HPA. The developed assay was also compatible with MRS, NBB and SMMP beer enrichment media, routinely used in brewing laboratories.

  5. Development of a real-time RT-PCR and Reverse Line probe Hybridisation assay for the routine detection and genotyping of Noroviruses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Menton, John F

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the most common cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Improved detection methods have seen a large increase in the number of human NoV genotypes in the last ten years. The objective of this study was to develop a fast method to detect, quantify and genotype positive NoV samples from Irish hospitals. RESULTS: A real-time RT-PCR assay and a Reverse Line Blot Hybridisation assay were developed based on the ORF1-ORF2 region. The sensitivity and reactivity of the two assays used was validated using a reference stool panel containing 14 NoV genotypes. The assays were then used to investigate two outbreaks of gastroenteritis in two Irish hospitals. 56 samples were screened for NoV using a real-time RT-PCR assay and 26 samples were found to be positive. Genotyping of these positive samples found that all positives belonged to the GII\\/4 variant of NoV. CONCLUSION: The combination of the Real-time assay and the reverse line blot hybridisation assay provided a fast and accurate method to investigate a NoV associated outbreak. It was concluded that the predominant genotype circulating in these Irish hospitals was GII\\/4 which has been associated with the majority of NoV outbreaks worldwide. The assays developed in this study are useful tools for investigating NoV infection.

  6. Use of a non-radioactive hybridisation assay for direct detection of gram-negative bacteria carrying TEM beta-lactamase genes in infected urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, G I; Towner, K J; Pearson, N J; Slack, R C

    1989-02-01

    DNA in infected urines from 81 patients with urinary tract infection was hybridised directly with a non-radioactive DNA probe specific for bacterial genes coding for TEM-type beta-lactamase. The results were assessed by means of a computerised image analysis system and compared with those obtained following isolation of the infecting organism, conventional sensitivity testing and isoelectric focusing (IEF) procedures for the detection of TEM-type beta-lactamase. Of the 27 ampicillin-resistant gram-negative organisms isolated in pure culture from the urines, 14 were shown by both hybridisation and IEF to carry a gene for TEM beta-lactamase production. Only four discordant results were obtained: three "false positive" direct hybridisation results, one due to urine pigmentation, and one, possibly, to a TEM beta-lactamase gene which was not being expressed, and one "false negative" result due to insufficient cell numbers in the urine. The system is capable of screening large numbers of samples and is applicable to any gene for which a suitable DNA probe is available.

  7. Application of fluorescent in situ hybridisation for demonstration of Coxiella burnetti in placentas from ruminant abortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Montgomery, Donald L.; Jaeger, Paula T.;

    2007-01-01

    A fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) assay targeting 16S ribosomal RNA was developed for detection of the zoonotic bacterium Coxiella burnetii in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, and applied on placentas from ruminant abortions. The applicability of the FISH assay was compared...... to immunohistochemistry (IHC) using human positive control serum in 12 cases of C burnetii-associated placentitis as well as 7 negative control tissue samples. In all 12 cases the bacterium was detected within trophoblasts as well as free in the placental debris by both FISH and IHC. Extensive and significant infection...... by C. burnetii was revealed in 10 of the cases, whereas a slighter and focal distribution of the bacterium was observed in two cases. 90 aborted placentas from Danish ruminants were investigated by FISH. C burnetii was detected in one bovine case only, representing the first confirmation of C burnetii...

  8. Use of the comet-FISH assay to compare DNA damage and repair in p53 and hTERT genes following ionizing radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan J McKenna

    Full Text Available The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay can be combined with fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH methodology in order to investigate the localisation of specific gene domains within an individual cell. The number and position of the fluorescent signal(s provides information about the relative damage and subsequent repair that is occurring in the targeted gene domain(s. In this study, we have optimised the comet-FISH assay to detect and compare DNA damage and repair in the p53 and hTERT gene regions of bladder cancer cell-lines RT4 and RT112, normal fibroblasts and Cockayne Syndrome (CS fibroblasts following γ-radiation. Cells were exposed to 5Gy γ-radiation and repair followed for up to 60 minutes. At each repair time-point, the number and location of p53 and hTERT hybridisation spots was recorded in addition to standard comet measurements. In bladder cancer cell-lines and normal fibroblasts, the p53 gene region was found to be rapidly repaired relative to the hTERT gene region and the overall genome, a phenomenon that appeared to be independent of hTERT transcriptional activity. However, in the CS fibroblasts, which are defective in transcription coupled repair (TCR, this rapid repair of the p53 gene region was not observed when compared to both the hTERT gene region and the overall genome, proving the assay can detect variations in DNA repair in the same gene. In conclusion, we propose that the comet-FISH assay is a sensitive and rapid method for detecting differences in DNA damage and repair between different gene regions in individual cells in response to radiation. We suggest this increases its potential for measuring radiosensitivity in cells and may therefore have value in a clinical setting.

  9. Fluorescent Receptor Binding Assay for Detecting Ciguatoxins in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, D. Ransom; Holland, William C.; McCall, Jennifer R.; Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Baden, Daniel G.; Darius, H. Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Tester, Patricia A.; Shea, Damian; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Morris, James A.; Litaker, R. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R)). However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R) in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F)) was developed to provide an alternative method of screening fish samples for CTXs in facilities not certified to use radioisotopes. The new assay is based on competition binding between CTXs and fluorescently labeled brevetoxin-2 (BODIPY®- PbTx-2) for voltage-gated sodium channel receptors at site 5 instead of a radiolabeled brevetoxin. Responses were linear in fish tissues spiked from 0.1 to 1.0 ppb with Pacific ciguatoxin-3C (P-CTX-3C) with a detection limit of 0.075 ppb. Carribean ciguatoxins were confirmed in Caribbean fish by LC-MS/MS analysis of the regional biomarker (C-CTX-1). Fish (N = 61) of six different species were screened using the RBA(F). Results for corresponding samples analyzed using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) correlated well (R2 = 0.71) with those of the RBA(F), given the low levels of CTX present in positive fish. Data analyses also showed the resulting toxicity levels of P-CTX-3C equivalents determined by CBA-N2a were consistently lower than the RBA(F) affinities expressed as % binding equivalents, indicating that a given amount of toxin bound to the site 5 receptors translates into corresponding lower cytotoxicity. Consequently, the RBA(F), which takes approximately two hours to perform, provides a generous estimate relative to the widely used CBA-N2a which requires 2.5 days to complete. Other RBA(F) advantages include the long-term (> 5 years) stability of the BODIPY®- PbTx-2 and having similar results as the commonly used RBA(R). The RBA(F) is cost-effective, allows high sample

  10. Fluorescent Receptor Binding Assay for Detecting Ciguatoxins in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, D Ransom; Holland, William C; McCall, Jennifer R; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Baden, Daniel G; Darius, H Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Tester, Patricia A; Shea, Damian; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Morris, James A; Litaker, R Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R)). However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R) in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F)) was developed to provide an alternative method of screening fish samples for CTXs in facilities not certified to use radioisotopes. The new assay is based on competition binding between CTXs and fluorescently labeled brevetoxin-2 (BODIPY®-PbTx-2) for voltage-gated sodium channel receptors at site 5 instead of a radiolabeled brevetoxin. Responses were linear in fish tissues spiked from 0.1 to 1.0 ppb with Pacific ciguatoxin-3C (P-CTX-3C) with a detection limit of 0.075 ppb. Carribean ciguatoxins were confirmed in Caribbean fish by LC-MS/MS analysis of the regional biomarker (C-CTX-1). Fish (N = 61) of six different species were screened using the RBA(F). Results for corresponding samples analyzed using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) correlated well (R2 = 0.71) with those of the RBA(F), given the low levels of CTX present in positive fish. Data analyses also showed the resulting toxicity levels of P-CTX-3C equivalents determined by CBA-N2a were consistently lower than the RBA(F) affinities expressed as % binding equivalents, indicating that a given amount of toxin bound to the site 5 receptors translates into corresponding lower cytotoxicity. Consequently, the RBA(F), which takes approximately two hours to perform, provides a generous estimate relative to the widely used CBA-N2a which requires 2.5 days to complete. Other RBA(F) advantages include the long-term (> 5 years) stability of the BODIPY®-PbTx-2 and having similar results as the commonly used RBA(R). The RBA(F) is cost-effective, allows high sample

  11. Fluorescent labelling of in situ hybridisation probes through the copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Susann; Manetto, Antonio; Cassinelli, Valentina; Fuchs, Jörg; Ma, Lu; Raddaoui, Nada; Houben, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    In situ hybridisation is a powerful tool to investigate the genome and chromosome architecture. Nick translation (NT) is widely used to label DNA probes for fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). However, NT is limited to the use of long double-stranded DNA and does not allow the labelling of single-stranded and short DNA, e.g. oligonucleotides. An alternative technique is the copper(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), at which azide and alkyne functional groups react in a multistep process catalysed by copper(I) ions to give 1,4-distributed 1,2,3-triazoles at a high yield (also called 'click reaction'). We successfully applied this technique to label short single-stranded DNA probes as well as long PCR-derived double-stranded probes and tested them by FISH on plant chromosomes and nuclei. The hybridisation efficiency of differently labelled probes was compared to those obtained by conventional labelling techniques. We show that copper(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition-labelled probes are reliable tools to detect different types of repetitive sequences on chromosomes opening new promising routes for the detection of single copy gene. Moreover, a combination of FISH using such probes with other techniques, e.g. immunohistochemistry (IHC) and cell proliferation assays using 5-ethynyl-deoxyuridine, is herein shown to be easily feasible.

  12. In house reverse membrane hybridisation assay versus GenoType MTBDRplus and their performance to detect mutations in the genes rpoB, katG and inhA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz Montego Ferreira Junior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB threatens global TB control and is a major public health concern in several countries. We therefore developed a multiplex assay (LINE-TB/MDR that is able to identify the most frequent mutations related to rifampicin (RMP and isoniazid (INH resistance. The assay is based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction, membrane hybridisation and colorimetric detection targeting of rpoB and katG genes, as well as the inhA promoter, which are all known to carry specific mutations associated with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB. The assay was validated on a reference panel of 108 M. tuberculosis isolates that were characterised by the proportion method and by DNA sequencing of the targets. When comparing the performance of LINE-TB/MDR with DNA sequencing, the sensitivity, specificity and agreement were 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively, for RMP and 77.6%, 90.6% and 88.9%, respectively, for INH. Using drug sensibility testing as a reference standard, the performance of LINE-TB/MDR regarding sensitivity, specificity and agreement was 100%, 100% and 100% (95%, respectively, for RMP and 77%, 100% and 88.7% (82.2-95.1, respectively, for INH. LINE-TB/MDR was compared with GenoType MTBDRplus for 65 isolates, resulting in an agreement of 93.6% (86.7-97.5 for RIF and 87.4% (84.3-96.2 for INH. LINE-TB/MDR warrants further clinical validation and may be an affordable alternative for MDR-TB diagnosis.

  13. In situ hybridisation of a large repertoire of muscle-specific transcripts in fish larvae: the new superficial slow-twitch fibres exhibit characteristics of fast-twitch differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvigné, F; Ralliere, C; Cauty, C; Rescan, P Y

    2006-01-01

    Much of the present information on muscle differentiation in fish concerns the early embryonic stages. To learn more about the maturation and the diversification of the fish myotomal fibres in later stages of ontogeny, we investigated, by means of in situ hybridisation, the developmental expression of a large repertoire of muscle-specific genes in trout larvae from hatching to yolk resorption. At hatching, transcripts for fast and slow muscle protein isoforms, namely myosins, tropomyosins, troponins and myosin binding protein C were present in the deep fast and the superficial slow areas of the myotome, respectively. During myotome expansion that follows hatching, the expression of fast isoforms became progressively confined to the borders of the fast muscle mass, whereas, in contrast, slow muscle isoform transcripts were uniformly expressed in all the slow fibres. Transcripts for several enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism such as citrate synthase, cytochrome oxidase component IV and succinate dehydrogenase, were present throughout the whole myotome of hatching embryos but in later stages became concentrated in slow fibre as well as in lateral fast fibres. Surprisingly, the slow fibres that are added externally to the single superficial layer of the embryonic (original) slow muscle fibres expressed not only slow twitch muscle isoforms but also, transiently, a subset of fast twitch muscle isoforms including MyLC1, MyLC3, MyHC and myosin binding protein C. Taken together these observations show that the growth of the myotome of the fish larvae is associated with complex patterns of muscular gene expression and demonstrate the unexpected presence of fast muscle isoform-expressing fibres in the most superficial part of the slow muscle.

  14. Whole cell hybridisation for monitoring harmful marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toebe, Kerstin

    2013-10-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) is a powerful molecular biological tool to detect and enumerate harmful microorganism in the marine environment. Different FISH methods are available, and especially in combination with automated counting techniques, the potential for a routine monitoring of harmful marine microalgae is attainable. Various oligonucleotide probes are developed for detecting harmful microalgae. However, FISH-based methods are not yet regularly included in monitoring programmes tracking the presence of harmful marine microalgae. A limitation factor of the FISH technique is the currently available number of suited fluorochromes attached to the FISH probes to detect various harmful species in one environmental sample at a time. However, coupled automated techniques, like flow cytometry or solid-phase cytometry, can facilitate the analysis of numerous field samples and help to overcome this drawback. A great benefit of FISH in contrast to other molecular biological detection methods for harmful marine microalgae is the direct visualisation of the hybridised target cells, which are not permitted in cell free formats, like DNA depending analysis methods. Therefore, an additional validation of the FISH-generated results is simultaneously given.

  15. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    KAUST Repository

    Payet, Samuel D.

    2016-08-05

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  16. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Samuel D.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; DiBattista, Joseph D.; Newman, Stephen J.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.

    2016-12-01

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor.

  17. Challenges and approaches to conducting and interpreting the amphibian metamorphosis assay and the fish short-term reproduction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Katherine Kemler; Lehman, Christine Marie; Currie, Rebecca J; Marino, Troy Alan

    2014-02-01

    The amphibian metamorphosis assay (AMA) and the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) are screening assays designed to detect potential endocrine activity of a test substance. These assays are included in a battery of assays in Tier 1 of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Based on our laboratory's experience with these two assays, we have noted several challenges in the conduct and interpretation of the AMA and FSTRA, including, but not limited to, diseased/parasitized test organisms, failure to meet some guideline performance criteria, and issues selecting and maintaining test concentrations. Various approaches are described for addressing the challenges associated with both the conduct and interpretation of these assays. Historical control data for both the AMA and FSTRA are presented to further understand background occurrences of histopathological phenomena and variability associated with the measured endpoints in these assays. In the historical control database for the AMA, wet weight on day 7 was the most variable endpoint (coefficient of variation = 26%), while developmental stage on day 21 was least variable (coefficient of variation = 0.47%). In the FSTRA, vitellogenin concentrations were the most variable endpoint (coefficient of variation = 47-84%), while fertility was the least variable endpoint (coefficient of variation = 1.5%) among historical controls.

  18. Survey of estrogenic activity in fish feed by yeast estrogen-screen assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takeru; Kobayashi, Makito; Moriwaki, Toshihisa; Kawai, Shin'ichiro; Watabe, Shugo

    2004-10-01

    Fishes have been used as laboratory animal for research of estrogenic endocrine disrupters by many researchers. However, much less attention was paid to the possibility that compounds with estrogenic activity are present in fish diets. In order to examine this possibility, we measured the estrogenic activity in commercial fish feed by in vitro yeast estrogen-screen (YES) assay based on the binding ability of tested compounds to estrogen receptors. Estrogenic activity was detected in all the commercial fish feed examined (0.2-6.2 ng estradiol equivalent/g fish feed), some phytoestrogens (genistein, formononetin, equol and coumestrol; relative activity to estradiol, 8.6 x 10(-6)-1.1 x 10(-4) by giving a value of 1.0 to estradiol) and some androgens (testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone; relative activity to estradiol, 3.0 x 10(-6)-1.2 x 10(-4)). Therefore, it is possible that these compounds could affect the results of in vivo estrogen assay, such as vitellogenin production in male fish, especially when fish are fed commercial feed.

  19. Karyotype analysis of Lilium longiflorum and Lilium rubellum by chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, K.B.; Wennekes, J.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Detailed karyotypes of Lilium longiflorum and L. rubellum were constructed on the basis of chromosome arm lengths, C-banding, AgNO3 staining, and PI-DAPI banding, together with fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with the 5S and 45S rDNA sequences as probes. The C-banding patterns that were

  20. Karyotype analysis of Lilium longiflorum and Lilium rubellum by chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, K.B.; Wennekes, J.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Detailed karyotypes of Lilium longiflorum and L. rubellum were constructed on the basis of chromosome arm lengths, C-banding, AgNO3 staining, and PI-DAPI banding, together with fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with the 5S and 45S rDNA sequences as probes. The C-banding patterns that were ob

  1. Methodology for determination of plasma cortisol in fish using Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To determine plasma cortisol procedure in fish using competitive enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Materials and methods. Two plasma samples of juveniles rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were analized by using ELISA human kit for cortisol assay. For standard curve calibration...... seven standard solutions of cortisol in human plasma (0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ng.ml-1) were used. For the recovery test 50, 100 and 200 ng.ml-1 standard solutions of cortisol were used; for the linearity test four dilutions of the fish plasma samples (1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16) were prepared....... To each well fish plasma samples and standard solutions were added and its content were conjugated to peroxidase and subsequently enzyme substrate was added. The enzymatic reaction was stopped by addition of phosphoric acid 0.5 M and the absorbance was read at 450 nm. The accuracy of the pipetting...

  2. ZyFISH: a simple, rapid and reliable zygosity assay for transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal McHugh

    Full Text Available Microinjection of DNA constructs into fertilized mouse oocytes typically results in random transgene integration at a single genomic locus. The resulting transgenic founders can be used to establish hemizygous transgenic mouse lines. However, practical and experimental reasons often require that such lines be bred to homozygosity. Transgene zygosity can be determined by progeny testing assays which are expensive and time-consuming, by quantitative Southern blotting which is labor-intensive, or by quantitative PCR (qPCR which requires transgene-specific design. Here, we describe a zygosity assessment procedure based on fluorescent in situ hybridization (zyFISH. The zyFISH protocol entails the detection of transgenic loci by FISH and the concomitant assignment of homozygosity using a concise and unbiased scoring system. The method requires small volumes of blood, is scalable to at least 40 determinations per assay, and produces results entirely consistent with the progeny testing assay. This combination of reliability, simplicity and cost-effectiveness makes zyFISH a method of choice for transgenic mouse zygosity determinations.

  3. The Comet-FISH assay for the analysis of DNA damage and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, I describe the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology, used in our laboratory, to study the incidence and repair of lesions induced in human cells by ultraviolet light. The Comet-FISH method permits the simultaneous and comparative analysis of DNA damage and its repair throughout the genome and in defined chromosomal regions. This very sensitive approach can be applied to any lesion, such as those induced by chemical carcinogens and products of cellular metabolism that can be converted to DNA single- or double-strand breaks. The unique advantages and limitations of the method for particular applications are discussed.

  4. Important Considerations for Methemoglobin Measurement in Fish Blood: Assay Choice and Storage Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Mel Anton; Rodnick, K. J.; J. A. Lacey

    2002-05-01

    Spectrophotometric assays of methaemoglobin (metHb) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, tilapias Tilapia niloticus and Tilapia zillii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, under baseline conditions, were low (<4%) for each species, and yet higher than human values (<1%). MetHb results for a given fish species varied significantly between assays and two assays were deemed unacceptable for particular animals. For rainbow trout, white sturgeon, and the two species of tilapia, the Dubowski method gave uncharacteristically high estimates of metHb. MetHb could not measured in tilapia blood using the Evelyn & Malloy method due to spectral interference. Only the Horecker & Brackett assay worked well for all species. Storage conditions were extremely important in the quantification of metHb in rainbow trout blood. For consistent values, samples can be stored up to 4 h on ice (0 degrees C) or at least 20 days under liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). Auto-oxidation, however, elevates rainbow trout metHb at -20 and -80 degrees C. It should not be assumed that the blood of fishes and humans perform similarly during assays of metHb.

  5. Interspecific Hybridisation in Campanula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röper, Anna Catharina

    In the present thesis, economically important Campanula species were selected for interspecific hybridisation to increase the genetic viability in plant breeding material. To reach this goal, ovule culture was established as an embryo rescue technique to overcome post-fertilisation barriers...

  6. Assessing the applicability of FISH-based prematurely condensed dicentric chromosome assay in triage biodosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Yumiko; Gotoh, Takaya; Noda, Takashi; Akiyama, Miho; Owaki, Makiko; Darroudi, Firouz; Hirai, Momoki

    2015-03-01

    The dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) has been regarded as the gold standard of radiation biodosimetry. The assay, however, requires a 2-d peripheral blood lymphocyte culture before starting metaphase chromosome analyses to estimate biological doses. Other biological assays also have drawbacks with respect to the time needed to obtain dose estimates for rapid decision on the correct line of medical treatment. Therefore, alternative technologies that suit requirements for triage biodosimetry are needed. Radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in G0 lymphocytes can be detected as interphase chromosome aberrations by the cell fusion-mediated premature chromosome condensation (PCC) method. The method, in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques, has been proposed in early studies as a powerful tool for obtaining biological dose estimates without 2-d lymphocyte culture procedures. The present work assesses the applicability of FISH-based PCC techniques using pan-centromeric and telomeric peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes in triage mode biodosimetry and demonstrates that an improved rapid procedure of the prematurely condensed dicentric chromosome (PCDC) assay has the potential for evaluating exposed radiation doses in as short as 6 h after the collection of peripheral blood specimens.

  7. In vivo virus growth competition assays demonstrate equal fitness of fish rhabdovirus strains that co-circulate in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, R.M.; Garver, K.A.; Ranson, J.C.; Wargo, A.R.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    A novel virus growth competition assay for determining relative fitness of RNA virus variants in vivo has been developed using the fish rhabdovirus, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We have conducted assays with IHNV isolates designated B, C, and D, representing the three most common genetic subtypes that co-circulate in Idaho trout farm aquaculture. In each assay, groups of 30 fish were immersed in a 1:1 mixture of two genotypes of IHNV, and then held in individual beakers for a 72 h period of in vivo competitive virus replication. Progeny virus populations in each fish were analyzed for the presence and proportion of each viral genotype. In two independent assays of the B:C isolate pair, and two assays of the B:D pair, all fish were co-infected and there was a high level of fish-to-fish variation in the ratio of the two competing genotypes. However, in each assay the average ratio in the 30-fish group was not significantly different from the input ratio of 1:1, indicating equal or nearly equal viral fitness on a host population basis, under the conditions tested. ?? 2008.

  8. In vivo virus growth competition assays demonstrate equal fitness of fish rhabdovirus strains that co-circulate in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Ryan M; Garver, Kyle A; Ranson, Judith C; Wargo, Andrew R; Kurath, Gael

    2008-11-01

    A novel virus growth competition assay for determining relative fitness of RNA virus variants in vivo has been developed using the fish rhabdovirus, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We have conducted assays with IHNV isolates designated B, C, and D, representing the three most common genetic subtypes that co-circulate in Idaho trout farm aquaculture. In each assay, groups of 30 fish were immersed in a 1:1 mixture of two genotypes of IHNV, and then held in individual beakers for a 72h period of in vivo competitive virus replication. Progeny virus populations in each fish were analyzed for the presence and proportion of each viral genotype. In two independent assays of the B:C isolate pair, and two assays of the B:D pair, all fish were co-infected and there was a high level of fish-to-fish variation in the ratio of the two competing genotypes. However, in each assay the average ratio in the 30-fish group was not significantly different from the input ratio of 1:1, indicating equal or nearly equal viral fitness on a host population basis, under the conditions tested.

  9. Microsomal EROD data of fish liver sample assay from species collected in the Salt and Gila Rivers, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, Diane

    2017-01-01

    This dataset includes microsomal ERDO data from an assay done with liver samples from several fish species that are found in Arizona at sites that are being assessed for PBDE contamination. The data was created in September and October 2016.

  10. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Susanne N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results Stomach lesions, as well as normal appearing mucosa were obtained from horses slaughtered for human consumption. All samples were tested for urease activity using the Pyloritek® assay, while mucosal bacterial content was evaluated using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation. In selected sub samples, bacteria characterisation was pursued further by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal samples, clones with 99% similarities to Lactobacillus salivarius and Sarcina ventriculi were found. Escherichia like bacterium clones and Enterococcus clones were demonstrated in one focal erosion. Based on a phylogenetic tree these clones had 100% similarity to Escherichia fergusonii and Enterococcus faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described as an emerging pathogen in both humans and animals, the finding of this bacterium in gastric erosion warrants further clarification to whether gastric infection with this type bacterium is important for horses.

  11. Optimising single cell activity assessment of Lactobacillus plantarum by fluorescent in situ hybridisation as affected by growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.C.; Vaughan, E.E.; Kleerebezem, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) with a 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-targeted oligonucleotide probe, Eub338, could be used to estimate the in situ activity of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in exponentially growing cells. However, L. plantarum is capable of growth to very high cell densities, and

  12. Evaluation of the fish short term reproduction assay for detecting endocrine disrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, ZhiChao; Traas, Theo; Vermeire, Theo

    2011-11-01

    In a fish testing strategy, positive results of the fish short term reproduction assay (FSTR), often trigger a definitive test like the fish sexual development test (FSDT) or the fish full life cycle test (FFLC), entailing ethical and economic problems. This study analysed 137 studies encompassing 35 chemicals with different modes of actions (MOAs). Variability is quantified for MOA endpoints vitellogenin (VTG) and secondary sex characteristics (SSCs) as well as for apical endpoints. Two MOA endpoints could indicate estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, androgenic, anti-androgenic and steroidogenesis activities. Great variability, however, has been observed for chemicals with anti-androgenic and steroidogenesis activities, suggesting that TG229/230 may not be sensitive enough to detect these types of chemicals and may produce false negatives. Changes in apical endpoints like fecundity are not limited to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Non-EDCs could induce the similar effects on these apical endpoints. If elucidating MOA is needed, targeted in vitro MOA tests are suggested. Positive in vitro MOA results trigger a definitive test, which could be used for confirmation of the MOA in vivo and for deriving a no observed effect concentration (NOEC). Based on positive MOA results of TG229, a definitive test such as the FSDT or the FFLC is still needed, because the current TG229 has limitation on the derivation of a NOEC. An extended TG229 with more power to detect reproduction effects, as recently proposed in the OECD test guideline program, would improve the possibility to derive a NOEC and increase its usefulness in risk assessment.

  13. Interspecific Hybridisation in Campanula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röper, Anna Catharina

    In the present thesis, economically important Campanula species were selected for interspecific hybridisation to increase the genetic viability in plant breeding material. To reach this goal, ovule culture was established as an embryo rescue technique to overcome post-fertilisation barriers...... was confirmed for most of the interspecific hybrids. Intermediate phenotypes compared to the parental species were found for several interspecific hybrids. The results from this PhD study demonstrated that the genetic viability could be increased in Campanula and reveal valuable information for interspecific...

  14. [Sotos syndrome diagnosed by comparative genomic hybridisation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Molina-Barrera, Laura Camila; Ramírez-Cheyne, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Sotos Syndrome (SS) is a genetic disease with an autosomal dominant pattern caused by haplo-insufficiency of NSD1 gene secondary to point mutations or microdeletion of the 5q35 locus where the gene is located. It is a rare syndrome, occurring in 7 out of every 100,000 births. The objective of this report is to present the case of a 4 year-old patient with a global developmental delay, as well as specific physical findings suggesting a syndrome of genetic origin. Female patient, 4 years of age, thinning hair, triangular facie, long palpebral fissure, arched palate, prominent jaw, winged scapula and clinodactilia of the fifth finger both hands. The molecular test comparative genomic hybridisation test by microarray was subsequently performed, with the result showing 5q35.2 q35.3 region microdeletion of 2,082 MB, including the NSD1 gene. Finally, this article also proposes the performing of comparative genomic hybridisation as the first diagnostic option in cases where clinical findings are suggestive of SS. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Interactive effects of metals as measured in cytotoxicity assays with established fish cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segner, H.; Schuurmann, G. [Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Ecotoxicology

    1995-12-31

    The environmental toxicity of chemicals is often judged on the basis of toxicity tests with single compounds. One major drawback of this approach is the fact, that mixture effects occurring in aquatic ecosystems with a multitude of different chemicals are not accounted for. The present work explores the use of cytotoxicity assays with established fish cell lines as a rapid and economic approach to derive basic data on joint toxicity effects of heavy metals. For the assessment of mixture toxicity, concentration addition is taken as the reference model of no interaction, and both isobolographic analysis and calculation of mixture toxicity indices are used to analyze the effect profile of various equitoxic compound mixtures. Cytotoxic endpoints used include neutral red uptake inhibition assay as a measure of cell viability, proliferation measurements to estimate toxic effects on cell growth, and analysis of glutathion contents to estimate metabolic stress effects. The single toxicity of the metals silver, mercury, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead and nickel towards the cell lines RI from rainbow trout liver and RTG-2 from rainbow trout gonads was found to depend on the chemical softness parameter of the cations. The joint effect profile will be discussed in terms of the single effects and softness domain of the heavy metals.

  16. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Martini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50 and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians.

  17. Are Fish and Standardized FETAX Assays Protective Enough for Amphibians? A Case Study on Xenopus laevis Larvae Assay with Biologically Active Substances Present in Livestock Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Federica; Tarazona, José V.; Pablos, M. Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Biologically active substances could reach the aquatic compartment when livestock wastes are considered for recycling. Recently, the standardized FETAX assay has been questioned, and some researchers have considered that the risk assessment performed on fish could not be protective enough to cover amphibians. In the present study a Xenopus laevis acute assay was developed in order to compare the sensitivity of larvae relative to fish or FETAX assays; veterinary medicines (ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) and essential metals (zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium) that may be found in livestock wastes were used for the larvae exposure. Lethal (LC50) and sublethal effects were estimated. Available data in both, fish and FETAX studies, were in general more protective than values found out in the current study, but not in all cases. Moreover, the presence of nonlethal effects, caused by ivermectin, zinc, and copper, suggested that several physiological mechanisms could be affected. Thus, this kind of effects should be deeply investigated. The results obtained in the present study could expand the information about micropollutants from livestock wastes on amphibians. PMID:22629159

  18. Validation of an optical surface plasmon resonance biosensor assay for screening (fluoro)quinolones in egg, fish and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, A.C.; Charlier, C.; Weigel, S.; Benrejeb Godefroy, S.; Delahaut, P.

    2009-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance biosensor immunoassay has been developed for multi-residue determination of 13 (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in poultry meat, eggs and fish. The following performance characteristics were determined according to the guidelines laid down for screening assay validation in E

  19. Validation of an optical surface plasmon resonance biosensor assay for screening (fluoro)quinolones in egg, fish and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, A.C.; Charlier, C.; Weigel, S.; Benrejeb Godefroy, S.; Delahaut, P.

    2009-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance biosensor immunoassay has been developed for multi-residue determination of 13 (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in poultry meat, eggs and fish. The following performance characteristics were determined according to the guidelines laid down for screening assay validation in E

  20. Validation of an optical surface plasmon resonance biosensor assay for screening (fluoro)quinolones in egg, fish and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, A.C.; Charlier, C.; Weigel, S.; Benrejeb Godefroy, S.; Delahaut, P.

    2009-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance biosensor immunoassay has been developed for multi-residue determination of 13 (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in poultry meat, eggs and fish. The following performance characteristics were determined according to the guidelines laid down for screening assay validation in

  1. Development of RNA-FISH Assay for Detection of Oncogenic FGFR3-TACC3 Fusion Genes in FFPE Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takahiro; Nishimura, Kouichi; Kandori, Shuya; Kawahara, Takashi; Yoshino, Takayuki; Ueno, Satoshi; Iizumi, Yuichi; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Arai, Yoichi; Tsuruta, Hiroshi; Habuchi, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Takashi; Matsui, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Osamu; Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Nagumo, Yoshiyuki; Tsutsumi, Masakazu; Oikawa, Takehiro; Kikuchi, Koji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives Oncogenic FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and FGFR3 mutations are target candidates for small molecule inhibitors in bladder cancer (BC). Because FGFR3 and TACC3 genes are located very closely on chromosome 4p16.3, detection of the fusion by DNA-FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) is not a feasible option. In this study, we developed a novel RNA-FISH assay using branched DNA probe to detect FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human BC samples. Materials and Methods The RNA-FISH assay was developed and validated using a mouse xenograft model with human BC cell lines. Next, we assessed the consistency of the RNA-FISH assay using 104 human BC samples. In this study, primary BC tissues were stored as frozen and FFPE tissues. FGFR3-TACC3 fusions were independently detected in FFPE sections by the RNA-FISH assay and in frozen tissues by RT-PCR. We also analyzed the presence of FGFR3 mutations by targeted sequencing of genomic DNA extracted from deparaffinized FFPE sections. Results FGFR3-TACC3 fusion transcripts were identified by RNA-FISH and RT-PCR in mouse xenograft FFPE tissues using the human BC cell lines RT112 and RT4. These cell lines have been reported to be fusion-positive. Signals for FGFR3-TACC3 fusions by RNA-FISH were positive in 2/60 (3%) of non-muscle-invasive BC (NMIBC) and 2/44 (5%) muscle-invasive BC (MIBC) patients. The results of RT-PCR of all 104 patients were identical to those of RNA-FISH. FGFR3 mutations were detected in 27/60 (45%) NMIBC and 8/44 (18%) MIBC patients. Except for one NMIBC patient, FGFR3 mutation and FGFR3-TACC3 fusion were mutually exclusive. Conclusions We developed an RNA-FISH assay for detection of the FGFR3-TACC3 fusion in FFPE samples of human BC tissues. Screening for not only FGFR3 mutations, but also for FGFR3-TACC3 fusion transcripts has the potential to identify additional patients that can be treated with FGFR inhibitors. PMID:27930669

  2. The Hybridisation of Higher Education in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Shale

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada's postsecondary institutions are becoming increasingly involved with technology enhanced learning, generally under the rubric of distance education. Growth and activity in distance education stems from rapid developments in communication and information technologies such as videoconferencing and the Internet. This case study focuses on the use of new technologies, primarily within the context of higher education institutions operating in Canada's English speaking provinces. Capitalising on the interactive capabilities of "new" learning technologies, some distance education providers are starting to behave more like conventional educational institutions in terms of forming study groups and student cohorts. Conversely, new telecommunications technologies are having a reverse impact on traditional classroom settings, and as a result conventional universities are beginning to establish administrative structures reflective of those used by distance education providers. When viewed in tandem, these trends reflect growing convergence between conventional and distance learning modes, leading to the hybridisation of higher education in Canada.

  3. CYP1A inhibition in fish gill filaments: A novel assay applied on pharmaceuticals and other chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijer, Kristina; Abrahamson, Alexandra; Brunstroem, Bjoern [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Brandt, Ingvar, E-mail: ingvar.brandt@ebc.uu.se [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-01-31

    The gill filament 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay was originally developed as a biomarker for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction by Ah-receptor agonists in water. In this study, the assay was adapted to measure inhibition of CYP1A activity in fish gill filaments ex vivo. The experiments were carried out using gill arch filaments from {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}NF)-exposed three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Candidate CYP1A inhibitors were added to the assay buffer. Nine selected pharmaceuticals and five known or suspected CYP1A-modulating chemicals were examined with regard to their ability to reduce EROD activity in gill filaments. Ellipticine, a well characterized CYP1A inhibitor, was the most effective inhibitor of the compounds tested. At a concentration in the assay buffer of 1 {mu}M the antifungal azoles ketoconazole, miconazole and bitertanol, and the plant flavonoid acacetin reduced gill EROD activity by more than 50%, implying IC50 values below 1 {mu}M. These compounds have previously been shown to inhibit EROD activity in liver microsomes from fish and mammals at similar concentrations. The proton pump inhibitor omeprazole reduced the gill EROD activity by 39% at 10 {mu}M. It is concluded that the modified gill filament EROD assay is useful to screen for waterborne pollutants that inhibit catalytic CYP1A activity in fish gills.

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Seaweed Extracts: In Vitro Assays, Evaluation in 5 % Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions and Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin Habebullah, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In this study the antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds, namely Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides, were evaluated both in in vitro assays and in 5 % fish oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides...... showed higher antioxidant activity both in in vitro assays and in 5 % oil-in-water emulsion in the presence or absence of iron. In spite of the higher phenolic content and very good antioxidant activity in some of the in vitro assays, the absolute ethanol extracts of both the species showed a pro......-oxidative tendency in 5 % fish oil-in-water emulsion in the presence or absence of iron. In order to investigate the reason for the higher antioxidant activity of 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides, these extracts were further fractionated into polyphenol-rich, protein-rich, polysaccharide-rich and low...

  5. Differentiation of Enterococcus faecium from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains by PCR and dot-blot hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, S; Fernández, A; Martín, R; Reviriego, C; Marín, M L; Fernández, L; Rodríguez, J M

    2003-12-01

    Variations in length and sequence of the 16S/23S spacer region of Enterococcus faecium provided the basis for development of simple PCR and dot-blot hybridisation assays that enabled the differentiation of potentially probiotic Enterococcus faecium strains from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Such assays may be useful for differentiation of yoghurt starter cultures and enterococcal strains when they are simultaneously present in probiotic food products.

  6. Climate change promotes hybridisation between deeply divergent species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiocchio, Andrea; Zampiglia, Mauro; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Rare hybridisations between deeply divergent animal species have been reported for decades in a wide range of taxa, but have often remained unexplained, mainly considered chance events and reported as anecdotal. Here, we combine field observations with long-term data concerning natural hybridisations, climate, land-use, and field-validated species distribution models for two deeply divergent and naturally sympatric toad species in Europe (Bufo bufo and Bufotes viridis species groups). We show that climate warming and seasonal extreme temperatures are conspiring to set the scene for these maladaptive hybridisations, by differentially affecting life-history traits of both species. Our results identify and provide evidence of an ultimate cause for such events, and reveal that the potential influence of climate change on interspecific hybridisations goes far beyond closely related species. Furthermore, climate projections suggest that the chances for these events will steadily increase in the near future. PMID:28348926

  7. An evaluation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay and the Fish Short-Term Reproduction Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Katherine; Marino, Troy; Thomas, Johnson; Sosinski, Lindsay; Neal, Barbara; Hammond, Larry

    2013-04-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was evaluated in both the Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA) and the Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay (FSTRA). In the AMA, tadpoles were exposed to mean measured 2,4-D concentrations of 0 (water control), 0.273, 3.24, 38.0 and 113 mg acid equivalents (ae)/L for either seven or 21 days. In the FSTRA, fathead minnows were exposed to mean measured 2,4-D concentrations of 0 (water control), 0.245, 3.14, 34.0, and 96.5 mg ae/L for 21 days. The respective concentrations of 2,4-D were not overtly toxic to either Xenopus laevis tadpoles or fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). In the AMA, there were no signs of either advanced or delayed development, asynchronous development, or significant histopathological effects of the thyroid gland among 2,4-D exposed tadpoles evaluated on either day seven or day 21 of the exposure. Therefore, following the AMA decision logic, 2,4-D is considered "likely thyroid inactive" in the AMA with a No Observable Effect Concentration (NOEC) of 113 mg ae 2,4-D/L. In the FSTRA, there were no significant differences between control and 2,4-D exposed fish in regard to fertility, wet weight, length, gonado-somatic indices, tubercle scores, or blood plasma concentrations of vitellogenin. Furthermore, there were no treatment-related histopathologic changes in the testes or ovaries in any 2,4-D exposed group. The only significant effect was a decrease in fecundity among fish exposed to 96.5 mg ae 2,4-D/L. The cause of the reduced fecundity at the highest concentration of 2,4-D tested in the assay was most likely due to a generalized stress response in the fish, and not due to a specific endocrine mode of action of 2,4-D. Based on fish reproduction, the NOEC in the FSTRA was 34.0 mg ae 2,4-D/L.

  8. A real-time PCR assay to estimate invertebrate and fish predation on anchovy eggs in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Albaina, A.

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the role of predation on eggs and larvae in the recruitment of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and 52 macrozooplankton taxa were assayed for anchovy remains in the gut during the 2010 spawning season using a molecular method. This real-time PCR based assay was capable of detecting 0.005. ng of anchovy DNA (roughly 1/100 of a single egg assay) in a reliable way and allowed detecting predation events up to 6. h after ingestion by small zooplankton taxa. A total of 1069 macrozooplankton individuals, 237 sardines and 213 sprats were tested. Both fish species and 32 macrozooplankton taxa showed remains of anchovy DNA within their stomach contents. The two main findings are (1) that the previously neglected macrozooplankton impact in anchovy eggs/larvae mortality is in the same order of magnitude of that due to planktivorous fishes and that, (2) the predation pressure was notably different in the two main spawning centers of Bay of Biscay anchovy. While relatively low mortality rates were recorded at the shelf-break spawning center, a higher predation pressure from both fish and macrozooplankton was exerted at the shelf one.

  9. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.

    2010-01-01

    appearing mucosa were obtained from horses slaughtered for human consumption. All samples were tested for urease activity using the Pyloritek® assay, while mucosal bacterial content was evaluated using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation. In selected sub samples, bacteria characterisation was pursued further...... samples, clones with 99% similarities to Lactobacillus salivarius and Sarcina ventriculi were found. Escherichia like bacterium clones and Enterococcus clones were demonstrated in one focal erosion. Based on a phylogenetic tree these clones had 100% similarity to Escherichia fergusonii and Enterococcus...

  10. New developments in comet-FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The comet assay combined with fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) is a powerful technique for comparative analyses of damage induction and repair in genomes and in specific DNA sequences within single cells. Recent advances in the methodology of comet-FISH will be considered here, with particular attention to the design and generation of fluorescent probes. In general, all the approaches must fulfil a few basic requirements: the probes should be no longer than ~300 nucleotides in length (single or double stranded) to be able to penetrate the gel in which the target genomic DNA is embedded, they should be sequence-specific, and their signal should be detectable and distinct from the background fluorescence and the dye used to stain the DNA.

  11. Characterization of ISR region and development of a PCR assay for rapid detection of the fish pathogen Tenacibaculum soleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jose R; Hamman-Khalifa, Abdel M; Navas, José I; de la Herran, Roberto

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this work were to characterize the 16S-23S internal spacer region of the fish pathogen Tenacibaculum soleae and to develop a PCR assay for its identification and detection. All T. soleae strains tested displayed a single internal spacer region class, containing tRNA(I) (le) and tRNA(A) (la) genes; nevertheless, a considerable intraspecific heterogeneity was observed. However, this region proved to be useful for differentiation of T. soleae from related and non-related species. Species-specific primers were designed targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the internal spacer region region, yielding a 1555-bp fragment. Detection limit was of 1 pg DNA per reaction (< 30 bacterial cells) when using pure cultures. The detection level in the presence of DNA from fish or other bacteria was lower; however, 10 pg were detected at a target/background ratio of 1 : 10(5) . The PCR assay proved to be more sensitive than agar cultivation for the detection of T. soleae from naturally diseased fish, offering a useful tool for diagnosis and for understanding the epidemiology of this pathogen.

