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Sample records for hybride volumes finis

  1. Numerical modelling in building thermo-aeraulics: from CFD modelling to an hybrid finite volume / zonal approach; Modelisation numerique de la thermoaeraulique du batiment: des modeles CFD a une approche hybride volumes finis / zonale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellivier, A.

    2004-05-15

    For 3D modelling of thermo-aeraulics in building using field codes, it is necessary to reduce the computing time in order to model increasingly larger volumes. The solution suggested in this study is to couple two modelling: a zonal approach and a CFD approach. The first part of the work that was carried out is the setting of a simplified CFD modelling. We propose rules for use of coarse grids, a constant effective viscosity law and adapted coefficients for heat exchange in the framework of building thermo-aeraulics. The second part of this work concerns the creation of fluid Macro-Elements and their coupling with a calculation of CFD finite volume type. Depending on the boundary conditions of the problem, a local description of the driving flow is proposed via the installation and use of semi-empirical evolution laws. The Macro-Elements is then inserted in CFD computation: the values of velocity calculated by the evolution laws are imposed on the CFD cells corresponding to the Macro-Element. We use these two approaches on five cases representative of thermo-aeraulics in buildings. The results are compared with experimental data and with traditional RANS simulations. We highlight the significant gain of time that our approach allows while preserving a good quality of numerical results. (author)

  2. Methode des elements finis hybride appliquee aux vibrations des coques spheriques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaa, Mohamed

    The analysis of spherical shells filled with fluid and subjected to supersonic flow has been the subject of few research. Most of these studies treat the dynamic behaviour of empty shells. Few works have investigated spherical shells filled with fluid or subjected to supersonic flutter. In this thesis, we propose to develop a model to analyse the vibratory behaviour of both empty spherical shells and partially filled with fluid. This model is also applicable to study of the dynamic stability of spherical shells subjected to supersonic flow. The model developed is a combination of finite element method, thin shell theory, potential fluid theory and aerodynamic fluid theory. Different parameters are considered here in this study. In the first part of this study, free vibration analysis of spherical shell is carried out. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical finite element method. Free vibration equations using the hybrid finite element formulation are derived and solved numerically. The results are validated using numerical and theoretical data available in the literature. The analysis is accomplished for spherical shells of different geometries, boundary conditions and radius to thickness ratios. This proposed hybrid finite element method can be used efficiently for design and analysis of spherical shells employed in high speed aircraft structures. In the second part of the present study, a hybrid finite element method is applied to investigate the free vibration of spherical shell filled with fluid. The structural model is based on a combination of thin shell theory and the classical finite element method. It is assumed that the fluid is incompressible and has no free-surface effect. Fluid is considered as a velocity potential variable at each node of the shell element where its motion is expressed in terms of nodal elastic displacement at the fluid-structure interface. Numerical simulation is done and vibration

  3. Development op finite volume methods for fluid dynamics; Developpement de methodes de volumes finis pour la mecanique des fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcourte, S

    2007-09-15

    We aim to develop a finite volume method which applies to a greater class of meshes than other finite volume methods, restricted by orthogonality constraints. We build discrete differential operators over the three staggered tessellations needed for the construction of the method. These operators verify some analogous properties to those of the continuous operators. At first, the method is applied to the Div-Curl problem, which can be viewed as a building block of the Stokes problem. Then, the Stokes problem is dealt with with various boundary conditions. It is well known that when the computational domain is polygonal and non-convex, the order of convergence of numerical methods is deteriorated. Consequently, we have studied how an appropriate local refinement is able to restore the optimal order of convergence for the Laplacian problem. At last, we have discretized the non-linear Navier-Stokes problem, using the rotational formulation of the convection term, associated to the Bernoulli pressure. With an iterative algorithm, we are led to solve a saddle-point problem at each iteration. We give a particular interest to this linear problem by testing some pre-conditioners issued from finite elements, which we adapt to our method. Each problem is illustrated by numerical results on arbitrary meshes, such as strongly non-conforming meshes. (author)

  4. Domain of composition and finite volume schemes on non-matching grids; Decomposition de domaine et schemas volumes finis sur maillages non-conformes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saas, L.

    2004-05-01

    This Thesis deals with sedimentary basin modeling whose goal is the prediction through geological times of the localizations and appraisal of hydrocarbons quantities present in the ground. Due to the natural and evolutionary decomposition of the sedimentary basin in blocks and stratigraphic layers, domain decomposition methods are requested to simulate flows of waters and of hydrocarbons in the ground. Conservations laws are used to model the flows in the ground and form coupled partial differential equations which must be discretized by finite volume method. In this report we carry out a study on finite volume methods on non-matching grids solved by domain decomposition methods. We describe a family of finite volume schemes on non-matching grids and we prove that the associated global discretized problem is well posed. Then we give an error estimate. We give two examples of finite volume schemes on non matching grids and the corresponding theoretical results (Constant scheme and Linear scheme). Then we present the resolution of the global discretized problem by a domain decomposition method using arbitrary interface conditions (for example Robin conditions). Finally we give numerical results which validate the theoretical results and study the use of finite volume methods on non-matching grids for basin modeling. (author)

  5. Hybrid finite volume scheme for a two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Konstantin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a finite volume method on general meshes for the numerical simulation of an incompressible and immiscible two-phase flow in porous media. We consider the case that can be written as a coupled system involving a degenerate parabolic convection-diffusion equation for the saturation together with a uniformly elliptic equation for the global pressure. The numerical scheme, which is implicit in time, allows computations in the case of a heterogeneous and anisotropic permeability tensor. The convective fluxes, which are non monotone with respect to the unknown saturation and discontinuous with respect to the space variables, are discretized by means of a special Godunov scheme. We prove the existence of a discrete solution which converges, along a subsequence, to a solution of the continuous problem. We present a number of numerical results in space dimension two, which confirm the efficiency of the numerical method. Nous proposons un schéma de volumes finis hybrides pour la discrétisation d’un problème d’écoulement diphasique incompressible et immiscible en milieu poreux. On suppose que ce problème a la forme d’une équation parabolique dégénérée de convection-diffusion en saturation couplée à une équation uniformément elliptique en pression. On considère un schéma implicite en temps, où les flux diffusifs sont discrétisés par la méthode des volumes finis hybride, ce qui permet de pouvoir traiter le cas d’un tenseur de perméabilité anisotrope et hétérogène sur un maillage très général, et l’on s’appuie sur un schéma de Godunov pour la discrétisation des flux convectifs, qui peuvent être non monotones et discontinus par rapport aux variables spatiales. On démontre l’existence d’une solution discrète, dont une sous-suite converge vers une solution faible du problème continu. On présente finalement des cas test bidimensionnels.

  6. Maxwell's equations in axisymmetrical geometry: coupling H(curl) finite element in volume and H(div) finite element in surface. The numerical code FuMel; Equations de Maxwell en geometrie axisymetrique: couplage elements finis H(rot) en volume et elements finis H(div) en surface. Le code FuMel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambon, S.; Lacoste, P.

    2011-07-01

    We propose a finite element method to solve the axisymmetric scattering problem posed on a regular bounded domain. Here we shall show how to reduce the initial 3D problem into a truncated sum of 2D independent problems posed into a meridian plane of the object. Each of these problem results in the coupling of a partial differential equation into the interior domain and an integral equation on the surface simulating the free space. Then variational volume and boundary integral formulations of Maxwell's equation on regular surfaces are derived. We introduce some general finite element adapted to cylindrical coordinates and constructed from nodal and mixed finite element both for the interior (volume) and for the integral equation (surface). (authors)

  7. A non-conformal finite element/finite volume scheme for the non-structured grid-based approximation of low Mach number flows; Un schema elements finis non-conformes/volumes finis pour l'approximation en maillages non-structures des ecoulements a faible nombre de Mach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansanay-Alex, G.

    2009-06-17

    The development of simulation codes aimed at a precise simulation of fires requires a precise approach of flame front phenomena by using very fine grids. The need to take different spatial scale into consideration leads to a local grid refinement and to a discretization with homogeneous grid for computing time and memory purposes. The author reports the approximation of the non-linear convection term, the scalar advection-diffusion in finite volumes, numerical simulations of a flow in a bent tube, of a three-dimensional laminar flame and of a low Mach number an-isotherm flow. Non conformal finite elements are also presented (Rannacher-Turek and Crouzeix-Raviart elements)

  8. The discrete ordinate method in association with the finite-volume method in non-structured mesh; Methode des ordonnees discretes associee a la methode des volumes finis en maillage non structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Dez, V.; Lallemand, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d`Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France); Sakami, M.; Charette, A. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees

    1996-12-31

    The description of an efficient method of radiant heat transfer field determination in a grey semi-transparent environment included in a 2-D polygonal cavity with surface boundaries that reflect the radiation in a purely diffusive manner is proposed, at the equilibrium and in radiation-conduction coupling situation. The technique uses simultaneously the finite-volume method in non-structured triangular mesh, the discrete ordinate method and the ray shooting method. The main mathematical developments and comparative results with the discrete ordinate method in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are included. (J.S.) 10 refs.

  9. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  10. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume 1. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surber, F.T.

    1979-09-30

    The results of investigations conducted under Ce Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task are reported in 10 volumes. This volume contains an overview of the study and its results. The purpose of the overall study was to determine if the petroleum fuel savings achievable through the use of hybrid electric vehicles is worth the R and D expenditures needed to develop the hybrid vehicles and to determine R and D priorities. It was concluded that by the year 2010 hybrid vehicles could replace 80% of the automotive power that would otherwise be produced from petroleum fuels; the public should not suffer any mobility loss through the use of hybrid vehicles; high initial and life-cycle costs are a limiting factor; and R and D funds should be spent for systems design and the development of low-cost batteries and controllers. (LCL)

  11. Adaptive Hybrid Picture Coding. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    shifted two pixels in the x direction between time frames. Figure 2.1 is a picture of the actual test image . FIGURE 2.1 Radially Decaying Cosine...very limited class of simple images , but this method has many drawbacks that will limit its overall usefulness. First, the output is very sensitive to... images that code the most common gray levels into short code words and rare gray levels into long code words . Hybrid coding is a combination of both

  12. Assessment of the hybrid propagation model, Volume 1: Analysis of noise propagation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    This is the first of two volumes of a report on the Hybrid Propagation Model (HPM), an advanced prediction model for aviation noise propagation. This volume presents the noise level predictions for eleven different sets of propagation conditions, run...

  13. Éléments finis pour les fluides incompressibles

    CERN Document Server

    Azaïez, Mejdi; Mund, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    Cet ouvrage présente l'ensemble des concepts et méthodes nécessaires à la modélisation numérique par éléments finis du comportement des fluides visqueux newtoniens incompressibles. Après un bref rappel des équations de base et des modèles simplifiés, il expose en détail les techniques d'approximation de ces équations par éléments finis pour les dépendances spatiale et temporelle (problèmes de diffusion, d'advection-diffusion et de transport). Une attention toute particulière est portée à la discrétisation spatiale des équations de Stokes et aux algorithmes temporels pour la simulation numérique directe des équations de Navier-Stokes. Un chapitre ancillaire résume les méthodes de résolution des systèmes algébriques de grande taille à structure creuse, caractéristiques des méthodes d'éléments finis. L'exposé clair, didactique et progressif offre un contenu équilibré entre théorie et pratique. Ce manuel constitue ainsi une référence indispensable pour les étudiants de ma...

  14. Development of a total temperature micro-volume blended incubating and hybridizing apparatus for DNA hybridization on nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Li, Zhiyang; Chen, Hui; Deng, Yan; He, Nongyue; Elingarami, Sauli; Huang, Jin

    2012-12-01

    With the wide application of nanomaterials in biomedical detection in recent years, hybridization methods which use nanoparticles as solid phase hybridization carriers have emerged. However, commercial equipments, such as conventional thermal cyclers and hybridization ovens are usually not appropriate for DNA hybridization on the surface of nanoparticles. We designed and improved a total temperature micro-volume blended incubating and hybridizing apparatus (TTMHA), which can be used for blending and suspending of nanoparticles in a small volume and liquid phase environment. This device highlights the mechanical rotation structure which can not only provide a uniform temperature field, but also makes the liquid flow fully in the reaction system and improves DNA hybridization efficiency significantly. A complex PID control algorithm, including Bang-Bang control and Fuzzy-PID control algorithm, was applied in this research project to improve the control accuracy and stability. Furthermore, a model detection experiment using ssDNA (single strand DNA) sequence was conducted in thermal cyclers and TTMHA respectively to verify the optimal hybridization efficiency of the TTMHA.

  15. Comparison between the environmental damages of two axial air compressors manufactured by the firm Fini Compressori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Paolo; Bernardi, Giuseppe; Buttol, Patrizia; Naldi, Giovanni; Saric, Miroslav; Tani, Giovanni

    2001-02-01

    This study was performed jointly by ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment), Bologna and Florence Universities and the firm FINI COMPRESSORI. A comparison is carried out between the environmental damages of two models (MK10 and MK94) of air axial compressors manufactured by FINI COMPRESSORI, with a volume of intaken air of 226 l/min, a power of 1.8 kW and a maximum pressure of 10 bar. The comparison is obtained by using LCA calculated by SimaPro 3.1 code and two methods: Eco-indicator 95 and a new method obtained by adding to the Eco-indicator 95 method other damage categories such as some raw material depletion, solid and energy. The system boundaries include raw material extraction and the end of life of the components and some special tools for manufacturing such as dies, moulds and shells. All metallic materials have the recycling as waste scenario. For LCA study we have considered the three components crankshaft, crankcase and valve plate for both the models, the air cooling conveyor for the MK94 and the surplus of consumed energy for the MK10. The conveyor decreases the temperature of air and therefore increases the compressor efficiency and reduces the electrical energy consumption during the use. From the LCA results, we can conclude that the introduction of the conveyor reduces the damage of MK10 model of 114.07 mPt and that the other modifications of the design increase the damage of MK10 model of 11 mPt. The damage of air compressor can be diminished by reusing crankshaft and crankcase. A design modification of the blades of the ventilator is proposed to avoid the conveyor.

  16. Assessment of the hybrid propagation model, Volume 2: Comparison with the Integrated Noise Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    This is the second of two volumes of the report on the Hybrid Propagation Model (HPM), an advanced prediction model for aviation noise propagation. This volume presents comparisons of the HPM and the Integrated Noise Model (INM) for conditions of une...

  17. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicles simulation programs. Volume 2: Questionnaire responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The data received in a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are presented. The survey was conducted for the Department of Energy by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume 1 of this report summarizes and discusses the results contained in Volume 2.

  18. Mixed-hybrid finite element method for the transport equation and diffusion approximation of transport problems; Resolution de l'equation du transport par une methode d'elements finis mixtes-hybrides et approximation par la diffusion de problemes de transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartier, J

    2006-04-15

    This thesis focuses on mathematical analysis, numerical resolution and modelling of the transport equations. First of all, we deal with numerical approximation of the solution of the transport equations by using a mixed-hybrid scheme. We derive and study a mixed formulation of the transport equation, then we analyse the related variational problem and present the discretization and the main properties of the scheme. We particularly pay attention to the behavior of the scheme and we show its efficiency in the diffusion limit (when the mean free path is small in comparison with the characteristic length of the physical domain). We present academical benchmarks in order to compare our scheme with other methods in many physical configurations and validate our method on analytical test cases. Unstructured and very distorted meshes are used to validate our scheme. The second part of this thesis deals with two transport problems. The first one is devoted to the study of diffusion due to boundary conditions in a transport problem between two plane plates. The second one consists in modelling and simulating radiative transfer phenomenon in case of the industrial context of inertial confinement fusion. (author)

  19. Calcul des paramètres électromagnétiques d'un moteur à réluctance à commutations par une méthode hybride: éléments finis. Equations intégrales de frontière

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omekanda, Avoki; Broche, Christian; Baland, René

    1992-11-01

    The switched reluctance motor (SRM) is a doubly salient electrical machine carrying simple windings in which flow unidirectional currents over appropriate rotor positions[1]. Because of its simplicity, robustness, and high efficiency[2, 3], SRM is evaluated for variable speed- and traction drives. In this paper, a quadratic two-dimensional technique founded upon Lagrange curvilinear elements and coupling finite element method (FEM)- and boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is used to calculate electromagnetic parameters in a SRM. The application of this method to two SRM prototypes provides an accurate analysis of the magnetostatic field and gives good values of the electromagnetic parameters of a SRM. Le moteur à réluctance à commutations est une machine électrique à structures saillantes au stator et au rotor et qui comporte des bobinages simples dans lesquels circulent des courants unidirectionnels pour des positions appropriées du rotor[1]. Grâce à sa simplicité, sa robustesse et son rendement élevé[2, 3], ce moteur à réluctance est apprécié dans les entraînements à vitesse variable et de traction. Dans cet article, nous présentons l'application d'une méthode quadratique bidimensionnelle qui couple des éléments finis (MEF) et la méthode des équations intégrales de frontière (MEIF) en vue du calcul des paramètres électromagnétiques d'un moteur à réluctance à commutations. L'application de cette méthode à deux prototypes fournit une analyse précise de la répartition du champ magnétique ainsi qu'une bonne prédiction des paramètres électromagnétiques de ces moteurs.

  20. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 2. Mission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surber, F.T.; Deshpande, G.K.

    1979-09-30

    Seven vehicle missions were selected and defined for use in assessing hybrid vehicle concepts and are summarized. These missions were selected to provide general coverage of current and future vehicle uses and classes. Their travel pattern definitions are based primarily on analysis of the 1969 National Personal Transportation Study travel data. Performance requirements are based on current highway designs and speed limits and the results of studies of performance requirements for safe and non-interfering operation in today's traffic environment. The mission definitions are independent of vehicle technology so even though they were selected and defined for use in assessing hybrid vehicles, they could also be used in assessing the potential of other vehicle technologies such as electric vehicles, turbo-charging, Stirling engines, etc.

  1. Hybrid Finite Element and Volume Integral Methods for Scattering Using Parametric Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volakis, John L.; Sertel, Kubilay; Jørgensen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    n this paper we address several topics relating to the development and implementation of volume integral and hybrid finite element methods for electromagnetic modeling. Comparisons of volume integral equation formulations with the finite element-boundary integral method are given in terms...... of vanishing divergence within the element but non-zero curl. In addition, a new domain decomposition is introduced for solving array problems involving several million degrees of freedom. Three orders of magnitude CPU reduction is demonstrated for such applications....

  2. Hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large-, Multi-, and Many-Core Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howison, M; Bethel, E W; Childs, H

    2012-01-01

    With the computing industry trending toward multi- and many-core processors, we study how a standard visualization algorithm, raycasting volume rendering, can benefit from a hybrid parallelism approach. Hybrid parallelism provides the best of both worlds: using distributed-memory parallelism across a large numbers of nodes increases available FLOPs and memory, while exploiting shared-memory parallelism among the cores within each node ensures that each node performs its portion of the larger calculation as efficiently as possible. We demonstrate results from weak and strong scaling studies, at levels of concurrency ranging up to 216,000, and with data sets as large as 12.2 trillion cells. The greatest benefit from hybrid parallelism lies in the communication portion of the algorithm, the dominant cost at higher levels of concurrency. We show that reducing the number of participants with a hybrid approach significantly improves performance.

  3. Hybrid Parallelism for Volume Rendering on Large-, Multi-, and Many-Core Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howison, Mark [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Bethel, E. Wes [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Childs, Hank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With the computing industry trending towards multi- and many-core processors, we study how a standard visualization algorithm, ray-casting volume rendering, can benefit from a hybrid parallelism approach. Hybrid parallelism provides the best of both worlds: using distributed-memory parallelism across a large numbers of nodes increases available FLOPs and memory, while exploiting shared-memory parallelism among the cores within each node ensures that each node performs its portion of the larger calculation as efficiently as possible. We demonstrate results from weak and strong scaling studies, at levels of concurrency ranging up to 216,000, and with datasets as large as 12.2 trillion cells. The greatest benefit from hybrid parallelism lies in the communication portion of the algorithm, the dominant cost at higher levels of concurrency. We show that reducing the number of participants with a hybrid approach significantly improves performance.

  4. Biomass and Volume Yield in Mature Hybrid Poplar Plantations on Temperate Abandoned Farmland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Truax

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed clone-specific allometric relationships, with the objective of calculating volume and biomass production after 13 years in 8 poplar plantations, located across an environmental gradient, and composed of 5 unrelated hybrid poplar clones. Allometry was found to be very similar for clones MxB-915311, NxM-3729 and DNxM-915508, all having P. maximoviczii parentage. Clones DxN-3570 and TxD-3230 also had a similar allometry; for a given DBH they have a lower stem volume, stem biomass and branch biomass than P. maximoviczii hybrids. Strong Site × Clone interactions were observed for volume and woody biomass growth, with DxN and TxD hybrids only productive on low elevation fertile sites, whereas P. maximovizcii hybrids were also very productive on higher elevation sites with moderate to high soil fertility. At the site level (5 clones mean, yield reached 27.5 and 22.7 m3/ha/yr. on the two best sites (high fertility and low elevation, confirming the great potential of southern Québec (Canada for poplar culture. The productivity gap between the most and least productive sites has widened from year 8 to year 13, highlighting the need for high quality abandoned farmland site selection in terms of climate and soil fertility. Although clone selection could optimize yield across the studied environmental gradient, it cannot fully compensate for inadequate site selection.

  5. Volume organization of polymer and hybrid solar cells as revealed by electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavel, Svetlana S. van [Dutch Polymer Institute, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Loos, Joachim [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Dutch Polymer Institute, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-08

    Polymer and hybrid solar cells have the potential to become the leading technology of the 21{sup st} century in conversion of sun light to electrical energy because their ease processing from solution producing printable devices in a roll-to-roll fashion with high speed and low cost. The performance of such devices critically depends on the nanoscale organization of the photoactive layer, which is composed of at least two functional materials: the electron donor and the electron acceptor forming a so-called bulk heterojunction; however, control of its volume morphology still is a challenge. In this context, advanced analytical tools are required that are able to provide information on the local volume morphology of the photoactive layer with nanometer resolution. In this report electron tomography is introduced as the technique able to explore the 3D morphology of polymer and hybrid solar cells and the first results achieved are critically discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. A hybrid ARIMA and neural network model applied to forecast catch volumes of Selar crumenophthalmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Ronald L.; Alcantara, Nialle Loui Mar T.; Addawe, Rizavel C.

    2017-11-01

    The Selar crumenophthalmus with the English name big-eyed scad fish, locally known as matang-baka, is one of the fishes commonly caught along the waters of La Union, Philippines. The study deals with the forecasting of catch volumes of big-eyed scad fish for commercial consumption. The data used are quarterly caught volumes of big-eyed scad fish from 2002 to first quarter of 2017. This actual data is available from the open stat database published by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA)whose task is to collect, compiles, analyzes and publish information concerning different aspects of the Philippine setting. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model and the Hybrid model consisting of ARIMA and ANN were developed to forecast catch volumes of big-eyed scad fish. Statistical errors such as Mean Absolute Errors (MAE) and Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) were computed and compared to choose the most suitable model for forecasting the catch volume for the next few quarters. A comparison of the results of each model and corresponding statistical errors reveals that the hybrid model, ARIMA-ANN (2,1,2)(6:3:1), is the most suitable model to forecast the catch volumes of the big-eyed scad fish for the next few quarters.

  7. Biomass and volume yield after 6 years in multiclonal hybrid poplar riparian buffer strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortier, Julien [Centre d' etude de la foret (CEF), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gagnon, Daniel [Centre d' etude de la foret (CEF), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fiducie de recherche sur la foret des Cantons-de-l' Est, 1 rue Principale, St-Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec (Canada); Truax, Benoit; Lambert, France [Fiducie de recherche sur la foret des Cantons-de-l' Est, 1 rue Principale, St-Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    In this paper the potential of five hybrid poplar clones (Populus spp.) to provide biomass and wood volume in the riparian zone is assessed in four agroecosystems of southern Quebec (Canada). For all variables measured, significant Site effects were detected. Survival, biomass yield and volume yield were highest at the Bromptonville site. After 6 years of growth, total aboveground biomass production (stems + branches + leaves) reached 112.8 tDM/ha and total leafless biomass production (stems + branches) reached 101.1 tDM/ha at this site, while stem wood volume attained 237.5 m{sup 3}/ha. Yields as low as 14.2 tDM/ha for total biomass and 24.8 m{sup 3}/ha for total stem volume were also observed at the Magog site. Highest yields were obtained on the most fertile sites, particularly in terms of NO{sub 3} supply rate. Mean stem volume per tree was highly correlated with NO{sub 3} supply rate in soils (R{sup 2} = 0.58, p < 0.001). Clone effects were also detected for most of the variables measured. Total aboveground biomass and total stem volume production were high for clone 3729 (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii) (73.1 tDM/ha and 134.2 m{sup 3}/ha), although not statistically different from clone 915311 (P. maximowiczii x P. balsamifera). However, mean whole-tree biomass (including leaves) was significantly higher for clone 3729 (38.8 kgDM/tree). Multifunctional agroforestry systems such as hybrid poplar riparian buffer strips are among the most sustainable ways to produce a high amount of biomass and wood in a short time period, while contributing to alleviate environmental problems such as agricultural non-point source pollution. (author)

  8. A Hybrid 3D Learning-and-Interaction-based Segmentation Approach Applied on CT Liver Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Danciu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Medical volume segmentation in various imaging modalities using real 3D approaches (in contrast to slice-by-slice segmentation represents an actual trend. The increase in the acquisition resolution leads to large amount of data, requiring solutions to reduce the dimensionality of the segmentation problem. In this context, the real-time interaction with the large medical data volume represents another milestone. This paper addresses the twofold problem of the 3D segmentation applied to large data sets and also describes an intuitive neuro-fuzzy trained interaction method. We present a new hybrid semi-supervised 3D segmentation, for liver volumes obtained from computer tomography scans. This is a challenging medical volume segmentation task, due to the acquisition and inter-patient variability of the liver parenchyma. The proposed solution combines a learning-based segmentation stage (employing 3D discrete cosine transform and a probabilistic support vector machine classifier with a post-processing stage (automatic and manual segmentation refinement. Optionally, an optimization of the segmentation can be achieved by level sets, using as initialization the segmentation provided by the learning-based solution. The supervised segmentation is applied on elementary cubes in which the CT volume is decomposed by tilling, thus ensuring a significant reduction of the data to be classified by the support vector machine into liver/not liver. On real volumes, the proposed approach provides good segmentation accuracy, with a significant reduction in the computational complexity.

  9. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumpton, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains appendices to the conceptual design and systems analysis studies gien in Volume II, Books 1 and 2. (WHK)

  10. An accelerated, fully-coupled, parallel 3D hybrid finite-volume fluid–structure interaction scheme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malan, AG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a fast, parallel 3D, fully-coupled partitioned hybridunstructured finite volume fluid–structure-interaction (FSI) scheme. Spatial discretisation is effected via a vertex-centered finite volume method, where a hybrid nodal...

  11. Local tetrahedron modeling of microelectronics using the finite-volume hybrid-grid technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1995-12-01

    The finite-volume hybrid-grid (FVHG) technique uses both structured and unstructured grid regions in obtaining a solution to the time-domain Maxwell`s equations. The method is based on explicit time differencing and utilizes rectilinear finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and nonorthogonal finite-volume time-domain (FVTD). The technique directly couples structured FDTD grids with unstructured FVTD grids without the need for spatial interpolation across grid interfaces. In this paper, the FVHG method is applied to simple planar microelectronic devices. Local tetrahedron grids are used to model portions of the device under study, with the remainder of the problem space being modeled with cubical hexahedral cells. The accuracy of propagating microstrip-guided waves from a low-density hexahedron region through a high-density tetrahedron grid is investigated.

  12. Evaluation of the Finis Swimsense® and the Garmin Swim™ activity monitors for swimming performance and stroke kinematics analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert Mooney; Leo R Quinlan; Gavin Corley; Alan Godfrey; Conor Osborough; Gearóid ÓLaighin

    2017-01-01

    .... Swimmers wore the Finis Swimsense and the Garmin Swim activity monitors throughout. The devices automatically identified stroke type, swim distance, lap time, stroke count, stroke rate, stroke length and average speed...

  13. Pore-to-Darcy Scale Hybrid Multiscale Finite Volume Model for Reactive Flow and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas-Solano, D. A.; Tartakovsky, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    In the present work we develop a hybrid scheme for the coupling and temporal integration of grid-based, continuum models for pore-scale and Darcy-scale flow and reactive transport. The hybrid coupling strategy consists on applying Darcy-scale and pore-scale flow and reactive transport models over overlapping subdomains Ω C and Ω F, and enforcing continuity of state and fluxes by means of restriction and prolongation operations defined over the overlap subdomain Ω hs ≡ Ω C \\cap Ω F. For the pore-scale model, we use a Multiscale Finite Volume (MsFV) characterization of the pore-scale state in terms of Darcy-scale degrees of freedom and local functions defined as the solution of pore-scale problems. The hybrid MsFV coupling results in a local-global combination of effective mass balance relations for the Darcy-scale degrees of freedom and local problems for the pore-scale degrees of freedom that capture pore-scale behavior. Our scheme allows for the rapid coarsening of pore-scale models and the adaptive enrichment of Darcy-scale models with pore-scale information. Additionally, we propose a strategy for modeling the dynamics of the pore-scale solid-liquid boundary due to precipitation and dissolution phenomena, based on the Diffuse Domain method (DDM), which is incorporated into the MsFV approximation of pore-scale states. We apply the proposed hybrid scheme to a reactive flow and transport problem in porous media subject to heterogeneous reactions and the corresponding precipitation and dissolution phenomena.

  14. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Sung-Ju

    2017-11-15

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL−1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes.

  15. Fabrication, testing, and analysis of anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composites: volume 1: technical report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Kyle K. (Wetzel Engineering, Inc. Lawrence, Kansas); Hermann, Thomas M. (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas); Locke, James (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas)

    2005-11-01

    Anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composite laminates have been fabricated, tested, and analyzed. The laminates have been fabricated using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Five fiber complexes and a two-part epoxy resin system have been used in the study to fabricate panels of twenty different laminate constructions. These panels have been subjected to physical testing to measure density, fiber volume fraction, and void fraction. Coupons machined from these panels have also been subjected to mechanical testing to measure elastic properties and strength of the laminates using tensile, compressive, transverse tensile, and in-plane shear tests. Interlaminar shear strength has also been measured. Out-of-plane displacement, axial strain, transverse strain, and inplane shear strain have also been measured using photogrammetry data obtained during edgewise compression tests. The test data have been reduced to characterize the elastic properties and strength of the laminates. Constraints imposed by test fixtures might be expected to affect measurements of the moduli of anisotropic materials; classical lamination theory has been used to assess the magnitude of such effects and correct the experimental data for the same. The tensile moduli generally correlate well with experiment without correction and indicate that factors other than end constraints dominate. The results suggest that shear moduli of the anisotropic materials are affected by end constraints. Classical lamination theory has also been used to characterize the level of extension-shear coupling in the anisotropic laminates. Three factors affecting the coupling have been examined: the volume fraction of unbalanced off-axis layers, the angle of the off-axis layers, and the composition of the fibers (i.e., carbon or glass) used as the axial reinforcement. The results indicate that extension/shear coupling is maximized with the least loss in axial tensile stiffness by using carbon fibers oriented 15{sup

  16. A hybrid finite volume - finite element method for bulk-surface coupled problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshenko, Alexey Y.; Olshanskii, Maxim A.; Vassilevski, Yuri V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper develops a hybrid method for solving a system of advection-diffusion equations in a bulk domain coupled to advection-diffusion equations on an embedded surface. A monotone nonlinear finite volume method for equations posed in the bulk is combined with a trace finite element method for equations posed on the surface. In our approach, the surface is not fitted by the mesh and is allowed to cut through the background mesh in an arbitrary way. Moreover, a triangulation of the surface into regular shaped elements is not required. The background mesh is an octree grid with cubic cells. As an example of an application, we consider the modeling of contaminant transport in fractured porous media. One standard model leads to a coupled system of advection-diffusion equations in a bulk (matrix) and along a surface (fracture). A series of numerical experiments with both steady and unsteady problems and different embedded geometries illustrate the numerical properties of the hybrid approach. The method demonstrates great flexibility in handling curvilinear or branching lower dimensional embedded structures.

  17. Prediction of Currency Volume Issued in Taiwan Using a Hybrid Artificial Neural Network and Multiple Regression Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the volume of currency issued by a country always affects its interest rate, price index, income levels, and many other important macroeconomic variables, the prediction of currency volume issued has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In contrast to the typical single-stage forecast model, this study proposes a hybrid forecasting approach to predict the volume of currency issued in Taiwan. The proposed hybrid models consist of artificial neural network (ANN and multiple regression (MR components. The MR component of the hybrid models is established for a selection of fewer explanatory variables, wherein the selected variables are of higher importance. The ANN component is then designed to generate forecasts based on those important explanatory variables. Subsequently, the model is used to analyze a real dataset of Taiwan's currency from 1996 to 2011 and twenty associated explanatory variables. The prediction results reveal that the proposed hybrid scheme exhibits superior forecasting performance for predicting the volume of currency issued in Taiwan.

  18. Methodes d'amas quantiques a temperature finie appliquees au modele de Hubbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouffe, Dany

    Depuis leur decouverte dans les annees 80, les supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique ont suscite beaucoup d'interet en physique du solide. Comprendre l'origine des phases observees dans ces materiaux, telle la supraconductivite, est l'un des grands defis de la physique theorique du solide des 25 dernieres annees. L'un des mecanismes pressentis pour expliquer ces phenomenes est la forte interaction electron-electron. Le modele de Hubbard est l'un des modeles les plus simples pour tenir compte de ces interactions. Malgre la simplicite apparente de ce modele, certaines de ses caracteristiques, dont son diagramme de phase, ne sont toujours pas bien etablies, et ce malgre plusieurs avancements theoriques dans les dernieres annees. Cette etude se consacre a faire une analyse de methodes numeriques permettant de calculer diverses proprietes du modele de Hubbard en fonction de la temperature. Nous decrivons des methodes (la VCA et la CPT) qui permettent de calculer approximativement la fonction de Green a temperature finie sur un systeme infini a partir de la fonction de Green calculee sur un amas de taille finie. Pour calculer ces fonctions de Green, nous allons utiliser des methodes permettant de reduire considerablement les efforts numeriques necessaires pour les calculs des moyennes thermodynamiques, en reduisant considerablement l'espace des etats a considerer dans ces moyennes. Bien que cette etude vise d'abord a developper des methodes d'amas pour resoudre le modele de Hubbard a temperature finie de facon generale ainsi qu'a etudier les proprietes de base de ce modele, nous allons l'appliquer a des conditions qui s'approchent de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Les methodes presentees dans cette etude permettent de tracer un diagramme de phase pour l'antiferromagnetisme et la supraconductivite qui presentent plusieurs similarites avec celui des supraconducteurs a haute temperature. Mots-cles : modele de Hubbard, thermodynamique

  19. A Hybrid Boundary Element-Finite Volume Method for Unsteady Transonic Airfoil Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong; Kandil, Osama A.

    1996-01-01

    A hybrid boundary element finite volume method for unsteady transonic flow computation has been developed. In this method, the unsteady Euler equations in a moving frame of reference are solved in a small embedded domain (inner domain) around the airfoil using an implicit finite volume scheme. The unsteady full-potential equation, written in the same frame of reference and in the form of the Poisson equation. is solved in the outer domain using the integral equation boundary element method to provide the boundary conditions for the inner Euler domain. The solution procedure is a time-accurate stepping procedure, where the outer boundary conditions for the inner domain are updated using the integral equation -- boundary element solution over the outer domain. The method is applied to unsteady transonic flows around the NACA0012 airfoil undergoing pitching oscillation and ramp motion. The results are compared with those of an implicit Euler equation solver, which is used throughout a large computational domain, and experimental data.

  20. Modélisation et simulation par la méthode des volumes finis des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La discrétisation a été faite après l'utilisation des coordonnées curvilignes en convertissant le domaine physique en domaine de calcul rectangulaire et le modèle mathématique sera donc basé sur les équations en coordonnées curvilignes. La comparaison des résultats obtenus avec le modèle mathématique et les ...

  1. Modélisation et simulation par la méthode des volumes finis des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    obtenus avec le modèle mathématique et les résultats obtenus expérimentalement laisse conclure qu'il y a une bonne concordance. L'objectif principal de ce travail est la détermination de l'allure de la surface libre dans les canaux non prismatiques tels qu'un élargissement progressif par simulation numérique pour mieux.