  12. A short-term sublethal toxicity assay with zebra fish based on preying rate and its integration with mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-moneim, Ahmed; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Ribeiro, Rui

    2015-02-01

    Contaminant-induced feeding inhibition has direct and immediate consequences at higher levels of biological organization, by depressing the population consumption and thus hampering ecosystem functioning (e.g. grazing, organic matter decomposition). Thus, similarly to lethality and avoidance, feeding is mechanistically linked to ecosystem processes and is therefore an unequivocal ecologically meaningful response. The objective of the present study was to develop a short-term assay with the small freshwater fish Danio rerio, based on feeding. For this, a methodology to easily and precisely quantify feeding was first optimized: each fish was allowed to prey on ten live Daphnia magna juveniles, for 1h, just before the end of a 48-h exposure test period. Secondly, copper sensitivity of feeding relatively to survival and growth was evaluated. At the growth EC20 (40 μg L(-1)), feeding was inhibited by 53%, and at the feeding EC50 (36 μg L(-1)), mortality was negligible (1.3%). Integrating feeding and survival revealed a 97% depression in the population consumption at the LC50 (61 μg L(-1)). Thirdly, the influence of pH, conductivity and hardness on the feeding background variability was assessed by assaying waters collected at eight reference sites and was found to be negligible, within tested ranges. Fourthly, feeding assays with natural waters contaminated with acid mine drainage confirmed the integration of lethality and feeding to be pertinent at estimating contaminant effects at higher levels of biological organization.

  13. Improved technique for fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis of isolated nuclei from archival, B5 or formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurter, M J; LeBrun, D P; Harrison, K J

    2002-04-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) is an effective method to detect chromosomal alterations in a variety of tissue types, including archived paraffin wax embedded specimens fixed in B5 or formalin. However, precipitating fixatives such as B5 have been known to produce unsatisfactory results in comparison with formalin when used for FISH. This study describes an effective nuclear isolation and FISH procedure for B5 and formalin fixed tissue, optimising the nuclear isolation step and nuclei pretreatments using tonsil and mantle cell lymphoma specimens. The protocol presented can be used to isolate nuclei and perform FISH on B5 or formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded samples from a variety of tissue types.

  14. A modified parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for evaluating the bioconcentration of highly hydrophobic chemicals in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Escher, Beate I

    2008-03-01

    Low cost in vitro tools are needed at the screening stage of assessment of bioaccumulation potential of new and existing chemicals because the number of chemical substances that needs to be tested highly exceeds the capacity of in vivo bioconcentration tests. Thus, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) system was modified to predict passive uptake/ elimination rate in fish. To overcome the difficulties associated with low aqueous solubility and high membrane affinity of highly hydrophobic chemicals, we measured the rate of permeation from the donor poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) disk to the acceptor PDMS disk through aqueous and PDMS membrane boundary layers and term the modified PAMPA system "PDMS-PAMPA". Twenty chemicals were selected for validation of PDMS-PAMPA. The measured permeability is proportional to the passive elimination rate constant in fish and was used to predict the "minimum" in vivo elimination rate constant. The in vivo data were very close to predicted values except for a few polar chemicals and metabolically active chemicals, such as pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Thus, PDMS-PAMPA can be an appropriate in vitro system for nonmetabolizable chemicals. Combination with metabolic clearance rates using a battery of metabolic degradation assays would enhance the applicability for metabolizable chemicals.

  15. High resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridisation analysis using spotted oligonucleotides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, B; Ouwerkerk, E; Meijer, G.A.; Ylstra, B.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, comparative genomic hybridisation array (array CGH) is the method of choice for studying genome wide DNA copy number changes. To date, either amplified representations of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)/phage artificial chromosomes (PACs) or cDNAs have been spotted as

  16. Mixed infections and hybridisation in monogenean parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Schelkle

    Full Text Available Theory predicts that sexual reproduction promotes disease invasion by increasing the evolutionary potential of the parasite, whereas asexual reproduction tends to enhance establishment success and population growth rate. Gyrodactylid monogeneans are ubiquitous ectoparasites of teleost fish, and the evolutionary success of the specious Gyrodactylus genus is thought to be partly due to their use of various modes of reproduction. Gyrodactylus turnbulli is a natural parasite of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata, a small, tropical fish used as a model for behavioural, ecological and evolutionary studies. Using experimental infections and a recently developed microsatellite marker, we conclusively show that monogenean parasites reproduce sexually. Conservatively, we estimate that sexual recombination occurs and that between 3.7-10.9% of the parasites in our experimental crosses are hybrid genotypes with ancestors from different laboratory strains of G. turnbulli. We also provide evidence of hybrid vigour and/or inter-strain competition, which appeared to lead to a higher maximum parasite load in mixed infections. Finally, we demonstrate inbreeding avoidance for the first time in platyhelminths which may influence the distribution of parasites within a host and their subsequent exposure to the host's localized immune response. Combined reproductive modes and inbreeding avoidance may explain the extreme evolutionary diversification success of parasites such as Gyrodactylus, where host-parasite coevolution is punctuated by relatively frequent host switching.

  17. COMPARISON OF AN IN VIVO FISH VTG ASSAY WITH YES AND E-SCREEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compares the efficacy of two in vitro, estrogen-sensitive bioassays to rank the "relative estrogenicity" of five natural, pharmaceutical and xenoestrogens with a newly developed in vivo bioassay. The E-SCREEN (MCF-7 tumor cells) and YES (Yeast Estrogen Screen) assays w...

  18. ZyFISH: A simple, rapid and reliable zygosity assay for transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Donal McHugh; Tracy O'Connor; Juliane Bremer; Adriano Aguzzi

    2012-01-01

    Microinjection of DNA constructs into fertilized mouse oocytes typically results in random transgene integration at a single genomic locus. The resulting transgenic founders can be used to establish hemizygous transgenic mouse lines. However, practical and experimental reasons often require that such lines be bred to homozygosity. Transgene zygosity can be determined by progeny testing assays which are expensive and time-consuming, by quantitative Southern blotting which is labor-intensive, o...

  19. The Zebra Fish IBD Model Assessed By Novel Probe Based TagMan Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kania, Per Walter; Buchmann, Kurt; Haarder, Simon

    2015-01-01

    models it is known that oxazolone and TNBS can induce conditions mimicking ulcerative colitis (Th2 like response) and Crohn's disease (Th1/Th17 like response), respectively. Zebra fish (body weight 0.5 g) were divided into 4 groups (each with 2 replicates) and instilled rectally with H2O, ethanol, TNBS......, itself up-regulates genes (T-bet, INF, IL-17A, TGF) primarily from the Th1/Th17 response but also IL-10 of the Th2 response. The gene expression pattern of the oxazolone and TNBS instilled groups were partly similar pointing primarily towards a Th2 response. TNF was the only Th1response specific gene...

  20. The chemical UV-filter 3-benzylidene camphor causes an oestrogenic effect in an in vivo fish assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbech, Henrik; Nørum, Ulrik; Korsgaard, Bodil; Poul, Bjerregaard

    2002-10-01

    Chemical UV-filters are used in sun protection products and various kinds of cosmetics. The lipophilic chemical UV-filter 3-benzylidene camphor was investigated for its capability to cause vitellogenin induction, possibly via oestrogen receptor binding, in a well-established in vivo fish assay (juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, vitellogenin ELISA). A clear relationship was demonstrated between the dose of injected 3-benzylidene camphor and the concentration of plasma vitellogenin with a 105-times induction from 68 mg 3-benzylidene camphor /kg/injection and above compared to the control vitellogenin level. The relationship between the injected dose of 3-benzylidene camphor and the percent of responding fish (vitellogenin) was evaluated by logistic regression analysis and effective dose-values (ED-values) were determined. ED10, ED50 and ED90 of 3-benzylidene camphor after 6 days (2 injections) were 6.4, 16 and 26 mg/kg/ injection, respectively. These ED-values place 3-benzylidene camphor among the more potent xenooestrogens discovered to date and necessitates investigations on the distribution, concentration, persistence and bioaccumulation of 3-benzylidene camphor and other UV-filters in nature.

  1. Mating, hybridisation and introgression in Lasius ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Have, Tom; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    Recent reviews have shown that hybridisation among ant species is likely to be more common than previously appreci-ated, but that documented cases of introgression remain rare. After molecular phylogenetic work had shown that Euro-pean Lasius niger (LINNAEUS, 1758) and L. psammophilus SEIFERT, 1992...... (formerly L. alienus (FOERSTER, 1850)) are unlikely to be very closely related, we decided to analyse an old data set confirming the conclusion by PEARSON (1983) that these two ants can indeed form viable hybrids. We show that signatures of introgression can be detected in a Danish site...... sympatrically. This would imply that multiple accessible field sites are available to study the molecular details of hybridisation and in-trogression between two ant species that have variable degrees of sympatry throughout their distributional ranges...

  2. Fishing for teratogens: a consortium effort for a harmonized zebrafish developmental toxicology assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Jonathan S; Stedman, Donald B; Hillegass, Jedd M; Zhang, Cindy X; Panzica-Kelly, Julie; Coburn, Aleasha; Enright, Brian P; Tornesi, Belen; Amouzadeh, Hamid R; Hetheridge, Malcolm; Gustafson, Anne-Lee; Augustine-Rauch, Karen A

    2014-05-01

    A consortium of biopharmaceutical companies previously developed an optimized Zebrafish developmental toxicity assay (ZEDTA) where chorionated embryos were exposed to non-proprietary test compounds from 5 to 6 h post fertilization and assessed for morphological integrity at 5 days post fertilization. With the original 20 test compounds, this achieved an overall predictive value for teratogenicity of 88% of mammalian in vivo outcome [Gustafson, A. L., Stedman, D. B., Ball, J., Hillegass, J. M., Flood, A., Zhang, C. X., Panzica-Kelly, J., Cao, J., Coburn, A., Enright, B. P., et al. (2012). Interlaboratory assessment of a harmonized Zebrafish developmental toxicology assay-Progress report on phase I. Reprod. Toxicol. 33, 155-164]. In the second phase of this project, 38 proprietary pharmaceutical compounds from four consortium members were evaluated in two laboratories using the optimized method using either pond-derived or cultivated-strain wild-type Zebrafish embryos at concentrations up to 100μM. Embryo uptake of all compounds was assessed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Twenty eight of 38 compounds had a confirmed embryo uptake of >5%, and with these compounds the ZEDTA achieved an overall predictive value of 82% and 65% at the two respective laboratories. When low-uptake compounds (≤ 5%) were retested with logarithmic concentrations up to 1000μM, the overall predictivity across all 38 compounds was 79% and 62% respectively, with the first laboratory achieving 74% sensitivity (teratogen detection) and 82% specificity (non-teratogen detection) and the second laboratory achieving 63% sensitivity (teratogen detection) and 62% specificity (non-teratogen detection). Subsequent data analyses showed that technical differences rather than strain differences were the primary contributor to interlaboratory differences in predictivity. Based on these results, the ZEDTA harmonized methodology is currently being used for compound assessment at lead

  3. Mutagenic effects of tributyltin and inorganic lead (Pb II on the fish H. malabaricus as evaluated using the comet assay and the piscine micronucleus and chromosome aberration tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius M. Ferraro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxicity studies on toxic metals and their organic compounds are very important, especially so in the investigation of the effects of these compounds on the aquatic environments where they tend to accumulate. The use of endemic aquatic organisms as biological sentinels has proved useful to environmental monitoring. We assessed the mutagenic potential of tributyltin (TBT and inorganic lead (PbII using samples of the fish Hoplias malabaricus (commonly called traíra using the comet assay and the piscine micronucleus and chromosome aberration tests. Eighteen H. malabaricus were acclimatized in three individual aquariums, each containing six fish, six fish being exposed to 0.3 mg/g of body weight (bw of TBT, six to 21 mg/g bw of PbII and six being used as controls. Exposure to TBT and PbII was achieved by feeding the fish every five days with Astyanax (a small fish that is part of the normal diet of H. malabaricus which had been injected with solutions of TBT, PbII or with water (the control group. After two months the H. malabaricus were sacrificed and their peripheral blood collected and subjected to the comet and micronucleus assays, the chromosome aberration assay being conducted using kidney-tissue. Although the comet assay showed now mutagenic effects at the lead concentrations used but encountered results with TBT, the micronucleus and chromosome aberrations assays both indicated that TBT and PbII are potentially mutagenic (p < 0.01, the micronucleus assay showing morphological alterations of the nucleus.

  4. Fishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜群山

    2002-01-01

    @@ Last Saturday my cousin (表兄) came to my home. We were very happy to see each other. We decided that the next day we went to fish. We got up very early that day. When we left home,the moon could still be seen in the sky.

  5. A novel framework for interpretation of data from the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) for the detection of endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fish short term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is a key component of the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). The FSTRA considers several mechanistic and apical responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to determine whether an unknown chemical is likely t...

  6. A novel framework for interpretation of data from the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) for the detection of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fish short term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is a key component of the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). The FSTRA considers several mechanistic and apical responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to determine whether an unknown chemical is likely to...

  7. A novel framework for interpretation of data from the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) for the detection of endocrined-disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fish short term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is a key component of the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). The FSTRA considers several mechanistic and apical responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to determine whether an unknown chemical is likely to...

  8. Towards the standardisation of the neuroblastoma (neuro-2a) cell-based assay for ciguatoxin-like toxicity detection in fish: application to fish caught in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, A; Eixarch, H; de la Iglesia, P; Rodriguez, M; Dominguez, L; Andree, K B; Diogène, J

    2012-01-01

    The ouabain/veratridine-dependent neuroblastoma (neuro-2a) cell-based assay (CBA) was applied for the determination of the presence of ciguatoxin (CTX)-like compounds in ciguatera-suspected fish samples caught in the Canary Islands. In order to avoid matrix interferences the maximal concentration of wet weight fish tissue exposed to the neuro-2a cells was set at 20 mg tissue equivalent (TE) ml(-1) according to the sample preparation procedure applied. In the present study, the limit of quantification (LOQ) of CTX1B equivalents in fish extract was set at the limit of detection (LOD), being defined as the concentration of CTX1B equivalents inhibiting 20% cell viability (IC(20)). The LOQ was estimated as 0.0096 ng CTX1B eq.g TE(-1) with 23-31% variability between experiments. These values were deemed sufficient even though quantification given at the IC(50) (the concentration of CTX1B equivalents inhibiting 50% cell viability) is more accurate with a variability of 17-19% between experiments. Among the 13 fish samples tested, four fish samples were toxic to the neuro-2a cells with estimations of the content in CTX1B g(-1) of TE ranging from 0.058 (± 0.012) to 6.23 (± 0.713) ng CTX1B eq.g TE(-1). The high sensitivity and specificity of the assay for CTX1B confirmed its suitability as a screening tool of CTX-like compounds in fish extracts at levels that may cause ciguatera fish poisoning. Species identification of fish samples by DNA sequence analysis was conducted in order to confirm tentatively the identity of ciguatera risk species and it revealed some evidence of inadvertent misidentification. Results presented in this study are a contribution to the standardisation of the neuro-2a CBA and to the risk analysis for ciguatera in the Canary Islands.

  9. Determination of eugenol in fish and shrimp muscle tissue by stable isotope dilution assay and solid-phase extraction coupled gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jincheng; Liu, Huan; Wang, Chaoying; Wu, Lidong; Liu, Dan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we developed a new method for the accurate quantification of eugenol in fish samples based on stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (SIDA-SPE-GC-MS/MS). Due to the difference of matrix effect (ME), it was difficult to determine accurately the level of eugenol residue in different fish and shrimp samples based on external standard calibration method. SIDA was applied to compensate matrix effect (ME) that eugenol-d3 was used as internal standard (IS). Freshwater fish (carp, channel catfish), marine fish (turbot), and shrimp (Penaeus vannawei) were used for the method validation. The average recoveries of eugenol were in the range of 94.7 to 109.78 % when the spiking levels were 10, 50, and 200 μg kg(-1). The inter-day and intra-day precisions were in the range of 1.15-8.19 and 0.71-8.45 %. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were approximately 2.5 and 5.0 μg kg(-1). This method was applied to the real fish samples assay obtained from aquaculture markets in Beijing, China. Eugenol residue was found in two fish samples with the levels at 6.2 and 7.7 μg kg(-1), respectively. Graphical abstract Determination of eugenol in fish and shrimp muscle tissue.

  10. Genotoxicity of heterocyclic PAHs in the micronucleus assay with the fish liver cell line RTL-W1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Brinkmann

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are, together with their un-substituted analogues, widely distributed throughout all environmental compartments. While fate and effects of homocyclic PAHs are well-understood, there are still data gaps concerning the ecotoxicology of heterocyclic PAHs: Only few publications are available investigating these substances using in vitro bioassays. Here, we present a study focusing on the identification and quantification of clastogenic and aneugenic effects in the micronucleus assay with the fish liver cell line RTL-W1 that was originally derived from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Real concentrations of the test items after incubation without cells were determined to assess chemical losses due to, e.g., sorption or volatilization, by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to show genotoxic effects for six compounds that have not been reported in vertebrate systems before. Out of the tested substances, 2,3-dimethylbenzofuran, benzothiophene, quinoline and 6-methylquinoline did not cause substantial induction of micronuclei in the cell line. Acridine caused the highest absolute induction. Carbazole, acridine and dibenzothiophene were the most potent substances compared with 4-nitroquinoline oxide, a well characterized genotoxicant with high potency used as standard. Dibenzofuran was positive in our investigation and tested negative before in a mammalian system. Chemical losses during incubation ranged from 29.3% (acridine to 91.7% (benzofuran and may be a confounding factor in studies without chemical analyses, leading to an underestimation of the real potency. The relative potency of the investigated substances was high compared with their un-substituted PAH analogues, only the latter being typically monitored as priority or indicator pollutants. Hetero-PAHs are widely distributed in the environment and even more mobile, e.g. in ground water, than homocyclic PAHs due to the higher water

  11. Evaluation of genotoxicity using the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormalities in the tropical sea fish Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837 (Teleostei, Gobiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni P. Galindo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities assays have been used increasingly to evaluate genotoxicity of many compounds in polluted aquatic ecossystems. The aim of this study is to verify the efficiency of the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormality assay in field and laboratory work, when using erythrocytes of the tropical marine fish Bathygobius soporator as genotoxicity biomarkers. Gill peripheral blood samples were obtained from specimens of Bathygobius soporator. In order to investigate the frequencies of micronuclei and to assess the sensitivity of species, the results were compared with samples taken at the reference site and maintained in the laboratory, and fish treated with cyclophosphamide. The micronucleus assay was efficient in demonstrating field pollution and reproducing results in the labotatory. There were significant higher frequencies of micronuclei in two sites subject to discharge of urban and industrial effluents. The nuclear abnormality assay did not appear to be an efficient tool for genotoxicity evaluation when compared with field samples taken at a reference site in laboratory, with a positive control.

  12. INDIRECT SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF ECTODERMAL MERCURY EXPOSURE BY TRADITIONAL MEDICAL FORMULATIONS ON FRESHWATER CAT FISH CLARIAS BATRACHUS USING MICRONUCLEUS ASSAY AND ALKALINE SINGLE-CELL GEL ELECTROPHORESIS (COMET ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Prem Rajan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury and its salts are the major constituents of Ayurvedic, Chinese and Tibetan traditional formulations. The mercury is extensively reported to accumulate in food chain and cause many neurological disorders in environment. The safety assessment of mercury on the ectodermal application on animal model is rarely reported. The void in the scientific study on external exposure of mercury and its genotoxic inside the body lead to the necessity for the present study. The freshwater cat fish Clarias batrachus was used for broad specificity genotoxic indicators micronucleus assay and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assays. The fish was exposed to 0.03 ppm of mercuric chloride for a period of 7, 14, 28 and 35 days ectodermally. The blood sample was assayed for the genotoxicity. The results revealed undoubted DNA damage through the micronuclei and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assays. Hence it is concluded the usage of traditional medicines containing the mercury may be toxic at genetic level in prolonged usage.

  13. Accurate detection and quantification of the fish viral hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) with a two-color fluorometric real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Lindsey R; Willey, James C; Palsule, Vrushalee V; Yeo, Jiyoun; Shepherd, Brian S; Crawford, Erin L; Stepien, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) is one of the world's most serious fish pathogens, infecting >80 marine, freshwater, and estuarine fish species from Eurasia and North America. A novel and especially virulent strain - IVb - appeared in the Great Lakes in 2003, has killed many game fish species in a series of outbreaks in subsequent years, and shut down interstate transport of baitfish. Cell culture is the diagnostic method approved by the USDA-APHIS, which takes a month or longer, lacks sensitivity, and does not quantify the amount of virus. We thus present a novel, easy, rapid, and highly sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay that incorporates synthetic competitive template internal standards for quality control to circumvent false negative results. Results demonstrate high signal-to-analyte response (slope = 1.00±0.02) and a linear dynamic range that spans seven orders of magnitude (R(2) = 0.99), ranging from 6 to 6,000,000 molecules. Infected fishes are found to harbor levels of virus that range to 1,200,000 VHSv molecules/10(6) actb1 molecules with 1,000 being a rough cut-off for clinical signs of disease. This new assay is rapid, inexpensive, and has significantly greater accuracy than other published qRT-PCR tests and traditional cell culture diagnostics.

  14. Accurate detection and quantification of the fish viral hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv with a two-color fluorometric real-time PCR assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey R Pierce

    Full Text Available Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv is one of the world's most serious fish pathogens, infecting >80 marine, freshwater, and estuarine fish species from Eurasia and North America. A novel and especially virulent strain - IVb - appeared in the Great Lakes in 2003, has killed many game fish species in a series of outbreaks in subsequent years, and shut down interstate transport of baitfish. Cell culture is the diagnostic method approved by the USDA-APHIS, which takes a month or longer, lacks sensitivity, and does not quantify the amount of virus. We thus present a novel, easy, rapid, and highly sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR assay that incorporates synthetic competitive template internal standards for quality control to circumvent false negative results. Results demonstrate high signal-to-analyte response (slope = 1.00±0.02 and a linear dynamic range that spans seven orders of magnitude (R(2 = 0.99, ranging from 6 to 6,000,000 molecules. Infected fishes are found to harbor levels of virus that range to 1,200,000 VHSv molecules/10(6 actb1 molecules with 1,000 being a rough cut-off for clinical signs of disease. This new assay is rapid, inexpensive, and has significantly greater accuracy than other published qRT-PCR tests and traditional cell culture diagnostics.

  15. 2q23.1 microdeletion identified by array comparative genomic hybridisation: an emerging phenotype with Angelman-like features?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillard, S; Dubourg, C; Gérard-Blanluet, M; Delahaye, A; Pasquier, L; Dupont, C; Henry, C; Tabet, A-C; Lucas, J; Aboura, A; David, V; Benzacken, B; Odent, S; Pipiras, E

    2009-12-01

    Genome-wide screening of patients with mental retardation using array comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) has identified several novel imbalances. With this genotype-first approach, the 2q22.3q23.3 deletion was recently described as a novel microdeletion syndrome. The authors report two unrelated patients with a de novo interstitial deletion mapping in this genomic region and presenting similar "pseudo-Angelman" phenotypes, including severe psychomotor retardation, speech impairment, epilepsy, microcephaly, ataxia, and behavioural disabilities. The microdeletions were identified by array CGH using oligonucleotide and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays, and further confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The boundaries and sizes of the deletions in the two patients were different but an overlapping region of about 250 kb was defined, which mapped to 2q23.1 and included two genes: MBD5 and EPC2. The SIP1 gene associated with the Mowat-Wilson syndrome was not included in the deleted genomic region. Haploinsufficiency of one of the deleted genes (MBD5 or EPC2) could be responsible for the common clinical features observed in the 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome, and this hypothesis needs further investigation.

  16. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis of bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens; an additional tool in the diagnostic armoury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neat, Michael J; Moonim, Mufaddal T; Dunn, Robert G; Geoghegan, Helen; Foot, Nicola J

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis is now widely employed in the diagnosis and risk stratification of a wide range of malignant diseases. While this technique is used successfully with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections from numerous tissue types, FISH analysis of FFPE tissue sections from trephine biopsy specimens has been less widely reported, possibly due to technical limitations relating to the decalcification protocols employed. During the last 4 years FISH analysis has been carried out successfully in 42 out of 55 (76%) consecutive trephine biopsy specimens received as part of the standard diagnostic service at our institution. Samples decalcified using EDTA-based protocols were analysed successfully in 31/31 cases (100%), whereas only 11/24 samples (46%) decalcified using formic acid-based protocols were successful. In our experience, FISH analysis of trephine biopsy specimens is a highly reproducible technique and a very useful adjunctive tool in the diagnostic armoury; however, its use in a standard diagnostic setting relies on the use of EDTA-based decalcification protocols.

  17. Sublethal toxicity of esbiothrin relationship with total antioxidant status and in vivo genotoxicity assessment in fish (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) using the micronucleus test and comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Mahmut; Cavaş, Tolga; Cağlan Karasu Benli, A; Koçak Memmi, Burcu; Cinkılıç, Nilüfer; Dinçel, Aylin Sepici; Vatan, Ozgür; Yılmaz, Dilek; Sarıkaya, Rabia; Zorlu, Tolga; Erkoç, Figen

    2013-11-01

    Esbiothrin, synthetic pyrethroid with quick activity against insects, is widely used against household pests and in public health. Despite widespread use, data on ecotoxicity and genotoxic effects are extremely scarce. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the genotoxic potential of esbiothrin on a model fish species Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 (Pisces: Cyprinidae, koi) using the micronucleus test and comet assay in peripheral blood erythrocytes. Effects of two sublethal exposure concentrations on plasma total antioxidant status (TAS mmol/L), and Hct values were examined. On the basis of the 96 h LC50 data from U.S. EPA ecotox database (32 μg/L) two sublethal exposure concentrations (5 and 10 μg/L) were used together with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) (5 mg/L) as positive control. Five fish were used for each dose/duration group (24, 48, and 72 h) under controlled laboratory conditions. The fish showed behavioral changes at the higher dose. Plasma TAS (mmol/L) levels decreased in 24 h; an increase was observed slightly for 48 and obviously for 72 h in both exposure doses. Similarly, hematocrit (Hct) values differed between exposure duration but no significant differences in mean values were found between groups of the same exposure time. The general trend was a rise after 48 h, which decreased afterwards. Our results revealed significant increases in the frequencies of micronuclei and levels of DNA strand breaks and thus demonstrated the genotoxic potential of this pesticide on fish, a nontarget organism of the aquatic ecosystem. To our knowledge this is the first study to report observable genotoxic effects of esbiothrin on fish.

  18. Experimental analysis of Hybridised Energy Storage Systems for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Wasim; Engstrom, Timothy; Marinescu, Monica; Green, Nick; Taylor, Nigel; Offer, Gregory J.

    2016-08-01

    The requirements of the Energy Storage System (ESS) for an electrified vehicle portfolio consisting of a range of vehicles from micro Hybrid Electric Vehicle (mHEV) to a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) vary considerably. To reduce development cost of an electrified powertrain portfolio, a modular system would ideally be scaled across each vehicle; however, the conflicting requirements of a mHEV and BEV prevent this. This study investigates whether it is possible to combine supercapacitors suitable for an mHEV with high-energy batteries suitable for use in a BEV to create a Hybridised Energy Storage System (HESS) suitable for use in a HEV. A passive HESS is found to be capable of meeting the electrical demands of a HEV drive cycle; the operating principles of HESSs are discussed and factors limiting system performance are explored. The performance of the HESS is found to be significantly less temperature dependent than battery-only systems, however the heat generated suggests a requirement for thermal management. As the HESS degrades (at a similar rate to a specialised high-power-battery), battery resistance rises faster than supercapacitor resistance; as a result, the supercapacitor provides a greater current contribution, therefore the energy throughput, temperature rise and degradation of the batteries is reduced.

  19. Bisimilarity and refinement for hybrid(ised logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Madeira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of modern software systems entails the need for reconfiguration mechanisms gov- erning the dynamic evolution of their execution configurations in response to both external stimulus or internal performance measures. Formally, such systems may be represented by transition systems whose nodes correspond to the different configurations they may assume. Therefore, each node is en- dowed with, for example, an algebra, or a first-order structure, to precisely characterise the semantics of the services provided in the corresponding configuration. Hybrid logics, which add to the modal description of transition structures the ability to refer to specific states, offer a generic framework to approach the specification and design of this sort of systems. Therefore, the quest for suitable notions of equivalence and refinement between models of hybrid logic specifications becomes fundamental to any design discipline adopting this perspective. This paper contributes to this effort from a distinctive point of view: instead of focussing on a specific hybrid logic, the paper introduces notions of bisimilarity and refinement for hybridised logics, i.e. standard specification logics (e.g. propositional, equational, fuzzy, etc to which modal and hybrid features were added in a systematic way.

  20. Rapid detection and identification of viral and bacterial fish pathogens using a DNA array‐based multiplex assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lievens, B.; Frans, I.; Heusdens, C.

    2011-01-01

    for the simultaneous detection and identification of all cyprinid herpesviruses (CyHV‐1, CyHV‐2 and CyHV‐3) and some of the most important fish pathogenic Flavobacterium species, including F. branchiophilum, F. columnare and F. psychrophilum. For virus identification, the DNA polymerase and helicase genes were...

  1. Sexing the human fetus and identification of polyploid nuclei by DNA-DNA in situ hybridisation in interphase nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J D; Gosden, C M; Gosden, J R; West, K M; Davidson, Z; Davidson, C; Nicolaides, K H

    1989-01-01

    Samples of human adult lymphocytes, fetal lymphocytes, amniotic fluid cells, and chorionic villus cells were sexed independently by cytogenetics and DNA-DNA in situ hybridisation to a tritiated Y probe. For the in situ hybridisation analysis, the presence of Y bodies (hybridisation bodies) in 100 interphase nuclei were scored after autoradiography. In all, 82/83 samples were sexed in this way (one technical failure) and 78/82 were sexed by both in situ hybridisation and cytogenetics. There was complete agreement between the two methods. There was a considerable variation (40-100%) in the percentage of interphase nuclei with a hybridisation body among the male samples, but very few nuclei from female samples showed significant hybridisation. In situ hybridisation could be used to sex the conceptus when males but not females are at risk for various X-linked genetic disorders and may also be useful for detecting 45,X/46,XY mosaicism or polyploid/diploid mosaicism. This would be particularly useful for direct preparations of chorionic villus samples, which often prove difficult to analyse cytogenetically but offer the best means of avoiding maternal contamination. Some interphase nuclei had more than one hybridisation body, and this was most commonly found among amniotic fluid cells. Comparison of sizes of nuclei with one or two hybridisation bodies strongly suggested that most of the amniotic fluid cell nuclei with two hybridisation bodies were tetraploid.

  2. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of atrazine and atrazine-based herbicide on fish Carassius auratus using the micronucleus test and the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavas, Tolga

    2011-06-01

    Atrazine is a selective triazine herbicide used to control broadleaf and grassy weeds mainly in corn, sorghum, sugarcane, pineapple, and other crops, and in conifer reforestation planting fields. It has been showed that atrazine is one of the most frequently detected pesticides in agricultural streams and rivers, over the past two decades. Although the toxic properties of atrazine are well known, the data on the genotoxic effects of atrazine on aquatic organisms are rather scarce. Thus, in the present study we aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of atrazine and an atrazine-based herbicide (Gesaprim®) on a model fish species Carassius auratus L., 1758, (Pisces: Cyprinidae) using the micronucleus test and the comet assay in peripheral blood erythrocytes. Fish were exposed to 5, 10 and 15 μg/L atrazine and to its commercial formulation for 2, 4 and 6 days. Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) at a single dose of 5 mg/L was used as positive control. Our results revealed significant increases in the frequencies of micronuclei and DNA strand breaks in erythrocytes of C. auratus, following exposure to commercial formulation of atrazine and thus demonstrated the genotoxic potential of this pesticide on fish.

  3. Genotoxic effects of selected biocides on RTG-2 fish cells by means of a modified Fast Micromethod Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fortún, S; Llorente, M T; Castaño, A

    2005-06-01

    A sensitive in vitro assay for detecting DNA damage in RTG-2 cells culture is described. This assay employs a dye, PicoGreen double stranded DNA (dsDNA) quantitation reagent, which becomes intensely fluorescent upon binding nucleic acids. The assay includes a simple and rapid 50-min sample lysis in the presence of EDTA, SDS, and high urea concentration at pH 10, followed by time-dependent DNA denaturation at pH 11.6 after NaOH addition. The time course and the extent of DNA denaturation are followed in a microplate fluorescence reader at room temperature for less than 1h. Comparative studies between suspension and fixed RTG-2 cells indicated that it is possible to apply this methodology in both cases with good results. Neutral red assay was used for to determine the cellular viability when RTG-2 cultures were exposed to tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) and benzalkonium chloride (BC), as biocides used in the disinfection of cooling towers. The results obtained by neutral red assay indicate IC(50(48)) values of 0.017 (0.011-0.028) and 2.71 (1.91-3.86) mg/L for tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride and benzalkonium chloride, respectively. DNA damage has been evaluated for both disinfectants in RTG-2 culture, by exposure to 1/10-, 1/25-, 1/50-, and 1/100-IC(50(48)) value, and the results obtained indicate a strain scission factor (SSF) of 0.126+/-0.014, 0.181+/-0.014, 0.217+/-0.013, and 0.245+/-0.013 in cell suspensions, and 0.077+/-0.019, 0.107+/-0.014, 0.151+/-0.014, and 0.202+/-0.015 in attached cells for tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride; while the SSF values for benzalkonium chloride are 0.023+/-0.009, 0.033+/-0.017, 0.068+/-0.012, and 0.088+/-0.015 in cell suspensions, and 0.033+/-0.010, 0.044+/-0.011, 0.080+/-0.009, and 0.093+/-0.010 in attached cells. Thus, the assay proposed in this study has made it possible to show DNA damage in RTG-2 cells when exposed to 0.2(1/100 IC(50(48))) and 300(1/10 IC(50(48))) Hg/L of tetrakis

  4. Flow Cytometric Immunobead Assay for Detection of BCR-ABL1 Fusion Proteins in Chronic Myleoid Leukemia: Comparison with FISH and PCR Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grazia Recchia

    Full Text Available Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML is characterized by a balanced translocation juxtaposing the Abelson (ABL and breakpoint cluster region (BCR genes. The resulting BCR-ABL1 oncogene leads to increased proliferation and survival of leukemic cells. Successful treatment of CML has been accompanied by steady improvements in our capacity to accurately and sensitively monitor therapy response. Currently, measurement of BCR-ABL1 mRNA transcript levels by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR defines critical response endpoints. An antibody-based technique for BCR-ABL1 protein recognition could be an attractive alternative to RQ-PCR. To date, there have been no studies evaluating whether flow-cytometry based assays could be of clinical utility in evaluating residual disease in CML patients. Here we describe a flow-cytometry assay that detects the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion proteins in CML lysates to determine the applicability, reliability, and specificity of this method for both diagnosis and monitoring of CML patients for initial response to therapy. We show that: i CML can be properly diagnosed at onset, (ii follow-up assessments show detectable fusion protein (i.e. relative mean fluorescent intensity, rMFI%>1 when BCR-ABL1IS transcripts are between 1-10%, and (iii rMFI% levels predict CCyR as defined by FISH analysis. Overall, the FCBA assay is a rapid technique, fully translatable to the routine management of CML patients.

  5. Flow Cytometric Immunobead Assay for Detection of BCR-ABL1 Fusion Proteins in Chronic Myleoid Leukemia: Comparison with FISH and PCR Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Anna Grazia; Caruso, Nadia; Bossio, Sabrina; Pellicanò, Mariavaleria; De Stefano, Laura; Franzese, Stefania; Palummo, Angela; Abbadessa, Vincenzo; Lucia, Eugenio; Gentile, Massimo; Vigna, Ernesto; Caracciolo, Clementina; Agostino, Antolino; Galimberti, Sara; Levato, Luciano; Stagno, Fabio; Molica, Stefano; Martino, Bruno; Vigneri, Paolo; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Morabito, Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is characterized by a balanced translocation juxtaposing the Abelson (ABL) and breakpoint cluster region (BCR) genes. The resulting BCR-ABL1 oncogene leads to increased proliferation and survival of leukemic cells. Successful treatment of CML has been accompanied by steady improvements in our capacity to accurately and sensitively monitor therapy response. Currently, measurement of BCR-ABL1 mRNA transcript levels by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) defines critical response endpoints. An antibody-based technique for BCR-ABL1 protein recognition could be an attractive alternative to RQ-PCR. To date, there have been no studies evaluating whether flow-cytometry based assays could be of clinical utility in evaluating residual disease in CML patients. Here we describe a flow-cytometry assay that detects the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion proteins in CML lysates to determine the applicability, reliability, and specificity of this method for both diagnosis and monitoring of CML patients for initial response to therapy. We show that: i) CML can be properly diagnosed at onset, (ii) follow-up assessments show detectable fusion protein (i.e. relative mean fluorescent intensity, rMFI%>1) when BCR-ABL1IS transcripts are between 1-10%, and (iii) rMFI% levels predict CCyR as defined by FISH analysis. Overall, the FCBA assay is a rapid technique, fully translatable to the routine management of CML patients.

  6. Transcriptome discovery in non-model wild fish species for the development of quantitative transcript abundance assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Cornman, Robert S.; Mazik, Patricia M.; Blazer, Vicki S.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental studies increasingly identify the presence of both contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and legacy contaminants in aquatic environments; however, the biological effects of these compounds on resident fishes remain largely unknown. High throughput methodologies were employed to establish partial transcriptomes for three wild-caught, non-model fish species; smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) and brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). Sequences from these transcriptome databases were utilized in the development of a custom nCounter CodeSet that allowed for direct multiplexed measurement of 50 transcript abundance endpoints in liver tissue. Sequence information was also utilized in the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) primers. Cross-species hybridization allowed the smallmouth bass nCounter CodeSet to be used for quantitative transcript abundance analysis of an additional non-model species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). We validated the nCounter analysis data system with qPCR for a subset of genes and confirmed concordant results. Changes in transcript abundance biomarkers between sexes and seasons were evaluated to provide baseline data on transcript modulation for each species of interest.

  7. Screening complex effluents for estrogenic activity with the T47D-KBluc cell bioassay: assay optimization and comparison with in vivo responses in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmas, Leah C; Cavallin, Jenna E; Durhan, Elizabeth J; Kahl, Michael D; Martinovic, Dalma; Mayasich, Joe; Tuominen, Tim; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T

    2011-02-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can contain estrogenic chemicals, which potentially disrupt fish reproduction and development. The current study focused on the use of an estrogen-responsive in vitro cell bioassay (T47D-KBluc), to quantify total estrogenicity of WWTP effluents. We tested a novel sample preparation method for the T47D-KBluc assay, using powdered media prepared with direct effluent. Results of the T47D-KBluc assay were compared with the induction of estrogen receptor-regulated gene transcription in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to the same effluents. Effluent samples for the paired studies were collected over the course of three months. According to the T47D-KBluc assay, the effluent estrogenicity ranged from 1.13 to 2.00 ng 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalents/L. Corresponding in vivo studies exposing male fathead minnows to 0, 10, 50, and 100% effluent dilutions demonstrated that exposure to 100% effluent significantly increased hepatic vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor α subunit transcripts relative to controls. The induction was also significant in males exposed to 250 ng E2/L or 100 ng E2/L. The in vitro and in vivo results support the conclusion that the effluent contains significant estrogenic activity, but there was a discrepancy between in vitro- and in vivo-based E2 equivalent estimates. Our results suggest that the direct effluent preparation method for the T47D-KBluc assay is a reasonable approach to estimate the estrogenicity of wastewater effluent.

  8. Fish multigeneration test with preliminary short-term reproduction assay for estrone using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ataru; Tamura, Ikumi; Takanobu, Hitomi; Yamamuro, Masumi; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    The most potent chemicals potentially causing adverse effects on fish species are estrogens in human waste.Sewage is a source of these estrogens and it is difficult to reduce. In particular, although the bioactivity of estrone is estimated to be about half of that of estradiol, multiple studies report that more than 100 ng l(–1) of estrone can be detected in urban rivers, including discharges from sewage treatment works; approximately two times as high as estradiol. Few studies have been conducted to investigate the long-term effects of estrone on wildlife; therefore, we conducted fish multigeneration test using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Medaka were exposed to estrone for 27 weeks across three generations in environmentally relevant concentrations, being 5.74, 11.4, 24.0, 47.1 and 91.4 ng l(–1). No effects on reproduction were observed in the first generation; however, a decline in egg production and fertility was observed in the second generation exposed to 91.4 ng l(–1) estrone, which is lower than some known environmental concentrations in urban environments. Furthermore, histopathological abnormalities were observed in the third generation exposed to both 47.1 and 91.4 ng l(–1), suggesting that estrone possibly exerts severe effects on the third or later generations. However, appearances of testis–ova were observed in the second and third generation they were not consistent with actual effects on reproduction, notwithstanding the testis-ovais regarded as the key evidence for endocrine disruption. Accordingly, we consider that qualitative measurement of abnormalities using histopathological observations is required for appropriate evaluation of endocrine disruption.

  9. Short-term fish reproduction assays with methyl tertiary butyl ether with zebrafish and fathead minnow: Implications for evaluation of potential for endocrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaich, Ellen; Erler, Steffen; Le Blanc, Gerald; Gallagher, Sean

    2015-09-01

    The authors report on short-term fish reproduction assays in zebrafish and fathead minnow conducted to examine the potential for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to cause effects on the endocrine system. Both studies were performed under good laboratory practice and in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and US Environmental Protection Agency test guidelines. The results of the first study demonstrated that exposure to a high test concentration (147 mg/L) of MTBE impaired reproductive output of female zebrafish, evident by a reduction in fecundity. Based on the endpoints evaluated in the present study however, there was no supporting evidence to indicate that this effect was caused by disruption of or interaction with the endocrine system. In the second study, fathead minnows exposed to a wider but lower range of test concentrations showed no effects on any reproductive parameter of male or female fish, at the maximum recommended testing concentration of 100 mg/L (62 mg/L measured). The results of these 2 guideline studies indicate that MTBE does not interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of zebrafish or fathead minnow.

  10. Technological, mediatic and cultural hybridisation: Cultural mediations in the context of globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laan Mendes de Barros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a context of borders that are dissolving in many senses, of the convergence and hybridisation of technologies, mass media and cultures. The context is the resizing of practical time, of movements and links between the local and the global. In these times of interculturality, communication plays a very important role; not so much in its technological media dimension, but particularly in the dynamics of cultural mediations that are dividing off from mediatised relations. This article aims to reflect on the transformations in present-day communication processes, marked by strong movements of hybridisation, as well as examining how to consider interculturality in the context of cultural mediations, based on dialogue between Latin American and French authors. Also, using media material, the article presents illustrations of the Brazilian cultural scene, which is marked by a long history of hybridisation that is filled with intercultural dynamics.

  11. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of neomycin residues in pig muscle, chicken muscle, egg, fish, milk and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Xu, B; Zhang, Y; He, J X

    2009-05-01

    A colorimetric competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was developed using polyclonal antibody to determine neomycin residues in food of animal origin. No cross-reactivity of the antibody was observed with other aminoglycosides. The limit of detection of the method was 0.1μg/kg. A simple and efficient sample extraction method was established with recoveries of neomycin ranged from 75% to 105%. The detection limits were 5μg/kg(l) in pig muscle, chicken muscle, fish and milk, 10μg/kg in kidney and 20μg/kg in egg, respectively. Chemiluminescence assay was developed for detecting neomycin residues in pig muscle and chicken muscle. The limit of detection of the method was 0.015μg/kg, and the detection limits were 1.5μg/kg in pig muscle and 6μg/kg in chicken muscle. The ELISA tests were validated by HPLC, and the results showed a good correlation (r(2)) which was greater than 0.9.

  12. Hybridisation of short DNA molecules investigated with in situ atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Kuhle, A.; Garnaes, J.;

    2003-01-01

    By introducing the complementary DNA (cDNA) strand to a molecular layer of short single stranded DNA (ssDNA), immobilised on a gold surface, we have investigated hybridisation between the two DNA strands through the technique of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). Before introduction of c...... the two DNA strands has been studied. Introduction of the cDNA strand resulted in an increase in smoothness and thickness of the molecular layer. Both the increase in order and thickness of the molecular layer can be expected if hybridisation occurs, since double stranded DNA molecules have a more rigid...

  13. Comparative genotoxicity testing of Rhine river sediment extracts using the comet assay with permanent fish cell lines (RTG-2 and RTL-W1) and the Ames test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmehl, T.; Braunbeck, T.; Hollert, H. [Dept. of Zoology, Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Krebs, F.; Manz, W. [German Federal Inst. of Hydrology, Koblenz (Germany); Erdinger, L. [Dept. for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Inst. for Hygiene, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Whilst at least in Germany assessment strategies on the basis of chemical analysis and acute toxicity data dominated the last decades, the development of more specific biological endpoints and biomarkers in ecotoxicology is required in order to arrive at a good ecological potential and good chemical status of surface waters in the European river basins until the year 2015, as required by the European Water Framework Directive. Since sediments have for long been known to function both as a sink and as a source of pollutants in aquatic systems, and since part of the particle-associated substances have frequently been demonstrated to cause mutagenic and carcinogenic effects in aquatic organisms, particularly in fish, there is, among other requirements, an urgent need to develop, standardize and implement integrated vertebrate-based test systems addressing genotoxicity into recent sediment investigation strategies. Thus, the present study was designed to compare the suitability of two commonly used test systems, the comet assay and the Ames test, for the evaluation of the ecotoxicological burden of surface and core sediment samples from the river Rhine. Methods (or main features). In order to determine the importance of inherent enzymatic activities, two permanent fish cell lines with different biotransformation capacities, RTL-W1 and RTG-2, were compared with respect to their capability of detecting genotoxic effects in 18 surface and core sediment samples from 9 locations along the river Rhine in the comet assay with and without exogenous bioactivation. For further comparison, as a prokaryotic mutagenicity assay, the Salmonella plate incorporation assay (Ames test) with the test strains TA98 and TA100 with and without exogenous metabolic activation was used. Results and discussion. Whereas all sediment extracts induced genotoxic effects in the comet assay with RTL-W1 cells, only 12 out of 18 sediment extracts revealed significant genotoxicity in the tests with the

  14. Single-cell gel electrophoresis assay in the ten spotted live-bearer fish, Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842), as bioassay for agrochemical-induced genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Candioti, Josefina; Soloneski, Sonia; Larramendy, Marcelo L

    2013-12-01

    The ability of two 48 percent chlorpyrifos-based insecticides (Lorsban* 48E® and CPF Zamba®), two 50 percent pirimicarb-based insecticides (Aficida® and Patton Flow®), and two 48 percent glyphosate-based herbicides (Panzer® and Credit®) to induce DNA single-strand breaks in peripheral blood erythrocytes of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842) (Pisces, Poeciliidae) exposed under laboratory conditions was evaluated by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. In those fish exposed to Lorsban* 48E®, CPF Zamba®, Aficida®, Patton Flow®, Credit®, and Panzer®, a significant increase of the genetic damage was observed for all formulations regardless of the harvesting time. This genotoxic effect was achieved by an enhancement of Type II-IV comets and a concomitant decrease of Type 0-I comets over control values. A regression analysis revealed that the damage varied as a negative function of the exposure time in those Lorsban* 48E®- and Aficida®-treated fish. On the other hand, a positive correlation between damage increase and exposure time was achieved after Patton Flow® and Credit® treatment. Finally, no correlation was observed between increase in the genetic damage and exposure time after treatment with CPF Zamba® or Panzer®. These results highlight that all agrochemicals inflict primary genotoxic damage at the DNA level at sublethal concentrations, regardless of the exposure time of the aquatic organisms under study, at least within a period of 96 h of treatment.

  15. Climate-induced range shifts and possible hybridisation consequences in insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ana Sánchez-Guillén

    Full Text Available Many ectotherms have altered their geographic ranges in response to rising global temperatures. Current range shifts will likely increase the sympatry and hybridisation between recently diverged species. Here we predict future sympatric distributions and risk of hybridisation in seven Mediterranean ischnurid damselfly species (I. elegans, I. fountaineae, I. genei, I. graellsii, I. pumilio, I. saharensis and I. senegalensis. We used a maximum entropy modelling technique to predict future potential distribution under four different Global Circulation Models and a realistic emissions scenario of climate change. We carried out a comprehensive data compilation of reproductive isolation (habitat, temporal, sexual, mechanical and gametic between the seven studied species. Combining the potential distribution and data of reproductive isolation at different instances (habitat, temporal, sexual, mechanical and gametic, we infer the risk of hybridisation in these insects. Our findings showed that all but I. graellsii will decrease in distributional extent and all species except I. senegalensis are predicted to have northern range shifts. Models of potential distribution predicted an increase of the likely overlapping ranges for 12 species combinations, out of a total of 42 combinations, 10 of which currently overlap. Moreover, the lack of complete reproductive isolation and the patterns of hybridisation detected between closely related ischnurids, could lead to local extinctions of native species if the hybrids or the introgressed colonising species become more successful.

  16. An enzyme-based in situ hybridisation method for the identification of Streptococcus suis - Brief report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L.W.; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Henrik E

    2001-01-01

    A method for enzyme-based in situ hybridisation of Streptococcus suis was developed. It enables the light microscopic localization of bacterial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. A unique sequence in the 16S rRNA of S. suis was targeted. Different pretreatment...

  17. Exploring accounting and sustainable development hybridisation in the UK public sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Thomson; S. Grubnic; G. Georgakopoulos; D. Owen

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between accounting and sustainable development in two public sector contexts in the United Kingdom. By employing Miller et al.’s (2008) extended notion of hybridisation, the paper investigates transformations associated with practices, processes and expertises de

  18. Biofilm biodiversity presented by fluorescent in situ hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous microorganisms may be present in the water distribution system. This is associated with the imperfection of purification processes, or secondary water pollution. Not only it results in the deterioration of water quality parameters, but it also increases threat of epidemiological problems. The water that is biologically unstable creates ideal conditions for colonization of the microorganisms to the inner surface of pipelines which may form biofilm. The key issue, enabling prevention and control of the impact of the development of biofilms, is to assess the biodiversity of microbiocenosis. In order to obtain comprehensive characteristics of microorganisms communities on a particular substrate, it is necessary to combine several techniques. Further analysis using molecular biology methods are usually after traditional methods of assessing the microbiological quality of water. Standard methods do not reflect the actual species composition, because they are targeted at the bacteria that can be isolated and cultured in the laboratory. Conventional methods are capable of detecting less than 10% of the organisms in the sample. In order to study the biodiversity of organisms inhabiting a biofilm (apart from the conventional methods analyses of the diversity of nucleic acids should be used. The first method could be the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. Another way may be fluorescence in situ hybridization, which allows to detect determined DNA sequence using specially labeled oligonucleotide probes. Visualization of the material is performed using a fluorescence microscope. The main purpose of this article is to present rapid and precise identification groups of microorganisms in their natural habitat in biofilm using fluorescent in situ hybridization method (FISH . FISH method can be successfully used to visualize these microorganisms, which show difficulties in culturing, as well as to provide

  19. Low concentrations of caffeine induce asymmetric cell division as observed in vitro by means of the CBMN-assay and iFISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Karakosta, Maria; Barszczewska, Katarzyna; Karachristou, Ioanna; Pantelias, Gabriel; Terzoudi, Georgia I

    2015-11-01

    The dual role of caffeine as a chromosomal damage inducer and G2/M-checkpoint abrogator is well known but it is observed mainly at relatively high concentrations. At low concentrations, caffeine enhances the cytogenetic effects of several carcinogens and its intake during pregnancy has been recently reported to cause adverse birth outcomes. Interestingly, a threshold below which this association is not apparent was not identified. Since chromosomal abnormalities and aneuploidy are the major genetic etiologies of spontaneous abortions and adverse birth outcomes, we re-evaluate here the effects of caffeine at the cytogenetic level and propose a model for the mechanisms involved. Our hypothesis is that low caffeine concentrations affect DNA replication and cause chromosomal aberrations and asymmetric cell divisions not easily detected at metaphase since damaged cells are delayed during their G2/M-phase transition and the low caffeine concentrations cannot abrogate the G2-checkpoint. To test this hypothesis, caffeine-induced chromatid breaks and micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were evaluated in vitro after low caffeine concentration exposures, followed by a short treatment with 4mM of caffeine to abrogate the G2-checkpoint. The results show a statistically significant increase in chromatid breaks at caffeine concentrations ≥1mM. When caffeine was applied for G2/M-checkpoint abrogation, a statistically significant increase in chromatid breaks, compared to an active checkpoint, was only observed at 4mM of caffeine. The potential of low concentrations to induce asymmetric cell divisions was tested by applying a methodology combining the cytochalasin-B mediated cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) with interphase FISH (iFISH), using selected centromeric probes. Interestingly, low caffeine concentrations induce a dose dependent aneuploidy through asymmetric cell divisions, which are caused by misalignment of chromosomes through a mechanism

  20. A Ploidy Difference Represents an Impassable Barrier for Hybridisation in Animals. Is There an Exception among Botiid Loaches (Teleostei: Botiidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Bohlen

    Full Text Available One of the most efficient mechanisms to keep animal lineages separate is a difference in ploidy level (number of whole genome copies, since hybrid offspring from parents with different ploidy level are functionally sterile. In the freshwater fish family Botiidae, ploidy difference has been held responsible for the separation of its two subfamilies, the evolutionary tetraploid Botiinae and the diploid Leptobotiinae. Diploid and tetraploid species coexist in the upper Yangtze, the Pearl River and the Red River basins in China. Interestingly, the species 'Botia' zebra from the Pearl River basin combines a number of morphological characters that otherwise are found in the diploid genus Leptobotia with morphological characters of the tetraploid genus Sinibotia, therefore the aim of the present study is to test weather 'B.' zebra is the result of a hybridisation event between species from different subfamilies with different ploidy level. A closer morphological examination indeed demonstrates a high similarity of 'B.' zebra to two co-occurring species, the diploid Leptobotia guilinensis and the tetraploid Sinibotia pulchra. These two species thus could have been the potential parental species in case of a hybrid origin of 'B.' zebra. The morphologic analysis further reveals that 'B.' zebra bears even the diagnostic characters of the genera Leptobotia (Leptobotiinae and Sinibotia (Botiinae. In contrast, a comparison of six allozyme loci between 'B.' zebra, L. guilinensis and S. pulchra showed only similarities between 'B.' zebra and S. pulchra, not between 'B.' zebra and L. guilinensis. Six specimens of 'B.' zebra that were cytogenetically analysed were tetraploid with 4n = 100. The composition of the karyotype (18% metacentric, 18% submetacentric, 36% subtelocentric and 28% acrocentric chromosomes differs from those of L. guilinensis (12%, 24%, 20% and 44% and S. pulchra (20%, 26%, 28% and 26%, and cannot be obtained by any combination of genomes from

  1. Accurate detection and quantification of the fish viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSv) with a two-color fluorometric real-time PCR assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) is one of the world's most serious fish pathogens, infecting > 80 marine, freshwater, and estuarine fish species from Eurasia and North America. A novel and especially virulent strain - IVb - appeared in the Great Lakes in 2003, killed many game fish species...

  2. Molecular confirmation of t(6;11)(p21;q12) renal cell carcinoma in archival paraffin-embedded material using a break-apart TFEB FISH assay expands its clinicopathologic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argani, Pedram; Yonescu, Raluca; Morsberger, Laura; Morris, Kerry; Netto, George J; Smith, Nathan; Gonzalez, Nilda; Illei, Peter B; Ladanyi, Marc; Griffin, Constance A

    2012-10-01

    A subset of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) is characterized by t(6;11)(p21;q12), which results in fusion of the untranslated Alpha (MALAT1) gene to the TFEB gene. Only 21 genetically confirmed cases of t(6;11) RCCs have been reported. This neoplasm typically demonstrates a distinctive biphasic morphology, comprising larger epithelioid cells and smaller cells clustered around basement membrane material; however, the full spectrum of its morphologic appearances is not known. The t(6;11) RCCs differ from most conventional RCCs in that they consistently express melanocytic immunohistochemical (IHC) markers such as HMB45 and Melan A and the cysteine protease cathepsin K but are often negative for epithelial markers such as cytokeratins. TFEB IHC has been proven to be useful to confirm the diagnosis of t(6;11) RCCs in archival material, because native TFEB is upregulated through promoter substitution by the gene fusion. However, IHC is highly fixation dependent and has been proven to be particularly difficult for TFEB. A validated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for molecular confirmation of the t(6;11) RCC in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material has not been previously reported. We report herein the development of a break-apart TFEB FISH assay for the diagnosis of t(6;11)(p21;q12) RCCs. We validated the assay on 4 genetically confirmed cases and 76 relevant expected negative control cases and used the assay to report 8 new cases that expand the clinicopathologic spectrum of t(6;11) RCCs. An additional previously reported TFEB IHC-positive case was confirmed by TFEB FISH in 46-year-old archival material. In conclusion, TFEB FISH is a robust, clinically validated assay that can confirm the diagnosis of t(6;11) RCC in archival material and should allow a more comprehensive clinicopathologic delineation of this recently recognized neoplastic entity.

  3. Introgression of tomato chromosomes into the potato genome: an analysis through molecular marker and in situ hybridisation techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderé, F.G.

    1998-01-01

    Transfer of alien chromosomes and genes across intergeneric boundaries can be useful not only for the introgression of desirable characters but also for fundamental genetic studies. The successful demonstration of hybridisation of potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) and tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) t

  4. Positive Emotional Responses to Hybridised Writing about a Socio-Scientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Louisa; Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand better the role of affect in learning about socio-scientific issues (SSI), this study investigated Year 12 students' emotional arousal as they participated in an online writing-to-learn science project about the socio-scientific issue of biosecurity. Students wrote a series of hybridised scientific narratives, or BioStories, that integrate scientific information about biosecurity with narrative storylines, and uploaded these to a dedicated website. Throughout their participation in the project, students recorded their emotional responses to the various activities ( N = 50). Four case students were also video recorded during selected science lessons as they researched, composed and uploaded their BioStories for peer review. Analysis of these data, as well as interview data obtained from the case students, revealed that pride, strength, determination, interest and alertness were among the positive emotions most strongly elicited by the project. These emotions reflected students' interest in learning about a new socio-scientific issue, and their enhanced feelings of self-efficacy in successfully writing hybridised scientific narratives in science. The results of this study suggest that the elicitation of positive emotional responses as students engage in hybridised writing about SSI with strong links to environmental education, such as biosecurity, can be valuable in engaging students in education for sustainability.

  5. FC vehicle hybridisation: an affordable solution for an energy-efficient FC powered drive train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pede, G.; Iacobazzi, A.; Passerini, S.; Bobbio, A.; Botto, G.

    Fuel cells (FCs) have potential as clean and efficient energy sources for automotive applications without sacrifice in performance or driving range. However, the complete FC system must operate as efficiently as possible over the range of driving conditions that may be encountered while maintaining a low cost. To achieve this target, a storage unit can be introduced in the FC system to reduce the size of the fuel cell that is the most expensive component. This "hybrid" concept would not only reduce the drive train total cost but it also allow the recover of the braking energy and the operation at the voltage-current point of maximum efficiency for the FC system. Pro-and-cons of the "full-power" versus the "hybrid" configuration are shown in this work. The "Hybridisation rate" or "Hybridisation degree", a parameter expressed by the relationship between two installed powers, the generation power and the traction power, is also introduced and it is demonstrated that for each category of hybrid vehicles there is an optimal value of hybridisation degree. The storage systems considered are based on high power batteries or ultra capacitors (UCs) or a combination of them. A preliminary design of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) using a combined storage system and a FC energy source (called Triple Hybrid), is proposed. Finally, the experience of the Italian industry in this field is also reviewed.

  6. On hybridising lettuce seedlings with nanoparticles and the resultant effects on the organisms' electrical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzie, Nina; Mayne, Richard; Patton, David; Kendrick, Paul; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Lettuce seedlings are attracting interest in the computing world due to their capacity to become hybrid circuit components, more specifically, in the creation of living 'wires'. Previous studies have shown that seedlings can be hybridised with gold nanoparticles and withstand mild electrical currents. In this study, lettuce seedlings were hybridised with a variety of metallic and non-metallic nanomaterials: carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, aluminium oxide and calcium phosphate. Toxic effects and the following electrical properties were monitored: mean potential, resistance and capacitance. Macroscopic observations revealed only slight deleterious health effects after administration with one variety of particle, aluminium oxide. Mean potential in calcium phosphate-hybridised seedlings showed a considerable increase when compared with the control, whereas those administered with graphene oxide showed a small decrease; there were no notable variations across the remaining treatments. Electrical resistance decreased substantially in graphene oxide-treated seedlings whereas slight increases were shown following calcium phosphate and carbon nanotubes applications. Capacitance showed no considerable variation across treated seedlings. These results demonstrate that use of some nanomaterials, specifically graphene oxide and calcium phosphate, may be towards biohybridisation purposes including the generation of living 'wires'.

  7. Determining HER2 (ERBB2) amplification status in women with breast cancer: final results from the Australian in situ hybridisation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Adrienne L; Brown, Belinda; Farshid, Gelareh; Fox, Stephen B; Francis, Glenn D; McCue, Glenda; von Neumann-Cosel, Vita; Bilous, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Appropriate and accurate determination of HER2 status in women with breast cancer is critical for stratifying anti-HER2 therapies, and for access to subsidised treatment in the Australian setting. We conducted a regulated, nationwide program providing HER2 in situ hybridisation (ISH) testing for patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Cases with equivocal or non-diagnostic ISH test results at the local laboratory were sent to a high volume central testing laboratory for analysis using fluorescence ISH (FISH). We tested 78,408 early breast cancers and 3469 metastatic cancers using ISH. Of these, 12,405 early breast cancers (15.8%) and 798 metastatic cancers (23.0%) were HER2 positive. During the testing period, the proportion of core biopsy samples increased, the number of repeat tests remained stable and testing turnaround time declined. Discordant 3+ IHC, ISH negative results dropped from 20% to 13% in early breast cancers and from 35% to 8% among metastatic breast cancers. Following central laboratory FISH testing only 87 samples remained non-diagnostic (1.9% of FISH-tested samples, 0.1% of the whole cohort), most being decalcified specimens. This is a successful story of a cohesive service determining HER2 status in women with breast cancer in a 'real-world' setting.

  8. When Anthropogenic River Disturbance Decreases Hybridisation between Non-Native and Endemic Cyprinids and Drives an Ecomorphological Displacement towards Juvenile State in Both Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Corse

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of non-native species on native species is a major challenge in molecular ecology, particularly for genetically compatible fish species. Invasions are generally difficult to study because their effects may be confused with those of environmental or human disturbances. Colonized ecosystems are differently impacted by human activities, resulting in diverse responses and interactions between native and non-native species. We studied the dynamics between two Cyprinids species (invasive Chondrostoma nasus and endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma and their hybrids in 16 populations (from allopatric to sympatric situations and from little to highly fragmented areas corresponding to 2,256 specimens. Each specimen was assigned to a particular species or to a hybrid pool using molecular identification (cytochrome b and 41 microsatellites. We carried out an ecomorphological analysis based on size, age, body shape, and diet (gut vacuity and molecular fecal contents. Our results contradicted our initial assumptions on the pattern of invasion and the rate of introgression. There was no sign of underperformance for the endemic species in areas where hybridisation occurred. In the unfragmented zone, the introduced species was found mostly downstream, with body shapes similar to those in allopatric populations while both species were found to be more insectivorous than the reference populations. However, high level of hybridisation was detected, suggesting interactions between the two species during spawning and/or the existence of hybrid swarm. In the disturbed zone, introgression was less frequent and slender body shape was associated with diatomivorous behaviour, smaller size (juvenile characteristics and greater gut vacuity. Results suggested that habitat degradation induced similar ecomorphological trait changes in the two species and their hybrids (i.e. a transition towards a pedomorphic state where the invasive species is more

  9. High resolution FISH on super-stretched flow-sorted plant chromosomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valárik, M.; Bartos, J.; Kovarova, P.; Kubalakova, M.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Dolezel, J.

    2004-01-01

    A novel high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) strategy, using super-stretched flow-sorted plant chromosomes as targets, is described. The technique that allows longitudinal extension of chromosomes of more than 100 times their original metaphase size is especially attractive for

  10. Lead in Missouri Streams: Monitoring Pollution from Mining with an Assay for Erythrocyte [delta]-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALA-D) in Fish Blood

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The activity of the erythrocyte enzyme d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) has long been used as a biomarker of lead exposure in humans and waterfowl and, more...

  11. Microarray comparative genomic hybridisation analysis incorporating genomic organisation, and application to enterobacterial plant pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leighton Pritchard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH provides an estimate of the relative abundance of genomic DNA (gDNA taken from comparator and reference organisms by hybridisation to a microarray containing probes that represent sequences from the reference organism. The experimental method is used in a number of biological applications, including the detection of human chromosomal aberrations, and in comparative genomic analysis of bacterial strains, but optimisation of the analysis is desirable in each problem domain.We present a method for analysis of bacterial aCGH data that encodes spatial information from the reference genome in a hidden Markov model. This technique is the first such method to be validated in comparisons of sequenced bacteria that diverge at the strain and at the genus level: Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 (Pba1043 and Dickeya dadantii 3937 (Dda3937; and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 and L. lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363. In all cases our method is found to outperform common and widely used aCGH analysis methods that do not incorporate spatial information. This analysis is applied to comparisons between commercially important plant pathogenic soft-rotting enterobacteria (SRE Pba1043, P. atrosepticum SCRI1039, P. carotovorum 193, and Dda3937.Our analysis indicates that it should not be assumed that hybridisation strength is a reliable proxy for sequence identity in aCGH experiments, and robustly extends the applicability of aCGH to bacterial comparisons at the genus level. Our results in the SRE further provide evidence for a dynamic, plastic 'accessory' genome, revealing major genomic islands encoding gene products that provide insight into, and may play a direct role in determining, variation amongst the SRE in terms of their environmental survival, host range and aetiology, such as phytotoxin synthesis, multidrug resistance, and nitrogen fixation.

  12. Specificity assessment from fractionation experiments (SAFE): a novel method to evaluate microarray probe specificity based on hybridisation stringencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshev, Alexei L; Machka, Christine; Horsch, Marion; Seltmann, Matthias; Liebscher, Volkmar; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Beckers, Johannes

    2003-01-15

    The cDNA-chip technology is a highly versatile tool for the comprehensive analysis of gene expression at the transcript level. Although it has been applied successfully in expression profiling projects, there is an ongoing dispute concerning the quality of such expression data. The latter critically depends on the specificity of hybridisation. SAFE (specificity assessment from fractionation experiments) is a novel method to discriminate between non- specific cross-hybridisation and specific signals. We applied in situ fractionation of hybridised target on DNA-chips by means of repeated washes with increasing stringencies. Different fractions of hybridised target are washed off at defined stringencies and the collected fluorescence intensity data at each step comprise the fractionation curve. Based on characteristic features of the fractionation curve, unreliable data can be filtered and eliminated from subsequent analyses. The approach described here provides a novel experimental tool to identify probes that produce specific hybridisation signals in DNA-chip expression profiling approaches. The iterative use of the SAFE procedure will result in increasingly reliable sets of probes for microarray experiments and significantly improve the overall efficiency and reliability of RNA expression profiling data from DNA-chip experiments.

  13. High genetic differentiation with no evidence of hybridisation between four limpet species (Patella spp. revealed by allozyme loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sá-Pinto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of hybridisation between limpet species of the genus Patella has always been a contentious issue. Although a previous allozyme study reported high differentiation and no hybridisation between Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758, Patella depressa Pennant, 1777 and Patella ulyssiponensis Gmelin, 1791 along English shores, the recent finding of an mtDNA haplotype of P. depressa in a P. vulgata individual raised new doubts on this issue. To further study the possibility of hybridisation between limpet species and their level of genetic differentiation, ten allozyme loci were screened using starch gel electrophoresis for P. ulyssiponensis, P. depressa, P. vulgata and Patella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, from the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Our results show high differentiation between species, which could be clearly separated into different clusters with a Bayesian clustering algorithm. No significant signs of hybridisation were detected between any of the four species. Thus, the hypothesis of hybridisation between P. vulgata and P. depressa across their sympatric distribution is not supported. Two sympatric clusters were recovered within P. vulgata that could be related to Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium found in locus MPI. Finally, due to the high level of intraspecific variability, the studied loci are interesting tools for the analysis of population structure and stock identification.

  14. HER2 testing in the UK: recommendations for breast and gastric in-situ hybridisation methods

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bartlett, J. M. S.

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines supplement existing guidelines on HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridisation(ISH) methods in the UK. They provide a specific focus on aspects of guidance relevant to HER2 ISH testing methods, both fluorescent and chromogenic. They are formulated to give advice on methodology, interpretation and quality control for ISH-based testing of HER2 status in common tumour types, including both breast and gastric tumours. The aim is to ensure that all ISH-based testing is accurate, reliable and timely.

  15. Electronic hybridisation implications for the damage-tolerance of thin film metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Volker; Jaya, B. Nagamani; Köhler, Mathias; Music, Denis; Kirchlechner, Christoph; Dehm, Gerhard; Raabe, Dierk; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2016-01-01

    A paramount challenge in materials science is to design damage-tolerant glasses. Poisson’s ratio is commonly used as a criterion to gauge the brittle-ductile transition in glasses. However, our data, as well as results in the literature, are in conflict with the concept of Poisson’s ratio serving as a universal parameter for fracture energy. Here, we identify the electronic structure fingerprint associated with damage tolerance in thin film metallic glasses. Our correlative theoretical and experimental data reveal that the fraction of bonds stemming from hybridised states compared to the overall bonding can be associated with damage tolerance in thin film metallic glasses. PMID:27819318

  16. Volatile Organic Compound Emission from Quercus suber, Quercus canariensis, and its hybridisation product Quercus afares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, S.; Bracho Nuñez, A.; Staudt, M.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2009-04-01

    Oaks represent one of the most important plant genera in the Northern hemisphere and include many intensively VOC emitting species. The major group constitutes the isoprene emitters, but also monoterpene emitters and non-emitters can be found. These variations in the oak species might partly be due to their propensity for inter- and intraspecific hybridisation. This study addresses the foliar VOC production of the former hybridisation product the deciduous Quercus afares and its parents, two very distant species: the evergreen monoterpene emitter Quercus suber and the deciduous isoprene emitter Quercus canariensis. The measurements were performed in Southern France, applying two different methods. Plants were investigated in situ in the field with a portable gas exchange measuring system as well as in the laboratory on cut branches with an adapted enclosure system. Quercus afares was found to be a monoterpene emitting species. However, the monoterpene emission was lower and the composition different to that of Quercus suber. Whereas Quercus suber trees belonged to the pinene type most individuals of Quercus afares were identified to represent a limonene type. Quercus canariensis emitted besides high amounts of isoprene also linalool and (Z)-3-hexenylacetate. Emissions from Quercus suber and Quercus afares were higher in the field measurements than in the laboratory on cut branches whereas Quercus canariensis exhibited lower isoprene emissions from cut branches. The results demonstrate the need of further emission studies on a plant species level.

  17. Genomic and transcriptomic alterations following hybridisation and genome doubling in trigenomic allohexaploid Brassica carinata × Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Zhao, Q; Mei, S; Wang, J

    2012-09-01

    Allopolyploidisation is a prominent evolutionary force that involves two major events: interspecific hybridisation and genome doubling. Both events have important functional consequences in shaping the genomic architecture of the neo-allopolyploids. The respective effects of hybridisation and genome doubling upon genomic and transcriptomic changes in Brassica allopolyploids are unresolved. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) and cDNA-AFLP approaches were used to track genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional changes in both allohexaploid Brassica (ArArBcBcCcCc genome) and triploid hybrids (ArBcCc genome). Results from these groups were compared with each other and also to their parents Brassica carinata (BBCC genome) and Brassica rapa (AA genome). Rapid and dramatic genetic, DNA methylation and gene expression changes were detected in the triploid hybrids. During the shift from triploidy to allohexaploidy, some of the hybridisation-induced alterations underwent reversion. Additionally, novel genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional alterations were also detected. The proportions of A-genome-specific DNA methylation and gene expression alterations were significantly greater than those of BC-genome-specific alterations in the triploid hybrids. However, the two parental genomes were equally affected during the ploidy shift. Hemi-CCG methylation changes induced by hybridisation were recovered after genome doubling. Full-CG methylation changes were a more general process initiated in the hybrid and continued after genome doubling. These results indicate that genome doubling could ameliorate genomic and transcriptomic alterations induced by hybridisation and instigate additional alterations in trigenomic Brassica allohexaploids. Moreover, genome doubling also modified hybridisation-induced progenitor genome-biased alterations and epigenetic alteration characteristics.

  18. Real-time PCR based on SYBR-Green I fluorescence: An alternative to the TaqMan assay for a relative quantification of gene rearrangements, gene amplifications and micro gene deletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puisieux Alain

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR is increasingly being adopted for RNA quantification and genetic analysis. At present the most popular real-time PCR assay is based on the hybridisation of a dual-labelled probe to the PCR product, and the development of a signal by loss of fluorescence quenching as PCR degrades the probe. Though this so-called 'TaqMan' approach has proved easy to optimise in practice, the dual-labelled probes are relatively expensive. Results We have designed a new assay based on SYBR-Green I binding that is quick, reliable, easily optimised and compares well with the published assay. Here we demonstrate its general applicability by measuring copy number in three different genetic contexts; the quantification of a gene rearrangement (T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC in peripheral blood mononuclear cells; the detection and quantification of GLI, MYC-C and MYC-N gene amplification in cell lines and cancer biopsies; and detection of deletions in the OPA1 gene in dominant optic atrophy. Conclusion Our assay has important clinical applications, providing accurate diagnostic results in less time, from less biopsy material and at less cost than assays currently employed such as FISH or Southern blotting.

  19. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish.

  20. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining (1)H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Tiziana; Brandão, Fátima; Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana; Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela; Canário, João; Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione+oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to be

  1. The conservation significance of natural hybridisation in Mediterranean plants: from a case study on Cyclamen (Primulaceae) to a general perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John D; Gauthier, Perrine; Papuga, Guillaume; Pons, Virginie; Debussche, Max; Farris, Emmanuele

    2017-06-23

    Hybridisation plays a prominent role in plant evolution due to its influence on genetic diversity, fitness and adaptive potential We identify a case of on-going hybrid evolution of floral phenotypes in disjunct populations of Cyclamen balearicum and C. repandum subsp. repandum on Corsica and Sardinia. Hybrid populations on the two islands contain similar patterns of variation in flower colour and size but are probably at different stages in the evolutionary process of hybridisation and differences in the frequency of floral types and flower size suggest hybrid vigour that may contribute to the dynamics and maintenance of hybrid forms. In a review of cases of hybridisation in Mediterranean plants we found an equivalent number of cases for the contemporary occurrence of mixed hybrid populations, as there are cases of homoploid hybrid species differentiation. We argue for the development of a conservation strategy for Mediterranean plants that integrates the need to protect not just pure endemic species (some of hybrid origin) but also mixed populations where adaptive variation and new species are evolving due to contemporary hybridisation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappello, Tiziana, E-mail: tcappello@unime.it [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Brandão, Fátima, E-mail: fatimabrandao@ua.pt [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Canário, João [Centro de Química Estrutural, Instítuto Superíor Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione + oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to

  3. Genomic confirmation of hybridisation and recent inbreeding in a vector-isolated Leishmania population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Rogers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although asexual reproduction via clonal propagation has been proposed as the principal reproductive mechanism across parasitic protozoa of the Leishmania genus, sexual recombination has long been suspected, based on hybrid marker profiles detected in field isolates from different geographical locations. The recent experimental demonstration of a sexual cycle in Leishmania within sand flies has confirmed the occurrence of hybridisation, but knowledge of the parasite life cycle in the wild still remains limited. Here, we use whole genome sequencing to investigate the frequency of sexual reproduction in Leishmania, by sequencing the genomes of 11 Leishmania infantum isolates from sand flies and 1 patient isolate in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Çukurova province of southeast Turkey. This is the first genome-wide examination of a vector-isolated population of Leishmania parasites. A genome-wide pattern of patchy heterozygosity and SNP density was observed both within individual strains and across the whole group. Comparisons with other Leishmania donovani complex genome sequences suggest that these isolates are derived from a single cross of two diverse strains with subsequent recombination within the population. This interpretation is supported by a statistical model of the genomic variability for each strain compared to the L. infantum reference genome strain as well as genome-wide scans for recombination within the population. Further analysis of these heterozygous blocks indicates that the two parents were phylogenetically distinct. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium indicate that this population reproduced primarily clonally following the original hybridisation event, but that some recombination also occurred. This observation allowed us to estimate the relative rates of sexual and asexual reproduction within this population, to our knowledge the first quantitative estimate of these events during the Leishmania life cycle.

  4. Genomic Confirmation of Hybridisation and Recent Inbreeding in a Vector-Isolated Leishmania Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara A.; Imamura, Hideo; Sanders, Mandy; Svobodova, Milena; Volf, Petr; Berriman, Matthew; Cotton, James A.; Smith, Deborah F.

    2014-01-01

    Although asexual reproduction via clonal propagation has been proposed as the principal reproductive mechanism across parasitic protozoa of the Leishmania genus, sexual recombination has long been suspected, based on hybrid marker profiles detected in field isolates from different geographical locations. The recent experimental demonstration of a sexual cycle in Leishmania within sand flies has confirmed the occurrence of hybridisation, but knowledge of the parasite life cycle in the wild still remains limited. Here, we use whole genome sequencing to investigate the frequency of sexual reproduction in Leishmania, by sequencing the genomes of 11 Leishmania infantum isolates from sand flies and 1 patient isolate in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Çukurova province of southeast Turkey. This is the first genome-wide examination of a vector-isolated population of Leishmania parasites. A genome-wide pattern of patchy heterozygosity and SNP density was observed both within individual strains and across the whole group. Comparisons with other Leishmania donovani complex genome sequences suggest that these isolates are derived from a single cross of two diverse strains with subsequent recombination within the population. This interpretation is supported by a statistical model of the genomic variability for each strain compared to the L. infantum reference genome strain as well as genome-wide scans for recombination within the population. Further analysis of these heterozygous blocks indicates that the two parents were phylogenetically distinct. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium indicate that this population reproduced primarily clonally following the original hybridisation event, but that some recombination also occurred. This observation allowed us to estimate the relative rates of sexual and asexual reproduction within this population, to our knowledge the first quantitative estimate of these events during the Leishmania life cycle. PMID:24453988

  5. Antimicrobial assays of natural extracts and their inhibitory effect against Listeria innocua and fish spoilage bacteria, after incorporation into biopolymer edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturriaga, L; Olabarrieta, I; de Marañón, I Martínez

    2012-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twelve natural extracts was tested against two fish spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Aeromonas hydrophila/caviae) and Listeria innocua, in order to assess their potential utilization in the preservation and safety of minimally processed fish products. After a screening of the active extracts by agar diffusion and vapour diffusion methods, oregano and thyme essential oils and citrus extract were selected. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the selected extracts was determined by disc diffusion method against target bacteria and at two temperatures: bacteria's optimal growth temperature (30 °C or 37 °C) and refrigeration temperature (4 °C). Due to its better solubility, lack of odour and greater inhibitory effect obtained against L. innocua at refrigerated temperature, citrus extract was selected and incorporated at 1% (v/v) into different biopolymer film forming solutions (gelatin, methyl cellulose and their blend 50:50 w/w). The antimicrobial activity of the developed films was then evaluated, just after preparation of the films and after one month of storage at 43±3% relative humidity and 24±3 °C. Regardless of the biopolymer matrix, all the developed films showed antimicrobial activity against the target bacteria. The most sensitive bacterium towards active films was L. innocua while P. fluorescens appeared as the most resistant one, in accordance with the previously performed antimicrobial tests for pure extracts. The differences in activity of the films between the tested two temperatures were not significant except for L. innocua, for which three times higher inhibition diameters were observed at refrigerated temperature. The inhibitory effectiveness of the films against the tested strains was maintained regardless of the biopolymer matrix for at least one month. Therefore, these edible films show potential for their future use in fresh fish fillets preservation.

  6. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water contaminated with tannery effluents, as evaluated by the micronucleus test and comet assay using the fish Oreochromis niloticus and chromosome aberrations in onion root-tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tamie Matsumoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity of metals is important because some metals are potential mutagens able to induce tumors in humans and experimental animals. Chromium can damage DNA in several ways, including DNA double strand breaks (DSBs which generate chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus formation, sister chromatid exchange, formation of DNA adducts and alterations in DNA replication and transcription. In our study, water samples from three sites in the Córrego dos Bagres stream in the Franca municipality of the Brazilian state of São Paulo were subjected to the comet assay and micronucleus test using erythrocytes from the fish Oreochromis niloticus. Nuclear abnormalities of the erythrocytes included blebbed, notched and lobed nuclei, probably due to genotoxic chromium compounds. The greatest comet assay damage occurred with water from a chromium-containing tannery effluent discharge site, supporting the hypothesis that chromium residues can be genotoxic. The mutagenicity of the water samples was assessed using the onion root-tip cell assay, the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed being: c-metaphases, stick chromosome, chromosome breaks and losses, bridged anaphases, multipolar anaphases, and micronucleated and binucleated cells. Onion root-tip cell mutagenicity was highest for water samples containing the highest levels of chromium.

  7. Genotoxic Potential of Two Herbicides and their Active Ingredients Assessed with Comet Assay on a Fish Cell Line, Epithelioma Papillosum Cyprini (EPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Rank, Jette; Jensen, Klara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the epithelioma papillosum cyprini (EPC) cell line handling procedure for the comet assay to investigate the genotoxic potential of widely used pesticides. The effects of various media and handling of the EPC cell line were examined. Results indicated...... that avoiding trypsin to detach cells led to lower level of DNA damage in the negative control. Further, two commonly used herbicides (Dezormon and Optica trio) and their four active ingredients (4-chloro-o-tolyloxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propionic acid, 2......-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid) individually and in a ternary mixture were examined with the comet assay. Data showed that among the active ingredients only 2,4-D andMCPA induced DNA damage, while both herbicides were genotoxic at high concentrations....

  8. Analysis of the microbial community from a saline aquifer during CO2 storage in Ketzin using improved Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Let, Daniela; Zettlitzer, Michael; Würdemann, Hilke

    2013-04-01

    In order to investigate the possibility of underground CO2 storage, a research facility in Ketzin (Germany, west of Berlin) is operated where CO2 is stored in a subsurface saline aquifer. Three 700-850 m deep holes were constructed relatively, one injection well containing the injection tubing and two observation wells harbouring measuring technique. Since the Earth subsurface is known to be a major habitat for a high number of different groups of microorganisms, our working group aims at characterising microbial reactions between the gas (either dissolved in water or in the supercritical state), fluid and the mineral content of both the reservoir rock and the cap rock. Main purpose of the microbial monitoring is to analyse compositions and activities of the microbial communities in order to characterize microbial life in extreme habitats and its influence on corrosion and mineral dissolution and precipitation. Analyses of microbial community composition and its changes provide information about the effectiveness and reliability of long-term CO2 storage technique. Our previous study revealed that up to 106 cells ml-1 were detected in the first observation well, where CO2 break through after injection of 500 t (Morozova et al., 2010). For the identification and enumeration of the microorganisms, a widely applied fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) method was applied. FISH coupled with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes allows direct visualisation, identification and localisation of bacterial cells from selected phylogenetic groups. However, its application to the samples from the second observation well, where CO2 arrived after injection of approximately 11.000 t, was hampered. The presence of solids and particles in the reservoir fluids significantly interfered with the cell visualization using epifluorescent microscopy. Since it is difficult to distinguish cells among particles and this strongly hinders the identification and enumeration of bacteria, an

  9. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  10. Solar PV-CSP Hybridisation for Baseload Generation : A Techno-economic Analysis for the Chilean Market

    OpenAIRE

    Larchet, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The development of high capacity factor solar power plants is an interesting topic, especially when considering the climate and economic conditions of a location such as the Chilean Atacama Desert. The hybridisation of solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies for such an application is a promising collaboration. The low cost of PV and dispatchability of CSP, integrated with thermal energy storage (TES), has the promise of delivering baseload electricity at a lo...

  11. Hybridising Medicine: Illness, Healing and the Dynamics of Reciprocal Exchange on the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Havik

    2016-01-01

    The present article seeks to fill a number of lacunae with regard to the study of the circulation and assimilation of different bodies of medical knowledge in an important cultural contact zone, that is the Upper Guinea Coast. Building upon ongoing research on trade and cultural brokerage in the area, it focuses upon shifting attitudes and practices with regard to health and healing as a result of cultural interaction and hybridisation against the background of growing intra-African and Afro-...

  12. The assisted prediction modelling frame with hybridisation and ensemble for business risk forecasting and an implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Hong, Lu-Yao; Zhou, Qing; Yu, Hai-Jie

    2015-08-01

    The business failure of numerous companies results in financial crises. The high social costs associated with such crises have made people to search for effective tools for business risk prediction, among which, support vector machine is very effective. Several modelling means, including single-technique modelling, hybrid modelling, and ensemble modelling, have been suggested in forecasting business risk with support vector machine. However, existing literature seldom focuses on the general modelling frame for business risk prediction, and seldom investigates performance differences among different modelling means. We reviewed researches on forecasting business risk with support vector machine, proposed the general assisted prediction modelling frame with hybridisation and ensemble (APMF-WHAE), and finally, investigated the use of principal components analysis, support vector machine, random sampling, and group decision, under the general frame in forecasting business risk. Under the APMF-WHAE frame with support vector machine as the base predictive model, four specific predictive models were produced, namely, pure support vector machine, a hybrid support vector machine involved with principal components analysis, a support vector machine ensemble involved with random sampling and group decision, and an ensemble of hybrid support vector machine using group decision to integrate various hybrid support vector machines on variables produced from principle components analysis and samples from random sampling. The experimental results indicate that hybrid support vector machine and ensemble of hybrid support vector machines were able to produce dominating performance than pure support vector machine and support vector machine ensemble.