  2. A hybrid level set/volume-of-fluid approach for simulation of nearshore hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtyar, R.; Kees, C. E.; Miller, C. T.; Farthing, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    Wave breaking can play an important role in hydrodynamics near the coast and subsequently can be a factor in beach morphodynamics. However, an accurate understanding of the wave breaking and mixing of water and air at the free surface has yet to be achieved. Numerical models, based on single phase flow, have been used to study the nearshore hydrodynamics, but air-water two-phase flow is not well understood, and so there is a need for additional investigation into the details of this type of flow. The main objective of this study was to de¬velop further understanding of surf-swash zone hydrodynamics under a variety of wave forcing conditions. The main tool used was a com-prehensive two-phase numerical model - combining two-dimensional wave solver with the state-of-the-art 'Eulerian' technique for free surface modeling- of nearshore hydrodynamics. Surf-swash zone hydrodynamics were modeled using the Navier-Stokes equations, combined with turbulence closure model and a hybrid level set/volume-of-fluid approach. The hybrid level set/volume-of-fluid approach combines the accuracy and conceptual simplicity of front-tracking using level set methods with the conservation properties of volume-of fluid methods. The solver was discretized using a finite element method. The model's grid convergence and refinement were investigated in order to obtain high accuracy at an acceptable computational cost while retain robustness. The numerical set-up was tested against the well-known experimental data, with good agreement found. The numerical results showed that the maximum turbulent kinetic energy, turbulence dissipation rate, and velocity components are located near the free surface in the wave breaking area. The model is appropriate for the simulation of air-water mixing flow, undertow distribution, and turbulence characteristics in the nearshore zone. Generally, the analysis shows that, with reasonable hypotheses, it is possible to simulate the surf-swash zone hydrodynamics

  3. Rethinking theoretical approaches to stigma: a Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A; Martin, Jack K; Lang, Annie; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2008-08-01

    A resurgence of research and policy efforts on stigma both facilitates and forces a reconsideration of the levels and types of factors that shape reactions to persons with conditions that engender prejudice and discrimination. Focusing on the case of mental illness but drawing from theories and studies of stigma across the social sciences, we propose a framework that brings together theoretical insights from micro, meso and macro level research: Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) starts with Goffman's notion that understanding stigma requires a language of social relationships, but acknowledges that individuals do not come to social interaction devoid of affect and motivation. Further, all social interactions take place in a context in which organizations, media and larger cultures structure normative expectations which create the possibility of marking "difference". Labelling theory, social network theory, the limited capacity model of media influence, the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination, and theories of the welfare state all contribute to an understanding of the complex web of expectations shaping stigma. FINIS offers the potential to build a broad-based scientific foundation based on understanding the effects of stigma on the lives of persons with mental illness, the resources devoted to the organizations and families who care for them, and policies and programs designed to combat stigma. We end by discussing the clear implications this framework holds for stigma reduction, even in the face of conflicting results.

  4. Site-specific analysis of hybrid geothermal/fossil power plants. Volume One. Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The economics of a particular hybrid plant must be evaluated with respect to a specific site. This volume focuses on the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA. The temperature, pressure, and flow rate data given suggests the site deserves serious consideration for a hybrid plant. Key siting considerations which must be addressed before an economic judgment can be attempted are presented as follows: the availability, quality, and cost of coal; the availability of water; and the availability of transmission. Seismological and climate factors are presented. (MHR)

  5. Sur le nombre de points rationnels des variétés abéliennes et des Jacobiennes sur les corps finis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubry, Yves; Haloui, Safia; Lachaud, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Nous établissons de nouvelles majorations et minorations pour le nombre de points rationnels des variétés abéliennes et des Jacobiennes sur un corps fini. Nous déterminons de plus les nombres maximum et minimum de points rationnels des surfaces Jacobiennes sur un corps fini donné. We give upper a...

  6. Sur l'emploi facultatif de l'article dèfini en français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Drašković

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Il y a un domaine où la syntaxe descriptive du français moderne est bien lacunaire. Il s'agit notamment de l'emploi facultatif de l'article défini. Inutile de dire de quelle importance cette question peut être, surtout pour les étrangers.

  7. Effect of CNT volume fraction on wear properties of hybrid CNT+SiCsf/AS52 Mg matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung Woo; Cho, Dae Hyun; Nam, Ji Hoon; Park, Ik Min

    2016-07-01

    The effect of the carbon nanotube (CNT) volume fraction on the wear properties of hybrid Mg composites was investigated. The hybrid x vol% CNT + 15 vol% SiCsf-reinforced Mg-5Al-2Si alloy (AS52) matrix composites (x=0, 5 and 10 vol%) were fabricated in two steps involving preform fabrication and squeeze infiltration. The wear rate of the hybrid CNT+SiCsf/AS52 Mg metal matrix composites (MMCs) was evaluated using ballon-disk wear testing, and the roughness was measured using confocal laser 3D microscopy. Additionally, the worn surfaces were examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The adhesive wear and worn surface roughness of the hybrid CNT+SiCsf/AS52 Mg MMCs were reduced with increasing CNT addition. The CNTs hindered pull-out or cracking of the SiCsfs and matrix deformation. The wear resistance of the hybrid CNT+SiCsf/AS52 Mg MMCs was improved by the CNT additions, causing self-lubricant and strengthening effects compared with the single SiCsf/AS52 Mg MMCs.

  8. Three state-of-the-art individual electric and hybrid vehicle test reports, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Procedures used in determining the energy efficiency and economy of a gasoline-electric hybrid taxi, an electric passenger car, and an electric van are described. Tabular and graphic data show results of driving cycle and constant speed tests, energy distribution to various components, efficiency of the components, and, for the hybrid vehicle, the emissions.

  9. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase 2. Volume 2; Hybrid Electric Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the hybrid electric concept design, analysis, and modeling work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech.Performance and sizing tasks were conducted for hybrid electric versions of a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft and a hybrid wing body. The high wing Truss Braced Wing (TBW) SUGAR Volt was updated based on results from the TBW work (documented separately) and new engine performance models. Energy cost and acoustic analyses were conducted and technology roadmaps were updated for hybrid electric and battery technology. NOx emissions were calculated for landing and takeoff (LTO) and cruise. NPSS models were developed for hybrid electric components and tested using an integrated analysis of superconducting and non-superconducting hybrid electric engines. The hybrid electric SUGAR Volt was shown to produce significant emissions and fuel burn reductions beyond those achieved by the conventionally powered SUGAR High and was able to meet the NASA goals for fuel burn. Total energy utilization was not decreased but reduced energy cost can be achieved for some scenarios. The team was not able to identify a technology development path to meet NASA's noise goals

  10. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  11. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume IV. Series systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popinski, Z.

    1979-09-30

    In the Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task three major powertrain configurations (parallel, parallel with flywheel, and series) were studied. An evaluation of the series configuration is presented. The series configuration has the advantage that the engine is mechanically uncoupled from the wheels and can be operated at its best economy point much of the time. The mechanical energy produced by the engine is converted through a generator into electrical energy which is used to drive the motor or charge the batteries. This configuration offers a good degree of flexibility. It has the disadvantage that substantial losses of energy occur since the mechanical energy from the engine passes through several components before being used to drive the wheels. The energy produced by the engine is reduced by the product of efficiencies of components connected in series. Trade-offs involved in the study of the series configuration were directed toward establishing the size of the engine, motor and generator to meet vehicle acceleration performance; determining what level to operate the engine, and determining when to use the battery. These results were then used in the electric range simulation.

  12. Evaluation of the Finis Swimsense® and the Garmin SwimTM activity monitors for swimming performance and stroke kinematics analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mooney, Robert; Quinlan, Leo; Corley, Gavin; Godfrey, Alan; Osborough, Conor; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2017-01-01

    .... Swimmers wore the Finis Swimsense and the Garmin Swim activity monitors throughout. The devices automatically identified stroke type, swim distance, lap time, stroke count, stroke rate, stroke length and average speed...

  13. Allometric Equations for Estimating Compartment Biomass and Stem Volume in Mature Hybrid Poplars: General or Site-Specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Fortier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the extent to which general or site-specific allometric equations, using diameter at breast height (DBH as a predictor, are more accurate for estimating stem volume, stem biomass, branch biomass, aboveground woody biomass, and coarse root biomass in 14 year-old plantations of Populus canadensis × Populus maximowiczii (clone DN × M-915508 located along an environmental gradient in southern Québec (eastern Canada. The effect of tree size and site on stem wood basic density, moisture content, and proportion of branch biomass was also evaluated. For stem volume, stem biomass, and aboveground biomass, site-specific and general models had comparable fit and accuracy, but lower Akaike’s Information Criterion (AICc values were observed for the general models. For the branch and coarse root biomass, higher fit and accuracy and lower AICc values were observed for the site-specific models. Allometric trajectory changes (plastic allometry across sites were mainly observed for coarse root biomass, branch biomass, and stem volume. On the low fertility site, allocation was increased to coarse roots and decreased to stem volume. Site-specific tradeoffs between tree architecture and stem wood density explained the relatively invariant allometry for the whole aboveground woody biomass across the plantation sites. On the high fertility sites, basic wood density was the lowest and declined as tree DBH increased. At all sites, stem wood moisture content and the proportion of branch biomass increased with DBH. Overall, this study showed that biomass allometry, tree architecture, and biomass quality are a function of both tree size and plantation environment in hybrid poplar. Allometric model selection (site-specific or general should depend on the objective pursued (evaluation of yield, nutrient budget, carbon stocks.

  14. Biomass consumption for energetic purpose in the household sector; Il consumo energetico di biomassa a fini domestici nel settore domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, V.; Perrella, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Masia, F. [CIRM Research market srl, Milan (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    The report shows the results of a sampling survey performed to determine the biomass consumption for energetic purpose in the household sector. In particular, the methodology and sampling plan adopted to get a result with an error, at national level, of {+-}2.4%. are illustrated. Data are described and discusses. [Italian] Nel rapproto sono riportati i risultati di una indagine campionaria effettuata per determinare il consumo di biomassa a fini energetici nel settore domestico. Viene illustrata la metodologia ed il piano di campionamento adottato per avere un risultato che abbia a livello nazionale un errore del {+-}2.4%. I dati riportati vengono analizzati e discussi.

  15. The DTIC Review. Hybrid and Electronic Vehicles. Volume 4. Number 1, June 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    relevant parameters such as temperatures, pressures, and fuel flow and were coupled to an eddy current dynamometer , as shown in Figure 2. The engines were...production piston in order to reduce the dead volume above the top ring. This was intended to help reduce trapped hydrocarbon emissions. The wrist pin bores...in the piston were sized to match the Kohler connecting rods, and a high strength, lightweight wrist pin was obtained to work with the pistons. The

  16. Effect of aerobic high-intensity hybrid training on stroke volume and peak oxygen consumption in men with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brurok, Berit; Helgerud, Jan; Karlsen, Trine; Leivseth, Gunnar; Hoff, Jan

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-intensity interval training during combined arm cycling exercise (ACE) and functional electrical stimulation leg cycling (hybrid exercise), on peak stroke volume and peak oxygen consumption in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). A baseline control trial at an outpatient SCI clinic (St. Olav's University Hospital, Norway) was conducted. Participants included six men with SCI in stable neurologic recovery (ASIA Impairment Scale grade A). The study intervention included aerobic high-intensity hybrid exercise training three times a week for 8 wks preceded by a 7-wk control period of regular daily activity. Main outcome measures were peak stroke volume during hybrid cycling and peak oxygen consumption during hybrid cycling, ACE, and functional electrical stimulation leg cycling. The tests were conducted at three time points: 1, baseline; 2, control; and 3, post-training. Data are presented as mean (SD). From control to post-training tests, a significant increase in peak stroke volume by 33% (P = 0.004), from 77.7 (9.9) to 103.4 (17.1) ml/beat, was found. Furthermore, between control and post-training tests, hybrid peak oxygen consumption increased by 24.4%, from 24.6 (3.9) to 30.6 (5.2) ml kg (-1) min (-1) (P = 0.003), and peak oxygen consumption during isolated ACE and functional electrical stimulation cycling increased by 25.9% (P = 0.001) and 23.5% (P = 0.007), respectively. Training aerobic high-intensity hybrid intervals at 85%-95% of peak Watt was feasible for this group of SCI men and significantly increased peak stroke volume and peak oxygen uptake. Because aerobic capacity is directly linked to mortality and morbidity, the present study may be useful for designing training programs sufficient to reverse the risk of cardiovascular disease in SCI.

  17. A projection hybrid high order finite volume/finite element method for incompressible turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busto, S.; Ferrín, J. L.; Toro, E. F.; Vázquez-Cendón, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper the projection hybrid FV/FE method presented in [1] is extended to account for species transport equations. Furthermore, turbulent regimes are also considered thanks to the k-ε model. Regarding the transport diffusion stage new schemes of high order of accuracy are developed. The CVC Kolgan-type scheme and ADER methodology are extended to 3D. The latter is modified in order to profit from the dual mesh employed by the projection algorithm and the derivatives involved in the diffusion term are discretized using a Galerkin approach. The accuracy and stability analysis of the new method are carried out for the advection-diffusion-reaction equation. Within the projection stage the pressure correction is computed by a piecewise linear finite element method. Numerical results are presented, aimed at verifying the formal order of accuracy of the scheme and to assess the performance of the method on several realistic test problems.

  18. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  19. Estimation par plug-in du taux d'entropie d'un processus markovien de sauts à espace d'état fini

    OpenAIRE

    Regnault, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    International audience; L'entropie d'une loi à valeurs dans un ensemble fini est largement utilisée dans toutes les applications impliquant des variables aléatoires. L'équivalent naturel pour un processus aléatoire est son taux d'entropie, s'exprimant comme une fonction de la probabilité invariante et du générateur pour un processus markovien de sauts homogène, ergodique, à espace d'état fini. On construit un estimateur par plug-in de ce taux d'entropie dans le cas de l'observation d'une traj...

  20. Indéfinis épistémiques en français et en japonais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneko Makoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude vise à approfondir nos connaissances sur les indéfinis épistémiques (ceux qui expriment la lecture d’ignorance et manifestent une propriété sémantique "variation modale" à travers l’examen du “quelque” au singulier en français et l’indéfini prénominal en japonais. Les études précédentes sur les indéfinis épistémiques dans les autres langues montrent que certains d’entre eux transmettent aussi la lecture de polarité négative et/ou celle de libre choix dans les environnements différents, et proposent, afin de rendre compte d’une telle divergence, soit 1 une approche pragmatique qui consiste à analyser, en réduisant la sémantique d’un indéfini à celle de la disjonction d’alternatives, les différentes lectures comme des implicatures conversationnelles dérivées de la disjonction, soit 2 une approche sémantique qui les traite comme des implicatures conventionnelles. Après avoir montré qu’aucune des deux approches n’explique pas pleinement toute seule les distributions des indéfinis épistémiques en japonais et en français, il est d’abord soutenu, pour l’indéfini prénominal du japonais, qu’en raison des facteurs diachroniques, il reçoit deux interprétations dans les différents environnements, parallèlement à l’ambiguïté d’une particule (interrogative ou disjonctive qui en fait partie : i interprétation de la question indirecte parenthétique, qui entraîne, dans une phrase épisodique ou avec la modalité épistémique, la lecture d’ignorance comme une implicature conventionnelle ; ii interprétation de la disjonction d’alternatives, qui dérive, avec la modalité déontique, la lecture de libre choix comme une implicature conversationnelle. La lecture de polarité négative n’est véhiculée par aucune des deux interprétations, étant donné i l’incongruité de demander l’identité du référent dont l’existence est niée et ii la portée n

  1. Evaluation of the Finis Swimsense® and the Garmin Swim™ activity monitors for swimming performance and stroke kinematics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mooney

    Full Text Available The study aims were to evaluate the validity of two commercially available swimming activity monitors for quantifying temporal and kinematic swimming variables.Ten national level swimmers (5 male, 5 female; 15.3±1.3years; 164.8±12.9cm; 62.4±11.1kg; 425±66 FINA points completed a set protocol comprising 1,500m of swimming involving all four competitive swimming strokes. Swimmers wore the Finis Swimsense and the Garmin Swim activity monitors throughout. The devices automatically identified stroke type, swim distance, lap time, stroke count, stroke rate, stroke length and average speed. Video recordings were also obtained and used as a criterion measure to evaluate performance.A significant positive correlation was found between the monitors and video for the identification of each of the four swim strokes (Garmin: X2 (3 = 31.292, p<0.05; Finis:X2 (3 = 33.004, p<0.05. No significant differences were found for swim distance measurements. Swimming laps performed in the middle of a swimming interval showed no significant difference from the criterion (Garmin: bias -0.065, 95% confidence intervals -3.828-6.920; Finis bias -0.02, 95% confidence intervals -3.095-3.142. However laps performed at the beginning and end of an interval were not as accurately timed. Additionally, a statistical difference was found for stroke count measurements in all but two occasions (p<0.05. These differences affect the accuracy of stroke rate, stroke length and average speed scores reported by the monitors, as all of these are derived from lap times and stroke counts.Both monitors were found to operate with a relatively similar performance level and appear suited for recreational use. However, issues with feature detection accuracy may be related to individual variances in stroke technique. It is reasonable to expect that this level of error would increase when the devices are used by recreational swimmers rather than elite swimmers. Further development to improve

  2. Méthode des éléments finis approche pratique en mécanique des structures

    CERN Document Server

    Cazenave, Michel

    2010-01-01

    La méthode des éléments finis permet de calculer numériquement le comportement d'objets complexes. C’est un outil de simulation et de modélisation largement répandu dans l’industrie mécanique. Cet ouvrage a pour but de familiariser les ingénieurs et techniciens à cette méthode en abordant sa problématique par la pratique. 16 exemples traitant les aspects théoriques et pratiques de manière graduelle sont ainsi proposés. Ceux-ci sont accompagnés de rappels sur les théories des poutres, des plaques ou des coques permettant de mieux appréhender les fondements de la méthode.

  3. Evaluation of the Finis Swimsense® and the Garmin Swim™ activity monitors for swimming performance and stroke kinematics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Robert; Quinlan, Leo R; Corley, Gavin; Godfrey, Alan; Osborough, Conor; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2017-01-01

    The study aims were to evaluate the validity of two commercially available swimming activity monitors for quantifying temporal and kinematic swimming variables. Ten national level swimmers (5 male, 5 female; 15.3±1.3years; 164.8±12.9cm; 62.4±11.1kg; 425±66 FINA points) completed a set protocol comprising 1,500m of swimming involving all four competitive swimming strokes. Swimmers wore the Finis Swimsense and the Garmin Swim activity monitors throughout. The devices automatically identified stroke type, swim distance, lap time, stroke count, stroke rate, stroke length and average speed. Video recordings were also obtained and used as a criterion measure to evaluate performance. A significant positive correlation was found between the monitors and video for the identification of each of the four swim strokes (Garmin: X2 (3) = 31.292, pGarmin: bias -0.065, 95% confidence intervals -3.828-6.920; Finis bias -0.02, 95% confidence intervals -3.095-3.142). However laps performed at the beginning and end of an interval were not as accurately timed. Additionally, a statistical difference was found for stroke count measurements in all but two occasions (p<0.05). These differences affect the accuracy of stroke rate, stroke length and average speed scores reported by the monitors, as all of these are derived from lap times and stroke counts. Both monitors were found to operate with a relatively similar performance level and appear suited for recreational use. However, issues with feature detection accuracy may be related to individual variances in stroke technique. It is reasonable to expect that this level of error would increase when the devices are used by recreational swimmers rather than elite swimmers. Further development to improve accuracy of feature detection algorithms, specifically for lap time and stroke count, would also increase their suitability within competitive settings.

  4. SU-E-T-612: Hybrid-Input-Output Algorithm for IMRT Optimization with Dose-Volume Histogram Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y; Jia, X; Zarepisheh, M; Jiang, S

    2012-06-01

    Dose-volume histogram (DVH) is a clinically relevant criterion to evaluate a treatment plan quality. It is hence desirable to incorporate DVH constraints in treatment planning process for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Yet, these constraints usually lead to difficulties due to their non-convex nature. The purpose of this project is to solve the IMRT optimization problem with DVH constraints using a hybrid-input-output (HIO) method. The IMRT optimization problem finds a dose distribution z under two constraints, where the elements of the vector z are the dose value at each spatial coordinate. First, there exist a corresponding fluence map x such that Dx=z and x>0, where D is the dose deposition matrix. Second, the dose distribution z should satisfy the DVH constraints. These two constraints define two sets of the dose distributions, denoted by A and B, and the solution to the IMRT problem lies in the intersection of these two sets. Our method finds the solution via the HIO algorithm that iteratively updates the solution according to its projections onto the two sets until convergence. The projection to A is handled by solving a least square problem and the projection to B is achieved by gradually adjusting voxel doses that validate the DVH criteria to meet the constraints. We have tested our algorithm using 7-field IMRT plans for 4 prostate cancer cases. Clinically relevant DVH constraints are considered for PTV, rectum, and bladder. In all the cases, the algorithm is able to find the solutions that satisfy all the DVH constraints. We have developed an algorithm to solve the IMRT optimization problem with DVH constraints using the HIO approach. Tests conducted in prostate cancer cases have demonstrated the effectiveness of our algorithm. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Anatomical and functional volume concordance between FDG PET, and T2 and diffusion-weighted MRI for cervical cancer: a hybrid PET/MR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hongzan; Xin, Jun; Zhang, Shaomin; Guo, Qiyong; Lu, Yueyue; Zhai, Wei; Zhao, Long [Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Peng, Weiai [NM Marketing, Great China, Philips Healthcare, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Baijun [Philips China Investment Co. Ltd. Shenyang Office, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2014-05-15

    To evaluate the concordance among {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging, MR T2-weighted (T2-W) imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging in cervical cancer using hybrid whole-body PET/MR. This study prospectively included 35 patients with cervical cancer who underwent pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR imaging. {sup 18}F-FDG PET and MR images were fused using standard software. The percent of the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) was used to contour tumours on PET images, and volumes were calculated automatically. Tumour volumes measured on T2-W and DW images were calculated with standard techniques of tumour area multiplied by the slice profile. Parametric statistics were used for data analysis. FDG PET tumour volumes calculated using SUV{sub max} (14.30 ± 4.70) and T2-W imaging volume (33.81 ± 27.32 cm{sup 3}) were similar (P > 0.05) at 35 % and 40 % of SUV{sub max} (32.91 ± 18.90 cm{sup 3} and 27.56 ± 17.19 cm{sup 3} respectively) and significantly correlated (P < 0.001; r = 0.735 and 0.766). The mean DW volume was 30.48 ± 22.41 cm{sup 3}. DW volumes were not significantly different from FDG PET volumes at either 35 % SUV{sub max} or 40 % SUV{sub max} or from T2-W imaging volumes (P > 0.05). PET subvolumes with increasing SUV{sub max} cut-off percentage showed an inverse change in mean ADC values on DW imaging (P < 0.001, ANOVA). Hybrid PET/MR showed strong volume concordance between FDG PET, and T2-W and DW imaging in cervical cancer. Cut-off at 35 % or 40 % of SUV{sub max} is recommended for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR SUV-based tumour volume estimation. The linear tumour subvolume concordance between FDG PET and DW imaging demonstrates individual regional concordance of metabolic activity and cell density. (orig.)

  6. Pourquoi certains verbes admettent-ils les objets implicites indéfinis ? Une réponse pragmatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourmayan Anouch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Les objets implicites indéfinis – ou OIIs – sont des constituants de sens correspondant sur un plan sémantique à des arguments objet de valeur indéfinie. Ils sont donc paraphrasables par des compléments d'objet direct indéfinis. Cependant, ces constituants sont implicites, au sens où ils n'apparaissent pas dans la forme de surface de l'énoncé. Ainsi, lorsque j'affirme (1, mon énoncé présente les mêmes conditions de vérité que (2 : (1 Marie mange. (2 Marie mange quelque chose. Affirmer que Marie mange, c'est bien affirmer que Marie mange quelque chose. Et comprendre l'énoncé en (1, c'est comprendre qu'il signifie (2. En d'autres termes, (1 met en jeu un OII. Or il semble que parmi les verbes pouvant apparaître avec un complément d'objet direct, tous n'admettent pas l'omission de l'objet et l'interprétation avec un OII. Ainsi, on ne peut pas dire « je suis en train de mettre », au sens de « je suis en train de mettre quelque chose ». Comment expliquer ce contraste entre « manger « et « mettre » ? Plus généralement, comment rendre compte de la distribution des OIIs ? Dans cet article, j'examine tour à tour quatre analyses qui ont été proposées dans la littérature, à savoir l'approche lexicaliste arbitraire, selon laquelle la capacité d'un verbe à admettre les OIIs est déterminée lexicalement mais ne peut être dérivée d'aucun autre trait sémantique du verbe, l'approche lexicaliste aspectuelle, selon laquelle la capacité d'un verbe à admettre les OIIs est déterminée lexicalement, mais peut être dérivée des propriétés aspectuelles du verbe, l'approche lexicaliste événementielle, selon laquelle la capacité d'un verbe à admettre les OIIs est déterminée par la nature de la structure événementielle du verbe, et l'approche constructionniste, selon laquelle les OIIs sont autorisés par des constructions grammaticales spécifiques qui font partie de la connaissance grammaticale des

  7. Curved finite elements and acceleration for the neutron transport; Elements finis courbes et acceleration pour le transport de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, J.Y.

    2012-01-10

    To model the nuclear reactors, the stationary linear Boltzmann equation is solved. After discretizing the energy and the angular variables, the hyperbolic equation is numerically solved with the discontinuous finite element method. The MINARET code uses this method on a triangular unstructured mesh in order to deal with complex geometries (like containing arcs of circle). However, the meshes with straight edges only approximate such geometries. With curved edges, the mesh fits exactly to the geometry, and in some cases, the number of triangles decreases. The main task of this work is the study of finite elements on curved triangles with one or several curved edges. The choice of the basis functions is one of the main points for this kind of finite elements. We obtained a convergence result under the assumption that the curved triangles are not too deformed in comparison with the associated straight triangles. Furthermore, a code has been written to treat triangles with one, two or three curved edges. Another part of this work deals with the acceleration of transport calculations. Indeed, the problem is solved iteratively, and, in some cases, can converge really slowly. A DSA (Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration) method has been implemented using a technique from interior penalty methods. A Fourier analysis in 1D and 2D allows to estimate the acceleration for infinite periodical media, and to check the stability of the numerical scheme when strong heterogeneities exist. (author) [French] La modelisation des reacteurs nucleaires repose sur la resolution de l'equation de Boltzmann lineaire. Nous nous sommes interesses a la resolution spatiale de la forme stationnaire de cette equation. Apres discretisation en energie et en angle, l'equation hyperbolique est resolue numeriquement par la methode des elements finis discontinus. Le solveur MINARET utilise cette methode sur un maillage triangulaire non structure afin de pouvoir traiter des geometries complexes

  8. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 2. Conceptual design, Sections 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains the detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system. (WHK)

  9. Simultaneous assessment of cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid IVIM and DK MR imaging: initial experience with brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-Chau [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Yang, Shun-Chung; Chen, Ya-Fang; My, Pei-Chi [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Tseng, Han-Min [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Taipei (China)

    2017-01-15

    To investigate the feasibility of simultaneously assessing cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid diffusion-kurtosis (DK) and intravoxel-incoherent-motion (IVIM) MR imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers and 30 patients with histologically proven brain tumours (25 WHO grade II-IV gliomas and five metastases) were recruited. On a 3-T system, diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with six b-values ranging from 0 to 1,700 s/mm{sup 2}. Nonlinear least-squares fitting was employed to extract diffusion coefficient (D), diffusion kurtosis coefficient (K, a measure of the degree of non-Gaussian and heterogeneous diffusion) and intravascular volume fraction (f, a measure proportional to cerebral blood volume). Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to assess the ability of D/K/f in differentiating contrast-enhanced tumour from peritumoral oedema and normal-appearing white matter. Based on our imaging setting (baseline signal-to-noise ratio = 32-128), coefficient of variation was 14-20 % for K, ∝6 % for D and 26-44 % for f. The indexes were able to differentiate contrast-enhanced tumour (Wilks' λ = 0.026, p < 10{sup -3}), and performance was greatest with K, followed by f and D. Hybrid DK IVIM imaging is capable of simultaneously measuring cerebral perfusion and diffusion indexes that together may improve brain tumour diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of anaerobic sludge volume for improving azo dye decolorization in a hybrid anaerobic reactor with built-in bioelectrochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Min-Hua; Cui, Dan; Gao, Lei; Wang, Ai-Jie; Cheng, Hao-Yi

    2017-02-01

    A hybrid anaerobic reactor with built-in bioelectrochemical system (BES) has been verified for efficiently treating mixed azo dye wastewater, yet still facing many challenges, such as uncertain reactor construction and insufficient electron donors. In this study, an up-flow hybrid anaerobic reactor with built-in BES was developed for acid orange 7 (AO7) containing wastewater treatment. Cathode and real domestic wastewater both served as electron donor for driving azo dye decolorization. The decolorization efficiency (DE) of AO7 (200 mg/L) in the hybrid reactor was 80.34 ± 2.11% with volume ratio between anaerobic sludge and cathode (VRslu:cat) of 0.5:1 and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 h, which was 15.79% higher than that in BES without sludge zone. DE was improved to 86.02 ± 1.49% with VRslu:cat increased to 1:1. Further increase in the VRslu:cat to 1.5:1 and 2:1, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was continuously improved to 28.78 ± 1.96 and 32.19 ± 0.62%, but there was no obvious DE elevation (slightly increased to 87.62 ± 2.50 and 90.13 ± 3.10%). BES presented efficient electron utilization, the electron usage ratios (EURs) in which fluctuated between 11.02 and 13.06 mol e(-)/mol AO7. It was less than half of that in sludge zone of 24.73-32.06 mol e(-)/mol AO7. The present work optimized the volume ratio between anaerobic sludge and cathode that would be meaningful for the practical application of this hybrid system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Méthode des éléments finis espace-temps : adaptation du maillage en cours d'évolution du contact

    OpenAIRE

    Adélaïde, Lucas

    2001-01-01

    La plupart des méthodes de calcul utilisées en mécanique des solides, pour résoudre des problèmes non stationnaires sont basées sur un découpage entre le temps et l'espace. Dans la majorité des logiciels existants, les calculs s'effectuent par une discrétisation de l'espace en utilisant des méthodes, comme, par exemple, la Méthode des Éléments Finis et ensuite, une discrétisation en temps par différences finies. On pourrait se demander : que se passerait-il si la discrétisation en espace et e...

  12. Analyse des solides déformables par la méthode des éléments finis

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Cet ouvrage propose une présentation structurée de la formulation et la mise en œuvre de la simulation numérique par éléments finis en mécanique des solides déformables. Il présente et développe les concepts et techniques permettant la transposition, en termes de codes de calcul de structures mécaniques industrielles, des notions fondamentales de mécanique des milieux continus solides, et ce dans le cadre d'analyses en régimes (a) statique linéaire, (b) quasistatique non-linéaire et (c) dynamique linéaire. L'exposé théorique est complété et illustré au moyen de programmes d'initiation écrits en Matlab (librement accessibles par Internet) mettant en œuvre les notions développées dans cet ouvrage et conçus comme support pratique à un enseignement. Le texte combine ainsi l'exposition des principes et des méthodes avec la présentation détaillée de ces programmes et d'exemples les mettant en œuvre. L'ouvrage est complété d'une annexe écrite par Andrei Constantinescu (directeur de...

  13. Introduction à la méthode des éléments finis cours et exercices corrigés

    CERN Document Server

    Cuillière, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    La résolution de nombreux problèmes de dimensionnement et de calcul de résistance mécanique de pièces, d’assemblages et de structures utilise de manière très courante la méthode des éléments finis. Les logiciels exploitant cette méthode font maintenant partie des outils classiques. Ce cours est une introduction à la méthode des éléments finis. Il vise principalement l’acquisition des connaissances théoriques minimales, nécessaires à une bonne compréhension de l’utilisation pratique des outils logiciels utilisés couramment par les techniciens et les ingénieurs. Un chapitre traite de la bonne utilisation des outils logiciels de calcul par éléments finis. L'aspect théorique est complété par des exercices d'application accompagnés de solutions détaillées.

  14. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J M

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD&D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH&S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  15. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 1. Conceptual design, Sections 1 through 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume presents in detail the market analysis, parametric analysis, and the selection process for the preferred system. (WHK)

  16. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 4, In-vehicle safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, J.

    1992-11-01

    This report is the last of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues that may affect the commercial-scale use of sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles. The reports are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers the in-vehicle safety issues of electric vehicles powered by Na/S batteries. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, and private industry. It has three major goals: (1) to identify the unique hazards associated with electric vehicle (EV) use; (2) to describe the existing standards, regulations, and guidelines that are or could be applicable to these hazards; and (3) to discuss the adequacy of the existing requirements in addressing the safety concerns of EVs.

  17. Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix C: preliminary design data package. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-09-11

    This appendix to the final report on the Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program contans data on Na-S batteries, Ni-Zn batteries; vehicle body design; tire characteristics; and results of computer simulations of vehicle yaw, pitch, and roll under various driving and aerodynamic conditions. (LCL)

  18. Simultaneous assessment of cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid IVIM and DK MR imaging: initial experience with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Chau; Yang, Shun-Chung; Chen, Ya-Fang; Tseng, Han-Min; My, Pei-Chi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of simultaneously assessing cerebral blood volume and diffusion heterogeneity using hybrid diffusion-kurtosis (DK) and intravoxel-incoherent-motion (IVIM) MR imaging. Fifteen healthy volunteers and 30 patients with histologically proven brain tumours (25 WHO grade II-IV gliomas and five metastases) were recruited. On a 3-T system, diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with six b-values ranging from 0 to 1,700 s/mm(2). Nonlinear least-squares fitting was employed to extract diffusion coefficient (D), diffusion kurtosis coefficient (K, a measure of the degree of non-Gaussian and heterogeneous diffusion) and intravascular volume fraction (f, a measure proportional to cerebral blood volume). Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to assess the ability of D/K/f in differentiating contrast-enhanced tumour from peritumoral oedema and normal-appearing white matter. Based on our imaging setting (baseline signal-to-noise ratio = 32-128), coefficient of variation was 14-20 % for K, ~6 % for D and 26-44 % for f. The indexes were able to differentiate contrast-enhanced tumour (Wilks' λ = 0.026, p cerebral perfusion and diffusion indexes that together may improve brain tumour diagnosis. • Hybrid DK-IVIM imaging allows simultaneous measurement of K, D and f. • Combined K/D/f better demarcates contrast-enhanced tumour than they do separately. • f correlates better with contrast-leakage-corrected CBV DSC than with uncorrected CBV DSC.

  19. Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix C: preliminary design data package. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-07-31

    The assumptions made, analysis methods used, and preliminary results of research to determine the design specifications for a hybrid electric-powered and internal combustion engine-powered vehicle that would optimize the fuel economy of passenger automobiles are described. Information is included on body and component design, selection of spark-ignition engine and Ni-Zn batteries, life-cycle costs and life-cycle fuel consumption. (LCL)

  20. Solar central receiver hybrid power system, Phase I. Volume 2. Conceptual design. Final technical report, October 1978-August 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a hybrid power system design that (1) produces minimum cost electric power, (2) minimizes the capital investment and operating cost, (3) permits capacity displacement, (4) and achieves utility acceptance for market penetration. We have met the first three of these objectives and therefore believe that the fourth, utility acceptance, will become a reality. These objectives have been met by utilizing the Martin Marietta concept that combines the alternate central receiver power system design and a high-temperature salt primary heat transfer fluid and thermal storage media system with a fossil-fired nonsolar energy source. Task 1 reviewed the requirements definition document and comments and recommendations were provided to DOE/San Francisco. Task 2 consisted of a market analysis to evaluate the potential market of solar hybrid power plants. Twenty-two utilities were selected within nine regions of the country. Both written and verbal correspondence was used to assess solar hybrid power plants with respect to the utilities' future requirements and plans. The parametric analysis of Task 3 evaluated a wide range of subsystem configurations and sizes. These analyses included subsystems from the solar standalone alternate central receiver power system using high-temperature molten salt and from fossil fuel nonsolar subsystems. Task 4, selection of the preferred commerical system configuration, utilized the parametric analyses developed in Task 3 to select system and subsystem configurations for the commercial plant design. Task 5 developed a conceptual design of the selected commercial plant configuration and assessed the related cost and performance. Task 6 assessed the economics and performance of the selected configuration as well as future potential improvements or limitations of the hybrid power plants.

  1. Integrated strong cation-exchange hybrid monolith coupled with capillary zone electrophoresis and simultaneous dynamic pH junction for large-volume proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Yan, Xiaojing; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-06-01

    A sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation-exchange (SCX) monolith was synthesized at the proximal end of a capillary zone electrophoresis column and used for on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample preconcentration. Sample was prepared in an acidic buffer and deposited onto the SCX-SPE monolith and eluted using a basic buffer. Electrophoresis was performed in an acidic buffer. This combination of buffers results in formation of a dynamic pH junction, which allows use of relatively large elution buffer volume while maintaining peak efficiency and resolution. All experiments were performed with a 50 µm ID capillary, a 1cm long SCX-SPE monolith, a 60cm long separation capillary, and a electrokinetically pumped nanospray interface. The volume of the capillary is 1.1 µL. By loading 21 µL of a 1×10(-7) M angiotensin II solution, an enrichment factor of 3000 compared to standard electrokinetic injection was achieved on this platform while retaining efficient electrophoretic performance (N=44,000 plates). The loading capacity of the sulfonate SCX hybrid monolith was determined to be ~15 pmol by frontal analysis with 10(-5) M angiotensin II. The system was also applied to the analysis of a 10(-4) mg/mL bovine serum albumin tryptic digest; the protein coverage was 12% and 11 peptides were identified. Finally, by loading 5.5 µL of a 10(-3) mg/mL E. coli digest, 109 proteins and 271 peptides were identified in a 20 min separation; the median separation efficiency generated by these peptides was 25,000 theoretical plates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluación de los niveles de orientación empática en estudiantes de odontología de la Universidad Finis Terrae de Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Urday,H; Rivera Ugalde,I; Zamorano Arancibia,A; Díaz Narváez,VP

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el nivel de orientación empática en los alumnos de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Finis Terrae. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio no experimental, descriptivo, transversal y ex post facto causa-efecto. Participaron 309 alumnos, de un universo de 430, correspondientes a los niveles 1º, 2º, 3º, 4º y 5º de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Finis Terrae (Chile) en 2012, a quienes se aplicó la Escala de Empatía Médica de Jefferson (EEMJ). Para e...

  3. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 3: Computer program listings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A description and listing is presented of two computer programs: Hybrid Vehicle Design Program (HYVELD) and Hybrid Vehicle Simulation Program (HYVEC). Both of the programs are modifications and extensions of similar programs developed as part of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project.