  13. Emergence of apospory and bypass of meiosis via apomixis after sexual hybridisation and polyploidisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojsgaard, Diego; Greilhuber, Johann; Pellino, Marco; Paun, Ovidiu; Sharbel, Timothy F; Hörandl, Elvira

    2014-12-01

    Hybridisation and polyploidy are major forces contributing to plant speciation. Homoploid (2x) and heteroploid (3x) hybrids, however, represent critical stages for evolution due to disturbed meiosis and reduced fertility. Apomixis--asexual reproduction via seeds--can overcome hybrid sterility, but requires several concerted alterations of developmental pathways to result in functional seed formation. Here, we analyse the reproductive behaviours of homo- and heteroploid synthetic hybrids from crosses between sexual diploid and tetraploid Ranunculus auricomus species to test the hypothesis that developmental asynchrony in hybrids triggers the shift to apomictic reproduction. Evaluation of male and female gametophyte development, viability and functionality of gametes shows developmental asynchrony, whereas seed set and germinability indicate reduced fitness in synthetic hybrids compared to sexual parents. We present the first experimental evidence for spontaneous apospory in most hybrids as an alternative pathway to meiosis, and the appearance of functional apomictic seeds in triploids. Bypassing meiosis permits these triploid genotypes to form viable seed and new polyploid progeny. Asynchronous development causes reduced sexual seed set and emergence of apospory in synthetic Ranunculus hybrids. Apomixis is functional in triploids and associated with drastic meiotic abnormalities. Selection acts to stabilise developmental patterns and to tolerate endosperm dosage balance shifts which facilitates successful seed set and establishment of apomictic lineages.

  14. Premating reproductive barriers between hybridising cricket species differing in their degree of polyandry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Veen

    Full Text Available Understanding speciation hinges on understanding how reproductive barriers arise between incompletely isolated populations. Despite their crucial role in speciation, prezygotic barriers are relatively poorly understood and hard to predict. We use two closely related cricket species, Gryllus bimaculatus and G. campestris, to experimentally investigate premating barriers during three sequential mate choice steps. Furthermore, we experimentally show a significant difference in polyandry levels between the two species and subsequently test the hypothesis that females of the more polyandrous species, G. bimaculatus, will be less discriminating against heterospecific males and hence hybridise more readily. During close-range mating behaviour experiments, males showed relatively weak species discrimination but females discriminated very strongly. In line with our predictions, this discrimination is asymmetric, with the more polyandrous G. bimaculatus mating heterospecifically and G. campestris females never mating heterospecifically. Our study shows clear differences in the strength of reproductive isolation during the mate choice process depending on sex and species, which may have important consequences for the evolution of reproductive barriers.

  15. Premating reproductive barriers between hybridising cricket species differing in their degree of polyandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Thor; Faulks, Joseph; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rolando; Tregenza, Tom

    2011-05-05

    Understanding speciation hinges on understanding how reproductive barriers arise between incompletely isolated populations. Despite their crucial role in speciation, prezygotic barriers are relatively poorly understood and hard to predict. We use two closely related cricket species, Gryllus bimaculatus and G. campestris, to experimentally investigate premating barriers during three sequential mate choice steps. Furthermore, we experimentally show a significant difference in polyandry levels between the two species and subsequently test the hypothesis that females of the more polyandrous species, G. bimaculatus, will be less discriminating against heterospecific males and hence hybridise more readily. During close-range mating behaviour experiments, males showed relatively weak species discrimination but females discriminated very strongly. In line with our predictions, this discrimination is asymmetric, with the more polyandrous G. bimaculatus mating heterospecifically and G. campestris females never mating heterospecifically. Our study shows clear differences in the strength of reproductive isolation during the mate choice process depending on sex and species, which may have important consequences for the evolution of reproductive barriers.

  16. Medium Affect Desire: Hybridising Real Virtual and the Actualised through Affective Medium Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Boumeester

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Underneath the turbulent surface of the ubiquitous media-scape lies an even more agile and aggressive set of relations. A central figure in this turmoil of desires seems to be the asignifying sign, which has a hybridising liaison with both the realm of the real virtual and the realm of the actualised. The main question is what does it want? This new materialistic, non-anthropocentric liberty of affect is creating an arena of strange attractors and other topological vector fields in which our own unconscious drive is as effective as that of the steel ball in a pinball machine. Could we isolate the intrinsic drive of the medium from its subservient position in the aesthetic, freeing its desire from the anthropocentric dominion? What does it Yen for? Perhaps this gap is not meant to be filled, as it is this yearning what it yearns for. The asignifying sign cannot be isolated, it is neither here nor there, yet it is conditionally omnipresent, it inhibits the gap, its desire is to affect.

  17. Induction of aneuploidy in male mouse germ cells detected by the sperm-FISH assay: a review of the present data base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, I-D; Schmid, T E; Baumgartner, A

    2002-07-25

    Multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific DNA-probes can be used to assess aneuploidy (disomy) and diploidy in sperm of any species provided the DNA-probes are available. In the present EU research project, DNA-probes for mouse chromosomes 8, X and Y were employed each labelled with different colours. Male mice were treated with the test chemicals and sperm were sampled from the Caudae epididymes 22-24 days later to allow spermatocytes exposed during meiosis to develop into mature sperm. At present, the data base comprises 10 chemicals: acrylamide (AA), carbendazim (CB), colchicine (COL), diazepam (DZ), griseofulvin (GF), omeprazole (OM), taxol (TX), thiobendazole (TB), trichlorfon (TF) and vinblastine (VBL). Of these, COL and TF induced disomic sperm only. DZ and GF induced disomic and diploid sperm, while CB and TB induced diploid sperm only. VBL gave contradictory results in repeated experiments in an inter-laboratory comparison. AA, OM and TX did not induce an increase in disomic or diploid sperm at the doses used. The induction of aneuploidy by DZ was also tested in humans. Sperm samples from patients after attempted suicide and from patients with chronic Valium((R)) abuse were evaluated using human DNA-probes specific for chromosomes 1,16, 21, X and Y. A quantitative comparison between mouse and man indicates that male meiosis in humans is 10-100 times more sensitive than in mice to aneuploidy induction by DZ. The positive response of mice to TF supports the hypothesis by Czeizel et al. [Lancet 341 (1993) 539] that TF may be causally related to the occurrence of congenital abnormality clusters in a Hungarian village.

  18. Optimering av FISH- teknik för detektion av Laktobaciller

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidi, Helaleh

    2008-01-01

    Sammanfattning Syftet med den här studien var att utveckla och optimera FISH (Fluorescense In Situ Hybridisation) tekniken som en snabb och ganska billig metod för detektion av laktobaciller. Det vill säga att kunna på objektsglas använda FISH tekniken för att identifiera laktobaciller på artnivå med fluorescensmärkta prober mot 16S och 23S RNA. FISH är en allmän och användbar metod för att detektera och lokalisera mikroorganismer eller en specifik grupp av mikroorganismer i provet (1). Metod...

  19. A process for analysis of microarray comparative genomics hybridisation studies for bacterial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodward Martin J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray based comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH experiments have been used to study numerous biological problems including understanding genome plasticity in pathogenic bacteria. Typically such experiments produce large data sets that are difficult for biologists to handle. Although there are some programmes available for interpretation of bacterial transcriptomics data and CGH microarray data for looking at genetic stability in oncogenes, there are none specifically to understand the mosaic nature of bacterial genomes. Consequently a bottle neck still persists in accurate processing and mathematical analysis of these data. To address this shortfall we have produced a simple and robust CGH microarray data analysis process that may be automated in the future to understand bacterial genomic diversity. Results The process involves five steps: cleaning, normalisation, estimating gene presence and absence or divergence, validation, and analysis of data from test against three reference strains simultaneously. Each stage of the process is described and we have compared a number of methods available for characterising bacterial genomic diversity, for calculating the cut-off between gene presence and absence or divergence, and shown that a simple dynamic approach using a kernel density estimator performed better than both established, as well as a more sophisticated mixture modelling technique. We have also shown that current methods commonly used for CGH microarray analysis in tumour and cancer cell lines are not appropriate for analysing our data. Conclusion After carrying out the analysis and validation for three sequenced Escherichia coli strains, CGH microarray data from 19 E. coli O157 pathogenic test strains were used to demonstrate the benefits of applying this simple and robust process to CGH microarray studies using bacterial genomes.

  20. Fish Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  1. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a clear and consistent manner, so that consumers with food allergies and their caregivers can be informed as ... the menu, cross-contact with fish is possible. Ethnic ... fish. Avoid foods like fish sticks and anchovies. Some individuals with ...

  2. Home-loving boreal hare mitochondria survived several invasions in Iberia: the relative roles of recurrent hybridisation and allele surfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Ferreira, J; Farelo, L; Freitas, H; Suchentrunk, F; Boursot, P; Alves, P C

    2014-03-01

    Genetic introgression from a resident species into an invading close relative can result from repeated hybridisation along the invasion front and/or allele surfing on the expansion wave. Cases where the phenomenon is massive and systematic, such as for hares (genus Lepus) in Iberia, would be best explained by recurrent hybridisation but this is difficult to prove because the donor populations are generally extinct. In the Pyrenean foothills, Lepus europaeus presumably replaced Lepus granatensis recently and the present species border is parallel to the direction of invasion, so that populations of L. granatensis in the contact zone represent proxies of existing variation before the invasion. Among three pairs of populations sampled across this border, we find less differentiation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) across than along it, as predicted under recurrent hybridisation at the invasion front. Using autosomal microsatellite loci and X- and Y-linked diagnostic loci, we show that admixture across the border is quasi-absent, making it unlikely that lack of interspecific mtDNA differentiation results from ongoing gene flow. Furthermore, we find that the local species ranges are climatically contrasted, making it also unlikely that ongoing ecology-driven movement of the contact account for mtDNA introgression. The lack of mtDNA differentiation across the boundary is mostly due to sharing of mtDNA from a boreal species currently extinct in Iberia (Lepus timidus) whose mitochondria have thus remained in place since the last deglaciation despite successive invasions by two other species. Home-loving mitochondria thus witness past species distribution rather than ongoing exchanges across stabilised contact zones.

  3. Fish cytogenetics and the future of radiation biodosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J D

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with whole chromosome paints has greatly facilitated the analysis of structural chromosome aberrations and has led to translocations replacing dicentrics as the aberration of choice for many applications. Major challenges remain if we are to go from translocations to an understanding of the health consequences of radiation exposure. Yet to be surmounted are the roles of individual susceptibility, time since exposure, and the effects of subjects age. Accomplishing these objectives will require automation, reduced costs, improved calibration, and extensive use of baseline samples.

  4. Genomic gains and losses in malignant mesothelioma demonstrated by FISH analysis of paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Maiko; Kasai, Takahiko; Enomoto, Yasunori; Takano, Masato; Morita, Kouhei; Kadota, Eiji; Iizuka, Norishige; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Nonomura, Akitaka

    2012-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) results from the accumulation of a number of acquired genetic events at the onset. In MM, the most frequent changes were losses in 9p21, 1p36, 14q32 and 22q12, and gains in 5p, 7p and 8q24 by comparative genomic hybridisation analysis. Although the diagnostic utility of 9p21 homozygous deletion by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis in MM has been reported recently, alterations of other genes have not been examined to any great extent. This study analysed the frequency of various genomic gains and losses in MM using FISH analysis. The authors performed a FISH analysis using paraffin-embedded tissues from 42 cases of MM. Chromosomal losses in MM were found at 9p21 (83%), 1p36 (43%), 14q32 (43%) and 22q12 (38%), whereas gains were found at 5p15 (48%), 7p12 (38%) and 8q24 (45%). There were no cases of adenomatoid tumour, benign mesothelial multicystic tumour, reactive mesothelial hyperplasia or pleuritis showing any gains or losses. At least one genomic abnormality was identified in all cases of MM. Among various histological subtypes, the chromosomal abnormality tended to be more common in cases showing sarcomatous elements (biphasic or pure sarcomatoid) than in cases showing an epithelioid histology. The authors found various genomic gains and losses in MM by FISH analysis. The frequency of each genomic gain or loss examined in MM by FISH analysis almost agreed with the comparative genomic hybridisation technique in previous studies. This study suggests that genomic evaluation by FISH analysis might be helpful in distinguishing MM from benign mesothelial proliferation.

  5. Introducing a New Breed of Wine Yeast: Interspecific Hybridisation between a Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Jennifer R.; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L.; Dunn, Barbara L.; Chambers, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment. PMID:23614011

  6. Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Bellon

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade, has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

  7. Evaluation of reproductive barriers and realisation of interspecific hybridisations depending on genetic distances between species in the genus Helleborus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, J; Winkelmann, T

    2012-07-01

    The genus Helleborus comprises 22 species, which are allocated to six sections. H. x hybridus and H. niger, which belong to different Helleborus sections, are economically important ornamentals. Several other species with minor impact exhibit interesting features, e.g. flower size, flower colour, foliage, scent and disease resistance, which should be introgressed into H. x hybridus or H. niger through interspecific hybridisation. The aims of this study were to investigate whether and which kind of hybridisation barriers occur in crosses between Helleborus species and if they differ in their manifestations, depending on the genetic distance of the respective partners. In order to obtain interspecific hybrids despite crossing barriers, a method to overcome these barriers should be developed. Crossing barriers in Helleborus were localised as predominantly post-zygotic according to in situ pollen tube staining with aniline blue. For certain crosses, pre-zygotic barriers could also be assumed, but pollen tube growth was not totally inhibited. Therefore, embryo rescue techniques via ovule culture were established to overcome the post-zygotic barriers. Ovules were isolated from maternal plants 5-7 weeks after pollination in most cases and then cultured in vitro. Overall, 219 hybrids were successfully obtained, of which 16 were derived from inter-sectional crosses. Hybrids were verified by flow cytometry and/or by molecular DNA markers. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  9. Measurement of DNA damage in individual cells using the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Janet M; Spanswick, Victoria J; Hartley, John A

    2011-01-01

    The Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet) assay is a simple, versatile and sensitive method for measuring DNA damage in individual cells, allowing the determination of heterogeneity of response within a cell population. The basic alkaline technique described is for the determination of DNA strand break damage and its repair at a single cell level. Specific modifications to the method use a lower pH ('neutral' assay), or allow the measurement of DNA interstrand cross-links. It can be further adapted to, for example, study specific DNA repair mechanisms, be combined with fluorescent in situ hybridisation, or incorporate lesion specific enzymes.

  10. Screening for oligonucleotide binding affinity by a convenient fluorescence competition assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J G; Liu, X; Balasubramanian, S

    1999-09-01

    A competitive homogeneous quenched fluorescence assay system is described for the high throughput screening of DNA conjugates that bind to single-stranded DNA. Fluorescence signal is generated by competitive binding of the sample molecule to a target strand labelled with a quencher probe, which is otherwise hybridised to a complementary strand containing a fluorescent probe. Thus fluorescence generated is related to the affinity of the sample. Competitive analysis of a number of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates gave data that correlated well with the corresponding UV melting data. The assay will be useful for screening of large numbers of potential single-stranded binding molecules.

  11. Antarctic Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  12. Array comparative genomic hybridisation analysis of boys with X linked hypopituitarism identifies a 3.9 Mb duplicated critical region at Xq27 containing SOX3.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solomon, N.M.; Ross, S.; Morgan, T.; Belsky, J.L.; Hol, F.A.; Karnes, P.; Hopwood, N.J.; Myers, S.E.; Tan, A.; Warne, G.L.; Forrest, S.M.; Thomas, P.Q.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Array comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH) is a powerful method that detects alteration of gene copy number with greater resolution and efficiency than traditional methods. However, its ability to detect disease causing duplications in constitutional genomic DNA has not been s

  13. Ultrastructural localisation of intramuscular expression of BDNF mRNA by silver-gold intensified non-radioactive in situ hybridisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, RSB; Brouwer, N; Copray, JCVM

    2001-01-01

    A non-radioactive in situ hybridisation method is described for the detection of low intramuscular levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA at the electron microscope level. Application of high-grade silver-gold intensification of the diaminobenzidine end product of in situ hybridisat

  14. Enzyme assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, Jean-Louis; Fluxà, Viviana S; Maillard, Noélie

    2009-01-07

    Enzyme assays are analytical tools to visualize enzyme activities. In recent years a large variety of enzyme assays have been developed to assist the discovery and optimization of industrial enzymes, in particular for "white biotechnology" where selective enzymes are used with great success for economically viable, mild and environmentally benign production processes. The present article highlights the aspects of fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates, sensors, and enzyme fingerprinting, which are our particular areas of interest.

  15. Pre-hybridisation: an efficient way of suppressing endogenous biotin-binding activity inherent to biotin-streptavidin detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Raju; Spikings, Emma; Zhou, Shaobo; Thompsett, Andrew; Zhang, Tiantian

    2014-04-01

    Endogenous biotin or biotinylated protein binding activity is a major drawback to biotin-avidin/streptavidin detection system. The avidin/streptavidin conjugate used to detect the complex of the biotinylated secondary antibody and the primary antibody binds to endogenous biotin or biotinylated proteins leading to non-specific signals. In Western blot, the endogenous biotin or biotinylated protein binding activity is usually manifested in the form of ~72kDa, ~75kDa and ~150kDa protein bands, which often mask the signals of interest. To overcome this problem, a method based on prior hybridisation of the biotinylated secondary antibody and the streptavidin conjugate was developed. The method was tested alongside the conventional biotin-streptavidin method on proteins extracted from zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Results showed that the newly developed method efficiently suppresses the endogenous biotin or biotinylated protein binding activity inherent to the biotin-streptavidin detection system.

  16. Partial hybridisation of electron-hole states in an InAs/GaSb double quantum well heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. S.; Morrison, C.; Herling, F.; Ritchie, D. A.; Newell, O.; Myronov, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Marrows, C. H.

    2017-10-01

    InAs/GaSb coupled quantum well heterostructures are important semiconductor systems with applications ranging from spintronics to photonics. Most recently, InAs/GaSb heterostructures have been identified as candidate two-dimensional topological insulators, predicted to exhibit helical edge conduction via fully spin-polarised carriers. We study an InAs/GaSb double quantum well heterostructure with an AlSb barrier to decouple partially the 2D electrons and holes, and find conduction consistent with a 2D hole gas, with an effective mass of 0.235 ± 0.005 m 0, existing simultaneously with hybridised carriers with an effective mass of 0.070 ± 0.005 m 0, where m 0 is the bare electron mass.

  17. TRIQS/CTHYB: A continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo hybridisation expansion solver for quantum impurity problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Priyanka; Krivenko, Igor; Ferrero, Michel; Parcollet, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    We present TRIQS/CTHYB, a state-of-the art open-source implementation of the continuous-time hybridisation expansion quantum impurity solver of the TRIQS package. This code is mainly designed to be used with the TRIQS library in order to solve the self-consistent quantum impurity problem in a multi-orbital dynamical mean field theory approach to strongly-correlated electrons, in particular in the context of realistic electronic structure calculations. It is implemented in C++ for efficiency and is provided with a high-level Python interface. The code ships with a new partitioning algorithm that divides the local Hilbert space without any user knowledge of the symmetries and quantum numbers of the Hamiltonian. Furthermore, we implement higher-order configuration moves and show that such moves are necessary to ensure ergodicity of the Monte Carlo in common Hamiltonians even without symmetry-breaking.

  18. Species specific cpDNA markers useful for studies on the hybridisation between Pinus mugo and P. sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Wachowiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PCR-RFLP technique has been used to detect species-specific mutations of organelles DNA for closely related dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo and Scots pine (P. sylvestris. Restriction fragment patterns have been compared of amplification products for trnL-trnF cpDNA and for coxI and orf25 genes of mtDNA. The difference has been found in the Dral and Hinfl restriction patterns of the amplification products for trnL-trnF region of cpDNA with two haplotypes detected. The haplotype M is characteristic for P. mugo and the haplotype S for P. sylvestris. These markers may be useful for the analysis of the natural hybridisation and introgression between these species postulated for some sympatric populations on the basis of morphological analysis. No differences have been disclosed in the studied mtDNA regions.

  19. Fish Dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  20. Re-analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridisation of spare embryos cultured until Day 5 after preimplantation genetic diagnosis for a 47, XYY infertile patient demonstrates a high incidence of diploid mosaic embryos: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, S; Merino, E G; Van den Bergh, M; Abramowicz, M; Vassart, G; Englert, Y; Delneste, D

    2000-12-01

    Mosaicism in 4-8-cell human embryos analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) has been widely reported, but few studies have addressed the incidence of mosaicism in more advanced embryonic stages. In the present study we analysed spare human embryos in a case of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for increased risk of aneuploidy because of an infertile 47,XYY man. After replacement of two embryos typed as 1818XX at PGD, six spare embryos (not frozen because of their low quality) were re-analysed on Day 5 for PGD confirmation. Out of five embryos typed as 1818XY at PGD, four were diploid mosaic (DM) and one was normal in all cells. The sixth embryo, typed as 18XYY/1818181818X at PGD, was a DM. In spite of the bias of our small series of morphologically low-quality embryos, the surprisingly high proportion of mosaics (which confirms previous findings) questions the validity of PGD, but supports the strategy of transferring only the embryos where two blastomeres gave normal and concordant results at PGD. More data are required to understand the clinical significance of early diploid mosaicism (and its impact on implantation rate) and to determine whether some diploid mosaic embryos might be considered safe for transfer.

  1. De novo monosomy 9p24.3-pter and trisomy 17q24.3-qter characterised by microarray comparative genomic hybridisation in a fetus with an increased nuchal translucency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, Sophie; Kasakyan, Serdar; L'Herminé, Aurore Coulomb; Mairovitz, Valérie; Gautier, Evelyne; Aubry, Marie-Cécile; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2006-03-01

    Increased nuchal translucency (NT) during the first trimester of pregnancy is a useful marker to detect chromosomal abnormalities. Here, we report a prenatal case with molecular cytogenetic characterisation of an abnormal derivative chromosome 9 identified through NT. Amniocentesis was performed because of an increased NT (4.4 mm) and showed an abnormal de novo 46,XX,add(9)(p24.3) karyotype. To characterise the origin of the small additional material on 9p, we performed a microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (microarray CGH) using a genomic DNA array providing an average of 1 Mb resolution. Microarray CGH showed a deletion of distal 9p and a trisomy of distal 17q. These results were confirmed by FISH analyses. Microarray CGH provided accurate information on the breakpoint regions and the size of both distal 9p deletion and distal 17q trisomy. The fetus was therefore a carrier of a de novo derivative chromosome 9 arising from a t(9;17)(p24.3;q24.3) translocation and generating a monosomy 9p24.3-pter and a trisomy 17q24.3-qter. This case illustrates that microarray CGH is a rapid, powerful and sensitive technology to identify small de novo unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities and can be applied in prenatal diagnosis. 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results: Stomach lesions, as well as normal...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal...... faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion: Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described...

  3. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results: Stomach lesions, as well as normal...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal...... faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion: Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described...

  4. Who’s your mama? Riverine hybridisation of threatened freshwater Trout Cod and Murray Cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmack, Peter J.; Dyer, Fiona J.; Lintermans, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Rates of hybridization and introgression are increasing dramatically worldwide because of translocations, restocking of organisms and habitat modifications; thus, determining whether hybridization is occuring after reintroducing extirpated congeneric species is commensurately important for conservation. Restocking programs are sometimes criticized because of the genetic consequences of hatchery-bred fish breeding with wild populations. These concerns are important to conservation restocking programs, including those from the Australian freshwater fish family, Percichthyidae. Two of the better known Australian Percichthyidae are the Murray Cod, Maccullochella peelii and Trout Cod, Maccullochella macquariensis which were formerly widespread over the Murray Darling Basin. In much of the Murrumbidgee River, Trout Cod and Murray Cod were sympatric until the late 1970s when Trout Cod were extirpated. Here we use genetic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data together with mitochondrial sequences to examine hybridization and introgression between Murray Cod and Trout Cod in the upper Murrumbidgee River and consider implications for restocking programs. We have confirmed restocked riverine Trout Cod reproducing, but only as inter-specific matings, in the wild. We detected hybrid Trout Cod–Murray Cod in the Upper Murrumbidgee, recording the first hybrid larvae in the wild. Although hybrid larvae, juveniles and adults have been recorded in hatcheries and impoundments, and hybrid adults have been recorded in rivers previously, this is the first time fertile F1 have been recorded in a wild riverine population. The F1 backcrosses with Murray cod have also been found to be fertile. All backcrosses noted were with pure Murray Cod. Such introgression has not been recorded previously in these two species, and the imbalance in hybridization direction may have important implications for restocking programs.

  5. Who's your mama? Riverine hybridisation of threatened freshwater Trout Cod and Murray Cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Alan J; Unmack, Peter J; Dyer, Fiona J; Lintermans, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Rates of hybridization and introgression are increasing dramatically worldwide because of translocations, restocking of organisms and habitat modifications; thus, determining whether hybridization is occuring after reintroducing extirpated congeneric species is commensurately important for conservation. Restocking programs are sometimes criticized because of the genetic consequences of hatchery-bred fish breeding with wild populations. These concerns are important to conservation restocking programs, including those from the Australian freshwater fish family, Percichthyidae. Two of the better known Australian Percichthyidae are the Murray Cod, Maccullochella peelii and Trout Cod, Maccullochella macquariensis which were formerly widespread over the Murray Darling Basin. In much of the Murrumbidgee River, Trout Cod and Murray Cod were sympatric until the late 1970s when Trout Cod were extirpated. Here we use genetic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data together with mitochondrial sequences to examine hybridization and introgression between Murray Cod and Trout Cod in the upper Murrumbidgee River and consider implications for restocking programs. We have confirmed restocked riverine Trout Cod reproducing, but only as inter-specific matings, in the wild. We detected hybrid Trout Cod-Murray Cod in the Upper Murrumbidgee, recording the first hybrid larvae in the wild. Although hybrid larvae, juveniles and adults have been recorded in hatcheries and impoundments, and hybrid adults have been recorded in rivers previously, this is the first time fertile F1 have been recorded in a wild riverine population. The F1 backcrosses with Murray cod have also been found to be fertile. All backcrosses noted were with pure Murray Cod. Such introgression has not been recorded previously in these two species, and the imbalance in hybridization direction may have important implications for restocking programs.

  6. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  7. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  8. Suppression substractive hybridisation (SSH) and real time PCR reveal differential gene expression in the Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, challenged with Ostreid herpesvirus 1

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Virus-induced genes were identified using suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) from Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, haemocytes challenged by OsHV-1. A total of 304 clones from SSH forward library were sequenced. Among these sequences, some homologues corresponded to (i) immune related genes (macrophage express protein, IK cytokine, interferon-induced protein 44 or multicopper oxidase), (ii) apoptosis related genes (Bcl-2) and (iii) cell signalling and virus receptor genes (gl...

  9. Rapid detection of hepatitis B virus DNA in liver tissue by in situ hybridisation and its combination with immunohistochemistry for simultaneous detection of HBV antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, J. Y.; Naoumov, N V; Alexander, G J; Williams, R

    1991-01-01

    A rapid technique using a non-radioactive receptor molecule (digoxigenin) for intrahepatic hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA detection using in situ hybridisation was developed. It can be adapted for use in combination with standard immunohistochemistry for simultaneous detection of both HBV DNA and HBV antigens. The total time required for dual detection of HBV antigens and HBV DNA starting from paraffin wax liver sections was two working days. A good signal to background ratio for the detection o...

  10. The mechanical characteristics of hybridised MDF from empty fruit bunch as well as kenaf following ATH treating and prepared by pre-polymerisation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, Amamer; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Bahrum, Azizah

    2016-11-01

    Within this research a new, hybridised MDF (that is; medium-density fibreboard) was manufactured with the use of EFB (that is; empty fruit bunch); KF (that is; kenaf) as well as palm-based `pre-PU' which were used as the binding agent. There is one ratio of hybrid MDF from EFB and KF was produced which is EFB: KF, 50:50 while the ATH percentage of the entire amount of the resin was 5, 10 and 15%. At magnitudes that varied from 300-500µm, the hybridised EFB-KF mix was then augmented with ATH. The result of the ATH on the mechanical nature of the hybridised material was then assessed. Findings indicate that the control-version of the hybridised MDF was not as strong, with regard to its mechanical characteristics, when contrasted to those that were augmented and improved with ATH. Direct proportionality could be seen with regard to the Shore D hardness to the volume of the ATH used, with the Shore D increasing (to an extent of 12% in the case of the ATH volume in the MDF being increased). Additionally, the well dispersion of the ATH within and throughout the PU matrix of the cause of the greater impact-strength, modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) seen whose values were seen to be in accordance with the magnitude of the ATH included. More exactingly, ATH proportionally at 5, 10 and 15% saw a relational increase in impact-strength at 7, 12 and 25%, respectively speaking. The greatest boost in MOR was 14%, being attributed to the ATH content at 15%.

  11. Hybridising Medicine: Illness, Healing and the Dynamics of Reciprocal Exchange on the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havik, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    The present article seeks to fill a number of lacunae with regard to the study of the circulation and assimilation of different bodies of medical knowledge in an important cultural contact zone, that is the Upper Guinea Coast. Building upon ongoing research on trade and cultural brokerage in the area, it focuses upon shifting attitudes and practices with regard to health and healing as a result of cultural interaction and hybridisation against the background of growing intra-African and Afro-Atlantic interaction from the fifteenth to the late seventeenth century. Largely based upon travel accounts, missionary reports and documents produced by the Portuguese Inquisition, it shows how forms of medical knowledge shifted and circulated between littoral areas and their hinterland, as well as between the coast, the Atlantic and beyond. It shows that the changing patterns of trade, migration and settlement associated with Mandé influence and Afro-Atlantic exchange had a decisive impact on changing notions of illness and therapeutic trajectories. Over the centuries, cross-cultural, reciprocal borrowing contributed to the development of healing kits employed by Africans and non-African outsiders alike, which were used and brokered by local communities in different locations in the region. PMID:26971596

  12. Development of non-hybridised HgCdTe detectors for the next generation of astronomical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Gavin B.; Dennis, Peter N.; Lees, David J.; Hall, David J.; Cairns, John W.; Gordon, Neil T.; Hails, Janet E.; Giess, Jean

    2008-07-01

    The superb image quality that is predicted, and even demanded, for the next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT) presents a potential crisis in terms of the sheer number of detectors that may be required. Developments in infrared technology have progressed dramatically in recent years, but a substantial reduction in the cost per pixel of these IR arrays will be necessary to permit full exploitation of the capabilities of these telescopes. Here we present an outline and progress report of an initiative to develop a new generation of astronomical grade Cadmium Mercury Telluride (HgCdTe) array detectors using a novel technique which enables direct growth of the sensor diodes onto the Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC). This technique removes the need to hybridise the detector material to a separate Silicon readout circuit and provides a route to very large monolithic arrays. We present preliminary growth and design simulation results for devices based on this technique, and discuss the prospects for deployment of this technology in the era of extremely large telescopes.

  13. Hybridising Medicine: Illness, Healing and the Dynamics of Reciprocal Exchange on the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havik, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    The present article seeks to fill a number of lacunae with regard to the study of the circulation and assimilation of different bodies of medical knowledge in an important cultural contact zone, that is the Upper Guinea Coast. Building upon ongoing research on trade and cultural brokerage in the area, it focuses upon shifting attitudes and practices with regard to health and healing as a result of cultural interaction and hybridisation against the background of growing intra-African and Afro-Atlantic interaction from the fifteenth to the late seventeenth century. Largely based upon travel accounts, missionary reports and documents produced by the Portuguese Inquisition, it shows how forms of medical knowledge shifted and circulated between littoral areas and their hinterland, as well as between the coast, the Atlantic and beyond. It shows that the changing patterns of trade, migration and settlement associated with Mandé influence and Afro-Atlantic exchange had a decisive impact on changing notions of illness and therapeutic trajectories. Over the centuries, cross-cultural, reciprocal borrowing contributed to the development of healing kits employed by Africans and non-African outsiders alike, which were used and brokered by local communities in different locations in the region.

  14. Monitoring and characterisation of bacteria in corroding district heating systems using fluorescence in situ hybridisation and microautoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellerup, B.V. [Danish Technological Institute, Teknologiparken (Denmark). Dept. of Environment; Aalborg University (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Olesen, B.H.; Frolund, B. [Danish Technological Institute, Teknologiparken (Denmark). Dept. of Environment; Nielsen, J.L.; Nielsen, P.H. [Aalborg University (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Odum, S. [CTR I/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    Presence of biofilm and biocorrosion has been observed in Danish district heating (DH) systems despite very good water quality that was expected to prevent significant microbial growth. The microbiological water quality was investigated in order to identify the dominating bacterial groups on surfaces with corrosion problems. Water samples from 29 DH systems were investigated for the total number of bacteria and presence of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRBs). SRBs were found to be present in more than 80% of the DH systems. The microbial population in samples from 2 DH systems (biofilm from a test coupon and an in situ sample from a heat exchanger) was investigated with fluorescence in situ hybridisation, and the results showed significant differences in population composition. Betaproteobacteria was the dominant population in both samples. SRBs were present in both samples but were most numerous in the biofilm from the test coupon. Examination of functional groups based on uptake of radiolabelled acetate (microautoradiography) showed presence of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria despite the fact that oxygen is not anticipated in DH systems. (author)

  15. Angiogenesis Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Dhanya K; Kujur, Praveen K; Singh, Rana P

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis constitutes one of the first steps of tumor progression beyond a critical size of tumor growth, which supplies a dormant mass of cancerous cells with the required nutrient supply and gaseous exchange through blood vessels essentially needed for their sustained and aggressive growth. In order to understand any biological process, it becomes imperative that we use models, which could mimic the actual biological system as closely as possible. Hence, finding the most appropriate model is always a vital part of any experimental design. Angiogenesis research has also been much affected due to lack of simple, reliable, and relevant models which could be easily quantitated. The angiogenesis models have been used extensively for studying the action of various molecules for agonist or antagonistic behaviour and associated mechanisms. Here, we have described two protocols or models which have been popularly utilized for studying angiogenic parameters. Rat aortic ring assay tends to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is one of the most utilized in vivo model system for angiogenesis-related studies. The CAM is highly vascularized tissue of the avian embryo and serves as a good model to study the effects of various test compounds on neoangiogenesis.

  16. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  17. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  18. Fighting fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchi, E.; Guerrini, V.; Rinaldi, S.; Schaeffer, G.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce new combinatorial structures, called fighting fish, that generalize directed convex polyominoes by allowing them to branch out of the plane into independent substructures. On the one hand the combinatorial structure of fighting fish appears to be particularly rich: we show that their generating function with respect to the perimeter and number of tails is algebraic, and we conjecture a mysterious multivariate equidistribution property with the left ternary trees introduced by Del Lungo et al On the other hand, fighting fish provide a simple and natural model of random branching surfaces which displays original features: in particular, we show that the average area of a uniform random fighting fish with perimeter 2n is of order n 5/4: to the best of our knowledge this behaviour is non-standard and suggests that we have identified a new universality class of random structures. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  19. Identification of new modes of Dd-STATa regulation of gene expression in Dictyostelium by in situ hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Nao; Maeda, Mineko; Urushihara, Hideko; Kawata, Takefumi

    2004-09-01

    Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) are transcription factors which lie at the end of cytokine and growth signal transduction pathways. Dictyostelium Dd-STATa is a functional homologue of metazoan STATs. It is activated by cAMP and, at the slug stage, it translocates into the nuclei of the tip cells, which are a subset of the anterior, prestalk A (pstA) cells. Here we searched for novel Dd-STATa regulated genes by in situ hybridisation. A set of 54 cDNA clones whose gene expression patterns are known to be prestalk-specific (Maeda et al., 2003), were chosen as probes and we compared their expression patterns in parental and Dd-STATa-null strains. We identified 13 genes which are candidates for direct induction by Dd-STATa. In the parental strain, most of these genes are expressed in the cone shaped mass of pstAB cells which is located within the prestalk region. These cDNAs show little or no expression in the Dd-STATa-null strain. This contrasts markedly with the paradigmatic ecmB gene which is expressed in pstAB cells in parental cells, but which is expressed throughout the prestalk zone in the Dd-STATa-null strain. We also identified several genes which are normally expressed in pstA cells, or throughout the prestalk region, but whose expression is markedly down-regulated in the null mutant. Again, this contrasts with markers derived from the paradigmatic, ecmA gene which are expressed normally in the Dd-STATa-null strain. The identification of these novel genes provides valuable tools to investigate the role of Dd-STATa.

  20. [Comparative genomic hybridisation as a first option in genetic diagnosis: 1,000 cases and a cost-benefit analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells-Sarret, Neus; Cueto-González, Anna M; Borregan, Mar; López-Grondona, Fermina; Miró, Rosa; Tizzano, Eduardo; Plaja, Alberto

    2017-09-25

    Conventional cytogenetics diagnoses 3-5% of patients with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability and/or multiple congenital anomalies. The Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification increases diagnostic rates from between 2.4 to 5.8%. Currently the comparative genomic hybridisation array or aCGH is the highest performing diagnostic tool in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability, congenital anomalies and autism spectrum disorders. Our aim is to evaluate the efficiency of the use of aCGH as first-line test in these and other indications (epilepsy, short stature). A total of 1000 patients referred due to one or more of the abovementioned disorders were analysed by aCGH. Pathogenic genomic imbalances were detected in 14% of the cases, with a variable distribution of diagnosis according to the phenotypes: 18.9% of patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability; 13.7% of multiple congenital anomalies, 9.76% of psychiatric pathologies, 7.02% of patients with epilepsy, and 13.3% of patients with short stature. Within the multiple congenital anomalies, central nervous system abnormalities and congenital heart diseases accounted for 14.9% and 10.6% of diagnoses, respectively. Among the psychiatric disorders, patients with autism spectrum disorders accounted for 8.9% of the diagnoses. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the use of aCGH as the first line test in genetic diagnosis of patients suspected of genomic imbalances, supporting its inclusion within the National Health System. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  2. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  3. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  4. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  5. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  6. Recovery of citrus triploid hybrids by embryo rescue and flow cytometry from 2x x 2x sexual hybridisation and its application to extensive breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleza, P; Juárez, J; Cuenca, J; Ollitrault, P; Navarro, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Seedlessness is one of the most important characteristics for mandarins for the fresh-fruit market and mandarin triploid hybrids have this trait. Citrus triploid plants can be recovered by 2x x 2x sexual hybridisations as a consequence of the formation of unreduced gametes at low frequency. Triploid embryos are found in small seeds that do not germinate under greenhouse conditions. Extensive breeding programs based on this type of hybridisation require very effective methodologies for embryo rescue and ploidy evaluation. In this work, we describe an effective methodology to recover triploid hybrids from 2x x 2x hybridisations based on in vitro embryo rescue and ploidy level determination by means of flow cytometry. The influence of parents and environmental conditions on obtaining triploid hybrids has been analysed. The strongest effect was associated with the genotype of the female parent while a strong interaction was found between the male parent genotype and environmental conditions. The effect of the female parent genotype on the length of the juvenile phase was also demonstrated by observing a large number of progenies over the last 10 years. The methodology described here has enabled us to obtain over 4,000 triploid hybrids so far, of which 13 have been protected in the European Union and two are being extensively planted by citrus growers to establish new commercial plots. These triploid hybrids have been analysed with simple sequence repeats markers to differentiate all the new triploid varieties and their parents, and thus molecular identification will help defend plant breeders' rights.

  7. Validation and implementation of array comparative genomic hybridisation as a first line test in place of postnatal karyotyping for genome imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Docherty Zoe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have demonstrated that array comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH for genome-wide imbalance provides a substantial increase in diagnostic yield for patients traditionally referred for karyotyping by G-banded chromosome analysis. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of and strategies for, the use of array CGH in place of karyotyping for genome imbalance, and to report on the results of the implementation of this approach. Results Following a validation period, an oligoarray platform was chosen. In order to minimise costs and increase efficiency, a patient/patient hybridisation strategy was used, and analysis criteria were set to optimise detection of pathogenic imbalance. A customised database application with direct links to a number of online resources was developed to allow efficient management and tracking of patient samples and facilitate interpretation of results. Following introduction into our routine diagnostic service for patients with suspected genome imbalance, array CGH as a follow-on test for patients with normal karyotypes (n = 1245 and as a first-line test (n = 1169 gave imbalance detection rates of 26% and 22% respectively (excluding common, benign variants. At least 89% of the abnormalities detected by first line testing would not have been detected by standard karyotype analysis. The average reporting time for first-line tests was 25 days from receipt of sample. Conclusions Array CGH can be used in a diagnostic service setting in place of G-banded chromosome analysis, providing a more comprehensive and objective test for patients with suspected genome imbalance. The increase in consumable costs can be minimised by employing appropriate hybridisation strategies; the use of robotics and a customised database application to process multiple samples reduces staffing costs and streamlines analysis, interpretation and reporting of results. Array CGH provides a

  8. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  9. Hybridisation of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    in the action research project Socio Media Education. We argue that the new cyborg-reality – i.e. complex of digital technology and human beings - turns education into a social hybrid. The main feature of this hybrid is a new nexus of the community (the social system), social networks (the social environment...... huge educational impact.......This paper presents a new systems theoretical model about how we adequately can describe education on the level of the classroom after the introduction of digital media and wireless networks. For centuries school-classes has worked as walled educational interaction-systems, but now under influence...

  10. Hybridisation of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    in the action research project Socio Media Education. We argue that the new cyborg-reality – i.e. complex of digital technology and human beings - turns education into a social hybrid. The main feature of this hybrid is a new nexus of the community (the social system), social networks (the social environment......This paper presents a new systems theoretical model about how we adequately can describe education on the level of the classroom after the introduction of digital media and wireless networks. For centuries school-classes has worked as walled educational interaction-systems, but now under influence......) and mediating technology (the social media). Further we argue that while the old classroom function essentially as an echo room, the new one function as a room of dissonance. The pedagogical consequences of all this is only vague at this point, but one thing seems clear: The farewell to the echo room will have...

  11. Hybridisation of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    This paper presents a new systems theoretical model about how we adequately can describe education on the level of the classroom after the introduction of digital media and wireless networks. For centuries school-classes has worked as walled educational interaction-systems, but now under influence...... of the digital revolution, they are populated with – and invaded by - cyborgs who can interrupt, contribute to, or initiate interaction systems that transcends the room’s four walls, making the educational situation more fragile, vulnerable and complex than ever. The paper discusses the phenomena with departure...... in the action research project Socio Media Education. We argue that the new cyborg-reality – i.e. complex of digital technology and human beings - turns education into a social hybrid. The main feature of this hybrid is a new nexus of the community (the social system), social networks (the social environment...