  4. Simulation of the Intake and Compression Strokes of a Motored 4-Valve Si Engine with a Finite Element Code Simulation de l'admission et de la compression dans un moteur 4-soupapes AC entraîné à l'aide d'un code de calcul à éléments finis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailly O.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A CFD code, using a mixed finite volumes - finite elements method on tetraedrons, is now available for engine simulations. The code takes into account the displacement of moving walls such as piston and valves in a full automatic way: a single mesh is used for a full computation and no intervention of the user is necessary. A fourth order implicit spatial scheme and a first order implicit temporal scheme are used. The work presented in this paper is part of a larger program for the validation of this new numerical tool for engine applications. Here, comparisons between computation and experiments of the intake and compression strokes of a four-valve engine were carried out. The experimental investigations are conducted on a single cylinder four valve optical research engine. The turbulence intensity, mean velocity components, tumble and swirl ratios in the combustion chamber are deduced from the LDV measurements. The comparisons between computations and experiments are made on the mean velocity flow field at different locations inside the chamber and for different crank angles. We also present some global comparisons (swirl and tumble ratios. The simulation shows excellent agreement between computations and experiments. Un code de calcul utilisant une approche mixte éléments finis - volumes finis en tétraèdres a été développé pour les simulations moteur. Le code prend en compte le déplacement des parois mobiles comme les pistons et les soupapes de façon totalement automatique : un maillage unique est utilisé pour tout le calcul sans intervention de l'utilisateur. Un schéma implicite du quatrième ordre en espace et du premier ordre en temps est retenu. Le travail présenté dans cet article fait partie d'une démarche globale de validation de cette nouvelle approche pour les moteurs. Des comparaisons entre calculs et mesures lors des phases d'admission et de compression dans un moteur 4-soupapes AC y sont exposées. Ces exp

  5. Algorithme génétique et développement de Taylor de la solution éléments finis pour l'optimisation d'un dispositif électromagnétique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saludjian, L.; Coulomb, J. L.; Izabelle, A.

    1997-11-01

    This article presents the optimization of an electromagnetic superconducting device by a genetic algorithm. To avoid great computational cost of finite elements evaluations, we choose to couple our genetic algorithm with a fast evaluation method based on high derivatives and Taylor developments of the finite element solution. Cet article présente l'utilisation d'un algorithme génétique pour l'optimisation d'un dispositif électromagnétique constitué de deux bobines supraconductrices. Pour réduire le coût de calcul des évaluations - très important dans le cas d'une méthode éléments finis - une méthode rapide, basée sur des développements de Taylor d'ordres élevés de la solution éléments finis, sera employée.

  6. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 2: Supplement to design trade-off studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of studies leading to the preliminary design of a hybrid passenger vehicle which is projected to have the maximum potential for reducing petroleum consumption in the near term are presented. Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicle tradeoffs, assessment of battery power source, and weight and cost analysis of key components are among the topics covered. Performance of auxiliary equipment, such as power steering, power brakes, air conditioning, lighting and electrical accessories, heating and ventilation is discussed along with the selection of preferred passenger compartment heating procedure for the hybrid vehicle. Waste heat from the engine, thermal energy storage, and an auxiliary burner are among the approaches considered.

  7. Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix A: mission analysis and performance specification studies. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, M.; Barbarek, L.A.C.

    1979-04-20

    Studies are described which were performed for the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle program to determine passenger car usage patterns and to correlate these trip mission characteristics with vehicle design and performance specifications. (LCL)

  8. Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix A: mission analysis and performance specification studies. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, M.; Barbarek, L.A.C.

    1979-05-18

    These appendices to the mission analysis report for the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle program contain data on passenger vehicle usage by purpose, trip length, travel speed, vehicle age, vehicle ownership and fuel economy, and US demographics. (LCL)

  9. Développement d'une approche couplée Automates Cellulaires – Eléments Finis pour la modélisation du développement des structures de grains en soudage TIG A coupled Cellular Automaton – Finite Element approach for the modelling of grain structure development in TIG welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shijia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le domaine du soudage, les propriétés finales du cordon sont fortement liées à la structure de grains développée au cours des procédés de fusion / resolidification. La maîtrise des propriétés de l'assemblage final passe ainsi par une amélioration de la connaissance de sa structure de ce domaine. Dans cet objectif, un modèle couplé Automates Cellulaires – Eléments Finis est proposé pour simuler le développement, en volume, de cette structure, dans le cadre du soudage TIG. Ce modèle est appliqué au soudage d'acier Duplex 2202 et l'évolution de la structure de grains selon les paramètres procédés est discutée. In the welding area, the final properties of the weld bead are mainly induced by the grain structure developed during the melting and solidification steps. The mastery of the properties of the joining will be achieved with a better knowledge of the developed grain structure. A 3D coupled Cellular Automaton – Finite Element model is proposed in order to simulate the grains development in TIG process. This model is applied to the welding of a duplex stainless steel grade. The grain structure evolution is discussed for the various process parameters.

  10. Simulation numérique, par éléments finis, des ballotements d’un réservoir partiellement rempli de liquide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassim Belakroum

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cette étude est de prévoir numériquement les ballottements ? la surface libre de réservoirs partiellement remplis de liquide. Le comportement non linéaire de la surface libre et l’effet de la viscosité sont pris en considération. Nous employons une formulation Arbitrairement Lagrangienne Eulérienne (ALE des équations de Navier Stokes largement utilisée pour le traitement des probl?mes présentant des surfaces libres, des fronti?res mobiles, des grandes déformations ainsi que des interfaces de contact. La méthode numérique utilisée est la méthode des éléments finis stabilisée, dite de Galerkin moindre carré (GLS. Afin de résoudre le probl?me non linéaire en sa globalité, nous utilisons une procédure partitionnée totalement implicite. Les résultats de la présente approche sont validés par rapport ? des résultats numériques et analytiques disponibles. Les effets de variation de la fréquence d’excitation extérieure harmonique horizontale, de la hauteur relative de la colonne du liquide et de l’inclinaison des parois solides latérales du réservoir ont été étudiés en détail.

  11. Effets de la taille finie du milieu non-linéaire sur le bruit quantique spatial généré par un oscillateur paramétrique optique confocal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, L.; Gatti, A.; Maitre, A.; Treps, N.; Gigan, S.; Fabre, C.

    2004-11-01

    Nous nous intéressons au comportement spatial des fluctuations quantiques à la sortie d'un oscillateur paramétrique optique dégénéré en modes transverses, sous le seuil. En vue de futures expériences, nous étudions les effets de la diffraction dans le milieu paramétrique sur le bruit quantique spatial. Nous montrons que l'on voit apparaître une aire de cohérence de taille finie pour les effets quantiques transverses.

  12. Self-consistent treatment of interacting spin waves at finite temperatures; Etude a temperature finie d'un systeme d'ondes de spin en interaction dans une approximation self-consistante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    A spin wave theory is developed where account is taken of spin wave interactions at finite temperatures. The temperature dependence of the spin wave energies and of the magnetization is derived. The theory is developed for ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnets. (author) [French] On expose une theorie d'ondes de spin en interaction a temperature finie. On en deduit l'evolution avec la temperature du spectre en energie des ondes de spin et de l'aimantation. La theorie est developpee pour les corps ferro-, ferri-, et antiferromagnetiques. (auteur)

  13. The effect of different fibre volume fraction on mechanical properties of banana/pineapple leaf (PaLF)/glass hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafee, Z. M.; Khalina, A.; Norkhairunnisa, M.; Syams, Z. Edi; Liew, K. E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of fibre volume fraction on mechanical properties of banana-pineapple leaf (PaLF)-glass reinforced epoxy resin under tensile loading. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out on specimens with different fibre contents (30%, 40%, 50% in weight). The composite specimens consists of 13 different combinations. The effect of hybridisation between synthetic and natural fibre onto tensile properties was determined and the optimum fibre volume fraction was obtained at 50% for both banana and PaLF composites. Additional 1 layer of woven glass fibre increased the tensile strength of banana-PaLF composite up to 85%.

  14. Conceptual design of solar central-receiver hybrid power system: sodium-cooled-receiver concept. Volume I of II. Conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    A market analysis is reported consisting of estimates of overall market size derived from projections of electric power growth, examination of utility plans, and projections of potential regulatory action. Market share is projected by comparisons of the levelized costs of busbar power produced by hybrid coal solar units with costs of other electric power producers such as coal only, nuclear and solar only units. Parametric analyses of the major subsystems, consisting of the collector, receiver, storage, non-solar, electric power generation, and master control subsystems were conducted over a wide range of independent parameters in order to define subsystem operation and interfaces for use in the preferred system selection studies. The selection of the system, subsystems, and components of the 0.8 and 1.4 solar multiple sodium-cooled hybrid central receiver configurations were done. Technically feasible alternatives were compared on an economic basis. Detailed conceptual designs of the selected system concepts for the 0.8 and 1.4 solar multiple plants are presented. Cost estimates are also presented for both plants based on the conceptual designs. (LEW)

  15. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using the strut-adjusted volume implant single-entry hybrid catheter in brachytherapy for breast cancer in the setting of breast augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Elizabeth S; Kirsner, Steve; Mason, Bryan E; Nelson, Chris L; Hunt, Kelly K; Baumann, Donald P; Gifford, Kent A

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has gained popularity as an alternative to adjuvant whole breast irradiation; however, owing to limitations of delivery devices for brachytherapy, APBI has not been a suitable option for all the patients. This report evaluates APBI using the strut-adjusted volume implant (SAVI) single-entry catheter to deliver brachytherapy for breast cancer in the setting of an augmented breast. The patient previously had placed bilateral subpectoral saline implants; stereotactic core biopsy revealed estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-positive ductal carcinoma in situ of intermediate nuclear grade. The patient underwent needle-localized segmental mastectomy of her left breast; pathologic specimen revealed no residual malignancy. An SAVI 8-1 device was placed within the segmental resection cavity. Treatment consisted of 3.4 Gy delivered twice a day for 5 days for a total dose of 34 Gy. Treatments were delivered with a high-dose-rate (192)Ir remote afterloader. Conformance of the device to the lumpectomy cavity was excellent at 99.2%. Dosimetric values of percentage of the planning target volume for evaluation receiving 90% of the prescribed dose, percentage of the planning target volume for evaluation receiving 95% of the prescribed dose, volume receiving 150% of the prescribed dose, and volume receiving 200% of the prescribed dose were 97.1%, 94.6%, 22.7 cc, and 11.6 cc, respectively. Maximum skin dose was 115% of the prescribed dose. The patient tolerated treatment well with excellent cosmetic results, and limited acute and late toxicity at 8 weeks and 6 months, respectively. Breast augmentation should not be an exclusion criterion for the option of APBI. The SAVI single-entry catheter is another option to successfully complete APBI using brachytherapy for breast cancer in the setting of an augmented breast. Copyright © 2011 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Developpement d'un modele analytique pour l'analyse en elasticite lineaire de champs de deformation et contrainte au sein d'un polycristal. comparaison avec la methode des elements finis =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretin, Remy

    L'endommagement par fatigue des materiaux est un probleme courant dans de nombreux domaines, dont celui de l'aeronautique. Afin de prevenir la rupture par fatigue des materiaux il est necessaire de determiner leur duree de vie en fatigue. Malheureusement, dues aux nombreuses heterogeneites presentes, la duree de vie en fatigue peut fortement varier entre deux pieces identiques faites dans le meme materiau ayant subi les memes traitements. Il est donc necessaire de considerer ces heterogeneites dans nos modeles afin d'avoir une meilleure estimation de la duree de vie des materiaux. Comme premiere etape vers une meilleure consideration des heterogeneites dans nos modeles, une etude en elasticite lineaire de l'influence des orientations cristallographiques sur les champs de deformations et de contraintes dans un polycristal a ete realisee a l'aide de la methode des elements finis. Des correlations ont pu etre etablies a partir des resultats obtenus, et un modele analytique en elasticite lineaire prenant en compte les distributions d'orientations cristallographiques et les effets de voisinage a pu etre developpe. Ce modele repose sur les bases des modeles d'homogeneisation classique, comme le schema auto-coherent, et reprend aussi les principes de voisinage des automates cellulaires. En prenant pour reference les resultats des analyses elements finis, le modele analytique ici developpe a montre avoir une precision deux fois plus grande que le modele auto-coherent, quel que soit le materiau etudie.

  17. Effect of the Volume Fraction of Jute Fiber on the Interlaminar Shear Stress and Tensile Behavior Characteristics of Hybrid Glass/Jute Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Bar for Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Gi Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid glass/jute fiber reinforced polymer (HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured for concrete structures, and their interlaminar shear stress and tensile performance were evaluated. HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured using a combination of pultrusion and braiding processes. Jute fiber was surface-treated with a silane coupling agent. The mixing ratio of the fiber to the vinyl ester used in the HGJFRP composite bars was 7 : 3. Jute fiber was used to replace glass fiber in proportions of 0, 30, 50, 70, and 100%. The interlaminar shear stress decreased as the proportion of jute fiber increased. Fractures appeared due to delamination between the surface-treated component and the main part of the HGJFRP composite bar. Tensile load-strain curves with 50% jute fiber exhibited linear behavior. With a jute fiber volume fraction of 70%, some plastic deformation occurred. A jute fiber mixing ratio of 100% resulted in a display of linear elastic brittle behavior from the fiber; however, when the surface of the fiber was coated with poly(vinyl acetate, following failure, the jute fiber exhibited partial load resistance. The tensile strength decreased as the jute fiber content increased; however, the tensile strength did not vary linearly with jute fiber content.

  18. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  19. Automatic Block Decomposition of Parametrically Changing Volumes Décomposition automatique par blocs de volumes variables paramétrisés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghavi R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A method is introduced for the automatic decomposition of time-varying volumes such as those encountered in engine FEA and CFD. Examples of the application of this method to all-hexahedral mesh generation are also presented. Une méthode est ici proposée pour la décomposition automatique. de volumes instationnaires tels que ceux rencontrés dans les moteurs en calculs de structure en élément finis ou de mécanique de fluides. Des exemples d'application de cette méthode à la génération de maillages en hexahèdre sont présentés.

  20. Ascus dysgenesis in hybrid crosses of Neurospora and Sordaria ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 3. Ascus dysgenesis in hybrid ... Review Article Volume 96 Issue 3 July 2017 pp 457-463 ... Evidently, in hybrid crosses of the family Sordariaceae, ascospore partitioning can be delayed until after one or more mitoses following the postmeiotic mitosis.

  1. Hybrid virtues

    OpenAIRE

    Prijić – Samaržija, Snježana

    2014-01-01

    The controversies about cases such us of epistemic injustice, epistemic paternalism and epistocracy indicate that knowledge needs to be considered as socially situated phenomena and, consequently, that epistemic attitudes, social practices and institutions require evaluation from both an epistemic and an ethical/political perspective. The project titled as ethics of knowing and, especially, promising concept of hybrid virtues or corresponding hybrid view provides a desirable framework for the...

  2. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  3. Histogram analysis reveals a better delineation of tumor volume from background in {sup 18}F-FET PET compared to CBV maps in a hybrid PET–MR studie in gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filss, Christian P., E-mail: c.filss@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Research Center Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Stoffels, Gabriele [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Research Center Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Galldiks, Norbert [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Research Center Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Department of Neurology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Sabel, Michael [Department of Neurosurgery, University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Düsseldorf (Germany); Wittsack, Hans J. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Düsseldorf (Germany); Coenen, Heinz H. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Research Center Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) – Section JARA-Brain (Germany); Shah, Nadim J. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Research Center Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) – Section JARA-Brain (Germany); Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Aachen (Germany); Herzog, Hans [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Research Center Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) – Section JARA-Brain (Germany); and others

    2014-01-11

    Anatomical imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the method of first choice for diagnostic investigation of glial tumors. However, different MR sequences may over- or underestimate tumor size and thus it may not be possible to delineate tumor from adjacent brain. In order to compensate this confinement additonal MR sequences like perfusion weighted MRI (PWI) with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) or positron emission tomography (PET) with aminoacids are used to gain further information. Recent studies suggest that both of theses image modalities provide similar diagnostic information. For comparison tumor to brain ratios (TBR) with mean and maximum values are frequently used but results from different studies can often not be checked against each other. Furthermore, especially the maximum TBR in rCBV is at risk to be falsified by artifacts (e.g. blood vessels). These confinements are reduced by the use of histograms since all information of the VOIs are equally displayed. In this study we measured and compared the intersection of tumor and reference tissue histograms in {sup 18}F-FET PET and rCBV maps in glioma patients. Methods: Twenty-seven glioma patients with contrast enhancing lesion on T1-weighted MR images were investigated using static {sup 18}F-FET PET and rCBV in MRI using a PET–MR hybrid scanner. In all patients diagnosis was confirmed histologically (7 grade II gliomas, 6 grade III gliomas and 14 grade IV gliomas). We generated a set of tumor and reference tissue Volumes-of-Interest (VOIs) based on T1 weighted images in MRI with the tumor VOI defined by contrast enhancement and transferred these VOIs to the corresponding {sup 18}F-FET PET scans and rCBV maps. From these VOIs we generated tumor and reference tissue histograms with a unity of one for each curve integral and measured the proportion of the area under the tumor curve that falls into the reference curve for {sup 18}F-FET PET and rCBV maps for each patient. Results

  4. Adaptive Hybrid Picture Coding. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    5, 1981, pp. 381-388. 93) Wintson, P. H., The Psychology of Computer Vision. McGraw- Hill, 1975. 94) Wintson, P. H., Artificial Intellifence , Addison...Pattoern-Recognition & Artificial Intelligence, IEEE Press, 1976, pp. 135-141. 109" 25) Harmon, L. D., K~han, M. K., Lasch, R., and Ram13, R. F., *Machine

  5. Hybrid Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    military vocabulary to describe these observed phenomena. After an intense focus on large-scale conventional conflicts during the Cold War, with episodic...requiring the mastery of both grammars.85 It follows that hybrid warfare requires the blending of both grammars. The Theoretical Lineage of

  6. Schémas volumes finis pour des opérateurs de diffusion anisotropes hétérogènes sur des maillages non-conformes

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Thanh Hai

    2012-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the discretization of heterogeneous anisotropic diffusion problems on general meshes. With light assumptions, we show that the algorithm can be written as a cell-centered scheme with a small stencil and that it is convergent for discontinuous tensors. The key point of the proof consists in showing both the strong and the weak consistency of the method. Besides, we study non-linear corrections to correct the FECC scheme, in order to satisfy the discrete maximum prin...

  7. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available conventional glass reinforced plastics with biocomposites that exhibit structural and functional stability during storage and use and yet are susceptible to environmental degradation upon disposal. An interesting approach in fabricating biocomposites... natural fibre / biofibre in a matrix. Hybridization with glass fibre provides a method to improve the mechanical properties of natural fibre composites and its effect in different modes of stress depends on the design and construction of the composites...

  8. Breast calcifications. A standardized mammographic reporting and data system to improve positive predictive value; Calcificazioni mammarie. Utilita' di un sistema standardizzato di descrizione e valutazione dei reperti mammografici ai fini del miglioramento del valore predittivo positivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perugini, G.; Bonzanini, B.; Valentino, C. [Azienda Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo (Italy). Unita' operativa di radiodiagnostica

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the usefulness of a standardized reporting and data system in improving the positive predictive value of mammography in breast calcifications. Using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon developed by the American College of Radiology, it is defined 5 descriptive categories of breast calcifications and classified diagnostic suspicion of malignancy on a 3-grade scale (low, intermediate and high). Two radiologists reviewed 117 mammographic studies selected from those of the patients submitted to surgical biopsy for mammographically detected calcifications from January 1993 to December 1997, and classified them according to the above criteria. The positive predictive value was calculated for all examinations and for the stratified groups. Defining a standardized system for assessing and describing breast calcifications helps improve the diagnostic accuracy of mammography in clinical practice. [Italian] Scopo di questo documento e' verificare l'utilita di un protocollo standardizzato di descrizione e valutazione delle calcificazioni mammarie ai fini di migliorare il valore predittivo positivo dell'indagine mammografica presso il nostro centro. Utilizzando la terminologia proposta dall'American Collge of Radiology, denominata breast imaging reporting and data system, e' stato elaborato un protocollo che individua 5 modalita' di presentazione della calcificazioni mammarie e definisce 3 gradi di sospetto di malignita' (basso, medio, alto). Il protocollo e' stato applicato alla revisione da parte di due radiologi di 117 casi di calcificazione mammarie inviate a biopsia chirurgica presso il nostro centro nel periodo gennaio 1993-dicembre 1997; sono stati quindi calcolati il valore predittivo positivo complessivo della casistica e quello dei gruppi stratificati per grado di sospetto. La formulazione sulla base della propria esperienza di un sistema standardizzato di descrizione e

  9. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  10. Assessing child belt fit, volume II : effect of restraint configuration, booster seat designs, seating procedure, and belt fit on the dynamic response of the hybrid III 10-year-old ATD in sled tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    A total of 49 dynamic sled tests were performed with the Hybrid III 10YO to examine issues relating to child belt fit. The goals of these tests were to evaluate ATD response to realistic belt geometries and belt fit, develop methods for accurate, rep...

  11. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  13. Hybridization of food governance. Trends, types and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, P.; Havinga, T.

    2017-01-01

    Modern food governance is increasingly hybrid, involving not only government, but also industry and civil society actors. This volume analyzes the unfolding interplay between public and private actors in global and local food governance. How are responsibilities and risks allocated in hybrid

  14. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  15. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education......Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...

  16. MALICE: un logiciel couplant la méthode intégrale et la méthode des éléments finis. Application à la fusion des oxydes en creuset froid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, S.; Saumabere, D.; Gagnoud, A.; Du Terrail Couvat, Y.

    1992-11-01

    The multimethod Malice package allows to modelize coupled phenomena in the inducion elaboration. It is the result of the couping of 3D electromagnetic package OPHELIE and a generator of partial derivative equations FLUX EXPERT. The electromagnetic model is solved by integral method. It is well adapted to 3D problem, infinite domain of study and fine skin depth which is particularly intersting for the modelling of cold crucible installation. FLUX EXPERT uses finite element method to solve phenomenon equations: thermic and hydrodynamic phenomena are described in its equation base. In the particular application of fusion of oxyde in cold crucible, the results obtained enhance the interest of the package. The physical properties of these materials strongly depend on temperature, thus physical phenomena are coupled. Results calculated without coupling may lead to false exploitation of the process. Le logiciel MALICE modélise les phénomènes physiques couplés dans les installations d'élaboration par induction. Il est le résultat du couplage de deux logiciels: OPHELIE et FLUX-EXPERT. Le phénomène électromagnétique est résolu par la Méthode Intégrale (MI), bien adaptée au problème électromagnétique 3D notamment pour les domaines infinis et les régions où l'épaisseur de peau électromagnétique est faible. Ceci est particulièrement intéressant pour la modélisation du creuset froid. Le logiciel FLUX-EXPERT est basé sur la Méthode des Eléments Finis (MEF) et contient un générateur d'équations incluant la description des phénomènes thermique et hydrodynamique. Les résultats obtenus dans le cadre de la fusion des oxydes en creuset froid mettent en évidence l'intérêt du couplage. Les propriétés physiques des oxydes varient fortement avec la température et l'interaction entre les phénomènes est importante. Les résultats obtenus sans couplage sont erronés et peuvent conduire à un dimensionnement aberrant de l'installation de fusion.

  17. Simulation du comportement thermique en régime permanent d'un moteur asynchrone à refroidissement extérieur. Etude par éléments finis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glises, R.; Hostache, G.; Kauffmann, J. M.

    1994-09-01

    The steady state thermal modelling of an 4kW asynchronous motor is realized. A design has been made thanks to the Flux2D finite element magnetic calculus software converted into a resolution tool of the heat equation. This last is used to simulate the heat flux in fluid and solid areas. A 3D study is effected thanks to two 2D studies. The first concerns a radial view (perpendicular to the mechanical axis) whereas the second is effected for an axial view (parallel to the mechanical axis). Thermal conductivities of the materials and thermal contact resistances of the motor are determined through two different tests creating different overheatings. The first is made with a sinewave supply and pre-determine the thermophysical parameters. The second effected with direct current supplies at the rotor and the stator is used to validate these last parameters. On réalise l'étude du comportement thermique en régime permanent d'un moteur asynchrone de 4kW. Le logiciel de calculs magnétiques par éléments finis flux2D est converti en un outil de résolution de l'équation de la chaleur. Cette dernière équation sert à simuler les transferts thermiques tant dans les domaines fluides que solides. Une pseudo-étude tridimensionnelle est réalisée par le biais de deux études bidimensionnelles : la première effectuée suivant un plan radial (plan perpendiculaire à l'axe du moteur) et la seconde suivant un plan axial (plan parallèle à l'axe). Les conductivités des matériaux et des résistances thermiques de contact composant le moteur sont déterminées à l'aide de deux types d'essais qui induisent des échauffements différents. Le premier est réalisé avec une alimentation sinusoïdale et sert à prédéterminer les paramètres thermophysiques. Le second est effectué avec des alimentations à courant continu tant au stator qu'au rotor et a pour rôle la validation de ces paramètres.

  18. Estimation robuste en population finie et infinie

    OpenAIRE

    Favre-Martinoz, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    The main topic of this thesis is the robust estimation in finite or infinite population. The thesis is divided in five chapters, an introduction and a conclusion. The chapter 2 is a literature review focus on several topics as: inference in finite population, small area estimation, robust estimation in finite and infinite population. In chapter 3, we deal with the winsorization, which is often used to treat the problem of influential values. This technique requires the determination of a cons...

  19. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  20. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  1. Hybrid Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Ketzer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The SU(3)_flavor constituent quark model has been quite successful to explain the properties as well as the observed spectrum of mesons with pseudoscalar and vector quantum numbers. Many radial and orbital excitations of quark-antiquark systems predicted by the model, however, have not yet been observed experimentally or assigned unambiguously. In addition, a much richer spectrum of mesons is expected from QCD, in which quarks interact which each other through the exchange of colored self-interacting gluons. Owing to this particular structure of QCD, configurations are allowed in which an excited gluonic field contributes to the quantum numbers J^{PC} of the meson. States with a valence color-octet qqbar' pair neutralized in color by an excited gluon field are termed hybrids. The observation of such states, however, is difficult because they will mix with ordinary qqbar' states with the same quantum numbers, merely augmenting the observed spectrum for a given J^{PC}. Since the gluonic field may carry quantum ...

  2. Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212 L (16 L/kgwaste). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Know Your Chromosomes Hybrid Cells and Human Chromosomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Know Your Chromosomes Hybrid Cells and Human Chromosomes. Vani Brahmachari. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 6 June 1996 pp 41-49. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Barriers to gene flow in interspecific hybridization in Fuchsia L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 91; Issue 1. Barriers to gene flow in interspecific hybridization in Fuchsia L. (Onagraceae). Rama S. Talluri. Research Note Volume 91 Issue 1 April 2011 pp 81-85. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jgen/091/01/0081-0085 ...

  5. Biomimetic synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite scaffolds by freeze ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 31; Issue 3. Biomimetic synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite scaffolds by freeze-thawing and freeze-drying. S Nayar A K Pramanick A Guha B K Mahato M Gunjan A Sinha. Volume 31 Issue 3 June 2008 pp 429-432 ...

  6. New Orbital Hybridization Schemes for Metal Hydrides-Keeping p ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. New Orbital Hybridization Schemes for Metal Hydrides - Keeping p Orbitals out of the Picture. J Chandrasekhar. Research News Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 82-85 ...

  7. Two hybrids based on Keggin polyoxometalates and dinuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 10. Two hybrids based on Keggin polyoxometalates and dinuclear copper(II) complexes: syntheses, structures and electrocatalytic properties. YAN HOU YING NIU CHUNJING ZHANG HAIJUN PANG HUIYUAN MA. REGULAR ARTICLE Volume 129 Issue ...

  8. What history tells us XXXIII. Molecular hybridization: A problematic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 39; Issue 1. What history tells us XXXIII. Molecular hybridization: A problematic tool for the study of differentiation and development (1960--1980). Michel Morange. Series Volume 39 Issue 1 March 2014 pp 29-32 ...

  9. 15th International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Sang; Al-Sharhan, Salah; Liu, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the hybridization of intelligent systems which is a promising research field of modern computational intelligence concerned with the development of the next generation of intelligent systems. This Volume contains the papers presented in the Fifteenth International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS 2015) held in Seoul, South Korea during November 16-18, 2015. The 26 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 paper submissions. The Volume will be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  10. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  11. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  12. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  13. Hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szostak, J.W.; Stiles, J.I.; Tye, B.K.; Sherman, F.; Wu, R.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures are described for the use of synthetic oligonucleotides for Southern blot experiments and gene bank screening, and the effect of various mismatches on the efficiency of hybridization is demonstrated. The following topics are discussed: sensitivity vs. specificity, hybridization of a 12-mer to the lambda endolysin gene; hybridization of oligonucleotide probes to the E. coli lac operator; hybridization of synthetic probes to the CYC1 gene of yeast; and cloning eucaryotic genes. (HLW)

  14. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  15. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  16. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran Venugopal; K K Rajesh; V. Ramanujachari

    2011-01-01

    With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nonto...

  17. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  19. Hybrid Sterility, Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Forejt, J

    2013-01-01

    The review summarizes hybrid sterility as the best studied example of reproductive isolation between closely related species. On the model of infertile hybrids of two domestic mouse subspecies, Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus, we have demonstrated interaction of hybrid sterility genes with epigenetic control of transcriptional inactivation of the X and Y sex chromosomes. This leads to the activation of pachytene checkpoint and finally results in the arrest of spermatogenesis.

  20. Hybrid Fuel Cell Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, GS

    2001-01-01

    Examples of hybrid fuel cell power generation cycles are the combine high-temperature fuel cells and gas turbines, reciprocating engines, or another fuel cell. These represent the hybrid power plants of the future. The conceptual systems have the potential to achieve efficiencies greater than 70 percent and be commercially ready by year 2010 or sooner. The hybrid fuel cell/turbine (FC/T) power plant will combine a high-temperature, conventional molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)...

  1. Histogram analysis reveals a better delineation of tumor volume from background in 18F-FET PET compared to CBV maps in a hybrid PET-MR studie in gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filss, Christian P.; Stoffels, Gabriele; Galldiks, Norbert; Sabel, Michael; Wittsack, Hans J.; Coenen, Heinz H.; Shah, Nadim J.; Herzog, Hans; Langen, Karl-Josef

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the method of first choice for diagnostic investigation of glial tumors. However, different MR sequences may over- or underestimate tumor size and thus it may not be possible to delineate tumor from adjacent brain. In order to compensate this confinement additonal MR sequences like perfusion weighted MRI (PWI) with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) or positron emission tomography (PET) with aminoacids are used to gain further information. Recent studies suggest that both of theses image modalities provide similar diagnostic information. For comparison tumor to brain ratios (TBR) with mean and maximum values are frequently used but results from different studies can often not be checked against each other. Furthermore, especially the maximum TBR in rCBV is at risk to be falsified by artifacts (e.g. blood vessels). These confinements are reduced by the use of histograms since all information of the VOIs are equally displayed. In this study we measured and compared the intersection of tumor and reference tissue histograms in 18F-FET PET and rCBV maps in glioma patients.

  2. Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzik G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would generate significant amounts of harmful gases. In case of a solid stereo-lithographic pattern, the pressure created during gas burning may cause the mould to crack. A gas volume reduction may be achieved by using patterns of honeycomb structure. However, this technique causes a significant worsening of accuracy of stereo-lithographic patterns in respect of their dimensions and shape. In cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszów, the Machine Design Department of Rzeszow University of Technology carried out research on the design of hybrid stereo-lithographic patterns. Hybrid pattern consists of a section made by stereo-lithographic process and a section made of casting wax. The latter material is used for stereo-lithographic pattern filling and for mould gating system. The hybrid pattern process consists of two stages: wax melting and then the burn-out of stereolithographic pattern. Use of hybrid patterns reduces the costs of production of stereolithographic patterns. High dimensional accuracy remains preserved in this process.

  3. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  4. Hybrid Warfare and Lawfare

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik; Mosquera, Andres B Munoz

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid Warfare as a method of war is not new. The change today appears to be that Hybrid Warfare “has the potential to transform the strategic calculations of potential belligerents [it has become] increasingly sophisticated and deadly”. This short paper presents Hybrid Warfare and one of its methods, lawfare. For this, we provide a current, comprehensive definition of hybrid warfare and examine different areas where law has been/is being used as a method of war. This paper focuses on the fol...

  5. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  6. Study on Mechanical and Physical Behaviour of Hybrid GFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Bahiyah Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the mechanical and physical behaviour of hybrid glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP. Hybrid GFRP was fabricated by three different types of glass fibre, namely, 3D, woven, and chopped, which were selected and combined with mixture of polyester resin and hardener. The hybrid GFRP was investigated by varying three parameters which were the composite volume fractions, hybrid GFRP arrangement, and single type fibre. The hybrid GFRP was fabricated by using open mould hand lay-up technique. Mechanical testing was conducted by tensile test for strength and stiffness whereas physical testing was performed using water absorption and hardness. These tests were carried out to determine the effect of mechanical and physical behaviour over the hybrid GFRP. The highest volume fraction of 0.5 gives the highest strength and stiffness of 73 MPa and 821 MPa, respectively. Varying hybrid fibre arrangement which is the arrangement of chopped-woven-3D-woven-chopped showed the best value in strength of 66.2 MPa. The stiffness is best at arrangement of woven-chopped-woven-chopped-woven at 690 MPa. This arrangement also showed the lowest water absorption of 4.5%. Comparing the single fibre type, woven had overtaken the others in terms of both mechanical and physical properties.

  7. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  8. Close Look at Hybrid Vehicle Loyalty and Ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes [ORNL; Taylor, Rob D [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In a news release dated April 9, 2012, Polk stated that only 35% of hybrid owners bought a hybrid again when they returned to market in 2011. These findings were based on an internal study conducted by Polk. The study also indicated that if repurchase behavior among the high volume audience of Toyota Prius owners wasn t factored in; hybrid loyalty would drop to under 25%. This news release has generated a lot of interest and concern by the automobile industry as well as consumers, since it was published, and caused many to think about the idea of hybrid loyalty as well as factors that influence consumers. Most reactions to the 35% hybrid loyalty dealt with concerns of the viability of hybrid technology as part of the solution to address transportation energy challenges. This paper attempts to shed more light on Polk s hybrid loyalty study as well as explore several information sources concerning hybrid loyalty status. Specifically, major factors that might impact the selection and acquisition of hybrid vehicles are addressed. This includes investigating the associations between hybrid market shares and influencing factors like fuel price and hybrid incentives, as well as the availability of hybrid models and other highly fuel efficient vehicle options. This effort is not in-depth study, but rather a short study to see if Polk s claim could be validated. This study reveals that Polk s claim was rather misleading because its definition of loyalty was very narrow. This paper also suggests that Polk s analysis failed to account for some very important factors, raising the question of whether it is fair to compare a vehicle drive train option (which hybrids are) with a vehicle brand in terms of loyalty and also raises the question of whether hybrid loyalty is even a valid point to consider. This report maintains that Polk s study does not prove that hybrid owners were dissatisfied with their vehicles, which was a common theme among reporting news agencies when Polk

  9. Biexciton Auger Recombination Differs in Hybrid and Inorganic Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eperon, Giles E; Jedlicka, Erin; Ginger, David S

    2018-01-04

    We use time-resolved photoluminescence measurements to determine the biexciton Auger recombination rate in both hybrid organic-inorganic and fully inorganic halide perovskite nanocrystals as a function of nanocrystal volume. We find that the volume scaling of the biexciton Auger rate in the hybrid perovskites, containing a polar organic A-site cation, is significantly shallower than in the fully inorganic Cs-based nanocrystals. As the nanocrystals become smaller, the Auger rate in the hybrid nanocrystals increases even less than expected, compared to the fully inorganic nanocrystals, which already show a shallower volume dependence than other material systems such as chalcogenide quantum dots. This finding suggests there may be differences in the strength of Coulombic interactions between the fully inorganic and hybrid perovskites, which may prove to be crucial in selecting materials to obtain the highest performing devices in the future, and hints that there could be something "special" about the hybrid materials.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Coir Rope-Glass Fibers Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakri Bakri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber composites have been developed and taken more attention in the last decades. Coir fiber is the natural fiber which has been used as reinforcement of composites. This fiber is hybridized with glass fiber for reinforcement composite. In this paper, coir rope and glass fibers were combined as reinforcement into hybrid composites with unsaturated polyester resin as matrix. The composition of fibers and matrix into hybrid composites are used 30:70 (volume fraction with unsaturated polyester. Volume fractions of coir rope mat and glass fiber mat in hybrid composites are 10:20, 15:15 and 20:10 respectively. The mechanical properties of the coir rope-glass fiber composite hybrid were described in this paper. Their properties include tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact energy and impact strength. Fractography of tensile composite hybrid is also analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope

  11. Mechanical Properties of Coir Rope-Glass Fibers Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Bakri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber composites have been developed and taken more attention in the last decades. Coir fiber is the natural fiber which has been used as reinforcement of composites. This fiber is hybridized with glass fiber for reinforcement composite. In this paper, coir rope and glass fibers were combined as reinforcement into hybrid composites with unsaturated polyester resin as matrix. The composition of fibers and matrix into hybrid composites are used 30:70 (volume fraction with unsaturated polyester. Volume fractions of coir rope mat and glass fiber mat in hybrid composites are 10:20, 15:15 and 20:10 respectively. The mechanical properties of the coir rope-glass fiber composite hybrid were described in this paper. Their properties include tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact energy and impact strength. Fractography of tensile composite hybrid is also analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope.

  12. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large

  13. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  14. Hybrid Double Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherman, D.; Yodh, J. S.; Albrecht, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor hybrid materials are an excellent basis for studying mesoscopic and topological superconductivity, as the semiconductor inherits a hard superconducting gap while retaining tunable carrier density. Here, we investigate double-quantum-dot devices made from InA...... that the individual dots host weakly hybridized Majorana modes....

  15. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  16. The hybrid BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, Gert; Allison, Brendan Z; Brunner, Clemens; Bauernfeind, Gunther; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; Scherer, Reinhold; Zander, Thorsten O; Mueller-Putz, Gernot; Neuper, Christa; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has two engines to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) is composed of two BCIs, or at least one BCI and another system. A hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfill the following four criteria: (i) the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii) there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii) real time processing; and (iv) the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces hybrid BCIs that have already been published or are in development. We also introduce concepts for future work. We describe BCIs that classify two EEG patterns: one is the event-related (de)synchronisation (ERD, ERS) of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). Hybrid BCIs can either process their inputs simultaneously, or operate two systems sequentially, where the first system can act as a "brain switch". For example, we describe a hybrid BCI that simultaneously combines ERD and SSVEP BCIs. We also describe a sequential hybrid BCI, in which subjects could use a brain switch to control an SSVEP-based hand orthosis. Subjects who used this hybrid BCI exhibited about half the false positives encountered while using the SSVEP BCI alone. A brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and a different type of input. This additional input can be an electrophysiological signal such as the heart rate, or a signal from an external device such as an eye tracking system.

  17. Modélisation par éléments finis des phénomènes thermomécaniques et de macroségrégation dans les procédés de solidification

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Weitao

    2005-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the modeling of macrosegregation and deformation during solidification of castings. A two-dimensional finite element model to simulate macrosegregation due to thermal-solutal convection in the case of columnar dendritic solidification is presented. A set of volume-averaged conservation equations of energy, solute, momentum and mass is solved in conjunction with the use of the lever rule as a microsegregation model. Several formulations have been implemented, permitti...

  18. Physical and numerical modeling of multidimensional liquid-vapor flows advanced two-fluid models, application to upwind finite volume methods; Modelisation physique et numerique d'ecoulements eau-vapeur multidimensionnels modeles bifluides avances, application de methodes de volumes finis decentres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seignole, V

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the work of thesis realized under the direction of Jean-Michel Ghidaglia (thesis director, ENS-Cachan) and of Anela Kumbaro (tutor, CEA) within the framework of the modeling of two-phase flows with OAP code. The report consists of two parts of unequal size: the first part concentrates on aspects related exclusively to two-phase flows, while the second one is devoted to the study of a numerical problem inherent to the resolution of two-phase flow systems, but whose action has a broader framework. (author)

  19. Une méthode de calcul par éléments finis de la résistence de vague des corps flottants ou immergés en théorie linéaire A Finite Elements Method for Computing the Resistance of Floating Or Submerged Bodies to Wave Action Using a Linear Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pour calculer le potentiel de l'écoulement autour d'un corps en mouvement rectiligne uniforme, soit en fluide illimité (engin sous-marin, soit sur une mer infinie (corps flottant ou voisin de la surface libre, on se place dans le cadre du problème de Neumann extérieur ou du problème de Neumann Kelvin. Pour résoudre ces problèmes on se propose de délimiter autour de la carène un domaine fluide fini (,ri dont les frontières sont : la carène (SC, une surface (SE entourant la carène et éventuellement la portion de surface libre (SI. limitée par les lignes de flottaison de SC et SE. La solution à l'intérieur de (,ri est déterminée à l'aide d'une méthode d'éléments finis et elle est raccordée à la solution en domaine infini elle-même calculée grâce aux fonctions de Green du problème (ou solutions élémentaires. For computing the flow potential around a body in uniform rectilinear movement, either in an unlimited fluid (subsea croft or on an infinite sea (body floating near the free surface, consideration must be given ta the outside Neumann problem or ta the Neumann Kelvin problem. Ta solve these problems, this article proposes ta delimit a finite fluid realm (T: around the body. The limits of this realm are: I the body (SC, 2 a surface (SE surrounding the body, and eventually 3 the portion of free surface (SU bounded by the waterlines of SC and SE. The solution within iri is determined by a finite elements method, and it is related ta the solution in on infinite realm which in turn is computed by the Green functions of the problem (or elementary solutions.

  20. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    contexts, or sites, for mixing scientific knowledge and technical skills from different fields and social domains into new combinations, thus fostering what the authors term a “hybrid imagination”. Such a hybrid imagination is especially important today, as a way to counter the competitive and commercial......” on the part of many a scientist and engineer and neglect the consequences - and a hybrid imagination, connecting scientific “facts” and technological “artifacts” with cultural understanding. The book concludes with chapters on the recent transformations in the modes of scientific and technological production...

  1. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  2. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  3. Hybrid spiking models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhikevich, Eugene M

    2010-11-13

    I review a class of hybrid models of neurons that combine continuous spike-generation mechanisms and a discontinuous 'after-spike' reset of state variables. Unlike Hodgkin-Huxley-type conductance-based models, the hybrid spiking models have a few parameters derived from the bifurcation theory; instead of matching neuronal electrophysiology, they match neuronal dynamics. I present a method of after-spike resetting suitable for hardware implementation of such models, and a hybrid numerical method for simulations of large-scale biological spiking networks.

  4. Experimental interspecific hybridization in Daphnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenk, K.; Bijl, M.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2001-01-01

    Hybridization is a common phenomenon in Daphnia (Cladocera; Anomopoda); interspecific hybrids have been found between several species and hybrids are found in many European lakes. Although much information on the morphology, ecology and genetics of hybrids is available, little is known about the

  5. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  6. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2011-03-15

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona brush that stabilizes them against aggregation. When these hybrid particles are dispersed in poly-α-olefin (PAO) oligomers, they form homogeneous nanocomposite fluids at both low and high particle loadings. By varying the volume fraction of the SiO2 nanostructures in the PAO nanocomposites, we show that exceptionally stable hybrid lubricants can be created and that their mechanical properties can be tuned to span the spectrum from simple liquids to complex gels. We further show that these hybrid lubricants simultaneously exhibit lower interfacial friction coefficients, enhanced wear and mechanical properties, and superior thermal stability in comparison with either PAO or its nanocomposites created at low nanoparticle loadings. Profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis of the wear track show that the enhanced wear characteristics in PAO-SiO2 composite lubricants originate from two sources: localization of the SiO2 particles into the wear track and extension of the elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime to Sommerfeld numbers more than an order of magnitude larger than for PAO. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Nitrous Oxide/Paraffin Hybrid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Snyder, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide/paraffin (N2OP) hybrid rocket engines have been invented as alternatives to other rocket engines especially those that burn granular, rubbery solid fuels consisting largely of hydroxyl- terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Originally intended for use in launching spacecraft, these engines would also be suitable for terrestrial use in rocket-assisted takeoff of small airplanes. The main novel features of these engines are (1) the use of reinforced paraffin as the fuel and (2) the use of nitrous oxide as the oxidizer. Hybrid (solid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket engines offer advantages of safety and simplicity over fluid-bipropellant (fluid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket en - gines, but the thrusts of HTPB-based hybrid rocket engines are limited by the low regression rates of the fuel grains. Paraffin used as a solid fuel has a regression rate about 4 times that of HTPB, but pure paraffin fuel grains soften when heated; hence, paraffin fuel grains can, potentially, slump during firing. In a hybrid engine of the present type, the paraffin is molded into a 3-volume-percent graphite sponge or similar carbon matrix, which supports the paraffin against slumping during firing. In addition, because the carbon matrix material burns along with the paraffin, engine performance is not appreciably degraded by use of the matrix.

  8. Forest cover change prediction using hybrid methodology of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 123; Issue 6. Forest cover change prediction using hybrid methodology of geoinformatics and Markov chain model: A case study on sub-Himalayan town Gangtok, India. Anirban Mukhopadhyay Arun Mondal Sandip Mukherjee Dipam Khatua Subhajit Ghosh ...

  9. Polylactide-Based bionanocomposites: A promising class of hybrid materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinha Ray, S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available of PLA with functional nanoparticles can yield a new class of hybrid materials, commonly known as bionanocomposites, where 1-5% nanoparticles by volume are molecularly dispersed within the PLA matrix. The dispersed nanoparticles with their large surface...

  10. Construction and analysis of subtractive hybridization library of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eightweek- old C57BL/6 and A/J mouse were infected with S. suis serotype 2, a 200-μL volume of a bacterial suspension (1 × 108 CFU/mL) was administrated by intraperitoneal injection to the mice, and cDNA subtraction libraries were constructed by suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH). Genes involved in immune ...

  11. Shunt hybrid active power filter for harmonic mitigation: A practical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 4. Shunt hybrid active power filter for harmonic mitigation: A practical design approach. Unnikrishnan A K ... This paper presents a control strategy and design criteria for transformer-less shunt HAPF with special attention to the integration of series passive filter. The paper also ...

  12. Honey Lake hybrid geothermal wood residue power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toland, J.

    1981-05-01

    The Honey Lake Hybrid Geothermal Wood Residue Power Project with a planned output of 50 MW is undergoing feasibility studies funded by GeoProducts Corporation, Department of Water Resources, State of California, US Department of Energy and the Forest Service, USDA. The outlook is optimistic. It is reliably estimated that the required volume of woody biomass can be made available without environmental degradation.

  13. A New Method to Optimize Semiactive Hybrid Energy Storage System for Hybrid Electrical Vehicle by Using PE Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both battery and super-capacitor are important power sources for hybrid electric vehicles, there is no accurate configuration theory to match the above two kinds of power sources which have significantly different characteristics on energy and power storage for the goal of making good use of their individual features without size wasting. In this paper, a new performance is presented that is used for analysis and optimal design method of battery and super-capacitor for hybrid energy storage system of a parallel hybrid electrical vehicle. In order to achieve optimal design with less consumption, the power-energy function is applied to establish direct mathematical relationship between demand power and the performance. During matching process, firstly, three typical operating conditions are chosen as the basis of design; secondly, the energy and power capacity evaluation methods for the parameters of battery and super-capacitor in hybrid energy storage system are proposed; thirdly, the mass, volume, and cost of the system are optimized simultaneously by using power-energy function. As a result, there are significant advantages on mass, volume, and cost for the hybrid energy storage system with the matching method. Simulation results fit well with the results of analysis, which confirms that the optimized design can meet the demand of hybrid electric vehicle well.

  14. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  15. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  16. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  17. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  18. Concept of hybrid embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukue Masaharu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An innovative technique which is similar to a natural process, i.e., biogeochemical (carbonate diagenesis, is proposed to construct a hybrid embankment. In this study, the hybrid embankment is defined as a soil embankment which has a microbially induced framework structure of sand sheets and columns in the soft soil matrix. The sand materials are cemented with magnesium-calcite or dolomite, induced by ureolytic microbes. To design and construct hybrid embankments, fundamental problems, such as feasibility in terms of stability, geoenvironmental engineering practices, etc., are examined and discussed. It was shown that the hybrid embankment can be environmentally friendly and also can contribute solving technical and financial problems encountered in actual practice.

  19. Hybrid photonic crystal fiber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arismar Cerqueira S. Jr; F. Luan; C. M. B. Cordeiro; A. K. George; J. C. Knight

    2006-01-01

    We present a hybrid photonic crystal fiber in which a guided mode is confined simultaneously by modified total internal reflection from an array of air holes and antiresonant reflection from a line...

  20. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  1. Stable Hybrid Adaptive Control,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    STABLE HYBRID ADAPTIVE CONTROL(U) YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN i/i CT CENTER FOR SYSTEMS SCIENCE K S NARENDRA ET AL. JUL 82 8286 Ne@04-76-C-8e7 UNCLASSIFIED...teasrallepsaaw1tflbe~ll b ydd Il"t 5 As is the comtanuous Case cistral to the stability analysis of the hybrid ~IVt* COnRol PO* IMare the sur Models

  2. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  3. Novel hybrid materials for preparation of bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Joanna; Fiejdasz, Sylwia; Rodzik, Łucja; Łatkiewicz, Anna; Nowakowska, Maria

    2015-09-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrid systems based on biopolymer hydrogels with dispersed silica nanoparticles were obtained and characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties, cytocompatibility and bioactivity. The hybrid materials were prepared in a form of collagen and collagen-chitosan sols to which the silica nanoparticles of two different sizes were incorporated. The ability of these materials to undergo in situ gelation under physiological temperature was assessed by microviscosity and gelation time determination based on steady-state fluorescence anisotropy measurements. The effect of silica nanoparticles addition on the physicochemical properties (surface wettability, swellability) of hybrid materials was analyzed and compared with those characteristic for pristine collagen and collagen-chitosan hydrogels. Biological studies indicate that surface wettability determined in terms of contact angle for all of the hybrids prepared is optimal and thus can provide satisfactory adhesion of fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity test results showed high metabolic activity of mouse as well as human fibroblast cell lines cultured on hybrid materials. The composition of hybrids was optimized in terms of concentration of silica nanoparticles. The effect of silica on the formation of bone-like mineral structures on exposition to simulated body fluid was determined. SEM images revealed mineral phase formation not only at the surfaces but also in the whole volumes of all hybrid materials developed suggesting their usefulness for bone tissue engineering. EDS and FTIR analyses indicated that these mineral phases consist of apatite-like structures.

  4. Size dependent electronic properties of silicon quantum dots-An analysis with hybrid, screened hybrid and local density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, D.; Wang, X.; Lomakin, V.; Boag, A.; Jain, M.; Natan, A.

    2017-12-01

    We use an efficient projection scheme for the Fock operator to analyze the size dependence of silicon quantum dots (QDs) electronic properties. We compare the behavior of hybrid, screened hybrid and local density functionals as a function of the dot size up to ∼800 silicon atoms and volume of up to ∼20 nm3. This allows comparing the calculations of hybrid and screened hybrid functionals to experimental results over a wide range of QD sizes. We demonstrate the size dependent behavior of the band gap, density of states, ionization potential and HOMO level shift after ionization. We also demonstrate how the use of Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) can further accelerate such calculations.

  5. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  6. 3D Medical Volume Segmentation Using Hybrid Multiresolution Statistical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi AlZu'bi

    2010-01-01

    that 3D methodologies can accurately detect the Region Of Interest (ROI. Automatic segmentation has been achieved using HMMs where the ROI is detected accurately but suffers a long computation time for its calculations.

  7. Abnormal pollen mitoses (PM I and PM II) in an interspecific hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 83; Issue 3. Abnormal pollen mitoses (PM I and PM II) in an interspecific hybrid of Brachiaria ruziziensis and Brachiaria decumbens (Gramineae). Andréa Beatriz Mendes-Bonato Maria Suely Pagliarini Cacilda Borges Do Valle Liana Jank. Research Note Volume 83 Issue 3 ...

  8. Analysis of fuel cell hybrid locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arnold R.; Peters, John; Smith, Brian E.; Velev, Omourtag A.

    Led by Vehicle Projects LLC, an international industry-government consortium is developing a 109 t, 1.2 MW road-switcher locomotive for commercial and military railway applications. As part of the feasibility and conceptual-design analysis, a study has been made of the potential benefits of a hybrid power plant in which fuel cells comprise the prime mover and a battery or flywheel provides auxiliary power. The potential benefits of a hybrid power plant are: (i) enhancement of transient power and hence tractive effort; (ii) regenerative braking; (iii) reduction of capital cost. Generally, the tractive effort of a locomotive at low speed is limited by wheel adhesion and not by available power. Enhanced transient power is therefore unlikely to benefit a switcher locomotive, but could assist applications that require high acceleration, e.g. subway trains with all axles powered. In most cases, the value of regeneration in locomotives is minimal. For low-speed applications such as switchers, the available kinetic energy and the effectiveness of traction motors as generators are both minimal. For high-speed heavy applications such as freight, the ability of the auxiliary power device to absorb a significant portion of the available kinetic energy is low. Moreover, the hybrid power plant suffers a double efficiency penalty, namely, losses occur in both absorbing and then releasing energy from the auxiliary device, which result in a net storage efficiency of no more than 50% for present battery technology. Capital cost in some applications may be reduced. Based on an observed locomotive duty cycle, a cost model shows that a hybrid power plant for a switcher may indeed reduce capital cost. Offsetting this potential benefit are the increased complexity, weight and volume of the power plant, as well as 20-40% increased fuel consumption that results from lower efficiency. Based on this analysis, the consortium has decided to develop a pure fuel cell road-switcher locomotive

  9. Hybrid functional study of α-uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Gurpreet, E-mail: gurpreet@igcar.gov.in; Chinnappan, Ravi; Panigrahi, B. K. [Materials Physics Divison, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    We have used the hybrid density functionals to study the structural and electronic properties of alpha-U. The fraction of exact Hartree Folk exchange used is varied from 0.0 to 0.6. The equilibrium volume is found to be underestimated and bulk modulus overestimated with HSE as compared to both calculated by PBE and the experimental values. Electronic bands below the Fermi level are found to shift to lower energy with respect to PBE electronic bands which itself gives the bands shifted to lower energies as compared to UPS experiments.

  10. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  11. Thermal Characteristics of Grooved Heat pipe with Hybrid Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W S Han

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the specially designed grooved heat pipe charged with nanofluids was investigated in terms of various parameters such as heat transfer rate(50∼300W with 50 W interval, volume concentration(0.005%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and hybrid combinations, inclination(5°, 45°, 90°, cooling water temperature (1℃, 10℃, and 20℃, surface state, transient state and so on. Hybrid nanofluids with different volume concentration ratios with Ag-H2O and Al2O3-H2O were used as working fluids on a grooved heat pipe(GHP. Comparing with the pure water system, nanofluidic and hybrid nanofluidic system shows greater overall thermal resistance with increasing nano-particle concentration. Also hybrid nanofluids make the system deteriorate in terms of thermal resistance. The post nanofluid experimental data regarding GHP show that the heat transfer performance is similar to the results of nanofluid system. The thermal performance of a grooved heat pipe with nanofluids and hybrid nanofluids were varied with driving parameters but they led to worse system performance.

  12. Conditional Hybrid Nonclassicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, E.; Sperling, J.; Costanzo, L. S.; Bellini, M.; Zavatta, A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-09-01

    We derive and implement a general method to characterize the nonclassicality in compound discrete- and continuous-variable systems. For this purpose, we introduce the operational notion of conditional hybrid nonclassicality which relates to the ability to produce a nonclassical continuous-variable state by projecting onto a general superposition of discrete-variable subsystem. We discuss the importance of this form of quantumness in connection with interfaces for quantum communication. To verify the conditional hybrid nonclassicality, a matrix version of a nonclassicality quasiprobability is derived and its sampling approach is formulated. We experimentally generate an entangled, hybrid Schrödinger cat state, using a coherent photon-addition process acting on two temporal modes, and we directly sample its nonclassicality quasiprobability matrix. The introduced conditional quantum effects are certified with high statistical significance.

  13. Hybridization in geese: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; van Hooft, Pim; van Wieren, Sipke E; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Prins, Herbert H T

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large knowledge gap in geese. In this review, we assemble the available information on hybrid geese by focusing on three main themes: (1) incidence and frequency, (2) behavioural mechanisms leading to hybridization, and (3) hybrid fertility. Hybridization in geese is common on a species-level, but rare on a per-individual level. An overview of the different behavioural mechanisms indicates that forced extra-pair copulations and interspecific nest parasisitm can both lead to hybridization. Other sources of hybrids include hybridization in captivity and vagrant geese, which may both lead to a scarcity of conspecifics. The different mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and it is currently not possible to discriminate between the different mechanisms without quantitative data. Most hybrid geese are fertile; only in crosses between distantly related species do female hybrids become sterile. This fertility pattern, which is in line with Haldane's Rule, may facilitate interspecific gene flow between closely related species. The knowledge on hybrid geese should be used, in combination with the information available on hybridization in ducks, to study the process of avian speciation.

  14. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  15. Hybrid least squares method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazareth, L.

    1976-01-01

    A hybrid algorithm is developed which blends two different approximations to the Hessian, the Levenberg--Marquardt approximation and Davidon's Optimally Conditioned Quasi-Newton approximation, through adaptively chosen parameters. The aim is to study how to combine effectively two different models of the function which are deduced from the available information. A particular implementation is discussed. Also test results and comparisons against the Levenberg--Marquardt and Davidon's Quasi-Newton method, which correspond to limiting cases of the hybrid algorithm.

  16. The hybrid BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Pfurtscheller

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has 2 engines, its main purpose being to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a typical hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI is also composed of 2 BCIs or at least one BCI and another system. Such a hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfil the following four criteria: (i the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii real time processing; and (iv the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces some hybrid BCIs which have already been published or are currently in development or validation, and some concepts for future work. The BCIs described classify 2 EEG patterns: One is the event-related (desynchronisation (ERD, ERS of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP. The hybrid BCI can either have more than one input whereby the inputs are typically processed simultaneously or operate 2 systems sequentially, whereby the first system can act as a “brain switch”. In the case of self-paced operation of a SSVEP-based hand orthosis control with an motor imagery-based switch it was possible to reduce the rate of false positives during resting periods by about 50% compared to the SSVEP BCI alone. It is shown that such a brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Another interesting approach is a hybrid BCI with simultaneous operations of ERD- and SSVEP-based BCIs. Here it is important to prove the existing promising offline simulation results with online experiments. Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and another input. Such an additional input can be a physiological signal like the heart rate but also a signal from an external device like, an eye gaze control system.

  17. Advanced Photonic Hybrid Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Advanced photonic hybrid materials    Final report from S. Parola, Laboratoire de  Chimie  ENS Lyon...Meeting, San Francisco, USA, April 2013.  ‐ Nanoparticules hybrides fluorescentes pour l’imagerie, S. Parola, GDR Imagerie,  Chimie  et Microscopie, Lyon

  18. Surrealist Hybrids – Contemporary Hybrids Árpád Mezei and the Late Surrealist Theories of Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Imre József

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Árpád Mezei (1902-1998 was a Hungarian art theoretician and psychologist. In the 1940s he was co-founder of the Európai Iskola (European School, the most important assembly of progressive Hungarian artists and art theoreticians of the period. His readings in art theory and his friendship with the Surrealist painter and writer Marcel Jean (who lived in Budapest in the period between 1938 and 1945 had a strong impact on his intellectual profile: he co-authored with Marcel Jean three volumes that became important for the understanding of the international Surrealist movement. The paper analyses Mezei’s concepts and tries to reconstruct his interpretative framework where several aspects of culture including mythology, history, literature, art and history of architecture communicate with each other, and hybridity is one of the key concepts. Being used to describe contemporary shifts in culture and identity by authors like Peter Burke, hybridity is of great interest to contemporary culture. The paper points out possible links between late Surrealist theories of hybridity and contemporary culture.

  19. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  20. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  1. Circuit QED with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruloff, Stefan; Taketani, Bruno; Wilhelm, Frank [Theoretical Physics, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We're working on the theory of metamaterials providing some interesting results. The negative refraction index causes an opposite orientation of the wave vector k and the Poynting vector S of the travelling waves. Hence the metamaterial has a falling dispersion relation ∂ω(k)/∂k < 0 implying that low frequencies correspond to short wavelengths. Metamaterials are simulated by left-handed transmission lines consisting of discrete arrays of series capacitors and parallel inductors to ground. Unusual physics arises when right-and left-handed transmission lines are coupled forming a hybrid metamaterial transmission line. E.g. if a qubit is placed in front of a hybrid metamaterial transmission line terminated in an open circuit, the spontaneous emission rate is weakened or unaffected depending on the transition frequency of the qubit. Some other research interests are the general analysis of metamaterial cavities and the mode structure of hybrid metamaterial cavities for QND readout of multi-qubit operators. Especially the precise answer to the question about the definition of the mode volume of a metamaterial cavity is one of our primary goals.

  2. Hybrid Personalization for Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, Eelco; Kärger, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    Herder, E., & Kärger, P. (2008). Hybrid Personalization for Recommendations. In J. Baumeister & M. Atzmüller, Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Adaptivity and User Modeling in Interactive System, ABIS 2008 (pp. 20-25). October, 6-10, 2008, Würzburg, Germany: Universität Würzburg. Website with link

  3. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  4. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  5. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  6. Rethinking Resources and Hybridity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Allison J.; Seiler, Gale; Salter, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    This review explores Alfred Schademan's "What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource-rich view of African American young men" by examining how he uses two key concepts--hybridity and resources--to propose an approach to science education that counters enduring deficit notions associated with this population. Our response to…

  7. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  8. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  10. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  11. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  12. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    in the universal composability (UC) framework (based on a network of secure channels, a broadcast channel, and a common reference string). It achieves the bound on the trade-off between robustness and privacy shown by Ishai et al. [CRYPTO'06] and Katz [STOC'07], the bound on fairness shown by Cleve [STOC'86...... of the adversary, without being aware of the actual adversarial setting. Thus, hybrid-secure MPC protocols allow for graceful degradation of security. We present a hybrid-secure MPC protocol that provides an optimal trade-off between IT robustness and computational privacy: For any robustness parameter ρ ... obtain one MPC protocol that is simultaneously IT secure with robustness for up to t ≤ ρ actively corrupted parties, IT secure with fairness (no robustness) for up to t

  13. COI NMSD Hybrid Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehle, Greg; Stahl, Phil (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the development of the 1.6 meter hybrid mirror demonstrator for the NGST Mirror System Demonstrator (NMSD) program. The COI design approach for the NGST program combines the optical performance of glass, with the high specific stiffness capabilities of composite materials The foundation technologies being exploited in the development of the hybrid mirror focus upon precision Composite Materials for cryogenic operation, and non-contact optical processing (ion figuring) of the lightweight mirror surface. The NGST Mirror System Demonstrator (NMSD) has been designed and built by Composite Optics, Inc. (COI) with optical processing performed by SAGEM (REOSC). The sponsors of these efforts are the NASA Marshall and Goddard Space Flight Centers.

  14. Hybrid plasma modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Pointon, Timothy David

    2009-02-01

    This report summarizes the work completed during FY2007 and FY2008 for the LDRD project ''Hybrid Plasma Modeling''. The goal of this project was to develop hybrid methods to model plasmas across the non-continuum-to-continuum collisionality spectrum. The primary methodology to span these regimes was to couple a kinetic method (e.g., Particle-In-Cell) in the non-continuum regions to a continuum PDE-based method (e.g., finite differences) in continuum regions. The interface between the two would be adjusted dynamically ased on statistical sampling of the kinetic results. Although originally a three-year project, it became clear during the second year (FY2008) that there were not sufficient resources to complete the project and it was terminated mid-year.

  15. The challenge of hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Caccia, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    Hybridization of pixel detector systems has to satisfy tight requirements: high yield, long term reliability, mechanical stability, thermal compliance and robustness have to go together with low passive mass added to the system, radiation hardness, flexibility in the technology end eventually low cost. The current technologies for the interconnection of the front-end chips and the sensor are reviewed and compared, together with the solutions for the interface to the far-end electronics.

  16. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    III Composite 4.3% Integrated starter generator for engine shut down, regenerative braking and avoidance of inefficient engine operation [28]. FMTV...environment, establish a test procedure for evaluating the performance and create a validated simulation tool for evaluating system -level performance [5, 6...Electric  Future Tactical Truck Systems (FTTS) – Parallel Electric  Family Medium Tactical Vehicle (FMTV) – Hydraulic Hybrid  Family Medium

  17. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  18. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  19. Hybrid X-pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Mishin, S. A.; Mingaleev, A. R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Tilikin, I. N. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Knapp, P. F.; Cahill, A. D.; Hoyt, C. L.; Hammer, D. A. [Cornell University (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Results from experimental studies of a hybrid X-pinch with an initial configuration in the form of a high-current diode with conical tungsten electrodes spaced by 1-2 mm and connected to one another with 20- to 100-{mu}m-diameter wires are presented. The experiments were carried out at four facilities with a current amplitude from 200 to 1000 kA and front duration from 45 to 200 ns. It is shown that, in spite of their simpler configuration, hybrid X-pinches with a short rise time of the current pulse (50-100 ns) are highly competitive with standard X-pinches in the generated soft X-ray power and the formation of a single hot spot in them is much more stable, while hard X-ray emission is almost absent. The possibility of using hybrid X-pinches as soft X-ray sources for point projection X-ray imaging of plasma objects is considered.

  20. Hybrid BioMicromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Lukas; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2017-09-01

    Micromotors are devices that operate at the microscale and convert energy to motion. Many micromotors are microswimmers, i.e., devices that can move freely in a liquid at a low Reynolds number, where viscous drag dominates over inertia. Hybrid biomicromotors are microswimmers that consist of both biological and artificial components, i.e., one or several living microorganisms combined with one or many synthetic attachments. Initially, living microbes were used as motor units to transport synthetic cargo at the microscale, but this simple allocation has been altered and extended gradually, especially considering hybrid biomicromotors for biomedical in vivo applications, i.e., for non-invasive microscale operations in the body. This review focuses on these applications, where other properties of the microbial component, for example, the capability of chemotaxis, biosensing, and cell-cell interactions, have been exploited in order to realize tasks like localized diagnosis, drug delivery, or assisted fertilization in vivo. In the biohybrid approach, biological and artificially imposed functionalities act jointly through a microrobotic device that can be controlled or supervised externally. We review the development and state-of-the-art of such systems and discuss the mastery of current and future challenges in order to evolve hybrid biomicromotors from apt swimmers to adapted in vivo operators.

  1. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  2. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Physics-based preoperative approach planning using hybrid virtual bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Megumi; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Komori, Masaru; Oyama, Hiroshi; Komeda, Masashi

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid model mixing geometry and volume data to improve representation of virtual bodies. This model applies object-oriented data models and rendering techniques to virtual organs, and enables both interactive VR simulation and detailed volume visualization of tissue of interest (e.g. coronary). Also, a physics-based framework interactively simulates estimated surgical fields which are used in preoperative discussion. Based on the proposed methods, a VR-based strategic planning system is developed. The system does not need high cost manual segmentation of patient dataset and efficiently supports planning of surgical approaches in cardiovascular surgery.

  4. Multivariate volume rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  5. Biodegradable polymer adhesives, hybrids and nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonakis, Andreas

    Biodegradable polymeric products and organic-inorganic hybrid materials for a diversity of applications are the two main fields on which this research has been focused. A novel biodegradable adhesive, which mimics marine adhesive proteins, has been synthesized by the covalent incorporation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid onto the chitosan backbone. The adhesive strength of these materials varies with the molecular weight of the polysaccharide, the amount of diphenolics present and the curing time. Infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV) have been used to qualitatively and quantitatively establish the amount of the diphenolic moiety present on the backbone of the biodegradable polymers. The as synthesized polymers combine both the adhesive capability of the diphenolic function and the healing effect of chitosan. The biocompatibility and biodegradability of these modified chitosans offer the promise of utility of these novel materials in dental and medical applications. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials with low volume shrinkage and excellent mechanical properties were synthesized by the covalent incorporation of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate on pre-hydrolyzed sol-gel silica. These hybrid materials exhibited low volume shrinkage during polymerization and were crack-free during storage for about twelve months. The mechanical properties of these materials are composition dependent. Incorporation of silica effectively increased the compressive yield stress and modulus of the obtained poly(HEMAGMA-silica) hybrid materials. A series of new electroactive hybrid materials have been synthesized by covalent incorporation of polyaniline into polyacrylate-silica hybrids. The formulation involves the radical co-polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate-polyaniline (GMA-PANi) and glycidyl methacrylate2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-silica (GMA-HEMA-silica) to yield poly

  6. Towards integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into radiation therapy treatment planning

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Daniel H.; Thorwath, Daniela; Schmidt, Holger; Quick, Harald H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Multimodality imaging has become an important adjunct of state-of-the-art radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning. Recently, simultaneous PET/MR hybrid imaging has become clinically available and may also contribute to target volume delineation and biological individualization in RT planning. For integration of PET/MR hybrid imaging into RT treatment planning, compatible dedicated RT devices are required for accurate patient positioning. In this study, prototype RT positioning d...

  7. Development of a 14-inch ID High-Pressure Hybrid Riser for SBOP Drilling Développement d’un riser hybride 14”ID haute pression pour le forage SBOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persent E.

    2009-11-01

    pression (10 000 psi pour le forage en offshore ultra profond (10 000 ft avec BOP en surface. Ce système mécanique est obtenu en adaptant et combinant deux technologies préexistantes, développées par l’IFP pour d’autres applications : – les connecteurs Clip, comportant une double rangée de dentures alternées pour procurer un moyen de connexion sûr et rapide des éléments de riser ; – les tubes hybrides, obtenus par frettage circonférentiel de tubes en acier au moyen de rubans constitués de fibres de carbone imprégnées d’une résine polyamide thermoplastique. L’IFP a développé un nouveau connecteur Clip de 355,6 mm (14” de diamètre intérieur pour l’application au riser hybride haute pression. Ce connecteur est capable de supporter une tension axiale de 1270 t et une pression opératoire de 690 bar. Par ailleurs, un tube hybride de 406,4 mm (16” de diamètre extérieur nominal a été dimensionné pour remplacer le tube riser en acier conventionnel par un tube fretté d’épaisseur plus faible, donc plus léger. Le gain de poids significatif ainsi obtenu permet de concevoir un système riser capable de supporter les spécifications de tenue aux fortes pressions et aux grandes profondeurs d’eau. Suite à des études de conception et de dimensionnement, un ensemble prototype de diamètre intérieur 14” a été fabriqué, consistant en deux sections de riser hybride jointes par un connecteur Clip haute pression. Un programme de tests incluant des essais d’éclatement en pression interne et d’écrasement en pression externe, ainsi que des essais de fatigue en traction axiale cyclique, a été défini et réalisé pour qualifier les performances du connecteur Clip et des tubes hybrides. La réalisation d’essais de fatigue complémentaires des tubes hybrides et le test sur champ d’un élément de riser prototype à échelle 1 devraient être les prochaines étapes du projet.Au stade actuel, les résultats des essais (

  8. Hybrid DG/FV schemes for magnetohydrodynamics and relativistic hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-de la Rosa, Jonatan; Munz, Claus-Dieter

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a high order hybrid discontinuous Galerkin/finite volume scheme for solving the equations of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and of the relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) on quadrilateral meshes. In this approach, for the spatial discretization, an arbitrary high order discontinuous Galerkin spectral element (DG) method is combined with a finite volume (FV) scheme in order to simulate complex flow problems involving strong shocks. Regarding the time discretization, a fourth order strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta method is used. In the proposed hybrid scheme, a shock indicator is computed at the beginning of each Runge-Kutta stage in order to flag those elements containing shock waves or discontinuities. Subsequently, the DG solution in these troubled elements and in the current time step is projected onto a subdomain composed of finite volume subcells. Right after, the DG operator is applied to those unflagged elements, which, in principle, are oscillation-free, meanwhile the troubled elements are evolved with a robust second/third order FV operator. With this approach we are able to numerically simulate very challenging problems in the context of MHD and SRHD in one, and two space dimensions and with very high order polynomials. We make convergence tests and show a comprehensive one- and two dimensional testbench for both equation systems, focusing in problems with strong shocks. The presented hybrid approach shows that numerical schemes of very high order of accuracy are able to simulate these complex flow problems in an efficient and robust manner.

  9. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  10. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  11. Experimental and theoretical assessment of flexural properties of hybrid natural fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack; Markussen, Christen Malte

    2014-01-01

    The concept of hybridization of natural fibre composites with synthetic fibres is attracting increasing scientific attention. The present study addresses the flexural properties of hybrid flax/glass/epoxy composites to demonstrate the potential benefits of hybridization. The study covers both...... experimental and theoretical assessments. Composite laminates with different hybrid fibre mixing ratios and different layer configurations were manufactured, and their volumetric composition and flexural properties were measured. The relationship between volume fractions in the composites is shown to be well...... predicted as a function of the hybrid fibre mixing ratio. The flexural modulus of the composites is theoretically assessed by using micromechanical models and laminate theory. The model predictions are compared with the experimentally determined flexural properties. Both approaches show that the flexural...

  12. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  13. Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the 1/2 inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  14. Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the 1/2 inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  15. High quality factor multi-layer symmetric hybrid plasmonic microresonator for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Wu, Genzhu

    2017-11-01

    A multi-layer symmetric hybrid plasmonic microresonator with two high-index dielectric microrings symmetrically near the metallic structure is proposed. Benefiting from introducing two dielectric rings near the metal, the multi-layer hybrid plasmonic microresonator has a high quality factor about 10,000, while still capable of retaining a small mode volume around 1 . 27 μm3. As a potential application, the symmetric hybrid microresonator with air-filled gap regions could be used for sensing with a sensitivity high of 210 nm per refraction index unit, a large figure of merit of 1319 due to the high quality factor.

  16. Hybridity and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte; Haberland, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Reflecting the increased use of English as lingua franca in today’s university education, this volume maps the interplay and competition between English and other tongues in a learning community that in practice is not only bilingual but multilingual. The volume includes case studies from Japan......, Australia, South Africa, Germany, Catalonia, China, Denmark and Sweden, analysing a range of issues such as the conflict between the students’ native languages and English, the reality of parallel teaching in English as well as in the local language, and classrooms that are nominally English...

  17. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  18. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  19. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P; Badea, Cristian T

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  20. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  1. From hybrid-media system to hybrid-media politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Burkal, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    An increasingly complex hybrid system of social- and traditional-news media surrounds Nordic election campaigns as politically experienced incumbents favour traditional news media, and younger, lesser-known candidates’ social media. Despite little evidence for hybrid-media politicians, politicians...