  12. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  13. Possible interspecific origin of the B chromosome of Hypsiboas albopunctatus (Spix, 1824 (Anura, Hylidae, revealed by microdissection, chromosome painting, and reverse hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gruber

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The B chromosome in the hylid Hypsiboas albopunctatus (2n = 22 + B is small, almost entirely composed of C-positive heterochromatin, and does not pair with any chromosome of the A complement. B probe, obtained by microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, was used to search for homology between the B and regular chromosomes of H. albopunctatus and of the related species H. raniceps (Cope, 1862. Reverse hybridisation was also carried out in the investigation. The B probe exclusively painted the supernumerary, not hybridising any other chromosomes in H. albopunctatus, but all H. raniceps chromosomes showed small labelling signals. This result might be an indication that differences exist between the repetitive sequences of A and B chromosomes of H. albopunctatus, and that the chromosomes of H. raniceps and the heterochromatin of the B chromosome of H. albopunctatus are enriched with the same type of repetitive DNA. In meiotic preparations, the B labelled about 30% of scored spermatids, revealing a non-mendelian inheritance, and the painted B in micronucleus suggests that the supernumerary is eliminated from germ line cells. Although our results could suggest an interespecific origin of the B at first sight, further analysis on its repetitive sequences is still necessary. Nevertheless, the accumulation of repetitive sequences, detected in another species, even though closely related, remains an intriguing question.

  14. 21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... detection and enumeration of FISH signals in interphase nuclei of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human.... This device is intended for in vitro diagnostic use with FISH assays as an aid in the...

  15. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed.

  16. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  17. Behavioral analysis of pheromones in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones are chemicals that pass between members of the same species which have inherent meaning. Because most fish pheromones are mixtures, and their actions can be complex, behavioral assays are required to identify them. This chapter describes a few strategies and two specific methods (one for measuring attraction and another for sexual arousal) that can serve this purpose in fishes that live in nonflowing water such as the carps.

  18. Interaction between fish spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas sp and Shewanella putrefaciens in fish extracts and on fish tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette

    1996-01-01

    The interaction between fish spoilage bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. and Shewanella putrefaciens, was investigated using fish extract and fish tissue as model systems. Isolates of Pseudomonas that produced iron chelators, siderophores, inhibited growth of S. putrefaciens in a fish-extract-agar diffusion...... assay but no, or only weak, antagonistic activity was seen when the medium was supplemented with iran. Sterile- filtered supernatant fluid from a siderophore-producing Pseudomonas grown in fish extract was inhibitory to S. putrefaciens if the number of Pseudomonas was above 10(8) cfu ml(-1). In contrast......, supernatant fluids from siderophore- negative Pseudomonas isolates did not inhibit growth of S. putrefaciens. The inhibitory effect was, except for one strain of Pseudomonas, not seen in supernatant fluids from iron- enriched cultures of Pseudomonas sp. Finally, siderophore- producing Pseudomonas sp. lowered...

  19. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  20. Fish Immunoglobulins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashoof, Sara; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglobulin isotype or taxonomic group and what exemplifies an exception. PMID:27879632

  1. Fishing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  2. Deep Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  3. Novel assay to quantify recombination in a calicivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally J; Job, Natalie; Ficorilli, Nino; Hartley, Carol A; Browning, Glenn F; Gilkerson, James R

    2015-05-15

    Recombination is an important contributor to genomic evolution in many viral families, including the Caliciviridae. While it is known that genomic recombination in caliciviruses contributes to their rapid evolution, the precise molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The majority of reported recombination events in feline calicivirus (FCV) occur at a "hot spot" between the non-structural protein coding region (open reading frame 1) and structural protein coding region (open reading frame 2). To gain a better understanding of the rate of recombination at this point, we developed a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay to quantify the rate of recombination between two divergent strains of FCV during co-infection in cell culture. The assay utilised virus-specific primers upstream and downstream of the recombinational "hot spot" that hybridise with only one of the strains in the co-infection. Recombinant progeny that shared ORF1 sequence identity with one parental virus and ORF2 sequence identity with the other parental virus, and the site of recombination, was confirmed by sequencing the amplicon generated by the assay. Recombinants were detected in co-infected cells using this assay, but not in cells infected with single strains that were mixed together following infection, thus confirming its specificity. Recombination between two FCVs in co-infected cell cultures was estimated to occur at a rate of at least 6.8×10(-6) single direction recombinant genomes per parental virus genome. Further application of this assay will enable factors influencing recombination in caliciviruses to be explored in greater detail, both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comet assay of fish peripheral erythrocytes and its application in aquatic environment contaminated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers%鱼外周血彗星试验及其在多溴联苯醚污染水体中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶核; 宋杨; 楼建林; 刘克澄; 沈海涛; 吴南翔

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过鱼外周血彗星试验方法的摸索,为地面水污染遗传毒性效应检测提供生物学试验手段.方法 红鲫鱼环磷酰胺腹腔注射染毒,设1个对照组(磷酸盐缓冲液,PBS)和5个剂量组(环磷酰胺剂量分别为:12.50、25.00、50.00、100.00、200.00 mg/kg),分别在0、2、24、72 h尾静脉采血,彗星试验检测DNA损伤效应.分别于丰水期和枯水期,在轻污染区A、中污染区B、重污染区C采样,分别获取3尾该地鲫鱼,并以3尾实验室内驯养4周的鲫鱼作为阴性对照,进行鱼肉多溴联苯醚(PBDEs)定量分析及鱼外周血彗星试验.结果 在给药后2h时间点,即能在各剂量组引起DNA损伤效应,最大的DNA损伤效应(15.42±1.30)%出现在50.00 mg/kg剂量组、24h时间点.重污染区C的鱼外周血细胞DNA损伤程度在丰水期和枯水期皆为最高,且显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).污染区B在丰水期与对照组相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).鱼肉中PBDEs含量与预判断的污染程度相关.结论 鱼外周血彗星试验是较为方便、直观、敏感的DNA损伤试验,可用于对多种污染物污染的水体进行生物学评价.%[Objective] To establish the method of Comet Assay of fish peripheral erythrocytes for evaluating the genotoxic effects of ground water pollution. [Methods] Goldfish were exposed to cyclophosphamide by intraperitoneal injection at doses of 12. 50, 25.00, 100.00 and 200.00mg/kg(5 dose group) and PBS was used for control(1 control group). Blood was collected from the caudal vein on Oh, 2h, 24h and 72h. Comet assay was used to detect the DNA damage; three wild crucian carps were collected from 3 sites of sampling (slight pollution site A,moderate pollution site B, heavy pollution site C) in high water period and rainless period, respectively. Three crucian carps were acclimated under laboratory conditions for 4 weeks as negative control. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) was

  5. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C

    2015-05-26

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches.

  6. Development of solution phase hybridisation PCR-ELISA for the detection and quantification of Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus pentosaceus in Nurmi-type cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sinéad M; Doyle, Sean; Murphy, Richard A; Power, Ronan F G

    2005-12-01

    Nurmi-type cultures (NTCs), derived from the fermentation of caecal contents of specifically pathogen-free (SPF) birds, have been used successfully to control salmonella colonisation in chicks. These cultures are undefined in nature and, consequently, it is difficult to obtain approval from regulatory agencies for their use as direct fed microbials (DFMs) for poultry. Progress towards the generation of effective defined probiotics requires further knowledge of the composition of these cultures. As such, species-specific, culture-independent quantification methodologies need to be developed to elucidate the concentration of specific bacterial constituents of NTCs. Quantification of specific bacterial species in such ill-defined complex cultures using conventional culturing methods is inaccurate due to low levels of sensitivity and reproducibility, in addition to slow turnaround times. Furthermore, these methods lack selectivity due to the nature of the accompanying microflora. This study describes the development of a rapid, sensitive, reliable, reproducible, and species-specific culture-independent, solution phase hybridisation PCR-ELISA procedure for the detection and quantification of Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus pentosaceus in NTCs. In this technique, biotin-labelled primers were designed to amplify a species-specific fragment of a marker gene of known copy number, in both species. Resulting amplicons were hybridised with a dinitrophenol (DNP)-labelled oligonucleotide probe in solution and were subsequently captured on a streptavidin-coated microtitre plate. The degree of binding was determined by the addition of IgG (anti-DNP)-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, which was subsequently visualised using a chromogenic substrate, tetramethylbenzidine. This novel quantitative method was capable of detecting E. faecalis and P. pentosaceus at levels as low as 5 CFU per PCR reaction.

  7. Implications of hybridisation and cytotypic differentiation in speciation assessed by AFLP and plastid haplotypes - a case study of Potentilla alpicola La Soie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paule Juraj

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridisation is presumed to be an important mechanism in plant speciation and a creative evolutionary force often accompanied by polyploidisation and in some cases by apomixis. The Potentilla collina group constitutes a particularly suitable model system to study these phenomena as it is morphologically extensively variable, exclusively polyploid and expresses apomixis. In the present study, the alpine taxon Potentilla alpicola has been chosen in order to study its presumed hybrid origin, identify underlying evolutionary processes and infer the discreteness or taxonomic value of hybrid forms. Results Combined analysis of AFLP, cpDNA sequences and ploidy level variation revealed a hybrid origin of the P. alpicola populations from South Tyrol (Italy resulting from crosses between P. pusilla and two cytotypes of P. argentea. Hybrids were locally sympatric with at least one of the parental forms. Three lineages of different evolutionary origin comprising two ploidy levels were identified within P. alpicola. The lineages differed in parentage and the complexity of the evolutionary process. A geographically wide-spread lineage thus contrasted with locally distributed lineages of different origins. Populations of P. collina studied in addition, have been regarded rather as recent derivatives of the hexaploid P. argentea. The observation of clones within both P. alpicola and P. collina suggested a possible apomictic mode of reproduction. Conclusions Different hybridisation scenarios taking place on geographically small scales resulted in viable progeny presumably stabilised by apomixis. The case study of P. alpicola supports that these processes played a significant role in the creation of polymorphism in the genus Potentilla. However, multiple origin of hybrids and backcrossing are considered to produce a variety of evolutionary spontaneous forms existing aside of reproductively stabilised, established lineages.

  8. Quantitative multiplex quantum dot in-situ hybridisation based gene expression profiling in tissue microarrays identifies prognostic genes in acute myeloid leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tholouli, Eleni [Department of Haematology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL (United Kingdom); MacDermott, Sarah [The Medical School, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PT Manchester (United Kingdom); Hoyland, Judith [School of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PT Manchester (United Kingdom); Yin, John Liu [Department of Haematology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Byers, Richard, E-mail: richard.byers@cmft.nhs.uk [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, M13 9PT Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of a quantitative high throughput in situ expression profiling method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application to a tissue microarray of 242 AML bone marrow samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of HOXA4, HOXA9, Meis1 and DNMT3A as prognostic markers in AML. -- Abstract: Measurement and validation of microarray gene signatures in routine clinical samples is problematic and a rate limiting step in translational research. In order to facilitate measurement of microarray identified gene signatures in routine clinical tissue a novel method combining quantum dot based oligonucleotide in situ hybridisation (QD-ISH) and post-hybridisation spectral image analysis was used for multiplex in-situ transcript detection in archival bone marrow trephine samples from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Tissue-microarrays were prepared into which white cell pellets were spiked as a standard. Tissue microarrays were made using routinely processed bone marrow trephines from 242 patients with AML. QD-ISH was performed for six candidate prognostic genes using triplex QD-ISH for DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and for HOXA4, HOXA9, Meis1. Scrambled oligonucleotides were used to correct for background staining followed by normalisation of expression against the expression values for the white cell pellet standard. Survival analysis demonstrated that low expression of HOXA4 was associated with poorer overall survival (p = 0.009), whilst high expression of HOXA9 (p < 0.0001), Meis1 (p = 0.005) and DNMT3A (p = 0.04) were associated with early treatment failure. These results demonstrate application of a standardised, quantitative multiplex QD-ISH method for identification of prognostic markers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical samples, facilitating measurement of gene expression signatures in routine clinical samples.

  9. Sport Fishing Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...

  10. Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  11. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  12. Got a Sick Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  13. Detection of drug residues in fish and fishery products:comparison between chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay%化学发光免疫分析与酶联免疫分析法检测水产品药物残留的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萨仁托雅; 张峰; 郑有虎; 卢亚楠

    2014-01-01

    Detection of furazolidone metabolite ( AOZ ) and chloramphenicol ( CAP ) residues in fish and fishery products was comparatively studied by chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunoassay ( CLEIA ) and traditional colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) . The results showed that CLEIA had better linear range and detection limit than ELISA, and a close correlation of recovery rate was shown in the two methods. In CLISA, the detection limit was about 0. 01 μg/kg for AOZ, and about 0. 016 μg/kg for CAP and the linear range was from 0. 01 to 2. 56μg/kg for AOZ, and from 0. 025μg/kg to 6. 400μg/kg for CAP. In ELISA, however, the detection limit was 0 . 1 μg/kg for AOZ and about 0 . 05 μg/kg for CAP and the linear range was from 0 . 1 to 1 . 62 μg/kg for AOZ and from 0. 05 to 4. 05 μg/kg for CAP. The satisfactory precisions of the assay were found in CLEIA, with variation coefficient of 5. 5%-11. 3% in the intra-assay and 12. 3%-20. 9% in the inter-assay for CAP, and with variation coefficient of 6. 6-11. 1% in the intra-assay and 15. 6%-18. 3% in the inter-assay for AOZ, within the record reference evaluation standard of ELISA residues of veterinary drugs ( kit) .%对检测水产品中呋喃唑酮代谢物( AOZ)和氯霉素( CAP)药物残留的两种方法---化学发光免疫分析( CLEIA)和酶联免疫分析( ELISA)法进行了比较研究。结果表明:两种药物残留检测中, CLEIA分析方法的线性范围和检出限均优于ELISA法,且两种免疫分析法的添加回收率均具有很好的相关性;用CLEIA法检测AOZ的检出限为0.01μg/kg,线性范围为0.01~2.56μg/kg,检测CAP的检出限为0.016μg/kg,线性范围为0.025~6.400μg/kg;用ELISA法检测AOZ的检出限为0.1μg/kg,线性范围为0.10~1.62μg/kg,检测CAP的检出限为0.05μg/kg,线性范围为0.05~4.05μg/kg;用CLEIA法检测CAP的批内变异系数( RSD)为5.5%~11.3%,批间RSD为12.3%~20.9%,检测AOZ的批内RSD为6.6%~11.1%,批间RSD为15.6%~18.3%

  14. Fish mycobacteriosis (Tuberculosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, T.J.; Wood, J.W.

    1959-01-01

    The etiologic agent for the bacterial disease, "fish tuberculosis" (more correctly "mycobacteriosis"), was first observed in carp in 189& from a pond in France. Subsequently similar agents have been isolated from or observed in fish in fresh water, salt water, and brackish water, in fish in aquaria, hatcheries, and natural habitat~ (wild populations of fish). The disease has been recognized as an important infection among hatchery reared salmonid fishes on the West Coast of the United States, and in aquarium fishes such as the neon tetra, the Siamese fighting fish, and in salt water fish held in zoological displays.

  15. No Fishing Now,More Fish Later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Fishing ban for ecological purposes starts on the Pearl River Since April1,a two-month ban on fishing has been imposed on the Pearl River valley in south China.It is the first fishing ban in this area with the purpose of preserving biodiversity in China’s third longest

  16. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...

  17. DETERMINATION OF HISTAMINE IN FISH USING ELISA TECHNIQUE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRUGER, C; SEWING, U; STENGEL, G; KEMA, [No Value; WESTERMANN, J; MANZ, B

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of histamine in fish and fish products via competitive ELISA is described. The advantages of this method are easy sample preparation and handling, screening capabilities, and low costs. Automation enables the performance of the assay with higher series of samples. The Histamine-ELISA is

  18. Level of Aflatoxin in Some Fish Feeds from Fish Farming Processes, Feed Factories and Imported Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    ALTUĞ, Gülşen

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins that are toxic metabolites for human and animals were determined in some fish feed. Eighty-five unit samples taken from "fish farming processes", "feed factories" and "imported feeds" in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. In the analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique were used. Consequently, aflatoxin levels above 20 ppb were detected in 20 samples and from 21.2 to 42.4...

  19. Development of a real-time PCR assay based on primer-probe energy transfer for the detection of swine vesicular disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakhverdyan, M.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Thoren, P.;

    2006-01-01

    remained negative. The sensitivity of assay was five copies of viral genome equivalents. A key point of the assay is tolerance toward mutations in the probe region. Melting curve analysis directly after PCR, with determination of probe melting point, confirmed specific hybridisation of the SVDV strains....... Eight of twenty SVDV strains tested, revealed shifted melting points that indicated mutations in the probe region. All predicted mutations were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. With the PriProET system there is a chance to identify phylogenetically divergent strains of SVDV, which may appear negative...... in other probe-based real-time PCR assays. At the same time, any difference in melting points may provide an indication of divergence in the probe region. The high sensitivity, specificity, and tolerance toward mutations in the probe region of the SVDV PriProET assay may improve the early and rapid...

  20. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  1. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, James W.

    1989-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. Second year activities focused on full implementation of disease surveillance activities and histopathological support services to participating state agencies. Persistent and sometimes severe disease losses were caused by infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho and in spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River. Diagnostic capability was enhanced by the installation, for field use, of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center for the detection and assay of bacterial kidney disease and by a dot-blot'' training session for virus identification at the Lower Columbia Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River basin National Fish hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis. This report briefly describes work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at those hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1988. 2 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. The unique karyotype of Henochilus wheatlandii, a critically endangered fish living in a fast-developing region in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla C Silva

    Full Text Available Henochilus wheatlandii, the only species of this genus, is critically endangered and was considered extinct for over a century. The rediscovery of this fish in 1996 made it possible to study its phylogenetic relationships with other species in the subfamily Bryconinae. The aim of this study was to characterise the karyotype of H. wheatlandii. Standard staining, C-positive heterochromatin and nucleolar organiser region (NOR banding, chromomycin A(3 staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH using 5S rDNA and 18S rDNA probes were conducted on nineteen specimens collected in the Santo Antonio River, a sub-basin of the Doce River in Ferros municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Henochilus wheatlandii shared the same diploid number and chromosome morphology as other species of Bryconinae. However, its heterochromatin distribution patterns, NOR localisation, and FISH patterns revealed a cytogenetic profile unique among Neotropical Bryconinae, emphasizing the evolutionary uniqueness of this threatened species.

  3. Oxidative Stability of Nano-Microstructures containing fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Özdemir, N.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen

    of thermolabile active compounds such as fish oil. Moreover, encapsulates produced present a decreased size, which allows their incorporation into food systems without affecting product sensory qualities. In this work, electrohydrodynamic processing and oxidative stability of NMS containing fish oil were...... solutions and on the morphology of NMS was assayed. Secondly, the oxidative stability of the biopolymer solutions containing emulsified fish oil during storage (14 days at 40 °C) and of NMS loaded with fish oil (e.g. pullulan fibers and dextran and WPC capsules) was determined. Finally, to improve...... the oxidative status of the NMS, pullulan fibers, dextran capsules and WPC capsules were produced by adding neat fish oil instead of emulsified fish oil to the biopolymer solutions. These latter NMS presented a higher oxidative stability, which may be due to a better entrapment of the fish oil into biopolymer...

  4. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  5. A DNA Microarray-Based Assay to Detect Dual Infection with Two Dengue Virus Serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Díaz-Badillo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Here; we have described and tested a microarray based-method for the screening of dengue virus (DENV serotypes. This DNA microarray assay is specific and sensitive and can detect dual infections with two dengue virus serotypes and single-serotype infections. Other methodologies may underestimate samples containing more than one serotype. This technology can be used to discriminate between the four DENV serotypes. Single-stranded DNA targets were covalently attached to glass slides and hybridised with specific labelled probes. DENV isolates and dengue samples were used to evaluate microarray performance. Our results demonstrate that the probes hybridized specifically to DENV serotypes; with no detection of unspecific signals. This finding provides evidence that specific probes can effectively identify single and double infections in DENV samples.

  6. A DNA Microarray-Based Assay to Detect Dual Infection with Two Dengue Virus Serotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Badillo, Alvaro; de Lourdes Muñoz, María; Perez-Ramirez, Gerardo; Altuzar, Victor; Burgueño, Juan; Mendoza-Alvarez, Julio G.; Martínez-Muñoz, Jorge P.; Cisneros, Alejandro; Navarrete-Espinosa, Joel; Sanchez-Sinencio, Feliciano

    2014-01-01

    Here; we have described and tested a microarray based-method for the screening of dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. This DNA microarray assay is specific and sensitive and can detect dual infections with two dengue virus serotypes and single-serotype infections. Other methodologies may underestimate samples containing more than one serotype. This technology can be used to discriminate between the four DENV serotypes. Single-stranded DNA targets were covalently attached to glass slides and hybridised with specific labelled probes. DENV isolates and dengue samples were used to evaluate microarray performance. Our results demonstrate that the probes hybridized specifically to DENV serotypes; with no detection of unspecific signals. This finding provides evidence that specific probes can effectively identify single and double infections in DENV samples. PMID:24776933

  7. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  8. Colorimetric protein assay techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapan, C V; Lundblad, R L; Price, N C

    1999-04-01

    There has been an increase in the number of colorimetric assay techniques for the determination of protein concentration over the past 20 years. This has resulted in a perceived increase in sensitivity and accuracy with the advent of new techniques. The present review considers these advances with emphasis on the potential use of such technologies in the assay of biopharmaceuticals. The techniques reviewed include Coomassie Blue G-250 dye binding (the Bradford assay), the Lowry assay, the bicinchoninic acid assay and the biuret assay. It is shown that each assay has advantages and disadvantages relative to sensitivity, ease of performance, acceptance in the literature, accuracy and reproducibility/coefficient of variation/laboratory-to-laboratory variation. A comparison of the use of several assays with the same sample population is presented. It is suggested that the most critical issue in the use of a chromogenic protein assay for the characterization of a biopharmaceutical is the selection of a standard for the calibration of the assay; it is crucial that the standard be representative of the sample. If it is not possible to match the standard with the sample from the perspective of protein composition, then it is preferable to use an assay that is not sensitive to the composition of the protein such as a micro-Kjeldahl technique, quantitative amino acid analysis or the biuret assay. In a complex mixture it might be inappropriate to focus on a general method of protein determination and much more informative to use specific methods relating to the protein(s) of particular interest, using either specific assays or antibody-based methods. The key point is that whatever method is adopted as the 'gold standard' for a given protein, this method needs to be used routinely for calibration.

  9. Suppression substractive hybridisation (SSH) and real time PCR reveal differential gene expression in the Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, challenged with Ostreid herpesvirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, T; Faury, N; Barbosa-Solomieu, V; Moreau, K

    2011-07-01

    Virus-induced genes were identified using suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) from Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, haemocytes challenged by OsHV-1. A total of 304 clones from SSH forward library were sequenced. Among these sequences, some homologues corresponded to (i) immune related genes (macrophage express protein, IK cytokine, interferon-induced protein 44 or multicopper oxidase), (ii) apoptosis related genes (Bcl-2) and (iii) cell signalling and virus receptor genes (glypican). Molecular characterization and phylogenic analysis of 3 immune-related genes (macrophage expressed protein, multicopper oxidase and immunoglobulin domain cell adhesion molecule) were performed. Finally, quantitative PCR revealed significant changes in the expression of immune related genes (multicopper oxidase, macrophage expressed protein, myeloid differentiation factor 88 and interferon-induced protein 44) in oysters experimentally challenged with OsHV-1. These findings provide a first basis for studying the role of innate immunity in response to viruses in bivalves and identified genes may serve as markers of interest in breeding programs in order to obtain selected oysters presenting OsHV-1 resistance.

  10. Immunolabelling, histochemistry and in situ hybridisation in human skeletal muscle fibres to detect myosin heavy chain expression at the protein and mRNA level

    Science.gov (United States)

    SERRANO, A. L.; PÉREZ, MARGARITA; LUCÍA, A.; CHICHARRO, J. L.; QUIROZ-ROTHE, E.; RIVERO, J. L. L.

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of muscle fibres classified on the basis of their content of different myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms was analysed in vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of 15 young men (with an average age of 22 y) by correlating immunohistochemistry with specific anti-MHC monoclonal antibodies, myofibrillar ATPase (mATPase) histochemistry and in situ hybridisation with probes specific for MHC β-slow, MHC-IIA and MHC-IIX. The characterisation of a large number of individual fibres was compared and correlated on a fibre-to-fibre basis. The panel of monoclonal antibodies used in the study allowed classification of human skeletal muscle fibres into 5 categories according to the MHC isoform they express at the protein level, types I, I+IIA, IIA, IIAX and IIX. Hybrid fibres coexpressing two isoforms represented a considerable proportion of the fibre composition (about 14%) and were clearly underestimated by mATPase histochemistry. For a very high percentage of fibres there was a precise correspondence between the MHC protein isoforms and mRNA transcripts. The integrated methods used demonstrate a high degree of precision of the immunohistochemical procedure used for the identification and quantification of human skeletal muscle fibre types. The monoclonal antibody S5-8H2 is particularly useful for identifying hybrid IIAX fibres. This protocol offers new prospects for muscle fibre classification in human experimental studies. PMID:11554510

  11. In situ reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction to identify intracellular nucleic acids without the necessity of DNAse pretreatment and hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menschikowski, M; Vogel, M; Eckey, R; Dinnebier, G; Jaross, W

    2001-01-01

    In the present study a protocol of in situ reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (in situ RT-nested PCR) was examined based on the following modifications. (i) To exclude false positive signals caused by "DNA repair mechanisms" and "endogenous priming", a two-step PCR was applied after reverse transcription. The first step was performed in the presence of extrinsic primers and unlabeled nucleotides with a maximum of PCR cycles possible without destroying the cell morphology. The second step consisted of only one annealing/elongation reaction, the target sequence marked by addition of digoxigenin-labeled nucleotides and intrinsic primers. (ii) In order to prevent amplifications of genomic DNA nested primer pairs were applied crossing intron sequences. (iii) To minimize the diffusion of PCR products in cells, the extrinsic primers were extended with complementary 5(prime, variant)-tails. This approach results in the generation of high molecular weight concatamers during PCR cycles. By applying this protocol, immunostainings specific for phospholipase A2 of type IIA mRNA were exclusively detectable in the cytoplasm of HepG2 hepatoma cells, which were used as a model system, whereas the nuclei were unstained. Multiple control experiments yielded completely negative results. These data suggest that the in situ RT-nested PCR, which in comparison to the method of in situ RT-PCR-in situ-hybridisation is simpler and less time-consuming, can be used as an alternative approach to identify intracellular nucleic acids.

  12. In situ hybridisation for the detection of Leishmania species in paraffin wax-embedded canine tissues using a digoxigenin-labelled oligonucleotide probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinhopl, N; Mostegl, M M; Richter, B; Nedorost, N; Maderner, A; Fragner, K; Weissenböck, H

    2011-11-12

    The diagnosis of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is currently predominantly achieved by cytological or histological identification of amastigotes in biopsy samples, demonstration of specific anti-Leishmania antibodies and PCR-based approaches. All these methods have the advantage of being sensitive and more or less specific; nevertheless, most of them also have disadvantages. A chromogenic in situ hybridisation (ISH) procedure with a digoxigenin-labelled probe, targeting a fragment of the 5.8S rRNA was developed for the detection of all species of Leishmania parasites in routinely paraffin wax-embedded canine tissues. This method was validated in comparison with traditional techniques (histology, PCR), on various tissues from three dogs with histological changes consistent with a florid leishmaniosis. Amastigote forms of Leishmania gave clear signals and were easily identified using ISH. Various tissues from 10 additional dogs with clinical suspicion or/and a positive serological test but without histological presence of amastigotes did not show any ISH signals. Potential cross-reactivity of the probe was ruled out by negative outcome of the ISH against selected protozoa (including the related Trypanosoma cruzi) and fungi. Thus, ISH proved to be a powerful tool for unambiguous detection of Leishmania parasites in paraffin wax-embedded tissues.

  13. In situ hybridisation detects pro-apoptotic gene expression of a Bcl-2 family member in white syndrome-affected coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, T D; Knack, B; Ukani, L; Seneca, F; Weiss, Y; Leggat, W

    2015-12-09

    White syndrome has been described as one of the most prolific diseases on the Great Barrier Reef. Previously, apoptotic cell death has been described as the mechanism driving the characteristic rapid tissue loss associated with this disease, but the molecular mechanisms controlling apoptotic cell death in coral disease have yet to be investigated. In situ methods were used to study the expression patterns of 2 distinct regulators of apoptosis in Acropora hyacinthus tissues undergoing white syndrome and apoptotic cell death. Apoptotic genes within the Bcl-2 family were not localized in apparently healthy coral tissues. However, a Bcl-2 family member (bax-like) was found to localize to cells and tissues affected by white syndrome and those with morphological evidence for apoptosis. A potential up-regulation of pro-apoptotic or bax-like gene expression in tissues with apoptotic cell death adjacent to disease lesions is consistent with apoptosis being the primary cause of rapid tissue loss in coral affected by white syndrome. Pro-apoptotic (bax-like) expression in desmocytes and the basal tissue layer, the calicodermis, distant from the disease lesion suggests that apoptosis may also underlie the sloughing of healthy tissues associated with the characteristic, rapid spread of tissue loss, evident of this disease. This study also shows that in situ hybridisation is an effective tool for studying gene expression in adult corals, and wider application of these methods should allow a better understanding of many aspects of coral biology and disease pathology.

  14. Use of dual section mRNA in situ hybridisation/immunohistochemistry to clarify gene expression patterns during the early stages of nephron development in the embryo and in the mature nephron of the adult mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgas, Kylie; Rumballe, Bree; Wilkinson, Lorine; Chiu, Han Sheng; Lesieur, Emmanuelle; Gilbert, Thierry; Little, Melissa H

    2008-11-01

    The kidney is the most complex organ within the urogenital system. The adult mouse kidney contains in excess of 8,000 mature nephrons, each of which can be subdivided into a renal corpuscle and 14 distinct tubular segments. The histological complexity of this organ can make the clarification of the site of gene expression by in situ hybridisation difficult. We have defined a panel of seven antibodies capable of identifying the six stages of early nephron development, the tubular nephron segments and the components of the renal corpuscle within the embryonic and adult mouse kidney. We have analysed in detail the protein expression of Wt1, Calb1 Aqp1, Aqp2 and Umod using these antibodies. We have then coupled immunohistochemistry with RNA in situ hybridisation in order to precisely identify the expression pattern of different genes, including Wnt4, Umod and Spp1. This technique will be invaluable for examining at high resolution, the structure of both the developing and mature nephron where standard in situ hybridisation and histological techniques are insufficient. The use of this technique will enhance the expression analyses of genes which may be involved in nephron formation and the function of the mature nephron in the mouse.

  15. Endemic North African Quercus afares Pomel originates from hybridisation between two genetically very distant oak species (Q. suber L. and Q. canariensis Willd.): evidence from nuclear and cytoplasmic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, C; Toumi, L; Jarne, P; Sarda, V; Di Giusto, F; Lumaret, R

    2006-02-01

    Hybridisation is a potent force in plant evolution, although there are few reported examples of stabilised species that have been created through homoploid hybridisation. We focus here on Quercus afares, an endemic North African species that combines morphological, physiological and ecological traits of both Q. suber and Q. canariensis, two phylogenetically distant species. These two species are sympatric with Q. afares over most of its distribution. We studied two Q. afares populations (one from Algeria and one from Tunisia), as well as several populations of both Q. suber and Q. canariensis sampled both within and outside areas where these species overlap with Q. afares. A genetic analysis was conducted using both nuclear (allozymes) and chloroplastic markers, which shows that Q. afares originates from a Q. suber x Q. canariensis hybridisation. At most loci, Q. afares predominantly possesses alleles from Q. suber, suggesting that the initial cross between Q. suber and Q. canariensis was followed by backcrossing with Q. suber. Other hypotheses that can account for this result, including genetic drift, gene silencing, gene conversion and selection, are discussed. A single Q. suber chlorotype was detected, and all Q. afares individuals displayed this chlorotype, indicating that Q. suber was the maternal parent. Q. afares is genetically, morphologically and ecologically differentiated from its parental species, and can therefore be considered as a stabilised hybrid species.

  16. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  17. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1990 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, James W.

    1990-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. This report briefly describes third-year work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin and for histopathological support services provided to participating state agencies. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at participating Service hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1989. Items of note included severe disease losses to infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho, the detection of IHN virus in juvenile spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River, and improved bacterial kidney disease (BKD) detection and adult assay by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River Basin National Fish Hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis and is summarized herein. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Effects of various feed supplements containing fish protein hydrolysate or fish processing by-products on the innate immune functions of juvenile coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.; Alcorn, S.W.; Fairgrieve, W.T.; Shearer, K.D.; Roley, D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunomodulators administered to fish in the diet have been shown in some cases to enhance innate immune defense mechanisms. Recent studies have suggested that polypeptide fractions found in fish protein hydrolysates may stimulate factors in fish important for disease resistance. For the current study, groups of coho salmon were reared on practical feeds that contained either fish meal (Control diet), fish meal supplemented with cooked fish by-products, or fish meal supplemented with hydrolyzed fish protein alone, or with hydrolyzed fish protein and processed fish bones. For each diet group, three replicate tanks of fish were fed the experimental diets for 6 weeks. Morphometric measurements, and serologic and cellular assays were used to evaluate the general health and immunocompetence of fish in the various feed groups. Whereas the experimental diets had no effect on the morphometric and cellular measurements, fish fed cooked by-products had increased leucocrit levels and lower hematocrit levels than fish from the other feed groups. Innate cellular responses were increased in all feed groups after feeding the four experimental diets compared with pre-feed results. Subgroups of fish from each diet group were also challenged with Vibrio anguillarum (ca. 7.71 ?? 105 bacteria ml-1) at 15??C by immersion. No differences were found in survival among the various feed groups.

  19. Umatilla - Rough Fish Eradication

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to enhance environmental conditions in the McCormack Slough on Umatilla NWR, the population of rough fish, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and...

  20. Textbook of fish health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Post, George

    1987-01-01

    Written to fill the great need for a fish disease textbook for college students, this new edition contains the latest information and important discoveries related to those fish diseases that affect man economically...

  1. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which ...

  2. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...

  3. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  4. Medusivorous fishes, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish specie

  5. Medusivorous fishes, a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish species consume medusae and some reasons to suspect that there are even more that do so, are discussed.

  6. Medusivorous fishes, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish

  7. Microinjection and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay for Studying mRNA Export in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Shi, Min; Cheng, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Microinjection and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) assay is a useful method for mRNA export studies, which can overcome the problems of traditional transfection in cells. Here, we describe the method of microinjection and FISH assay applied in investigation of mRNA export. By this method we can estimate the mRNA export kinetics, examining mRNA export in cells with low transfection efficiencies, and observing nuclear export of aberrant RNAs.

  8. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  9. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  10. Fish under exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish.

  11. Zoonoses associated with fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Shane

    2011-09-01

    The taxonomic group that composes the fishes is the most diverse group of vertebrates worldwide. The challenges of unique physiologies, a foreign environment, and many unknowns attract a passionate group of biologists and veterinarians. Economically, fishes have become vital as food, bait, and companion animals. Fishermen and fish handlers (processing plants) represent the historical human population exposed to fish zoonoses, but growth in aquaculture and aquarium hobbyists have led to an increase in published fish-borne zoonotic cases starting in the late 1950s that bloomed in the 1980s. Human physicians, particularly dermatologists and infectious disease specialists, are now more aware of fish-borne zoonoses, but they can be assisted with diagnosis when informed patients give more detailed histories with fish/water exposure.

  12. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovhannisyan Galina G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comet assay and micronucleus (MN test are widely applied in genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. While comet assay permits to measure direct DNA-strand breaking capacity of a tested agent MN test allows estimating the induced amount of chromosome and/or genome mutations. The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH techniques. FISH plus comet assay allows the recognition of targets of DNA damage and repairing directly. FISH combined with MN test is able to characterize the occurrence of different chromosomes in MN and to identify potential chromosomal targets of mutagenic substances. Thus, combination of FISH with the comet assay or MN test proved to be promising techniques for evaluation of the distribution of DNA and chromosome damage in the entire genome of individual cells. FISH technique also permits to study comet and MN formation, necessary for correct application of these methods. This paper reviews the relevant literature on advantages and limitations of Comet-FISH and MN-FISH assays application in genetic toxicology.

  13. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander M; Kopps, Anna M; Allen, Simon J; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frère, Celine H

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32) and Roebuck Bays (n = 25), and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19) and the North West Cape (n = 18). All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins) and 13 (for humpback dolphins) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05-0.09; Pdolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for the first documented case of hybridisation between a female snubfin dolphin and a male humpback dolphin.

  14. In Situ Reverse Transcriptase-Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction to Identify Intracellular Nucleic Acids without the Necessity of Dnase Pretreatment and Hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Menschikowski

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a protocol of in situ reverse transcriptase‐nested polymerase chain reaction (in situ RT‐nested PCR was examined based on the following modifications. (i To exclude false positive signals caused by “DNA repair mechanisms” and “endogenous priming”, a two‐step PCR was applied after reverse transcription. The first step was performed in the presence of extrinsic primers and unlabeled nucleotides with a maximum of PCR cycles possible without destroying the cell morphology. The second step consisted of only one annealing/elongation reaction, the target sequence marked by addition of digoxigenin‐labeled nucleotides and intrinsic primers. (ii In order to prevent amplifications of genomic DNA nested primer pairs were applied crossing intron sequences. (iii To minimize the diffusion of PCR products in cells, the extrinsic primers were extended with complementary 5′‐tails. This approach results in the generation of high molecular weight concatamers during PCR cycles. By applying this protocol, immunostainings specific for phospholipase A2 of type IIA mRNA were exclusively detectable in the cytoplasm of HepG2 hepatoma cells, which were used as a model system, whereas the nuclei were unstained. Multiple control experiments yielded completely negative results. These data suggest that the in situ RT‐nested PCR, which in comparison to the method of in situ RT‐PCR‐in situ‐hybridisation is simpler and less time‐consuming, can be used as an alternative approach to identify intracellular nucleic acids.

  15. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  16. Columbia River ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  17. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  18. American Samoa ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set...

  19. Antibacterial effect of protamine assayed by impedimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Gill, T.; Gram, Lone

    1995-01-01

    Impedimetric measurements were used to assay the antibacterial effect of protamine. A good linear correlation between the impedance detection time and the initial cell counts was obtained (r = 0 . 99, n = 2). As basic peptides may cause clumping of cells, this correlation curve was used when esti...... A suspended in buffer was not lethal as was the effect on growing cells; however, protamine (50-500 mu g ml(-1)) killed the Gram-negative fish spoilage bacteria Shewanella putrefaciens when the live cells were suspended in buffer....

  20. Quality control in FISH as part of a laboratory's quality management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Ros

    2010-01-01

    Quality control in the laboratory setting requires the establishment of a quality management system (QMS) that covers training, standard operating procedures, internal quality control, validation of tests, and external quality assessment (EQA). Laboratory accreditation through inspection by an external body is also desirable as this provides an effective procedure for assuring quality and also reassures the patient that the laboratory is working to acceptable international standards. The implementation of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) in the routine diagnostic laboratory requires rigorous quality control with attention to when it is appropriate to apply the technology, a systematic approach to the validation of probes, policies and procedures documenting the analytical validity of all FISH tests performed, technical procedures involved, and a comprehensive means of reporting results. Knowledge of the limitations of any FISH test is required in relation to the probe and/or tissue being examined, since errors of analysis and interpretation can result in incorrect patient management. A structured QMS with internal quality control and regular audits will minimise the error rate.

  1. Cell viability assays: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of cell viability plays a fundamental role in all forms of cell culture. Sometimes it is the main purpose of the experiment, such as in toxicity assays. Alternatively, cell viability can be used to -correlate cell behaviour to cell number, providing a more accurate picture of, for example, anabolic -activity. There are wide arrays of cell viability methods which range from the most routine trypan blue dye exclusion assay to highly complex analysis of individual cells, such as using RAMAN microscopy. The cost, speed, and complexity of equipment required will all play a role in determining the assay used. This chapter aims to provide an overview of many of the assays available today.

  2. Tube-Forming Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  3. Transgenic Animal Mutation Assays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Chen; Ph.D.D.A.B.T.

    2005-01-01

    @@ The novel transgenic mouse and rat mutation assays have provided a tool for analyzing in vivo mutation in any tissue, thus permitting the direct comparison of cancer incidence with mutant frequency.

  4. Assays for thrombopoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.P.

    1977-01-01

    In summary, thrombopoietin levels have been determined indirectly by measuring thrombocytopoiesis in assay animals (platelet counting, measurement of isotope incorporation into newly formed platelets, changes in platelet sizes, or alterations in number and size of megakaryocytes) and by use of an immunoassay. Although much work remains, it seems clear at the present time that isotopic uptake into platelets of specially prepared assay mice (rebound-thrombocytosis) is superior to the other techniques now available for the measurement of thrombopoietin. However, the ideal assay for TSF which is specific, rapid, and inexpensive is yet to be developed. An immunoassay is in the development stage, but will require additional work before it can be utilized for the routine assay of TSF.

  5. FISH in micronucleus test demonstrates aneugenic action of rotenone in a common freshwater fish species, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Karina M; Grisolia, Cesar K; Pieczarka, Julio C; de Souza, Ludmilla R; Filho, José de Souza; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y

    2014-05-01

    Aneuploidies are numerical genetic alterations that lead to changes in the normal number of chromosomes due to abnormal segregation during cell division. This type of alteration can occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to mutagenic agents. The presence of these agents in the environment has increased concern about potential damage to human health. Rotenone, derived from plants of the genera Derris and Lonchocarpus, is a product that is used all over the world as a pesticide and piscicide. Before establishing its potential and efficiency for these purposes, it is essential to know more about the possible adverse effects that it may cause. The current work aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of rotenone using fish from the species Oreochromis niloticus, as well as to help in understanding its action mechanism. Our results showed the mutagenic potential of rotenone evidenced by increased formation of micronuclei and nuclear buds at low doses of exposure. The use of fluorescence in situ hybridisation technique made it possible to measure the aneugenic potential of the substance, probably due to its impairment of mitotic spindle formation.

  6. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  7. New Rapid Spore Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, Gerhard; Conley, Catharine

    2012-07-01

    The presentation will detail approved Planetary Protection specifications for the Rapid Spore Assay for spacecraft components and subsystems. Outlined will be the research and studies on which the specifications were based. The research, funded by ESA and NASA/JPL, was conducted over a period of two years and was followed by limited cleanroom studies to assess the feasibility of this assay during spacecraft assembly.

  8. Fish Product-Borne Histamine Intoxication Outbreak and Survey of Imported Fish and Fish Products in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Jelena; Babić, Jelena; Jaksic, Sandra; Kartalovic, Brankica; Ljubojevic, Dragana; Cirkovic, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Histamine levels in fish and fish products are regarded as a primary criterion for food safety, considering the effects of histamine on human health. The aim of this research was to describe a case of massive histamine intoxication in Serbian children and to provide relevant information regarding the presence of histamine in imported marine fish and fish products available in the Serbian market. In January 2014, an incident of foodborne illness occurred in 28 children (aged 2 to 5 years) who consumed canned sardines in a kindergarten in Vojvodina province, northern Serbia. The diagnosis was established based on anamnestic data, epidemiological data, and clinical symptoms and confirmed by positive histamine finding in the incriminated sardines. Substantially high histamine levels (>300 mg/kg) were detected in seven of the nine examined units of these canned sardines. In addition, during an official veterinary border control from January 2013 to January 2015, 273 lots in total, including 2,457 fish and fishery product units, were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Even though only nine (3.29%) of all examined lots were declared as unsafe for human consumption, the presented case of histamine intoxication strongly suggests the importance of border inspection and comprehensive control of each imported lot.