  2. The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah; Villareal, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-toface classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of…

  3. Analysis of hybrid viscous damper by real time hybrid simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Ou, Ge; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2016-01-01

    Results from real time hybrid simulations are compared to full numerical simulations for a hybrid viscous damper, composed of a viscous dashpot in series with an active actuator and a load cell. By controlling the actuator displacement via filtered integral force feedback the damping performance...... of the hybrid viscous damper is improved, while for pure integral force feedback the damper stroke is instead increased. In the real time hybrid simulations viscous damping is emulated by a bang-bang controlled Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper. The controller activates high-frequency modes and generates drift...... in the actuator displacement, and only a fraction of the measured damper force can therefore be used as input to the investigated integral force feedback in the real time hybrid simulations....

  4. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  5. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time......-derivatives in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  6. Overview on hybrid propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, M.

    2011-10-01

    Aside of research works, this historical survey shows propulsion units used by students for small satellites and for gas generation, or those for the Space Ship One, even if LOx/HTPB was studied and tested in large motors for its potential very low cost; however, this combination highlights a series of technical problems without any performance advantage over the existing LOx/Kerosene family and never been operational for ETO applications. The particularity of hybrid propulsion is to use the state-of-the-art of both liquids and solids; the only show stopper is the propellant itself. The past work focused on LOx/HTPB (selected for its low cost) appears to be a dead-end (combustion problems and global low performances resulting from a high level of residuals). The solution that appears through the past experience is the addition of hydrides to a binder (HTPB or other) or to a binder and a homogeneous fuel or a mixture of both, with or without others additives; within these solutions some will not present any manufacturing problem and some may have a low cost. Nevertheless, the studies of the following phases have to demonstrate the compatibility of the potential regression rate range with a high-performance global design of a hybrid Motor and the manufacturing at a reasonable cost of a hydride giving a high level of performances.

  7. Hybrid silicon ring lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Fiorentino, Marco; Bowers, John E.; Beausoleil, Raymond G.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid silicon platform provides a solution to integrate active components (lasers, amplifiers, photodetectors, etc.) with passive ones on the same silicon substrate, which can be used for building an optical interconnect system. Owing to the advantages in footprint, power consumption, and high-speed modulation, hybrid silicon microring lasers have been demonstrated as a potential candidate for on-chip silicon light source. In this paper we review the progress to improve the performance of recently demonstrated compact microring lasers with ring diameter of 50 μm. A simple approach to enhance optical mode and electron-hole recombination, which results in threshold reduction and efficiency improvement is developed. This is done by appropriately undercutting the multiple quantum well (MQW) region to force carriers to flow towards the outer edge of the microring for better gain/optical mode overlap. We observe a reduction of the threshold of over 20% and up to 80% output power enhancement. The model and the experimental results highlight the benefits, as well as the negative effects from excessive undercutting, including lower MQW confinement, higher modal loss and higher thermal impedance. A design rule for MQW undercutting is therefore provided. Application as on-chip optical interconnects is discussed from a system perspective.

  8. Hybrid microcircuit intraconnection processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonham, H.B.

    1976-08-01

    Hybrid intraconnections join thin film networks and applique components into an electrically functional hybrid microcircuit (HMC). Applique components were intraconnected with thermocompression (TC) bonds to chromium/gold metallized thin film networks. The project determined critical processes, material parameters, quality criteria, and characterization techniques. The program began on July 1, 1970, and initial efforts consisted of organizing the development program and forecasting needed equipment and manpower. The total time schedule was then PERT-charted. Gold beam-lead devices, gold wire, and chromium/gold films had already been selected for these intraconnection technologies. Thermocompression bonding was developed to provide intraconnections between the HMC gold conductor metallization and gold beam-lead active devices, gold plated external leads, and gold terminated applique devices, such as capacitors. An optimum combination of bonding parameters based on the fundamental physics of the process was developed. This philosophy required bonding equipment to be thoroughly characterized so that the value of bonding parameters (such as force and temperature) indicated on the bonder could be translated into measurable values of the force and temperature within the bond zone.

  9. Infectious disease modeling a hybrid system approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xinzhi

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents infectious diseases modeled mathematically, taking seasonality and changes in population behavior into account, using a switched and hybrid systems framework. The scope of coverage includes background on mathematical epidemiology, including classical formulations and results; a motivation for seasonal effects and changes in population behavior, an investigation into term-time forced epidemic models with switching parameters, and a detailed account of several different control strategies. The main goal is to study these models theoretically and to establish conditions under which eradication or persistence of the disease is guaranteed. In doing so, the long-term behavior of the models is determined through mathematical techniques from switched systems theory. Numerical simulations are also given to augment and illustrate the theoretical results and to help study the efficacy of the control schemes.

  10. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  11. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  12. PERFORMANCE OF PWANI HYBRID MAIZE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-05-14

    May 14, 1993 ... ABSTRACT. New maize hybrids require specific agronomic recommendations, especially when currently available recommendations are for a low yield potential, open pollinated cultivar. A study was conducted to investigate the performance of a new maize cultivar, Pwani Hybrid I (PHI) at different nitrogen ...

  13. A new hybrid Christmas tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Critchfield

    1965-01-01

    A hybrid pine developed in the course of forest-tree improvement research. by the U. S. Forest Service has caught the interest of Christmas tree growers. It is a hybrid between two races of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) produced at the Institute of Forest Genetics at Placerville, California, and has some desirable attributes for use as a Christmas...

  14. DNA-based hybrid catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination

  15. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  16. Hybrid Charmonium from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, X Q

    2006-01-01

    We review our recent results on the JPC = 0¡¡ exotic hybrid charmonium mass and JPC = 0¡+, 1¡¡ and 1++ nonexotic hybrid charmonium spectrum from anisotropic improved lattice QCD and discuss the relevance to the recent discovery of the Y(4260) state and future experimental search for other states.

  17. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  18. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  19. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  20. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K.; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genome-wide sequence data, and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history. PMID:26826668

  1. Biogas production from maize hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oslaj, Matjaz; Mursec, Bogomir; Vindis, Peter [University of Maribor, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Pivola 10, Maribor (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    There is an increasing world wide demand for energy crops and animal manures for biogas production. This research project was aimed at optimising anaerobic digestion of maize, using a laboratory digester, and finding out which maturity class of corn and which hybrid of a particular maturity class produces the highest rate of biogas and biomethane. Also the chemical composition of gases was studied. The corn hybrids of FAO 300 - FAO 400, FAO 400 - FAO 500 and FAO 500 - FAO 600 maturity class were tested. Experiments took place in the lab for 35 days within four series of experiments with four repetitions according to the method DIN 38 414. Results show that the highest maturity class of corn (FAO 400, FAO 500) increases the amount of biomethane. The greatest gain of biomethane per hectare according to maturity class is found with hybrids of FAO 400 (7768.4 Nm{sup 3} ha{sup -1}) and FAO 500 (7050.1 Nm{sup 3} ha{sup -1}) maturity class. Among the corn hybrids of maturity class FAO 300 - FAO 400, the hybrid PR38F70 gives the greatest production of biomethane per hectare (7646.2 Nm{sup 3} ha{sup -1}). Among the hybrids of maturity class FAO 400 - FAO 500, the greatest amount of biomethane was achieved by the hybrid PIXXIA (9440.6 Nm{sup 3} ha{sup -1}). Among the hybrids of maturity class FAO 500 - FAO 600 the hybrid CODISTAR (FAO 500) gives the highest production of biomethane (8562.7 Nm{sup 3} ha{sup -1}). Production of biomethane varied with corn hybrids from 50 to 60% of produced biogas. (author)

  2. Novel seed protection in the recently evolved invasive, California wild radish, a hybrid Raphanus sp. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Sylvia M; Ellstrand, Norman C

    2014-12-01

    • Interspecific hybridization may have considerable effects on plant structural defenses that can contribute to the success of invasive hybrid lineages. Changes in fruit structural and material properties are predicted to have key effects on predispersal granivory.• Here, we asked whether plant structure can increase the fitness of a hybrid invasive relative to its progenitors. We compared fruit traits of the hybrid-derived lineage, California wild radish, with its progenitors, cultivated radish and jointed charlock.• The hybrid lineage is significantly different from one or both ancestors in fruit length, mass, diameter, volume, shape, wall strength, and internal seed distribution. We experimentally exposed the fruits of both hybrid and wild progenitor to avian granivores and found (1) different types and degrees of damage at the different fruit sections and (2) significant differences in the inflicted damage at different sections of the fruit.• Combining our descriptive and experimental data, we conclude that the novel seed protection of the hybrid California wild radish is an important defense mechanism. It offers differential protection to its seeds and according to our findings, better protection of seeds that have been found to be better competitors. We suggest then that the fruit has enabled, at least in part, the successful replacement of the parental species by the hybrid lineage. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  4. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  5. Three-year randomised clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance, quantitative and qualitative wear patterns of hybrid composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Senthamaraiselvi; Elsen, Liesbeth; Lijnen, Inge; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Lambrechts, Paul

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the clinical performance, quantitative and qualitative wear patterns of conventional hybrid (Tetric Ceram), micro-filled hybrid (Gradia Direct Posterior) and nano-hybrid (Tetric EvoCeram, TEC) posterior composite restorations in a 3-year randomised clinical trial. Sixteen Tetric Ceram, 17 TEC and 16 Gradia Direct Posterior restorations were placed in human molars and evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months of clinical service according to US Public Health Service criteria. The gypsum replicas at each recall were used for 3D laser scanning to quantify wear, and the epoxy resin replicas were observed under scanning electron microscope to study the qualitative wear patterns. After 3 years of clinical service, the three hybrid restorative materials performed clinically well in posterior cavities. Within the observation period, the nano-hybrid and micro-hybrid restorations evolved better in polishability with improved surface gloss retention than the conventional hybrid counterpart. The three hybrid composites showed enamel-like vertical wear and cavity-size dependant volume loss magnitude. Qualitatively, while the micro-filled and nano-hybrid composite restorations exhibited signs of fatigue similar to the conventional hybrid composite restorations at heavy occlusal contact area, their light occlusal contact areas showed less surface pitting after 3 years of clinical service.

  6. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  7. Front matter: Volume 10385

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoufid, Lahsen; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Asundi, Anand K.

    2017-09-01

    This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 10385, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  8. Performance and efficiency of a hydraulic hybrid powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbaschian, Mohammad Ali [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Faculty of Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Hydraulic hybrid powertrains are considered to be a promising technology to save energy and reduce emission in specific automotive fields because of their high power density, components lifetime, and long lasting experience in industries compared to electric hybrid powertrains. Within the first part of the paper, a very brief literature survey on hydraulic hybrid vehicle systems (HHVS) and the related dynamical behaviour is given. No specific activities to improve the efficiency of these systems were detected. Related literature with respect to optimization mainly deals with the management of the system's energy flows trying to control the engine operation point and the high pressure in the system. In the second part, a small simulation study is presented. Therefore, hybrid systems are generally assumed as a Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) system. The effect of key variables (i.e. accumulator size and pressure, pump/motor displacement and efficiency, valve dynamics) on the system is discussed. The results show that the volume displacement of pump and motor, the performance of the engine, and the state of charge of the accumulator are the most important parameters to specify the efficiency and performance of the hydraulic hybrid powertrain. Additionally, a hybrid hydraulic powertrain with an adjustable state of charge accumulator is compared with one whose state of charge is constant. The result shows the improvement of braking performance and fuel savings. The goal is to optimize the parameters of the system based on the simultaneous consideration of the three (or more) variables for a given load profile with respect to given objectives. (orig.)

  9. Regenerable antimicrobial N-halamine/silica hybrid nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lianhong; Yan, Xiufang; Jie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Hong; Yang, Shiping; Liang, Jie

    2014-07-01

    Regenerable antimicrobial N-halamine/silica hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) containing chlorinated 5,5-dimethylhydantoinyl (Cl-DMH) groups, Cl-DMH/SiO2 hybrid NPs, have been prepared by a co-condensation reaction between N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (TS-DMH) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and then a chlorination reaction in NaClO solution. The as-synthesized Cl-DMH/SiO2 NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, Specific surface area, Differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared. Experimental results showed that the size of the as-synthesized Cl-DMH/SiO2 NPs could be well adjusted by changing the mass ratio of TS-DMH/TEOS and the volume ratio of 28 % NH4OH/H2O. Antimicrobial tests showed that the as-prepared Cl-DMH/SiO2 hybrid NPs had excellent antimicrobial activities against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of the as-prepared Cl-DMH/SiO2 hybrid NPs are 15 and 20 μg/mL for S. aureus, 25 and 30 μg/mL for E. coli, respectively. Paper disk diffusion assay showed that smaller-sized Cl-DMH/SiO2 hybrid NPs have bigger inhibition zone diameters, indicating stronger antimicrobial efficacies. Also, the storage stability and regenerability of Cl-DMH/SiO2 hybrid NPs were investigated.

  10. Modified Hybrid Freeman/Eigenvalue Decomposition for Polarimetric SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the rapid advancement of the airborne sensors and spaceborne sensors, large volumes of fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR data are available, but they are too complex to interpret difficultly. In this paper, a modified hybrid Freeman/eigenvalue decomposition method for the coherency matrix derived from the fully PolSAR sensors is proposed. The proposed modified hybrid Freeman/eigenvalue decomposition uses a real unitary transformation on the coherency matrix to release correlations between the copolarized term and cross polarized term, and the scattering models are derived from eigenvectors of the coherency matrix with reflection symmetry condition. The anisotropy and entropy are used to determine whether the volume scattering component is derived from the man-made structures or not. Moreover, the scattering powers from the proposed hybrid Freeman/eigenvalue decomposition are all nonnegative values. Fully PolSAR data on San Francisco acquired by AIRSAR sensor are used in the experiments to prove the efficacy of the proposed decomposition.

  11. Orfej: New NS sunflower hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvejić Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New sunflower hybrid Orfej was developed by breeding process in the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. Hybrid has high yield potential, excellent seed quality, adaptive to grown in different agro-ecological conditions and highly resistant and tolerant to main diseases and vermin in the region. Hybrid is resistant to all races of downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii and highly tolerant to root and stem forms of white rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This work shows the results of seed yield from the trials of the Department for plant variety registration and protection and the results of Small plot trials of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops.

  12. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  13. Constitutive heterochromatin in chromosomes of duck hybrids and goose hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, E; Smalec, E

    2017-01-01

    Constitutive heterochromatin is a highly condensed fraction of chromatin in chromosomes. It is characterized by a high degree of polymorphism. Heterochromatin is located in the centromeric, telomeric, and interstitial parts of chromosomes. We used the CBG ( C: banding using B: arium hydroxide by G: iemsa) staining technique to identify heterochromatin in chromosomes. Analysis of karyotypes of F1 hybrids resulting from intergeneric hybridization of ducks (A. platyrhynchos × C. moschata) and interspecific crosses of geese (A. anser × A. cygnoides) were used to compare the karyotypes of 2 species of duck and 2 species of geese, as well as to compare the hybrids with the parent species. The localization of C-bands and their size were determined. In the duck hybrid, greater amounts of heterochromatin were noted in the homologous chromosomes from the duck A. platyrhynchos than in the chromosomes from the duck C. moschata. In the goose hybrid more heterochromatin was observed in the homologous chromosomes from the goose A. cygnoides than in the chromosomes from the goose A. anser. Comparison of chromosomes from the duck hybrid with chromosomes of the ducks A. platyrhynchos and C. moschata revealed nearly twice as much constitutive heterochromatin in the chromosomes of the hybrid. When chromosomes from the goose hybrid were compared with those of the geese A. anser and A. cygnoides, differences in the average content of heterochromatin were observed on only a few chromosomes. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. General fuel cell hybrid synergies and hybrid system testing status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Wolfgang; Nehter, Pedro; Williams, Mark C.; Tucker, David; Gemmen, Randy

    FCT hybrid power systems offer the highest efficiency and the cleanest emissions of all fossil fuelled power. The engineering for the highest possible efficiency at lowest cost and weight depends on general system architecture issues and the performance of the components. Presented in this paper are system studies which provide direction for the most efficient path toward achieving the most beneficial result for this technology. Ultimately, fuel cell-turbine (FCT) hybrid systems applicable to integrated gasification combined cycle power systems will form the basis for reaching the goals for advanced coal-based power generation. The FCT hybrid power island will also be important for the FutureGen plant and will provide new options for carbon dioxide capture and sequestration as well as power and hydrogen generation. The system studies presented in this paper provide insight to current technology 'benchmarks' versus expected benefits from hybrid applications. Discussion is also presented on the effects of different balance of plant arrangements and approaches. Finally, we discuss the status of US DOE is sponsored projects that are looking to help understand the unique requirements for these systems. One of these projects, Hyper, will provide information on FCT dynamics and will help identify technical needs and opportunities for cycle advancement. The methods studied show promise for effective control of a hybrid system without the direct intervention of isolation valves or check valves in the main pressure loop of the system, which introduce substantial pressure losses, allowing for realization of the full potential efficiency of the hybrid system.

  15. Hybridization and management of oak populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver Gailing

    2017-01-01

    Hybridization can result in the transfer of adaptations among species and may contribute to speciation processes. On the other hand, hybridization can also result in a loss of species diversity due to asymmetric gene flow between species (genetic swamping) and in low hybrid fitness. An understanding of the outcomes of interspecific hybridization is crucial for the...

  16. Compositional Modelling of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we present a modelling framework for compositional modelling of stochastic hybrid systems. Hybrid systems consist of a combination of continuous and discrete dynamics. The state space of a hybrid system is hybrid in the sense that it consists of a continuous component and a discrete

  17. Nanocarbon composites and hybrids in sustainability: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilatela, Juan J; Eder, Dominik

    2012-03-12

    There is an ever-growing need to protect our environment by increasing energy efficiency and developing "clean" energy sources. These are global challenges, and their resolution is vital to our energy security. Although many conventional materials, such as metals, ceramics, and plastics, cannot fulfil all requirements for these new technologies, many material combinations can offer synergistic effects that create improved and even new properties. The implementation of nanocarbons, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, into nanocomposites and, more recently, into the new class of hybrids, are very promising examples. In contrast to classical nanocomposites, where a low volume fraction of the carbon component is mixed into a polymer or ceramic matrix, hybrids are materials in which nanocarbon is coated with a thin layer of the functional compound, which introduces the interface as a powerful new parameter. Based on interfacial charge and energy transfer processes, nanocarbon hybrids have shown increased sensitivities in gas sensors, improved efficiencies in photovoltaics, superior activities in photocatalysts, and enhanced capacities in supercapacitors. This review compares the characteristics and potentials of both nanocarbon composites and hybrids, highlights recent developments in their synthesis and discusses key challenges for their use in various energy applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. BEGINNING INDONESIAN, VOLUME 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 3 OF A 4 VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS LESSONS 13-18 OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF THE PASSIVE VOICE, PRONUNCIATION TECHNIQUES, ORTHOGRAPHY, FINAL VOWELS, AND FINAL SYLLABLES. LANGUAGE DRILLS ARE ALSO PROVIDED CONCERNING THE MONTHS OF THE YEAR AND…

  19. BEGINNING INDONESIAN. VOLUME 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 1 OF A 4-VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS THE FIRST 6 LESSONS OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF TERMS OF ADDRESS, POLITE FORMULAS AND RESPONSES, AUXILIARIES, COMMANDS, AND ABSOLUTE EXPRESSIONS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 456 THROUGH ED 010 459. (GD)…

  20. BEGINNING INDONESIAN. VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 2 OF A 4-VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS LESSONS 7-12 OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF DIFFICULT VERBS, THE ACTIVE VOICE, INVERTED NARRATIVE CLAUSES, INTERROGATIVE WORDS, AND COUNTING METHODS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 456 THROUGH ED 010 459. (GD)

  1. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...... cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... conception to 82 years of age. This model shows that 69% of the variation in ovarian volume is due to age alone. We have shown that in the average case ovarian volume rises from 0.7 mL (95% CI 0.4-1.1 mL) at 2 years of age to a peak of 7.7 mL (95% CI 6.5-9.2 mL) at 20 years of age with a subsequent decline...

  2. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  3. Effects of hybrid composition of LCP and glass fibres on abrasive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 29; Issue 1. Effects of hybrid composition of ... The replacements of glass fibres with LCP fibres improved abrasive wear resistance of composite. The composite ... Incorporation of LCP fibre improved wear resistance of glass fibre reinforced LLDPE. Worn surfaces were ...

  4. JiTTree: A Just-in-Time Compiled Sparse GPU Volume Data Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Labschutz, Matthias

    2015-08-12

    Sparse volume data structures enable the efficient representation of large but sparse volumes in GPU memory for computation and visualization. However, the choice of a specific data structure for a given data set depends on several factors, such as the memory budget, the sparsity of the data, and data access patterns. In general, there is no single optimal sparse data structure, but a set of several candidates with individual strengths and drawbacks. One solution to this problem are hybrid data structures which locally adapt themselves to the sparsity. However, they typically suffer from increased traversal overhead which limits their utility in many applications. This paper presents JiTTree, a novel sparse hybrid volume data structure that uses just-in-time compilation to overcome these problems. By combining multiple sparse data structures and reducing traversal overhead we leverage their individual advantages. We demonstrate that hybrid data structures adapt well to a large range of data sets. They are especially superior to other sparse data structures for data sets that locally vary in sparsity. Possible optimization criteria are memory, performance and a combination thereof. Through just-in-time (JIT) compilation, JiTTree reduces the traversal overhead of the resulting optimal data structure. As a result, our hybrid volume data structure enables efficient computations on the GPU, while being superior in terms of memory usage when compared to non-hybrid data structures.

  5. Thermoelectric transport in hybrid materials incorporating metallic nanowires in polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Lu, Tingyu; Wang, Biao; Liu, Jun; Nakayama, Tsuneyoshi; Zhou, Jun; Li, Baowen

    2017-03-01

    We propose a type of thermoelectric materials incorporating metallic nanowires in insulating polymers. It is shown that the hybridization of poor thermoelectric materials such as metal and polymer can achieve high performance of thermoelectricity. The electrical conductivity of such hybrid materials is controllable by the volume fraction of metallic nanowires which is above a percolation critical value. Meanwhile, the Seebeck coefficient shows a weak dependence on the volume fraction. Low thermal conductivities required for achieving the high figure of merit can be fulfilled from both the low thermal conductivity of polymer and the interfacial thermal resistance between nanowires and polymer. In this regard, we propose the concept "electron-percolation thermal-insulator," providing a guide to design efficient hybrid thermoelectric materials.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, C. M.; Klimek-McDonald, D. R.; Pineda, E. J.; King, J. A.; Reichanadter, A. M.; Miskioglu, I.; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite, while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet Carbon Fiber Epoxy Hybrid Composites: Multiscale Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Cameron M.; Klimek-McDonald, Danielle R.; Pineda, Evan J.; King, Julie A.; Reichanadter, Alex M.; Miskioglu, Ibrahim; Gowtham, S.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the relatively high specific mechanical properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials, they are often used as structural components in aerospace applications. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be added to the epoxy matrix to improve the overall mechanical properties of the composite. The resulting GNP/carbon fiber/epoxy hybrid composites have been studied using multiscale modeling to determine the influence of GNP volume fraction, epoxy crosslink density, and GNP dispersion on the mechanical performance. The hierarchical multiscale modeling approach developed herein includes Molecular Dynamics (MD) and micromechanical modeling, and it is validated with experimental testing of the same hybrid composite material system. The results indicate that the multiscale modeling approach is accurate and provides physical insight into the composite mechanical behavior. Also, the results quantify the substantial impact of GNP volume fraction and dispersion on the transverse mechanical properties of the hybrid composite, while the effect on the axial properties is shown to be insignificant.

  8. HYBRIDIZATION AND CHAMELEONIC JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Schryver Kurtz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto aborda a crescente hibridização entre o Jornalismo e demais formatos midiáticos como resultado natural de um processo que já está na própria raiz da comunicação enquanto atividade histórica. A lógica interna e as potencialidades estéticas e discursivas do fenômeno são analisadas a partir das convergências entre jornalismo e cinema. Para tanto, utiliza o falso documentário Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido por natureza, postulado como um microcosmo rico em pistas e sugestões para refletir sobre a fusão entre conteúdos informativos e não informativos.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Hibridização; Jornalismo; Cinema; Zelig.       ABSTRACT The text discusses the growing hybridization between journalism and other media formats as a natural result of a process that is already in the very root of communication while historical activity. The internal logic and the aesthetic and discursive potential of the phenomenon are analyzed through the convergences between journalism and cinema. Therefore, uses the mockumentary Zelig (1983, filmic text of Woody Allen, hybrid by nature, postulated as a microcosm rich in clues and suggestions to reflect about the merger between informative and uninformative content.      KEYWORDS: Hybridization; Journalism; Cinema; Zelig.     RESUMEN El texto aborda la creciente hibridación entre el periodismo y otros formatos de medios como um resultado natural de un proceso que ya está en la raíz misma de la comunicación mientras actividad histórica. Se analizan la lógica interna y el potencial estético y discursivo del fenómeno a través de las convergencias entre el periodismo y el cine. Para ello, utiliza el falso documental Zelig (1983, texto fílmico de Woody Allen, híbrido en su naturaleza, postulado como un microcosmos rico en pistas y sugerencias para reflexionar sobre la fusión entre contenidos informativos y no informativos.      PALABRAS CLAVE: Hibridaci

  9. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle....... Understanding the structure/function relationship of TRPV4 is essential for future development of specific TRPV4 agonist for treatment of diseases causes by dysfunctional TRPV4. E.g. two inherited bone dysplasias have recently been demonstrated in humans to originate from TRPV4 mutations....

  10. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    We review studies on regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and regulatory volume increase (RVI) of major ion and water transporting vertebrate epithelia. The rate of RVD and RVI is faster in cells of high osmotic permeability like amphibian gallbladder and mammalian proximal tubule as compared...... function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  11. Interspecific hybridization among salmonid fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sano, S; Eguchi, H

    1968-01-01

    A series of experiments on interspecific hybridization among the salmonid fishes caught in the Chitose River, Lake Shikotsu and other places was carried out in order to know the developmental stages...

  12. Optical Properties of Hybrid Nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    owner

    K. George Thomas. Photosciences & Photonics Group. National Institute for Interdisciplinary. Science and Technology (NIIST), CSIR,. Trivandrum- 695 019, INDIA. (kgt@vsnl.com). Optical Properties of Hybrid. Nanomaterials ...

  13. Stability Analysis of Hybrid ALOHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Huahui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform stability analysis of a recently proposed MAC protocol, hybrid ALOHA, based on the multipacket reception (MPR model. Hybrid ALOHA distinguishes from conventional slotted ALOHA by allowing conditional collision-free channel estimation and simultaneous transmissions, and hence improves the MPR capability of the system. The stability analysis of the two-user case ( has been conducted in our previous work. In this paper, we study the stability region of hybrid ALOHA for the general N-user ( system. By using the method of stochastic dominance and mathematical induction, we obtain the sufficient condition for the stability of hybrid ALOHA. As an illustration, we characterize the stability inner bounds for the case. In this particular situation, the results are derived by solving a nonhomogeneous Riemann-Hilbert problem. Potentially, the mathematical tools used in this paper can be exploited for obtaining closed-form results in stability analysis of wireless networks.

  14. Annular Hybrid Rocket Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Engineers at SpaceDev have conducted a preliminary design and analysis of a proprietary annular design concept for a hybrid motor. A U.S. Patent application has been...

  15. Design Procedure for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Tjelflaat, Per Olaf

    Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation....... Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC....... The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed....

  16. Hybrid Tower, Designing Soft Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin; Holden Deleuran, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the research project Hybrid Tower, an interdisciplinary collaboration between CITA—Centre for IT and Architecture, KET—Department for Structural Design and Technology, Fibrenamics, Universidade do Minho Guimarães, AFF a. ferreira & filhos, sa, Caldas de Vizela, Portugal...... and Essener Labor für Leichte Flächentragwerke, Universität Duisburg-Essen. Hybrid Tower is a hybrid structural system combining bending active compression members and tensile members for architectural design. The paper presents two central investigations: (1) the creation of new design methods that embed...... predictions about the inherent interdependency and material dependent performance of the hybrid structure and (2) the inter-scalar design strategies for specification and fabrication. The first investigation focuses on the design pipelines developed between the implementation of realtime physics...

  17. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  18. Hybrid spin-crossover nanostructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quintero, Carlos M; Félix, Gautier; Suleimanov, Iurii; Sánchez Costa, José; Molnár, Gábor; Salmon, Lionel; Nicolazzi, William; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2014-01-01

    This review reports on the recent progress in the synthesis, modelling and application of hybrid spin-crossover materials, including core-shell nanoparticles and multilayer thin films or nanopatterns...

  19. Hybrid Platforms, Tools, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Kathryn E.; Bruenjes, Linda S.; Smith, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses common tools and resources for building a hybrid course in a higher education setting and provides recommendations for best practices in Learning Management Systems and Open Educational Resources.

  20. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  1. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  2. Hybrid Simulation of Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Jacob Herold

    Hybrid simulation is a substructural method combining a numerical simulation with a physical experiment. A structure is thereby simulated under the assumption that a substructure’s response is well known and easily modelled while a given substructure is studied more accurately in a physical...... of freedom. In this dissertation the main focus is to develop hybrid simulation for composite structures e.g. wind turbine blades where the boundary between the numerical model and the physical experiment is continues i.e. in principal infinite amount of degrees of freedom. This highly complicates...... the transfer system and the control and monitoring techniques in the shared boundary is therefore a key issue in this type of hybrid simulation. During the research, hybrid simulation platforms have been programmed capable of running on different time scales with advanced control and monitoring techniques...

  3. Photosystem Inspired Peptide Hybrid Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    peptide-based hybrid material can be a promising new class of proton conductor. Contrary to the conventional viewpoint on CO2 as a major contributor of... materials (Figure 2) Tyrosine is known to be an important sequence that helps electron transfer and hydrogen ion transfer in the natural world. In...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Biological systems can inspire to make new hybrid materials defined at the molecular level. We propose a novel

  4. Requirements for Hybrid Cosimulation Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Broman, David; Greenberg, Lev; Lee, Edward A.; Masin, Michael; Tripakis, Stavros; Wetter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper defines a suite of requirements for future hybrid cosimulation standards, and specifically provides guidance for development of a hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI). A cosimulation standard defines interfaces that enable diverse simulation tools to interoperate. Specifically, one tool defines a component that forms part of a simulation model in another tool. We focus on components with inputs and outputs that are functions of time, and specifically...

  5. Comparison Study of Two Semi-Active Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications and Their Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Min

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Both the battery/supercapacitor (SC and SC/battery are two common semi-active configurations of hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs in hybrid electric vehicles, which can take advantage of the battery’s and supercapacitor’s respective characteristics, including the energy ability, power ability and the long lifetime. To explore in depth the characteristics and applicability of the two kinds of HESS, an analysis and comparison study is proposed in this paper. Based on the data collected from public transit hybrid electric bus (PTHEB with battery-only on-board energy storage, the range and distribution probability of electric power/energy demand is comprehensively statistically analyzed with the decomposing and normalizing methods. Accordingly, the performance of each topology under different parameter matching conditions but same mass, volume and cost values with battery-only energy storage, are presented and compared quantitatively. The results show that both HESS configurations can meet the electric power demand of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV through reasonable design. In particular, the SC/battery can make better use of the SC features resulting in high efficiency and long life cycles compared with the battery/SC. Equally, it proves that the SC/battery topology is a better choice for the HEV. Finally, an experimental validation of a real HEV is carried out, which indicated that a 7% fuel economy improvement can be achieved by a SC/battery system compared with battery-only topology.

  6. Original Framework for Optimizing Hybrid Energy Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Amevi Acakpovi

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an original framework for optimizing hybrid energy systems. The recent growth of hybrid energy systems in remote areas across the world added to the increasing cost of renewable energy has triggered the inevitable development of hybrid energy systems. Hybrid energy systems always pose a problem of optimization of cost which has been approached with different perspectives in the recent past. This paper proposes a framework to guide the techniques of optimizing hybrid energy...

  7. Effect of elevated temperatures on flexural strength of hybrid Napier/glass reinforced epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, W. M. A. W.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Rahman, M. N.; Azduwin, Y. K.

    2017-10-01

    The effects of elevated temperatures on the flexural strength of hybrid Napier/glass reinforced epoxy composites were investigated. Hybrid composites laminates were fabricated using untreated, 5%, or 10% alkali-treated Napier fibres with woven E-glass fibres and epoxy resin. The composites were manufactured using a vacuum infusion process; the volume fraction of the Napier, glass fibres and epoxy resin were 24%, 6% and 70% respectively. When tested at room temperature (RT), the maximum flexural strength was recorded for the hybrid composites with the 5% alkali-treated Napier fibres. When the test temperature greater than 60°C, the matrix cracking and delamination were occurred due to the temperature that approached the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composites, which resulted in a reduction of the flexural strength. The fracture surface morphologies indicated that the 5% alkali-treated Napier fibres improved the fibre-matrix interfacial bonding of the hybrid Napier/glass reinforced epoxy composites.

  8. Experimental investigation of fibre reinforced plastics with hybrid layups under high-velocity impact loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Romano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with experimental investigations concerning energy dissipation capacity of different kinds of reinforcement fibres in monolithic and hybrid layups under high-velocity impact loads. The investigated kinds of fibres are carbon, glass and basalt fibres. Therefore test panels, using the same thermoset resin, were built up and cured by autoclave processing. The fibre volume content of the test panels has been determined. Furthermore the influence of a separating layer at selected positions in the hybrid stacked panels was investigated. The results show the influence and the energy dissipation capacity of each single kind of fibre and the enhanced properties for the hybrid layups by hybrid stacking sequences and the use of a separating core material.

  9. Hybrid functionals applied to perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Cesare

    2014-06-25

    After being used for years in the chemistry community to describe molecular properties, hybrid functionals have been increasingly and successfully employed for a wide range of solid state problems which are not accurately accessible by standard density functional theory. In particular, the upsurge of interest in transition metal perovskite-based compounds, motivated by their technological relevance and functional ductility, has incentivized the use of hybrid functionals for realistic applications, as hybrid functionals appear to be capable of capturing the complex correlated physics of this class of oxide material, characterized by a subtle coupling between several competing interactions (lattice, orbital, spin). Here we present a map of recent applications of hybrid functionals to perovskites, aiming to cover an ample spectra of cases, including the 'classical' 3d compounds (manganites, titanates, nickelates, ferrites, etc.), less conventional examples from the the 4d (technetiates) and 5d (iridates) series, and the (non-transition metal) sp perovskite BaBiO3. We focus our attention on the technical aspects of the hybrid functional formalism, such as the role of the mixing and (for range-separated hybrids) screening parameters, and on an extended array of physical phenomena: pressure- and doping-induced insulator-to-metal and structural phase transitions, multiferroism, surface and interface effects, charge ordering and localization effects, and spin-orbit coupling.

  10. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  11. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  12. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  13. Hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  14. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  15. Hybrid gaseous photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Rodionov, I; Peskov, Vladimir; Sokolova, T

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a hybrid gaseous photomultiplier. It consists of two planar parts: a sealed chamber with a semitransparent bi-alkali or SbCs photocathode (the 'scintillation chamber') and a position-sensitive gaseous detector with a CsI photocathode flushed with a gas at 1 atm (the 'readout detector'). This device was developed according to two different designs. In the first design the scintillation chamber operates with pure Xe at 1 atm pressure. Electrons created from the photocathode by visible light move through the capillary plate (which acts as a light attenuator) and produce a weak very ultra-violet (VUV) scintillation light in the gap between the capillary plate and the collecting mesh. This VUV light is detected by the readout gaseous detector. In the second design, the sealed scintillation chamber was operated in vacuum. The photoelectrons extracted from the photocathode hit the scintillator emitting VUV light. The VUV light was detected with the readout detector. A practical quantum efficiency o...

  16. Experimental investigation of cyclic hygrothermal aging of hybrid composite

    KAUST Repository

    El Yagoubi, Jalal

    2013-04-05

    This work provides an experimental investigation of the cyclic hygrothermal aging of a hybrid composites. We aimed to propose a general framework in the view to further optimize polymer-based composites. It reports experimental data and relevant observations collected during an aging campaign (up to 2000 cycles) where anhydride-cured epoxy samples as well as composites samples are exposed to environmental conditions. The data gathered during the whole campaign reveals that (1) the polymer displays a non-classical sorption behavior (2) the volume change is correlated to the mass uptake (3) the elastic modulus is correlated to the glass transition temperature. Matrix and interface degradation of the hybrid composite is monitored by means of microstructural observations. © 2013 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Composite Strain Hardening Properties of High Performance Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Jothi Jayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid fibres addition in concrete proved to be a promising method to improve the composite mechanical properties of the cementitious system. Fibre combinations involving different fibre lengths and moduli were added in high strength slag based concrete to evaluate the strain hardening properties. Influence of hybrid fibres consisting of steel and polypropylene fibres added in slag based cementitious system (50% CRL was explored. Effects of hybrid fibre addition at optimum volume fraction of 2% of steel fibres and 0.5% of PP fibres (long and short steel fibre combinations were observed in improving the postcrack strength properties of concrete. Test results also indicated that the hybrid steel fibre additions in slag based concrete consisting of short steel and polypropylene (PP fibres exhibited a the highest compressive strength of 48.56 MPa. Comparative analysis on the performance of monofibre concrete consisting of steel and PP fibres had shown lower residual strength compared to hybrid fibre combinations. Hybrid fibres consisting of long steel-PP fibres potentially improved the absolute and residual toughness properties of concrete composite up to a maximum of 94.38% compared to monofibre concrete. In addition, the relative performance levels of different hybrid fibres in improving the matrix strain hardening, postcrack toughness, and residual strength capacity of slag based concretes were evaluated systematically.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Gas Turbine Engine Embedded with Pulse Detonation Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jun-Xiang; Yan, Chuan-Jun; Zheng, Long-Xi; Huang, Xi-Qiao

    2011-09-01

    The numerical investigations of performance evaluation of a hybrid gas turbine engine embedded with a pulse detonation combustor (PDC) were performed to examine the improvement of the performance of the hybrid propulsion system. The calculation model and method were described. The architecture, configuration and size of detonation tubes were investigated in the calculation. Two models of detonation tube exit temperature were utilized. Eight configuration choices for the PDC based on the calculation model were designed. Specific fuel consumption of a hybrid gas turbine engine was compared with that of the baseline engine at the condition of the same engine net thrust. The experimental research of a PDC interacted with a radial flow turbine of a turbocharger was conducted. The numerical results show that if the net thrust of hybrid PDC engine is matched to that of baseline engine, specific fuel consumption of hybrid PDC engine is 20-25% less than that of baseline engine. The total volume of the hybrid engine combustor is reduced. The incorporation of PDC into gas turbine engine can improve the performance of hybrid PDC engine, decrease the combustor weight, and increase the thrust-weight ratio. The experimental results show that the fully developed detonation waves are achieved in the experimental apparatus.

  19. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  20. Nota Editorial Volume X

    OpenAIRE

    Galinha,Iolanda Costa

    2014-01-01

    Neste momento de fecho do volume X da Psique, esta nota editorial tem como primeira finalidade agradecer aos especialistas em Psicologia, envolvidos no processo de revisão, selecção, e reformulação dos artigos publicados neste volume da Psique. Referimo-nos, naturalmente, ao Conselho Editorial da Psique, que foi o responsável por nos apoiar de perto neste processo ambicioso de promover, em simultâneo, a celeridade e a qualidade dos artigos a publicar neste volume da Psique. ...

  1. Fiber reinforced hybrid phenolic foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Amit

    Hybrid composites in recent times have been developed by using more than one type of fiber reinforcement to bestow synergistic properties of the chosen filler and matrix and also facilitating the design of materials with specific properties matched to end use. However, the studies for hybrid foams have been very limited because of problems related to fiber dispersion in matrix, non uniform mixing due to presence of more than one filler and partially cured foams. An effective approach to synthesize hybrid phenolic foam has been proposed and investigated here. Hybrid composite phenolic foams were reinforced with chopped glass and aramid fibers in varied proportions. On assessing mechanical properties in compression and shear several interesting facts surfaced but overall hybrid phenolic foams exhibited a more graceful failure, greater resistance to cracking and were significantly stiffer and stronger than foams with only glass and aramid fibers. The optimum fiber ratio for the reinforced hybrid phenolic foam system was found to be 1:1 ratio of glass to aramid fibers. Also, the properties of hybrid foam were found to deviate from rule of mixture (ROM) and thus the existing theories of fiber reinforcement fell short in explaining their complex behavior. In an attempt to describe and predict mechanical behavior of hybrid foams a statistical design tool using analysis of variance technique was employed. The utilization of a statistical model for predicting foam properties was found to be an appropriate tool that affords a global perspective of the influence of process variables such as fiber weight fraction, fiber length etc. on foam properties (elastic modulus and strength). Similar approach could be extended to study other fiber composite foam systems such as polyurethane, epoxy etc. and doing so will reduce the number of experimental iterations needed to optimize foam properties and identify critical process variables. Diffusivity, accelerated aging and flammability

  2. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  3. Hybrid stage I palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome has no advantage on ventricular energetics: a theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Shuji; Kawada, Toru; Une, Dai; Shishido, Toshiaki; Kamiya, Atsunori; Sano, Shunji; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid procedure combining bilateral pulmonary artery banding with ductal stenting has recently been used as stage I palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. However, the advantage of the hybrid procedure over the Norwood procedure on ventricular energetics remains unclear. To clarify this, we performed a computational analysis with a combination of time-varying elastance chamber model and modified three-element Windkessel vascular model. Although mean pulmonary artery (PA) pressure, pulmonary flow, and oxygen saturation were almost equivalent with the Norwood procedure, the hybrid procedure delivered higher systolic and lower diastolic systemic arterial pressures compared to the Norwood procedure with right ventricle (RV) to PA shunt. As a result, the hybrid procedure yielded increased systolic pressure-volume area and impaired mechanical efficiency. Therefore, the hybrid procedure has probably no advantage on ventricular energetics compared to the Norwood procedure with a RV-PA shunt.

  4. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  5. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  6. Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of lung volume reduction surgery in clinical practice is limited by high postoperative morbidity and stringent selection criteria. This has been the impetus for the development of bronchoscopic approaches to lung volume reduction. A range of different techniques such as endobronchial blockers, airway bypass, endobronchial valves, thermal vapor ablation, biological sealants, and airway implants have been employed on both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous emphysema. The currently available data on efficacy of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction are not conclusive and subjective benefit in dyspnoea scores is a more frequent finding than improvements on spirometry or exercise tolerance. Safety data are more promising with rare procedure-related mortality, few serious complications, and short hospital length of stay. The field of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction continues to evolve as ongoing prospective randomized trials build on earlier feasibility data to clarify the true efficacy of such techniques.

  7. Stock selection using a hybrid MCDM approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Poklepović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of selecting the right stocks to invest in is of immense interest for investors on both emerging and developed capital markets. Moreover, an investor should take into account all available data regarding stocks on the particular market. This includes fundamental and stock market indicators. The decision making process includes several stocks to invest in and more than one criterion. Therefore, the task of selecting the stocks to invest in can be viewed as a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM problem. Using several MCDM methods often leads to divergent rankings. The goal of this paper is to resolve these possible divergent results obtained from different MCDM methods using a hybrid MCDM approach based on Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Five MCDM methods are selected: COPRAS, linear assignment, PROMETHEE, SAW and TOPSIS. The weights for all criteria are obtained by using the AHP method. Data for this study includes information on stock returns and traded volumes from March 2012 to March 2014 for 19 stocks on the Croatian capital market. It also includes the most important fundamental and stock market indicators for selected stocks. Rankings using five selected MCDM methods in the stock selection problem yield divergent results. However, after applying the proposed approach the final hybrid rankings are obtained. The results show that the worse stocks to invest in happen to be the same when the industry is taken into consideration or when not. However, when the industry is taken into account, the best stocks to invest in are slightly different, because some industries are more profitable than the others.

  8. Hybrid passivated colloidal quantum dot solids

    KAUST Repository

    Ip, Alex

    2012-07-29

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films allow large-area solution processing and bandgap tuning through the quantum size effect. However, the high ratio of surface area to volume makes CQD films prone to high trap state densities if surfaces are imperfectly passivated, promoting recombination of charge carriers that is detrimental to device performance. Recent advances have replaced the long insulating ligands that enable colloidal stability following synthesis with shorter organic linkers or halide anions, leading to improved passivation and higher packing densities. Although this substitution has been performed using solid-state ligand exchange, a solution-based approach is preferable because it enables increased control over the balance of charges on the surface of the quantum dot, which is essential for eliminating midgap trap states. Furthermore, the solution-based approach leverages recent progress in metal:chalcogen chemistry in the liquid phase. Here, we quantify the density of midgap trap states in CQD solids and show that the performance of CQD-based photovoltaics is now limited by electrong-"hole recombination due to these states. Next, using density functional theory and optoelectronic device modelling, we show that to improve this performance it is essential to bind a suitable ligand to each potential trap site on the surface of the quantum dot. We then develop a robust hybrid passivation scheme that involves introducing halide anions during the end stages of the synthesis process, which can passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. An organic crosslinking strategy is then used to form the film. Finally, we use our hybrid passivated CQD solid to fabricate a solar cell with a certified efficiency of 7.0%, which is a record for a CQD photovoltaic device. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  10. Hybrid metrology: from the lab into the fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Alok; Elia, Alexander; Iddawela, Givantha; Bozdog, Cornel; Sendelbach, Matthew; Kang, Byung Cheol (Charles); Isbester, Paul K.; Wolfling, Shay

    2014-10-01

    The accelerated pace of the semiconductor industry in recent years is putting a strain on existing dimensional metrology equipment (such as critical dimension-secondary electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scatterometry) to keep up with ever-increasing metrology challenges. However, a revolution appears to be forming with the recent advent of hybrid metrology (HM). We highlight some of the challenges and lessons learned when setting up a standard HM solution and describe the first-in-industry implementation of HM within a high-volume manufacturing environment.

  11. Hybrid grating reflector with high reflectivity and broad bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Park, Gyeong Cheol; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a new type of grating reflector denoted hybrid grating (HG) which shows large reflectivity in a broad wavelength range and has a structure suitable for realizing a vertical cavity laser with ultra-small modal volume. The properties of the grating reflector are investigated numerically...... and explained. The HG consists of an un-patterned III-V layer and a Si grating. The III-V layer has a thickness comparable to the grating layer, introduces more guided mode resonances and significantly increases the bandwidth of the reflector compared to the well-known high-index-contrast grating (HCG...

  12. Tribological Technology. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    torque measurements. Axial load is applied cn the main shaft by a hydraulic Jack and is measured *W. with a straid gauge transducer. Load is transmitted...they were severly pitted. All results therefore clearly show that as long as gear geometry at the point simulated is not affected by wear, goodI ...special class of hybrid bearing is the jacking bearing, in which the bearing is jacked hydrostatically under pressure to separate the bearing surfaces

  13. Natural Environment Characterization Using Hybrid Tomographic Aproaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ferro-Famil, Laurent; Reigber, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    SAR tomography (SARTOM) is the extension of conventional two-dimensional SAR imaging principle to three dimensions [1]. A real 3D imaging of a scene is achieved by the formation of an additional synthetic aperture in elevation and the coherent combination of images acquired from several parallel flight tracks. This imaging technique allows a direct localization of multiple scattering contributions in a same resolution cell, leading to a refined analysis of volume structures, like forests or dense urban areas. In order to improve the vertical resolution with respect to classical Fourier-based methods, High-Resolution (HR) approaches are used in this paper to perform SAR tomography. Both nonparametric spectral estimators, like Beamforming and Capon and parametric ones, like MUSIC, Maximum Likelihood, are applied to real data sets and compared in terms of scatterer location accuracy and resolution. It is known that nonparametric approaches are in general more robust to focusing artefacts, whereas parametric approaches are characterized by a better vertical resolution. It has been shown [2], [3] that the performance of these spectral analysis approaches is conditioned by the nature of the scattering response of the observed objects. In the scenario of hybrid environments where objects with a deterministic response are embedded in a speckle affected environment, the parameter estimation for this type of scatterers becomes a problem of mixed-spectrum estimation. The impenetrable medium like the ground or object, possesses an isolated localized phase center in the vertical direction, leading to a discrete (line) spectrum. This type of scatterers can be considered as 'h-localized', named 'Isolated Scatterers' (IS). Whereas natural environments consist of a large number of elementary scatterers successively distributed in the vertical direction. This type of scatterers can be described as 'h-distributed' scatterers and characterized by a continuous spectrum. Therefore, the

  14. Altitude Acclimatization and Blood Volume: Effects of Exogenous Erythrocyte Volume Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawka, M

    1996-01-01

    ...: (a) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume; (b) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations; (c...

  15. Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors in Hybrid Topologies —Assessment and Evaluation of Their Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri Van Mierlo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PHEVs and BEVs make use of battery cells optimized for high energy rather than for high power. This means that the power abilities of these batteries are limited. In order to enhance their performance, a hybrid Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS architecture can be used combining batteries with electrical-double layer capacitors (EDLCs. Such a hybridized architecture can be accomplished using passive or active systems. In this paper, the characteristics of these topologies have been analyzed and compared based on a newly developed hybridization simulation tool for association of lithium-ion batteries and EDLCs. The analysis shows that the beneficial impact of the EDLCs brings about enhanced battery performances in terms of energy efficiency and voltage drops, rather than extension of vehicle range. These issues have been particularly studied for the passive and active hybrid topologies. The classical passive and active topologies being expensive and less beneficial in term of cost, volume and weight, a new hybrid configuration based on the parallel combination of lithium-ion and EDLCs on cell level has been proposed in this article. This topology allows reducing cost, volume, and weight and system complexity in a significant way. Furthermore, a number of experimental setups have illustrated the power of the novel topology in terms of battery capacity increase and power capabilities during charging and discharging. Finally, a unique cycle life test campaign demonstrated that the lifetime of highly optimized lithium-ion batteries can be extended up to 30%–40%.

  16. John Butcher and hybrid methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdiyeva, Galina; Imanova, Mehriban; Ibrahimov, Vagif

    2017-07-01

    As is known there are the mainly two classes of the numerical methods for solving ODE, which is commonly called a one and multistep methods. Each of these methods has certain advantages and disadvantages. It is obvious that the method which has better properties of these methods should be constructed at the junction of them. In the middle of the XX century, Butcher and Gear has constructed at the junction of the methods of Runge-Kutta and Adams, which is called hybrid method. Here considers the construction of certain generalizations of hybrid methods, with the high order of accuracy and to explore their application to solving the Ordinary Differential, Volterra Integral and Integro-Differential equations. Also have constructed some specific hybrid methods with the degree p ≤ 10.

  17. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    matrices are constructed based on the convex combinations of the generalized gramians. However this framework is less conservative than the first one, it does not guarantee the stability for all switching signals. The stability preservation is studied for this reduction technique. The third framework......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...... of hybrid systems, designing controllers and implementations is very high so that the use of these models is limited in applications where the size of the state space is large. To cope with complexity, model reduction is a powerful technique. This thesis presents methods for model reduction and stability...

  18. DNA-based hybrid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination sphere interactions provided by the DNA are key to achieve high enantioselectivities and, often, additional rate accelerations in catalysis. Nowadays, current efforts are focused on improved designs, understanding the origin of the enantioselectivity and DNA-induced rate accelerations, expanding the catalytic scope of the concept and further increasing the practicality of the method for applications in synthesis. Herein, the recent developments will be reviewed and the perspectives for the emerging field of DNA-based hybrid catalysis will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous ...... processes to be embedded into the logic. The semantics thus provides a secure link to hybrid system models based on a general theory of dynamical systems.......A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous...

  20. Advanced high performance horizontal piezoelectric hybrid synthetic jet actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention comprises a high performance, horizontal, zero-net mass-flux, synthetic jet actuator for active control of viscous, separated flow on subsonic and supersonic vehicles. The present invention is a horizontal piezoelectric hybrid zero-net mass-flux actuator, in which all the walls of the chamber are electrically controlled synergistically to reduce or enlarge the volume of the synthetic jet actuator chamber in three dimensions simultaneously and to reduce or enlarge the diameter of orifice of the synthetic jet actuator simultaneously with the reduction or enlargement of the volume of the chamber. The present invention is capable of installation in the wing surface as well as embedding in the wetted surfaces of a supersonic inlet. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the SJA-H will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  1. Advanced high performance vertical hybrid synthetic jet actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention comprises a high performance, vertical, zero-net mass-flux, synthetic jet actuator for active control of viscous, separated flow on subsonic and supersonic vehicles. The present invention is a vertical piezoelectric hybrid zero-net mass-flux actuator, in which all the walls of the chamber are electrically controlled synergistically to reduce or enlarge the volume of the synthetic jet actuator chamber in three dimensions simultaneously and to reduce or enlarge the diameter of orifice of the synthetic jet actuator simultaneously with the reduction or enlargement of the volume of the chamber. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the present invention will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators.

  2. 3D magnetospheric parallel hybrid multi-grid method applied to planet–plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, L., E-mail: ludivine.leclercq@latmos.ipsl.fr [LATMOS/IPSL, UVSQ Université Paris-Saclay, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, Guyancourt (France); Modolo, R., E-mail: ronan.modolo@latmos.ipsl.fr [LATMOS/IPSL, UVSQ Université Paris-Saclay, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, Guyancourt (France); Leblanc, F. [LATMOS/IPSL, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 Sorbonne Universités, UVSQ, CNRS, Paris (France); Hess, S. [ONERA, Toulouse (France); Mancini, M. [LUTH, Observatoire Paris-Meudon (France)

    2016-03-15

    We present a new method to exploit multiple refinement levels within a 3D parallel hybrid model, developed to study planet–plasma interactions. This model is based on the hybrid formalism: ions are kinetically treated whereas electrons are considered as a inertia-less fluid. Generally, ions are represented by numerical particles whose size equals the volume of the cells. Particles that leave a coarse grid subsequently entering a refined region are split into particles whose volume corresponds to the volume of the refined cells. The number of refined particles created from a coarse particle depends on the grid refinement rate. In order to conserve velocity distribution functions and to avoid calculations of average velocities, particles are not coalesced. Moreover, to ensure the constancy of particles' shape function sizes, the hybrid method is adapted to allow refined particles to move within a coarse region. Another innovation of this approach is the method developed to compute grid moments at interfaces between two refinement levels. Indeed, the hybrid method is adapted to accurately account for the special grid structure at the interfaces, avoiding any overlapping grid considerations. Some fundamental test runs were performed to validate our approach (e.g. quiet plasma flow, Alfven wave propagation). Lastly, we also show a planetary application of the model, simulating the interaction between Jupiter's moon Ganymede and the Jovian plasma.

  3. Thermochemical Storage of Middle Temperature Wasted Heat by Functionalized C/Mg(OH2 Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Mastronardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the thermochemical performance implementation of Mg(OH2 as a heat storage medium, several hybrid materials have been investigated. For this study, high-performance hybrid materials have been developed by exploiting the authors’ previous findings. Expanded graphite (EG/carbon nanotubes (CNTs-Mg(OH2 hybrid materials have been prepared through Mg(OH2 deposition-precipitation over functionalized, i.e., oxidized, or un-functionalized EG or CNTs. The heat storage performances of the carbon-based hybrid materials have been investigated through a laboratory-scale experimental simulation of the heat storage/release cycles, carried out by a thermogravimetric apparatus. This study offers a critical evaluation of the thermochemical performances of developed materials through their comparison in terms of heat storage and output capacities per mass and volume unit. It was demonstrated that both EG and CNTs improves the thermochemical performances of the storage medium in terms of reaction rate and conversion with respect to pure Mg(OH2. With functionalized EG/CNTs-Mg(OH2, (i the potential heat storage and output capacities per mass unit of Mg(OH2 have been completely exploited; and (ii higher heat storage and output capacities per volume unit were obtained. That means, for technological applications, as smaller volume at equal stored/released heat.

  4. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  5. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  6. Genomic Networks of Hybrid Sterility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M.; White, Michael A.; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci (“Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities”). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven ‘hotspots,’ seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL—but not cis eQTL—were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a ‘fertile’ subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  7. Review of laser hybrid welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus

    2004-01-01

    In this artucle an overview og the hybrid welding process is given. After a short historic overview, a review of the fundamental phenomenon taking place when a laser (CO2 or Nd:YAG) interacts in the same molten pool as a more conventional source of energy, e.g. tungsten in-active gas, plasma......, or metal inactive gas/metal active gas.This is followed by reports of how the many process parameters governing the hybrid welding process can be set and how the choice of secondary energy source, shielding gas, etc. can affect the overall welding process....

  8. Hybrid Magnetics and Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wai Keung; Paasch, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid magnetic approach, merging two different magnetic core properites such as ferrite and iron powder cores, is an effective solution for power converter applications. It can offer similar magnetic properties to that of magnetic powder cores but showing less copper loss than powder cores. In...... operation and energy saving. Index Terms—magnetic devices, passive components, boost inductor....... In order to prevent ferrite core saturation, placing an effective air gap within the ferrite core is a key method to obtain optimum hybrid magnetic performance. Furthermore, a relatively large inductance at low loading current is an excellent way to minimze power loss in order to achieve high efficiency...

  9. Inference in hybrid Bayesian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Bayesian Networks (BNs) have become increasingly popular for building statistical models of complex systems. This is particularly true for boolean systems, where BNs often prove to be a more efficient modelling framework than traditional reliability-techniques (like fault trees a...... decade's research on inference in hybrid Bayesian networks. The discussions are linked to an example model for estimating human reliability....... and reliability block diagrams). However, limitations in the BNs' calculation engine have prevented BNs from becoming equally popular for domains containing mixtures of both discrete and continuous variables (so-called hybrid domains). In this paper we focus on these difficulties, and summarize some of the last...

  10. Towards an expansive hybrid psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions, depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré’s hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded significantly by including the four...... sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological artefacts. It is argued that the mind is normative in the sense that mental processes do not simply happen, but can be done more or less well, and thus are subject to normative appraisal. The expanded hybrid psychology...

  11. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    The economic importance of the ornamental plant industry requires constant development of novel and high quality varieties. Traits attractive for production of new ornamental plants may not be available within the commercial cultivars, but broad genetic variation is present within the plant genera...... commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...

  12. A "Hybrid" Approach for Synthesizing Optimal Controllers of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hengjun; Zhan, Naijun; Kapur, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach to reduce the optimal controller synthesis problem of hybrid systems to quantifier elimination; furthermore, we also show how to combine quantifier elimination with numerical computation in order to make it more scalable but at the same time, keep arising errors due...

  13. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jia-Shiun

    2015-01-01

    Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) ar...

  14. Gas Well Testing Analysis Using Finite-Difference Models and Optimization Techniques Analyse d'essais de puits de gaz par des modèles utilisant la méthode des différences finies et par des techniques d'optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darderes E. A.

    2006-11-01

    paramètres à partir d'essais de puits de gaz. Une des plus performantes est l'analyse du régime pseudo-permanent pour lequel on trouve, sur un graphique semi-logarithmique, une relation linéaire entre la pseudo-pression d'un gaz réel et le temps. Une autre méthode est l'ajustement à des courbes types. Les deux méthodes présentent l'inconvénient de ne pouvoir être rigoureusement appliquées qu'à des cas spécifiques. Cet article expose une méthode générale permettant d'analyser les données des essais de puits par ajustement automatisé des courbes types. Elle est basée sur le meilleur accord d'un modèle numérique avec les données obtenues dans les essais de puits de gaz grâce à des techniques d'optimisation. Le modèle numérique fournit la solution d'une équation différentielle à dérivées partielles du 2e ordre et fortement non linéaire qui régit le flux radial des gaz réels vers un puits de production. L'équation différentielle est résolue par la méthode des différences finies en tenant compte des variations des propriétés des gaz avec la pression. Pour simuler n'importe quel type d'essais de puits de gaz, on impose des conditions initiales et aux limites appropriées. On minimise les différences résiduelles entre les pressions réelles mesurées pendant l'essai et les pressions calculées par la méthode des moindres carrés. On utilise deux techniques d'optimisation pour obtenir la meilleure estimation des paramètres qui minimisent la somme des carrés des résidus : la méthode monovariante de Fibonacci [1] et la méthode polyvariante de Marquardt [1, 2]. On applique ce mode opératoire à des essais de puits menés à un débit constant et à deux débits constants. Les résultats numériques concordent très bien avec les données des essais de puits.

  15. Hybrid Models for Sequential Decision Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Ron

    2000-01-01

    To study hybrid architectures of complex learning, especially as applied to a simulated minefield navigation task, we developed a hybrid connectionist model CLARION as a demonstration of the approach...

  16. Fundamentals of Hybrid Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Kathryn E.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides definitions and distinguishing characteristics of the various terms used in the context of hybrid education. The author also offers an overview of the recent literature on hybrid teaching and learning.

  17. Trends in the Development of Hybrid Drives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Josef Morkus

    2016-01-01

    ... of the batteries and more sophisticated forms of hybrid drive control. Specific trends include the charging of electric or hybrid buses at bus stops and the regulation-influenced development of competitive and racing vehicles...

  18. High Temperature Hybrid Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Kerry Anthony

    Conventional high temperature elastomers are produced by chain polymerization of olefinic or fluorinated olefinic monomers. Ultimate thermal stabilities are limited by backbone bond strengths, lower thermal stability of cross-link sites relative to backbone bonds, and depolymerization or "unzipping" at high temperatures. In order to develop elastomers with enhanced thermal stability, hybrid thermally cross-linkable polymers that consisted only of organic-inorganic and aromatic bonds were synthesized and evaluated. The addition of phenylethynyl or phenylacetylinic functional groups to these polymers resulted in conversion of the polymers into high temperature elastomers when cross-linked by thermal curing. Polyphenyoxydiphenylsilanes were synthesized via several different condensation reactions. Results of these synthetic reactions, which utilized both hydroquinone and biphenol as monomers, were systematically evaluated to determine the optimal synthetic conditions for subsequent endcapping reactions. It was determined that dichlorodiphenylsilane condensations with biphenol in toluene or THF were best suited for this work. Use of excess dichlorodiphenylsilane yielded polymers of appropriate molecular weights with terminal reactive chlorosilane groups that could be utilized for coupling with phenylethynyl reagents in a subsequent reaction. Two new synthetic routes were developed to endcap biphenoxysilanes with ethynyl containing substituents, to yield polymers with cross-linkable end groups. Endcapping by lithiumphenylacetylide and 4[(4-fluorophenylethynyl))phenol yielded two new polymers that could be thermally cross-linked on heating above 300 °C. Successful endcapping was verified chemically by 13C NMR, FTIR and Raman analysis. Exothermic peaks consistent with ethynyl curing reactions were observed in endcapped polymers by DSC. A new diacetylinic polymer was prepared through reaction of 4,4'-buta-1,3-diyne-1,4-diyldiphenol and dichlorodiphenylsilane. This

  19. A computationally efficient 3D finite-volume scheme for violent liquid–gas sloshing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oxtoby, Oliver F

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available . The high resolution artificial compressive (HiRAC) volume-of-fluid method is used for accurate capturing of the free surface in violent flow regimes while allowing natural applicability to hybrid-unstructured meshes. The code is parallelised for solution...

  20. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  1. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  2. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  3. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...... (range 5.0-8.4 years). Cox regression analysis (automatic forward selection) showed the MNV to be the most significant prognostic parameter followed by the P-stage. Patients who had localized tumors or tumors with small nuclei had a better probability of surviving than did women with advanced tumors...

  4. Volume holographic memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Denz

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Volume holography represents a promising alternative to existing storage technologies. Its parallel data storage leads to high capacities combined with short access times and high transfer rates. The design and realization of a compact volume holographic storage demonstrator is presented. The technique of phase-coded multiplexing implemented to superimpose many data pages in a single location enables to store up to 480 holograms per storage location without any moving parts. Results of analog and digital data storage are shown and real time optical image processing is demonstrated.

  5. The evaluation of MiL-Lx and Hybrid III Leg using Hybrid III and EUROSID2-re Anthropomorphic Test Devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available the HIII and MiL-Lx instrumented lower legs as loaded by the Modified Lower Limb Impactor (MLLI). Keywords? MiL-Lx;STANAG 4569;AEP 55 Volume 3;EuroSID 2- re;Hybrid III INTRODUCTION Most military research and procurement organizations utilize standard... test methodologies for evaluating the protection level of military vehicles against kinetic energy, artillery, grenade, IED and mine blast threats. These methodologies standardize test conditions, define threat levels, describe measuring devices...

  6. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  7. Safe Neighborhood Computation for Hybrid System Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the design and implementation of engineering systems, performing model-based analysis can disclose potential safety issues at an early stage. The analysis of hybrid system models is in general difficult due to the intrinsic complexity of hybrid dynamics. In this paper, a simulation-based approach to formal verification of hybrid systems is presented.

  8. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid ...

  9. Palygorskite Hybridized Carbon Nanocomposite as a High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    A nanocomposite, in which acid-treated palygorskite was hybridized with carbon, was prepared and designed as an efficient support for electrocatatlysts. Pd nanoparticles were deposited on the hybrid support as an electrocatalyst for formic acid oxida- tion. The hybrid supports and electrocatalysts were characterized by ...

  10. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  11. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the

  12. Palygorskite Hybridized Carbon Nanocomposite as a High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nanocomposite, in which acid-treated palygorskite was hybridized with carbon, was prepared and designed as an efficient support for electrocatatlysts. Pd nanoparticles were deposited on the hybrid support as an electrocatalyst for formic acid oxidation. The hybrid supports and electrocatalysts were characterized by ...

  13. Ultrahigh-speed hybrid laser for silicon photonic integrated chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Park, Gyeong Cheol; Ran, Qijiang

    2013-01-01

    and light-emitting diode (LED) structures have been proposed so far. Our hybrid laser is one of these efforts [2]. The hybrid laser consists of a dielectric reflector, a III-V semiconductor active material, and a high-index-contrast grating (HCG) reflector formed in the silicon layer of a silicon......-oninsulator (SOI) wafer. ‘Hybrid’ indicates that a III-V active material is wafer-bonded to a silicon SOI wafer. In the hybrid laser, light is vertically amplified between the dielectric and the HCG reflectors, while the light output is laterally emitted to a normal Si ridge waveguide that is connected to the HCG...... reflector. The HCG works as a vertical mirror as well as a vertical-to-lateral coupler. Very small field penetration into the HCG allows for 3-4 times smaller modal volume than typical vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). This leads to high direct modulation speed. Details on device operating...

  14. Severe Slugging in Air-Water Hybrid Riser System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Gong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the subsea pipeline gathering system, severe slugging flow is prone to occur. Severe slugging flow brings major threat to production and flow assurance in oil and gas industry due to periodical pressure oscillation and large liquid volume. Currently many researchers pay much more attention on L-shaped riser, catenaries, and S-shaped riser; little research has been made on hybrid riser, which is applied in the Africa West and Gulf of Mexico oil fields. Flow characteristics simulation for hybrid riser is made in this paper, using the one-dimensional and quasi-equilibrium model to simulate not only the riser-base pressure, severe slugging period, and the liquid slug length of the whole system but also base-pressure in the flexible pipe section. The calculated results match well with the experiment data. Besides, the influence of flexible pipe to the severe slugging characteristics of hybrid riser system is analyzed, which are significant for the determination of riser structure.

  15. Hybrid hydrogel photonic barcodes for multiplex detection of tumor markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yueshuang; Zhang, Xiaoping; Luan, Chengxin; Wang, Huan; Chen, Baoan; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2017-01-15

    Barcodes-based suspension array have for demonstrated values in multiplex assay of tumor markers. Photonic barcodes which are encoded by their characteristic reflection peaks are the important supports for suspension array due to their stable code, low fluorescent background and high surface-volume ratio. Attempts to develop this technology tend to improve the function of the photonic barcodes. Here, we present a new type of hybrid hydrogel photonic barcodes for efficient multiplex assays. This photonic barcodes are hybrid inverse opal hydrogel composed of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) and agarose. The polymerized PEG-DA hydrogel could guarantee the stabilities of the inverse opal structure and its resultant code, while the agarose could offer active chemical groups for the probe immobilization and homogeneous water surrounding for the bioassay. In addition, the interconnected pores inverse opal structure could provide channels for biomolecules diffusing and reaction into the voids of barcodes. These features imparted the hybrid hydrogel photonic barcodes with limits of detection (LOD) of 0.78ng/mL for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and 0.21ng/mL for α-fetoprotein (AFP), respectively. It was also demonstrated that the proposed barcodes showed acceptable accuracy and detection reproducibility, and the results were in acceptable agreement with those from common clinic method for the detections of practical clinical samples. Thus, our technique provides a new platform for simultaneous multiplex immunoassay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Iterative framework radiation hybrid mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building comprehensive radiation hybrid maps for large sets of markers is a computationally expensive process, since the basic mapping problem is equivalent to the traveling salesman problem. The mapping problem is also susceptible to noise, and as a result, it is often beneficial to remove markers ...

  17. Hybrid origins of cultivated potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes, Solanum section Petota, is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. The taxonomy of cultivated potatoes is particularly controversial. With DNA sequence data of the GBSSI (waxy) gene we here infer r...

  18. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    found in propositional and first-order hybrid logic, and (as is usual inhybrid logic) we automatically obtain a wide range of completeness results for stronger logics and languages. Our approach is deliberately low-tech. We don’t, for example, make use of Montague’s intensional type s, or Fitting......We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types...... the way we interpret @i in propositional and first-order hybrid logic. This means: interpret @iαa , where αa is an expression of any type a , as an expression of type a that rigidly returns the value that αa receives at the i-world. The axiomatization and completeness proofs are generalizations of those...

  19. Hybrid I/O automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Lynch; R. Segala; F.W. Vaandrager (Frits); H.B. Weinberg

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new hybrid I/O automaton model that is capable of describing both continuous and discrete behavior. The model, which extends the timed I/O automaton model of Lynch et al and the phase transition system models of Manna et al, allows communication among components using both

  20. Organic and hybrid solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a comprehensive evaluation of organic and hybrid solar cells and identifies their fundamental principles and numerous applications. Great attention is given to the charge transport mechanism, donor and acceptor materials, interfacial materials, alternative electrodes, device engineering and physics, and device stability. The authors provide an industrial perspective on the future of photovoltaic technologies.

  1. Information transmission on hybrid networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongbin; Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Li, Jie; Ji, Bo; Gakis, Konstantinos; Pardalos, Panos M.

    2018-01-01

    Many real-world communication networks often have hybrid nature with both fixed nodes and moving modes, such as the mobile phone networks mainly composed of fixed base stations and mobile phones. In this paper, we discuss the information transmission process on the hybrid networks with both fixed and mobile nodes. The fixed nodes (base stations) are connected as a spatial lattice on the plane forming the information-carrying backbone, while the mobile nodes (users), which are the sources and destinations of information packets, connect to their current nearest fixed nodes respectively to deliver and receive information packets. We observe the phase transition of traffic load in the hybrid network when the packet generation rate goes from below and then above a critical value, which measures the network capacity of packets delivery. We obtain the optimal speed of moving nodes leading to the maximum network capacity. We further improve the network capacity by rewiring the fixed nodes and by considering the current load of fixed nodes during packets transmission. Our purpose is to optimize the network capacity of hybrid networks from the perspective of network science, and provide some insights for the construction of future communication infrastructures.

  2. Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid tense logic is an extension of Priorean tense logic in which it is possible to refer to times using special propositional sym- bols called nominals. Temporal indexicals are expressions such as now, yesterday, today, tomorrow and four days ago that have highly context- dependent interpretat...

  3. Position list word aligned hybrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    of storage space. This paper presents the Position List Word Aligned Hybrid (PLWAH) compression scheme that improves significantly over WAH compression by better utilizing the available bits and new CPU instructions. For typical bit distributions, PLWAH compressed bitmaps are often half the size of WAH...

  4. Hybrid Qualifications Country report Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2010-01-01

    The report explores the institutional and functional relations between the higher education (tertiary sector) and vocational education (higher secondary education) and the labour market. In the report are included descriptions of the history, funding, outcomes, institutional realisation and term...... and range of hybrid qualifications in the national system. In addition some recommendations for constructive further developments are given....

  5. Hybrid spin-crossover nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Carlos M; Félix, Gautier; Suleimanov, Iurii; Sánchez Costa, José; Molnár, Gábor; Salmon, Lionel; Nicolazzi, William; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2014-01-01

    This review reports on the recent progress in the synthesis, modelling and application of hybrid spin-crossover materials, including core-shell nanoparticles and multilayer thin films or nanopatterns. These systems combine, often in synergy, different physical properties (optical, magnetic, mechanical and electrical) of their constituents with the switching properties of spin-crossover complexes, providing access to materials with unprecedented capabilities.

  6. Hybrid spin-crossover nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Carlos M; Gautier Félix; Iurii Suleimanov; José Sánchez Costa; Gábor Molnár; Lionel Salmon; William Nicolazzi; Azzedine Bousseksou

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review reports on the recent progress in the synthesis, modelling and application of hybrid spin-crossover materials, including core?shell nanoparticles and multilayer thin films or nanopatterns. These systems combine, often in synergy, different physical properties (optical, magnetic, mechanical and electrical) of their constituents with the switching properties of spin-crossover complexes, providing access to materials with unprecedented capabilities.

  7. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid winding concept for toroids using the traces in a printed circuit board to make connection to bended copper foil cutouts. In a final product a number of strips with a certain thickness would be held by a former and the whole assembly could be placed by pick...

  8. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  9. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  10. Polyacrylamide-based inorganic hybrid flocculants with self-degradable property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xinfang [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Tao, Junshi; Li, Mingzhi; Zhu, Bishan; Li, Xuan; Ma, Zhiyu; Zhao, Tingjie; Wang, Bingzhu; Suo, Biao [Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, Haiwang, E-mail: whwdbdx@126.com [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yang, Jun, E-mail: jyang@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ye, Li, E-mail: yeli@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qi, Xiwei, E-mail: qxw@mail.neuq.edu.cn [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM)-based inorganic hybrid materials are of great potential as flocculants in soil-liquid separation. Herein, we reported the design of inorganic soil-TiO{sub 2}-PAM hybrid materials using a unique process, which involved coating of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles on the surface of inorganic soils and subsequent polymerization of acrylamide (AM) on these nanoparticles under visible light. Inorganic soils including kaolin, bentonite, montmorillonite and diatomaceous earth were used to control the volume and to reduce the cost, and the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles accelerated PAM degradation. The nanoparticles initiated AM polymerization directly under visible light, thus providing a facile strategy for the synthesis of new organic-inorganic hybrid flocculants. The obtained hybrid materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The degradation of PAM initiated by UV irradiation exceeded 24% in 2 h, depending on its initial concentration. - Highlights: • A new polyacrylamide (PAM)-based inorganic hybrid flocculants with self-degradable property was developed. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles show a unique surface-initiated property under the condition of visible light. • We designed a facile strategy for the synthesis of inorganic soil@TiO{sub 2}@PAM hybrid materials.