  9. A high-throughput chemically induced inflammation assay in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebel Urban

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on innate immunity have benefited from the introduction of zebrafish as a model system. Transgenic fish expressing fluorescent proteins in leukocyte populations allow direct, quantitative visualization of an inflammatory response in vivo. It has been proposed that this animal model can be used for high-throughput screens aimed at the identification of novel immunomodulatory lead compounds. However, current assays require invasive manipulation of fish individually, thus preventing high-content screening. Results Here we show that specific, noninvasive damage to lateral line neuromast cells can induce a robust acute inflammatory response. Exposure of fish larvae to sublethal concentrations of copper sulfate selectively damages the sensory hair cell population inducing infiltration of leukocytes to neuromasts within 20 minutes. Inflammation can be assayed in real time using transgenic fish expressing fluorescent proteins in leukocytes or by histochemical assays in fixed larvae. We demonstrate the usefulness of this method for chemical and genetic screens to detect the effect of immunomodulatory compounds and mutations affecting the leukocyte response. Moreover, we transformed the assay into a high-throughput screening method by using a customized automated imaging and processing system that quantifies the magnitude of the inflammatory reaction. Conclusions This approach allows rapid screening of thousands of compounds or mutagenized zebrafish for effects on inflammation and enables the identification of novel players in the regulation of innate immunity and potential lead compounds toward new immunomodulatory therapies. We have called this method the chemically induced inflammation assay, or ChIn assay. See Commentary article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/148.

  10. Do Fish Sleep?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Most fish can’t shut their eyes, so it’s easy to think they don’t sleep. But that’s like assuming humans don’t sleep because we can’t shut our ears to drown out sound. In fact, many species of fish take time out during the day or (more often) at night to enter a sleeplike stage. Some of these fish float in place, others lie on the bottom。

  11. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  12. Combating Illegal Fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Stanciu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing is a worldwide phenomenon. Its extent and its environmental,economic and social consequences are such that it has become a priority issue at international level. IUU fishingcontributes to the depletion of fish stocks and jeopardises protection and recovery measures put in place to ensure theviability of resources. It represents unfair competition for those who exploit fish resources legally. The Commissionhave been involved in the fight against IUU fishing for over a decade and in 2002 the Commission adopted an ActionPlan against IUU fishing inspired by the FAOs International Plan of Action to prevent, deter and eliminate IUUfishing of 2001. However, despite regional and international efforts to stop IUU fishing the phenomenon is still agrowing problem and as a result, the European Community intensified its action towards IUU fishing by launching aconsultation process in 2007. A Proposal to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing was adopted in October 2007and a Regulation to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing was adopted on 29September 2008, after a unanimous political agreement.

  13. Anglers' fishing problem

    CERN Document Server

    Karpowicz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The considered model will be formulated as related to "the fishing problem" even if the other applications of it are much more obvious. The angler goes fishing. He uses various techniques and he has at most two fishing rods. He buys a fishing ticket for a fixed time. The fishes are caught with the use of different methods according to the renewal processes. The fishes' value and the inter arrival times are given by the sequences of independent, identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables with the known distribution functions. It forms the marked renewal--reward process. The angler's measure of satisfaction is given by the difference between the utility function, depending on the value of the fishes caught, and the cost function connected with the time of fishing. In this way, the angler's relative opinion about the methods of fishing is modelled. The angler's aim is to have as much satisfaction as possible and additionally he has to leave the lake before a fixed moment. Therefore his goal is to find two...

  14. Of Fish and Micrornas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower...... to the mechanisms of control of gene expression, impacting a broad range of biological processes. Thus far, >25, 000 miRNA sequences have been identified in 193 species, including fish. In fish, the interest on miRNAs started with the analysis of their expression and function during embryonic development. In our...... selection markers to identify disease-resistant fish....

  15. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  16. Direct evaluation of macroalgal removal by herbivorous coral reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantyka, C. S.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2007-06-01

    Few studies have examined the relative functional impacts of individual herbivorous fish species on coral reef ecosystem processes in the Indo-Pacific. This study assessed the potential grazing impact of individual species within an inshore herbivorous reef fish assemblage on the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), by determining which fish species were able to remove particular macroalgal species. Transplanted multiple-choice algal assays and remote stationary underwater digital video cameras were used to quantify the impact of local herbivorous reef fish species on 12 species of macroalgae. Macroalgal removal by the fishes was rapid. Within 3 h of exposure to herbivorous reef fishes there was significant evidence of intense grazing. After 12 h of exposure, 10 of the 12 macroalgal species had decreased to less than 15% of their original mass. Chlorodesmis fastigiata (Chlorophyta) and Galaxaura sp. (Rhodophyta) showed significantly less susceptibility to herbivorous reef fish grazing than all other macroalgae, even after 24 h exposure. Six herbivorous and/or nominally herbivorous reef fish species were identified as the dominant grazers of macroalgae: Siganus doliatus, Siganus canaliculatus, Chlorurus microrhinos, Hipposcarus longiceps, Scarus rivulatus and Pomacanthus sexstriatus. The siganid S. doliatus fed heavily on Hypnea sp., while S. canaliculatus fed intensively on Sargassum sp. Variation in macroalgal susceptibility was not clearly correlated with morphological and/or chemical defenses that have been previously suggested as deterrents against herbivory. Nevertheless, the results stress the potential importance of individual herbivorous reef fish species in removing macroalgae from coral reefs.

  17. Against vaccine assay secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors.

  18. Against vaccine assay secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors. PMID:25826194

  19. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Deciphering the hybridisation history leading to the Lager lineage based on the mosaic genomes of Saccharomyces bayanus strains NBRC1948 and CBS380.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu-Vang Nguyen

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces bayanus is a yeast species described as one of the two parents of the hybrid brewing yeast S. pastorianus. Strains CBS380(T and NBRC1948 have been retained successively as pure-line representatives of S. bayanus. In the present study, sequence analyses confirmed and upgraded our previous finding: S. bayanus type strain CBS380(T harbours a mosaic genome. The genome of strain NBRC1948 was also revealed to be mosaic. Both genomes were characterized by amplification and sequencing of different markers, including genes involved in maltotriose utilization or genes detected by array-CGH mapping. Sequence comparisons with public Saccharomyces spp. nucleotide sequences revealed that the CBS380(T and NBRC1948 genomes are composed of: a predominant non-cerevisiae genetic background belonging to S. uvarum, a second unidentified species provisionally named S. lagerae, and several introgressed S. cerevisiae fragments. The largest cerevisiae-introgressed DNA common to both genomes totals 70kb in length and is distributed in three contigs, cA, cB and cC. These vary in terms of length and presence of MAL31 or MTY1 (maltotriose-transporter gene. In NBRC1948, two additional cerevisiae-contigs, cD and cE, totaling 12kb in length, as well as several smaller cerevisiae fragments were identified. All of these contigs were partially detected in the genomes of S. pastorianus lager strains CBS1503 (S. monacensis and CBS1513 (S. carlsbergensis explaining the noticeable common ability of S. bayanus and S. pastorianus to metabolize maltotriose. NBRC1948 was shown to be inter-fertile with S. uvarum CBS7001. The cross involving these two strains produced F1 segregants resembling the strains CBS380(T or NRRLY-1551. This demonstrates that these S. bayanus strains were the offspring of a cross between S. uvarum and a strain similar to NBRC1948. Phylogenies established with selected cerevisiae and non-cerevisiae genes allowed us to decipher the complex hybridisation

  1. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis dolphins in north-western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Brown

    the first documented case of hybridisation between a female snubfin dolphin and a male humpback dolphin.

  2. CTL ELISPOT assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Elena; Popescu, Iulia; Gigante, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot (Elispot) is a quantitative method for measuring relevant parameters of T cell activation. The sensitivity of Elispot allows the detection of low-frequency antigen-specific T cells that secrete cytokines and effector molecules, such as granzyme B and perforin. Cytotoxic T cell (CTL) studies have taken advantage with this high-throughput technology by providing insights into quantity and immune kinetics. Accuracy, sensitivity, reproducibility, and robustness of Elispot resulted in a wide range of applications in research as well as in diagnostic field. Actually, CTL monitoring by Elispot is a gold standard for the evaluation of antigen-specific T cell immunity in clinical trials and vaccine candidates where the ability to detect rare antigen-specific T cells is of relevance for immune diagnostic. The most utilized Elispot assay is the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) test, a marker for CD8(+) CTL activation, but Elispot can also be used to distinguish different subsets of activated T cells by using other cytokines such as T-helper (Th) 1-type cells (characterized by the production of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-21, and TNF-α), Th2 (producing cytokines like IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13), and Th17 (IL-17) cells. The reliability of Elispot-generated data, by the evaluation of T cell frequency recognizing individual antigen/peptide, is the core of this method currently applied widely to investigate specific immune responses in cancer, infections, allergies, and autoimmune diseases. The Elispot assay is competing with other methods measuring single-cell cytokine production, e.g., intracellular cytokine by FACS or Miltenyi cytokine secretion assay. Other types of lymphocyte frequency and function assays include limiting dilution assay (LDA), cytotoxic T cell assay (CTL), and tetramer staining. Compared with respect to sensitivity the Elispot assay is outranking other methods to define frequency of antigen-specific lymphocytes. The method

  3. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is /sup 125/I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed.

  4. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Areas Protected From Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Designated Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) areas where fishing or the use of fishing gears has been restricted or modified in order to minimize the adverse effects of...

  5. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  6. Fish Springs NWR mammal, fish, amphibian, and reptile list

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a species list for mammals, fishes, amphibians, and reptiles found on or adjacent to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, as of October, 1996.

  7. GENOTYPING OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS FROM FRESH WATER FISH AND FISH PICKLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarsh Jain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the genotypes of Clostridium perfringens in fish and fish based products from Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India. A total of 301 samples consisting intestinal contents of freshwater fish (234 from various dams, freshwater lakes, ponds, retail shops and markets and fish pickles (67 obtained from randomly selected retail shops and supermarkets were investigated. Bacterial isolations, identifications and phenotypic characterization of virulence factors were carried out as per standard microbiological procedures. Genotyping of the C. perfringens isolates were done by amplifying four major lethal toxin genes namely- alpha toxin gene (cpa, beta toxin gene (cpb, epsilon toxin gene (etx, iota toxin gene (iA in a Thermal Cycler. Isolates were also screened for the presence of enterotoxin gene (cpe and beta2 toxin gene (cpb2 by single step PCR. Biochemical tests and phenotypic determination of virulence factors tentatively identified 82 (27.24% isolates of C. perfringens. In PCR assay, all 82 (100% isolates harbored cpa toxin genes of C. perfringens, however, 65 (79.26% isolates also carried additional cpb2 toxin genes. None of the isolates were found positive for beta, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin genes. Genotyping of the 82 isolates by PCR revealed that all the isolated bacteria were belonged to C. perfringens type A and both cpa and cpb2 toxin genes were prevalent among the isolates of C. perfringens type A, impending the risk of pathogenicity to human via freshwater fish and fish pickles.

  8. An international, prospective, multicenter evaluation of the combination of AdvanDx Staphylococcus QuickFISH BC with mecA XpressFISH for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimnia, H; Fairfax, M R; Lephart, P; Morgan, M; Gilbreath, J J; Butler-Wu, S M; Templeton, K E; Hamilton, F J; Wu, F; Buckner, R; Fuller, D; Davis, T E; Abdelhamed, A M; Jacobs, M R; Miller, A; Pfrommer, B; Carroll, K C

    2014-11-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is a major health problem worldwide. Better outcomes are achieved when rapid diagnosis and determination of methicillin susceptibility enable early optimization of antimicrobial therapy. Eight large clinical laboratories, seven from the United States and one from Scotland, evaluated the combination of the Staphylococcus QuickFISH BC and the new mecA XpressFISH assay (both AdvanDx, Woburn, MA, USA) for the detection of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in positive blood cultures. Blood cultures flagged as positive by automated blood culture instruments and demonstrating only Gram-positive cocci in clusters on Gram stain were tested by QuickFISH, a 20-min assay. If only S. aureus was detected, mecA XpressFISH testing followed. The recovered S. aureus isolates were tested by cefoxitin disk diffusion as the reference method. The QuickFISH assay results were concordant with the routine phenotypic testing methods of the testing laboratories in 1,211/1,221 (99.1%) samples and detected 488/491 S. aureus organisms (sensitivity, 99.4%; specificity, 99.6%). Approximately 60% of the samples (730) contained coagulase-negative staphylococci or nonstaphylococci as assessed by the QuickFISH assay and were not tested further. The 458 compliant samples positive exclusively for S. aureus by the QuickFISH assay were tested by the mecA XpressFISH assay, which detected 209 of 211 methicillin-resistant S. aureus organisms (sensitivity, 99.1%; specificity, 99.6%). The mecA XpressFISH assay also showed high reproducibility, with 534/540 tests performed by 6 operators over 5 days achieving reproducible results (98.9% agreement). The combination of the Staphylococcus QuickFISH BC and mecA XpressFISH assays is sensitive, specific, and reproducible for the detection of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and yields complete results in 2 h after the blood culture turns positive.

  9. Alaskan sport fishing waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As a guide to newcomers and visitors, fishery biologists have compiled a list of some of the well-known fishing waters in Alaska. The list is merely a starting point...

  10. Ammonia toxicity in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, D J; Tsui, T K N

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia is present in the aquatic environment due to agricultural run-off and decomposition of biological waste. Ammonia is toxic to all vertebrates causing convulsions, coma and death, probably because elevated NH4+ displaces K+ and depolarizes neurons, causing activation of NMDA type glutamate receptor, which leads to an influx of excessive Ca2+ and subsequent cell death in the central nervous system. Present ammonia criteria for aquatic systems are based on toxicity tests carried out on, starved, resting, non-stressed fish. This is doubly inappropriate. During exhaustive exercise and stress, fish increase ammonia production and are more sensitive to external ammonia. Present criteria do not protect swimming fish. Fish have strategies to protect them from the ammonia pulse following feeding, and this also protects them from increases in external ammonia, as a result starved fish are more sensitive to external ammonia than fed fish. There are a number of fish species that can tolerate high environmental ammonia. Glutamine formation is an important ammonia detoxification strategy in the brain of fish, especially after feeding. Detoxification of ammonia to urea has also been observed in elasmobranches and some teleosts. Reduction in the rate of proteolysis and the rate of amino acid catabolism, which results in a decrease in ammonia production, may be another strategy to reduce ammonia toxicity. The weather loach volatilizes NH3, and the mudskipper, P. schlosseri, utilizes yet another unique strategy, it actively pumps NH4+ out of the body.

  11. PARASITES OF FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  12. Hawaiian Fish Distributors Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is proprietary sales data from one Kona-based fish dealer for about one year back in the late 1980s. Fishing was generally around Kona. This is Dealer Data and...

  13. Virus diseases of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.

  14. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…

  16. New oligosaccharyltransferase assay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, Daisuke; Yamada, Masaki; Igura, Mayumi; Kamishikiryo, Jun; Maenaka, Katsumi

    2007-11-01

    We developed a new in vitro assay for oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), which catalyzes the transfer of preassembled oligosaccharides on lipid carriers onto asparagine residues in polypeptide chains. The asparagine residues reside in the sequon, Asn-X-Thr/Ser, where X can be any amino acid residue except Pro. We demonstrate the potency of our assay using the OST from yeast. In our method, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is used to separate the glycopeptide products from the peptide substrates. The substrate peptide is fluorescently labeled and the formation of glycopeptides is analyzed by fluorescence gel imaging. Two in vitro OST assay methods are now widely used, but both the methods depend on previous knowledge of the oligosaccharide moiety: One method uses lectin binding as the separation mechanism and the other method uses biosynthetically or chemoenzymatically synthesized lipid-linked oligosaccharides as donors. N-linked protein glycosylation is found in all three domains of life, but little is known about the N-glycosylation in Archaea. Thus, our new assay, which does not require a priori knowledge of the oligosaccharides, will be useful in such cases. Indeed, we have detected the OST activity in the membrane fraction from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus.

  17. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  18. Instrument for assaying radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  19. Biannual Fish Survey, Spring 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The biannual fish survey was initiated in 1989 to monitor population trends of federally endangered fish species at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. Item 421 of...

  20. Quantitative immunochemical evaluation of fish metallothionein upon exposure to cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yudkovski, Yana; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Yankelevich, Irena

    2008-01-01

    mormyrus by introducing to the assay recombinant MT and beta-actin standards. Commercial antibodies for cod MT and mammalian actin were implemented. In addition, a sensitive anti L. mormyrus MT antibody was produced, adequate only for solid phase immunochemical assays. Cadmium was applied to the fish...... clean natural sites, indicating applicability of MT as biomarker of exposure to a multi-factorial pollution, in comparison to its low revealed sensitivity to controlled cadmium exposure....

  1. Strategies to develop strain-specific PCR based assays for probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treven, P

    2015-01-01

    Since health benefits conferred by probiotics are strain-specific, identification to the strain level is mandatory to allow the monitoring of the presence and the abundance of specific probiotic in a product or in a gastrointestinal tract. Compared to standard plate counts, the reduced duration of the assays and higher specificity makes PCR-based methods (standard PCR and quantitative PCR) very appropriate for detection or quantification of probiotics. Development of strain-specific assay consists of 4 main stages: (1) strain-specific marker identification; (2) construction of potential strain-specific primers; (3) validation on DNA from pure cultures of target and related strains; and (4) validation on spiked samples. The most important and also the most challenging step is the identification of strain-specific sequences, which can be subsequently targeted by specific primers or probes. Such regions can be identified on sequences derived from 16S-23S internally transcribed spacers, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, representational difference analysis and suppression subtractive hybridisation. Already known phenotypic or genotypic characteristics of the target strain can also be used to develop the strain-specific assay. However, the initial stage of strain-specific assay development can be replaced by comparative genomics analysis of target genome with related genomes in public databases. Advances in whole genome sequencing (WGS) have resulted in a cost reduction for bacterial genome sequencing and consequently have made this approach available to most laboratories. In the present paper I reviewed the available literature on PCR and qPCR assays developed for detection of a specific probiotic strain and discussed future WGS and comparative genomics-based approaches.

  2. Innovation in utilization of fish tanks for fish culture among fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of fish tanks for fish culture among fish farmers in Obio/Akpor Local Government, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Data for this study was obtained through the administration of questionnaire and scheduled ...

  3. Development of PCR/dot blot assay for specific detection and differentiation of taeniid cestode eggs in canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Nonaka, Nariaki; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Seita; Gottstein, Bruno; Deplazes, Peter; Phiri, Isaac G K; Katakura, Ken; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2011-01-01

    We report the development of a colourimetric PCR/dot blot assay targeting the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs. Partial sequences of the cestode nad1 gene were aligned and new primers were designed based on conserved regions. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes (S-SONP) for canine taeniid cestodes were then designed manually based on the variable region between the conserved primers. Specifically, S-SONP were designed for the Taenia crassiceps, T. hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, T. taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus (genotype 1), E. multilocularis and E. vogeli. Each probe showed high specificity as no cross-hybridisation with any amplified nad1 fragment was observed. We evaluated the assay using 49 taeniid egg-positive samples collected from dogs in Zambia. DNA from 5 to 10 eggs was extracted in each sample. Using the PCR/dot blot assay, the probes successfully detected PCR products from T. hydatigena in 42 samples, T. multiceps in 3 samples, and both species (mixed infection) in the remaining 4 samples. The results indicate that the PCR/dot blot assay is a reliable alternative for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs in faecal samples.

  4. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in fish and its role in fish development and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Michael L; Specker, Jennifer L

    2007-01-01

    Bony fishes represent the largest vertebrate class and are a very diverse animal group. This chapter provides a thorough review of the available scientific literature on the thyroid system in these important vertebrate animals. The molecular components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in this group correspond closely to those of mammals. The thyroid tissue in the fishes is organized as diffuse follicles, with a few exceptions, rather than as an encapsulated gland as is found in most other vertebrate species. The features of this diffuse tissue in fishes are reviewed with an emphasis on feedback relationships within the HPT axis, the molecular biology of the thyroid system in fishes, and comparisons versus the thyroid systems of other vertebrate taxa. A review of the role of thyroid hormone in fish development and reproduction is included. Available information about the HPT axis in fishes is quite detailed for some species and rather limited or absent in others. This review focuses on species that have been intensively studied for their value as laboratory models in assays to investigate disruption in normal function of the thyroid system. In addition, in vitro and in vivo assay methods for screening chemicals for their potential to interfere with the thyroid system are reviewed. It is concluded that there are currently no in vitro or in vivo assays in fish species that are sufficiently developed to warrant recommendation for use to efficiently screen chemicals for thyroid disruption. Methods are available that can be used to measure thyroid hormones, although our ability to interpret the causes and implications of potential alterations in T4 or T3 levels in fishes is nonetheless limited without further research.

  5. The corneal pocket assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The cornea in most species is physiologically avascular, and thus this assay allows the measurement of newly formed vessels. The continuous monitoring of neovascular growth in the same animal allows the evaluation of drugs acting as suppressors or stimulators of angiogenesis. Under anesthesia a micropocket is produced in the cornea thickness and the angiogenesis stimulus (tumor tissue, cell suspension, growth factor) is placed into the pocket in order to induce vascular outgrowth from the limbal capillaries. Neovascular development and progression can be modified by the presence of locally released or applied inhibitory factors or by systemic treatments. In this chapter the experimental details of the avascular cornea assay, the technical challenges, and advantages and disadvantages in different species are discussed. Protocols for local drug treatment and tissue sampling for histology and pharmacokinetic profile are reported.

  6. Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

  7. Olfactory toxicity in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B; Baldwin, David H; Hara, Toshiaki J; Ross, Peter S; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Olfaction conveys critical environmental information to fishes, enabling activities such as mating, locating food, discriminating kin, avoiding predators and homing. All of these behaviors can be impaired or lost as a result of exposure to toxic contaminants in surface waters. Historically, teleost olfaction studies have focused on behavioral responses to anthropogenic contaminants (e.g., avoidance). More recently, there has been a shift towards understanding the underlying mechanisms and functional significance of contaminant-mediated changes in fish olfaction. This includes a consideration of how contaminants affect the olfactory nervous system and, by extension, the downstream physiological and behavioral processes that together comprise a normal response to naturally occurring stimuli (e.g., reproductive priming or releasing pheromones). Numerous studies spanning several species have shown that ecologically relevant exposures to common pollutants such as metals and pesticides can interfere with fish olfaction and disrupt life history processes that determine individual survival and reproductive success. This represents one of the pathways by which toxic chemicals in aquatic habitats may increasingly contribute to the decline and at-risk status of many commercially and ecologically important fish stocks. Despite our emerging understanding of the threats that pollution poses for chemical communication in aquatic communities, many research challenges remain. These include: (1) the determination of specific mechanisms of toxicity in the fish olfactory sensory epithelium; (2) an understanding of the impacts of complex chemical mixtures; (3) the capacity to assess olfactory toxicity in fish in situ; (4) the impacts of toxins on olfactory-mediated behaviors that are still poorly understood for many fish species; and (5) the connections between sublethal effects on individual fish and the long-term viability of wild populations. This review summarizes and integrates

  8. Why do fish school?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matz LARSSON

    2012-01-01

    Synchronized movements (schooling) emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO) of a predator.Moreover,prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators.The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling.The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey,possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal,but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish,resulting in size homogeneity and,accordingly,an increased capacity for moving in synchrony.Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL) may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming,such as neighbour body-size,speed,and location.When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex.Quiet intervals will be few.Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously,providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals.Besides,synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL.Turning preference bias,well-functioning sense organs,good health,and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors und aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery.Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formarion,reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms,which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain [Current Zoology 58 (1):116-128,2012].

  9. B cell helper assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrignani, Sergio; Tonti, Elena; Casorati, Giulia; Dellabona, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Activation, proliferation and differentiation of naïve B lymphocytes into memory B cells and plasma cells requires engagement of the B cell receptor (BCR) coupled to T-cell help (1, 2). T cells deliver help in cognate fashion when they are activated upon recognition of specific MHC-peptide complexes presented by B cells. T cells can also deliver help in a non-cognate or bystander fashion, when they do not find specific MHC-peptide complexes on B cells and are activated by alternative mechanisms. T-cell dependent activation of B cells can be studied in vitro by experimental models called "B cell helper assays" that are based on the co-culture of B cells with activated T cells. These assays allow to decipher the molecular bases for productive T-dependent B cell responses. We show here examples of B cell helper assays in vitro, which can be reproduced with any subset of T lymphocytes that displays the appropriate helper signals.

  10. West Lake Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Sweet & Sour Fish is widely recognized as the best fish recipe found in the city of Hangzhou. The delectable tender sweet & sour dish would please the palate of even the most demanding gourmet. The unique preparation method follows: Method: Place a one kilogram grass carp in clear water for three days to eliminate any offensive odor, and allowing adequate time for defecation. Gut and clean the carp thoroughly. Slice open the belly, Make five equally spaced one centimeter deep incisions on one side of the fish, and another slanting cut through the thick meat on the opposite side. Be certain to ensure the

  11. Comparative genomics in chicken and Pekin duck using FISH mapping and microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowler Katie E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of the complete chicken (Gallus gallus genome sequence as well as a large number of chicken probes for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH and microarray resources facilitate comparative genomic studies between chicken and other bird species. In a previous study, we provided a comprehensive cytogenetic map for the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and the first analysis of copy number variants (CNVs in birds. Here, we extend this approach to the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos, an obvious target for comparative genomic studies due to its agricultural importance and resistance to avian flu. Results We provide a detailed molecular cytogenetic map of the duck genome through FISH assignment of 155 chicken clones. We identified one inter- and six intrachromosomal rearrangements between chicken and duck macrochromosomes and demonstrated conserved synteny among all microchromosomes analysed. Array comparative genomic hybridisation revealed 32 CNVs, of which 5 overlap previously designated "hotspot" regions between chicken and turkey. Conclusion Our results suggest extensive conservation of avian genomes across 90 million years of evolution in both macro- and microchromosomes. The data on CNVs between chicken and duck extends previous analyses in chicken and turkey and supports the hypotheses that avian genomes contain fewer CNVs than mammalian genomes and that genomes of evolutionarily distant species share regions of copy number variation ("CNV hotspots". Our results will expedite duck genomics, assist marker development and highlight areas of interest for future evolutionary and functional studies.

  12. Specific detection of DNA and RNA targets using a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay based on the formation of a three-way junction structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharam, S D; Marsh, P; Lloyd, J S; Ray, T D; Mock, G A; Assenberg, R; McPhee, J E; Brown, P; Weston, A; Cardy, D L

    2001-06-01

    The formation of DNA three-way junction (3WJ) structures has been utilised to develop a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay (SMART) for the detection of specific DNA or RNA targets. The assay consists of two oligonucleotide probes that hybridise to a specific target sequence and, only then, to each other forming a 3WJ structure. One probe (template for the RNA signal) contains a non-functional single-stranded T7 RNA polymerase promoter sequence. This promoter sequence is made double-stranded (hence functional) by DNA polymerase, allowing T7 RNA polymerase to generate a target-dependent RNA signal which is measured by an enzyme-linked oligosorbent assay (ELOSA). The sequence of the RNA signal is always the same, regardless of the original target sequence. The SMART assay was successfully tested in model systems with several single-stranded synthetic targets, both DNA and RNA. The assay could also detect specific target sequences in both genomic DNA and total RNA from Escherichia coli. It was also possible to generate signal from E.coli samples without prior extraction of nucleic acid, showing that for some targets, sample purification may not be required. The assay is simple to perform and easily adaptable to different targets.

  13. Persistence of DNA of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici in soil as measured by a DNA-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdina; Neate, Stephen; Jabaji-Hare, Suha; Ophel-Keller, Kathy

    2004-02-01

    There are an increasing number of assays available for fungal plant pathogens based on DNA technology. We have developed such an assay for Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) in soil, using slot-blot hybridisation. To ensure the validity of DNA-based soil assays for the fungus, it is important to determine the stability of Ggt DNA in soil. This study was undertaken to quantify the DNA degradation of dead Ggt in soil using a DNA-based assay. Mycelia were killed using various treatments, then DNA was extracted and estimated by a slot-blot hybridisation technique using the specific Ggt DNA probe, pG158. Mycelia were also killed using a fungicide (triadimefon) at a concentration of 150-250 microg ml(-1). The amount of detectable DNA of Ggt, killed using triadimefon, declined by 82-93%. Inoculum in the form of diseased wheat roots, artificially inoculated ryegrass seed, particulate soil organic matter and whole soil was killed using heat-treatment. The amount of detectable DNA of Ggt declined markedly (90%) in both heat-treated roots and inoculated ryegrass seeds, and declined by 50% in both treated soil and soil organic matter. The rate of DNA degradation of Ggt in soil varied with the type of inoculum. The amount of detectable DNA of Ggt in dead mycelia declined by 99.8% after 4 days of incubation in soil. No DNA was detected after 8 days of incubation. In contrast, Ggt DNA in live mycelia declined by 70% after 8 days of incubation and declined to 10% of original DNA level after 32 days. In ground ryegrass seed inoculum, DNA in both killed and live Ggt declined by 50% after 8 days. In diseased roots, DNA from both live and killed Ggt did not appear to decline over 16 days. Estimates of the amount of Ggt in the soil using a DNA-based assay reflect both live and dead populations of the fungus. The rate of breakdown of DNA of the dead fungus is very high and the presence of dead fungi in roots probably a rare event so the DNA from dead fungus probably contributes

  14. A signal amplification assay for HSV type 1 viral DNA detection using nanoparticles and direct acoustic profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammond Richard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleic acid based recognition of viral sequences can be used together with label-free biosensors to provide rapid, accurate confirmation of viral infection. To enhance detection sensitivity, gold nanoparticles can be employed with mass-sensitive acoustic biosensors (such as a quartz crystal microbalance by either hybridising nanoparticle-oligonucleotide conjugates to complimentary surface-immobilised ssDNA probes on the sensor, or by using biotin-tagged target oligonucleotides bound to avidin-modified nanoparticles on the sensor. We have evaluated and refined these signal amplification assays for the detection from specific DNA sequences of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV type 1 and defined detection limits with a 16.5 MHz fundamental frequency thickness shear mode acoustic biosensor. Results In the study the performance of semi-homogeneous and homogeneous assay formats (suited to rapid, single step tests were evaluated utilising different diameter gold nanoparticles at varying DNA concentrations. Mathematical models were built to understand the effects of mass transport in the flow cell, the binding kinetics of targets to nanoparticles in solution, the packing geometries of targets on the nanoparticle, the packing of nanoparticles on the sensor surface and the effect of surface shear stiffness on the response of the acoustic sensor. This lead to the selection of optimised 15 nm nanoparticles that could be used with a 6 minute total assay time to achieve a limit of detection sensitivity of 5.2 × 10-12 M. Larger diameter nanoparticles gave poorer limits of detection than smaller particles. The limit of detection was three orders of magnitude lower than that observed using a hybridisation assay without nanoparticle signal amplification. Conclusions An analytical model was developed to determine optimal nanoparticle diameter, concentration and probe density, which allowed efficient and rapid optimisation of assay parameters

  15. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    significant losses in aquacultural enterprises but vaccination methods implemented since the 1990s have demonstrated their role as one of the most efficient disease control strategies. These have been particularly successful with regard to bacterial diseases in Norwegian salmon farming where multivalent...... vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...

  16. West Coast Fishing Ethnography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Created as part of a 2012 BOEM study on OCS renewable energy space-use conflicts, this data contains the commercial and recreational fishing locations off the...

  17. Dehydrofreezing of Fish I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozima, Tsuneo

    Recently, new method of removing water from perishable food were developed using dehydration sheet with material having high osmotic pressure and absorbent polymer. Dehydration sheet consist of mixture of sugar dehydrolysate and absorbent polymer covered with sem-permeable membrane, and can remove water in liquid state by contact with perishable food. Dehydration rate of fish using with dehydration sheet varied depending on species, their shape, and ambient temperature etc. Fish were dehydrated with dehydration sheet at low temperature as 0 - 5 C and frozen in cold storage room. Dehydrofrozen fish were kept it's high quality and freshness after thawing, ATPase activity of fish muscle was kept at high level after dehydrofreezing in the case of cod and alaska pollack, and flesh color of farming salmon was kept after thawing.

  18. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore tuna and salmon. Some types of fish may contain high levels ... cholesterol. However, liver is rich in iron and vitamins. A small serving (3 ounces) is OK about ...

  19. Fishing Community Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that present...

  20. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... debilitating (Miller, 1991). To date there is no antidote or effectivc treatment, so supportive care and medications ... Diagnosis, Management and Treatment, Chemical Structure, and Molecular Mechanism of Action. Additional Resources Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, ...

  1. Combating Illegal Fishing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorin Stanciu; Andrea Feher

    2010-01-01

    Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is a worldwide phenomenon. Its extent and its environmental,economic and social consequences are such that it has become a priority issue at international level...

  2. SIS - Fish Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fish Assessment data set within the Species Information System (SIS) constraints information related to fishery stock assessments, including assessment meta-data...

  3. Fish germ cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Fish, like many other animals, have two major cell lineages, namely the germline and soma. The germ-soma separation is one of the earliest events of embryonic development. Germ cells can be specifically labeled and isolated for culture and transplan-tation, providing tools for reproduction of endangered species in close relatives, such as surrogate production of trout in salmon. Haploid cell cultures, such as medaka haploid embryonic stem cells have recently been obtained, which are capable of mimicking sperm to produce fertile offspring, upon nuclear being directly transferred into normal eggs. Such fish originated from a mosaic oocyte that had a haploid meiotic nucleus and a transplanted haploid mitotic cell culture nucleus. The first semi-cloned fish is Holly. Here we review the current status and future directions of understanding and manipulating fish germ cells in basic research and reproductive technology.

  4. The Optimal Fishing Pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolding, J.; Law, R.; Plank, M.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional fisheries management encourages highly selective fishing patterns for various purposes, such as increase relative yield, reduce unwanted bycatch, protect various species or sizes and rebuild ecosystems. Recent empirical and theoretical studies, however, show increasing evidence that

  5. Larval fish nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holt, J

    2011-01-01

    ... introduction to fish micronutrient history 4.2 Micronutrients in larval feeds 4.3 Requirements versus recommendations 4.4 Vitamins 4.5 Minerals 34.6 Future challenges Section 2: Nutritional Physi...

  6. Pedigree Go Fish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael V. Osier

    2017-01-01

    A card game based upon the classic game Go Fish is presented for active practicing of segregation analysis, the determination of the most likely method of transmission based upon pedigree information...

  7. Multiplexed identification of different fish species by detection of parvalbumin, a common fish allergen gene: a DNA application of multi-analyte profiling (xMAP) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2010-07-01

    Fish are a common cause of allergic reactions associated with food consumption, with parvalbumin being the major allergenic protein. Some fish-hypersensitive patients tolerate some fish species while being allergic to others. Reliable detection methods for allergenic fish species in foods are necessary to ensure compliance with food allergen labeling guidelines to protect fish-allergic consumers. The objective of this project was to develop a multi-analyte detection method for the presence of fish in food. Therefore, conserved parvalbumin exon sequences were utilized for the design of universal PCR primers amplifying intron DNA and small regions of exons flanking the enclosed intron from even very distantly related fish species. An assay for the identification of eight fish species was developed using xMAP technology with probes targeting species-specific parvalbumin intron regions. Additionally, a universal fish probe was designed targeting a highly conserved exon region located between the intron and the reverse primer region. The universal fish assay showed no cross-reactivity with other species, such as beef, pork, lamb, chicken, turkey, and shrimp. Importantly, with the exception of one notable case with fish in the same subfamily, species-specific detection showed no cross-reactivity with other fish species. Limits of detection for these eight species were experimentally estimated to range from 0.01% to 0.04%, with potential to increase the detection sensitivity. This report introduces a newly developed method for the multiplex identification of at least eight allergenic fish species in food, which could conceivably be extended to detect up to 100 species simultaneously in one sample.

  8. Senescence in fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    A long-standing theory, that there is a fundamental difference in aging between fishes and higher vertebrates, is still alive in the minds of many. In 1932, Bidder proposed that aging was causatively related to the cessation of growth at sexual maturity. Fish, which continue to grow throughout their lives, would not age, and therefore were potentially immortal. His ideas were clearly disproven by Comfort, who established that the survival curves of a laboratory population of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were very similar to those of a small mammal population under laboratory conditions. Recent data from field and laboratory studies, including histological evidence, amply confirm the occurrence of senescence in fishes. Natural death in fish has been associated with reproduction. There is good evidence for a number of species which shows that, with increasing size, the gonad forms a greater proportion of total body weight. In older, larger fish, extensive energy depletion for reproduction is suggested as an important factor in mortality. Reproductive modifications in older fish are also noted.

  9. Chromosomal Rearrangements in Post-Chernobyl Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas: Evaluation by Spectral Karyotyping and Automated Interphase FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Hieber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural genomic rearrangements are frequent findings in human cancers. Therefore, papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs were investigated for chromosomal aberrations and rearrangements of the RET proto-oncogene. For this purpose, primary cultures from 23 PTC have been established and metaphase preparations were analysed by spectral karyotyping (SKY. In addition, interphase cell preparations of the same cases were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH for the presence of RET/PTC rearrangements using RET-specific DNA probes. SKY analysis of PTC revealed structural aberrations of chromosome 11 and several numerical aberrations with frequent loss of chromosomes 20, 21, and 22. FISH analysis for RET/PTC rearrangements showed prevalence of this rearrangement in 72% (16 out of 22 of cases. However, only subpopulations of tumour cells exhibited this rearrangement indicating genetic heterogeneity. The comparison of visual and automated scoring of FISH signals revealed concordant results in 19 out of 22 cases (87% indicating reliable scoring results using the optimised scoring parameter for RET/PTC with the automated Metafer4 system. It can be concluded from this study that genomic rearrangements are frequent in PTC and therefore important events in thyroid carcinogenesis.

  10. Fish cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.

  11. Anti-adhesive properties of fish tropomyosins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Bernbom, Nete; Gram, Lone

    2008-01-01

    Aims: We have recently found that preconditioning of stainless steel surfaces with an aqueous fish muscle extract can significantly impede bacterial adhesion. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the primary components associated with this bacteria-repelling effect. Methods...... and Results: The anti-adhesive activity was assayed against Escherchia coli K-12, and bacterial adhesion was quantified by crystal violet staining and sonication methods. Proteolytic digestion, elution and fractionation experiments revealed that the anti-adhesive activity of the extract was linked...... to the formation of a proteinaceous conditioning film composed primarily of fish tropomyosins. These fibrous proteins formed a considerable anti-adhesive conditioning layer on and reduced bacterial adhesion to several different materials including polystyrene, vinyl plastic, stainless steel and glass. The protein...

  12. Growth cone collapse assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Geoffrey M W; Jareonsettasin, Prem; Keynes, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    The growth cone collapse assay has proved invaluable in detecting and purifying axonal repellents. Glycoproteins/proteins present in detergent extracts of biological tissues are incorporated into liposomes, added to growth cones in culture and changes in morphology are then assessed. Alternatively purified or recombinant molecules in aqueous solution may be added directly to the cultures. In both cases after a defined period of time (up to 1 h), the cultures are fixed and then assessed by inverted phase contrast microscopy for the percentage of growth cones showing a collapsed profile with loss of flattened morphology, filopodia, and lamellipodia.

  13. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a......, when operatively connected, one or more chambers (21) comprising the chemical entities (41), the inlet(s) (5) and outlet(s) (6) and chambers (21) being in fluid connection. The device further comprise means for providing differing chemical conditions in each chamber (21)....

  14. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  15. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  16. Epigenomics in marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, David C H; Schulte, Patricia M

    2016-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are an underappreciated and often ignored component of an organism's response to environmental change and may underlie many types of phenotypic plasticity. Recent technological advances in methods for detecting epigenetic marks at a whole-genome scale have launched new opportunities for studying epigenomics in ecologically relevant non-model systems. The study of ecological epigenomics holds great promise to better understand the linkages between genotype, phenotype, and the environment and to explore mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. The many attributes of marine fish species, including their high diversity, variable life histories, high fecundity, impressive plasticity, and economic value provide unique opportunities for studying epigenetic mechanisms in an environmental context. To provide a primer on epigenomic research for fish biologists, we start by describing fundamental aspects of epigenetics, focusing on the most widely studied and most well understood of the epigenetic marks: DNA methylation. We then describe the techniques that have been used to investigate DNA methylation in marine fishes to date and highlight some new techniques that hold great promise for future studies. Epigenomic research in marine fishes is in its early stages, so we first briefly discuss what has been learned about the establishment, maintenance, and function of DNA methylation in fishes from studies in zebrafish and then summarize the studies demonstrating the pervasive effects of the environment on the epigenomes of marine fishes. We conclude by highlighting the potential for ongoing research on the epigenomics of marine fishes to reveal critical aspects of the interaction between organisms and their environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical analysis of aquatic pheromones in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael; Baker, Cindy F; Sorensen, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones are chemicals that pass between members of the same species that have inherent meaning. In the case of fish, pheromones are water-soluble and found in low concentrations. As such, sensitive and selective methods are needed to separate and analyze these pheromones from an environmental matrix that may contain many other chemicals. This chapter describes a generic method used to concentrate and identify these chemicals and two extremely sensitive and selective methods for analysis, namely, mass spectrometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

  18. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen K. Purcell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  19. Freshwater and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxen, R. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Severe radioactive contamination of the freshwater environment could have serious consequences for both drinking water and fish. Most of the Nordic countries have an abundance of freshwater lakes and rivers. Finland alone has about 56,000 lakes, each with a surface area of 1 hectare or more. Nearly 10% of Finland`s surface is covered with lakes and rivers. In Sweden, about 9% of the surface area is freshwater, in Norway about 5%, and in Denmark only about 2%. Freshwater plays a minor role in Iceland, but even there numerous rivers discharge from the volcanic soils to the Ocean. Cs-137 and {sup 90}Sr are likely to be the most important radionuclides with respect to long term radioactive contamination of freshwater. If radioactive deposition occurs in the absence of snow and ice radionuclides will contaminate the surface water directly and may rapidly enter the aquatic food chain. Fish which eat contaminated plankton become contaminated almost immediately. Deposition during summer increases the transfer for radionuclides to fish since fish metabolism is faster during the warm season. During the cold period, fish metabolism is slow and thus uptake and excretion of radiocaesium are also slow. (EG). 18 refs.

  20. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  1. Bacterial assays for recombinagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, G R

    1992-12-01

    Two principal strategies have been used for studying recombinagenic effects of chemicals and radiation in bacteria: (1) measurement of homologous recombination involving defined alleles in a partially diploid strain, and (2) measurement of the formation and loss of genetic duplications in the bacterial chromosome. In the former category, most methods involve one allele in the bacterial chromosome and another in a plasmid, but it is also possible to detect recombination between two chromosomal alleles or between two extrachromosomal alleles. This review summarizes methods that use each of these approaches for detecting recombination and tabulates data on agents that have been found to be recombinagenic in bacteria. The assays are discussed with respect to their effectiveness in testing for recombinagens and their potential for elucidating mechanisms underlying recombinagenic effects.