  11. Dietary supplementation with hybrid palm oil alters liver function in the common Marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Flavia; Sales, Rafael Carvalho; Gil-Zamorano, Judit; Medeiros, Priscylla da Costa; Latasa, Maria-Jesús; Lima, Monique Ribeiro; de Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes; Martin-Hernández, Roberto; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Iglesias-Gutierrez, Eduardo; Mantilla-Escalante, Diana C; das Graças Tavares do Carmo, Maria; Dávalos, Alberto

    2018-02-09

    Hybrid palm oil, which contains higher levels of oleic acid and lower saturated fatty acids in comparison with African palm oil, has been proposed to be somehow equivalent to extra virgin olive oil. However, the biological effects of its consumption are poorly described. Here we have explored the effects of its overconsumption on lipid metabolism in a non-human primate model, the common marmoset. Dietary supplementation of marmoset with hyperlipidic diet containing hybrid palm oil for 3 months did not modify plasma lipids levels, but increased glucose levels as compared to the supplementation with African palm oil. Liver volume was unexpectedly found to be more increased in marmosets consuming hybrid palm oil than in those consuming African palm oil. Hepatic total lipid content and circulating transaminases were dramatically increased in animals consuming hybrid palm oil, as well as an increased degree of fibrosis. Analysis of liver miRNAs showed a selective modulation of certain miRNAs by hybrid palm oil, some of which were predicted to target genes involved in cell adhesion molecules and peroxisomal pathways. Our data suggest that consumption of hybrid palm oil should be monitored carefully, as its overconsumption compared to that of African palm oil could involve important alterations to hepatic metabolism.

  12. Multiscale tomographic analysis of polymer-nanoparticle hybrid materials for solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Haro, Miguel; Jiu, Tonggang; Bayle-Guillemaud, Pascale; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Chandezon, Frédéric

    2013-11-21

    The present work focuses on the study of the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of polymer and nanoparticle hybrid nanocomposites used as active layers in solution-processed solar cells. The hybrid consists of blends of regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene) and CdSe nanorods. Electron tomography (ET) analysis performed in high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) allows resolving single nanorods in the hybrid blend. These results are compared with those obtained using focused ion beam coupled with scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), operated in a so-called 3D "slice-and-view" mode. This technique allows 3D information to be obtained on a whole device stack (hybrid active layers plus electrodes and the substrate) for significantly larger surface areas than with ET (~10 vs. ~0.1 μm(2)). The combination of ET and 3D FIB "slice-and-view" reconstructions provides complementary and coherent information on the 3D morphology of the hybrid systems at different length scales. Phase separation between the nanoparticles and the polymer is investigated by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volumes and is related to the performances of the hybrid devices.

  13. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac

    2015-07-01

    Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic-anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia-nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75d and 60d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4L/kgvs and 113.2L/kgvs. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anaerobic biogranulation in a hybrid reactor treating phenolic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Anushyaa [Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gupta, S.K. [Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)]. E-mail: skgupta@cc.iitb.ac.in

    2006-10-11

    Granulation was examined in four similar anaerobic hybrid reactors 15.5 L volume (with an effective volume of 13.5 L) during the treatment of synthetic coal wastewater at the mesophilic temperature of 27 {+-} 5 deg. C. The hybrid reactors are a combination of UASB unit at the lower part and an anaerobic filter at the upper end. Synthetic wastewater with an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2240 mg/L, phenolics concentration of 752 mg/L and a mixture of volatile fatty acids was fed to three hybrid reactors. The fourth reactor, control system, was fed with a wastewater containing sodium acetate and mineral nutrients. Coal waste water contained phenol (490 mg/L); m-, o-, p-cresols (123.0, 58.6, 42 mg/L); 2,4-, 2,5-, 3,4- and 3,5-dimethyl phenols (6.3, 6.3, 4.4 and 21.3 mg/L) as major phenolic compounds. A mixture of anaerobic digester sludge and partially granulated sludge (3:1) were used as seed materials for the start up of the reactors. Granules were observed after 45 days of operation of the systems. The granules ranged from 0.4 to 1.2 mm in diameter with good settling characteristics with an SVI of 12 mL/g SS. After granulation, the hybrid reactor performed steadily with phenolics and COD removal efficiencies of 93% and 88%, respectively at volumetric loading rate of 2.24 g COD/L d and hydraulic retention time of 24 h. The removal efficiencies for phenol and m/p-cresols reached 92% and 93% (corresponding to 450.8 and 153 mg/L), while o-cresol was degraded to 88% (corresponding to 51.04 mg/L). Dimethyl phenols could be removed completely at all the organic loadings and did not contribute much to the residual organics. Biodegradation of o-cresol was obtained in the hybrid-UASB reactors.

  15. Transient combustion in hybrid rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeyoglu, Mustafa Arif

    1998-09-01

    Hybrid rockets regained interest recently as an alternative chemical propulsion system due to their advantages over the solid and liquid systems that are currently in use. Development efforts on hybrids revealed two important problem areas: (1) low frequency instabilities and (2) slow transient response. Both of these are closely related to the transient behavior which is a poorly understood aspect of hybrid operation. This thesis is mainly involved with a theoretical study of transient combustion in hybrid rockets. We follow the methodology of identifying and modeling the subsystems of the motor such as the thermal lags in the solid, boundary layer combustion and chamber gasdynamics from a dynamic point of view. We begin with the thermal lag in the solid which yield the regression rate for any given wall heat flux variation. Interesting phenomena such as overshooting during throttling and the amplification and phase lead regions in the frequency domain are discovered. Later we develop a quasi-steady transient hybrid combustion model supported with time delays for the boundary layer processes. This is integrated with the thermal lag system to obtain the thermal combustion (TC) coupled response. The TC coupled system with positive delays generated low frequency instabilities. The scaling of the instabilities are in good agreement with actual motor test data. Finally, we formulate a gasdynamic model for the hybrid chamber which successfully resolves the filling/emptying and longitudinal acoustic behavior of the motor. The TC coupled system is later integrated to the gasdynamic model to obtain the overall response (TCG coupled system) of gaseous oxidizer motors with stiff feed systems. Low frequency instabilities were also encountered for the TCG coupled system. Apart from the transient investigations, the regression rate behavior of liquefying hybrid propellants such as solid cryogenic materials are also studied. The theory is based on the possibility of enhancement

  16. Shape Memory Composite Hybrid Hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Scarborough, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are two conventional types of hinges for in-space deployment applications. The first type is mechanically deploying hinges. A typical mechanically deploying hinge is usually composed of several tens of components. It is complicated, heavy, and bulky. More components imply higher deployment failure probability. Due to the existence of relatively moving components among a mechanically deploying hinge, it unavoidably has microdynamic problems. The second type of conventional hinge relies on strain energy for deployment. A tape-spring hinge is a typical strain energy hinge. A fundamental problem of a strain energy hinge is that its deployment dynamic is uncontrollable. Usually, its deployment is associated with a large impact, which is unacceptable for many space applications. Some damping technologies have been experimented with to reduce the impact, but they increased the risks of an unsuccessful deployment. Coalescing strain energy components with shape memory composite (SMC) components to form a hybrid hinge is the solution. SMCs are well suited for deployable structures. A SMC is created from a high-performance fiber and a shape memory polymer resin. When the resin is heated to above its glass transition temperature, the composite becomes flexible and can be folded or packed. Once cooled to below the glass transition temperature, the composite remains in the packed state. When the structure is ready to be deployed, the SMC component is reheated to above the glass transition temperature, and it returns to its as-fabricated shape. A hybrid hinge is composed of two strain energy flanges (also called tape-springs) and one SMC tube. Two folding lines are placed on the SMC tube to avoid excessive strain on the SMC during folding. Two adapters are used to connect the hybrid hinge to its adjacent structural components. While the SMC tube is heated to above its glass transition temperature, a hybrid hinge can be folded and stays at folded status after the temperature

  17. Reproduction and hybrid load in all-hybrid populations of Rana esculenta water frogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ditte Guldager; Fog, Kåre; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2005-01-01

    All-hybrid populations of the water frog, Rana esculenta, are exceptional in consisting of independently and to some extent sexually reproducing interspecific hybrids. In most of its range R. esculenta reproduces hemiclonally with one of the parental species, R. lessonae or R. ridibunda, but viable...... gametogenesis and mating between frogs with incompatible gametes induce a significant hybrid load in all-hybrid populations of R. esculenta, and we discuss compensating advantages and potential evolutionary trajectories to reduce this hybrid load....

  18. Growth, straightness and survival at age 32 in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population (Experiment 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An interspecific factorial hybridization was made, where seven P. strobus female parent trees were mated to four P. wallichiana male trees, in order to transfer genes for resistance to blister-rust from the blue pine to the F1 hybrids. The hybrid seedlings and the open pollinated families of the two parents were three times consecutivelyinoculated with blister-rust. The six years old seedlings were transplanted in the field in the so called Văliug Experiment 1. The experimental design consisted in 28 hybrid full-sib families and two open pollinated families of the parent species. Plantation took place in a complete randomized block design with three blocks, with 6 to 12 seedlings per linear plot and 3 x 3 m spacing. This paper is based on the measurements made at age 32, just after the first thinning. Diameter at breast height, tree height, tree volume, stem straightness and tree survival were the five measured traits. According to ANOVA, significant (p < 0.05 and highly significant (p< 0.001 differences for diameter at breast height, tree height, volume growth rate, stem straightness and tree survival were detected between hybrid families. Highly significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.001 differences were found between eastern white pine female parents for survival, stem straightness and all growth traits, suggestingthat nuclear additive genes are controlling the respective characters. Consequently, high survival or genetic resistance to blister-rust can be found within the P. strobus species even though it is highly susceptible to this pathogen. The P. wallichiana parents exhibited significant additive effects on straightness and breast height diameter, but no significance in height, volume, and tree survival. The contribution of the additive variance to the phenotypic one was 65.7% for diameter, 58.6% for height, 50.5% for volume, 70.4% for stem straightness and 73.4% for tree survival. Hence, additive variance should be employed in a breeding program

  19. Liter - Metric Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Diane

    This autoinstructional program, developed as part of a general science course, is offered for students in the middle schools. Mathematics of fractions and decimals is considered to be prerequisite knowledge. The behavioral objectives are directed toward mastery of determining volumes of solid objects using the water displacement method as well as…

  20. Another year, another volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2012-01-01

    This issue represents the final one in volume 76 of Journal of Wildlife Management. As this one is pretty much in the books, one cannot help but wonder what the future holds for the journal. Lenny Brennan is putting together a piece for Wildlife Society Bulletin to examine how The Wildlife Society publications have changed through time. He solicited input from past and...

  1. Mean Platelet Volume

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Chest Disease, Bolu, Turkey. E-mail: abanttip14@gmail.com. Telephone number: +903742534618. Fax number: +903742534615 effective and should have wide spread acceptance. At present, none of the available diagnostic tests meets all these criteria. The mean platelet volume (MPV) is potentially one of.

  2. Volume 9 Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Volume 9 Number 2 May 2010 PP. 131 – 136 ... The study assessed the effectiveness of Songhai-Delta fish culture training programme. A structured ..... The high adoption of these technologies might be due to the fact that these farmers are fish farmers and would like to adopt improved technologies that would meet their ...

  3. A hybrid air conditioner driven by a hybrid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alili, Ali

    The objective of this thesis is to search for an efficient way of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications. The current solar Air Conditioners (A/C)s suffer from low Coefficient of Performance (COP) and performance degradation in hot and humid climates. By investigating the possible ways of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications, the bottlenecks in these approaches were identified. That resulted in proposing a novel system whose subsystem synergy led to a COP higher than unity. The proposed system was found to maintain indoor comfort at a higher COP compared to the most common solar A/Cs, especially under very hot and humid climate conditions. The novelty of the proposed A/C is to use a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector, which outputs thermal and electrical energy simultaneously, to drive a hybrid A/C. The performance of the hybrid A/C, which consists of a desiccant wheel, an enthalpy wheel, and a vapor compression cycle (VCC), was investigated experimentally. This work also explored the use of a new type of desiccant material, which can be regenerated with a low temperature heat source. The experimental results showed that the hybrid A/C is more effective than the standalone VCC in maintaining the indoor conditions within the comfort zone. Using the experimental data, the COP of the hybrid A/C driven by a hybrid solar collector was found to be at least double that of the current solar A/Cs. The innovative integration of its subsystems allows each subsystem to do what it can do best. That leads to lower energy consumption which helps reduce the peak electrical loads on electric utilities and reduces the consumer operating cost since less energy is purchased during the on peak periods and less solar collector area is needed. In order for the proposed A/C to become a real alternative to conventional systems, its performance and total cost were optimized using the experimentally validated model. The results showed that for an

  4. Hybrid Effect Evaluation of Steel Fiber and Carbon Fiber on the Performance of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weimin; Yin, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Fiber reinforcement is an important method to enhance the performance of concrete. In this study, the compressive test and impact test were conducted, and then the hybrid effect between steel fiber (SF) and carbon fiber (CF) was evaluated by employing the hybrid effect index. Compressive toughness and impact toughness of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC), carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) and hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) were explored at steel fiber volume fraction 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and carbon fiber 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%. Results showed that the addition of steel fiber and carbon fiber can increase the compressive strength. SF, CF and the hybridization between them could increase the compressive toughness significantly. The impact test results showed that as the volume of fiber increased, the impact number of the first visible crack and the ultimate failure also increased. The improvement of toughness mainly lay in improving the crack resistance after the first crack. Based on the test results, the positive hybrid effect of steel fiber and carbon fiber existed in hybrid fiber reinforced concrete. The relationship between the compressive toughness and impact toughness was also explored. PMID:28773824

  5. Hybrid Effect Evaluation of Steel Fiber and Carbon Fiber on the Performance of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weimin; Yin, Jian

    2016-08-18

    Fiber reinforcement is an important method to enhance the performance of concrete. In this study, the compressive test and impact test were conducted, and then the hybrid effect between steel fiber (SF) and carbon fiber (CF) was evaluated by employing the hybrid effect index. Compressive toughness and impact toughness of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC), carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) and hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) were explored at steel fiber volume fraction 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and carbon fiber 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%. Results showed that the addition of steel fiber and carbon fiber can increase the compressive strength. SF, CF and the hybridization between them could increase the compressive toughness significantly. The impact test results showed that as the volume of fiber increased, the impact number of the first visible crack and the ultimate failure also increased. The improvement of toughness mainly lay in improving the crack resistance after the first crack. Based on the test results, the positive hybrid effect of steel fiber and carbon fiber existed in hybrid fiber reinforced concrete. The relationship between the compressive toughness and impact toughness was also explored.

  6. EVALUATION OF FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MELON HYBRIDS (Cucumis melo L. IN POLLINATOR ATTRACTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÚCIA HELENA PIEDADE KIILL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Floral morphology and biology are important characteristics for plant-pollinator interactions and may influence the behavior of these agents. This study aimed to determine which floral attributes of different melon hybrids influence this interaction and, consequently, their attractiveness in simultaneous crops. The study was conducted in the region of Petrolina, State of Pernambuco (PE/Juazeiro, State of Bahia (BA and Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, in areas with the following melon hybrids: Yellow type, Piel de Sapo, Cantaloupe and Galia. For studies on floral morphology and biology, hermaphrodites and male flowers of each hybrid were analyzed for their size and nectar chamber size, pollen and nectar production, anthesis time and flower lifespan. Floral visitors were observed simultaneously in hybrids of three types of melon, from 5:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., in the two study sites. Evaluations of the corolla diameter and flower height indicated that the hermaphrodite flowers were larger in size than male flowers in all types of melon investigated, in both study sites. As for nectar chamber, male flowers are larger in width, but smaller in height, compared to hermaphrodite flowers. Regarding the volume of nectar, differences were found between floral types for the hybrids evaluated, in the two study sites; the hermaphrodite flowers produced 2-7 times more nectar than male flowers in all studied hybrids. Observations of visits of Apis mellifera to areas with simultaneous flowering of the three types of melon demonstrated differences in the frequency of visits between hybrids, floral type and foraged resource. Flowers of the hybrids Piel de Sapo and Cantaloupe exhibited larger corolla diameter, larger dimensions of the nectar chamber and greater supply of resources for foraging, which could explain the higher number of visits of bees to their flowers in the sites studied.

  7. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac, E-mail: jaehacko@pkusz.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Temporary aeration shortened the initial acid inhibition phase for methanogens. • COD decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactor than that in the anaerobic control. • Methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. • MSW settlement increased with increasing the frequency of intermittent aeration. - Abstract: Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10 months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic–anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia–nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75 d and 60 d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens.

  8. Polyaniline hybridized surface defective ZnO nanorods with long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Susanta; Khan, Hasmat [Sol-Gel Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CSIR-CGCRI), 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Biswas, Indranil [Materials Characterization and Instrumentation Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CSIR-CGCRI), 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Jana, Sunirmal, E-mail: sjana@cgcri.res.in [Sol-Gel Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CSIR-CGCRI), 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Polyaniline (PANI) hybridized ZnO nanorods was synthesized by solution method. • Surface defects were found in the nanorods. • The hybrid material exhibited an enhancement in visible light absorption. • A long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity of the material was found. • Advancement in the properties would be PANI hybridization and surface defects. - Abstract: We report surfactant/template free precursor solution based synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) hybridized surface defective ZnO nanorods by a two-step process. Initially, ZnO nanorods have been prepared at 95 °C, followed by hybridization (coating) of PANI onto the ZnO via in situ polymerization of aniline monomer, forming ZnO-PANI nanohybrid (ZP). The structural properties of ZP have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The presence of surface defects especially the oxygen vacancies in ZnO has been characterized by photoluminescence emission, high resolution TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman spectral measurements. The chemical interaction of PANI with ZnO has been examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and XPS analyses. A significant enhancement in visible absorption of ZP sample is found as evidenced from UV–vis diffused reflectance spectral study. BET nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm shows an improved textural property (pore size, pore volume) of ZP. Moreover, a long-term stable photoelectrochemical activity (PEC) of ZP is found compare to pristine ZnO. The synergic effect of PANI hybridization and the presence of surface defects in ZnO NRs can enhance the PEC by prolonging the recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers. The effect can also provide large number of active sites to make electrolyte diffusion and mass transportation easier in the nanohybrid. This simple synthesis strategy can be adopted for PANI hybridization with different metal oxide semiconductors

  9. Hybrid Palliation for Interrupted Aortic Arch With Small Aortic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yoshimasa; Masuoka, Ayumu; Hotoda, Kentarou; Katogi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Takaaki

    2017-05-01

    Open heart surgery for interrupted aortic arch in the neonatal period is still a high-risk procedure related in part to patient factors such as low birth weight, other morphologic anomalies, and, especially, small aortic valve size. Recently, we performed hybrid palliation with bilateral pulmonary artery banding and ductal stenting as the first-stage palliation for such cases. In this study, the outcomes of this procedure were examined. Six cases of interrupted aortic arch with a small aortic valve underwent the hybrid procedure in the neonatal period in our institute from 2010 to 2015 (mean age: 6.8 days, mean body weight: 3.2 kg, mean z score of the aortic valve annulus: -8.3). Their postoperative clinical courses and results of the second-stage surgery were evaluated. No mortality or severe morbidity was seen in association with initial hybrid palliation. Five of six patients were discharged from the hospital; the one exception had a significant urinary tract anomaly. None needed an additional catheter intervention or surgical procedure postoperatively. All surviving patients underwent second-stage surgery; three had biventricular repair by the conventional method or Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis with the Rastelli procedure and the other three proceeded toward staged Fontan reconstruction. Growth of the aortic valve was seen in four patients, and increased indexed left ventricle volume was recognized in one after the palliation. Hybrid palliation could be useful not only to avoid high-risk neonatal surgery but also to allow for eventual selection of the second-stage surgery based on the observations of potential interval development of left ventricular structures.

  10. Hybrid analysis for the Telescope Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokes B.T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Telescope Array (TA experiment is the largest Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR hybrid detector which consists of three stations of Fluorescence Detectors (FDs and 507 Surface Detectors (SDs. The coincidence events which observed both by FD and SD is referred as hybrid event. The geometry and energy of each extensive air shower observed by hybrid mode are reconstructed with much more accurate resolution than monocular reconstruction alone. The hybrid event candidates were searched for by comparison of the trigger times between FD and SD in the good weather days from May 2008 to September 2010. By this search, we found 1306 hybrid events for BR, 1051 events for LR and 905 events for MD. In this paper, the performance of the hybrid technique and the energy spectra measured by using hybrid events are presented.

  11. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

  12. Présentation du volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zwitter Vitez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans de nombreuses disciplines scientifiques, le discours parlé représente depuis quelques décennies un objet de recherche proéminent. Ce fait s’explique probablement par deux caractéristiques principales du discours parlé: la structure complexe de sa matérialité et les fonctions variées de différentes pratiques langagières. C’est pourquoi le présent numéro réunit les articles basés sur les approches actuelles du discours parlé et sur les pratiques langagières spécifiques. Le volume est introduit par deux articles interdisciplinaires: Peter Garrard et Ahmed Samrah présentent le domaine de la pathologie du langage en donnant une revue fouillée sur les approches actuelles de l’analyse linguistique lors de la détection de la maladie d’Alzheimer, tandis que Harry Hollien donne un aperçu structuré sur le domaine de la phonétique judiciaire destiné à dévoiler l’identité des locuteurs et de détecter la déception dans le discours parlé. Les analyses explorant l’acquisition du langage commencent par l’article de Katharina Zipser qui examine la progression de structures grammaticales en les mettant en comparaison avec la compétence des apprenants et continuent par l’étude de Meta Lah proposant une évaluation des documents audiovisuels proposés aux apprenants de langue étrangère. Vesna Požgaj Hadži, Damir Horga et Tatjana Balažic Bulc remettent en question la corrélation entre la compétence linguistique et la fluence linguistique auprès de locuteurs non-maternels et l'analyse de Gemma Santiago Alonso aborde l'acquisition de l'article défini dans le langage enfantin. Les articles suivants se réunissent autour du domaine de l'interprétation: Jana Zidar Forte présente une approche actuelle dans l'entrainement d'interprètes, Lea Burjan analyse les phénomènes issus de la pratique de l'interprétation juridique et Simona  Šumrada traite de la reformulation dans le discours de la traduction et de

  13. Influence of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy-Storage Sizing on Battery Lifetime in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) results in a high-performance, highly efficient, low-size, and light system. Often, the battery is rated with respect to its energy requirement to reduce its volume and mass...

  14. One-dimensional/two-dimensional hybridization for self-supported binder-free silicon-based lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Xianglong; Luo, Bin; Jia, Yuying; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-02-21

    A unique silicon-based anode for lithium ion batteries is developed via the facile hybridization of one-dimensional silicon nanowires and two-dimensional graphene sheets. The resulting paper-like film holds advantages highly desirable for not only accommodating the volume change of silicon, but also facilitating the fast transport of electron and lithium ions.

  15. A Numerical Study on Electrical Percolation of Polymer-Matrix Composites with Hybrid Fillers of Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical percolation of polymer-matrix composites (PMCs containing hybrid fillers of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and carbon black (CB is estimated by studying the connection possibility of the fillers using Monte Carlo simulation. The 3D simulation model of CB-CNT hybrid filler is established, in which CNTs are modeled by slender capped cylinders and CB groups are modeled by hypothetical spheres with interspaces because CB particles are always agglomerated. The observation on the effects of CB and CNT volume fractions and dimensions on the electrical percolation threshold of hybrid filled composites is then carried out. It is found that the composite electrical percolation threshold can be reduced by increasing CNT aspect ratio, as well as increasing the diameter ratio of CB groups to CNTs. And adding CB into CNT composites can decrease the CNT volume needed to convert the composite conductivity, especially when the CNT volume fraction is close to the threshold of PMCs with only CNT filler. Different from previous linear assumption, the nonlinear relation between CB and CNT volume fractions at composite percolation threshold is revealed, which is consistent with the synergistic effect observed in experiments. Based on the nonlinear relation, the estimating equation for the electrical percolation threshold of the PMCs containing CB-CNT hybrid fillers is established.

  16. Hybrid Pathogen DNA Detector:Users? Manual v1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schikora, B; Hietala, S; Shi, L; Lee, L; Skowronski, E; Ardans, A

    2004-01-12

    The Hybrid Unit uses an advanced fluidic design to move very small reagent samples through many unit operations to complete complex molecular biology experiments. The primary use of this machine is to analyze a small liquid sample for the highly specific presence of select agents known to be used in bio-warfare. The Hybrid Unit is coupled with a Luminex bead detection unit for the multiplexing of many assays in one tube. Because of this, multiple controls can be included in each run to avoid false positives. The built-in flow through PCR unit amplifies specific DNA signatures and increases sensitivity, thereby limiting exposure of handlers to highly concentrated (and potentially hazardous, spore containing) sample volumes. The reproducible precision of the Hybrid Unit also gives confidence when a signal is given that detects an agent in a given sample.

  17. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel, C. Backman

    2017-06-01

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements.

  18. Interception of solar radiation by the productive structures of spring canola hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandro Fochesatto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to adjust parameters related to the interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR by reproductive structures of spring canola, with different nitrogen levels and hybrids. Two field experiments were conducted, being one with different sowing dates and hybrids (Hyola 61 and Hyola 432 and another with doses of 10, 20, 40, 80, 160kg ha-1 of N, applied in top dressing. They were conducted in Passo Fundo and Coxilha, RS, Brazil, in 2011 and 2014, respectively.The evaluated variables were: area index of reproductive structures, interception efficiency and extinction coefficient of these structures for PAR. PAR interception increased by increasing the reproductive structures volume. Interception efficiency of PAR by reproductive structures ranged from 45 to 80%. It was higher in the Hyola 61 hybrid and at the highest dose of N. The extinction coefficient of reproductive structures for PAR was 0.44 in non-limiting doses of N.

  19. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  20. Essentialism, hybridism and cultural critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    In my paper, I suggest that we sharpen our attention towards the complexities of the work of power in transgressions as well as in constructions of essentialist identities. Criticising essentialism is vital for fighting group-based exclusionism. However, criticising essentialism and celebrating...... to social and cultural critique. Through a critical discussion of the concept of hybridity, I argue that rather than expecting to find definite emancipating or suppressing capacities connected to constructions of the ‘hybrid' and the ‘pure', we should focus on how these two poles are invested with meaning...... and related to power. Hence, while insisting on Cultural Studies' commitment to social and cultural critique, I argue that this critique would benefit from an analytical sensitivity towards the uses and abuses of the discursive power to designate meaningful and legitimate subject positions, rather than...

  1. Excess Molar Volumes and Partial Molar Volumes of Binary Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Excess molar volumes have been evaluated from density measurements over the entire composition range for binary systems of an ionic liquid ... was used to fit the excess molar volume data and the partial molar volumes were determined from the Redlich-Kister coefficients. ... ture below the boiling point of water. Most of ...

  2. CERN manufactured hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    These hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) produce an electric signal from a single photon. An electron is liberated from a photocathode and accelerated to a silicon pixel array allowing the location of the photon on the cathode to be recorded. The electronics and optics for these devices have been developed in close collaboration with industry. HPDs have potential for further use in astrophysics and medical imaging.

  3. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  4. Towards a Hybrid Audio Coder

    OpenAIRE

    Daudet, Laurent; Molla, Stéphane; Torrésani, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The main features of a novel approach for audio signal encoding are described. The approach combines non-linear transform coding and structured approximation techniques, together with hybrid modeling of the signal class under consideration. Essentially, several different components of the signal are estimated and transform coded using an appropriately chosen orthonormal basis. Different models and estimation procedures are discussed, and numerical results are provided.

  5. Hybrid spin-crossover nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Quintero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This review reports on the recent progress in the synthesis, modelling and application of hybrid spin-crossover materials, including core–shell nanoparticles and multilayer thin films or nanopatterns. These systems combine, often in synergy, different physical properties (optical, magnetic, mechanical and electrical of their constituents with the switching properties of spin-crossover complexes, providing access to materials with unprecedented capabilities.

  6. Hybrid Microcircuit Rework Procedures Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    solder bonding of active device chips has been reported by Himmel .(8) The overall objective of this study was to determine which die bonding process steps...Tech., Sept. 1975, pp. 45-48. ()Hybrid Microcircuit In-Process Qualification, Final Report, Aug. 1976, Contract No. ECOM-75-1311-F, R. P. Himmel ...substrate bonding pad metallization. Table 4 lists the materials variables employed. Table 5 lists all the material combinations evaluated by Himmel

  7. Polymethacrylate monolithic and hybrid particle-monolithic columns for reversed-phase and hydrophilic interaction capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandera, Pavel; Urban, Jirí; Skeríková, Veronika; Langmaier, Pavel; Kubícková, Romana; Planeta, Josef

    2010-01-01

    We prepared hybrid particle-monolithic polymethacrylate columns for micro-HPLC by in situ polymerization in fused silica capillaries pre-packed with 3-5microm C(18) and aminopropyl silica bonded particles, using polymerization mixtures based on laurylmethacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate (co)polymers for the reversed-phase (RP) mode and [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) zwitterionic (co)polymers for the hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) mode. The hybrid particle-monolithic columns showed reduced porosity and hold-up volumes, approximately 2-2.5 times lower in comparison to the pure monolithic columns prepared in the whole volume of empty capillaries. The elution volumes of sample compounds are also generally lower in comparison to packed or pure monolithic columns. The efficiency and permeability of the hybrid columns are intermediate in between the properties of the reference pure monolithic and particle-packed columns. The chemistries of the embedded solid particles and of the interparticle monolithic moiety in the hybrid capillary columns contribute to the retention to various degrees, affecting the selectivity of separation. Some hybrid columns provided improved separations of proteins in comparison to the reference particle-packed columns in the reversed-phase mode. Zwitterionic hybrid particle-monolithic columns show dual mode retention HILIC/RP behaviour depending on the composition of the mobile phase and allow separations of polar compounds such as phenolic acids in the HILIC mode at lower concentrations of acetonitrile and, often in shorter analysis time in comparison to particle-packed and full-volume monolithic columns. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy based hybrid turbulence modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Sigfried; Moser, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Traditional hybrid approaches exhibit deficiencies when used for fluctuating smooth-wall separation and reattachment necessitating ad-hoc delaying functions and model tuning making them no longer useful as a predictive tool. Additionally, complex geometries and flows often require high cell aspect-ratios and large grid gradients as a compromise between resolution and cost. Such transitions and inconsistencies in resolution detrimentally effect the fidelity of the simulation. We present the continued development of a new hybrid RANS/LES modeling approach specifically developed to address these challenges. In general, modeled turbulence is returned to resolved scales by reduced or negative model viscosity until a balance between theoretical and actual modeled turbulent kinetic energy is attained provided the available resolution. Anisotropy in the grid and resolved field are directly integrated into this balance. A viscosity-based correction is proposed to account for resolution inhomogeneities. Both the hybrid framework and resolution gradient corrections are energy conserving through an exchange of resolved and modeled turbulence.

  9. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.S. Veras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza–Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.

  10. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veras, D.F.S., E-mail: franklin@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Cruz, W.T., E-mail: wilamicruz@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará (IFCE), Campus Juazeiro do Norte, 63040-540 Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará (Brazil); Maluf, R.V., E-mail: r.v.maluf@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Almeida, C.A.S., E-mail: carlos@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil)

    2016-03-10

    This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza–Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.

  11. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, D. F. S.; Cruz, W. T.; Maluf, R. V.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2016-03-01

    This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza-Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.

  12. The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

  13. Physics Studies of a Proposed Small Aspect Ratio Torsatron-Tokamak Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanju, P. M.; Gentle, K. W.; McCool, S.; Miner, W. H., Jr.; Ross, D. W.; Wiley, J. C.; Wootton, A. J.

    1996-11-01

    Physics studies of a proposed small aspect ratio torsatron-tokamak hybrid (SMARTH) are presented. This small aspect ratio configuration attempts to remedy a major drawback of conventional stellarator reactors, viz. the large volume resulting from the large aspect ratio. Considering a small aspect ratio machine with 8 field periods (m=8) and with 8 or 16 modular coils, we investigate vacuum configurations and MHD equilibria to determine the optimum configuration which produces large rotational transform, large plasma volume, large beta, and small field ripple. Implications for particle confinement will also be discussed. Effects of radial electric fields on orbit losses and confinement will also be explored.

  14. Simulation of storage performance on hydropneumatic driveline in dual hybrid hydraulic passenger car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasbari Faizil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The charging process is one of the critical processes in the hydro-pneumatic driveline storage system. It converts the kinetic energy of the vehicle braking and coasting to the compression energy. This energy is stored in the storage device called the accumulator. The system is planned to be used on the dual hydro-pneumatic hybrid driveline and applied to a hydraulic hybrid passenger car. The aim of this paper is to find the effect of charging parameters on the storage performance through simulation. Through the storage behaviour, the desirable and optimal sizing of the accumulator can be selected. The paper emphasized on the effect of pressure elevation, pre-charge pressure, effective volume, thermal reaction and required time of the accumulator’s charging process. The circuit of charging process has been designed and simulated by using the hydraulic tool in the Automation Studio software. The simulation results were corroborated through the component specification for data rationality. Through the simulation, it was found that pre-charge pressure had a significant effect on the charging process. It determined the efficiency of the effective volume. The higher the pressure elevation, the higher the effective volume. Nevertheless, the more energy required to compress the nitrogen gas in the bladder. Besides, in term of volume displacement, higher volume displacement reduced charging time and lower the fluid temperature. The simulation had been positively highlighted the critical point in charging process which later on, benefited the sizing process in the component selection specification.

  15. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  16. Bioactive hydrogel-nanosilica hybrid materials: a potential injectable scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Joanna; Fiejdasz, Sylwia; Rodzik, Łucja; Kozieł, Marcin; Nowakowska, Maria

    2015-02-10

    Novel bioactive organic-inorganic hybrid materials that can serve as injectable hydrogel systems for bone tissue regeneration were obtained. The silica nanoparticles (SiNP) prepared in situ by the Stöber method were dispersed in collagen, collagen-chitosan or chitosan sols, which were then subsequently crosslinked. Laser scanning confocal microscopy studies, in which fluorescent SiNP were applied, and SEM images indicated that the nanosilica particles were distributed in the whole volume of the hydrogel matrix. In vitro studies on fibroblast cell viability indicated that the hybrid materials are biocompatible. The silica nanoparticles dispersed in the biopolymer matrix had a positive effect on cell viability. Studies on the mineralization process under simulated body fluid (SBF) conditions confirmed the bioactivity of prepared materials. SEM images revealed mineral phase formation in the majority of the hybrid materials developed. EDS analysis indicated that these mineral phases are mainly composed of calcium and phosphorus. The XRD studies confirmed that mineral phases formed during SBF incubation of hybrid materials based on collagen are bone-like apatite minerals. The silica nanoparticles added to the hydrogel at the stage of synthesis induced the occurrence of mineralization. This process occurs not only at the surface of the material but in its entire volume, which is important for the preparation of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The ability of these materials to undergo in situ gelation under physiological temperature and their bioactivity as well as biocompatibility make them interesting candidates for bioactive injectable systems.

  17. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging air-flow energy to sustainably power temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuhua; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-28

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator with dimensions of 6.7 cm × 4.5 cm × 2 cm and a weight of 42.3 g that consists of two triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) and two electromagnetic generators (EMGs) for scavenging air-flow energy. Under an air-flow speed of about 18 m/s, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver largest output powers of 3.5 mW for one TENG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 8.8 mW/g and 14.6 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 3 MΩ and 1.8 mW for one EMG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 0.3 mW/g and 0.4 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 2 kΩ, respectively. The hybridized nanogenerator can be utilized to charge a capacitor of 3300 μF to sustainably power four temperature sensors for realizing self-powered temperature sensor networks. Moreover, a wireless temperature sensor driven by a hybridized nanogenerator charged Li-ion battery can work well to send the temperature data to a receiver/computer at a distance of 1.5 m. This work takes a significant step toward air-flow energy harvesting and its potential applications in self-powered wireless sensor networks.

  18. A hybrid approach for quantifying aortic valve stenosis using impedance cardiography and echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daralammouri, Yunis; Ayoub, Khubaib; Badrieh, Najwan; Lauer, Bernward

    2016-01-22

    Impedance cardiography (IC) is a noninvasive modality that utilizes changes in impedance across the thorax to assess hemodynamic parameters, including stroke volume (SV). This study compared aortic valve area (AVA) as assessed by a hybrid approach of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and impedance cardiography (IC) to AVA determined at cardiac catheterization using the Gorlin equation. A total of 30 patients with moderate to severe aortic stenosis underwent AVA measurement using two different approaches: using the continuity equation (CE) in a hybrid method combining IC and TTE (AVA = stroke by volume impedance cardiography/trans-aortic-VTI) and using the Gorlin equation. Patient age ranged from 37 to 82 years (mean 48); there were 21 men and 9 women. Twenty-five patients were in sinus rhythm, and five had atrial fibrillation. There was no statistically significant difference for the mean AVA between the two methods (0.7 ± 0.24 cm(2) using the Gorlin equation versus 0.7 ± 0.23 cm(2) using the hybrid approach, p = 0.17; r = 0.76, p hybrid method using impedance cardiography and TTE is a reasonable, clinically applicable approach to evaluate AVA and has significant correlation to invasive measurement using the Gorlin equation.

  19. Hybrid staging of a Lysholm positive displacement engine with two Westinghouse two stage impulse Curtis turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.A.

    1982-06-01

    The University of California at Berkeley has tested and modeled satisfactorly a hybrid staged Lysholm engine (positive displacement) with a two stage Curtis wheel turbine. The system operates in a stable manner over its operating range (0/1-3/1 water ratio, 120 psia input). Proposals are made for controlling interstage pressure with a partial admission turbine and volume expansion to control mass flow and pressure ratio for the Lysholm engine.

  20. Introducing ductility in hybrid carbon fibre/self-reinforced composites through control of the damage mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Swolfs, Yentl; Meerten, Yannick; Hine, Peter; Ward, Ian; Verpoest, Ignace; Gorbatikh, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    Carbon fibre composites possess excellent mechanical properties, but suffer from brittleness. Hybridisation with self-reinforced polypropylene (SRPP) is a promising strategy to introduce ductility into carbon fibre-reinforced polypropylene (CFRPP). The present work demonstrates how different damage mechanisms in these hybrid composites change as a function of the carbon fibre volume fraction, the directionality of CFRPP and SRPP and their relative layer thickness. Multiple fractures of the CF...

  1. Hybrid Technology Used in Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Korotchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the ways to eliminate shrinkage defects of casting nature. These techniques are, primarily, technological overlaps, risers and refrigerators. The paper shows that these methods are based on the known principle of feeding, according to which the upper layers of the casting is the risers for the underlying layers. This provides directional solidification of casting.The paper describes the additive technologies that solve problems, which are unobtainable for conventional casting technologies. It shows that the thin horizontal layers form a casting configuration sequentially. Here is realized another principle of feeding that is formulated as follows: each layer feeds itself. There is no difficulty to eliminate shrinkage defects in thin horizontal layers.However, high cost of raw materials and equipment and low productivity disallow wide introduction of additive technologies to manufacture castings.One solution to this problem, which is offered to-date is to create hybrid-manufacturing processes that combine both additive and traditional manufacturing techniques of casting.Traditional manufacturing techniques of castings are macro-level technologies while the additive technology is a micro level. Hybrid technologies, which are in intermediate position, can be attributed to a meso-level of the review of processes occurring in the liquid melt and mold.The paper has shown that the casting techniques that provide layer-by-layer filling of liquid melt in the mold and (or layer-by-layer solidification of liquid melt in the mold can serve as one of the examples of hybrid technology in foundry.The paper analyses some of the patents related to the group of "casting ingots of two or more different melts, i.e. multilayer » (B22D7 / 02. It conducts an analysis of the patent developed in BMSTU. The main conclusions are as follows:1. At present, there is a base created for a successful development of hybrid technology in the foundry industry.2

  2. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  3. Preparation of phenylboronic acid-silica hybrid monolithic column with one-pot approach for capillary liquid chromatography of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zian; Huang, Hui; Li, Shihua; Wang, Juan; Tan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan

    2013-01-04

    A phenylboronic acid-silica hybrid monolithic column for capillary liquid chromatography (cLC) was prepared through one-pot process by using 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) and alkoxysilanes simultaneously. The effects of the molar ratio of tetramethyloxysilane/γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (TMOS/γ-MAPS), amount of VPBA, and the volume of diethylene glycol (DEG) on the morphologies, permeabilities and pore properties of the prepared VPBA-silica hybrid monolithic columns were studied in detail. A relatively uniform monolithic structure with high porosity was obtained with optimized ingredients. A series of cis-diol-containing compounds, alkylbenzenes, amides, and anilines were utilized to evaluate the retention behaviors of the VPBA-silica hybrid monolithic column. The result demonstrated that the prepared VPBA-silica hybrid monolithic column exhibited multiple interactions including hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, as well as cation exchange apart from the expected affinity interaction. The run-to-run, column-to-column and batch-to-batch reproducibility of the VPBA-silica hybrid monolith were satisfactory with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 1.63% (n=5), 2.02% (n=3) and 2.90% (n=5), respectively, indicating the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method. In addition, the VPBA-silica hybrid monolithic column was further applied to the separation of proteins and tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively. The successful applications suggested the potential of the VPBA-silica hybrid monolith in proteome analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Local adaptation within a hybrid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroukhmanoff, F; Hermansen, J S; Bailey, R I; Sæther, S A; Sætre, G-P

    2013-10-01

    Ecological divergence among populations may be strongly influenced by their genetic background. For instance, genetic admixture through introgressive hybridization or hybrid speciation is likely to affect the genetic variation and evolvability of phenotypic traits. We studied geographic variation in two beak dimensions and three other phenotypic traits of the Italian sparrow (Passer italiae), a young hybrid species formed through interbreeding between house sparrows (P. domesticus) and Spanish sparrows (P. hispaniolensis). We found that beak morphology was strongly influenced by precipitation regimes and that it appeared to be the target of divergent selection within Italian sparrows. Interestingly, however, the degree of parental genetic contribution in the hybrid species had no effect on phenotypic beak variation. Moreover, beak height divergence may mediate genetic differentiation between populations, consistent with isolation-by-adaptation within this hybrid species. The study illustrates how hybrid species may be relatively unconstrained by their admixed genetic background, allowing them to adapt rapidly to environmental variation.

  5. Hybrid Airy Plasmons with Dynamically Steerable Trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rujiang; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Huaping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    With the intriguing properties of diffraction-free, self-accelerating, and self-healing, Airy plasmons are promising to be used in the trapping, transporting, and sorting of micro-objects, imaging, and chip scale signal processing. However, the high dissipative loss and the lack of dynamical steerability restrict the implementation of Airy plasmons in these applications. Here we reveal the hybrid Airy plasmons for the first time by taking a hybrid graphene-based plasmonic waveguide in the terahertz (THz) domain as an example. Due to the coupling between an optical mode and a plasmonic mode, the hybrid Airy plasmons can have large propagation lengths and effective transverse deflections, where the transverse waveguide confinements are governed by the hybrid modes with moderate quality factors. Meanwhile, the propagation trajectories of hybrid Airy plasmons are dynamically steerable by changing the chemical potential of graphene. These hybrid Airy plasmons may promote the further discovery of non-diffracting be...

  6. Emergent hybrid synchronization in coupled chaotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanaban, E; Boccaletti, Stefano; Dana, S K

    2015-02-01

    We evidence an interesting kind of hybrid synchronization in coupled chaotic systems where complete synchronization is restricted to only a subset of variables of two systems while other subset of variables may be in a phase synchronized state or desynchronized. Such hybrid synchronization is a generic emergent feature of coupled systems when a controller based coupling, designed by the Lyapunov function stability, is first engineered to induce complete synchronization in the identical case, and then a large parameter mismatch is introduced. We distinguish between two different hybrid synchronization regimes that emerge with parameter perturbation. The first, called hard hybrid synchronization, occurs when the coupled systems display global phase synchronization, while the second, called soft hybrid synchronization, corresponds to a situation where, instead, the global synchronization feature no longer exists. We verify the existence of both classes of hybrid synchronization in numerical examples of the Rössler system, a Lorenz-like system, and also in electronic experiment.

  7. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  8. Model-Based Prognostics of Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Bregon, Anibal

    2015-01-01

    Model-based prognostics has become a popular approach to solving the prognostics problem. However, almost all work has focused on prognostics of systems with continuous dynamics. In this paper, we extend the model-based prognostics framework to hybrid systems models that combine both continuous and discrete dynamics. In general, most systems are hybrid in nature, including those that combine physical processes with software. We generalize the model-based prognostics formulation to hybrid systems, and describe the challenges involved. We present a general approach for modeling hybrid systems, and overview methods for solving estimation and prediction in hybrid systems. As a case study, we consider the problem of conflict (i.e., loss of separation) prediction in the National Airspace System, in which the aircraft models are hybrid dynamical systems.

  9. Flight Testing of Hybrid Powered Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Arves, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined.

  10. Etude de la relation microstructure/propriétés mécaniques jusqu’à rupture des propergols composites : Caractérisation expérimentale et modélisation micromécanique par éléments finis

    OpenAIRE

    TOULEMONDE, Paul-Aymé

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at understanding the relationship between solid propellants particles volume fraction, particles size distribution, binder mechanical properties and binder/particles bonding with the mechanical behavior up to failure of these materials. Finite elements analyses on 2D microstructures are performed in order to qualitatively characterize the microstructure evolution throughout uniaxial tensile loading at small strain rate. These simulations account for the binder/particles debondi...

  11. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance.

  12. Volume of an Industrial Autoclave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Madaffari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We were able to determine the volume of an industrial autoclave sterilization tank using a technique learned in calculus. By measuring the dimensions of the tank and roughly estimating the equation of curvature at the ends of the tank, we were able to revolve half of the end of the tank around the x axis to get its fluid volume. Adding the two volumes of the ends and the volume of the cylindrical portion on the tank yielded the total volume.

  13. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  14. The human in multiple, hybrid topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    constitute shifting fluid and flickering human hybrid topologies. The ethnography of hybrid, morphing museum visitors is related to literature on the relations between people and places. Multiplicity-oriented and heterogeneous ways of conceptualizing the human subject are considered for their implications...... hybrid associations with a museum exhibition, fellow visitors and portable, mediating technologies such as exercise pamphlets, mobile phone cameras and animal costumes. Museum visitors couple up with various entities and participate in multiple enactments; they associate and dissociate, and thus...

  15. Boltzmann Transport in Hybrid PIC HET Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Boltzmann transport in hybrid PIC HET modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In...reproduce experimentally observed mobility trends derived from HPHall, a workhorse hybrid- PIC HET simulation code. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...Std. 239.18 Boltzmann transport in hybrid PIC HET modeling IEPC-2015- /ISTS-2015-b- Presented at Joint Conference of 30th International

  16. Cosmological Dynamics of a Hybrid Chameleon Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Nozari, Kourosh; Rashidi, Narges

    2013-01-01

    We consider a hybrid scalar field which is non-minimally coupled to the matter and models a chameleon cosmology. By introducing an effective potential, we study the dependence of the effective potential's minimum and hybrid chameleon field's masses to the local matter density. In a dynamical system technique, we analyze the phase space of this two-field chameleon model, find its fixed points and study their stability. We show that the hybrid chameleon domination solution is a stable attractor...

  17. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  18. Hybrid Information Flow Monitoring Against Web Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Besson, Frédéric; Bielova, Nataliia; Jensen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Motivated by the problem of stateless web tracking (fingerprinting), we propose a novel approach to hybrid information flow monitoring by tracking the knowledge about secret variables using logical formulae. This knowledge representation helps to compare and improve precision of hybrid infor- mation flow monitors. We define a generic hybrid monitor parametrised by a static analysis and derive sufficient conditions on the static analysis for sound- ness and relative pre...

  19. Genomic Prediction of Barley Hybrid Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid breeding in barley ( L. offers great opportunities to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement and to boost yield stability. A crucial requirement consists of the efficient selection of superior hybrid combinations. We used comprehensive phenotypic and genomic data from a commercial breeding program with the goal of examining the potential to predict the hybrid performances. The phenotypic data were comprised of replicated grain yield trials for 385 two-way and 408 three-way hybrids evaluated in up to 47 environments. The parental lines were genotyped using a 3k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array based on an Illumina Infinium assay. We implemented ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction modeling for additive and dominance effects and evaluated the prediction ability using five-fold cross validations. The prediction ability of hybrid performances based on general combining ability (GCA effects was moderate, amounting to 0.56 and 0.48 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. The potential of GCA-based hybrid prediction requires that both parental components have been evaluated in a hybrid background. This is not necessary for genomic prediction for which we also observed moderate cross-validated prediction abilities of 0.51 and 0.58 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. This exemplifies the potential of genomic prediction in hybrid barley. Interestingly, prediction ability using the two-way hybrids as training population and the three-way hybrids as test population or vice versa was low, presumably, because of the different genetic makeup of the parental source populations. Consequently, further research is needed to optimize genomic prediction approaches combining different source populations in barley.

  20. Microfluidic Arrayed Lab-On-A-Chip for Electrochemical Capacitive Detection of DNA Hybridization Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Dykstra, Peter H; Bentley, William E; Ghodssi, Reza

    2017-01-01

    A microfluidic electrochemical lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device for DNA hybridization detection has been developed. The device comprises a 3 × 3 array of microelectrodes integrated with a dual layer microfluidic valved manipulation system that provides controlled and automated capabilities for high throughput analysis of microliter volume samples. The surface of the microelectrodes is functionalized with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes which enable specific detection of complementary ssDNA targets. These targets are detected by a capacitive technique which measures dielectric variation at the microelectrode-electrolyte interface due to DNA hybridization events. A quantitative analysis of the hybridization events is carried out based on a sensing modeling that includes detailed analysis of energy storage and dissipation components. By calculating these components during hybridization events the device is able to demonstrate specific and dose response sensing characteristics. The developed microfluidic LOC for DNA hybridization detection offers a technology for real-time and label-free assessment of genetic markers outside of laboratory settings, such as at the point-of-care or in-field environmental monitoring.

  1. Hierarchically structured transparent hybrid membranes by in situ growth of mesostructured organosilica in host polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallé, Karine; Belleville, Philippe; Pereira, Franck; Sanchez, Clément

    2006-02-01

    The elaborate performances characterizing natural materials result from functional hierarchical constructions at scales ranging from nanometres to millimetres, each construction allowing the material to fit the physical or chemical demands occurring at these different levels. Hierarchically structured materials start to demonstrate a high input in numerous promising applied domains such as sensors, catalysis, optics, fuel cells, smart biologic and cosmetic vectors. In particular, hierarchical hybrid materials permit the accommodation of a maximum of elementary functions in a small volume, thereby optimizing complementary possibilities and properties between inorganic and organic components. The reported strategies combine sol-gel chemistry, self-assembly routes using templates that tune the material's architecture and texture with the use of larger inorganic, organic or biological templates such as latex, organogelator-derived fibres, nanolithographic techniques or controlled phase separation. We propose an approach to forming transparent hierarchical hybrid functionalized membranes using in situ generation of mesostructured hybrid phases inside a non-porogenic hydrophobic polymeric host matrix. We demonstrate that the control of the multiple affinities existing between organic and inorganic components allows us to design the length-scale partitioning of hybrid nanomaterials with tuned functionalities and desirable size organization from ångström to centimetre. After functionalization of the mesoporous hybrid silica component, the resulting membranes have good ionic conductivity offering interesting perspectives for the design of solid electrolytes, fuel cells and other ion-transport microdevices.

  2. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-19

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  3. Mechanical Behavior of Hybrid Glass/Steel Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K. McBride

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While conventional fiber-reinforced polymer composites offer high strength and stiffness, they lack ductility and the ability to absorb energy before failure. This work investigates hybrid fiber composites for structural applications comprised of polymer, steel fiber, and glass fibers to address this shortcoming. Varying volume fractions of thin, ductile steel fibers were introduced into glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites. Non-hybrid and hybrid composite specimens were prepared and subjected to monolithic and half-cyclic tensile testing to obtain stress-strain relationships, hysteresis behavior, and insight into failure mechanisms. Open-hole testing was used to assess the vulnerability of the composites to stress concentration. Incorporating steel fibers into glass/epoxy composites offered a significant improvement in energy absorption prior to failure and material re-centering capabilities. It was found that a lower percentage of steel fibers (8.2% in the hybrid composite outperformed those with higher percentages (15.7% and 22.8% in terms of energy absorption and re-centering, as the glass reinforcement distributed the plasticity over a larger area. A bilinear hysteresis model was developed to predict cyclic behavior of the hybrid composite.

  4. Selection of hybrid vehicle for green environment using multi-attributive border approximation area comparison method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumar Biswas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The mobility sector including all kinds of transportation systems are facing global challenges in re-spect of green environmental issues. There has been a paradigm shift in the concept of design and manufacturing of automotive vehicles keeping in mind the scarcity of fossil fuel and the impact of emission on environment due to burning of it. The addition of hybrid and electric vehicles in pas-senger car segment has got significant momentum to address the global challenges. This research investigates the performance of a group of hybrid vehicles from customers’ perspective. Among the different brands that are available in the hybrid vehicle market, smart customers have given pri-ority to vehicle cost, mileage, tail pipe emission, comfortness and high tank size volume for long drive. Considering these attributes, selection strategy for hybrid vehicles has been developed using entropy based multi-attributive border approximation area comparison (MABAC method. This research highlights the best hybrid vehicle which reduces air pollution in cities with other significant environmental benefits, reduces dependence on foreign energy imports and minimizes the annual fuel cost.

  5. JANNAF 35th Combustion Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 63 unclassified/unlimited distribution technical papers presented at the 35th meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Combustion Subcommittee (CS) held jointly with the 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) and Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7-11 December 1998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include solid gun propellant processing, ignition and combustion, charge concepts, barrel erosion and flash, gun interior ballistics, kinetics and molecular modeling, ETC gun modeling, simulation and diagnostics, and liquid gun propellant combustion; solid rocket motor propellant combustion, combustion instability fundamentals, motor instability, and measurement techniques; and liquid and hybrid rocket combustion.

  6. JANNAF 37th Combustion Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 59 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 37th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) meeting held jointly with the 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS), 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS), and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meetings. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered at the CS meeting include: a keynote address on the Future Combat Systems, and review of a new JANNAF Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee, and technical papers on gun propellant burning rate, gun tube erosion, advanced gun propulsion concepts, ETC guns, novel gun propellants; liquid, hybrid and novel propellant combustion; solid propellant combustion kinetics, GAP, ADN and RDX combustion, sandwich combustion, metal combustion, combustion instability, and motor combustion instability.

  7. External bulb variable volume maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, V. S.; Cervenka, P. O. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A maser functioning as a frequency standard stable to one part in 10 to the 14th power includes a variable volume, constant surface area storage bulb having a fixed volume portion located in a resonant cavity from which the frequency standard is derived. A variable volume portion of the bulb, exterior to the resonant cavity, has a maximum volume on the same order of magnitude as the fixed volume bulb portion. The cavity has a length to radius ratio of at least 3:1 so that the operation is attained without the need for a feedback loop. A baffle plate, between the fixed and variable volume bulb portions, includes apertures for enabling hydrogen atoms to pass between the two bulb portions and is an electromagnetic shield that prevents coupling of the electromagnetic field of the cavity into the variable volume bulb portion.

  8. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  9. A Four-Decade Bandwidth Hybrid Coupler

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J M

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid coupler is a reciprocal radio-frequency building block with four ports. Signal power applied to any port is equally divided between the two adjacent ports, while the remaining port receives none. Hybrid couplers find many uses in RF circuitry. Our specific application is the elaboration of sum and difference of the signals produced by an electrostatic position pick-up in a particle accelerator. Hybrids qualified as 'Wide-Band' commonly span two octaves of frequency, and the best ultra-wideband devices cover about three decades. The hybrid coupler described here has a useful response from 40kHz tosome 400MHz.

  10. High output piezo/triboelectric hybrid generator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric...

  11. Hybrid Dynamical Systems Modeling, Stability, and Robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Goebel, Rafal; Teel, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid dynamical systems exhibit continuous and instantaneous changes, having features of continuous-time and discrete-time dynamical systems. Filled with a wealth of examples to illustrate concepts, this book presents a complete theory of robust asymptotic stability for hybrid dynamical systems that is applicable to the design of hybrid control algorithms--algorithms that feature logic, timers, or combinations of digital and analog components. With the tools of modern mathematical analysis, Hybrid Dynamical Systems unifies and generalizes earlier developments in continuous-time and discret

  12. Hybridization and genome evolution II: Mechanisms of species divergence and their effects on evolution in hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I. BAILEY, Fabrice EROUKHMANOFF, Glenn-Peter SæTRE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent genomic studies have highlighted the importance of hybridization and gene exchange in evolution. We ask what factors cause variation in the impact of hybridization, through adaptation in hybrids and the likelihood of hybrid speciation. During speciation, traits that diverge due to both divergent and stabilizing selection can contribute to the buildup of reproductive isolation. Divergent directional selection in parent taxa should lead to intermediate phenotypes in hybrids, whereas stabilizing selection can also produce extreme, transgressive phenotypes when hybridization occurs. By examining existing theory and empirical data, we discuss how these effects, combined with differences between modes of divergence in the chromosomal distribution of incompatibilities, affect adaptation and speciation in hybrid populations. The result is a clear and testable set of predictions that can be used to examine hybrid adaptation and speciation. Stabilizing selection in parents increases transgression in hybrids, increasing the possibility for novel adaptation. Divergent directional selection causes intermediate hybrid phenotypes and increases their ability to evolve along the direction of parental differentiation. Stabilizing selection biases incompatibilities towards autosomes, leading to reduced sexual correlations in trait values and reduced pleiotropy in hybrids, and hence increased freedom in the direction of evolution. Directional selection causes a bias towards sex-linked incompatibilities, with the opposite consequences. Divergence by directional selection leads to greater dominance effects than stabilizing selection, with major but variable impacts on hybrid evolution [Current Zoology 59 (5: 675-685, 2013].

  13. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288519361; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416355; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  14. Hybrid grapheme plasmonic waveguide modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, D.; Thackray, B. D.; Aznakayeva, D. E.; Thomas, P.; Auton, G. H.; Marshall, O. P.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    The unique optical and electronic properties of graphene allow one to realize active optical devices. While several types of graphene-based photonic modulators have already been demonstrated, the potential of combining the versatility of graphene with sub-wavelength field confinement of plasmonic/metallic structures is not fully realized. Here we report fabrication and study of hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulators. We consider several types of modulators and identify the most promising one for light modulation at telecom and near-infrared. Our proof-of-concept results pave the way towards on-chip realization of efficient graphene-based active plasmonic waveguide devices for optical communications.

  15. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... model outperformed other existing content extraction models. We present a browser based implementation of the proposed model as proof of concept and compare the implementation strategy with various state of art implementations. We also discuss various applications of the proposed model with special...

  16. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  17. HYBRID FORMATION BETWEEN BACTERIAL ENDOTOXINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudbach, Jon A.; Milner, Kelsey C.; Ribi, Edgar

    1967-01-01

    When endotoxins extracted from enteric bacteria were mixed in the presence of sodium deoxycholate, and the bile salt was subsequently removed by dialysis or by extraction with ethanol, a new type of endotoxin was formed. The latter material was as biologically active as the original endotoxins and possessed a combination of antigenic determinants that were previously unique to each of the individual endotoxins in the mixture. This hybrid formation between endotoxins was detected by immunodiffusion and radioautography and by quantitative precipitation procedures. PMID:4961269

  18. Hybrid Chernoff Tau-Leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2015-01-07

    Markovian pure jump processes can model many phenomena, e.g. chemical reactions at molecular level, protein transcription and translation, spread of epidemics diseases in small populations and in wireless communication networks among many others. In this work we present a novel hybrid algorithm for simulating individual trajectories which adaptively switches between the SSA and the Chernoff tauleap methods. This allows us to: (a) control the global exit probability of any simulated trajectory, (b) obtain accurate and computable estimates for the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work.

  19. Hybrid Chernoff Tau-Leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2016-01-06

    Markovian pure jump processes can model many phenomena, e.g. chemical reactions at molecular level, protein transcription and translation, spread of epidemics diseases in small populations and in wireless communication networks among many others. In this work we present a novel hybrid algorithm for simulating individual trajectories which adaptively switches between the SSA and the Chernoff tauleap methods. This allows us to: (a) control the global exit probability of any simulated trajectory, (b) obtain accurate and computable estimates for the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work.

  20. Hybrid Chernoff Tau-Leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2014-01-06

    Markovian pure jump processes can model many phenomena, e.g. chemical reactions at molecular level, protein transcription and translation, spread of epidemics diseases in small populations and in wireless communication networks among many others. In this work we present a novel hybrid algorithm for simulating individual trajectories which adaptively switches between the SSA and the Chernoff tauleap methods. This allows us to: (a) control the global exit probability of any simulated trajectory, (b) obtain accurate and computable estimates for the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work.

  1. Essentialism, hybridism and cultural critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Transgression concepts - such as ‘hybridity', ‘diaspora', ‘creolization', ‘transculturalization' and ‘syncretism' - have to an increasing extent become key concepts in various attempts at escaping the problems of suppression and exclusion involved in notions of purity - be it the purity of race......, culture or whatever. The purpose of focusing on concepts of transgression is usually to try to develop conceptual spaces within which it is possible to grasp and to study cultural identity without resorting to cultural essentialism. These attempts open up new possibilities but also new problems - e...

  2. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  3. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  4. Hybrid photonic-crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Travers, John C.; Abdolvand, Amir

    2017-01-01

    postprocessing methods has enabled new directions toward understanding fundamental linear and nonlinear phenomena as well as novel application aspects, within the fields of optoelectronics, material and laser science, remote sensing, and spectroscopy. Here the recent progress in the field of hybrid PCFs...... is reviewed from scientific and technological perspectives, focusing on how different fluids, solids, and gases can significantly extend the functionality of PCFs. The first part of this review discusses the efforts to develop tunable linear and nonlinear fiber-optic devices using PCFs infiltrated...

  5. Hybrid Microcircuit Failure Rate Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    115 (0.00305) + 5 (0.018) + 2(0.0219)+ 2(0.0197) + [ 5(0.00015 + 142 (0.00162) + 0.1191] 1.0(1.0)1 1.o (2.14) - 1.22 E-5 References: 1. Himmel ...Capacitors Under Thermal Cycling Stresses," Pro- ceedings of Electronic Components Conference 1975. 5. Himmel , R.D., Scrapple, R.Y., Keistev, F., Hughes...IBM Components Division, "Reliability of Hybrid Microelec- tronicu," Hopewell Junction, NY 1973. 7. Himmel , R.P., Koudounaris, A., Keister, F.Z

  6. Hybrid drive systems. Meeting; Hybridantriebe. Tagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The whole range of hybrid drive systems has been covered with contributions from the USA, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Netherlands and Germany. The VDI report 1459 contains the talks of this conference focusing on the following subjects: hybrid systems; simulation and practical results; components of the autarkic hybrid, dynamics, control and measuring technology of the autarkic hybrid; concepts and partial systems; overall system of the autarkic hybrid. The contributions have been made by the automobile industry and scientific universities. The company Toyota reports on experience with the hybrid drive system in the first series vehicle world-wide. Results of research projects as well as experience with customer related series solutions are presented. The VDI report addresses researchers and engineers in the fields of automobile and supporting industry as well as other branches that deal with the use of hybrid drive technologies. (orig.) [German] Mit Beitraegen aus den USA, Japan, Schweden, Schweiz, Niederlande und Deutschland wurde die ganze Bandbreite der Hybridantriebe angesprochen. Dazu enthaelt der VDI-Bericht 1459 die Vortraege dieser Veranstaltung mit folgenden Themenschwerpunkten: Hybridsysteme; Simulation und Praxisergebnisse; Komponenten des Autarken Hybrid; Dynamik, Regelung und Messtechnik des Autarken Hybrid; Konzepte und Teilsysteme; Gesamtsystem des Autarken Hybrid. Die Beitraege kamen aus der Automobilindustrie und den wissenschaftlichen Hochschulen. Unter anderem berichtet die Firma Toyota ueber die Erfahrungen mit dem Hybridantrieb in dem weltweit ersten Serienfahrzeug. Es werden sowohl die Ergebnisse der Forschungsprojekte als auch Erfahrungen mit kundennahen Serienloesungen praesentiert. Der VDI-Bericht wendet sich an Forscher und Entwickler der Automobil- und Zulieferindustrie sowie anderer Branchen, die sich mit dem Einsatz von Hybrid-Antriebstechnologien befassen. (orig.)

  7. Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-17

    1274 pages. 1997. Vol. 1310: A. Del Bimbo (Ed.), Image Analysis and Vol. 1328: C. Retord (Ed.), Logical Aspects of Computa- Processing. Proceedings, 1997...Volume I. XXII, 722 tional Linguistics. Proceedings, 1996. VIII, 435 pages. pages. 1997. 1997. (Subseries LNAI). Vol. 1311: A. Del Bimbo (Ed

  8. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558

  9. Hybrid context aware recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajshree; Tyagi, Jaya; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Alam, Taj

    2017-10-01

    Recommender systems and context awareness is currently a vital field of research. Most hybrid recommendation systems implement content based and collaborative filtering techniques whereas this work combines context and collaborative filtering. The paper presents a hybrid context aware recommender system for books and movies that gives recommendations based on the user context as well as user or item similarity. It also addresses the issue of dimensionality reduction using weighted pre filtering based on dynamically entered user context and preference of context. This unique step helps to reduce the size of dataset for collaborative filtering. Bias subtracted collaborative filtering is used so as to consider the relative rating of a particular user and not the absolute values. Cosine similarity is used as a metric to determine the similarity between users or items. The unknown ratings are calculated and evaluated using MSE (Mean Squared Error) in test and train datasets. The overall process of recommendation has helped to personalize recommendations and give more accurate results with reduced complexity in collaborative filtering.

  10. Hybrid Thermochemical/Biological Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C.

    The conventional view of biorefineries is that lignocellulosic plant material will be fractionated into cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and terpenes before these components are biochemically converted into market products. Occasionally, these plants include a thermochemical step at the end of the process to convert recalcitrant plant components or mixed waste streams into heat to meet thermal energy demands elsewhere in the facility. However, another possibility for converting high-fiber plant materials is to start by thermochemically processing it into a uniform intermediate product that can be biologically converted into a bio-based product. This alternative route to bio-based products is known as hybrid thermochemical/biological processing. There are two distinct approaches to hybrid processing: (a) gasification followed by fermentation of the resulting gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) and (b) fast pyrolysis followed by hydrolysis and/or fermentation of the anhydrosugars found in the resulting bio-oil. This article explores this "cart before the horse" approach to biorefineries.

  11. Hybrid Maritime Satellite Communication Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Thomas Gunst

    is incorporated in a parabolic FSS reflector antenna that is investigated by full-wave analysis tools, and the antenna shows performance comparable to conventional reflector antennas within its frequency band of operation. A planar prototype FSS is manufactured and measured with particular attention to the impact......Hybrid antennas for a maritime satellite communication terminal with simultaneous operation at L- and Ka-band have been investigated. The frequency bands of interest are 1; 525:0 1; 660:5 MHz (RX+TX, RHCP), 19:7 20:2 (RX, LHCP) and 29:5 30:0 GHz (TX, RHCP), which are all part of the Inmarsat BGAN...... on the performance of an L-band antenna radiating through the FSS. From these investigations, it is concluded that the FSS antenna concept is well suited for hybrid L- and Ka-band operation. A printed reflectarray antenna with FSS ground-plane is demonstrated. The reflectarray produces a collimated beam as a curved...

  12. Hybrid photonic-crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markos, Christos; Travers, John C.; Abdolvand, Amir; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Bang, Ole

    2017-10-01

    This article offers an extensive survey of results obtained using hybrid photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs) which constitute one of the most active research fields in contemporary fiber optics. The ability to integrate novel and functional materials in solid- and hollow-core PCFs through various postprocessing methods has enabled new directions toward understanding fundamental linear and nonlinear phenomena as well as novel application aspects, within the fields of optoelectronics, material and laser science, remote sensing, and spectroscopy. Here the recent progress in the field of hybrid PCFs is reviewed from scientific and technological perspectives, focusing on how different fluids, solids, and gases can significantly extend the functionality of PCFs. The first part of this review discusses the efforts to develop tunable linear and nonlinear fiber-optic devices using PCFs infiltrated with various liquids, glasses, semiconductors, and metals. The second part concentrates on recent and state-of-the-art advances in the field of gas-filled hollow-core PCFs. Extreme ultrafast gas-based nonlinear optics toward light generation in the extreme wavelength regions of vacuum ultraviolet, pulse propagation, and compression dynamics in both atomic and molecular gases, and novel soliton-plasma interactions are reviewed. A discussion of future prospects and directions is also included.

  13. Compact hybrid Si microring lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Bowers, John E.; Fiorentino, Marco; Beausoleil, Raymond G.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we review the recent progress in developing compact microring lasers on the hybrid silicon platform. A simplified self-aligned process is used to fabricate devices as small as 15 μm in diameter. The optically-pumped, continuous wave (cw) devices show low threshold carrier density, comparable to the carrier density to reach material transparency. In the electrically-pumped lasers, the short cavity length leads to the minimum laser threshold less than 5 mA in cw operation. The maximum cw lasing temperature is up to 65 °C. Detailed studies in threshold as a function of coupling coefficient and bus waveguide width are presented. Surface recombination at the dry-etched exposed interface is investigated qualitatively by studying the current-voltage characteristics. Ring resonator-based figures of merits including good spectral purity and large side-mode suppression ratio are demonstrated. Thermal impedance data is extracted from temperature-dependent spectral measurement, and buried oxide layer in silicon-on-insulator wafer is identified as the major thermal barrier to cause high thermal impedance for small-size devices. The demonstrated compact hybrid ring lasers have low power consumption, small footprint and dynamic performance. They are promising for Si-based optical interconnects and flip-flop applications.

  14. Cold acclimation in eucalypt hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M. H.; Chaves, M. M.; Silva, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated cold resistance and the capacity for cold acclimation of different Eucalyptus genotypes. Seedlings of half-sib families of E. globulus and hybrids E. gunnii x globulus, E. viminalis x globulus and E. cypellocarpa x globulus were exposed daily for 56 days to a 9-h photoperiod at 14.7 degrees C, followed by 15 h in a dark cold room maintained at 2.5 degrees C with the root system maintained at 8 degrees C to cold harden the seedlings. Unhardened seedlings were maintained at about 16 degrees C during the dark period. Cold acclimation occurred in all families with decreases in the temperature causing 50% mortality (LT(50)) of between 1.5 and 3 degrees C. Both hardened and unhardened plants of hybrid families were more cold tolerant than E. globulus. A significant correlation between LT(50) and leaf osmotic pressure was observed; the increase in osmotic pressure in hardened plants was predominantly a result of an increase in the concentration of soluble sugars. Exotherm peaks were similar in hardened and unhardened plants. These results indicate that cold hardening increased the ability of eucalypts to endure extracellular ice formation. The maintenance of photosynthetic capacity in cold-hardened plants may also play a role in their response to freezing.

  15. Flexural analysis of palm fiber reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Raghav, Dasarath; Santhosh Kiran, R.; Mahesh, Bhargav; Kumar, Krishna

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainty in availability of fossil fuels in the future and global warming increased the need for more environment friendly materials. In this work, an attempt is made to fabricate a hybrid polymer matrix composite. The blend is a mixture of General Purpose Resin and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, a natural resin extracted from cashew plant. Palm fiber, which has high strength, is used as reinforcement material. The fiber is treated with alkali (NaOH) solution to increase its strength and adhesiveness. Parametric study of flexure strength is carried out by varying alkali concentration, duration of alkali treatment and fiber volume. Taguchi L9 Orthogonal array is followed in the design of experiments procedure for simplification. With the help of ANOVA technique, regression equations are obtained which gives the level of influence of each parameter on the flexure strength of the composite.

  16. Theory of Quantum Transport in Metallic and Hybrid Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Glatz, Andreas; Vinokur, Valerii M

    2006-01-01

    There is a major development emerging at the intersection of modern physics, computer science, and materials science, which struggles to squeeze more devices into a restricted volume and constitutes a central focus of modern nanotechnology. Utilizing the metal-based hybrid nanostructures may offer significant advantages over those exploiting purely semiconductor materials. First, the chemistry of metals is typically simpler than that of semiconductors. Second, the electric properties of metals are much less sensitive to the structural defects and impurities than those of semiconductors. Next, metallic devices allow better electric and thermal contacts. And, last but by no means least, the high electron velocity in metals promises to accelerate enormously operation rates with respect to those in semiconductor-based devices. The book reflects scientific developments in the physics of metallic compounds based nanodevices presented at the NATO-sponsored Workshop on nanophysics held in St. Petersburg, Russia in th...

  17. Volume 6, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nelson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The International Journal of the First Year in Higher Education (Int J FYHE explores the transition experience of the first year student but this issue, Volume 6 Issue 1, has several unique characteristics. As a publication, it has a significant transition feature of its own: This issue is the last under this title and the current journal is to undergo a transformation, re-emerging with a new title and look in time for the inaugural STARS Conference in Melbourne, Australia in July 2015.   These are exciting times, not only for our editorial team, but also for prospective authors as the new journal will broaden the current First Year focus to that of enhancing students’ tertiary experiences across their entire learning journey in all its multiplicity and complexity.

  18. A principal component approach for predicting the stem volume in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil using airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Andrew T. Hudak; Lee A. Vierling; Veraldo Liesenberg; Samuel P. C. e Carvalho; Luiz C. E. Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Improving management practices in industrial forest plantations may increase production efficiencies, thereby reducing pressures on native tropical forests for meeting global pulp needs. This study aims to predict stem volume (V) in plantations of fast-growing Eucalyptus hybrid clones located in southeast Brazil using field plot and airborne Light Detection...

  19. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2012-11-27

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered zeolite material grown epitaxially on the surface of a bulk zeolite material. Specifically, layered (2-D) MFI sheets were grown on the surface of bulk MFI crystals of different sizes (300 nm and 10 μm), thereby resulting in a hybrid material containing a unique morphology of interconnected micropores (∼0.55 nm) and mesopores (∼3 nm). The structure and morphology of this material, referred to as a "bulk MFI-layered MFI" (BMLM) material, was elucidated by a combination of XRD, TEM, HRTEM, SEM, TGA, and N2 physisorption techniques. It is conclusively shown that epitaxial growth of the 2-D layered MFI sheets occurs in at least two principal crystallographic directions of the bulk MFI crystal and possibly in the third direction as well. The BMLM material combines the properties of bulk MFI (micropore network and mechanical support) and 2-D layered MFI (large surface roughness, external surface area, and mesoporosity). As an example of the uses of the BMLM material, it was incorporated into a polyimide and fabricated into a composite membrane with enhanced permeability for CO2 and good CO2/CH4 selectivity for gas separations. SEM-EDX imaging and composition analysis showed that the polyimide and the BMLM interpenetrate into each other, thereby forming a well-adhered polymer/particle microstructure, in contrast with the defective interfacial microstructure obtained using bare MFI particles. Analysis of the gas permeation data with the modified Maxwell model also allows the estimation of the effective volume of the BMLM particles, as well as the CO2 and CH4 gas permeabilities of the interpenetrated layer at the BMLM/polyimide interface. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Design Principles for Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....