  2. Can Fish Catch On in Your Class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip N.

    1983-01-01

    Presented are several classroom activities using fish. These include gyotaku (Japanese fish printing), use of a dichotomous key to classify fish, "invent-a-fish" activities, and others. Includes discussion of fish facts and copies of fish key and invent-a-fish cards. (JN)

  3. Infection of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Insects: A Comparative Study of Two Techniques viz PCR and FISH for Detection and Localization of Symbionts in Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Raina

    Full Text Available Bacterial endosymbionts have been associated with arthropods and large number of the insect species show interaction with such bacteria. Different approaches have been used to understand such symbiont- host interactions. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, a highly invasive agricultural pest, harbors as many as seven different bacterial endosymbionts. These bacterial endosymbionts are known to provide various nutritional, physiological, environmental and evolutionary benefits to its insect host. In this study, we have tried to compare two techniques, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Flourescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH commonly used for identification and localization of bacterial endosymbionts in B. tabaci as it harbors one of the highest numbers of endosymbionts which have helped it in becoming a successful global invasive agricultural pest. The amplified PCR products were observed as bands on agarose gel by electrophoresis while the FISH samples were mounted on slides and observed under confocal microscope. Analysis of results obtained by these two techniques revealed the advantages of FISH over PCR. On a short note, performing FISH, using LNA probes proved to be more sensitive and informative for identification as well as localization of bacterial endosymbionts in B. tabaci than relying on PCR. This study would help in designing more efficient experiments based on much reliable detection procedure and studying the role of endosymbionts in insects.

  4. Infection of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Insects: A Comparative Study of Two Techniques viz PCR and FISH for Detection and Localization of Symbionts in Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Harpreet Singh; Singh, Ambika; Popli, Sonam; Pandey, Neeti; Rajagopal, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts have been associated with arthropods and large number of the insect species show interaction with such bacteria. Different approaches have been used to understand such symbiont- host interactions. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, a highly invasive agricultural pest, harbors as many as seven different bacterial endosymbionts. These bacterial endosymbionts are known to provide various nutritional, physiological, environmental and evolutionary benefits to its insect host. In this study, we have tried to compare two techniques, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Flourescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH) commonly used for identification and localization of bacterial endosymbionts in B. tabaci as it harbors one of the highest numbers of endosymbionts which have helped it in becoming a successful global invasive agricultural pest. The amplified PCR products were observed as bands on agarose gel by electrophoresis while the FISH samples were mounted on slides and observed under confocal microscope. Analysis of results obtained by these two techniques revealed the advantages of FISH over PCR. On a short note, performing FISH, using LNA probes proved to be more sensitive and informative for identification as well as localization of bacterial endosymbionts in B. tabaci than relying on PCR. This study would help in designing more efficient experiments based on much reliable detection procedure and studying the role of endosymbionts in insects. PMID:26287997

  5. Turbidity alters pre-mating social interactions between native and invasive stream fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotzbecker, Gregory J.; Ward, Jessica L.; Walters, David M.; Blum, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental degradation can result in the loss of aquatic biodiversity if impairment promotes hybridisation between non-native and native species. Although aquatic biological invasions involving hybridisation have been attributed to elevated water turbidity, the extent to which impaired clarity influences reproductive isolation among non-native and native species is poorly understood.

  6. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  7. Dynamite fishing in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka

    2015-12-30

    Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection.

  8. Evaluation of environmental genotoxicity by comet assay in Columba livia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acevedo, Anahi; García-Salas, Juan A; Gosálvez, Jaime; Fernández, José Luis; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Méndez-López, Luis F; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of recognized or suspected genotoxic and carcinogenic agents found in the air of large cities and, in particular, developing countries, have raised concerns about the potential for chronic health effects in the populations exposed to them. The biomonitoring of environmental genotoxicity requires the selection of representative organisms as "sentinels," as well as the development of suitable and sensitive assays, such as those aimed at assessing DNA damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage levels in erythrocytes from Columba livia living in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico, compared with control animals via comet assay, and to confirm the results via Micronuclei test (MN) and DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). Our results showed a significant increase in DNA migration in animals from the area assayed compared with that observed in control animals sampled in non-contaminated areas. These results were confirmed by MN test and DBD-FISH. In conclusion, these observations confirm that the examination of erythrocytes from Columba livia via alkaline comet assay provides a sensitive and reliable end point for the detection of environmental genotoxicants.

  9. Jurassic fishes of Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana López-Arbarello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jurassic is an important period for understanding the origin of modern fish faunas, since it saw the first radiation - and in some cases the origin - of most modern groups. In chondrichthyans, neoselachian sharks and rays diversified during this time. In actinopterygians, the neopterygians, and among them the teleosts, experienced an important radiation, which led to the appearance of several of the modern teleosts groups. In the sarcopterygians, dipnoans and actinistians approached their current forms. However, the Jurassic fossil record of fishes is strongly biased towards the Northern Hemisphere. The only notable Early Jurassic fish fauna from Gondwana is that of the Kota Formation of India. For the Middle Jurassic, the most important Gondwanan fish faunas are those of the Aalenian-Bathonian Stanleyville Beds of the Democratic Republic of Congo, in which a distinct freshwater and a marine fauna are found. In the Late Jurassic, the Gondwanan record is slightly better, with important marine faunas being known from the Oxfordian Quebrada del Profeta in Chile and the Tithonian Vaca Muerta Formation of Argentina. Freshwater faunas have been described from the Tithonian Talbragar Beds of eastern Australia and the Tithonian Cañadón Calcáreo Formation of Argentina. The taxonomic composition of the known marine actinopterygian faunas of Gondwana is in general agreement with faunas of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the Jurassic fish record from Gondwana is highly incomplete both stratigraphically and geographically, and most faunas are in need of revision, further hampering an interpretation of Jurassic fish evolution in the Southern Hemisphere.

  10. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  11. Fish stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  12. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  13. Fish Hatchery Management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish hatchery management is efficient tool in intensive fish culture. The vital requirements of fish hatchery, hatchery construction, concrete tank construction, nursery, rearing and production ponds, fish seed hatchery, hormone in fish spawning, hypophysation, compounds used for induced breeding, hormone administration, spawning and rearing, steps in artificial propagation, hatchery management, nursery management are basic elements in effective hatchery management. The article reviews these vital elements to re-awaken fish farmers, Fisheries students private and public sectors in the formulation of fisheries policies.

  14. Simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lan-Tian; Meng, Zhenyu; Shao, Fangwei; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A highly useful tool for studying lncRNAs is simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH, which reveals the localization and quantitative information of RNA and DNA in cellular contexts. However, a simple combination of RNA FISH and DNA FISH often generates disappointing results because the fragile RNA signals are often damaged by the harsh conditions used in DNA FISH for denaturing the DNA. Here, we describe a robust and simple RNA-DNA FISH protocol, in which amino-labeled nucleic acid probes are used for RNA FISH. The method is suitable to detect single-RNA molecules simultaneously with DNA.

  15. FishFrame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degel, Henrik; Jansen, Teunis

    2006-01-01

    . Development and test of software modules can be done once and reused by all. The biggest challenge in this is not technical – it is in organisation, coordination and trust. This challenge has been addressed by FishFrame - a web-based datawarehouse application. The “bottom-up” approach with maximum involvement...... value to users and in the end improves the way we work with our data. FishFrame version 4.2 is presented and the lessons learned from the process are discussed....

  16. Fish in Ecotoxicological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Yancheva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination (heavy metals, pesticides, POPs, etc. is a serious environmental issue which has been raising lots of attention in the last decades because it can destroy aquatic ecosystems and hence, reduce biodiversity. In the field of ecotoxicology it is of main interest to investigate what the effects of organic and inorganic toxicants on different biological organization (cell, tissue, organism, population are. Thus, many authors use different test organisms and particularly, fish. In the current study we aimed to present collected data from the last years which describe why fish is an appropriate species in terms of ecotoxicological research.

  17. Fish and Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛秀波

    2010-01-01

    人物:B——Bird L——Little Fish M——Mother Fish N——Narracor(旁白)道具:角色头饰 N:一条生活在河里的Little Fish对天空充满了好奇,一心想飞到天空去看看。此时,Little Fish正依偎在Mother Fish身边,好奇地望着天空。

  18. Validation of T47D-KBluc cell assay for detection of estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists###

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing concern of exposure to fish, wildlife, and humans to environmental estrogens and their potential impact on reproductive health. Cell-based assays are useful tools to determine the estrogenic activity of chemicals. Confidence in in vitro assay results is strengthe...

  19. Validation of T47D-KBluc cell assay for detection of estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing concern of exposure to fish, wildlife, and humans to environmental estrogens and their potential impact on reproductive health. Cell-based assays are useful tools to determine the estrogenic activity of chemicals. Confidence in in vitro assay results is strengthe...

  20. Fish Hold Effluent and Fish Hold Cleaning Wastewater Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    summarized in Table 1). EPA estimated that mid-size fishing vessels, such as gill netters , and purse seiners found in Alaska, and shrimp boats in the Gulf...size fishing boats such as gill netters , fish holds are typically cleaned using a garden hose at a flow rate of approximately 10 to 12 gpm (USEPA...Small: salmon trollers and longliners 1,500 Daily when fishing 500 - 600 150 - 200 Mid-size: gill netters , purse seiners and shrimp boats

  1. Standardisation of EGFR FISH in colorectal cancer: results of an international interlaboratory reproducibility ring study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Fieuws, Steffen; Veronese, Silvio; Moroni, Mauro; Personeni, Nicola; Frattini, Milo; Torri, Valter; Cappuzzo, Federico; Borght, Sara Vander; Martin, Vittoria; Skokan, Margaret; Santoro, Armando; Gambacorta, Marcello; Tejpar, Sabine; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Siena, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Aims Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy number evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) can discriminate among KRAS wild-type patients those with better outcome to EGFR-targeted therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer, further enhancing selection of patients. Nevertheless, enumeration of gene copies is challenging and the lack of analytical standardisation has limited incorporation of the test into the clinical practice. We therefore assessed EGFR FISH interlaboratory consensus among five molecular diagnostic reference centres. Methods A set of 12 colorectal cancer samples circulated among laboratories, and samples were scored according to commonly agreed guidelines. Reproducibility was quantified using the standard error of measurement (SEM). Results A SEM of 0.865 and a within-subject coefficient of variation (WSCV) of 26.8% for mean EGFR gene/nuclei and a SEM of 0.235 and a WSCV of 19.4% for the mean EGFR gene/CEP7 ratio were observed. Measurement of the fraction of cells displaying chromosome 7 polysomy showed WSCV of 46.6%, 34.0% and 51.0% for percentage of cells displaying ≤2, ≥3 and ≥4 EGFR signals, respectively. Among different slides of the same specimen, the WSCV was 6.1% for mean EGFR gene/nuclei and 3.9% for mean of EGFR gene/CEP7 ratios. Conclusions Molecular diagnosis of EGFR gene copy number by FISH varied largely among pathology centres, with fluctuations covering the whole range of proposed cut-offs of predictive usefulness from literature. Definition of a detailed scoring system and implementation of comprehensive training programmes for laboratories are therefore necessary before including the test into clinical practice. PMID:22130903

  2. Fish and fish oil in health promotion and disease prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish is an important dietary component due to its contribution of valuable nutrients. In addition to the high quality protein and micronutrients provided, fish is the primary source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids which are found in oils of ‘fatty’ cold water fish. Biomedical evidence supports th...

  3. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  4. Significant Effects of Fishing Gear Selectivity on Fish Life History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhenlin; SUN Peng; YAN Wei; HUANG Liuyi; TANG Yanli

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, extreme changes have occurred in the characters of exploited fish populations. The majority of these changes have affected the growth traits of fish life history, which include a smaller size-at-age, an earlier age-at-maturation and among others. Currently, the causes of these life history traits changes still require systematic analyses and empirical studies. The explanations that have been cited are merely expressed in terms of fish phenotypic adaptation. It has been claimed that the original traits of fish can be recovered once the intensity of exploitation of the fish is controlled. Sustained environmental and fishing pressure will change the life history traits of most fish species, so the fish individual’s traits are still in small size-at-age and at earlier age-at-maturation in exploited fish populations. In this paper, we expressed our view of points that fishing gear has imposed selectiv-ity on fish populations and individuals as various other environmental factors have done and such changes are unrecoverable. Ac-cording to the existing tend of exploited fish individual’s life history traits, we suggested further researches in this field and provided better methods of fishery management and thereby fishery resources protection than those available early.

  5. Herbicide resistance screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joan M

    2009-01-01

    Herbicide resistance screening is a method that can be used not only to determine presence of the enzyme, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, encoded by either the Bar or the Pat gene in transgenic maize, but also to assess the inheritance ratio of those genes in a segregating population. Herbicide screening can also be used to study linkage of a transgene of interest that was cotransformed with the herbicide resistance marker gene. By combining the herbicide screen assay with a PCR-based screen of leaf tissue DNA for the presence of both the Bar or the Pat gene marker and a cotransformed transgene of interest from the same seedling tissue and maintaining that seedling identity, the researcher can identify linkage or the possible breakdown in linkage of the marker gene and the transgene of interest. Further, the occurrence of "DNA silencing" can be evaluated if an individual seedling that was susceptible to the applied herbicide nonetheless gave PCR data that indicated presence of the gene responsible for herbicide resistance. Similarly, "DNA silencing" of the gene of interest may be investigated if the seeds can be screened and scored for that phenotypic trait in a nondestructive manner prior to planting.

  6. Reference cells and ploidy in the comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar eBrunborg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the comet assay, single cells are analyzed with respect to their level of DNA damage. Discrimination of the individual cell or cell type based on DNA content, with concomitant scoring of the DNA damage, is useful since this may allow analysis of mixtures of cells. Different cells can then be characterized based on their ploidy, cell cycle stage, or genome size. We here describe two applications of such a cell type-specific comet assay: (i Testicular cell suspensions, analyzed on the basis of their ploidy during spermatogenesis; and (ii reference cells in the form of fish erythrocytes which can be included as internal standards to correct for inter-assay variations. With standard fluorochromes used in the comet assay, the total staining signal from each cell – whether damaged or undamaged – was found to be associated with the cell’s DNA content. Analysis of the fluorescence intensity of single cells is straightforward since these data are available in scoring systems based on image analysis. The analysis of testicular cell suspensions provides information on cell type specific composition, susceptibility to genotoxicants, and DNA repair. Internal reference cells, either untreated or carrying defined numbers of lesions induced by ionizing radiation, are useful for investigation of experimental factors that can cause variation in comet assay results, and for routine inclusion in experiments to facilitate standardization of methods and comparison of comet assay data obtained in different experiments or in different laboratories. They can also be used - in combination with a reference curve - to quantify the DNA lesions induced by a certain treatment. Fish cells of a range of genome sizes, both greater and smaller than human, are suitable for this purpose and they are inexpensive.

  7. Fish Springs weather CY 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2011 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  8. Fish Springs weather CY 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2010 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  9. Anadromous fish inventory: Summary volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runs/escapements,...

  10. KLA - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  11. LCA of Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products.......The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products....

  12. Report on Fish Springs - 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses field survey results from several trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge during the summer of 1958. The following information is...

  13. Fish Culture Economics and Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ogamba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish culture economics and extension was reviewed to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices. The cost and benefits of fish culture need be known before participation in the business. There is need for cross-link between research and the fishing community. Prior to introduction of any new innovation in fisheries extension and evaluation of such programmers, the agency responsible for such exercise should have full knowledge of the existing farming practice/techniques and the reasons behind them. In assessing or evaluating the impact of any new techniques or programmers, consideration should be given to such factors as natural conditions, local infrastructures, socio cultural setting, farmers’ production aims and labor economics. The study reviews the types of feasibility study, a typical feasibility study and report on a fish farm project and detail analysis of culture extension to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices.

  14. Temperature - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  15. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete pat

  16. Fish in Mutton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Ingredients:500 grams mutton and 750 grams live fish Condiments:Salt for taste, ginger, scallion, soup, water chestnut powder, gourmet powder Method: 1.Quick-boil the clean mutton. then put scallion, ginger, salt, gourmet powder and pepper powder into it and cook until

  17. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete

  18. Yet Another Fish Tale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalasz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  19. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    a detailed ethnographic description of five different fishing operations and then compare them on a number of different fronts. This will direct us to some general differences in their modes of operation in relation to the vessel quota share (VQS) system and lead us to the next chapter, where the principal...... implications of the VQS for different modes of production will be discussed....

  20. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, I look at the implications of transferable quotas on the organization of production; that is, how fishing activities are structured around access to the individual and transferable quotas and how, in turn, the quotas structure the production. Therefore, this chapter will give...

  1. ChillFish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate...

  2. FishTraits Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  3. Lemongrass-Fried Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 500 grams grass carp, several stalks of lemongrass, 5 leaves of lettuce. Condiments: 10 grams sweet sauce (made from fermented flour, scallion powder and ginger root powder); yolk of one egg, cooking wine, salt, pepper and MSG (optional). Method: 1. Cut the fish into pieces. Mash

  4. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-08-07

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms.

  5. Fish Facts. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mike

    This lesson plan is designed for a 50-minute class to teach extension home economists and homemakers about buying, storing, and using fish. The lesson plan contains references, a list of equipment needed, objectives, and the presentation. The presentation consists of an outline of instruction coordinated with methods of instruction and aids and…

  6. Sensitive-cell-based fish chromatophore biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Thomas K.; Chaplen, Frank W.; Jovanovic, Goran; Kolodziej, Wojtek; Trempy, Janine E.; Willard, Corwin; Liburdy, James A.; Pence, Deborah V.; Paul, Brian K.

    2004-07-01

    A sensitive biosensor (cytosensor) has been developed based on color changes in the toxin-sensitive colored living cells of fish. These chromatophores are highly sensitive to the presence of many known and unknown toxins produced by microbial pathogens and undergo visible color changes in a dose-dependent manner. The chromatophores are immobilized and maintained in a viable state while potential pathogens multiply and fish cell-microbe interactions are monitored. Low power LED lighting is used to illuminate the chromatophores which are magnified using standard optical lenses and imaged onto a CCD array. Reaction to toxins is detected by observing changes is the total area of color in the cells. These fish chromatophores are quite sensitive to cholera toxin, Staphococcus alpha toxin, and Bordatella pertussis toxin. Numerous other toxic chemical and biological agents besides bacterial toxins also cause readily detectable color effects in chromatophores. The ability of the chromatophore cell-based biosensor to distinguish between different bacterial pathogens was examined. Toxin producing strains of Salmonella enteritis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Bacillus cereus induced movement of pigmented organelles in the chromatophore cells and this movement was measured by changes in the optical density over time. Each bacterial pathogen elicited this measurable response in a distinctive and signature fashion. These results suggest a chromatophore cell-based biosensor assay may be applicable for the detection and identification of virulence activities associated with certain air-, food-, and water-borne bacterial pathogens.

  7. How to Represent a Fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elspeth Probyn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article canvasses a broad range of fish representations across several disciplines. It asks what cultural studies can learn from scientific representation of fish, and argues that in turn cultural studies can be a nuanced understanding of the work of images. The objective of the article is to open debate about fish and their sustainability beyond discrete disciplines and/or ideologies. This, it is argued, is crucial if we are to go beyond a simplified cultural politics of fish.

  8. Disagreement between Human Papillomavirus Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte Møller

    2014-01-01

    assays. Positive agreement between the assays was measured as the conditional probability that the results of all compared assays were positive given that at least one assay returned a positive result. Of all 5,064 samples, 1,679 (33.2%) tested positive on at least one of the assays. Among these, 41......We aimed to determine the disagreement in primary cervical screening between four human papillomavirus assays: Hybrid Capture 2, cobas, CLART, and APTIMA. Material from 5,064 SurePath samples of women participating in routine cervical screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, was tested with the four......% tested positive on all four. Agreement was lower in women aged ≥ 30 years (30%, vs. 49% at samples (29%, vs. 38% in follow-up samples), and in women with concurrent normal cytology (22%, vs. 68% with abnormal cytology). Among primary screening samples from women aged 30...

  9. A bead-based multiplex assay for the detection of DNA viruses infecting laboratory rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfler, Daniela; Nicklas, Werner; Mauter, Petra; Pawlita, Michael; Schmitt, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Association (FELASA) recommends screening of laboratory rodents and biological materials for a broad variety of bacterial agents, viruses, and parasites. Methods commonly used to date for pathogen detection are neither cost-effective nor time- and animal-efficient or uniform. However, an infection even if silent alters experimental results through changing the animals' physiology and increases inter-individual variability. As a consequence higher numbers of animals and experiments are needed for valid and significant results. We developed a novel high-throughput multiplex assay, called rodent DNA virus finder (rDVF) for the simultaneous identification of 24 DNA viruses infecting mice and rats. We detected all 24 DNA viruses with high specificity and reproducibility. Detection limits for the different DNA viruses varied between 10 and 1000 copies per PCR. The validation of rDVF was done with DNA isolated from homogenised organs amplified by pathogen specific primers in one multiplex PCR. The biotinylated amplicons were detected via hybridisation to specific oligonucleotide probes coupled to spectrally distinct sets of fluorescent Luminex beads. In conclusion, rDVF may have the potential to replace conventional testing and may simplify and improve routine detection of DNA viruses infecting rodents.

  10. A bead-based multiplex assay for the detection of DNA viruses infecting laboratory rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Höfler

    Full Text Available The Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Association (FELASA recommends screening of laboratory rodents and biological materials for a broad variety of bacterial agents, viruses, and parasites. Methods commonly used to date for pathogen detection are neither cost-effective nor time- and animal-efficient or uniform. However, an infection even if silent alters experimental results through changing the animals' physiology and increases inter-individual variability. As a consequence higher numbers of animals and experiments are needed for valid and significant results. We developed a novel high-throughput multiplex assay, called rodent DNA virus finder (rDVF for the simultaneous identification of 24 DNA viruses infecting mice and rats. We detected all 24 DNA viruses with high specificity and reproducibility. Detection limits for the different DNA viruses varied between 10 and 1000 copies per PCR. The validation of rDVF was done with DNA isolated from homogenised organs amplified by pathogen specific primers in one multiplex PCR. The biotinylated amplicons were detected via hybridisation to specific oligonucleotide probes coupled to spectrally distinct sets of fluorescent Luminex beads. In conclusion, rDVF may have the potential to replace conventional testing and may simplify and improve routine detection of DNA viruses infecting rodents.

  11. Fish passage report : Baca National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fish passage report was prepared for the Colorado Fish and Wildlife Conservation Office to inform them of possible fish passage issues on streams that provide...

  12. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  13. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, wh

  14. Fish freshness rapid detection based on fish-eye image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zang, Yue; Wo, Qiqi; Zou, Chen; Wang, Nan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Dadong

    Study a new method for detecting fish freshness. During the experiment, we choose freshest fish-eyes images via digital camera to add computing the synthesis of the latest fish-eye image .Next figure out every image's signal strength. Finally, we analysis relation between the change of the image's energy and the value (pH, electrical conductivity, TVBN) by Modeling of Partial Least Squares Regression. The result shows that we can detect freshness of fish quickly, conveniently, simply and accurately through the fish-eye image energy change.

  15. [Determination of histamine content in canned fish products determined by the colorimetry method of Hardy and Smith].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windyga, B; Grochowska, A; Sciezyńska, H; Górecka, K; Fonberg-Broczek, M

    1992-01-01

    The content of histamine in 79 samples of imported canned fish products (sardines, mackerel) was determined. Histamine was assayed by colorimetric method of Hardy and Smith. In 18% of tested products (sardines) levels of histamine were exceeded 20 mg/100 of product. Usefulness of this method in routine quantitative determination of histamine content in canned fish products was documented.

  16. Prenatal detection of chromosome aneuploidies in uncultured chorionic villus samples by FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryndorf, T.; Christensen, B.; Vad, M.; Philip, J. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    We developed a 1-d FISH assay for detection of numerical chromosome abnormalities in uncultured chorionic villus samples (CVS). Probes specific for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y were used to determine ploidy by analysis of signal number in hybridized nuclei. Aneuploidy detection using this assay was directly compared with the results obtained by conventional cytogenetic analysis in a consecutive, clinical study of 2,709 CVS and placental samples. The FISH assay yielded discrete differences in the signal profiles between cytogenetically normal and abnormal samples. On the basis of these results, we generated FISH-assay cutoff values that discriminated between karyotypically normal and aneuploid samples. Samples with mosaicism and a single sample with possible heritable small chromosome X probe target were exceptions and showed poor agreement between FISH results and conventional cytogenetics. We conclude that the FISH assay may act as a more accurate and less labor-demanding alternative to {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} CVS analysis. 22 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  18. Development of an internal amplification control system for a real-time PCR assay for detection of Neisseria meningitidis in CSF and EDTA blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Christopher J; Bell, Sydney M; Er, Noel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assemble and assess a non-competitive internal amplification control (IAC) system targeting the Escherichia coli alanine racemase (alr) gene to include in a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for Neisseria meningitidis. Primers and hybridisation probes specific for the IAC were designed and assessed for specificity. Amplification efficiency and limit of detection for the assembled assay was extrapolated using standard curves constructed with serial dilutions of N. meningitidis in saline, pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and EDTA blood. The 95% confidence limits (CI) were calculated for IAC crossing-points recorded for assays for N. meningitidis ctrA in saline (negative blank), and N. meningitides-negative samples of CSF and EDTA blood. These limits served as a reference range against which the IAC crossing-points recorded for prospective assays are compared to detect sample inhibition. This system was used in testing consecutive EDTA blood samples from two cases of meningococcal disease. The IAC system is specific for Escherichia coli and Shigella species. The amplification efficiency of the assembled assay for N. meningitidis and ability to detect low target DNA levels was not compromised with the inclusion of the IAC system. The IAC crossing-points varied in clinical samples of CSF and EDTA blood. The elucidated reference range for EDTA blood was used to detect sample inhibition in one of the two clinical cases investigated.The IAC system monitors the performance of all processes in the assembled assay for N. meningitidis. Measuring IAC crossing-points serves as an indicator of sample stability and inhibitory properties when testing single or multiple samples from the same patient. Specificity for E. coli and Shigella species enables inclusion in assays of different targets within the same laboratory. Reporting PCR assay results in the context of the IAC crossing-points and reference ranges validates against sample

  19. Metazoan Parasites of Antarctic Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal; Tepe, Yahya; Belk, Mark C; Heckmann, Richard A; Aslan, Burçak; Gürgen, Meryem; Bray, Rodney A; Akgül, Ülker

    2015-06-01

    To date, there have been nearly 100 papers published on metazoan parasites of Antarctic fishes, but there has not yet been any compilation of a species list of fish parasites for this large geographic area. Herein, we provide a list of all documented occurrences of monogenean, cestode, digenean, acanthocephalan, nematode, and hirudinean parasites of Antarctic fishes. The list includes nearly 250 parasite species found in 142 species of host fishes. It is likely that there are more species of fish parasites, which are yet to be documented from Antarctic waters.

  20. A Highly Sensitive Electrochemical DNA Biosensor from Acrylic-Gold Nano-composite for the Determination of Arowana Fish Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Heng, Lee Yook; Futra, Dedi; Chiang, Chew Poh; Rashid, Zulkafli A.; Ling, Tan Ling

    2017-08-01

    The present research describes a simple method for the identification of the gender of arowana fish ( Scleropages formosus). The DNA biosensor was able to detect specific DNA sequence at extremely low level down to atto M regimes. An electrochemical DNA biosensor based on acrylic microsphere-gold nanoparticle (AcMP-AuNP) hybrid composite was fabricated. Hydrophobic poly(n-butylacrylate-N-acryloxysuccinimide) microspheres were synthesised with a facile and well-established one-step photopolymerization procedure and physically adsorbed on the AuNPs at the surface of a carbon screen printed electrode (SPE). The DNA biosensor was constructed simply by grafting an aminated DNA probe on the succinimide functionalised AcMPs via a strong covalent attachment. DNA hybridisation response was determined by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique using anthraquinone monosulphonic acid redox probe as an electroactive oligonucleotide label (Table 1). A low detection limit at 1.0 × 10-18 M with a wide linear calibration range of 1.0 × 10-18 to 1.0 × 10-8 M ( R 2 = 0.99) can be achieved by the proposed DNA biosensor under optimal conditions. Electrochemical detection of arowana DNA can be completed within 1 hour. Due to its small size and light weight, the developed DNA biosensor holds high promise for the development of functional kit for fish culture usage.

  1. FISH detection of ribosomal cistrons and assortment-distortion for X and B chromosomes in Dichroplus pratensis (Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidau, C J; Rosato, M; Martí, D A

    2004-01-01

    Assortment-distortion with respect to the X and NOR activity of a rare mitotically stable B chromosome (B(N)), was examined in 16 males of Dichroplus pratensis (Acrididae: Melanoplinae) from Argentine populations. In 1B individuals, the X and B associate preferentially during prophase I reaching a maximum level of association at zygotene. Frequency of X/B association remains relatively high up to diplotene-diakinesis and decreases steeply towards metaphase I. The percent X/B association at each stage is positively influenced by association at the previous stage, and interindividual variability in X/B association decreases as the frequency of association increases. Both chromosomes tended to preferentially orientate toward the same pole at MI (mean ratio of 16 individuals, 1.50:1) which determined an excess of XB and 00 second spermatocytes over X0 and 0B ones (1.39:1). No significant differences occurred between the MI, AI and MII assortment ratios. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) confirmed that the B chromosome carries ribosomal genes and helped to establish that, during spermiogenesis, both the B and the normal NOR-bearing chromosome (S8) are clustered near the centriole adjunct region of spermatids. However, FISH failed to reveal the existence of inactive ribosomal cistrons in the X chromosome, as previously suggested, thus providing no support to a simple origin of the B from the X.

  2. Practical assay issues with the PERT/PBRT assay: a highly sensitive reverse transcriptase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, A; Dusing, S

    2006-01-01

    Product safety testing for retroviruses can be achieved by a panel of screening assays, including electron microscopy, viral gene specific PCRs, virus propagation, and detection of reverse transciptase activity. The application of PCR-based reverse transcriptase assays (PERT) that are approximately a million-fold more sensitive than conventional nucleotide incorporation assays in the testing of biologicals is described. Use of PERT assays can be applied to three areas: (i) screening for adventitious retrovirus contamination; (ii) detecting and quantifying endogenous viral particle load and (iii) monitoring levels of infectious retrovirus generation in cell lines that contain endogenous retroviruses.

  3. Consumers’ attitude towards fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Conte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.

  4. Speciation in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Giacomo

    2013-11-01

    The field of speciation has seen much renewed interest in the past few years, with theoretical and empirical advances that have moved it from a descriptive field to a predictive and testable one. The goal of this review is to provide a general background on research on speciation as it pertains to fishes. Three major components to the question are first discussed: the spatial, ecological and sexual factors that influence speciation mechanisms. We then move to the latest developments in the field of speciation genomics. Affordable and rapidly available, massively parallel sequencing data allow speciation studies to converge into a single comprehensive line of investigation, where the focus has shifted to the search for speciation genes and genomic islands of speciation. We argue that fish present a very diverse array of scenarios, making them an ideal model to study speciation processes.

  5. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Kotler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae. Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus.

  6. Of Fish and Micrornas

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower vertebrates and serves as an essential link to early vertebrate evolution. Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are 18-22 nucleotide-long endogenous RNAs that bind to specific mRNAs, usually at the 3’-untranslate...

  7. In Place of Fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ounanian, Kristen

    Communities historically reliant on fisheries have faced changing circumstances in terms of their livelihoods, identities, demographics, and viabilities. I examine various manifestations of fisheries dependence and the process of transition as related to six cases of fishing communities undergoing...... social, economic, and cultural change. The empirical material for this dissertation comes from interviews in Northern Jutland, Denmark and New England, United States. My purpose in this research was to develop a qualitative baseline of what is happening in different coastal communities to identify...

  8. From Antenna to Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Evan G.; Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    Conspectus Ligand-sensitized, luminescent lanthanide(III) complexes are of considerable importance because their unique photophysical properties (microsecond to millisecond lifetimes, characteristic and narrow emission bands, and large Stokes shifts) make them well suited as labels in fluorescence-based bioassays. The long-lived emission of lanthanide(III) cations can be temporally resolved from scattered light and background fluorescence to vastly enhance measurement sensitivity. One challenge in this field is the design of sensitizing ligands that provide highly emissive complexes with sufficient stability and aqueous solubility for practical applications. In this Account, we give an overview of some of the general properties of the trivalent lanthanides and follow with a summary of advances made in our laboratory in the development of highly luminescent Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes for applications in biotechnology. A focus of our research has been the optimization of these compounds as potential commercial agents for use in Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF) technology. Our approach involves developing high-stability octadentate Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes that rely on all-oxygen donor atoms and using multi-chromophore chelates to increase molar absorptivity; earlier examples utilized a single pendant chromophore (that is, a single “antenna”). Ligands based on 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) provide exceptionally emissive Tb(III) complexes with quantum yield values up to ∼60% that are stable at the nanomolar concentrations required for commercial assays. Through synthetic modification of the IAM chromophore and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, we have developed a method to predict absorption and emission properties of these chromophores as a tool to guide ligand design. Additionally, we have investigated chiral IAM ligands that yield Tb(III) complexes possessing both high quantum yield values and strong

  9. The interleukins of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secombes, C J; Wang, T; Bird, S

    2011-12-01

    Interleukins are a subgroup of cytokines, molecules involved in the intercellular regulation of the immune system. The term interleukin was first coined in 1979 to refer to molecules that signal between different leucocyte types, although not exclusively restricted to leucocyte communication. Whilst it is now known that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of cell types, nevertheless many are synthesised by CD4(+) T helper cells, macrophages/monocytes and endothelial cells. The nomenclature is relatively straightforward, with interleukin 1 the first discovered and interleukin 2 the second, etc. However, whilst 35 interleukins are currently described in mammals, several are in fact terms referring to subfamilies of more molecules, as with the IL-1 family where 11 members (IL-1F1-IL-1F11) are present, and the IL-17 family where 6 members (IL-17A-IL-17F) are present. So the total is much higher and splice variants and allelic variation increase this diversity further. This review will focus on what is known about interleukins in fish, and will refer to the major subfamilies rather than try to work through 35 descriptions in a row. It is clear that many direct homologues of molecules known in mammals are present in fish, but that not all are present and some novel interleukins exist that may have arisen from fish specific gene duplication events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fish Synucleins: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Toni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Synucleins (syns are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2 isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of “non verified” sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins.

  11. Fishing degrades size structure of coral reef fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James P W; Williams, Ivor D; Edwards, Andrew M; McPherson, Jana; Yeager, Lauren; Vigliola, Laurent; Brainard, Russell E; Baum, Julia K

    2017-03-01

    Fishing pressure on coral reef ecosystems has been frequently linked to reductions of large fishes and reef fish biomass. Associated impacts on overall community structure are, however, less clear. In size-structured aquatic ecosystems, fishing impacts are commonly quantified using size spectra, which describe the distribution of individual body sizes within a community. We examined the size spectra and biomass of coral reef fish communities at 38 US-affiliated Pacific islands that ranged in human presence from near pristine to human population centers. Size spectra 'steepened' steadily with increasing human population and proximity to market due to a reduction in the relative biomass of large fishes and an increase in the dominance of small fishes. Reef fish biomass was substantially lower on inhabited islands than uninhabited ones, even at inhabited islands with the lowest levels of human presence. We found that on populated islands size spectra exponents decreased (analogous to size spectra steepening) linearly with declining biomass, whereas on uninhabited islands there was no relationship. Size spectra were steeper in regions of low sea surface temperature but were insensitive to variation in other environmental and geomorphic covariates. In contrast, reef fish biomass was highly sensitive to oceanographic conditions, being influenced by both oceanic productivity and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that community size structure may be a more robust indicator than fish biomass to increasing human presence and that size spectra are reliable indicators of exploitation impacts across regions of different fish community compositions, environmental drivers, and fisheries types. Size-based approaches that link directly to functional properties of fish communities, and are relatively insensitive to abiotic variation across biogeographic regions, offer great potential for developing our understanding of fishing impacts in coral reef ecosystems. © 2016

  12. Comparative analysis of Gram's stain, PNA-FISH and Sepsityper with MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of yeast direct from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Rebecca L; Ramnarain, P; Barker, K; Stone, N; Rattenbury, S; McHugh, T D; Kibbler, C C

    2014-10-01

    Fungaemia diagnosis could be improved by reducing the time to identification of yeast from blood cultures. This study aimed to evaluate three rapid methods for the identification of yeast direct from blood cultures; Gram's stain analysis, the AdvanDX Peptide Nucleic Acid in Situ Hybridisation Yeast Traffic Light system (PNA-FISH YTL) and Bruker Sepsityper alongside matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Fifty blood cultures spiked with a known single yeast strain were analysed by blinded operators experienced in each method. Identifications were compared with MALDI-TOF MS CHROMagar Candida culture and ITS rRNA sequence-based identifications. On first attempt, success rates of 96% (48/50) and 76% (36/50) were achieved using PNA-FISH YTL and Gram's stain respectively. MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated a success rate of 56% (28/50) when applying manufacturer's species log score thresholds and 76% (38/50) using in-house parameters, including lowering the species log score threshold to >1.5. In conclusion, PNA-FISH YTL demonstrated a high success rate successfully identifying yeast commonly encountered in fungaemia. Sepsityper(™) with MALDI-TOF MS was accurate but increased sensitivity is required. Due to the misidentification of commonly encountered yeast Gram's stain analysis demonstrated limited utility in this setting.

  13. Delimiting the origin of a B chromosome by FISH mapping, chromosome painting and DNA sequence analysis in Astyanax paranae (Teleostei, Characiformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duílio M Z de A Silva

    Full Text Available Supernumerary (B chromosomes have been shown to contain a wide variety of repetitive sequences. For this reason, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH is a useful tool for ascertaining the origin of these genomic elements, especially when combined with painting from microdissected B chromosomes. In order to investigate the origin of B chromosomes in the fish species Astyanax paranae, these two approaches were used along with PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences obtained from the B chromosomes and its comparison with those residing in the A chromosomes. Remarkably, chromosome painting with the one-arm metacentric B chromosome probe showed hybridization signals on entire B chromosome, while FISH mapping revealed the presence of H1 histone and 18S rDNA genes symmetrically placed in both arms of the B chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that the B chromosome of A. paranae is an isochromosome. Additionally, the chromosome pairs Nos. 2 or 23 are considered the possible B chromosome ancestors since both contain syntenic H1 and 18S rRNA sequences. The analysis of DNA sequence fragments of the histone and rRNA genes obtained from the microdissected B chromosomes showed high similarity with those obtained from 0B individuals, which supports the intraspecific origin of B chromosomes in A. paranae. Finally, the population hereby analysed showed a female-biased B chromosome presence suggesting that B chromosomes in this species could influence sex determinism.

  14. Delimiting the origin of a B chromosome by FISH mapping, chromosome painting and DNA sequence analysis in Astyanax paranae (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Duílio M Z de A; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Daniel, Sandro Natal; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Cláudio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Foresti, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes have been shown to contain a wide variety of repetitive sequences. For this reason, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) is a useful tool for ascertaining the origin of these genomic elements, especially when combined with painting from microdissected B chromosomes. In order to investigate the origin of B chromosomes in the fish species Astyanax paranae, these two approaches were used along with PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences obtained from the B chromosomes and its comparison with those residing in the A chromosomes. Remarkably, chromosome painting with the one-arm metacentric B chromosome probe showed hybridization signals on entire B chromosome, while FISH mapping revealed the presence of H1 histone and 18S rDNA genes symmetrically placed in both arms of the B chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that the B chromosome of A. paranae is an isochromosome. Additionally, the chromosome pairs Nos. 2 or 23 are considered the possible B chromosome ancestors since both contain syntenic H1 and 18S rRNA sequences. The analysis of DNA sequence fragments of the histone and rRNA genes obtained from the microdissected B chromosomes showed high similarity with those obtained from 0B individuals, which supports the intraspecific origin of B chromosomes in A. paranae. Finally, the population hereby analysed showed a female-biased B chromosome presence suggesting that B chromosomes in this species could influence sex determinism.

  15. Transporter assays and assay ontologies: useful tools for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrazil, Barbara; Chichester, Christine; Zander Balderud, Linda; Engkvist, Ola; Gaulton, Anna; Overington, John P

    2014-06-01

    Transport proteins represent an eminent class of drug targets and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) associated genes. There exists a large number of distinct activity assays for transport proteins, depending on not only the measurement needed (e.g. transport activity, strength of ligand–protein interaction), but also due to heterogeneous assay setups used by different research groups. Efforts to systematically organize this (divergent) bioassay data have large potential impact in Public-Private partnership and conventional commercial drug discovery. In this short review, we highlight some of the frequently used high-throughput assays for transport proteins, and we discuss emerging assay ontologies and their application to this field. Focusing on human P-glycoprotein (Multidrug resistance protein 1; gene name: ABCB1, MDR1), we exemplify how annotation of bioassay data per target class could improve and add to existing ontologies, and we propose to include an additional layer of metadata supporting data fusion across different bioassays.

  16. [Biological value of protein from raw fish and canned fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganoviak, Z M; Lipka, E M

    1983-01-01

    The authors evaluated the nutritive value of protein from 4 kinds of raw fish (herring, cod, mackerel, sprat) and its preserves. Experiments were made on rats fed the diets containing fish protein (8-10% of the total diet). Experiments included the determination of apparent and genuine digestibility, net protein utilization, and net dietary protein caloric value. Evidence was obtained that protein from fish and its preserves is characterized by high digestibility coefficient as compared with casein and egg powder. The highest net protein utilization was noted in animal groups fed the diet containing protein from raw fish. Protein assimilability from fish preserves was on the average 15% lower than that from raw fish.

  17. The comet assay – from toy to tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenter Speit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay is nowadays the most common method for measuring DNA damage and repair in single cells. It is based on the microelectrophoretic study published by Ostling and Johanson (1984 and was developed by Singh and coworkers (1988 to a versatile technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. This alkaline version still is the basis for the triumphant success of the comet assay in basic research into mechanisms of DNA damage and DNA repair, genotoxicity testing, ecotoxicology and human biomonitoring. Important technical improvements (e.g., the use of precoated slides, introduction of image analysis, high throughput methods, automated scoring systems made the assay more robust and more efficient. Modifications of the standard protocol provide more specific information on the type and biological significance of the damage studied. The introduction of lesion-specific endonucleases allowed the characterization of oxidative base damage, alkylation damage and UV-induced pyrimidine dimers. The combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH made it possible to identify DNA of particular chromosome regions and measure effects of damage and repair in particular genes. The comet assay is being increasingly used in genotoxicity testing. In particular, the in vivo comet assay has become a component of some genotoxicity test strategies and generally accepted test protocols have evolved over the years. A large international collaborative trial sponsored by the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM was recently completed and an OECD test guideline was approved. The comet assay is widely used in human biomonitoring to measure DNA damage as a marker of exposure to genotoxic agents or to investigate genoprotective effects. However, there are still problems in comparing results from different laboratories and there is need for reducing inter-laboratory variation and identification of standard

  18. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Najib M.; Khan, Haris A.; Then, Amy Y-Hui; Ving Ching, Chong; Gaur, Manas

    2017-01-01

    Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO), an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users. PMID:28929028

  19. Archaeological Fish Bones Online: a digital archive of Sydney fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Colley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the Archaeological Fish Bone Images sustainable digital archive and XTF-based image search and presentation tools developed with University of Sydney Library. The archive contains over 500 images of modern and archaeological fish remains and was developed as part of an archaeological research project into colonial and traditional Aboriginal fishing practices in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia from c.3000 years ago to the late 19th century. Links are provided to research information about fish ecology and fishing, the cultural and historical significance of fish taxa and details of taxonomic and anatomical nomenclature. Archaeological fish-bone images at the University of Sydney The article explains how and why the archive was developed, and identifies and discusses the research implications of significant gaps in current fish reference collections. Archive content is useful to researchers who need to identify and interpret fish remains of the same or similar biological taxa from Sydney or elsewhere. The design of the archive and online tools is relevant to other applications that use digital images to aid identification and interpretation of archaeological and other collections.

  20. Targeting Anti-Cancer Active Compounds: Affinity-Based Chromatographic Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Marcela Cristina; Cardoso, Carmen Lucia; Seidl, Claudia; Moaddel, Ruin; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Affinity-based chromatography assays encompass the use of solid supports containing immobilized biological targets to monitor binding events in the isolation , identification and/or characterization of bioactive compounds. This powerful bioanalytical technique allows the screening of potential binders through fast analyses that can be directly performed using isolated substances or complex matrices. An overview of the recent researches in frontal and zonal affinity-based chromatography screening assays, which has been used as a tool in the identification and characterization of new anti-cancer agents, is discussed. In addition, a critical evaluation of the recently emerged ligands fishing assays in complex mixtures is also discussed. PMID:27306095

  1. SWALLOWED FISH BONES IN MALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacko HB

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the different aspects, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic of 114 cases of fish bones in the upper digestive tract . Methods: One hundred fourteen patients with fish bones suspected in the upper digestive tract were admitted in our department between February 2010 and October 2012. Results: There was a predominance of the male: 66 men (58%. The average age of the patients was 26 years with extremes 3 to 62 years old. The tongue base and vallecula are constituted the principals locations 66.66%. In the majority of the cases the fish bones were removed by direct pharyngoscopy in 43.86 %. We have not notified any serious complications. Conclusion: Therefore this study shows the foreign fish bones are frequently just as well in children as adult. The fish bones are particularly lodged in tongue base. The classical methods of extraction are permit to remove the all foreign fish bones.

  2. 75 FR 6058 - Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game Fish Hatchery and Stocking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game Fish.... Under the Sport Fish Restoration Act (SFRA), FWS proposes to fund actions associated with the operation...: Under the SFRA (Pub. L. 106-408), FWS has authority to grant Federal funds from the Sport...

  3. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSAY FOR VITAMIN B

    OpenAIRE

    Bishnoi Kapil*, , ,; Kataria Mahesh; Singhal Vipin; Gupta Deepika

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrients added to foods are analyzed using various procedures depending on their nature and properties. The microbiological assays are better than chemical method because any suitable change in vitamin molecule which may not be detected by chemical method will be revealed by change in microbial activity. The microbiological assay of vitamins is based upon the comparison of the stimulation of growth of bacteria by measured concentration of vitamin with that produced by known concentratio...

  4. FishFrame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degel, Henrik; Jansen, Teunis

    2006-01-01

    for fixed reoccurring tasks like assessment working groups, data are often late and the quality can be unsatisfactory. The current situation of this “semi-manual distributed datawarehouse” can be improved technically. Methods for quality control, raising and calculation can be discussed and unified....... Development and test of software modules can be done once and reused by all. The biggest challenge in this is not technical – it is in organisation, coordination and trust. This challenge has been addressed by FishFrame - a web-based datawarehouse application. The “bottom-up” approach with maximum involvement...

  5. Gonadal development in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Tanaka, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate reproduction depends on the function of 2 distinct gametes, sperm and eggs, which develop in 2 different organs, the testis and the ovary. Testes and ovaries are composed of germ cells, supporting cells and interstitial cells. In this review, we describe the origin and the fate of these cell lineages and how they interact with each other to form sexually dimorphic reproductive organs in medaka. We delineate how the temporally different association and establishment of these lineages contribute to a variety of seemingly different sex differentiation processes among teleost fish. Thus, teleosts represent an intriguing group in which to study the fundamental processes of gonadal development through comparing conserved and unique mechanisms.

  6. Detection of parvalbumin, a common fish allergen gene in food, by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Liang, Chengzhu; Gao, Hongwei; Lin, Chao; Deng, Mingjun

    2009-01-01

    Fish, as one of the most common causes of IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity, has recently received increasing attention from the food industry and legislative and regulatory agencies. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay based on TaqMan-MGB probe technology was developed for the detection of parvalbumin, a major fish allergen gene. The assay had a sensitivity up to 5 pg purified fish DNA and had no cross-reaction with other species, such as cattle, sheep, swine, chicken, shrimp, lobster, crab, squid, clam, rice, soybean, maize, and potato. The coefficient of variation for both intra- and interexperimental variability demonstrated high reproducibility and accuracy. The assay proved to be a potential tool for the detection and label management of fish allergens in food.

  7. Fish intelligence, sentience and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Culum

    2015-01-01

    Fish are one of the most highly utilised vertebrate taxa by humans; they are harvested from wild stocks as part of global fishing industries, grown under intensive aquaculture conditions, are the most common pet and are widely used for scientific research. But fish are seldom afforded the same level of compassion or welfare as warm-blooded vertebrates. Part of the problem is the large gap between people's perception of fish intelligence and the scientific reality. This is an important issue because public perception guides government policy. The perception of an animal's intelligence often drives our decision whether or not to include them in our moral circle. From a welfare perspective, most researchers would suggest that if an animal is sentient, then it can most likely suffer and should therefore be offered some form of formal protection. There has been a debate about fish welfare for decades which centres on the question of whether they are sentient or conscious. The implications for affording the same level of protection to fish as other vertebrates are great, not least because of fishing-related industries. Here, I review the current state of knowledge of fish cognition starting with their sensory perception and moving on to cognition. The review reveals that fish perception and cognitive abilities often match or exceed other vertebrates. A review of the evidence for pain perception strongly suggests that fish experience pain in a manner similar to the rest of the vertebrates. Although scientists cannot provide a definitive answer on the level of consciousness for any non-human vertebrate, the extensive evidence of fish behavioural and cognitive sophistication and pain perception suggests that best practice would be to lend fish the same level of protection as any other vertebrate.

  8. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-01-01

    The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain ...

  9. Tendency in fishing development and fish consumption in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešić Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Production and catch of fish in Serbia increases from year to year, while in the world it reached its peak at the beginning of this century. Serbia has all the favorable natural and economic conditions for further development of fishing. Out of total production, that is, annual fish catch in Serbia, the greatest part is sold by organized purchase, lower part is exported, and the reminder goes to the market through retail. It is well known that food consumption, therefore fish consumption, depends on several factors such as the production level, retail price, consumers purchasing power and their eating habits. Therefore, when analyzing the tendency of production and consumption of fish in Serbia, it is important to investigate the influence of production, price and purchasing power of consumers on it. In order to investigate the set objective, there were used corresponding quantitative data obtained by Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. On the basis of the original data, there were determined certain parameters, which were used as variables for calculation of correlational-regressive and maginal analysis for determining the elasticity of demand and consummation of fish per capita in Serbia. Production and catch of fish in Serbia tended to increase during the observed period, with annual growth rate of 17.4%. Beside the fact that annual growth rate is 4.8%, fish consumption per capita in Serbia is still quite small (X=4.89kg, what is a consequence of population habit to consume predominantly meat. In our study we have found out that fish consumption in Serbia mostly depend on fish production per capita (rxy=0.6364, as well as on groos (rxy=0.6045 and net (rxy=0.5969 earnings. Also, it is determined that consumption elasticity has the highest growth in regard to fish production per capita. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31011

  10. Validation of the micronucleus-centromere assay for biological dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The micronucleus assay is frequently used for purposes of biological dosimetry. Due to high interindividual variability in the spontaneous frequency of micronuclei, its sensitivity in the low dose region is poor. It has been suggested that this problem can be mitigated by selectively analyzing the frequency of those micronuclei which contain only acentric fragments. Using a pan-centromeric FISH probe we have studied the dose dependence of micronuclei with centromeres in peripheral lymphocytes of human donors. In contrast to previous publications, our approach is based on determining the relative frequency of micronuclei with and without centromeric signals. Our results confirm previous observations that in the low dose range of ionizing radiation, the micronucleus-centromere assay is more sensitive than the conventional micronucleus test.

  11. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing year...

  12. Sautéed Fish Slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: A fresh fish, cooking oil, scallion, ginger, egg white, salt, MSG, cooking wine, cornstarch. Directions: 1. Clean and scale the fish and take out the internal organs. 2. Fillet the fish. Slice the fish into thin pieces. Coat the fish

  13. Fish Karyome: A karyological information network database of Indian Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Pati, Rameshwar; Singh, Shri Prakash; Singh, Mahender; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    'Fish Karyome', a database on karyological information of Indian fishes have been developed that serves as central source for karyotype data about Indian fishes compiled from the published literature. Fish Karyome has been intended to serve as a liaison tool for the researchers and contains karyological information about 171 out of 2438 finfish species reported in India and is publically available via World Wide Web. The database provides information on chromosome number, morphology, sex chromosomes, karyotype formula and cytogenetic markers etc. Additionally, it also provides the phenotypic information that includes species name, its classification, and locality of sample collection, common name, local name, sex, geographical distribution, and IUCN Red list status. Besides, fish and karyotype images, references for 171 finfish species have been included in the database. Fish Karyome has been developed using SQL Server 2008, a relational database management system, Microsoft's ASP.NET-2008 and Macromedia's FLASH Technology under Windows 7 operating environment. The system also enables users to input new information and images into the database, search and view the information and images of interest using various search options. Fish Karyome has wide range of applications in species characterization and identification, sex determination, chromosomal mapping, karyo-evolution and systematics of fishes.

  14. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-06-01

    The results concerning of positive findings by micronuclei and non significant ones by comet assay, are corroborated by Deng et al. (2005 study performed in workers occupationally exposed to methotrexate, also a cytostatic drug. According to Cavallo et al. (2009, the comet assay seems to be more suitable for the prompt evaluation of the genotoxic effects, for instance, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mixtures containing volatile substances, whereas the micronucleus test seems more appropriate to evaluate the effects of exposure to antineoplastic agents. However, there are studies that observed an increase in both the comet assay and the micronucleus test in nurses handling antineoplastic drugs, although statistical significance was only seen in the comet assay, quite the opposite of our results (Maluf & Erdtmann, 2000; Laffon et al. 2005.

  15. Fish oil quality of by-product (fish skin from swangi fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Huli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin of swangi fish is a potential fish skin to be produced for fish oil. The objectives of this research were aimed to determine the yield and the best quality of fish oil and also to compare fatty acid profile of the fish according to different extraction methods. Fish oil extractions were used by wet rendering method with extraction temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100°C for 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Fish oil quality was determined by the chemical oil characteristics i.e. PV, FFA, AV, anisidin, and TOTOX. Fatty acid profile was analyzed using gas chromatography (Shimadzu. The results of the study showed that the highest fish oil yield in each treatment was obtained extraction temperature of 60°C for 30 minutes with percentage of 0.33, (70°C for 30 minutes 0.46, (80°C for 30 minutes 1.23, (90°C for 20 minutes 1.14 and (100°C for 20 minutes 0.84. These values were lower compare to Bligh & Dyer and Soxhlet methods. Then, the best fish oil quality was resulted on temperature extraction of 60°C for 30 minutes with PV, FFA, anisidin, AV, and TOTOX were 9.17 meq/kg, 6.92%, 13,77 mg KOH/g, 0.86 meq/kg and 19.19 meq/kg, respectively. FUFA fatty acid compositions of swangi skin fish oil especially EPA and DHA in wet rendering method were gained 0.73% and 2.53%, respectively. These results were lower than Bligh & Dyer method which was consisted of 3.66% (EPA, and 13.29% (DHA and also Soxhlet extraction method with value of EPA was 2.78% and DHA was 9.62%.Keywords: EPA, extraction temperature, DHA, fish oil quality, fish skin

  16. Comparison of peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization assays with culture-based matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for the identification of bacteria and yeasts from blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, A; Martinelli, M; Motta, F; Larini, S; Arcangeletti, M C; Medici, M C; Chezzi, C; De Conto, F

    2014-08-01

    Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) is a molecular diagnostic tool for the rapid detection of pathogens directly from liquid media. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate PNA FISH assays in comparison with culture-based matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification, as a reference method, for both blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures, during a 1-year investigation. On the basis of the Gram stain microscopy results, four different PNA FISH commercially available assays were used ('Staphylococcus aureus/CNS', 'Enterococcus faecalis/OE', 'GNR Traffic Light' and 'Yeasts Traffic Light' PNA FISH assays, AdvanDx). The four PNA FISH assays were applied to 956 positive blood cultures (921 for bacteria and 35 for yeasts) and 11 CSF cultures. Among the 921 blood samples positive for bacteria, PNA FISH gave concordant results with MALDI-TOF MS in 908/921 (98.64%) samples, showing an agreement of 99.4% in the case of monomicrobial infections. As regards yeasts, the PNA FISH assay showed a 100% agreement with the result obtained by MALDI-TOF MS. When PNA FISH assays were tested on the 11 CSF cultures, the results agreed with the reference method in all cases (100%). PNA FISH assays provided species identification at least one work-day before the MALDI-TOF MS culture-based identification. PNA FISH assays showed an excellent efficacy in the prompt identification of main pathogens, yielding a significant reduction in reporting time and leading to more appropriate patient management and therapy in cases of sepsis and severe infections.

  17. Fishes and humankind III. Editorial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. G. Jones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication of this group of three papers form part of the 1987 meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoologists Fish Remains Working Group which took place at the University of York, U. K. The papers illustrate an increased awareness of the significance of ichthyological research to archaeology and cover three areas of research: taphonomy; fishing artefacts; and fish remains recovered from an excavation. Jones sheds some light on the relative robustness of the bewildering array of elements in a fish skeleton by recording damage to a skeleton when it is trampled. His paper suggests an index of robustness which might be used to assess the degree of fragmentation in archaeological assemblages. Kemp reports on the excavation of a small medieval building located adjacent to medieval fish ponds created by Cistercian monks in North Yorkshire, England. In addition to the structural evidence, an impressive assemblage of weights, presumably net weights, found on or near the site is published. Perhaps most significant is a large lead weight which may have been used to weight catches of fish from the ponds. Fish remains recovered from two excavations at the quayside at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England are discussed by Nicholson. Around 6000 identified bones form the basis for the study, the majority of which were identified as Gadid (cod family or herring. While the main food fishes typify fish bone assemblages from most post-Roman urban archaeological sites, the identification of small fishes such as sandeels, smelt, gobies and buttefish may indicate the utilisation of fish not nowadays considered as food at all. Given the diversity of species (30 individual species identified it is suggested that the remains from the main bone-producing organic horizons, dated to the late twelfth to thirteenth centuries, may include discard from a nearby fishmarket.

  18. Fish ladders: safe fish passage or hotspot for predation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for

  19. Development and evaluation of a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization assay to detect antibodies to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna; Goldberg, Tony; Marcquenski, Susan; Olson, Wendy; Goetz, Frederick; Hershberger, Paul; Hart, Lucas M.; Toohey-Kurth, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a target of surveillance by many state and federal agencies in the United States. Currently, the detection of VHSV relies on virus isolation, which is lethal to fish and indicates only the current infection status. A serological method is required to ascertain prior exposure. Here, we report two serologic tests for VHSV that are nonlethal, rapid, and species independent, a virus neutralization (VN) assay and a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results show that the VN assay had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 42.9%; the anti-nucleocapsid-blocking ELISA detected nonneutralizing VHSV antibodies at a specificity of 88.2% and a sensitivity of 96.4%. The VN assay and ELISA are valuable tools for assessing exposure to VHSV.

  20. 76 FR 20707 - Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas County, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction... FEIS on the proposed Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project....

  1. Assessment demersal fish stocks Mauritania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, A.A.H.M.; Goudswaard, P.C.; Heessen, H.J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The RIVO project "Assessment of demersal fish stocks in Mauritania" was commissioned by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of The Netherlands to produce information on the state of the demersal fish stocks (species that live near the bottom) in Mauritania, in particular octopus and shrimps. These stock

  2. Multisensor for fish quality determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, G.; Nesvadba, P.; Di Natale, C.

    2004-01-01

    The European fish industry is still reluctant to implement methods other than sensory to monitor freshness and quality of fish products, although general concensus exists about the importance of various quality attributes and the need for methods to monitor quality. The objective of the project F...

  3. Sexual signals in electric fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Bernd

    1990-01-01

    Electroreceptive bony fishes of Africa (the Mormyriformes) and South America (the Gymnotiformes) detect and communicate with conspecifics by their continuously discharging electric organs. Laboratory studies of members of each group are beginning to reveal the mechanisms of communicating with and finding mates, offering much scope for future studies of the behavioral ecology of electric fishes.

  4. Assessment demersal fish stocks Mauritania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, A.A.H.M.; Goudswaard, P.C.; Heessen, H.J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The RIVO project "Assessment of demersal fish stocks in Mauritania" was commissioned by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of The Netherlands to produce information on the state of the demersal fish stocks (species that live near the bottom) in Mauritania, in particular octopus and shrimps. These stock

  5. Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    NORTHERN CALIFORNIA COUNCIL OF FLY FISHING CLUBS Bob Baiocchi Vice President Conservation Chairman 1859 Salida Way Paradise, CA 95969 (916...PROJECT CALIFORNIA FIRST PHASE SPECIAL REPORT FISH AND WILDLIFE MITIGATION PLAN DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SACRAMENTO DISTRICT...CORPS OF ENGINEERS SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA 20081029163 DEFENSE TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER lufontuiioitfoir tktr Defense- CMtutucnity DTIC

  6. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  7. Biodiversity of arctic marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Møller, Peter Rask; Steinke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic and distributional information on each fish species found in arctic marine waters is reviewed, and a list of families and species with commentary on distributional records is presented. The list incorporates results from examination of museum collections of arctic marine fishes dating b...

  8. Fish In Mutton Equals Delicious

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CHINESE characters are pictographs. The character "delicious" consists of "fish" and "sheep." In fact, there are few recipes that uses fish and mutton as main ingredients, Yet, there is one dish called "fisn in mutton" whose taste is good enough to make people understand the connotation of

  9. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  10. Fish Springs pond snail : Refuge communication scenario

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  11. Fish Management Plan : Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Fish Management Plan for Muscatatuck NWR. The Plan provides an introduction to the Refuge, a description of the area, a description of the fish resource...

  12. Neosho National Fish Hatchery contaminants survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish were collected from Neosho National Fish Hatchery (NNFH) to determine if metal or organic contaminants were elevated in the biota located on the hatchery. Whole...

  13. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Sport Fishing Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge Sport Fishing Plans covers the assesment and managment strategies for sport fishing in the Refuge. Focus is on bass, crappie,...

  14. US Fish and Wildlife Service Regional Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Boundaries of the management Regions of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is organized into 8 geographic Regions.

  15. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...

  16. Sex Determination Mechanisms in Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Quanqi; SUN Xiaohua; QI Jie; WANG Zhigang; WANG Xinglian; WANG Xubo; ZHAI Teng

    2009-01-01

    In fish, sex determination (SD) system shows high variation. The SD mechanisms include environmental and genetic regulation. The research on SD system and related genes in intensively studied fish species was reviewed. Although some genes have been described as sex-related, only DMRTlbY can be considered as a master sex determination gene and none of them has been util-ized in aquaculture. The variation of fish SD system, the importance of sex-related genes in evolution research and the relations be-tween environmental factors and sex-related genes were also discussed. The fish sex determination mechanism remains largely un-known. Further research needs to be done considering the significance of fish SD studies in basic and applied aspects.

  17. Barcoded microchips for biomolecular assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jiashu; Zou, Yu; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-20

    Multiplexed assay of analytes is of great importance for clinical diagnostics and other analytical applications. Barcode-based bioassays with the ability to encode and decode may realize this goal in a straightforward and consistent manner. We present here a microfluidic barcoded chip containing several sets of microchannels with different widths, imitating the commonly used barcode. A single barcoded microchip can carry out tens of individual protein/nucleic acid assays (encode) and immediately yield all assay results by a portable barcode reader or a smartphone (decode). The applicability of a barcoded microchip is demonstrated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoassays for simultaneous detection of three targets (anti-gp41 antibody, anti-gp120 antibody, and anti-gp36 antibody) from six human serum samples. We can also determine seven pathogen-specific oligonucleotides by a single chip containing both positive and negative controls.

  18. Radioreceptor assay method for insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, K.F.; Wood, R.J. (Bureau of Drug Research, Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Health Protection Branch)

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive practical radioreceptor assay method for pharmaceutical insulin products has been developed with partially purified rat liver plasma membranes and the optimal conditions under which the best overall assay performance is obtainable have been defined. Intra- and inter-assay variations of the method averaged 7.3 and 12.2% of the man, respectively, when expressed as the coefficient of variation. Potency estimates of an insulin product obtained with the proposed method correlated well with those determined by the mouse convulsion bioassay method. Liver membranes prepared according to the method could be stored for up to ten weeks at 4/sup 0/C and for 6 months or more at -18/sup 0/C without losing insulin-binding ability.

  19. Airborne laser fish finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Li, Zaiguang; Huang, Houzheng

    1998-05-01

    An experimental airborne laser fish finder has been developed and field trial has been conducted. The Q-switched and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser output is of 100 HZ pulse repetition rate, 2 MW peak power, 8 ns pulse width. The green light receiving telescope is transmissive with 1400 mm focal length and 200 mm aperture. The varying-gain control of PMT and logarithmic amplifier are used to compress the 105 dynamic range of received signals. The main features of data real-time processing subsystem are of 200 Ms/s sampling rate, 8 bit resolution, adjacent average treatment of return waveforms with high noise, and pseudo-color display of water depth.

  20. Adult Neurogenesis in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Julia; Brand, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Teleost fish have a remarkable neurogenic and regenerative capacity in the adult throughout the rostrocaudal axis of the brain. The distribution of proliferation zones shows a remarkable conservation, even in distantly related teleost species, suggesting a common teleost ground plan of proliferation zones. There are different progenitor populations in the neurogenic niches-progenitors positive for radial glial markers (dorsal telencephalon, hypothalamus) and progenitors with neuroepithelial-like characteristics (ventral telencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum). Definition of these progenitors has allowed studying their role in normal growth of the adult brain, but also when challenged following a lesion. From these studies, important roles have emerged for intrinsic mechanisms and extrinsic signals controlling the activation of adult neurogenesis that enable regeneration of the adult brain to occur, opening up new perspectives on rekindling regeneration also in the context of the mammalian brain.

  1. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedgepeth, J (Tenera Environmental, LLC); Johnson, Gary E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J (BioSonics Inc.)

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  2. Fisheries and aquatic resources--fish health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Fish health research at Leetown had its origin in the 1930’s when the Leetown Fish Hatchery and Experiment Station was constructed. In 1978, the National Fish Health Research Laboratory, now a component of the Leetown Science Center, was established to solve emerging and known disease problems affecting fish and other aquatic organisms critical to species restoration programs. Center scientists develop methods for the isolation, detection, and identification of fish pathogens and for prevention and control of fish diseases.

  3. Fish and Soup of Hubei Cuisine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    I was very impressed by the delicious freshwater fish dish from the well-known Changjiang River and Dongting Lake, the first time I travelled to Hubei Province. Hubei is famous for its freshwater fish dishes since it has so many lakes. The steamed Wuchang fish is one. Wuchang fish is pure, tender and fat and is considered a first-class freshwater fish. Waiters in local restaurants usually bring the fresh Wuchang fish to the

  4. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay); the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010). This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E) the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores) shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable positive economic

  5. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Nakamura

    Full Text Available Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay; the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010. This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable

  6. Potencies of estrogenic compounds in in vitro screening assays and in life cycle tests with zebrafish in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segner, H; Navas, J M; Schäfers, C; Wenzel, A

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the estrogenic potency of environmental estrogens at two testing tiers: at the initial level of in vitro screening assays, and at the level of definitive fish reproduction tests in vivo. The in vitro tests included a recombinant yeast estrogen receptor (ER) assay, a competitive radioreceptor assay using the hepatic ER of carp (Cyprinus carpio), and assays on vitellogenin induction in cultured hepatocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and carp. In vivo, full life cycle tests with zebrafish (Danio rerio) were performed, using fertilization success as estrogen-sensitive reproductive endpoint. The test compounds included the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) (only applied in the in vitro assays); the synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2); and two xenoestrogens, 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and bisphenol A (BPA). Among the in vitro assays, differences were observed in the relative ranking of the test substances, and in the absolute sensitivity (EC50 values), although the interassay differences of EC50 values were within one order of magnitude. The in vivo activity of the test compounds was not accurately predicted by the in vitro assays, with respect to neither sensitivity nor ranking. The in vitro assays tended to overestimate the relative potency of the xenoestrogens; i.e. the ratio between the activity of the reference compound, EE2, and that of the test compound. The best prediction of the in vivo fish test results was obtained from the recombinant yeast assay.

  7. The Fresh-water Fishes of Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfred, E.R.

    1966-01-01

    CONTENTS Page Introduction 5 Materials................... 6 The environment................. 7 Ichthyological literature of Singapore........... 9 Aquarium fishes................. io Pond culture fishes................ n Introduced species................. 12 Acknowledgements................ 13 Syst

  8. Ecology of North Sea fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daan, N.; Bromley, P. J.; Hislop, J. R. G.; Nielsen, N. A.

    Fishes of the North Sea include over 200 species exhibiting widely differing ecological characteristics. There is a wealth of literature and, in this paper, we have restricted ourselves to providing generalized data on the more abundant species, with a view of highlighting those aspects which link the total fish community to the biotic and abiotic environment. There is necessarily a bias towards commercial species, because most of the pertinent information is related specifically to fish which are heavily fished. However, since there are few abundant species which are not exploited, the ecological links of the total fish community to other components of the system are well represented by the selection. Moreover, exploitation of the fish community may have indirectly affected the ecological relationships in the entire system. It follows that an understandinf of the impact of fisheries on the fish community is likely to play a key role in helping us to understand how the North Sea ecosystem functions. The paper highlights various ecological aspects of the fish fauna including population dynamics, spawning in time and space, distribution, variations in year class strength, feeding, density-dependent growth and changes in species composition. Despite long time series of quantitative biological information for individual species and the obvious impact of fisheries on longevity and productivity of the fish community, the general conclusion is that it remains very difficult to separate effects of fisheries and of the environment on reproductive success, in which the variation is the most important destabilizing factor in the regulation of exploited fish populations. Another conclusion is that the spatial heterogeneity of the fish community in the North Sea is a factor of considerable concern in trying to link fish production to other components. It would seem likely that, to improve our understanding of the ecological linkages in the entire system, the spatial differences

  9. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  10. Climate Change and Fish Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Paul P. S.; Lassa, Jonatan; Caballero-Anthony, Mely

    Human consumption of fish has been trending upwards in the past decades and this is projected to continue. The main sources of fish are from wild fisheries (marine and freshwater) and aquaculture. Climate change is anticipated to affect the availability of fish through its effect on these two sources as well as on supply chain processes such as storage, transport, processing and retail. Climate change is known to result in warmer and more acid oceans. Ocean acidification due to higher CO2 concentration levels at sea modifies the distribution of phytoplankton and zooplankton to affect wild, capture fisheries. Higher temperature causes warm-water coral reefs to respond with species replacement and bleaching, leading to coral cover loss and habitat loss. Global changes in climatic systems may also cause fish invasion, extinction and turnover. While this may be catastrophic for small scale fish farming in poor tropical communities, there are also potential effects on animal protein supply shifts at local and global scales with food security consequences. This paper discusses the potential impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture in the Asian Pacific region, with special emphasis on Southeast Asia. The key question to be addressed is “What are the impacts of global climate change on global fish harvests and what does it mean to the availability of fish?”

  11. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    Sea was a sink for 260 kg of PCBs in the late 1980s to early 1990s and that the fishery removed as much or more PCB (31 kg yr(-1)) than other budget components (e.g., degradation in the water column). Accounting for fish and fisheries could increase our understanding of the fluxes of pollutants......, and concentrations in fish and other fauna are still significant. Several models of the fluxes of these pollutants among the water, sediment, and atmosphere have been developed, but these generally omit the roles of fish and fisheries. We show that the standing stock of the most abundant fish species in the Baltic......The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s...

  12. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons...

  13. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  14. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector...

  15. Who cares about fish welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to assess how concerned Norwegians are about fish welfare; second, to investigate Norwegians’ willingness to pay for salmon filet made from welfare-assured farmed fish with high levels of welfare; and third, to examine Norwegian opinions ab...... concern about animal welfare is growing in the western world, very little attention has been given to the welfare of fish. This paper aims to make up for this by presenting a study of how Norwegians view the welfare of farmed salmon....

  16. Selectivity of fish ladders: a bottleneck in Neotropical fish movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sérgio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Although dozens of fish ladders have been constructed at dams of Brazilian reservoirs, there are few studies evaluating their efficiency as a tool for the conservation of Neotropical ichthyofauna, especially for migratory species. Therefore, the present study evaluated the selectivity of the species that entered and ascended the fish ladder located next to Lajeado Dam (Luis Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Tocantins River. Samples were taken monthly from November, 2002 through October, 2003, in the resting pools of the ladder, using cast nets, and in the downstream stretch, using gillnets. The selectivity of the ladder in attracting fish was evaluated by comparing the occurrence, relative abundance, dominance and the congruence of abundance ranks of migratory and non-migratory species in the ladder and in the stretch of river immediately downstream. Species richness and fish abundance in the resting pools were used to evaluate selectivity along the ladder. The effects on selectivity by temporal variations in water level downriver and maximum flow velocity in the fish ladder were also analyzed. Out of the 130 species recorded downriver, 62.3% were caught in the ladder, and migratory species were clearly favored. However, more than 2/3 of the catch belonged to only three species (Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Psectrogaster amazonica and Oxydoras niger. Although the majority of the species that entered the ladder were able to reach its top, there was a sharp reduction in abundance of individuals towards the top. Temporal variations in the water level below the dam influenced richness and abundance of fish concentrated downstream and in the ladder, with lower values during periods of low water. In the ladder, a maximum flow velocity of 2.3 m/s, although also selective, proved to be more appropriate for fish ascension than a velocity of 2.8 m/s. It was concluded that the entry and ascension of the fish in the ladder were not congruent with

  17. Real-Time Fish Observation and Fish Category Database Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Pang Lin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed real-time video stream system for underwater fish observation in the real world. The system, based on a three-tier architecture, includes capture devices unit, stream processor unit, and display devices unit. It supports variety of capture source devices, such as HDV, DV, WebCam, TV Card, Capture Card, and video compression formats, such as WMV, FLV/SWF, MJPEG, MPEG-2/4. The system has been demonstrated in Taiwan for long-term underwater fish observation. CCTV cameras and high-definition cameras are deployed on our system. Video compression methods and image processing methods are implemented to reduce network transfer flow and data storage space. Marine ecologists and end users can browse these real-time video streams via the Internet to understand the ecological changes immediately. These video data is preserved to form a resource base for marine ecologists. Based on the video data, fish detection is implemented. However, it is complicated in the unconstrained underwater environment, due to the water flow causes the water plants sway severely. In this paper, a bounding-surrounding boxes method is proposed to overcome the problem. It efficiently classifies moving fish as the foreground objects and the swaying water plants as the background objects. It enables to remove the irrelevant information (without fish to reduce the massive amount of video data. Moreover, fish tracking is implemented to acquire multiple species of fish images with varied angles, sizes, shapes, and illumination to construct a fish category database.

  18. Good news for conservation: mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA data detect limited genetic signatures of inter-basin fish transfer in Thymallus thymallus (Salmonidae from the Upper Drava River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meraner A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, numerous populations of European grayling, Thymallus thymallus, have been suffering from stocking-induced genetic admixture of foreign strains into wild populations. Concordantly, genetic introgression was also reportedfor grayling stocks inhabiting the Upper Drava River, but all published genetic data based on specimens caught at least a decade ago, when stocking load was strong. Here, we applied mitochondrial control region sequencing and nuclear microsatellite genotyping to Upper Drava grayling fry collections and reference samples to update patterns and extent of human-mediated introgression. In contrast to previous data, we highlighted an almost genetic integrity of Drava grayling, evidencing limited genetic signatures of trans-basin stocking for grayling of Northern Alpine Danubian origin. Recent hybridisation was detected only twice among sixty-nine samples, while several cases of later-generation hybrids were disclosed by linking mitochondrial sequence to nuclear genetic data. The observed past, but very limited recent genetic introgression in grayling from Upper Drava seems to reflect shifting stocking trends, changing from massive introduction of trans-basin fish to more conservation-oriented strategies during the last 27 years. In a conservation context, we encourage pursuing the use of local wild grayling for supportive- and captive-breeding, but underline the need for genetic approaches in brood-stock selection programs. Finally, our integrated results from sibship reconstruction validate our strictly fry-based sampling scheme, thus offering a reasonable alternative also for other rheophilic fish species with similar life-history characteristics.

  19. Interaction between fish spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas sp and Shewanella putrefaciens in fish extracts and on fish tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette

    1996-01-01

    The interaction between fish spoilage bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. and Shewanella putrefaciens, was investigated using fish extract and fish tissue as model systems. Isolates of Pseudomonas that produced iron chelators, siderophores, inhibited growth of S. putrefaciens in a fish-extract-agar diffusion...

  20. 21 CFR 225.158 - Laboratory assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory assays. 225.158 Section 225.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Laboratory assays. Where the results of laboratory assays of drug components, including assays by State...

  1. Quorum sensing signal molecules (acylated homoserine lactones) in Gram-negative fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nielsen, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    and plant-pathogenic bacteria. A total of 59 strains, representing 9 different fish pathogenic species, were tested against 2 AHL monitor bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens NT1 [pZLR4] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026) in a well diffusion assay and by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Representative...

  2. Chromogenic in situ hybridization: a multicenter study comparing silver in situ hybridization with FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J M S; Campbell, Fiona M; Ibrahim, Merdol; Wencyk, Peter; Ellis, Ian; Kay, Elaine; Connolly, Yvonne; O'Grady, Anthony; Di Palma, Silvana; Starczynski, Jane; Morgan, John M; Jasani, Bharat; Miller, Keith

    2009-10-01

    Our purposes were to perform a robust assessment of a new HER2 chromogenic in situ hybridization test and report on concordance of silver in situ hybridization (SISH) data with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data and on intraobserver and interlaboratory scoring consistency. HER2 results were scored from 45 breast cancers in 7 laboratories using the Ventana (Tucson, AZ) INFORM HER-2 SISH assay and in 1 central laboratory using a standard FISH assay. Overall, 94.8% of cases were successfully analyzed by SISH across the 6 participating laboratories that reported data. Concordance for diagnosis of HER2 amplification by SISH compared with FISH was high (96.0% overall). Intraobserver variability (8.0%) and intersite variability (12.66%) of absolute HER2/chromosome 17 ratios appear to be tightly controlled across all 6 participating laboratories. The Ventana INFORM HER-2 SISH assay is robust and reproducible, shows good concordance with a standard FISH assay, and complies with requirements in national guidelines for performance of diagnostic tests.

  3. Interphase FISH detection of BCL2 rearrangement in follicular lymphoma using breakpoint-flanking probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaandrager, J W; Schuuring, E; Raap, T; Philippo, K; Kleiverda, K; Kluin, P

    2000-01-01

    Rearrangement of the BCL2 gene is an important parameter for the differential diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Although a relatively large proportion of breakpoints is clustered, many are missed by standard PCR. A FISH assay is therefore desired. Up to now, a lack of probes flanking the BCL2 gene

  4. 9 CFR 83.4 - VHS-regulated fish and VHS-regulated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... been isolated in cell culture or other assay determined by the Administrator to be adequate to detect... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VHS-regulated fish and VHS-regulated areas. 83.4 Section 83.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...

  5. 9 CFR 93.904 - Health certificate for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in cell culture, using either the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) or fathead minnow (FHM) cell... isolation through cell culture, if the Administrator determines that such assays provide equivalent... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health certificate for live fish...

  6. Isolation of Bacteroides from fish and human fecal samples for identification of unique molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Leila; Alum, Absar; Rock, Channah; McLain, Jean E; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2013-12-01

    Bacteroides molecular markers have been used to identify human fecal contamination in natural waters, but recent work in our laboratory confirmed cross-amplification of several human-specific Bacteroides spp. assays with fecal DNA from fish. For identification of unique molecular markers, Bacteroides from human (n = 4) and fish (n = 7) fecal samples were cultured and their identities were further confirmed using Rapid ID 32A API strips. The 16S rDNA from multiple isolates from each sample was PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced to identify unique markers for development of more stringent human-specific assays. In human feces, Bacteroides vulgatus was the dominant species (75% of isolates), whereas in tilapia feces, Bacteroides eggerthii was dominant (66%). Bacteroides from grass carp, channel catfish, and blue catfish may include Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides ovatus, or Bacteroides stercoris. Phylogenic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed distinct Bacteroides groupings from each fish species, while human sequences clustered with known B. vulgatus. None of the fish isolates showed significant similarity to Bacteroides sequences currently deposited in NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information). This study expands the current sequence database of cultured fish Bacteroides. Such data are essential for identification of unique molecular markers in human Bacteroides that can be utilized in differentiating fish and human fecal contamination in water samples.

  7. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Tissue Extracts of Puffer fish Arothron immaculatus Against Clinical Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Kumaravel; S. Rav1chandran; F. R. Sharmila Joseph; D. Manikodi; Mauro Doimi

    2011-01-01

    AIM:An antimicrobial validatory screening of puffer fish is done in such a way Arothron immaculatus a puffer fish skin and liver extracts were subjected for antimicrobial assay.METHODS:Antimicrobial screening assay was done in ten consecutive human pathogenic bacterial and fungal pathogens using the standard disc diffusion method.RESULTS:The results confirmed a positive test against most of the pathogens used.Maximum antimicrobial effect against Staphyloccocus aureus of 2.5 mm in liver extract and 9.8 mm of antibacterial effect against Vibrio cholera in skin extract is reported.There is no antifungal effect.CONCLUSION:This experiment confirms that puffer fish is a source of antimicrobial potence.

  8. Work stress in long-line bank fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodahl, K; Vokac, Z

    1977-09-01

    The circulatory strain on three Faroe Island and two Norwegian fishermen during long-line bank fishing was assessed by the computerized analysis of their heart rates continuously recorded by portable tape recorders. The urinary excretion of catecholamines was assayed as an indicator of stress response. The average work load of the three Faroe Island deckhands was rather moderate; it corresponded to 26--33% of the heart rate reserve (HRR). However, heart rates higher than 50% of the HRR (9--18 min/24 H) as well as peak heart rates up to 165 beats/min indicated periods of intense physical strain, especially when the fish were being unhooked, an operation which, as a rule, cannot be endured for more than about 25 min at a time and which necessitates a work schedule of job rotation. These observations were confirmed by the findings made on board the Norwegian vessel. The urinary catecholamine excretion rates were lower than those of coastal fishermen and of the same order of magnitude as the excretion rates observed in trawler fishermen. It is concluded that, contrary to general belief, bank fishing need not be unsuitable for older fishermen, provided an effective system of job rotation is practiced and the size of the crew is large enough to allow for an adequate amount of sleep even during periods of exceptionally good fishing.

  9. Tortugas Reef Fish Census (CRCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a long term data set collecting visual census transect data on reef fishes at staions located at Rileys Hump, Tortugas South Ecological Reservee.

  10. AFSC: Various fish maturity studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Knowledge of the reproductive biology of fish and crab stocks is critical to stock assessment estimates of the reproductive potential (typically measured as spawning...

  11. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...... viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies...... for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fish have been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain...

  12. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production...

  13. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family......, denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite...

  14. Effects of herbicides on fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Keith R.; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Volz, David

    2013-01-01

    Herbicides are used to control weeds and are usually targeted to processes and target sites that are specific to plants. As a result, most herbicides are not acutely toxic to fish. Exceptions to this general rule are uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and some herbicides that interfere...... have been observed in fish exposed to herbicides, these have either been observed at large concentrations that would be rarely found in surface waters inhabited by fish or, as in the case of behavior and olfaction, have not been linked to ecologically relevant responses on survival, growth, development......, and reproduction. As with all pesticides, herbicides may have indirect effects in fish. These effects are mediated by herbicide-induced changes in food webs or in the physical environment. Indirect effects can only occur if direct effects occur first and would be mediated by the killing of plants by herbicides...

  15. Hawaii ESI: FISHPT (Fish Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for native stream and anchialine pool fish species in coastal Hawaii. (Anchialine pools are small,...

  16. Final Report : Anadromous Fish Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A creel census was conducted during the 1981 Russian River sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), sport fishery to determine harvest and angler participation....

  17. AKRO: Guided Angler Fish Landings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in 2014, the the halibut Catch Sharing Plan (CSP) authorizes annual transfers of commercial halibut IFQ as guided angler fish (GAF) to charter halibut...

  18. Massachusetts Recreational Fishing Demand Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stated preference choice experiment data were collected in 2012 from Massachuestts saltwater recreational fishermen. Saltwater anglers fishing in Massachusetts (MA)...

  19. Comet Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Raffaela; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The comet assay can be useful in monitoring DNA damage in single cells caused by exposure to genotoxic agents, such as those causing air, water, and soil pollution (e.g., pesticides, dioxins, electromagnetic fields) and chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients, or in the assessment of genoprotective effects of chemopreventive molecules. Therefore, it has particular importance in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology, and in both environmental and human biomonitoring. It allows the detection of single strand breaks as well as double-strand breaks and can be used in both normal and cancer cells. Here we describe the alkali method for comet assay, which allows to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks.

  20. The skin-blanching assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, P; Neumann, H A M; Thio, H B

    2012-10-01

    The skin-blanching assay is used for the determination and bioequivalence of dermatologic glucocorticoids (GCs). The exact mechanism of the production of blanching is not fully understood, but it is considered that local vasoconstriction of the skin microvasculature and the consequent blood-flow reduction cause this phenomenon. Several factors influence skin blanching, including drug concentration, duration of application, nature of vehicle, occlusion, posture and location. The intensity of vasoconstriction can be measured in several ways: visual or quantitative methods, such as reflectance spectroscopy, thermography, laser Doppler velocimetry and chromametry. In literature, contradicting results in the correlation of the skin-blanching assay with different tests to determine GC sensitivity have been reported, limiting its clinical usefulness.